Numerical analysis II essentials
REA, The Editors of; Staff of Research Education Association
1989-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Numerical Analysis II covers simultaneous linear systems and matrix methods, differential equations, Fourier transformations, partial differential equations, and Monte Carlo methods.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Drnovšek, R.; Müller, Vladimír
2014-01-01
Roč. 62, č. 9 (2014), s. 1197-1204 ISSN 0308-1087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0473; GA AV ČR IAA100190903 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : joint numerical range * numerical radius Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.738, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/03081087.2013.816303
The Turbulent Interstellar Medium: Insights and Questions from Numerical Models
Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; de Avillez, Miguel A.; Korpi, Maarit J.
2003-01-01
"The purpose of numerical models is not numbers but insight." (Hamming) In the spirit of this adage, and of Don Cox's approach to scientific speaking, we discuss the questions that the latest generation of numerical models of the interstellar medium raise, at least for us. The energy source for the interstellar turbulence is still under discussion. We review the argument for supernovae dominating in star forming regions. Magnetorotational instability has been suggested as a way of coupling di...
Numerical integration subprogrammes in Fortran II-D
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fry, C. R.
1966-12-15
This note briefly describes some integration subprogrammes written in FORTRAN II-D for the IBM 1620-II at CARDE. These presented are two Newton-Cotes, Chebyshev polynomial summation, Filon's, Nordsieck's and optimum Runge-Kutta and predictor-corrector methods. A few miscellaneous numerical integration procedures are also mentioned covering statistical functions, oscillating integrands and functions occurring in electrical engineering.
Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P.
2013-01-01
Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations
Numerical simulation for a two-phase porous medium flow problem with rate independent hysteresis
Brokate, M.; Botkin, N.D.; Pykhteev, O.A.
2012-01-01
The paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of a multiphase flow in porous medium with a hysteretic relation between the capillary pressures and the saturations of the phases. The flow model we use is based on Darcys law. The hysteretic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khattri, Sanjay Kumar
2006-07-01
The thesis is concerned with numerically simulating multicomponent, multiphase, reactive transport in heterogeneous porous medium. Such processes are ubiquitous, for example, deposition of green house gases, flow of hydrocarbons and groundwater remediation. Understanding such processes is important from social and economic point of view. For the success of geological sequestration, an accurate estimation of migration patterns of green-house gases is essential. Due to an ever increasing computer power, computational mathematics has become an important tool for predicting dynamics of porous media fluids. Numerical and mathematical modelling of processes in a domain requires grid generation in the domain, discretization of the continuum equations on the generated grid, solution of the formed linear or nonlinear system of discrete equations and finally visualization of the results. The thesis is composed of three chapters and eight papers. Chapter 2 presents two techniques for generating structured quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes. These techniques are called algebraic and elliptic methods. Algebraic techniques are by far the most simple and computationally efficient method for grid generation. Transfinite interpolation operators are a kind of algebraic grid generation technique. In this chapter, many transfinite interpolation operators for grid generation are derived from 1D projection operators. In this chapter, some important properties of hexahedral elements are also mentioned. These properties are useful in discretization of partial differential equations on hexahedral mesh, improving quality of the hexahedral mesh, mesh generation and visualization. Chapter 3 is about CO{sub 2} flow in porous media. In this chapter, we present the mathematical models and their discretization for capturing major physical processes associated with CO{sub 2} deposition in geological formations. Some important simulations of practical applications in 2D and 3D are presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khattri, Sanjay Kumar
2006-07-01
The thesis is concerned with numerically simulating multicomponent, multiphase, reactive transport in heterogeneous porous medium. Such processes are ubiquitous, for example, deposition of green house gases, flow of hydrocarbons and groundwater remediation. Understanding such processes is important from social and economic point of view. For the success of geological sequestration, an accurate estimation of migration patterns of green-house gases is essential. Due to an ever increasing computer power, computational mathematics has become an important tool for predicting dynamics of porous media fluids. Numerical and mathematical modelling of processes in a domain requires grid generation in the domain, discretization of the continuum equations on the generated grid, solution of the formed linear or nonlinear system of discrete equations and finally visualization of the results. The thesis is composed of three chapters and eight papers. Chapter 2 presents two techniques for generating structured quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes. These techniques are called algebraic and elliptic methods. Algebraic techniques are by far the most simple and computationally efficient method for grid generation. Transfinite interpolation operators are a kind of algebraic grid generation technique. In this chapter, many transfinite interpolation operators for grid generation are derived from 1D projection operators. In this chapter, some important properties of hexahedral elements are also mentioned. These properties are useful in discretization of partial differential equations on hexahedral mesh, improving quality of the hexahedral mesh, mesh generation and visualization. Chapter 3 is about CO{sub 2} flow in porous media. In this chapter, we present the mathematical models and their discretization for capturing major physical processes associated with CO{sub 2} deposition in geological formations. Some important simulations of practical applications in 2D and 3D are presented
Numerical simulation for a two-phase porous medium flow problem with rate independent hysteresis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brokate, M.; Botkin, N.D.; Pykhteev, O.A.
2012-01-01
The paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of a multiphase flow in porous medium with a hysteretic relation between the capillary pressures and the saturations of the phases. The flow model we use is based on Darcy's law. The hysteretic relation between the capillary pressures and the saturations is described by a play-type hysteresis operator. We propose a numerical algorithm for treating the arising system of equations, discuss finite element schemes and present simulation results for the case of two phases.
Numerical simulation for a two-phase porous medium flow problem with rate independent hysteresis
Brokate, M.
2012-05-01
The paper is devoted to the numerical simulation of a multiphase flow in porous medium with a hysteretic relation between the capillary pressures and the saturations of the phases. The flow model we use is based on Darcys law. The hysteretic relation between the capillary pressures and the saturations is described by a play-type hysteresis operator. We propose a numerical algorithm for treating the arising system of equations, discuss finite element schemes and present simulation results for the case of two phases. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Numerical Investigations of Moisture Distribution in a Selected Anisotropic Soil Medium
Iwanek, M.
2018-01-01
The moisture of soil profile changes both in time and space and depends on many factors. Changes of the quantity of water in soil can be determined on the basis of in situ measurements, but numerical methods are increasingly used for this purpose. The quality of the results obtained using pertinent software packages depends on appropriate description and parameterization of soil medium. Thus, the issue of providing for the soil anisotropy phenomenon gains a big importance. Although anisotropy can be taken into account in many numerical models, isotopic soil is often assumed in the research process. However, this assumption can be a reason for incorrect results in the simulations of water changes in soil medium. In this article, results of numerical simulations of moisture distribution in the selected soil profile were presented. The calculations were conducted assuming isotropic and anisotropic conditions. Empirical verification of the results obtained in the numerical investigations indicated statistical essential discrepancies for the both analyzed conditions. However, better fitting measured and calculated moisture values was obtained for the case of providing for anisotropy in the simulation model.
Maddix, Danielle C.; Sampaio, Luiz; Gerritsen, Margot
2018-05-01
The degenerate parabolic Generalized Porous Medium Equation (GPME) poses numerical challenges due to self-sharpening and its sharp corner solutions. For these problems, we show results for two subclasses of the GPME with differentiable k (p) with respect to p, namely the Porous Medium Equation (PME) and the superslow diffusion equation. Spurious temporal oscillations, and nonphysical locking and lagging have been reported in the literature. These issues have been attributed to harmonic averaging of the coefficient k (p) for small p, and arithmetic averaging has been suggested as an alternative. We show that harmonic averaging is not solely responsible and that an improved discretization can mitigate these issues. Here, we investigate the causes of these numerical artifacts using modified equation analysis. The modified equation framework can be used for any type of discretization. We show results for the second order finite volume method. The observed problems with harmonic averaging can be traced to two leading error terms in its modified equation. This is also illustrated numerically through a Modified Harmonic Method (MHM) that can locally modify the critical terms to remove the aforementioned numerical artifacts.
Numerical modeling of the radiative transfer in a turbid medium using the synthetic iteration.
Budak, Vladimir P; Kaloshin, Gennady A; Shagalov, Oleg V; Zheltov, Victor S
2015-07-27
In this paper we propose the fast, but the accurate algorithm for numerical modeling of light fields in the turbid media slab. For the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) it is required its discretization based on the elimination of the solution anisotropic part and the replacement of the scattering integral by a finite sum. The solution regular part is determined numerically. A good choice of the method of the solution anisotropic part elimination determines the high convergence of the algorithm in the mean square metric. The method of synthetic iterations can be used to improve the convergence in the uniform metric. A significant increase in the solution accuracy with the use of synthetic iterations allows applying the two-stream approximation for the regular part determination. This approach permits to generalize the proposed method in the case of an arbitrary 3D geometry of the medium.
MAGIICAT II. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE Mg II ABSORBING CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nielsen, Nikole M.; Churchill, Christopher W. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G., E-mail: nnielsen@nmsu.edu, E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu, E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia)
2013-10-20
We examine the Mg II absorbing circumgalactic medium (CGM) for the 182 intermediate redshift (0.072 ≤ z ≤ 1.120) galaxies in the 'Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog' (MAGIICAT). We parameterize the anti-correlation between equivalent width, W{sub r} (2796), and impact parameter, D, with a log-linear fit, and show that a power law poorly describes the data. We find that higher luminosity galaxies have larger W{sub r} (2796) at larger D (4.3σ). The covering fractions, f{sub c} , decrease with increasing D and W{sub r} (2796) detection threshold. Higher luminosity galaxies have larger f{sub c} ; no absorption is detected in lower luminosity galaxies beyond 100 kpc. Bluer and redder galaxies have similar f{sub c} for D < 100 kpc, but for D > 100 kpc, bluer galaxies have larger f{sub c} , as do higher redshift galaxies. The 'absorption radius', R(L) = R{sub *}(L/L*){sup β}, which we examine for four different W{sub r} (2796) detection thresholds, is more luminosity sensitive to the B-band than the K-band, more sensitive for redder galaxies than for bluer galaxies, and does not evolve with redshift for the K-band, but becomes more luminosity sensitive toward lower redshift for the B-band. These trends clearly indicate a more extended Mg II absorbing CGM around higher luminosity, bluer, and higher redshift galaxies. Several of our findings are in conflict with other works. We address these conflicts and discuss the implications of our results for the low-ionization, intermediate redshift CGM.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasilic, Ksenija
2016-05-01
This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasilic, Ksenija
2016-01-01
This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium
Three-component model of solar wind--interstellar medium interaction: some numerical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranov, V.; Ermakov, M.; Lebedev, M.
1981-01-01
A three-component (electrons, protons, H atoms) model for the interaction between the local interstellar medium and the solar wind is considered. A numerical analysis has been performed to determine how resonance charge exchange in interstellar H atoms that have penetrated the solar wind would affect the two-shock model developed previously by Baranov et al. In particular, if n/sub Hinfinity//n/sub e/infinity>10 (n/sub Hinfinity/, n/sub e/infinity denote the number density of H atoms and electrons in the local ISM) the inner shock may approach the sun as closely as the outer planetary orbits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bennacer, R. [Neuville sur Oise, LEEVAM 5 mail Gay Lussac, Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Mohamad, A.A. [CEERE University of Calgary, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Ganaoui, M.El [Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Limoges, Limoges (France)
2005-02-01
Double-diffusive natural convection within a multilayer anisotropic porous medium is studied numerically and analytically. The domain composed of two horizontal porous layers is subjected to a uniform horizontal heat flux and a vertical mass flux, where only the lower one is thermally anisotropic. Darcy model with classical Boussinesq approximation is used in formulating the mathematical model. The effect of thermal anisotropy and the relative width of the two layers on the flow and transfers is illustrated with characterising the transitions from the diffusive to the convective solution. Results were well compared with respect to a developed analytical approach, based on a parallel flow approximation for thermally anisotropic multilayer media. (orig.)
The effect of UV stars on the intergalactic medium. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonnanstine, A.E.; Hills, J.G.
1976-01-01
The effect of ionizing radiation from the UV stars (hot prewhite dwarfs) on the intergalactic medium (IGM) has been investigated. If the UV stars are powered only by gravitational contraction they radiate most of their energy at a typical surface temperature of 1.5 x 10 5 K which produces a very highly ionized IGM in which the elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are left with only one or two electrons. This result in these elements being very inefficient coolants. The gas is cooled principally by free-free emission and the collisional ionization of hydrogen and helium. For a typical UV star temperature of T=1.5 x 10 5 K, the temperature of the ionized gas in the IGM is Tsub(g)=1.2 x 10 5 K for a Hubble constant H 0 =75 kms -1 Mpc -1 and a hydrogen density nsub(H)=10 -6 cm -3 . Heating by cosmic rays and X-rays is insignificant in the IGM except perhaps in the H I clouds because when a hydrogen atom recombines in the IGM it is far more likely to be re-ionized by a UV-star photon than by either of the other two types of particles due to the greater space density of UV-star photons and their appreciably larger ionization cross sections. If the UV stars radiate a substantial fraction of their energy in a helium-burning stage in which they have surface temperatures of about 5 x 10 4 K, the temperature of the IGM could be lowered to about 5 x 10 4 K. (Auth.)
COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED MEDIUM. II. BALMER EMISSION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morlino, G.; Bandiera, R.; Blasi, P.; Amato, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)
2012-12-01
Strong shocks propagating into a partially ionized medium are often associated with optical Balmer lines. This emission is due to impact excitation of neutral hydrogen by hot protons and electrons in the shocked gas. The structure of such Balmer-dominated shocks has been computed in a previous paper, where the distribution function of neutral particles was derived from the appropriate Boltzmann equation including coupling with ions and electrons through charge exchange and ionization. This calculation showed how the presence of neutrals can significantly modify the shock structure through the formation of a neutral-induced precursor ahead of the shock. Here we follow up on our previous work and investigate the properties of the resulting Balmer emission, with the aim of using the observed radiation as a diagnostic tool for shock parameters. Our main focus is on supernova remnant shocks, and we find that, for typical parameters, the H{alpha} emission typically has a three-component spectral profile, where (1) a narrow component originates from upstream cold hydrogen atoms, (2) a broad component comes from hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with shocked protons downstream of the shock, and (3) an intermediate component is due to hydrogen atoms that have undergone charge exchange with warm protons in the neutral-induced precursor. The relative importance of these three components depends on the shock velocity, on the original degree of ionization, and on the electron-ion temperature equilibration level. The intermediate component, which is the main signature of the presence of a neutral-induced precursor, becomes negligible for shock velocities {approx}< 1500 km s{sup -1}. The width of the intermediate line reflects the temperature in the precursor, while the width of the narrow one is left unaltered by the precursor. In addition, we show that the profiles of both the intermediate and broad components generally depart from a thermal distribution, as a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, M.; El Dessouky, S.I.; El-Nadi, Y.A.; Daoud, J.A.; Saad, E.A.
2008-01-01
The paper aims to study the extraction and separation of Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) from their mixtures in hydrochloric acid medium with CYANEX 923 in kerosene. Preliminary investigations showed that only Cd(II) is extracted with CYANEX 923 while Co(II) and Ni(II) are not extracted. Different parameters affecting the extraction of Cd(II) with CYANEX 923 such as hydrochloric acid, hydrogen ion, extractant and metal concentrations, temperature investigations were also investigated. The stoichiometry of the extracted metal species investigated was found to be HCdCl 3 . 2 CYANEX 923. The stripping of the extracted Cd(II) species is obtained with 0.1 M HCl solution. Co(II) was found to be extracted with CYANEX 272 at ph 5.8 leaving Ni(II) in the solution. A developed process for the sequential of Cd(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) from their mixture in hydrochloric acid medium is proposed
Numerical Simulation of Transient Free Convection Flow and Heat Transfer in a Porous Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajesh Sharma
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The coupled momentum and heat transfer in unsteady, incompressible flow along a semi-infinite vertical porous moving plate adjacent to an isotropic porous medium with viscous dissipation effect are investigated. The Darcy-Forchheimer nonlinear drag force model which includes the effects of inertia drag forces is employed. The governing differential equations of the problem are transformed into a system of nondimensional differential equations which are solved numerically by the finite element method (FEM. The non-dimensional velocity and temperature profiles are presented for the influence of Darcy number, Forchheimer number, Grashof number, Eckert number, Prandtl number, plate velocity, and time. The Nusselt number is also evaluated and compared with finite difference method (FDM, which shows excellent agreement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, L.H. [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, 92 West Dazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)]. E-mail: lhliu@hit.edu.cn
2006-11-15
In graded index media, the ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle. Generally, the curved ray trajectory in graded index media is a complex implicit function, and the curved ray tracing is very difficult and complex. Only for some special refractive index distributions, the curved ray trajectory can be expressed as a simple explicit function. Two important examples are the layered and the radial graded index distributions. In this paper, the radiative heat transfer problems in two-dimensional square semitransparent with layered and radial graded index distributions are analyzed. After deduction of the ray trajectory, the radiative heat transfer problems are solved by using the Monte Carlo curved ray-tracing method. Some numerical solutions of dimensionless net radiative heat flux and medium temperature are tabulated as the benchmark solutions for the future development of approximation techniques for multi-dimensional radiative heat transfer in graded index media.
Experimental and Numerical Studies of Particle Acceleration by an Active Microwave Medium
Schoessow, Paul
2005-01-01
There has been considerable theoretical work on the so-called PASER concept, in which a particle beam is accelerated directly by absorbing energy from an active medium, analogous to the amplification of an optical signal in a laser. Use of an active microwave (maser) medium would have the advantage of requiring relaxed beam quality (mm vs. nm characteristic beam dimensions). Recent work using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques has demonstrated activity in the microwave regime (i.e. negative imaginary part of the magnetic susceptibility) for a class of organic compounds. A solution of fullerene (C60) in a liquid crystal solvent has been reported in the literature to possess a maser transition in the X-band region. An external DC magnetic field is required to obtain the effect; the frequency of the maser transition is adjustable by varying the magnetic field strength. We will report on the development of numerical and laboratory tools to evaluate the use of this material for accelerator applicatio...
Numerical Simulations of Supernova Remnant Evolution in a Cloudy Interstellar Medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slavin, Jonathan D.; Smith, Randall K.; Foster, Adam; Winter, Henry D.; Raymond, John C.; Slane, Patrick O. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yamaguchi, Hiroya, E-mail: jslavin@cfa.harvard.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
2017-09-01
The mixed morphology class of supernova remnants has centrally peaked X-ray emission along with a shell-like morphology in radio emission. White and Long proposed that these remnants are evolving in a cloudy medium wherein the clouds are evaporated via thermal conduction once being overrun by the expanding shock. Their analytical model made detailed predictions regarding temperature, density, and emission profiles as well as shock evolution. We present numerical hydrodynamical models in 2D and 3D including thermal conduction, testing the White and Long model and presenting results for the evolution and emission from remnants evolving in a cloudy medium. We find that, while certain general results of the White and Long model hold, such as the way the remnants expand and the flattening of the X-ray surface brightness distribution, in detail there are substantial differences. In particular we find that the X-ray luminosity is dominated by emission from shocked cloud gas early on, leading to a bright peak, which then declines and flattens as evaporation becomes more important. In addition, the effects of thermal conduction on the intercloud gas, which is not included in the White and Long model, are important and lead to further flattening of the X-ray brightness profile as well as lower X-ray emission temperatures.
Experimental validation of a numerical model of two-phase displacement in porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genty, A.
1996-01-01
Burial in geological layers appears to be an interesting solution to dispose of radioactive wastes. This thesis analyzes and simulates the behaviour of gas produced by waste barrels corrosion. The released contaminated gas drains the water initially present in the host rock and yields a water-gas two phase flow. A literature survey of two phase flow shows that fluid interfaces may display instabilities for definite flow characteristics. When the displacement is stable a smooth interface proceeds through the porous medium. When the interface shows fingering, the displacement is said to be 'viscous-unstable', and when the front is jagged the displacement is called 'capillary' displacement. A dimensional analysis of classical equations governing two phase flow in porous media is combined with a classification of dominant forces to define an original map of flow regimes that includes gravitational forces. The map is based on three dimensionless numbers and predicts a priori the flow type. For typical data describing a radioactive waste repository a 'viscous-unstable' displacement is predicted by the map. We simulate water-gas displacement with a numerical model previously developed; this code, based on the Muskat model, uses the mixed-hybrid finite elements technique and is therefore well adapted for tracking moving interfaces. Fluxes are well conserved, however instabilities cannot be simulated. We assume that there is always a scale to be found where instabilities can be averaged and we try to validate the model with experimental two phase flows. We performed laboratory water-gas flow experiments for a variety of flow conditions. The observed displacement types are consistent with the map of flow regimes. Good agreement with numerical simulations is obtained when precise parameters of the displacements are available, in particular relative permeability curves. We conclude that our model allows a first approach of migration of gas near a radioactive waste repository
Review of the water management systems in the Gujarat Medium Irrigation II Project (Credit 1496-IN)
Brouwer, R.
1993-01-01
Different activities are ongoing in the Medium Irrigation II project simultaneously. These are: - emancipation of farmers through their involvement in the operation and management; - change over from Sheshpali type water management to RWS type water management; - design and construction of remaining
Recovery of copper(II) and chromium(III) from nitrate medium with ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The solvent extraction of copper(II) and chromium(III) from nitrate medium with salicylideneaniline (HL) is studied as a function of various parameters: pH, concentration of salicylideneaniline, contact time and the nature of anoin (nitrate and sulfate) in aqueous phase. Chromium(III) is not extracted by salicylideneaniline ...
Numerical simulation of springback of medium-thick plates in local hot rolling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XIE Dong
2017-10-01
Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to understand the factors of springback in the local hot rolling of medium-thick steel plates,[Methods] a 3D thermal-elastic-plastic analysis is conducted to investigate the factors affecting the amount of springback. Through a series of numerical analyses,the influence of deformation temperature,temperature field distribution,plate size and local loading are examined. [Results] The results show that when the deformation temperature exceeds a certain level at which material yield stress begins to decrease significantly,the springback will reduce markedly with the increase in temperature. Due to the distribution characteristics of the deformation area,the influence of temperature distribution on springback where the local deformation scale is larger is dominated by the three dimensions of temperature field distribution. Changes in the length and width of the plate have a certain influence on the springback,in which changes to the length of a plate where the local deformation scale is larger have a more obvious influence on springback. The springback of the plate decreases with the increase of local loading. [Conclusions] The results of this study can assist in the optimization of parameters in the automatic hot rolling of thick plates,while also having a basic guiding effect on the further study of springback in the local hot rolling of thick plates.
P. Mazzanti; F. Bozzano
2009-01-01
Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM) has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides i...
Méndez, David I.; Alcaraz, M. Ángeles
2016-01-01
Introduction: We report an investigation on collaboration practices in research papers published in the most prestigious English-medium astrophysics journals. Method: We propose an evaluation method based on three numerical indicators to study and compare, in absolute terms, three different types of collaboration (international, national and…
Use of medium-range numerical weather prediction model output to produce forecasts of streamflow
Clark, M.P.; Hay, L.E.
2004-01-01
This paper examines an archive containing over 40 years of 8-day atmospheric forecasts over the contiguous United States from the NCEP reanalysis project to assess the possibilities for using medium-range numerical weather prediction model output for predictions of streamflow. This analysis shows the biases in the NCEP forecasts to be quite extreme. In many regions, systematic precipitation biases exceed 100% of the mean, with temperature biases exceeding 3??C. In some locations, biases are even higher. The accuracy of NCEP precipitation and 2-m maximum temperature forecasts is computed by interpolating the NCEP model output for each forecast day to the location of each station in the NWS cooperative network and computing the correlation with station observations. Results show that the accuracy of the NCEP forecasts is rather low in many areas of the country. Most apparent is the generally low skill in precipitation forecasts (particularly in July) and low skill in temperature forecasts in the western United States, the eastern seaboard, and the southern tier of states. These results outline a clear need for additional processing of the NCEP Medium-Range Forecast Model (MRF) output before it is used for hydrologic predictions. Techniques of model output statistics (MOS) are used in this paper to downscale the NCEP forecasts to station locations. Forecasted atmospheric variables (e.g., total column precipitable water, 2-m air temperature) are used as predictors in a forward screening multiple linear regression model to improve forecasts of precipitation and temperature for stations in the National Weather Service cooperative network. This procedure effectively removes all systematic biases in the raw NCEP precipitation and temperature forecasts. MOS guidance also results in substantial improvements in the accuracy of maximum and minimum temperature forecasts throughout the country. For precipitation, forecast improvements were less impressive. MOS guidance increases
Cold Test Results of the ISAC-II Medium Beta High Gradient Cryomodule
Laxdal, R E; Clark, G S; Fong, K; Mitra, A K; Poirier, R L; Rawnsley, B; Ries, T; Sekatchev, I; Stanford, G; Zvyagintsev, V
2004-01-01
Many proposals (RIA, Eurisol, ISAC-II) are emerging for a new generation of high gradient heavy ion accelerators. The ISAC-II medium beta cryomodule represents the first realized application that encorporates many new techniques to improve the performance over machines presently being used for beam delivery. The machine lattice, compatible with multi-charge acceleration, uses high field (9T) superconducting solenoids with bucking coils for active fringe field compensation. The bulk niobium quarter wave medium beta cavity produces 6 MV/m over an effective length of 18cm with a peak surface field of ~30 MV/m. TRIUMF has developed a mechanical tuner capable of both coarse (kHz) and fine (Hz) frequency adjustments of the cavity. The demonstrated tuner resolution is better than 0.1 μm (0.6 Hz). A new rf coupling loop has been developed that operates at 200 Watts forward power with less than 0.5 Watt of power being added to the helium load. Cold alignment in ISAC-II has been done with rf pick-ups using a ...
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.
Engineering and Cryogenic Testing of the ISAC-II Medium Beta Cryomodule
Stanford, G; Laxdal, R E; Rawnsley, B; Ries, T; Sekatchev, I
2004-01-01
The medium beta section of the ISAC-II Heavy Ion Accelerator consists of five cryomodules each containing four quarter wave bulk niobium resonators and one superconducting solenoid. A prototype cryomodule has been designed and assembled at TRIUMF. The cryomodule vacuum space contains a mu-metal shield, an LN2 cooled, copper, thermal shield, plus the cold mass and support system. This paper will describe the design goals, engineering choices and fabrication and assembly techniques as well as report the results of the initial cold tests. In particular we will summarize the alignment procedure and the results from the wire position monitoring system.
Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurita, N; Martin, D; Ng, C -K; Smith, S [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Weiland, T
1996-08-01
We use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, we find that internal resonant modes are a major source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given. (author)
Numerical simulation of the PEP-II beam position monitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurita, N.; Martin, D.; Ng, C.K.; Smith, S.; Weiland, T.
1995-09-01
The authors use MAFIA to analyze the PEP-II button-type beam position monitor (BPM). Employing proper termination of the BPM into a coaxial cable, the output signal at the BPM is determined. Thus the issues of signal sensitivity and power output can be addressed quantitatively, including all transient effects and wakefields. Besides this first quantitative analysis of a true BPM 3D structure, they find that internal resonant modes are a major-source of high value narrow-band impedances. The effects of these resonances on coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed. An estimate of the power dissipation in the ceramic vacuum seal under high current operation is given
Numerical investigation of degas performance on impeller of medium-consistency pump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Li
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Medium-consistency technology is known as the process with high efficiency and low pollution. The gas distribution was simulated in the medium-consistency pump with different degas hole positions. Rheological behaviors of pulp suspension were obtained by experimental test. A modified Herschel–Bulkley model and the Eulerian gas–liquid two-phase flow model were utilized to approximately represent the behaviors of the medium-consistency pulp suspension. The results show that when the relative position is 0.53, the gas volume ratio is less than 0.1% at the pump outlet and 9.8% at the vacuum inlet, and the pump head is at the maximum. Because of the different numbers of the impeller blades and turbulence blades and the asymmetric volute structure, the gas is distributed unevenly in the impeller. In addition, the pump performance was tested in experiment and the results are used to validate computational fluid dynamics outcomes.
Spurious solutions in few-body equations. II. Numerical investigations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adhikari, S.K.
1979-01-01
A recent analytic study of spurious solutions in few-body equations by Adhikari and Gloeckle is here complemented by numerical investigations. As proposed by Adhikari and Gloeckle we study numerically the spurious solutions in the three-body Weinberg type equations and draw some general conclusions about the existence of spurious solutions in three-body equations with the Weinberg kernel and in other few-body formulations. In particular we conclude that for most of the potentials we encounter in problems of nuclear physics the three-body Weinberg type equation will not have a spurious solution which may interfere with the bound state or scattering calculation. Hence, if proven convenient, the three-body Weinberg type equation can be used in practical calculations. The same conclusion is true for the three-body channel coupling array scheme of Kouri, Levin, and Tobocman. In the case of the set of six coupled four-body equations proposed by Rosenberg et al. and the set of the Bencze-Redish-Sloan equations a careful study of the possible spurious solutions is needed before using these equations in practical calculations
Numerical method for solving integral equations of neutron transport. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loyalka, S.K.; Tsai, R.W.
1975-01-01
In a recent paper it was pointed out that the weakly singular integral equations of neutron transport can be quite conveniently solved by a method based on subtraction of singularity. This previous paper was devoted entirely to the consideration of simple one-dimensional isotropic-scattering and one-group problems. The present paper constitutes interesting extensions of the previous work in that in addition to a typical two-group anisotropic-scattering albedo problem in the slab geometry, the method is also applied to an isotropic-scattering problem in the x-y geometry. These results are compared with discrete S/sub N/ (ANISN or TWOTRAN-II) results, and for the problems considered here, the proposed method is found to be quite effective. Thus, the method appears to hold considerable potential for future applications. (auth)
Noorden, van T.L.
2009-01-01
We investigate a two-dimensional microscale model for crystal dissolution and precipitation in a porous medium. The model contains a free boundary and allows for changes in the pore volume. Using a level set formulation of the free boundary, we apply a formal homogenization procedure to obtain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimir Ya Kumaev
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: Numerical simulation of the melting processes is necessary in substantiating the safety of new generation reactors to determine the quantitative characteristics of the melt formed, destruction of reactor vessel and components, melt interaction processes in the melt localization systems (MLS), formation and transport of hydrogen, radioactive aerosols under severe accidents. The results of computations will be applied in developing the procedures for severe accident management and mitigation of its consequences and designing melt localization systems. The report is devoted to the development and application of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional versions of the DINCOR code intended for numerical simulation of the thermal hydraulic processes in a multicomponent medium with solid-liquid phase changes. The basic set of equations of multicomponent medium is presented. The numerical method to solve the governing equations is discussed. Some examples of two-dimensional code applications are presented. The experience of application of the code has shown that joint calculations of hydrodynamics, heat transfer, stratification and chemical interaction enable the process description accuracy to be significantly increased and the number of initial experimental data to be reduced. The multicomponent medium model can be used as the base for the development of a three-dimensional version of the code. At the same time, it was established that the models being used need be further developed. The most important problems are the following: -development of the local mathematical models of liquefaction and solidification of materials under front melting and melting due to the action of internal sources; -development of the model of incompressible components separation; -development of the models of dissolution and chemical interaction of multicomponent medium components. In conclusion possible verification of the computer code is discussed. (author)
Numerical analysis of three-dimensional MHD shock interactions in an inhomogeneous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prndergast, M.; Wu, S.T.
1987-01-01
Study of the formation and propagation of solar-originated shock waves in heliospheric space has attracted significant attention in the past decade. This attention is important because the propagation of shocks in heliospheric space has been thought of as one of the major physical processes for solar wind and cosmic ray modulations and their subsequent influence on the earth's environment. A version of the two step Lax-Wendroff difference method is used to seek solutions of the unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations for the study of a solar flare generated shock wave propagating through an inhomogeneous medium. 8 references
Numerical analysis of gas transfer by natural convection in a fluid saturated porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akbal, S.; Filiz Baytas, A.
2005-01-01
The concentration distribution of a radioactive gas in a square porous cavity is investigated in this study. The decay of the radioactive gas is taken into account in the concentration equation. The governing equations are solved using alternating direction implicit method (ADI) and Finite volume method. Numerical results for velocity and concentration profiles are presented for an extensive range of parameter like Grashof number (Gr c ), Schmidt number (Sc) and the non-dimensional constant of radioactive decay. (authors)
Numerical analysis of gas transfer by natural convection in a fluid saturated porous medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbal, S. [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey); Filiz Baytas, A. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Inst. for Energy
2005-07-01
The concentration distribution of a radioactive gas in a square porous cavity is investigated in this study. The decay of the radioactive gas is taken into account in the concentration equation. The governing equations are solved using alternating direction implicit method (ADI) and Finite volume method. Numerical results for velocity and concentration profiles are presented for an extensive range of parameter like Grashof number (Gr{sub c}), Schmidt number (Sc) and the non-dimensional constant of radioactive decay. (authors)
Two-dimensional numerical modeling and solution of convection heat transfer in turbulent He II
Zhang, Burt X.; Karr, Gerald R.
1991-01-01
Numerical schemes are employed to investigate heat transfer in the turbulent flow of He II. FEM is used to solve a set of equations governing the heat transfer and hydrodynamics of He II in the turbulent regime. Numerical results are compared with available experimental data and interpreted in terms of conventional heat transfer parameters such as the Prandtl number, the Peclet number, and the Nusselt number. Within the prescribed Reynolds number domain, the Gorter-Mellink thermal counterflow mechanism becomes less significant, and He II acts like an ordinary fluid. The convection heat transfer characteristics of He II in the highly turbulent regime can be successfully described by using the conventional turbulence and heat transfer theories.
Experiment and Lattice Boltzmann numerical study on nanofluids flow in a micromodel as porous medium
Meghdadi Isfahani, A. H.; Afrand, Masoud
2017-10-01
Al2O3 nanofluids flow has been studied in etched glass micromodel which is idealization of porous media by using a pseudo 2D Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The predictions were compared with experimental results. Pressure drop / flow rate relations have been measured for pure water and Al2O3 nanofluids. Because the size of Al2O3 nanoparticles is tiny enough to permit through the pore throats of the micromodel, blockage does not occur and the permeability is independent of the nanofluid volume fraction. Therefore, the nanofluid behaves as a single phase fluid, and a single phase LBM is able to simulate the results of this experiment. Although the flow in micromodels is 3D, we showed that 2D LBM can be used provided an effective viscous drag force, representing the effect of the third dimension, is considered. Good qualitative and quantitative agreement is seen between the numerical and experimental results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malamut, Craig; Redfield, Seth; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.; Ayres, Thomas R.
2014-01-01
We analyze high-resolution spectra obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope toward 34 nearby stars (≤100 pc) to record Mg II, Fe II, and Mn II absorption due to the local interstellar medium (LISM). Observations span the entire sky, probing previously unobserved regions of the LISM. The heavy ions studied in this survey produce narrow absorption features that facilitate the identification of multiple interstellar components. We detected one to six individual absorption components along any given sight line, and the number of absorbers roughly correlates with the pathlength. This high-resolution near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectroscopic survey was specifically designed for sight lines with existing far-UV (FUV) observations. The FUV spectra include many intrinsically broad absorption lines (i.e., of low atomic mass ions) and are often observed at medium resolution. The LISM NUV narrow-line absorption component structure presented here can be used to more accurately interpret the archival FUV observations. As an example of this synergy, we present a new analysis of the temperature and turbulence along the line of sight toward ε Ind. The new observations of LISM velocity structure are also critical in the interpretation of astrospheric absorption derived from fitting the saturated H I Lyα profile. As an example, we reanalyze the spectrum of λ And and find that this star likely does have an astrosphere. Two stars in the sample that have circumstellar disks (49 Cet and HD141569) show evidence for absorption due to disk gas. Finally, the substantially increased number of sight lines is used to test and refine the three-dimensional kinematic model of the LISM and search for previously unidentified clouds within the Local Bubble. We find that every prediction made by the Redfield and Linsky kinematic model of the LISM is confirmed by an observed component in the new lines of sight.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nalegaev, S S; Petrov, N V; Bespalov, V G
2014-01-01
A numerical reconstruction of spatial distributions of optical radiation propagating through a volume of nonlinear medium at input and output planes of the medium was demonstrated using a scheme of digital holography. A nonlinear Schrodinger equation with Fourier Split-Step method was used as a tool to propagate wavefront in the volume of the medium. Time dependence of the refractive index change was not taken into account.
Chew, J. V. L.; Sulaiman, J.
2017-09-01
Partial differential equations that are used in describing the nonlinear heat and mass transfer phenomena are difficult to be solved. For the case where the exact solution is difficult to be obtained, it is necessary to use a numerical procedure such as the finite difference method to solve a particular partial differential equation. In term of numerical procedure, a particular method can be considered as an efficient method if the method can give an approximate solution within the specified error with the least computational complexity. Throughout this paper, the two-dimensional Porous Medium Equation (2D PME) is discretized by using the implicit finite difference scheme to construct the corresponding approximation equation. Then this approximation equation yields a large-sized and sparse nonlinear system. By using the Newton method to linearize the nonlinear system, this paper deals with the application of the Four-Point Newton-EGSOR (4NEGSOR) iterative method for solving the 2D PMEs. In addition to that, the efficiency of the 4NEGSOR iterative method is studied by solving three examples of the problems. Based on the comparative analysis, the Newton-Gauss-Seidel (NGS) and the Newton-SOR (NSOR) iterative methods are also considered. The numerical findings show that the 4NEGSOR method is superior to the NGS and the NSOR methods in terms of the number of iterations to get the converged solutions, the time of computation and the maximum absolute errors produced by the methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hashem Nowruzi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, nonreacting and nonevaporating spray characteristics of heavy fuel oil (HFO/n-butanol blends are numerically investigated under two different high pressure injections in medium speed engines. An Eulerian-Lagrangian multiphase scheme is used to simulate blend of C14H30 as HFO and 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% by volume of n-butanol. OpenFOAM CFD toolbox is modified and implemented to study the effect of different blends of HFO/n-butanol on the spray characteristics at 600 and 1000 bar. To validate the presented simulations, current numerical results are compared against existing experimental data and good compliance is achieved. Based on the numerical findings, addition of n-butanol to HFO increases the particles volume in parcels at 600 bar. It was also found that blend fuels increase the number of spray particles and the average velocity of spray compared to pure HFO. Moreover, under injection pressure of 1000 bar, HFO/n-butanol blends compared to pure HFO fuel decrease particles volume in parcels of spray. Another influence of HFO/n-butanol blends is the decrease in average of particles diameter in parcels. Meanwhile, the effect of HFO/n-butanol on spray length is proved to be negligible. Finally, it can be concluded that higher injection pressure improves the spray efficiency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moufekkir, F.; Moussaoui, M.A.; Mezrhab, A.; Naji, H.; Lemonnier, D.
2012-01-01
This paper deals with the numerical solution for natural convection and volumetric radiation in an isotropic scattering medium within a heated square cavity using a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann method (HTLBM). The multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann method (MRT-LBM) has been coupled to the finite difference method (FDM) to solve momentum and energy equations, while the discrete ordinates method (DOM) has been adopted to solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) using the S8 quadrature. Based on these approaches, the effects of various influencing parameters such as the Rayleigh number (Ra), the wall emissivity (ε ι ), the Planck number (Pl), and the scattering albedo (ω), have been considered. The results presented in terms of isotherms, streamlines and averaged Nusselt number, show that in absence of radiation, the temperature and the flow fields are centro-symmetrics and the cavity core is thermally stratified. However, radiation causes an overall increase in the temperature and velocity gradients along both thermally active walls. The maximum heat transfer rate is obtained when the surfaces of the enclosure walls are regarded as blackbodies. It is also seen that the scattering medium can generate a multicellular flow.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Mazzanti
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides in order to simulate the propagation of combined subaerial-subaqueous and completely-subaqueous landslides. Drag and buoyancy forces, the loss of energy at the landslide-water impact and peculiar mechanisms like hydroplaning can be suitably simulated by this approach; furthermore, the change in properties of the landslide's mass, which is encountered at the transition from the subaerial to the submerged environment, can be taken into account. The approach has been tested by modelling two documented coastal landslides (a debris flow and a rock slide at Lake Albano using the DAN-W code. The results, which were achieved from the back-analyses, demonstrate the efficacy of the approach to simulate the propagation of different types of coastal landslides.
Cristante,Valtair M.; Araujo,Adriana B.; Jorge,Sônia M. A.; Florentino,Ariovaldo O.; Valente,José P. S.; Padilha,Pedro M.
2006-01-01
This work describes the synthesis and characterization of 2-aminothiazole-modified titania and its application on Hg (II) photoreduction in aqueous medium. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the chemical modification of the titania matrix. The number of 2-aminothiazole groups attached to the titania was determined by Kjeldahl's method. The photocatalytic experiments were carried out in a cylindrical photoreactor thermostatted at 298 K. The resulting modified photocatalyst 2-aminothiazole titania...
Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N.; Odaneth, Annamma A.; Lali, Arvind M.
2015-01-01
Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B fr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazza, Fabio; Vulcano, Alfonso
2008-01-01
For a widespread application of dissipative braces to protect framed buildings against seismic loads, practical and reliable design procedures are needed. In this paper a design procedure based on the Direct Displacement-Based Design approach is adopted, assuming the elastic lateral storey-stiffness of the damped braces proportional to that of the unbraced frame. To check the effectiveness of the design procedure, presented in an associate paper, a six-storey reinforced concrete plane frame, representative of a medium-rise symmetric framed building, is considered as primary test structure; this structure, designed in a medium-risk region, is supposed to be retrofitted as in a high-risk region, by insertion of diagonal braces equipped with hysteretic dampers. A numerical investigation is carried out to study the nonlinear static and dynamic responses of the primary and the damped braced test structures, using step-by-step procedures described in the associate paper mentioned above; the behaviour of frame members and hysteretic dampers is idealized by bilinear models. Real and artificial accelerograms, matching EC8 response spectrum for a medium soil class, are considered for dynamic analyses
Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Izzo, R.
1981-01-01
The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes
Numerical study of the Columbia high-beta device: Torus-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Izzo, R.
1981-01-01
The ionization, heating and subsequent long-time-scale behavior of the helium plasma in the Columbia fusion device, Torus-II, is studied. The purpose of this work is to perform numerical simulations while maintaining a high level of interaction with experimentalists. The device is operated as a toroidal z-pinch to prepare the gas for heating. This ionization of helium is studied using a zero-dimensional, two-fluid code. It is essentially an energy balance calculation that follows the development of the various charge states of the helium and any impurities (primarily silicon and oxygen) that are present. The code is an atomic physics model of Torus-II. In addition to ionization, we include three-body and radiative recombination processes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Guerdouh
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The solvent extraction of copper(II and chromium(III from nitrate medium with salicylideneaniline (HL is studied as a function of various parameters: pH, concentration of salicylideneaniline, contact time and the nature of anoin (nitrate and sulfate in aqueous phase. Chromium(III is not extracted by salicylideneaniline diluted in 1-octanol. Copper(II is only extracted by salicylideneaniline and it was found that the highest extractability achieved to 95% at pH 4.9, The stoichiometry of the extracted species was determined by using the method of slope analysis. Elemental analysis, UV–vis and IR-spectra were used to confirm the structure. It is found that the copper (II is extracted as CuL2.2H2O Their equilibrium constant, distribution coefficient, percentage extraction (%E and free energy are also calculated.
HYDRA-II: A hydrothermal analysis computer code: Volume 1, Equations and numerics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCann, R.A.
1987-04-01
HYDRA-II is a hydrothermal computer code capable of three-dimensional analysis of coupled conduction, convection, and thermal radiation problems. This code is especially appropriate for simulating the steady-state performance of spent fuel storage systems. The code has been evaluated for this application for the US Department of Energy's Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program. HYDRA-II provides a finite difference solution in Cartesian coordinates to the equations governing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. A cylindrical coordinate system may also be used to enclose the Cartesian coordinate system. This exterior coordinate system is useful for modeling cylindrical cask bodies. The difference equations for conservation of momentum are enhanced by the incorporation of directional porosities and permeabilities that aid in modeling solid structures whose dimensions may be smaller than the computational mesh. The equation for conservation of energy permits of modeling of orthotropic physical properties and film resistances. Several automated procedures are available to model radiation transfer within enclosures and from fuel rod to fuel rod. The documentation of HYDRA-II is presented in three separate volumes. This volume, Volume I - Equations and Numerics, describes the basic differential equations, illustrates how the difference equations are formulated, and gives the solution procedures employed. Volume II - User's Manual contains code flow charts, discusses the code structure, provides detailed instructions for preparing an input file, and illustrates the operation of the code by means of a model problem. The final volume, Volume III - Verification/Validation Assessments, presents results of numerical simulations of single- and multiassembly storage systems and comparisons with experimental data. 4 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shar, G.A.; Soomro, G.A.
2004-01-01
Spectrophotometric determination of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) is carried out with 1-(2 pyridylazo)-2-naphthol as a complexing reagent in aqueous phase using non-ionic surfactant Tween 80. Beer's law is obeyed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) over the range 0.5 - 4.0, 0.5 - 4.0 and 0.5 - 3.0 ngmL/sup -1/ with detection limit (2 σ) of 6.7, 3.2 and 3.9 ngmL/sup -1/. The max molar absorption, molar absorptivity, Sandell's sensitivity of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) are 580 nm, 570 nm and 555 nm; max (104 mol/sup -1/ cm /sup -1/) is 0.87, 1.8 and 1.6 and 6.8, 3.3 and 3.9 ng cm-2 respectively. The pH at which complex is formed for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) is 5, 5.5 and 6.5 respectively. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of Tween 80 is 5%. The present method is compared with that of atomic absorption spectroscopy and no significant difference is noted between the two methods at 95% confidence level. The method has been applied to the determination of Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) in industrial waste water and pharmaceutical samples. (author)
Medina, Hanoi; Tian, Di; Srivastava, Puneet; Pelosi, Anna; Chirico, Giovanni B.
2018-07-01
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a fundamental role in agronomic, forestry, and water resources management. Estimating and forecasting ET0 have long been recognized as a major challenge for researchers and practitioners in these communities. This work explored the potential of multiple leading numerical weather predictions (NWPs) for estimating and forecasting summer ET0 at 101 U.S. Regional Climate Reference Network stations over nine climate regions across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Three leading global NWP model forecasts from THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) dataset were used in this study, including the single model ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (EC), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP), and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office forecasts (MO), as well as multi-model ensemble forecasts from the combinations of these NWP models. A regression calibration was employed to bias correct the ET0 forecasts. Impact of individual forecast variables on ET0 forecasts were also evaluated. The results showed that the EC forecasts provided the least error and highest skill and reliability, followed by the MO and NCEP forecasts. The multi-model ensembles constructed from the combination of EC and MO forecasts provided slightly better performance than the single model EC forecasts. The regression process greatly improved ET0 forecast performances, particularly for the regions involving stations near the coast, or with a complex orography. The performance of EC forecasts was only slightly influenced by the size of the ensemble members, particularly at short lead times. Even with less ensemble members, EC still performed better than the other two NWPs. Errors in the radiation forecasts, followed by those in the wind, had the most detrimental effects on the ET0 forecast performances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roy, Nirupam [Department of Physics and Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Frank, Stephan; Mathur, Smita [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Carilli, Christopher L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Wolfe, Arthur M., E-mail: nroy@physics.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Physics and Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2017-01-10
The far-infrared [C ii] 158 μ m fine structure transition is considered to be a dominant coolant in the interstellar medium (ISM). For this reason, under the assumption of a thermal steady state, it may be used to infer the heating rate and, in turn, the star formation rate (SFR) in local as well as in high redshift systems. In this work, radio and ultraviolet observations of the Galactic ISM are used to understand whether C ii is indeed a good tracer of the SFR. For a sample of high Galactic latitude sightlines, direct measurements of the temperature indicate the presence of C ii in both the cold and the warm phases of the diffuse interstellar gas. The cold gas fraction (∼10%–50% of the total neutral gas column density) is not negligible even at high Galactic latitude. It is shown that to correctly estimate the SFR, C ii cooling in both phases should hence be considered. The simple assumption, that the [C ii] line originates only from either the cold or the warm phase, significantly underpredicts or overpredicts the SFR, respectively. These results are particularly important in the context of Damped Ly α systems for which a similar method is often used to estimate the SFR. The derived SFRs in such cases may not be reliable if the temperature of the gas under consideration is not constrained independently.
Recombination efficiency of molecular hydrogen on interstellar grains - II: A numerical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, S.K.; Ankan, Das; Kinsuk, Acharyya; Sonali, Chakrabarti
2006-05-01
Knowledge of the recombination time on the grain surfaces has been a major obstacle in deciding the production rate of molecular hydrogen and other molecules in the interstellar medium. We present a numerical study to compute this time for molecular hydrogen for various cloud and grain parameters. We also find the time dependence, particularly when a grain is freshly injected into the system. Apart from the fact that the recombination times seem to be functions of the grain parameters such as the activation barrier energy, temperature etc., our result also shows the dependence on the number of sites in the grain S and the effective accretion rate per site a s of atomic hydrogen. To put simply the average time that a pair of atomic hydrogens will take to produce one molecular hydrogen depends on how heavily the grain is already populated by atomic and molecular hydrogens and how fast the hopping and desorption times are. We show that if we write the average recombination time as T r ∼ S α /A H , where, A H is the hopping rate, then α could be much greater than 1 for all astrophysically relevant accretion rates. Thus the average formation rate of H 2 is also dependent on the grain parameters, temperature and the accretion rate. We believe that our results will affect the overall rate of the formation of complex molecules such as methanol which requires successive hydrogenation on the grain surfaces in the interstellar medium. (author)
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mamuru, SA
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium at iron (II) tetrakis (diaquaplatinum) octacarboxyphthalocyanine (PtFeOCPc) catalyst supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been described. The ORR followed the direct 4-electron...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Boumaza
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.
Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium (II) using Cyanex 923 in kerosene from sodium acetate medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamble, Pravin N.; Madane, Namdev S.; Mohite, Baburao S.
2013-01-01
Liquid-liquid extraction of beryllium(II) from sodium acetate media using cyanex 923 in kerosene has been carried out. Beryllium(II) was quantitatively extracted from 1x10 -1 M sodium acetate with 1x10 -2 M cyanex 923 in kerosene. It was stripped quantitatively from the organic phase with 1M H 2 SO 4 and determined spectrophotometrically with eriochrome cyanine R at 525 nm. The effect of concentrations of sodium acetate, metal ions and strippants have been studied. Separation of beryllium(II) from other elements was achieved from binary as well as from multicomponent mixtures. The method is simple, rapid and selective with good reproducibility (approximately±2%). (author)
Azadirachta indica leaf powder as a biosorbent for Ni(II) in aqueous medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, Krishna G., E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Jyotirekha [Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Sarma, Arunima [Department of Chemistry, Morigaon College, Morigaon 782105, Assam (India)
2009-06-15
Azadirachta indica leaves are converted to a fine powder for use as a biosorbent for the removal of metal ions in aqueous solution. In this work, the adsorptive interactions between Ni(II) and the powder were studied under a variety of conditions involving variations in pH, Ni(II) concentration, biosorbent amount, interaction time and temperature, all in single batch processes. The experimental data have been interpreted on the basis of existing mathematical models of equilibrium kinetics and thermodynamics. The biosorption of Ni(II) increased in the pH range of 2.0-5.0 with {approx}92.6% adsorption at pH 5.0 for the highest amount of the biosorbent (4 g/L). The biosorption followed second-order kinetics and intra-particle diffusion was likely to have significant influence in controlling the process. The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity varied from 2.4 to 9.1 mg/g and the equilibrium coefficient from 1.09 to 2.78 L/g with strong indication that the Ni(II) ions were held on the biosorbent surface by formation of an adsorption complex. The thermodynamic parameters showed the process to be exothermic in nature supported by appropriate ranges of values of enthalpy change, entropy change and Gibbs energy change.
Numerical simulations of type II gradient drift irregularities in the equatorial electrojet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferch, R.L.; Sudan, R.N.
1977-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical studies of the development of type II irregularities in the equatorial electrojet have been carried out using a method similar to that of McDonald et al., (1974) except that ion inertia has been neglected. This simplification is shown to be a valid approximation whenever the electron drift velocity is small in comparison with the ion acoustic velocity and the values of the other parameters are those appropriate for the equatorial E layer. This code enables us to follow the development of quasi-steady state turbulence from appropriate initial pertubations. The two-dimensional turbulent spectrum of electron density perturbations excited is studied both for the case of devlopment from initial perturbations and for the case of a continuously pumped single driving wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V.
2005-01-01
This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
2005-07-01
This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zinn-Justin, Jean; Jentschura, Ulrich D.
2004-01-01
In this second part of the treatment of instantons in quantum mechanics, the focus is on specific calculations related to a number of quantum mechanical potentials with degenerate minima. We calculate the leading multi-instanton contributions to the partition function, using the formalism introduced in the first part of the treatise [Ann. Phys. (N. Y.) (previous issue) (2004)]. The following potentials are considered: (i) asymmetric potentials with degenerate minima, (ii) the periodic cosine potential, (iii) anharmonic oscillators with radial symmetry, and (iv) a specific potential which bears an analogy with the Fokker-Planck equation. The latter potential has the peculiar property that the perturbation series for the ground-state energy vanishes to all orders and is thus formally convergent (the ground-state energy, however, is non-zero and positive). For the potentials (ii), (iii), and (iv), we calculate the perturbative B-function as well as the instanton A-function to fourth order in g. We also consider the double-well potential in detail, and present some higher-order analytic as well as numerical calculations to verify explicitly the related conjectures up to the order of three instantons. Strategies analogous to those outlined here could result in new conjectures for problems where our present understanding is more limited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ceballos, M.A.; Car, E.J.; Prato, T.A.; Prato, C.A.; Alvarez, L.M.; Godoy, A.R.
1995-01-01
Determination of the dynamic properties of the reactor building of Atucha II NPP is carried out in order to: i) Obtain valuable information for seismic qualification of the plant, and ii) Assess some procedures for testing and analysis that are used in the process of seismic evaluation of existing nuclear facilities founded on Quaternary soil deposits. Both steady state and impulsive dynamic tests were performed but attention is centered here in tile techniques used to determine natural frequencies and modal damping ratios with impulsive tests. Numerical analyses were performed by means of a 3-D model model of the superstructure together with foundation stiffness coefficients derived in a separate paper from steady state vibration tests, and also from analysis with a 2-D F.E. model of the soil layers capable of approximating the 3-D features of the problem. The computed foundation stiffness coefficients are compared both with those obtained from the tests and from an axisymmetric F.E. model; results indicate that foundation stiffness coefficients calculated with F.E. models with soil parameters given by laboratory tests performed on cored samples are significantly lower than those given by the steady state vibration tests. (author)
Studying the Interstellar Medium of H II/BCD Galaxies Using IFU Spectroscopy
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Patricio Lagos
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We review the results from our studies, and previous published work, on the spatially resolved physical properties of a sample of H ii/BCD galaxies, as obtained mainly from integral-field unit spectroscopy with Gemini/GMOS and VLT/VIMOS. We confirm that, within observational uncertainties, our sample galaxies show nearly spatially constant chemical abundances similar to other low-mass starburst galaxies. They also show He ii λ4686 emission with the properties being suggestive of a mix of excitation sources and with Wolf-Rayet stars being excluded as the primary ones. Finally, in this contribution, we include a list of all H ii/BCD galaxies studied thus far with integral-field unit spectroscopy.
Makarov, S. S.; Lipanov, A. M.; Karpov, A. I.
2017-10-01
The numerical modeling results for the heat transfer during cooling a metal cylinder by a gas-liquid medium flow in an annular channel are presented. The results are obtained on the basis of the mathematical model of the conjugate heat transfer of the gas-liquid flow and the metal cylinder in a two-dimensional nonstationary formulation accounting for the axisymmetry of the cooling medium flow relative to the cylinder longitudinal axis. To solve the system of differential equations the control volume approach is used. The flow field parameters are calculated by the SIMPLE algorithm. To solve iteratively the systems of linear algebraic equations the Gauss-Seidel method with under-relaxation is used. The results of the numerical simulation are verified by comparing the results of the numerical simulation with the results of the field experiment. The calculation results for the heat transfer parameters at cooling the high-temperature metal cylinder by the gas-liquid flow are obtained with accounting for evaporation. The values of the rate of cooling the cylinder by the laminar flow of the cooling medium are determined. The temperature change intensity for the metal cylinder is analyzed depending on the initial velocity of the liquid flow and the time of the cooling process.
A NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF COSMIC RAY MODULATION NEAR THE HELIOPAUSE. II. SOME PHYSICAL INSIGHTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Xi; Feng, Xueshang; Potgieter, Marius S.; Du Toit Strauss, R.; Zhang, Ming; Pogorelov, Nikolai V.
2016-01-01
Cosmic ray (CR) transport near the heliopause (HP) is studied using a hybrid transport model, with the parameters constrained by observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft. We simulate the CR radial flux along different directions in the heliosphere. There is no well-defined thin layer between the solar wind region and the interstellar region along the tail and polar directions of the heliosphere. By analyzing the radial flux curve along the direction of Voyager 2 , together with its trajectory information, the crossing time of the HP by Voyager 2 is predicted to be in 2017.14. We simulate the CR radial flux for different energy values along the direction of Voyager 1 . We find that there is only a modest modulation region of about 10 au wide beyond the HP, so that Voyager 1 observing the Local Interstellar Spectra is justified in numerical modeling. We analyze the heliospheric exit information of pseudo-particles in our stochastic numerical (time-backward) method, conjecturing that they represent the behavior of CR particles, and we find that pseudo-particles that have been traced from the nose region exit in the tail region. This implies that many CR particles diffuse directly from the heliospheric tail region to the nose region near the HP. In addition, when pseudo-particles were traced from the Local Interstellar Medium (LISM), it is found that their exit location (entrance for real particles) from the simulation domain is along the prescribed Interstellar Magnetic Field direction. This indicates that parallel diffusion dominates CR particle transport in the LISM.
Simal-Gándara, J; Sarria-Vidal, M; Rijk, R
2000-09-01
Experiments were performed to characterize the kinetics of the permeation of different medium molecular weight model permeants: bisphenol A, warfarin and anthracene, from liquid paraffin, through a surrogate potential functional barrier (25 microns-thick orientated polypropylene--OPP) into the food simulants olive oil and 3% (w/v) acetic acid. The characterization of permeation kinetics generally observed the permeation models previously reported to explain the experimental permeation results obtained for a low molecular weight group of model permeants. In general, the model permeants exhibited behaviour consistent with their relative molecular weights with respect to (a) the time taken to attain steady-state permeation into the food simulant in which they were more soluble, (b) their subsequent steady-state permeation rates, and (c) their partition between liquid paraffin and the OPP membrane.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel Pérez-Grande
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This manuscript explores numerical errors in highly anisotropic diffusion problems. First, the paper addresses the use of regular structured meshes in numerical solutions versus meshes aligned with the preferential directions of the problem. Numerical diffusion in structured meshes is quantified by solving the classical anisotropic diffusion problem; the analysis is exemplified with the application to a numerical model of conducting fluids under magnetic confinement, where rates of transport in directions parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field are quite different. Numerical diffusion errors in this problem promote the use of magnetic field aligned meshes (MFAM. The generation of this type of meshes presents some challenges; several meshing strategies are implemented and analyzed in order to provide insight into achieving acceptable mesh regularity. Second, Gradient Reconstruction methods for magnetically aligned meshes are addressed and numerical errors are compared for the structured and magnetically aligned meshes. It is concluded that using the latter provides a more correct and straightforward approach to solving problems where anisotropicity is present, especially, if the anisotropicity level is high or difficult to quantify. The conclusions of the study may be extrapolated to the study of anisotropic flows different from conducting fluids.
Heating of a thermally conducting stratified medium. II. A simple plane model of an atmosphre
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lerche, I.; Low, B.C.
1980-01-01
Exact solutions of the following theroretical problem are present: A plane atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium with a uniform gravity. The ideal gas law is assumed. Heat is generated everywhere at a rate proportional to the local density. The atmosphere is maintained in a steady state through cooling by thermal conduction and radiation. This problem is reducible to quadratures for a thermal conductivity which is an arbitrary, but prescribed, function of the temperature, and for a radiative loss which is expressible as the product of the density and an arbitrary, but prescribed, function of the pressure. The analysis is carried out for the case of power law thermal conductivity, and a radiative loss proportional to the square of the density and to the first power of the temperature. The radiative cooling function adopted here has the basic mathematical form for an optically thin medium. The solutions reproduce the macroscopic ordering of a hot ''corona'' separated from a ''photosphere'' by a layer of temperature minimum. The analytic solutions allow direct illustration of the interplay between steady energy transport and the requirements of hydorstatic equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Churchill, Christopher W.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Kacprzak, Glenn G.
2013-01-01
In Churchill et al., we used halo abundance matching applied to 182 galaxies in the Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog (MAGIICAT) and showed that the mean Mg II λ2796 equivalent width follows a tight inverse-square power law, W r (2796)∝(D/R vir ) –2 , with projected location relative to the galaxy virial radius and that the Mg II absorption covering fraction is effectively invariant with galaxy virial mass, M h , over the range 10.7 ≤ log M h /M ☉ ≤ 13.9. In this work, we explore multivariate relationships between W r (2796), virial mass, impact parameter, virial radius, and the theoretical cooling radius that further elucidate self-similarity in the cool/warm (T = 10 4 -10 4.5 K) circumgalactic medium (CGM) with virial mass. We show that virial mass determines the extent and strength of the Mg II absorbing gas such that the mean W r (2796) increases with virial mass at fixed distance while decreasing with galactocentric distance for fixed virial mass. The majority of the absorbing gas resides within D ≅ 0.3 R vir , independent of both virial mass and minimum absorption threshold; inside this region, and perhaps also in the region 0.3 < D/R vir ≤ 1, the mean W r (2796) is independent of virial mass. Contrary to absorber-galaxy cross-correlation studies, we show there is no anti-correlation between W r (2796) and virial mass. We discuss how simulations and theory constrained by observations support self-similarity of the cool/warm CGM via the physics governing star formation, gas-phase metal enrichment, recycling efficiency of galactic scale winds, filament and merger accretion, and overdensity of local environment as a function of virial mass.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Churchill, Christopher W.; Trujillo-Gomez, Sebastian; Nielsen, Nikole M. [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia)
2013-12-10
In Churchill et al., we used halo abundance matching applied to 182 galaxies in the Mg II Absorber-Galaxy Catalog (MAGIICAT) and showed that the mean Mg II λ2796 equivalent width follows a tight inverse-square power law, W{sub r} (2796)∝(D/R {sub vir}){sup –2}, with projected location relative to the galaxy virial radius and that the Mg II absorption covering fraction is effectively invariant with galaxy virial mass, M {sub h}, over the range 10.7 ≤ log M {sub h}/M {sub ☉} ≤ 13.9. In this work, we explore multivariate relationships between W{sub r} (2796), virial mass, impact parameter, virial radius, and the theoretical cooling radius that further elucidate self-similarity in the cool/warm (T = 10{sup 4}-10{sup 4.5} K) circumgalactic medium (CGM) with virial mass. We show that virial mass determines the extent and strength of the Mg II absorbing gas such that the mean W{sub r} (2796) increases with virial mass at fixed distance while decreasing with galactocentric distance for fixed virial mass. The majority of the absorbing gas resides within D ≅ 0.3 R {sub vir}, independent of both virial mass and minimum absorption threshold; inside this region, and perhaps also in the region 0.3 < D/R {sub vir} ≤ 1, the mean W{sub r} (2796) is independent of virial mass. Contrary to absorber-galaxy cross-correlation studies, we show there is no anti-correlation between W{sub r} (2796) and virial mass. We discuss how simulations and theory constrained by observations support self-similarity of the cool/warm CGM via the physics governing star formation, gas-phase metal enrichment, recycling efficiency of galactic scale winds, filament and merger accretion, and overdensity of local environment as a function of virial mass.
On the propagation of a charged particle beam in a random medium. II: Discrete binary statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Promraning, G.C.; Prinja, A.K.
1995-01-01
The authors consider the linear transport of energetic charged particles through a background stochastic mixture consisting of two immiscible fluids or solids. The transport model used is the continuous slowing down description in the straight ahead approximation. Under the assumption of homogeneous Markovian mixing statistics and separable (in space and energy) stopping powers with a common energy dependence, the problem of finding the ensemble averaged intensity and dose is reduced to simple quadrature. The use of the Liouville master equation offers an alternate approach to this problem, and leads to an exact differential equations whose solutions give the ensemble-averaged intensity and dose. This master equation approach applies to inhomogeneous Markovian statistics as well as non-separable stopping powers. Both treatments can be extended, in an approximate way, to non-Markovian statistics. Typical numerical results are given, contrasting this stochastic treatment with the standard treatment which ignores the stochastic nature of the problem. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab
Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaf powder as a biosorbent for removal of Cd(II) from aqueous medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Arunima [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India); Bhattacharyya, Krishna G. [Department of chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam (India)]. E-mail: krishna2604@sify.com
2005-10-17
A biosorbent, Neem leaf powder (NLP), was prepared from the mature leaves of the Azadirachta indica (Neem) tree by initial cleaning, drying, grinding, washing to remove pigments and redrying. The powder was characterized with respect to specific surface area (21.45 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}), surface topography and surface functional groups and the material was used as an adsorbent in a batch process to remove Cd(II) from aqueous medium under conditions of different concentrations, NLP loadings, pH, agitation time and temperature. Adsorption increased from 8.8% at pH 4.0 to 70.0% at pH 7.0 and 93.6% at pH 9.5, the higher values in alkaline medium being due to removal by precipitation. The adsorption was very fast initially and maximum adsorption was observed within 300 min of agitation. The kinetics of the interactions was tested with pseudo first order Lagergren equation (mean k {sub 1} = 1.2 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}), simple second order kinetics (mean k {sub 2} = 1.34 x 10{sup -3} g mg{sup -1} min{sup -1}), Elovich equation, liquid film diffusion model (mean k = 1.39 x 10{sup -2} min{sup -1}) and intra-particle diffusion mechanism. The adsorption data gave good fits with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and yielded Langmuir monolayer capacity of 158 mg g{sup -1} for the NLP and Freundlich adsorption capacity of 18.7 L g{sup -1}. A 2.0 g of NLP could remove 86% of Cd(II) at 293 K from a solution containing 158.8 mg Cd(II) per litre. The mean values of the thermodynamic parameters, {delta}H, {delta}S and {delta}G, at 293 K were -73.7 kJ mol{sup -1}, -0.24 J mol{sup -1} K{sup -1} and -3.63 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, showing the adsorption process to be thermodynamically favourable. The results have established good potentiality for the Neem leaf powder to be used as a biosorbent for Cd(II)
A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, Niels; Viereck, Peter; Pryds, Nini
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A comprehensive model was developed to optimize the integrated TEG-heat exchanger. • The developed model was validated with the experimental data. • The effect of using different interface materials on the output power was assessed. • The influence of TEG arrangement on the power production was investigated. • Optimized geometrical parameters and proper interface materials were suggested. - Abstract: In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness of the interface surfaces as well as the air gap thermal resistance at the interface. The combined CMY and parallel plate gap model is then further developed to simulate the thermal contact resistance for the case of an interface material. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data with an average deviation of 17% for the case without interface material and 12% in the case of including additional material at the interfaces. The model is then employed to evaluate the power production of the integrated system using different interface materials, including graphite, aluminum (Al), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) in a form of thin foils. The numerical results show that lead foil at the interface has the best performance, with an improvement in power production of 34% compared to graphite foil. Finally, the model predicts that for a certain flow rate, increasing the parallel TEG channels for the integrated systems with 4, 8, and 12 TEGs
Ovchinnikov, I. I.; Snezhkina, O. V.; Ovchinnikov, I. G.
2017-11-01
The task of modeling the kinetics of chloride-containing medium penetration into construction elements out of reinforced concrete that have partially damaged anti-corrosion protective coatings is being discussed. As a result, chlorides penetrate the construction element via local surface areas which leads to irregularities between chloride dispersion volumes. The kinetics of chloride penetration is described by the equation of diffusion to solve which the CONDUCT software complex by professor S. Patankar was used. The methodology used to solve the diffusional equation is described. The results of the evaluation of concentration field in the axial section of a cylindrical construction element, which was centrally reinforced, are given. The chloride diffusion was symmetrical to the axis, the medium was applied through the central ring area equal to one third of the side surface area while the rest of the surface was isolated. It was shown that the methodology of evaluation and its algorithm allow one to evaluate the concentration field of chlorides in reinforced concrete structural elements under local or asymmetrical action of the chloride - containing medium. The example given illustrates that after a certain time interval critical the concentration of chlorides develops even in protected areas which are located far from the initial damaged area. This means that the corrosion destruction of reinforced elements develops not only in the immediate damage area, but also further away from it.
Yang, Kun; Wu, Yanqing; Huang, Fenglei; Li, Ming
2017-09-05
An effective computational model is required to accurately predict the dynamic responses in accidental initiations of explosives. The present work uses a series of two-dimensional mechanical-chemical simulations performed via a hydrodynamic-code, DREXH-2D, to efficiently describe the mechanical and ignition-deflagration responses of cased cylindrical polymer-bonded explosives (PBXs) undergoing a low-to-medium-level impact (70-350m/s) in longitudinal direction. The ignition response was predicted based on an ignition criterion of effective plastic work. Slow burning and its growth to deflagration were described through a pressure-dependent reaction rate equation. The extreme value of effective plastic work was found to be useful to determine the ignition threshold velocity for PBXs. For low-level velocity impact, the incident stress wave reflection from lateral surfaces contributed to the formation of ignition regions. After the ignition, the deflagration was induced in the medium-level impact, and its violence was related to the shock strength. However, the low-strength stress wave only induced reaction at local regions, and sequent burning was no longer sensitive to the strength of incident wave. The predicted pressure and temperature results of PBXs were consistent with the medium-level impact tests performed by China Academy of Engineering Physics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M
2015-12-01
Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15 in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.
The infrared medium-deep survey. II. How to trigger radio AGNs? Hints from their environments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karouzos, Marios; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lee, Seong-Kook; Jeon, Yiseul; Choi, Changsu; Hong, Jueun; Hyun, Minhee; Jun, Hyunsung David; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Yongjung; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Duho; Park, Won-Kee; Taak, Yoon Chan; Yoon, Yongmin [CEOU—Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Pak, Soojong [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Edge, Alastair, E-mail: mkarouzos@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-12-10
Activity at the centers of galaxies, during which the central supermassive black hole is accreting material, is nowadays accepted to be rather ubiquitous and most probably a phase of every galaxy's evolution. It has been suggested that galactic mergers and interactions may be the culprits behind the triggering of nuclear activity. We use near-infrared data from the new Infrared Medium-Deep Survey and the Deep eXtragalactic Survey of the VIMOS-SA22 field and radio data at 1.4 GHz from the FIRST survey and a deep Very Large Array survey to study the environments of radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over an area of ∼25 deg{sup 2} and down to a radio flux limit of 0.1 mJy and a J-band magnitude of 23 mag AB. Radio AGNs are predominantly found in environments similar to those of control galaxies at similar redshift, J-band magnitude, and (M{sub u} – M{sub r} ) rest-frame color. However, a subpopulation of radio AGNs is found in environments up to 100 times denser than their control sources. We thus preclude merging as the dominant triggering mechanism of radio AGNs. By fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution of radio AGNs in the least and most dense environments, we find that those in the least dense environments show higher radio-loudness, higher star formation efficiencies, and higher accretion rates, typical of the so-called high-excitation radio AGNs. These differences tend to disappear at z > 1. We interpret our results in terms of a different triggering mechanism for these sources that is driven by mass loss through winds of young stars created during the observed ongoing star formation.
PEMANFAATAN KARBON SABUT KELAPA TERIMPREGNASI UNTUK MENGURANGI TEMBAGA(II DALAM MEDIUM AIR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roy Andreas
2008-11-01
Full Text Available This research is conducted to produce carbons from coconut fibre which approach to activated carbon clause continue with carbon surface modification and the adsorption examination to Cu(II ions. The research consist of several phase. Carbon making of coconut fibre conducted by carbonization processes at 320-400oC with temperature interval 20oC. Carbon yielded in characterized moisture content, ash content and its adsoprtion to iodium. The carbon surface modification conducted by loaded 2-mercaptobenzotiazol (MBT on carbon. The adsorpsibility of carbon-MBT tested by influence of contact time, pH, and the isoterm adsorption pattern. The result of the study showed carbonization of coconut fibre which approach the requirement of SII No.0258-89 gained at temperature 320oC. In the present study equilibrium time of 10 minute and pH was found to be optimum for both adsorbent. While type of isothermal adsorption from carban and carbon-MBT adsorbent followed the Langmuir adsorption pattern.
Numerical solution of multiband k.p model for tunnelling in type-II heterostructures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.E. Botha
2010-01-01
Full Text Available A new and very general method was developed for calculating the charge and spin-resolved electron tunnelling in type-II heterojunctions. Starting from a multiband k.p description of the bulk energy-band structure, a multiband k.p Riccati equation was derived. The reflection and transmission coefficients were obtained for each channel by integrating the Riccati equation over the entire heterostructure. Numerical instability was reduced through this method, in which the multichannel log-derivative of the envelope function matrix, rather than the envelope function itself, was propagated. As an example, a six-band k.p Hamiltonian was used to calculate the current-voltage characteristics of a 10-nm wide InAs/ GaSb/InAs single quantum well device which exhibited negative differential resistance at room temperature. The calculated current as a function of applied (bias voltage was found to be in semiquantitative agreement with the experiment, a result which indicated that inelastic transport mechanisms do not contribute significantly to the valley currents measured in this particular device.
PAPER-64 CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION. II. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE z = 8.4 INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pober, Jonathan C. [Physics Dept., U. Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ali, Zaki S.; Parsons, Aaron R.; Cheng, Carina; Liu, Adrian [Astronomy Dept., University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); McQuinn, Matthew [Astronomy Dept., University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Kohn, Saul A. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bernardi, Gianni; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Maree, Matthys [Square Kilometre Array South Africa (SKA SA), Pinelands (South Africa); Bradley, Richard F. [Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Obs., Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, David H. E. [Radio Astronomy Lab., University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Furlanetto, Steven R. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Jacobs, Daniel C. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State U., Tempe, AZ (United States); Klima, Patricia J. [National Radio Astronomy Obs., Charlottesville, VA (United States); and others
2015-08-10
We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints are derived using a semi-analytic method to explore the new measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), which were presented in a companion paper, Ali et al. Twenty-one cm power spectra with amplitudes of hundreds of mK{sup 2} can be generically produced if the kinetic temperature of the IGM is significantly below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB); as such, the new results from PAPER place lower limits on the IGM temperature at z = 8.4. Allowing for the unknown ionization state of the IGM, our measurements find the IGM temperature to be above ≈5 K for neutral fractions between 10% and 85%, above ≈7 K for neutral fractions between 15% and 80%, or above ≈10 K for neutral fractions between 30% and 70%. We also calculate the heating of the IGM that would be provided by the observed high redshift galaxy population, and find that for most models, these galaxies are sufficient to bring the IGM temperature above our lower limits. However, there are significant ranges of parameter space that could produce a signal ruled out by the PAPER measurements; models with a steep drop-off in the star formation rate density at high redshifts or with relatively low values for the X-ray to star formation rate efficiency of high redshift galaxies are generally disfavored. The PAPER measurements are consistent with (but do not constrain) a hydrogen spin temperature above the CMB temperature, a situation which we find to be generally predicted if galaxies fainter than the current detection limits of optical/NIR surveys are included in calculations of X-ray heating.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caresana, F.; Bilancia, M.; Bartolini, C.M.
2011-01-01
Significant reductions in vehicle fuel consumption can be obtained through a greater control of the thermal status of the engine, especially under partial load conditions. Different systems have been proposed to implement this concept, referred to as improved engine thermal management. The amount of fuel saved depends on the components and layout of the engine cooling plant and on the performance of its control system. In this work, a method was developed to calculate the theoretical minimum fuel consumption of a passenger car and used as a reference in comparing different engine cooling system concepts. A high-medium class car was taken as an example and simulated on standard cycles. Models for power train and cooling system components were developed and linked to simulate the vehicle. A preliminary analysis of the engine was performed using AVL's Boost program. The fuel consumption of the complete vehicle, equipped with a conventional cooling plant, was determined on standard cycles and compared with that of a vehicle equipped with a 'perfect' cooling system, to calculate the theoretical reduction in fuel consumption. - Highlights: → We propose a method for assessing the potential of smart engine thermal management. → A conventional cooling system is compared to a 'perfect' one to estimate fuel economy. → We tested the method in an upper-medium segment passenger car.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hami K.
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In the present research, simulations have been conducted to determine numerically the dynamic behaviour of the flow of underground water fed by a river. The basic equations governing the problem studied are those of Navier–Stokes equations of conservation of momentum (flows between pores, coupled by the Darcy–Forchheimer equations (flows within these pores. To understand the phenomena involved, we first study the impact of flow rate on the pressure and the filtration velocity in the underground medium, the second part is devoted to the calculation of the elevation effect of the river water on the flow behaviour in the saturated and unsaturated zone of the aquifer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Ramin
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Testing of a low-cost bio-PCM in an exterior wall under varying weather conditions. • Numerical model validation and annual simulations of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation. • Reduced wall-generated cooling electricity consumption due to the application of PCM. • PCM performance was sensitive to its location and distribution within the wall. - Abstract: A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of a phase change material (PCM) in the building envelope. Numerous studies over the last two decades have reported the energy saving potential of PCMs in building envelopes, but their wide application has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel PCM made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application. The PCM–HDPE pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation and then added to an exterior wall of a test building in a hot and humid climate, and tested over a period of several months. To demonstrate the efficacy of the PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation in reducing the building envelope heat gains and losses, a side-by-side comparison was performed with another wall section filled with cellulose-only insulation. Further, numerical modeling of the test wall was performed to determine the actual impact of the PCM–HDPE pellets on wall-generated heating and cooling loads and the associated electricity consumption. The model was first validated using experimental data and then used for annual simulations using typical meteorological year (TMY3) weather data. This article presents the experimental data and numerical analyses showing the energy-saving potential of the new PCM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Parama Ghoshal
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Reactive convection in a porous medium has received recent interest in the context of the geological storage of carbon dioxide in saline formations. We study theoretically and numerically the gravitational instability of a diffusive boundary layer in the presence of a first-order precipitation reaction. We compare the predictions from normal mode, linear stability analysis, and nonlinear numerical simulations, and discuss the relative deviations. The application of our findings to the storage of carbon dioxide in a siliciclastic aquifer shows that while the reactive-diffusive layer can become unstable within a timescale of 1 to 1.5 months after the injection of carbon dioxide, it can take almost 10 months for sufficiently vigorous convection to produce a considerable increase in the dissolution flux of carbon dioxide.
Das, Saurish; Patel, H. V.; Milacic, E.; Deen, N. G.; Kuipers, J. A. M.
2018-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of a liquid droplet in contact with a surface of a porous structure by means of the pore-scale level, fully resolved numerical simulations. The geometrical details of the solid porous matrix are resolved by a sharp interface immersed boundary method on a Cartesian computational grid, whereas the motion of the gas-liquid interface is tracked by a mass conservative volume of fluid method. The numerical simulations are performed considering a model porous structure that is approximated by a 3D cubical scaffold with cylindrical struts. The effect of the porosity and the equilibrium contact angle (between the gas-liquid interface and the solid struts) on the spreading behavior, liquid imbibition, and apparent contact angle (between the gas-liquid interface and the porous base) are studied. We also perform several simulations for droplet spreading on a flat surface as a reference case. Gas-liquid systems of the Laplace number, La = 45 and La = 144 × 103 are considered neglecting the effect of gravity. We report the time exponent (n) and pre-factor (C) of the power law describing the evolution of the spreading diameter (S = Ctn) for different equilibrium contact angles and porosity. Our simulations reveal that the apparent or macroscopic contact angle varies linearly with the equilibrium contact angle and increases with porosity. Not necessarily for all the wetting porous structures, a continuous capillary drainage occurs, and we find that the rate of the capillary drainage very much depends on the fluid inertia. At La = 144 × 103, numerically we capture the capillary wave induced pinch-off and daughter droplet ejection. We observe that on the porous structure the pinch-off is weak compared to that on a flat plate.
Yoon, Hongkyu; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W; Werth, Charles J; Valocchi, Albert J
2009-10-13
The purpose of this work is to identify the mechanisms that govern the removal of carbon tetrachloride (CT) during soil vapor extraction (SVE) by comparing numerical and analytical model simulations with a detailed data set from a well-defined intermediate-scale flow cell experiment. The flow cell was packed with a fine-grained sand layer embedded in a coarse-grained sand matrix. A total of 499 mL CT was injected at the top of the flow cell and allowed to redistribute in the variably saturated system. A dual-energy gamma radiation system was used to determine the initial NAPL saturation profile in the fine-grained sand layer. Gas concentrations at the outlet of the flow cell and 15 sampling ports inside the flow cell were measured during subsequent CT removal using SVE. Results show that CT mass was removed quickly in coarse-grained sand, followed by a slow removal from the fine-grained sand layer. Consequently, effluent gas concentrations decreased quickly at first, and then started to decrease gradually, resulting in long-term tailing. The long-term tailing was mainly due to diffusion from the fine-grained sand layer to the coarse-grained sand zone. An analytical solution for a one-dimensional advection and a first-order mass transfer model matched the tailing well with two fitting parameters. Given detailed knowledge of the permeability field and initial CT distribution, we were also able to predict the effluent concentration tailing and gas concentration profiles at sampling ports using a numerical simulator assuming equilibrium CT evaporation. The numerical model predictions were accurate within the uncertainty of independently measured or literature derived parameters. This study demonstrates that proper numerical modeling of CT removal through SVE can be achieved using equilibrium evaporation of NAPL if detailed fine-scale knowledge of the CT distribution and physical heterogeneity is incorporated into the model. However, CT removal could also be fit by a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François, E-mail: francois.coulouvrat@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7190, Institut Jean Le Rond d’Alembert, F-75005, Paris (France)
2015-10-28
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luquet, David; Marchiano, Régis; Coulouvrat, François
2015-01-01
Many situations involve the propagation of acoustical shock waves through flows. Natural sources such as lightning, volcano explosions, or meteoroid atmospheric entries, emit loud, low frequency, and impulsive sound that is influenced by atmospheric wind and turbulence. The sonic boom produced by a supersonic aircraft and explosion noises are examples of intense anthropogenic sources in the atmosphere. The Buzz-Saw-Noise produced by turbo-engine fan blades rotating at supersonic speed also propagates in a fast flow within the engine nacelle. Simulating these situations is challenging, given the 3D nature of the problem, the long range propagation distances relative to the central wavelength, the strongly nonlinear behavior of shocks associated to a wide-band spectrum, and finally the key role of the flow motion. With this in view, the so-called FLHOWARD (acronym for FLow and Heterogeneous One-Way Approximation for Resolution of Diffraction) method is presented with three-dimensional applications. A scalar nonlinear wave equation is established in the framework of atmospheric applications, assuming weak heterogeneities and a slow wind. It takes into account diffraction, absorption and relaxation properties of the atmosphere, quadratic nonlinearities including weak shock waves, heterogeneities of the medium in sound speed and density, and presence of a flow (assuming a mean stratified wind and 3D turbulent ? flow fluctuations of smaller amplitude). This equation is solved in the framework of the one-way method. A split-step technique allows the splitting of the non-linear wave equation into simpler equations, each corresponding to a physical effect. Each sub-equation is solved using an analytical method if possible, and finite-differences otherwise. Nonlinear effects are solved in the time domain, and others in the frequency domain. Homogeneous diffraction is handled by means of the angular spectrum method. Ground is assumed perfectly flat and rigid. Due to the 3D
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahmood H. Ali
2015-02-01
Full Text Available A numerical study of non-Darcian natural convection heat transfer in a rectangular enclosure filled with porous medium saturated with viscous fluid was carried out. The effects of medium Rayleigh number, porosity, particle to fluid thermal conductivity ratio, Darcy number and enclosure aspect ratio on heat transfer were examined to demonstrate the ability of using this construction in thermal insulation of buildings walls.A modified Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy flow model was used and no-slip boundary conditions were imposed for velocity at the walls and the governing equations were expressed in dimensionless stream function, vorticity, and temperature formulation. The resulting algebraic equations obtained from finite difference discritization of vorticity and temperature equations are solved using (ADI method which uses Three Diagonal Matrix Algorithm (TDMA in each direction, while that of the stream function equation solved using successive iteration method.The study was done for the range of enclosure aspect ratio ( which is in the tall layers region at medium Rayleigh number ( , Darcy number (Da=10-3, 10-4, 10-5 , porosity (e=0.35, 0.45, 0.55, particle to fluid thermal conductivity (kS/kf=5.77, 38.5, 1385.5.The results showed that the Nusselt number is direct proportional to medium Rayleigh number and porosity and reversely proportional to Darcy number, ratio of particle to fluid thermal conductivity and enclosure aspect ratio. The variables that affect the heat transfer in the above arrangement was correlated in a mathematical equation that account better for their affects on heat transfer which is represented by mean Nusselt number (Nu.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Nandi, D
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Reduced-graphene-oxide based superparamagnetic nanocomposite (GC) was fabricated and applied for the remediation of Ni(II) from an aqueous medium. The as-prepared GC was extensively characterized by Raman, TEM, AFM, SEM–EDX, SQUID, and BET analyses...
Rodriguez, Ernesto; Kim, Yunjin; Durden, Stephen L.
1992-01-01
A numerical evaluation is presented of the regime of validity for various rough surface scattering theories against numerical results obtained by employing the method of moments. The contribution of each theory is considered up to second order in the perturbation expansion for the surface current. Considering both vertical and horizontal polarizations, the unified perturbation method provides best results among all theories weighed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro
2009-01-01
Formation of interstellar clouds as a consequence of thermal instability is studied using two-dimensional two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We consider the situation of converging, supersonic flows of warm neutral medium in the interstellar medium that generate a shocked slab of thermally unstable gas in which clouds form. We find, as speculated in Paper I, that in the shocked slab magnetic pressure dominates thermal pressure and the thermal instability grows in the isochorically cooling, thermally unstable slab that leads to the formation of H I clouds whose number density is typically n ∼ -3 , even if the angle between magnetic field and converging flows is small. We also find that even if there is a large dispersion of magnetic field, evolution of the shocked slab is essentially determined by the angle between the mean magnetic field and converging flows. Thus, the direct formation of molecular clouds by piling up warm neutral medium does not seem to be a typical molecular cloud formation process, unless the direction of supersonic converging flows is biased to the orientation of mean magnetic field by some mechanism. However, when the angle is small, the H I shell generated as a result of converging flows is massive and possibly evolves into molecular clouds, provided gas in the massive H I shell is piled up again along the magnetic field line. We expect that another subsequent shock wave can again pile up the gas of the massive shell and produce a larger cloud. We thus emphasize the importance of multiple episodes of converging flows, as a typical formation process of molecular clouds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.S. Tripathy
2016-09-01
The governing equations of the flow have been transformed into ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation technique and solved using the Runge-Kutta method associated with shooting technique. The numerical solutions are achieved showing the effects of pertinent parameters. For verification of the present findings the results of this study have been compared with the earlier works in particular cases; Darcian and non-Darcian fluids are discussed separately. It is worth reporting that effect of porosity of the medium combined with inertia gives rise to a transverse compression producing thinner boundary layer the solution by finite element method (FEM and Runge–Kutta method, do agree within a reasonable error limit.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Rockosi, Constance M.; Simon, Joshua D.; Geha, Marla C.; Sneden, Christopher; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Majewski, Steven R.; Siegel, Michael
2010-01-01
We present a catalog of Fe, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances for 2961 stars in eight dwarf satellite galaxies of the Milky Way (MW): Sculptor, Fornax, Leo I, Sextans, Leo II, Canes Venatici I, Ursa Minor, and Draco. For the purposes of validating our measurements, we also observed 445 red giants in MW globular clusters and 21 field red giants in the MW halo. The measurements are based on Keck/DEIMOS medium-resolution spectroscopy (MRS) combined with spectral synthesis. We estimate uncertainties in [Fe/H] by quantifying the dispersion of [Fe/H] measurements in a sample of stars in monometallic globular clusters (GCs). We estimate uncertainties in Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti abundances by comparing to high-resolution spectroscopic abundances of the same stars. For this purpose, a sample of 132 stars with published high-resolution spectroscopy in GCs, the MW halo field, and dwarf galaxies has been observed with MRS. The standard deviations of the differences in [Fe/H] and ([α/Fe]) (the average of [Mg/Fe], [Si/Fe], [Ca/Fe], and [Ti/Fe]) between the two samples is 0.15 and 0.16, respectively. This catalog represents the largest sample of multi-element abundances in dwarf galaxies to date. The next papers in this series draw conclusions on the chemical evolution, gas dynamics, and star formation histories from the catalog presented here. The wide range of dwarf galaxy luminosity reveals the dependence of dwarf galaxy chemical evolution on galaxy stellar mass.
Goldsmith, Paul F.; Pineda, Jorge L.; Neufeld, David A.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Risacher, Christophe; Simon, Robert
2018-04-01
We have combined emission from the 158 μm fine structure transition of C+ observed with the GREAT and upGREAT instruments on SOFIA with 21 cm absorption spectra and visual extinction to characterize the diffuse interstellar clouds found along the lines of sight. The weak [C II] emission is consistent in velocity and line width with the strongest H I component produced by the cold neutral medium. The H I column density and kinetic temperature are known from the 21 cm data and, assuming a fractional abundance of ionized carbon, we calculate the volume density and thermal pressure of each source, which vary considerably, with 27 {cm}}-3≤slant n({{{H}}}0) ≤slant 210 cm‑3 considering only the atomic hydrogen along the lines of sight to be responsible for the C+, while 13 {cm}}-3≤slant n({{{H}}}0+{{{H}}}2)≤slant 190 cm‑3 including the hydrogen in both forms. The thermal pressure varies widely with 1970 cm‑3 K ≤slant {P}th}/k≤slant 10,440 cm‑3 K for H0 alone and 750 cm‑3 K ≤ P th/k ≤ 9360 cm‑3 K including both H0 and H2. The molecular hydrogen fraction varies between 0.10 and 0.67. Photoelectric heating is the dominant heating source, supplemented by a moderately enhanced cosmic ray ionization rate, constrained by the relatively low 45 K to 73 K gas temperatures of the clouds. The resulting thermal balance for the two lower-density clouds is satisfactory, but for the two higher-density clouds, the combined heating rate is insufficient to balance the observed C+ cooling.
Asymptotic solutions of numerical transport problems in optically thick, diffusive regimes II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Larsen, E.W.; Morel, J.E.
1989-01-01
In a recent article (Larsen, Morel, and Miller, J. Comput. Phys. 69, 283 (1987)), a theoretical method is described for assessing the accuracy of transport differencing schemes in highly scattering media with optically thick spatial meshes. In the present article, this method is extended to enable one to determine the accuracy of such schemes in the presence of numerically unresolved boundary layers. Numerical results are presented that demonstrate the validity and accuracy of our analysis. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Draoui, Abdeslam
1989-01-01
The works we present here are on numerical approaches of heat transfer coupling radiation-conduction and radiation-convection within semi-transparent two-dimensional medium. The first part deals with a review of equations of radiative transfer and introduces three numerical methods (Pl, P3, Hottel's zones) which enable one to solve this problem in a two-dimensional environment. After comparing the three methods in the case where radiation is the only mode of transfer, we introduce in the second chapter a study of the coupling of radiation with conduction. So, a fourth method is used to solve this problem. These comparisons lead us to various methods which enable us to show the interest of the spherical harmonics approximations. In the third part, the Pl approximation is kept because it is simple to use, moreover it enables us to introduce both the coupling of radiative transfers with laminar convective equations in a thermally driven two-dimensional cavity. The results show a significant influence of the radiative participation of the fluid on heat and dynamic transfer we met in this type of problem. (author) [fr
Sub-impacts of simply supported beam struck by steel sphere—part II: Numerical simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoli Qi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This part of the article describes numerical simulations of the problem investigated experimentally. A three-dimensional finite element model of elastic–plastic for sphere falling on beam has been implemented using the nonlinear dynamic finite element software LS-DYNA. From the numerical simulations, it was found that the LS-DYNA is suitable to study complex sub-impact phenomenon, and good agreement is in general obtained between the simulation and experimental results. The numerical simulations show that the initial impact velocity, equivalent elasticity modulus, contact curvature radius of the sphere, and equivalent mass have great influence on the contact–impact time of the sub-impact, and an applicable range of the theoretical expression of contact–impact time of the sub-impact was determined. In addition, the numerical simulations demonstrate the ratios of maximum amplitudes of the first-, second-, and third-order vibrations to the maximum amplitudes of the beam vibrations, and the phase angle of the first-order vibration will change suddenly when the sub-impacts occur. Furthermore, the occurrence conditions of the sub-impacts were clarified numerically. It was found that the occurrence conditions of the sub-impacts can be represented by a mass ratio threshold, and the thickness or length of the beam has also a great influence on the occurrence of the sub-impacts. Once the sub-impacts occur, which would result in an uncertain behavior of the apparent coefficient of restitution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, J. H.; Park, I. S.; Ahmad, D.; Kim, D.; Kim, Y. C.; Ko, R. K.; Jeong, D. Y.
2012-01-01
The macroscopic magnetic behaviors of a type-II superconductor, such as the field- or the temperature-dependent magnetization, have been described by using critical state models. However, because the models are time-independent, the magnetic relaxation in a type-II superconductor cannot be described by them, and the time dependence of the magnetization can affect the field or the temperature-dependent magnetization curve described by the models. In order to avoid the time independence of critical state models, we try the numerical calculation used by Qin et al., who mainly calculated the temperature dependence of the ac susceptibility χ(T). Their calculation showed that the frequency-dependent χ(T) could be obtained by using the flux-creep equation. We calculated the field-dependent magnetization and magnetic relaxation by using a numerical method. The calculated field-dependent magnetization M(H) curves shows the shapes of a typical type-II superconductor. The calculated magnetic relaxation do not show a logarithmic decay of the magnetization, but the addition of a surface barrier to the relaxation calculation caused a clear logarithmic decay of the magnetization, producing a crossover at a mid-time. This means that the logarithmic magnetic relaxation is caused by not only flux creep but also a combination of flux creep and a surface barrier.
A quasi-stationary numerical model of atomized metal droplets, II: Prediction and assessment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pryds, Nini H.; Hattel, Jesper Henri; Thorborg, Jesper
1999-01-01
been illustrated.A comparison between the numerical model and the experimental results shows an excellent agreement and demonstrates the validity of the present model, e.g. the calculated gas temperature which has an important influence on the droplet solidification behaviour as well as the calculated......A new model which extends previous studies and includes the interaction between enveloping gas and an array of droplets has been developed and presented in a previous paper. The model incorporates the probability density function of atomized metallic droplets into the heat transfer equations....... The main thrust of the model is that the gas temperature was not predetermined and calculated empirically but calculated numerically based on heat balance consideration. In this paper, the accuracy of the numerical model and the applicability of the model as a predictive tool have been investigated...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saetta, Anna V.; Vitaliani, Renato V.
2005-01-01
The mathematical-numerical method developed by the authors to predict the corrosion initiation time of reinforced concrete structures due to carbonation process, recalled in Part I of this work, is here applied to some real cases. The final aim is to develop and test a practical method for determining the durability characteristics of existing buildings liable to carbonation, as well as estimating the corrosion initiation time of a building at the design stage. Two industrial sheds with different ages and located in different areas have been analyzed performing both experimental tests and numerical analyses. Finally, a case of carbonation-induced failure in a prestressed r.c. beam is presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wehner, M.F.
1983-01-01
A path-integral solution is derived for processes described by nonlinear Fokker-Plank equations together with externally imposed boundary conditions. This path-integral solution is written in the form of a path sum for small time steps and contains, in addition to the conventional volume integral, a surface integral which incorporates the boundary conditions. A previously developed numerical method, based on a histogram representation of the probability distribution, is extended to a trapezoidal representation. This improved numerical approach is combined with the present path-integral formalism for restricted processes and is show t give accurate results. 35 refs., 5 figs
F.B.R. Core mock-up RAPSODIE - II - numerical models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brochard, D.; Hammami, L.; Gantenbein, F.
1990-01-01
To study the behaviour of LMFBR cores excited by a seism, tests have been performed on the RAPSODIE core mock-up. The aim of this paper is to present the numerical models used to interprete these tests and the comparisons between calculations and experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Islam, M.F.; Begum, D.A.; Rahman, M.; Rahman, M.S.
2009-01-01
In the study of the extractive separation of Al(III) and Ni(II) by di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid D2EHPA-kerosene from aqueous fluoride medium, about 94% Al(III) and 2% Ni(II) were extracted with 0.3 M D2EHPA (pH 2.1 and temperature 30+-1 degree C). Extraction of Ni(II) decreased with increasing extractant concentration. D2EHPA-kerosene-fluoride system showed better extraction of Al(III) with higher extractant concentration and aqueous pH and vice versa for the extraction of Ni(II). The maximum separation factor (beta 1380) was obtained for Al(III) at 20 degree C and decreased to (beta 732) at 60 degree C. The separation of Al(III) from Ni(II) was favoured at normal temperature. Extraction followed the order Al(III), Ni(II). About 99% stripping of Al(III) was attained from the loaded 0.20 M D2EHPA. Much faster extraction of Al(III) compared to Ni(II) and preferential loading were shown by D2EHPA-kerosene in the presence of fluoride ion in the aqueous phase. Separation of Al(III) was the most outstanding from Ni-Al-F-complex solution. (author)
Duque, Earl P. N.; Johnson, Wayne; vanDam, C. P.; Chao, David D.; Cortes, Regina; Yee, Karen
1999-01-01
Accurate, reliable and robust numerical predictions of wind turbine rotor power remain a challenge to the wind energy industry. The literature reports various methods that compare predictions to experiments. The methods vary from Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM), Vortex Lattice (VL), to variants of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS). The BEM and VL methods consistently show discrepancies in predicting rotor power at higher wind speeds mainly due to inadequacies with inboard stall and stall delay models. The RaNS methodologies show promise in predicting blade stall. However, inaccurate rotor vortex wake convection, boundary layer turbulence modeling and grid resolution has limited their accuracy. In addition, the inherently unsteady stalled flow conditions become computationally expensive for even the best endowed research labs. Although numerical power predictions have been compared to experiment. The availability of good wind turbine data sufficient for code validation experimental data that has been extracted from the IEA Annex XIV download site for the NREL Combined Experiment phase II and phase IV rotor. In addition, the comparisons will show data that has been further reduced into steady wind and zero yaw conditions suitable for comparisons to "steady wind" rotor power predictions. In summary, the paper will present and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the three numerical methods and make available a database of experimental data suitable to help other numerical methods practitioners validate their own work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Quantian; Tong, Liyong
2013-01-01
This part presents finite element analysis to verify the present formulations on mechanics of the pressurized cellular structures derived in Part I and experimental testing for a pressurized cellular actuator to demonstrate feasibility and realization of the proposed pressurized cellular structures. Linear and nonlinear finite element analyses are implemented in a commercial finite element analysis package and the numerical results are compared with those of the novel formulations given in Part I. A pressurized cellular structure specimen with 3 cells is fabricated and tested. The fabricated 3-cell cellular structure is capable of yielding a free actuation strain of around 24%. The measured pressure-induced displacement and blocking force compare favorably with the numerical results predicted by the finite element analysis and analytical formulations. (paper)
Deridder, Sander; Vanmessen, Alison; Nakanishi, Kazuki; Desmet, Gert; Cabooter, Deirdre
2014-07-18
Effective medium theory (EMT) expressions for the B-term band broadening in monolithic silica columns are presented at the whole-column as well as at the mesoporous skeleton level. Given the bi-continuous nature of the monolithic medium, regular as well as inverse formulations of the EMT-expressions have been established. The established expressions were validated by applying them to a set of experimental effective diffusion (Deff)-data obtained via peak parking on a number of 1st and 2nd generation monolithic silica columns, as well as to a set of numerical diffusion simulations in a simplified monolithic column representation (tetrahedral skeleton model) with different external porosities and internal diffusion coefficients. The numerically simulated diffusion data can be very closely represented over a very broad range of zone retention factors (up to k″=80) using the established EMT-expressions, especially when using the inverse variant. The expressions also allow representing the experimentally measured effective diffusion data very closely. The measured Deff/Dmol-values were found to decrease significantly with increasing retention factor, in general going from about Deff/Dmol=0.55 to 0.65 at low k″ (k″≅1.5-3.8) to Deff/Dmol=0.25 at very high k″ (k″≅40-80). These values are significantly larger than observed in fully-porous and core-shell particles. The intra-skeleton diffusion coefficient (Dpz) was typically found to be of the order of Dpz/Dmol=0.4, compared to Dpz/Dmol=0.2-0.35 observed in most particle-based columns. These higher Dpz/Dmol values are the cause of the higher Deff/Dmol values observed. In addition, it also appears that the higher internal diffusion is linked to the higher porosity of the mesoporous skeleton that has a relatively open structure with relatively wide pores. The observed (weak) relation between Dpz/Dmol and the zone retention factor appears to be in good agreement with that predicted when applying the regular
Spallative nucleosynthesis in supernova remnants. II. Time-dependent numerical results
Parizot, Etienne; Drury, Luke
1999-06-01
We calculate the spallative production of light elements associated with the explosion of an isolated supernova in the interstellar medium, using a time-dependent model taking into account the dilution of the ejected enriched material and the adiabatic energy losses. We first derive the injection function of energetic particles (EPs) accelerated at both the forward and the reverse shock, as a function of time. Then we calculate the Be yields obtained in both cases and compare them to the value implied by the observational data for metal-poor stars in the halo of our Galaxy, using both O and Fe data. We find that none of the processes investigated here can account for the amount of Be found in these stars, which confirms the analytical results of Parizot & Drury (1999). We finally analyze the consequences of these results for Galactic chemical evolution, and suggest that a model involving superbubbles might alleviate the energetics problem in a quite natural way.
A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.
2016-01-01
In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...
Marquis, J. W.; Campbell, J. R.; Oyola, M. I.; Ruston, B. C.; Zhang, J.
2017-12-01
This is part II of a two-part series examining the impacts of aerosol particles on weather forecasts. In this study, the aerosol indirect effects on weather forecasts are explored by examining the temperature and moisture analysis associated with assimilating dust contaminated hyperspectral infrared radiances. The dust induced temperature and moisture biases are quantified for different aerosol vertical distribution and loading scenarios. The overall impacts of dust contamination on temperature and moisture forecasts are quantified over the west coast of Africa, with the assistance of aerosol retrievals from AERONET, MPL, and CALIOP. At last, methods for improving hyperspectral infrared data assimilation in dust contaminated regions are proposed.
Quasi-direct numerical simulation of a pebble bed configuration, Part-II: Temperature field analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shams, A.; Roelofs, F.; Komen, E.M.J.; Baglietto, E.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Quasi direct numerical simulations (q-DNSs) of a pebble bed configuration have been performed. ► This q-DNS database may serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches. ► A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data throughout the computational domain has been generated. ► Results for mean, RMS of temperature and respective turbulent heat fluxes are extensively reported in this paper. -- Abstract: Good prediction of the flow and heat transfer phenomena in the pebble bed core of a high temperature reactor (HTR) is a challenge for available turbulence models, which still require to be validated. While experimental data are generally desirable in this validation process, due to the complex geometric configuration and measurement difficulties, a very limited amount of data is currently available. On the other hand, direct numerical simulation (DNS) is considered an accurate simulation technique, which may serve as an alternative for validating turbulence models. In the framework of the present study, quasi-direct numerical simulation (q-DNS) of a single face cubic centered pebble bed is performed, which will serve as a reference for the validation of different turbulence modeling approaches in order to perform calculations for a randomly arranged pebble bed. These simulations were performed at a Reynolds number of 3088, based on pebble diameter, with a porosity level of 0.42. Results related to flow field (mean, RMS and covariance of velocity) have been presented in Part-I, whereas, in the present article, we focus our attention to the analysis of the temperature field. A wide range of qualitative and quantitative data for the thermal field (mean, RMS and turbulent heat flux) has been generated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doumic, M
2005-05-15
To simulate the propagation of a monochromatic laser beam in a medium, we use the paraxial approximation of the Klein-Gordon (in the time-varying problem) and of the Maxwell (in the non time-depending case) equations. In a first part, we make an asymptotic analysis of the Klein-Gordon equation. We obtain approximated problems, either of Schroedinger or of transport-Schroedinger type. We prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution for these problems, and estimate the difference between it and the exact solution of the Klein-Gordon equation. In a second part, we study the boundary problem for the advection Schroedinger equation, and show what the boundary condition must be so that the problem on our domain should be the restriction of the problem in the whole space: such a condition is called a transparent or an absorbing boundary condition. In a third part, we use the preceding results to build a numerical resolution method, for which we prove stability and show some simulations. (author)
Ngoma, Jeff; Philippe, Pierre; Bonelli, Stéphane; Radjaï, Farhang; Delenne, Jean-Yves
2018-05-01
We present here a numerical study dedicated to the fluidization of a submerged granular medium induced by a localized fluid injection. To this end, a two-dimensional (2D) model is used, coupling the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the discrete element method (DEM) for a relevant description of fluid-grains interaction. An extensive investigation has been carried out to analyze the respective influences of the different parameters of our configuration, both geometrical (bed height, grain diameter, injection width) and physical (fluid viscosity, buoyancy). Compared to previous experimental works, the same qualitative features are recovered as regards the general phenomenology including transitory phase, stationary states, and hysteretic behavior. We also present quantitative findings about transient fluidization, for which several dimensionless quantities and scaling laws are proposed, and about the influence of the injection width, from localized to homogeneous fluidization. Finally, the impact of the present 2D geometry is discussed, by comparison to the real three-dimensional (3D) experiments, as well as the crucial role of the prevailing hydrodynamic regime within the expanding cavity, quantified through a cavity Reynolds number, that can presumably explain some substantial differences observed regarding upward expansion process of the fluidized zone when the fluid viscosity is changed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilbois, B.
2003-07-01
In this work, a new model is built which allows to take into consideration the overall mass transfer phenomena (in particular convection) taking place inside a mixture of n{sub c} constituents in a porous medium. This model should allow to foresee the quantitative composition of fluids in oil fields and also to improve the knowledge of the flow of different species inside mixtures. The overall physical phenomena taking place at oil fields is explained in the first chapter. Chapter 2 recalls some thermodynamical notions at the equilibrium and outside equilibrium. These notions, necessary to understand the forecasting methods used by petroleum geologists, are described in chapter 3. This chapter includes also a bibliographic study about the methods of simulation of mass and heat transfers in porous media. In chapter 4, using the thermodynamical relations of irreversible processes described in chapter 2, a new type of macroscopic model allowing to describe the overall phenomena analyzed is developed. The numerical method used to solve this new system of equations is precised. Finally, chapter 5 proposes a set of cases for the validation of the uncoupled phenomena and some qualitative examples of modeling of coupled phenomena. (J.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fossum, Kristian; Mannseth, Trond
2014-01-01
We assess and compare parameter sampling capabilities of one sequential and one simultaneous Bayesian, ensemble-based, joint state-parameter (JS) estimation method. In the companion paper, part I (Fossum and Mannseth 2014 Inverse Problems 30 114002), analytical investigations lead us to propose three claims, essentially stating that the sequential method can be expected to outperform the simultaneous method for weakly nonlinear forward models. Here, we assess the reliability and robustness of these claims through statistical analysis of results from a range of numerical experiments. Samples generated by the two approximate JS methods are compared to samples from the posterior distribution generated by a Markov chain Monte Carlo method, using four approximate measures of distance between probability distributions. Forward-model nonlinearity is assessed from a stochastic nonlinearity measure allowing for sufficiently large model dimensions. Both toy models (with low computational complexity, and where the nonlinearity is fairly easy to control) and two-phase porous-media flow models (corresponding to down-scaled versions of problems to which the JS methods have been frequently applied recently) are considered in the numerical experiments. Results from the statistical analysis show strong support of all three claims stated in part I. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others
2016-03-15
A prospective phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and toxicity of regional hyperthermia and whole liver irradiation (WLI) for numerous chemorefractory liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Enrolled patients had numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer. Five sessions of hyperthermia and seven fractions of 3-gray WLI were planned. Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was determined using the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire C-30 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Hepatobiliary version 4.0. Objective and pain response was evaluated. A total of 12 patients consented to the study and the 10 who received WLI and hyperthermia were analyzed. WLI was completed as planned in nine patients and hyperthermia in eight. Pain response was partial in four patients and stable in four. Partial objective response was achieved in three patients (30.0%) and stable disease was seen in four patients at the 1-month follow-up. One patient died 1 month after treatment because of respiratory failure related to pleural metastasis progression. Other grade III or higher toxicities were detected in three patients; however, all severe toxicities were related to disease progression rather than treatment. No significant difference in HRQoL was noted at the time of assessment for patients who were available for questionnaires. Combined WLI and hyperthermia were well tolerated without severe treatment-related toxicity with a promising response from numerous chemorefractory hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer.
Study of a phase change energy storage using spherical capsules. Part II: Numerical modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedecarrats, J.P.; Castaing-Lasvignottes, J.; Strub, F.; Dumas, J.P.
2009-01-01
The objective of this work is the numerical study of an industrial process of energy storage which consists in the use of a cylindrical tank filled with encapsulated phase change materials (PCM). A particularity is present in this kind of processes; it concerns the delay of the crystallization of the PCM, called supercooling phenomenon. The development of the model for cold storage with heat transfer fluid flowing enables a detailed analysis of this process. The effects of different parameters on the behaviour of the tank, such as the inlet temperature, the flow rate, are examined when the tank is in vertical position. There is substantial agreement between the prediction and the experimental values already presented in part I.
EVOLVE : a Bridge between Probability, Set Oriented Numerics, and Evolutionary Computation II
Coello, Carlos; Tantar, Alexandru-Adrian; Tantar, Emilia; Bouvry, Pascal; Moral, Pierre; Legrand, Pierrick; EVOLVE 2012
2013-01-01
This book comprises a selection of papers from the EVOLVE 2012 held in Mexico City, Mexico. The aim of the EVOLVE is to build a bridge between probability, set oriented numerics and evolutionary computing, as to identify new common and challenging research aspects. The conference is also intended to foster a growing interest for robust and efficient methods with a sound theoretical background. EVOLVE is intended to unify theory-inspired methods and cutting-edge techniques ensuring performance guarantee factors. By gathering researchers with different backgrounds, a unified view and vocabulary can emerge where the theoretical advancements may echo in different domains. Summarizing, the EVOLVE focuses on challenging aspects arising at the passage from theory to new paradigms and aims to provide a unified view while raising questions related to reliability, performance guarantees and modeling. The papers of the EVOLVE 2012 make a contribution to this goal.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grey, Michael James; Ladouceur, Michel; Andersen, Jacob B.
2001-01-01
1. The objective of this study was to determine which afferents contribute to the medium latency response of the soleus stretch reflex resulting from an unexpected perturbation during human walking. 2. Fourteen healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at approximately 3.5 km h(-1) with the left ankle...... = 0.007), whereas the short latency component was unchanged (P = 0.653). 7. An ankle block with lidocaine hydrochloride was performed to suppress the cutaneous afferents of the foot and ankle. Neither the short (P = 0.453) nor medium (P = 0.310) latency reflexes were changed. 8. Our results support...
Thamsen, Bente; Blümel, Bastian; Schaller, Jens; Paschereit, Christian O; Affeld, Klaus; Goubergrits, Leonid; Kertzscher, Ulrich
2015-08-01
Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) became the therapy of choice in treating end-stage heart failure. Although survival improved substantially and is similar in currently clinically implanted LVADs HeartMate II (HM II) and HeartWare HVAD, complications related to blood trauma are frequently observed. The aim of this study was to compare these two pumps regarding their potential blood trauma employing computational fluid dynamics. High-resolution structured grids were generated for the pumps. Newtonian flow was calculated, solving Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with a sliding mesh approach and a k-ω shear stress transport turbulence model for the operating point of 4.5 L/min and 80 mm Hg. The pumps were compared in terms of volumes subjected to certain viscous shear stress thresholds, below which no trauma was assumed (von Willebrand factor cleavage: 9 Pa, platelet activation: 50 Pa, and hemolysis: 150 Pa), and associated residence times. Additionally, a hemolysis index was calculated based on a Eulerian transport approach. Twenty-two percent of larger volumes above 9 Pa were observed in the HVAD; above 50 Pa and 150 Pa the differences between the two pumps were marginal. Residence times were higher in the HVAD for all thresholds. The hemolysis index was almost equal for the HM II and HVAD. Besides the gap regions in both pumps, the inlet regions of the rotor and diffuser blades have a high hemolysis production in the HM II, whereas in the HVAD, the volute tongue is an additional site for hemolysis production. Thus, in this study, the comparison of the HM II and the HVAD using numerical methods indicated an overall similar tendency to blood trauma in both pumps. However, influences of turbulent shear stresses were not considered and effects of the pivot bearing in the HM II were not taken into account. Further in vitro investigations are required. Copyright © 2015 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Henrik B.; Josephsen, Jens; Kerszman, Gustaw
1985-01-01
-Tris) buffer and HEPES buffer. The phosphate abolishes the antiphage activity of the platinum complexes probably by some sort of complex formation. This together with dimerization reactions qualitatively explains the tailing off of the phage inactivation rate. High concentrations of NaNO3 as the salt medium...
Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part II: Numerical Experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Turinsky, Paul J.
2005-01-01
Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attribute predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins, and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e., in-core instrumentation readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. The companion paper, ''Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part I: Theory,'' describes in detail the theoretical background of the proposed adaptive techniques. This paper, Part II, demonstrates several computational experiments conducted to assess the fidelity and robustness of the proposed techniques. The intent is to check the ability of the adapted core simulator model to predict future core observables that are not included in the adaption or core observables that are recorded at core conditions that differ from those at which adaption is completed. Also, this paper demonstrates successful utilization of an efficient sensitivity analysis approach to calculate the sensitivity information required to perform the adaption for millions of input core parameters. Finally, this paper illustrates a useful application for adaptive simulation - reducing the inconsistencies between two different core simulator code systems, where the multitudes of input data to one code are adjusted to enhance the agreement between both codes for important core attributes, i.e., core reactivity and power distribution. Also demonstrated is the robustness of such an application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabi, Jose A.; Mohamad, Abdulmajeed A.
2004-01-01
The first part of this paper proposes a steady-state 2-D model for 222 Rn transport in phosphogypsum stacks. In this second part, the dimensionless model equations are solved numerically with the help of an existing finite-volume simulator that has been successfully used to solve heat and mass transfer problems in porous media. As a test case, a rectangular shaped stack is considered in order to verify the ability of the proposed parametric approach to account for concurrent effects on the 222 Rn exhalation into the local atmosphere. Air flow is supposed to be strictly buoyancy driven and the ground is assumed to be impermeable to 222 Rn and at a higher temperature under the stack base. Dimensionless controlling parameters are set to representative values and results are presented for Grashof number in the range 10 6 ≤Gr≤ 10 8 , corresponding to very small to small temperature differences between incoming air and ground underneath the stack base. For the particular set of parameters and inasmuch as Gr increases, streamlines presented basically the same pattern while internal isotherms and iso concentration lines remained almost unchanged. Total average Sherwood number proved to be rather insensitive to Gr while total average Nusselt increased slightly with Gr. (author)
Ab initio theory of superconductivity in a magnetic field. II. Numerical solution
Linscheid, A.; Sanna, A.; Gross, E. K. U.
2015-07-01
We numerically investigate the spin density functional theory for superconductors (SpinSCDFT) and the approximated exchange-correlation functional, derived and presented in the preceding Paper I [A. Linscheid et al., Phys. Rev. B 92, 024505 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.024505]. As a test system, we employ a free-electron gas featuring an exchange splitting, a phononic pairing field, and a Coulomb repulsion. SpinSCDFT results are compared with Sarma, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory, and with an Eliashberg type of approach. We find that the spectrum of the superconducting Kohn-Sham SpinSCDFT system is not in agreement with the true quasiparticle structure. Therefore, starting from the Dyson equation, we derive a scheme that allows to compute the many-body excitations of the superconductor and represents the extension to superconductivity of the G0W0 method in band-structure theory. This superconducting G0W0 method vastly improves the predicted spectra.
Numerical models of protoneutron stars and type-II supernovae - recent developments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janka, H T [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany)
1996-11-01
The results of recent multi-dimensional simulations of type-II supernovae are reviewed. They show that convective instabilities in the collapsed stellar core might play an important role already during the first second after the formation of the supernovae shock. Convectively unstable situations occur below and near the neutrinosphere as well as in the neutrino-heated region between the nascent neutron star and the supernova shock after the latter has stalled at a radiums of typically 100-200 km. While convective overturn in the layer of neutrino energy deposition clearly helps the explosion to develop and potentially provides an explanation of strong mantle and envelope mixing, asphericities, and non-uniform {sup 56}Ni distribution observed in supernova SN 1987A, its presence and importance depends on the strength of the neutrino heating and thus on the size of the neutrino fluxes from the neutrino star. Convection in the hot-bubble region can only be developed if the growth timescale of the instabilities and the heating timescale are both shorter than the accretion timescale of the matter advected through the stagnant shock. For too small neutrino luminosities this requirement is not fulfilled and convective activity cannot develop, leading to very weak explosions or even fizzling models, just as in the one-dimensional situations. Convectively enhanced neutrino luminosities from the protoneutron star can therefore provide an essential condition for the explosion of the star. Very recent two-dimensional, self-consistent, general relativistic simulations of the cooling of a newly-formed neutron star demonstrate and confirm the possibility that Ledoux convection, driven by negative lepton number and entropy gradients, may encompass the whole protoneutron star within less than one second and can lead to an increase of the neutrino fluxes by up to a factor of two. (author) 9 figs., refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hindi, H.; Prabhakar, S.; Fox, J.; Teytelman, D.
1997-12-01
The authors present a technique for the design and verification of efficient bunch-by-bunch controllers for damping longitudinal multibunch instabilities. The controllers attempt to optimize the use of available feedback amplifier power--one of the most expensive components of a feedback system--and define the limits of closed loop system performance. The design technique alternates between analytic computation of single bunch optimal controllers and verification on a multibunch numerical simulator. The simulator identifies unstable coupled bunch modes and predicts their growth and damping rates. The results from the simulator are shown to be in reasonable agreement with analytical calculations based on the single bunch model. The technique is then used to evaluate the performance of a variety of controllers proposed for PEP-II
Influence of the medium on the reaction rate of the t-butoxyl radical with iron(II)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihaljevic, B.; Razem, D.
2002-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Tert-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO.) were generated by homolytic photodecomposition of di-tert-butylperoxide using ruby laser flashes at 347 nm. The reaction of t-BuO. radicals with Fe 2+ was studied under pseudo-first order conditions. The quantum yield Φ(Fe 3+ ) was determined by measuring the absorbance of Fe 3+ ion as [FeCl] 2+ complex at 360 nm 2 μs after the flash. According to the equation derived from the reaction scheme, the rate constant k 3 was obtained from the relative rate constant k r (k r =k 0 /k 3 ) and the value of k 0 ; the latter refers to the overall rate of the competing disappearance of t-BuO. radicals from the system (reaction 2), including the highest contribution of β-cleavage. The rate constant k 0 was determined using diphenylmethanol instead of Fe 2+ . The known rate constant of the reaction of t-BuO. radical with diphenylmethanol giving ketyl radicals (6.9 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ) was applied. The quantum yield of ketyl radicals was determined by measuring the maximum of absorbance at 535 nm. At acid concentration of 0.023 mol dm -3 HCl the rate constant k 3 = 3.4 x 10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 was determined. The relative rate constant increased with an increase of the hydrochloric acid concentration which has been ascribed to the lower stability of t-BuO. radical at higher acidity of the medium. The effect of polarity of the medium on the reaction rate was also determined. Decreasing k 3 in media of increasing polarity were explained by increasing of the β-scission rate of t-BuO. radical with increasing polarity of the medium
Polarographic study of Cd(II)-Schiff base complexes and d.m.e. menthanol-water medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patel, M.S.; Trivedi, T.; Vyas, D.N.
1978-01-01
Three Schiff base complexes of Cd 2+ have been investigated polarographically in 60% menthanol-water medium at 26 0 C. The Schiff bases used are salicyladehyde tris buffer (ST), benzaldehydetris buffer (BT) and vanillin tris buffer (VT). Cd-ST and Cd-VT complexes produce reversible reduction wave at dme, while Cd-BT gives a quasi reversible wave. Stability constants of the complexes have been determined and the standard overall electrode reaction rate constant (ksub(e)sup(o)) B of the Cd-BT complex is determined by three different methods. The log β values of complexes are : Cd-ST, 2.72; Cd-VT, 4.90; and Cd-BT, 4.41. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Floquet, S.; Eysseric, C.
2006-01-01
Oxidation of the nitrosyl ruthenium complex RuNO(OH) 5 2- has been carried out in sodium hydroxide solutions in contact with a gas flow containing ozone. The RuNO(OH) 5 2- complex is converted successively into ruthenate and perruthenate ions. An empirical kinetic rate law for the first step has been determined and was shown to depend on concentrations of (i) the ruthenium complex, (ii) the hydroxide ions and (iii) ozone concentration in the gas flow. The second step of the reaction, corresponding to the perruthenate ion formation, shows a complex mechanism and four competing reactions have been proposed to represent it. The influences on the second step kinetics of several parameters such as ozone or hydroxide concentrations or the conditions of the gas-liquid exchange area are also qualitatively discussed. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Floquet, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA/Valrho), Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Inst. Lavoisier, IREM UMR 8637, Univ. de Versailles Saint-Quentin, Versailles (France); Eysseric, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA/Valrho), Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France)
2006-07-01
Oxidation of the nitrosyl ruthenium complex RuNO(OH){sub 5}{sup 2-} has been carried out in sodium hydroxide solutions in contact with a gas flow containing ozone. The RuNO(OH){sub 5}{sup 2-} complex is converted successively into ruthenate and perruthenate ions. An empirical kinetic rate law for the first step has been determined and was shown to depend on concentrations of (i) the ruthenium complex, (ii) the hydroxide ions and (iii) ozone concentration in the gas flow. The second step of the reaction, corresponding to the perruthenate ion formation, shows a complex mechanism and four competing reactions have been proposed to represent it. The influences on the second step kinetics of several parameters such as ozone or hydroxide concentrations or the conditions of the gas-liquid exchange area are also qualitatively discussed. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Basim H. Asghar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The kinetics of permanganate oxidation of two substituted azinylformamidines (Azn-Fs, namely N,N-dimethyl-N′-(pyridin-2-ylformamidine (Py and N,N-dimethyl-N′-(pyrimidin-2-ylformamidine (Pym, in sulfuric acid were investigated using conventional spectrophotometry. Kinetic evidence for the formation of 1:1 intermediate complexes between the oxidant and substrates was obtained. The reactions of both substrates with permanganate showed similar kinetics, i.e. first order in [MnO4−]0 and fractional-first-order with respect to both [Azn-F]0 and [H+]. The initial product, Mn2+, was found to autocatalyze the oxidation process. Changes in the ionic strength and dielectric constant of the medium had no significant effect on the rate. The final oxidation products of Py and Pym were identified as 2-aminopyridine and 2-aminopyrimidine, respectively, in addition to dimethylamine and carbon dioxide. A plausible reaction mechanism is suggested and the reaction constants involved in the mechanism were evaluated.
Remy, Q.; Grenier, I. A.; Marshall, D. J.; Casandjian, J. M.
2018-03-01
Aim. H I 21-cm and 12CO 2.6-mm line emissions trace the atomic and molecular gas phases, respectively, but they miss most of the opaque H I and diffuse H2 present in the dark neutral medium (DNM) at the transition between the H I-bright and CO-bright regions. Jointly probing H I, CO, and DNM gas, we aim to constrain the threshold of the H I-H2 transition in visual extinction, AV, and in total hydrogen column densities, NHtot. We also aim to measure gas mass fractions in the different phases and to test their relation to cloud properties. Methods: We have used dust optical depth measurements at 353 GHz, γ-ray maps at GeV energies, and H I and CO line data to trace the gas column densities and map the DNM in nearby clouds toward the Galactic anticentre and Chamaeleon regions. We have selected a subset of 15 individual clouds, from diffuse to star-forming structures, in order to study the different phases across each cloud and to probe changes from cloud to cloud. Results: The atomic fraction of the total hydrogen column density is observed to decrease in the (0.6-1) × 1021 cm-2 range in NHtot (AV ≈ 0.4 mag) because of the formation of H2 molecules. The onset of detectable CO intensities varies by only a factor of 4 from cloud to cloud, between 0.6 × 1021 cm-2 and 2.5 × 1021 cm-2 in total gas column density. We observe larger H2 column densities than linearly inferred from the CO intensities at AV > 3 mag because of the large CO optical thickness; the additional H2 mass in this regime represents on average 20% of the CO-inferred molecular mass. In the DNM envelopes, we find that the fraction of diffuse CO-dark H2 in the molecular column densities decreases with increasing AV in a cloud. For a half molecular DNM, the fraction decreases from more than 80% at 0.4 mag to less than 20% beyond 2 mag. In mass, the DNM fraction varies with the cloud properties. Clouds with low peak CO intensities exhibit large CO-dark H2 fractions in molecular mass, in particular the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boumaiza, Hella [Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux et Catalyse, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université El Manar (Tunisia); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME)-UMR 7564, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); Département de Génie Biologique et Chimique, Institut National des Sciences Appliquées et de Technologies (INSAT), Université de Carthage, Tunis (Tunisia); Coustel, Romain [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME)-UMR 7564, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); Medjahdi, Ghouti [Institut Jean Lamour, Centre de Compétences Rayons X et Spectroscopie (X-Gamma), UMR 7198 CNRS-Université de Lorraine (France); Ruby, Christian, E-mail: Christian.ruby@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement (LCPME)-UMR 7564, CNRS-Université de Lorraine, 405, rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-lès-Nancy (France); and others
2017-04-15
Birnessite was synthetized through redox reaction by mixing MnO{sub 4}{sup -}, Mn{sup 2+} and OH{sup -} solutions. The Mn(VII): Mn(II) ratio of 0.33 was chosen and three methods were used consisting in a quick mixing under vigorous stirring of two of the three reagents and then on the dropwise addition of the third one. The obtained solids were characterized by XRD, FTIR and XPS spectroscopies. Their average oxidation states were determined from ICP and CEC measurements while their surface properties were investigated by XPS. This study provides an increased understanding of the importance of dissolved oxygen in the formation of birnessite and hausmannite and shows the ways to obtain pure birnessite. The role of counter-ion ie. Na{sup +} or K{sup +} was also examined. - Graphical abstract: Pathways of birnessite formation. - Highlights: • Pure birnessite is prepared through a redox reaction. • Hausmannite formation is prevented by controlling dissolved O2. • The employed counterion influences the purity of birnessite. • Initial Mn(OH){sub 2} is oxidized by both MnO{sub 4}{sup -} and dissolved O{sub 2}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heintze, E.
1993-01-01
The aim of this report is to validate the program MAX3D built up from the discretization of the formulation (FB) established in part 1. A qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out on numerical results obtained with various test cases of which, for most of them, analytical solutions are known. 32 figs., 3 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E; Pfrommer, Christoph [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2012-06-10
The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z {approx}< 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z {approx} 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph
2012-01-01
The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z ∼< 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z ∼ 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to increase
Mishra, Jayanti; Kaur, Harpreet; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Kaur, Navneet
2018-06-01
Mercury is a well-known heavy metal ion which is extremely poisonous to health but is still employed in the form of mercury salts and organomercury compounds in various industrial, anthropological and agricultural activities. Henceforth, its sensing in aqueous medium is an area of great interest in order to avoid its hazardous effect. In the present manuscript, urea/thiourea linkage bearing four organic ligands (1a, 1b, 2a and 2b) are synthesized by a three-step synthetic approach. The organic ligands were then employed to develop organic nanoparticles by re-precipitation method which was further probed for their selective recognition behavior in an aqueous medium using fluorescence spectroscopy. The fluorescence emission profile of the ONPs is used as a tool for the tracking of sensing behavior. The ONPs of 1b has shown selective recognition towards Hg(II) in aqueous medium evidenced by enhancement of fluorescence emission intensity after complexation of 1b ONP with Hg(II), among several alkali, alkaline earth and transition metal ions with a detection limit of the order of 0.84 μM. The ability of the proposed sensor to sense Hg(II) ions with high selectivity and sensitivity could be accounted to photo-induced electron transfer (PET) "OFF" mechanism at λem = 390 nm. This study reveals the application of the proposed thiourea-based sensor for the selective recognition of the Hg(II) ions in an aqueous medium.
Zheng, R.-F.; Wu, T.-H.; Li, X.-Y.; Chen, W.-Q.
2018-06-01
The problem of a penny-shaped crack embedded in an infinite space of transversely isotropic multi-ferroic composite medium is investigated. The crack is assumed to be subjected to uniformly distributed mechanical, electric and magnetic loads applied symmetrically on the upper and lower crack surfaces. The semi-permeable (limited-permeable) electro-magnetic boundary condition is adopted. By virtue of the generalized method of potential theory and the general solutions, the boundary integro-differential equations governing the mode I crack problem, which are of nonlinear nature, are established and solved analytically. Exact and complete coupling magneto-electro-elastic field is obtained in terms of elementary functions. Important parameters in fracture mechanics on the crack plane, e.g., the generalized crack surface displacements, the distributions of generalized stresses at the crack tip, the generalized stress intensity factors and the energy release rate, are explicitly presented. To validate the present solutions, a numerical code by virtue of finite element method is established for 3D crack problems in the framework of magneto-electro-elasticity. To evaluate conveniently the effect of the medium inside the crack, several empirical formulae are developed, based on the numerical results.
Serafin, R. A.; Wnuk, E.
The relative accuracy of ordinary and symmetric difference quotients for elementary functions employed in orbit corrections is investigated analytically. The theoretical results of Serafin (1982) are applied to numerical computations in rectangular coordinates, and results for a number of generalized and practical problems are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail. The numerical results confirm that symmetric difference quotients give significantly more accurate predictions than ordinary difference quotients.
Non-hydrostatic semi-elastic hybrid-coordinate SISL extension of HIRLAM. Part II: numerical testing
Rõõm, Rein; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Zirk, Marko
2007-01-01
The semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL), two-time-level, non-hydrostatic numerical scheme, based on the non-hydrostatic, semi-elastic pressure-coordinate equations, is tested in model experiments with flow over given orography (elliptical hill, mountain ridge, system of successive ridges) in a rectangular domain with emphasis on the numerical accuracy and non-hydrostatic effect presentation capability. Comparison demonstrates good (in strong primary wave generation) to satisfactory (in weak ...
Non-hydrostatic semi-elastic hybrid-coordinate SISL extension of HIRLAM. Part II: numerical testing
Rõõm, Rein; Männik, Aarne; Luhamaa, Andres; Zirk, Marko
2007-10-01
The semi-implicit semi-Lagrangian (SISL), two-time-level, non-hydrostatic numerical scheme, based on the non-hydrostatic, semi-elastic pressure-coordinate equations, is tested in model experiments with flow over given orography (elliptical hill, mountain ridge, system of successive ridges) in a rectangular domain with emphasis on the numerical accuracy and non-hydrostatic effect presentation capability. Comparison demonstrates good (in strong primary wave generation) to satisfactory (in weak secondary wave reproduction in some cases) consistency of the numerical modelling results with known stationary linear test solutions. Numerical stability of the developed model is investigated with respect to the reference state choice, modelling dynamics of a stationary front. The horizontally area-mean reference temperature proves to be the optimal stability warrant. The numerical scheme with explicit residual in the vertical forcing term becomes unstable for cross-frontal temperature differences exceeding 30 K. Stability is restored, if the vertical forcing is treated implicitly, which enables to use time steps, comparable with the hydrostatic SISL.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano, E-mail: arrigoni@mpia.de [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
2015-08-20
The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (∼500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1}) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ∼ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 10{sup 12} M{sub ⊙}, exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10{sup −18} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} arcsec{sup −2}. We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass M{sub c} ≲ 6.4 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙} of cool gas on ∼200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (n{sub H} ≳ 3 cm{sup −3}) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s{sup −1}), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ∼10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Battaia, Fabrizio Arrigoni; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano
2015-01-01
The recent discovery by Cantalupo et al. of the largest (∼500 kpc) luminous (L ≃ 1.43 × 10 45 erg s −1 ) Lyα nebula associated with the quasar UM287 (z = 2.279) poses a great challenge to our current understanding of the astrophysics of the halos hosting massive z ∼ 2 galaxies. Either an enormous reservoir of cool gas is required M ≃ 10 12 M ⊙ , exceeding the expected baryonic mass available, or one must invoke extreme gas clumping factors not present in high-resolution cosmological simulations. However, observations of Lyα emission alone cannot distinguish between these two scenarios. We have obtained the deepest ever spectroscopic integrations in the He ii λ1640 and C iv λ1549 emission lines with the goal of detecting extended line emission, but detect neither line to a 3σ limiting SB ≃ 10 −18 erg s −1 cm −2 arcsec −2 . We construct simple models of the expected emission spectrum in the highly probable scenario that the nebula is powered by photoionization from the central hyper-luminous quasar. The non-detection of He ii implies that the nebular emission arises from a mass M c ≲ 6.4 × 10 10 M ⊙ of cool gas on ∼200 kpc scales, distributed in a population of remarkably dense (n H ≳ 3 cm −3 ) and compact (R ≲ 20 pc) clouds, which would clearly be unresolved by current cosmological simulations. Given the large gas motions suggested by the Lyα line (v ≃ 500 km s −1 ), it is unclear how these clouds survive without being disrupted by hydrodynamic instabilities. Our work serves as a benchmark for future deep integrations with current and planned wide-field IFU spectrographs such as MUSE, KCWI, and KMOS. Our observations and models suggest that a ≃10 hr exposure would likely detect ∼10 rest-frame UV/optical emission lines, opening up the possibility of conducting detailed photoionization modeling to infer the physical state of gas in the circumgalactic medium
Yin, Z.; Moridis, G. J.; Chong, Z. R.; Linga, P.
2017-12-01
Methane hydrates (MH) are known to trap enormous amounts of CH4 in oceanic and permafrost-associated deposits, and are being considered as a potential future energy source. Several powerful numerical simulators were developed to describe the behavior of natural hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). The complexity and strong nonlinearities in HBS do not allow analytical solutions for code validation. The only reliable method to develop confidence in these models is through comparisons to laboratory and/or field experiments. The objective of this study is to reproduce numerically the results from earlier experiments of MH formation and depressurization (and the corresponding fluid production) in 1.0L reactor involving unconsolidated sand, thus validating and calibrating the TOUGH+Hydrate v1.5 simulator. We faithfully describe the reactor geometry and the experimental process that involves both hydrate formation and dissociation. We demonstrate that the laboratory experiments can only be captured by a kinetic hydration model. There is an excellent agreement between observations and predictions (a) of the cumulative gas depletion (during formation) and production (during dissociation) and (b) of pressure over time. The temperature agreement is less satisfactory, and the deviations are attributed to the fixed locations of the limited number of sensors that cannot fully capture the hydrate heterogeneity. We also predict the spatial distributions over time of the various phase (gas, aqueous and hydrate) saturations. Thus, hydrates form preferentially along the outer boundary of the sand core, and the hydrate front moves inward leaving a significant portion of the sand at the center hydrate-free. During depressurization, dissociation advances again inward from the reactor boundary to the center of the reactor. As expected, methane gas accumulates initially at the locations of most intense dissociation, and then gradually migrates to the upper section of the reactor because of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ersland, B.G.
1996-05-01
This mathematical doctoral thesis contains the theory, algorithms and numerical simulations for a heterogeneous oil reservoir. It presents the equations, which apply to immiscible and incompressible two-phase fluid flow in the reservoir, including the effect of capillary pressure forces, and emphasises in particular the interior boundary conditions at the interface between two sediments. Two different approaches are discussed. The first approach is to decompose the computational domain along the interior boundary and iterate between the subdomains until mass balance is achieved. The second approach accounts for the interior boundary conditions in the basis in which the solution is expanded, the basis being discontinuous over the interior boundaries. An overview of the construction of iterative solvers for partial differential equations by means of Schwartz methods is given, and the algorithm for local refinement with Schwartz iterations as iterative solver is described. The theory is then applied to a core plug problem in one and two space dimensions and the results of different methods compared. A general description is given of the computer simulation model, which is implemented in C++. 64 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.
Malakpoor, K.; Kaasschieter, E.F.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.
2007-01-01
The swelling and shrinkage of biological tissues are modelled by a four-component mixture theory [J.M. Huyghe and J.D. Janssen, Int. J. Engng. Sci. 35 (1997) 793-802; K. Malakpoor, E.F. Kaasschieter and J.M. Huyghe, Mathematical modelling and numerical solution of swelling of cartilaginous tissues.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corge, Ch.
1969-01-01
Numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by s wave neutrons in time-of-flight experiments can be achieved in a fairly automatic way on an IBM 7094/II computer. The involved computations are carried out following a four step scheme: 1 - experimental raw data are processed to obtain the resonant transmissions, 2 - values of experimental quantities for each resonance are derived from the above transmissions, 3 - resonance parameters are determined using a least square method to solve the over determined system obtained by equalling theoretical functions to the correspondent experimental values. Four analysis methods are gathered in the same code, 4 - graphical control of the results is performed. (author) [fr
Raguraman, M; Deb, A; Gupta, NK; Kharat, DK
2008-01-01
In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of Jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...
M. Raguraman; A. Deb; N. K. Gupta; D. K. Kharat
2008-01-01
In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...
Scheidsteger, T.; Urbschat, H.; Griffiths, R. B.; Schellnhuber, H. J.
1997-01-01
A procedure is described for efficiently finding the ground state energy and configuration for a Frenkel-Kontorova model in a periodic potential, consisting of N parabolic segments of identical curvature in each period, through a numerical solution of the convex minimization problem described in the preceding paper. The key elements are the use of subdifferentials to describe the structure of the minimization problem; an intuitive picture of how to solve it, based on motion of quasiparticles;...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paramos, J; Bertolami, O
2010-01-01
Following the previous contribution discussing the rich phenomenology of models possessing a non-minimal coupling between matter and geometry, with emphasis on its characteristics and analytical results, the obtained 'dark matter' mimicking mechanism is numerically studied. This allows for ascertaining the order of magnitude of the relevant parameters, leading to a validation of the analytical results and the discussion of possible cosmological implications and deviation from universality.
Busschaert, C.; Falize, É.; Michaut, C.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Mouchet, M.
2015-07-01
Context. Magnetic cataclysmic variables are close binary systems containing a strongly magnetized white dwarf that accretes matter coming from an M-dwarf companion. The high magnetic field strength leads to the formation of an accretion column instead of an accretion disk. High-energy radiation coming from those objects is emitted from the column close to the white dwarf photosphere at the impact region. Its properties depend on the characteristics of the white dwarf and an accurate accretion column model allows the properties of the binary system to be inferred, such as the white dwarf mass, its magnetic field, and the accretion rate. Aims: We study the temporal and spectral behaviour of the accretion region and use the tools we developed to accurately connect the simulation results to the X-ray and optical astronomical observations. Methods: The radiation hydrodynamics code Hades was adapted to simulate this specific accretion phenomena. Classical approaches were used to model the radiative losses of the two main radiative processes: bremsstrahlung and cyclotron. Synthetic light curves and X-ray spectra were extracted from numerical simulations. A fast Fourier analysis was performed on the simulated light curves. The oscillation frequencies and amplitudes in the X-ray and optical domains are studied to compare those numerical results to observational ones. Different dimensional formulae were developed to complete the numerical evaluations. Results: The complete characterization of the emitting region is described for the two main radiative regimes: when only the bremsstrahlung losses and when both cyclotron and bremsstrahlung losses are considered. The effect of the non-linear cooling instability regime on the accretion column behaviour is analysed. Variation in luminosity on short timescales (~1 s quasi-periodic oscillations) is an expected consequence of this specific dynamic. The importance of secondary shock instability on the quasi-periodic oscillation
Sonneborn, George; Tripp, Todd M.; Ferlet, Roger; Jenkins, Edward B.; Sofia, U. J.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Woźniak, Prezemysław R.
2000-12-01
High-resolution far-ultraviolet spectra of the early-type stars γ2 Vel and ζ Pup were obtained to measure the interstellar deuterium abundances in these directions. The observations were made with the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph (IMAPS) during the ORFEUS-SPAS II mission in 1996. IMAPS spectra cover the wavelength range 930-1150 Å with λ/Δλ~80,000. The interstellar D I features are resolved and cleanly separated from interstellar H I in the Lyδ and Lyɛ profiles of both sight lines and also in the Lyγ profile of ζ Pup. The D I profiles were modeled using a velocity template derived from several N I lines in the IMAPS spectra recorded at higher signal-to-noise ratio. To find the best D I column density, we minimized χ2 for model D I profiles that included not only the N(D I) as a free parameter, but also the effects of several potential sources of systematic error, which were allowed to vary as free parameters. H I column densities were measured by analyzing Lyα absorption profiles in a large number of IUE high-dispersion spectra for each of these stars and applying this same χ2-minimization technique. Ultimately we found that D/H=2.18+0.36-0.31×10-5 for γ2 Vel and 1.42+0.25-0.23×10-5 for ζ Pup, values that contrast markedly with D/H derived in Paper I for δ Ori A (the stated errors are 90% confidence limits). Evidently, the atomic D/H ratio in the ISM, averaged over path lengths of 250-500 pc, exhibits significant spatial variability. Furthermore, the observed spatial variations in D/H do not appear to be anticorrelated with N/H, one measure of heavy-element abundances. We briefly discuss some hypotheses to explain the D/H spatial variability. Within the framework of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, the large value of D/H found toward γ2 Vel is equivalent to a cosmic baryon density of ΩBh2=0.023+/-0.002, which we regard as an upper limit since there is no correction for the destruction of deuterium in stars. This paper is
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian TOADER
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christopher Martin, D.; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi
2014-01-01
The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Lyα blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Lyα emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Lyα emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 10 11 M ☉ , and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 10 12 M ☉ . The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas have significant and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christopher Martin, D.; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moore, Anna [Caltech Optical Observatories, Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 11-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi, E-mail: cmartin@srl.caltech.edu [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Mail Code 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
2014-05-10
The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Lyα blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Lyα emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Lyα emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buntine, J.D.
1994-01-01
Part I. A study of the behaviour of an inviscid, swirling fluid is performed. This flow can be described by the Squire-Long equation if the constraints of time-independence and axisymmetry are invoked. The particular case of flow through a diverging pipe is selected and a study is conducted to determine over what range of parameters does a solution exist. The work is performed with a view to understanding how the phenomenon of vortex breakdown develops. Experiments and previous numerical studies have indicated that the flow is sensitive to boundary conditions particularly at the pipe inlet. A open-quotes quasi-cylindricalclose quotes amplification of the Squire-Long equation is compared with the more complete model and shown to be able to account for most of its behaviour. An advantage of this latter representation is the relatively undetailed description of the flow geometry it requires in order to calculate a solution. open-quotes Criticalityclose quotes or the ability of small disturbances to propagate upstream is related to results of the quasi-cylindrical and axisymmetric flow models. This leads to an examination of claims made by researchers such as Benjamin and Hall concerning the interrelationship between open-quotes failureclose quotes of the quasi-cylindrical model and the occurrence of a open-quotes criticalclose quotes flow state. Lundgren developed an analytical model for homogeneous turbulence based on a collection of contracting spiral vortices each embedded in an axisymmetric strain field. Using asymptotic approximations he was able to deduce the Kolmogorov k -5/3 behaviour for inertial scales in the turbulence energy spectrum. Pullin ampersand Saffman have enlarged upon his work to make a number of predictions about the behaviour of turbulence described by the model. This work investigates the model numerically. The first part considers how the flow description compares with numerical simulations using the Navier-Stokes equations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anyfantis, Konstantinos; Tsouvalis, Nicholas G.
2013-01-01
This work is focused on the numerical simulation of experimentally tested single lap joints, based on cohesive zone modeling techniques. Seven cases have been considered for analysis. The models were built in a 3-dimensional finite element space. The adherents were modeled with continuum elements...... the developed peel, in-plane and out-of-plane shear stresses over the adhesive area. Thus, the global measured response of all cases was justified by examining the stress fields and their variation through the loading history. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.
2015-01-01
Light bridges, the bright structure dividing umbrae in sunspot regions, show various activity events. In Paper I, we reported on an analysis of multi-wavelength observations of a light bridge in a developing active region (AR) and concluded that the activity events are caused by magnetic reconnection driven by magnetconvective evolution. The aim of this second paper is to investigate the detailed magnetic and velocity structures and the formation mechanism of light bridges. For this purpose, we analyze numerical simulation data from a radiative magnetohydrodynamics model of an emerging AR. We find that a weakly magnetized plasma upflow in the near-surface layers of the convection zone is entrained between the emerging magnetic bundles that appear as pores at the solar surface. This convective upflow continuously transports horizontal fields to the surface layer and creates a light bridge structure. Due to the magnetic shear between the horizontal fields of the bridge and the vertical fields of the ambient pores, an elongated cusp-shaped current layer is formed above the bridge, which may be favorable for magnetic reconnection. The striking correspondence between the observational results of Paper I and the numerical results of this paper provides a consistent physical picture of light bridges. The dynamic activity phenomena occur as a natural result of the bridge formation and its convective nature, which has much in common with those of umbral dots and penumbral filaments
Manobianco, John; Uccellini, Louis W.; Brill, Keith F.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa
1992-01-01
A mesoscale numerical model is combined with a dynamic data assimilation via Newtonian relaxation, or 'nudging', to provide initial conditions for subsequent simulations of the QE II cyclone. Both the nudging technique and the inclusion of supplementary data are shown to have a large positive impact on the simulation of the QE II cyclone during the initial phase of rapid cyclone development. Within the initial development period (from 1200 to 1800 UTC 9 September 1978), the dynamic assimilation of operational and bogus data yields a coherent two-layer divergence pattern that is not well defined in the model run using only the operational data and static initialization. Diagnostic analysis based on the simulations show that the initial development of the QE II storm between 0000 UTC 9 September and 0000 UTC 10 September was embedded within an indirect circulation of an intense 300-hPa jet streak, was related to baroclinic processes extending throughout a deep portion of the troposphere, and was associated with a classic two-layer mass-divergence profile expected for an extratropical cyclone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Tiejun; Tian Mingzhen; Barber, Zeb W.; Randall Babbitt, Wm.
2004-01-01
This work is a continuation of the development of the theoretical model for optical coherent transient (OCT) processes with complex configurations. A theoretical model for angled beams with arbitrary phase modulation has been developed based on the model presented in our previous work for the angled beam geometry. A numerical tool has been devised to simulate the OCT processes involving angled beams with the frequency detuning, chirped, and phase-modulated laser pulses. The simulations for pulse shaping and arbitrary waveform generation (AWG) using OCT processes have been performed. The theoretical analysis of programming and probe schemes for pulse shaper and AWG is also presented including the discussions on the rephasing condition and the phase compensation. The results from the analysis, the simulation, and the experiment show very good agreement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Mohanarangam
2009-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper the numerical model, which was presented in the first paper (Mohanarangam & Tu; 2009 of this series of study, is employed to study the different particle responses under the influence of two carrier phases namely the gas and the liquid. The numerical model takes into consideration the turbulent behaviour of both the carrier and the dispersed phases, with additional equations to take into account the combined fluid particle behaviour, thereby effecting a two-way coupling. The first paper in this series showed the distinct difference in particulate response both at the mean as well as at the turbulent level for two varied carrier phases. In this paper further investigation has been carried out over a broad range of particle Stokes number to further understand their behaviour in turbulent environments. In order to carry out this prognostic study, the backward facing step geometry of Fessler and Eaton (1999 has been adopted, while the inlet conditions for the carrier as well as the particle phases correspond to that of the experiments of Founti and Klipfel (1998. It is observed that at the mean velocity level the particulate velocities increased with a subsequent increase in the Stokes number for both the GP (Gas-Particle as well as the LP (Liquid-Particle flow. It was also observed that across the Stokes number there was a steady increase in the particulate turbulence for the GP flows with successive increase in Stokes number. However, for the LP flows, the magnitude of the increase in the particulate turbulence across the increasing of Stokes number is not as characteristic as the GP flow. Across the same sections for LP flows the majority of the trend shows a decrease after which they remain more or less a constant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bintang Soetjahjo
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Currently, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells have the potential to be used as treatment options for any cartilage lesion. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of conditioned medium from umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSC on damaged cartilage through the expression of proteins TGF-β1, SOX-9, type II collagen and aggrecan, which are known to be related to chondrogenesis. UC-MSC were isolated from 19-days-pregnant Wistar mice and were cultured using the standard procedure to obtain 80% confluence. Subsequently, the culture was confirmed through a microscopic examination that was driven to be an embryoid body to obtain a pre-condition medium. This research utilized 3-month-old male Wistar mice and was categorized into 6 groups (3 control and 3 treatment groups. Each animal had surgery performed to create a femur condyle cartilage defect. The treatment groups were administered a dose of stem cells at 1 mL/kg. Next, immunohistochemical (IHC staining was performed to examine the expression of TGF-β1, SOX-9, type II collagen and aggrecan in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th month of evaluation. The results were analyzed statistically using ANOVA test. For each of the treatment groups, there was increased expression (p < 0.05 in all proteins TGF-β1, SOX-9, type II collagen and aggrecan when compared with control groups at the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th month of evaluation. Pre-conditioned medium from UC-MSC potentially increases the expression of TGF-β1, SOX-9, type II collagen and aggrecan in the damaged cartilage of Wistar mice.
Gawande, Nitin A; Reinhart, Debra R; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh
2010-02-01
Biodegradation process modeling of municipal solid waste (MSW) bioreactor landfills requires the knowledge of various process reactions and corresponding kinetic parameters. Mechanistic models available to date are able to simulate biodegradation processes with the help of pre-defined species and reactions. Some of these models consider the effect of critical parameters such as moisture content, pH, and temperature. Biomass concentration is a vital parameter for any biomass growth model and often not compared with field and laboratory results. A more complex biodegradation model includes a large number of chemical and microbiological species. Increasing the number of species and user defined process reactions in the simulation requires a robust numerical tool. A generalized microbiological and chemical model, BIOKEMOD-3P, was developed to simulate biodegradation processes in three-phases (Gawande et al. 2009). This paper presents the application of this model to simulate laboratory-scale MSW bioreactors under anaerobic conditions. BIOKEMOD-3P was able to closely simulate the experimental data. The results from this study may help in application of this model to full-scale landfill operation.
Wang, Ding; Ding, Pin-bo; Ba, Jing
2018-03-01
In Part I, a dynamic fracture compliance model (DFCM) was derived based on the poroelastic theory. The normal compliance of fractures is frequency-dependent and closely associated with the connectivity of porous media. In this paper, we first compare the DFCM with previous fractured media theories in the literature in a full frequency range. Furthermore, experimental tests are performed on synthetic rock specimens, and the DFCM is compared with the experimental data in the ultrasonic frequency band. Synthetic rock specimens saturated with water have more realistic mineral compositions and pore structures relative to previous works in comparison with natural reservoir rocks. The fracture/pore geometrical and physical parameters can be controlled to replicate approximately those of natural rocks. P- and S-wave anisotropy characteristics with different fracture and pore properties are calculated and numerical results are compared with experimental data. Although the measurement frequency is relatively high, the results of DFCM are appropriate for explaining the experimental data. The characteristic frequency of fluid pressure equilibration calculated based on the specimen parameters is not substantially less than the measurement frequency. In the dynamic fracture model, the wave-induced fluid flow behavior is an important factor for the fracture-wave interaction process, which differs from the models at the high-frequency limits, for instance, Hudson's un-relaxed model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Acevedo, Luis; Usón, Sergio; Uche, Javier
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Exergy transfer analysis is proposed for the analysis of microwave glass heating. • Distribution of exergy transferred, accumulated and destroyed is quantified. • The method is applied to the comparison of different susceptor positions. - Abstract: The mathematical model of exergy transfer in cullet glass heated by microwave inside of a cubical cavity with the aid of a susceptor is presented. Part I of this paper presented a numerical combined electromagnetic and heat transfer model by applying both transient Maxwell’s equations and heat transfer equations. Then, the electromagnetic and temperature fields were used to obtain the exergy transfer analysis in the oven. Exergy transfer analysis informs us about the efficiency of energy transformations taking place during the heating process, since it explains how the quality of the energy behaves along the heating process. The rate of internal exergy, exergy flowing and destroyed exergy were obtained and presented for this transient process. Part I showed that the susceptor location could change the temperature fields of cullet glass. So, an exergy analysis is important to understand the irreversibilities produced by a susceptor during preheating (microwaves activation) and heating process of the cullet glass, and how they could be minimized. Exergy transfer analysis shows how both, electromagnetic and heat transfer, are responsible of the irreversibilities generated in the heating process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krätschmer, D.; Roos, E.; Schuler, X.; Herter, K.-H.
2012-01-01
For the construction, design and operation of nuclear components and systems the appropriate technical codes and standards provide detailed analysis procedures which guarantee a reliable behaviour of the structural components throughout the specified lifetime. Especially for cyclic stress evaluation the different codes and standards provide different fatigue analyses procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. To consider effects of light water reactor coolant environments, new design curves included in report NUREG/CR-6909 for austenitic stainless steels and for low alloy steels have been presented. For the usage of these new design curves an environmental fatigue correction factor for incorporating environmental effects has to be calculated and used. The application of this environmental correction factor to a fatigue analysis of a nozzle with transient stratification loads, derived by in-service monitoring, has been performed. The results are used to compare with calculated usage factors, based on design curves without taking environmental effects particularly into account. - Highlights: ► We model an nozzle for fatigue analysis und mechanical and thermal loading conditions. ► A simplified as well as a general elastic–plastic fatigue analysis considering environmental effects is performed. ► The influence of different factors calculating the environmental factor F en are shown. ► The presented numerical evaluation methodology allows the consideration of all relevant parameters to assess lifetime.
Numerical simulation of L.E.L. in Compton regime. Part II, GONDOLE, a three-dimensional code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deck, D.
1992-07-01
In the first part of this report, the BIWI two-dimensional numerical simulation code of L.E.L. in Compton regime has been described; the question was to simulate L.E.L. experiments in 'optical mode', that is to say for wavelengths of the order of one micron. The axisymmetric cylindrical geometry (r,z) of the BIWI code is adapted to these experiments. However, the increasingly frequent use of L.E.L. in the regime of microwaves requires the presence of a waveguide within the inverter, which breaks the cylindrical symmetry and forces us to adopt another geometry. On the other hand, the desire to take into account fields of inverters having a gradient in the direction transverse to the direction of propagation of the beam, and thus allowing various focalizations (quadrupole, parabolic, etc.), leads to work in Cartesian geometry. For these reasons (and for others that will appear later), the GONDOLE code has been written and is described in this note. The Gondole code is three-dimensional (x, y, z) and allows to simulate a large variety of L.E.L experiences. Then, all the inverter fields that the GONDOLE code takes into account are introduced. These fields are responsible for the existence of a current J(vector) perpendicular to the Z axis of propagation, and source of radiation. The dynamics of the electrons is then deduced, which derives directly from these fields, and it is shown to which equations of propagation of the laser wave each different J(vector) is coupling [fr
Delrue, Steven; Aleshin, Vladislav; Truyaert, Kevin; Bou Matar, Olivier; Van Den Abeele, Koen
2018-01-01
Our study aims at the creation of a numerical toolbox that describes wave propagation in samples containing internal contacts (e.g. cracks, delaminations, debondings, imperfect intergranular joints) of known geometry with postulated contact interaction laws including friction. The code consists of two entities: the contact model and the solid mechanics module. Part I of the paper concerns an in-depth description of a constitutive model for realistic contacts or cracks that takes into account the roughness of the contact faces and the associated effects of friction and hysteresis. In the crack model, three different contact states can be recognized: contact loss, total sliding and partial slip. Normal (clapping) interactions between the crack faces are implemented using a quadratic stress-displacement relation, whereas tangential (friction) interactions were introduced using the Coulomb friction law for the total sliding case, and the Method of Memory Diagrams (MMD) in case of partial slip. In the present part of the paper, we integrate the developed crack model into finite element software in order to simulate elastic wave propagation in a solid material containing internal contacts or cracks. We therefore implemented the comprehensive crack model in MATLAB® and introduced it in the Structural Mechanics Module of COMSOL Multiphysics®. The potential of the approach for ultrasound based inspection of solids with cracks showing acoustic nonlinearity is demonstrated by means of an example of shear wave propagation in an aluminum sample containing a single crack with rough surfaces and friction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seales, Maxian B.; Dilmore, Robert; Ertekin, Turgay; Wang, John Yilin
2017-04-01
Horizontal wells combined with successful multi-stage hydraulic fracture treatments are currently the most established method for effectively stimulating and enabling economic development of gas bearing organic-rich shale formations. Fracture cleanup in the Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV) is critical to stimulation effectiveness and long-term well performance. However, fluid cleanup is often hampered by formation damage, and post-fracture well performance frequently falls below expectations. A systematic study of the factors that hinder fracture fluid cleanup in shale formations can help optimize fracture treatments and better quantify long term volumes of produced water and gas. Fracture fluid cleanup is a complex process influenced by multi-phase flow through porous media (relative permeability hysteresis, capillary pressure etc.), reservoir rock and fluid properties, fracture fluid properties, proppant placement, fracture treatment parameters, and subsequent flowback and field operations. Changing SRV and fracture conductivity as production progresses further adds to the complexity of this problem. Numerical simulation is the best, and most practical approach to investigate such a complicated blend of mechanisms, parameters, their interactions, and subsequent impact on fracture fluid cleanup and well deliverability. In this paper, a 3-dimensional, 2-phase, dual-porosity model was used to investigate the impact of multiphase flow, proppant crushing, proppant diagenesis, shut-in time, reservoir rock compaction, gas slippage, and gas desorption on fracture fluid cleanup, and well performance in Marcellus shale. The research findings have shed light on the factors that substantially constrains efficient fracture fluid cleanup in gas shales, and provided guidelines for improved fracture treatment designs and water management.
Raskutti, Sudhir; Ostriker, Eve C.; Skinner, M. Aaron
2017-12-01
Momentum deposition by radiation pressure from young, massive stars may help to destroy molecular clouds and unbind stellar clusters by driving large-scale outflows. We extend our previous numerical radiation hydrodynamic study of turbulent star-forming clouds to analyze the detailed interaction between non-ionizing UV radiation and the cloud material. Our simulations trace the evolution of gas and star particles through self-gravitating collapse, star formation, and cloud destruction via radiation-driven outflows. These models are idealized in that we include only radiation feedback and adopt an isothermal equation of state. Turbulence creates a structure of dense filaments and large holes through which radiation escapes, such that only ˜50% of the radiation is (cumulatively) absorbed by the end of star formation. The surface density distribution of gas by mass as seen by the central cluster is roughly lognormal with {σ }{ln{{Σ }}}=1.3{--}1.7, similar to the externally projected surface density distribution. This allows low surface density regions to be driven outwards to nearly 10 times their initial escape speed {v}{esc}. Although the velocity distribution of outflows is broadened by the lognormal surface density distribution, the overall efficiency of momentum injection to the gas cloud is reduced because much of the radiation escapes. The mean outflow velocity is approximately twice the escape speed from the initial cloud radius. Our results are also informative for understanding galactic-scale wind driving by radiation, in particular, the relationship between velocity and surface density for individual outflow structures and the resulting velocity and mass distributions arising from turbulent sources.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volk, Brent L; Lagoudas, Dimitris C; Chen, Yi-Chao
2010-01-01
This study presents the analysis of the finite deformation response of a shape memory polymer (SMP). This two-part paper addresses the thermomechanical characterization of SMPs, the derivation of material parameters for a finite deformation phenomenological model, the numerical implementation of such a model, and the predictions from the model with comparisons to experimental data. Part II of this work presents the calibration of a previously developed thermoelastic constitutive model which is capable of handling finite deformations. The model is proposed in a general three-dimensional framework; however, this work focuses on reducing the model to one dimension and subsequently calibrating the model using experimental data obtained in part I. The one-dimensional numerical implementation of the model is presented, including the handling of the system of nonlinear equations and the integral term resulting from the constitutive model. The model is then used to predict the uniaxial shape memory effect. Results indicate good agreement between the model predictions and the experimental results, but the predictions do not capture the irrecoverable deformation present at the end of recovery
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Fashedemi, OO
2015-04-01
Full Text Available A nanoscale iron(II) tetrasulfophthalocyanine (nanoFeTSPc) catalyst obtained by co-ordinating with hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide and subsequently anchored onto multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been...
Starling, R.L.C.; van der Horst, A.J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P.A.; Weltevrede, P.
2008-01-01
We constrain blast wave parameters and the circumburst media of a subsample of 10 BeppoSAX gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luciano Vitali
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to impregnate the chelating agent 3,3-bis-N,N,bis-(carboxymethylaminomethyl-o-cresolsulfonephthalein in chitosan and to investigate the adsorption of Cu(II ions. The chemical modification was confirmed by FTIR spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX. The adsorption studies were carried out with Cu(II ions in a batch process and were shown to be dependent on pH. The adsorption kinetics was tested using three models: pseudo first-order, pseudo second order and intraparticle diffusion. The experimental kinetics data were best fitted with the pseudo second-order model (R² = 0.999, which provided a rate constant, k2, of 1.21 x 10-3 g mg-1 min-1. The adsorption rate depended on the concentration of Cu(II ions on the adsorbent surface and on the quantity of Cu(II ions adsorbed at equilibrium. The Langmuir isotherm model provided the best fit for the equilibrium data in the concentration range investigated, with the maximum adsorption capacity being 81.0 mg of Cu(II per gram of adsorbent, as obtained from the linear equation of the isotherm. Desorption tests revealed that around 90% of the adsorbed metal was removed, using EDTA solution as the eluent. This result suggests that the polymeric matrix can be reused.
Starling, R. L. C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Weltervrede, P.
2008-01-01
We constrain blast wave parameters and the circumburst media ofa subsample of 10 BeppoSAX gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral fits to their X-ray, optical, and NIR afterglow data. The spectral fits have been done in count space and include the effects ofmetallicity, and are compared with the previously reported optical and X-ray temporal behavior. Using the blast wave model and some assumptions which include on-axis viewing and standard jet structure, constant blast wave energy, and no evolution of the microphysical parameters, we find a mean value ofp for the sample as a whole of 9.... oa -0.003.0" 2 a_ statistical analysis of the distribution demonstrates that the p-values in this sample are inconsistent with a single universal value forp at the 3 _ level or greater, which has significant implications for particle acceleration models. This approach provides us with a measured distribution ofcircumburst density structures rather than considering only the cases of k ----0 (homogeneous) and k - 2 (windlike). We find five GRBs for which k can be well constrained, and in four of these cases the circumburst medium is clearly windlike. The fifth source has a value of 0 medium.
Starling, R. L. C.; vanderHorst, A. J.; Rol, E.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Wiersema, K.; Curran, P. A.; Weltevrede, P.
2007-01-01
We constrain blastwave parameters and the circumburst media of a subsample of BeppoSAX Gamma-Ray Bursts. For this sample we derive the values of the injected electron energy distribution index, p, and the density structure index of the circumburst medium, k, from simultaneous spectral fits to their X-ray, optical and nIR afterglow data. The spectral fits have been done in count space and include the effects of metallicity, and are compared with the previously reported optical and X-ray temporal behaviour. Assuming the fireball model, we can find a mean value of p for the sample as a whole of 2.035. A statistical analysis Of the distribution demonstrates that the p values in this sample are inconsistent with a single universal value for p at the 3sigma level or greater. This approach provides us with a measured distribution of circumburst density structures rather than considering only the cases of k = 0 (homogeneous) and k = 2 (wind-like). We find five GRBs for which k can be well constrained, and in four of these cases the circumburst medium is clearly wind-like. The fifth source has a value of 0 less than or equal to k less than or equal to 1, consistent with a homogeneous circumburst medium.
Rao, G G; Rao, P K
1967-01-01
Vanadium(IV) can be accurately titrated with potassium dichromate in media containing phosphoric acid of 3-12M concentration: the change in absorption of vanadium(IV) is followed in the region 660 mmicro using a red filter. It is more convenient to carry out the titration in 3M phosphoric acid because at higher concentrations chloride, nitrate, cerium(III) and manganese(II) may interfere. Photoelcetric titration is more convenient than potentiometric because the former can be made in a 3M phosphoric acid medium, whereas the latter is possible only in 12M phosphoric acid. The simultaneous differential photometric titration of iron(II) and vanadium(IV) is also possible. Conditions have been found for the photometric titration of cerium(III) and of cerium(III) plus iron(II). The titration is carried out (at 450 mmicro or with a blue filter) in about 10.5M phosphoric acid. Application of the method to a cerium mineral is considered.
Basile, M; Di Resta, V; Ranieri, E
2016-06-01
Hemorrhoidal disease is a common proctologic disorder. The HemorPex System(®) (HPS) (Angiologica, S. Martino Siccomario PV, Italy) is an innovative surgical technique based on muco-hemorrhoidopexy without Doppler guidance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HPS in on the treatment of grade II and III hemorrhoids. One hundred patients with grade II and III hemorrhoidal disease were included in the study and operated on using HPS without Doppler guidance. The procedure consists of a mucopexy carried out by means of a dedicated rotating anoscope in the 6 relatively constant positions of the terminal branches of the superior hemorrhoidal artery. A direct follow-up was carried out on 100 patients for up to 3 months. A late analysis (>12 months postoperatively) was conducted by telephone interview. At follow-up the following parameters were considered: pain, bleeding, prolapse, difficulties with hygiene and patient satisfaction with treatment. Operative time was 16 ± 5 min. Three-month follow-up showed significant improvement of symptoms: pain was present in 10 (10 %) patients versus 45 (45 %) preoperatively; bleeding in 13 (13 %) of patients versus 57 (57 %) preoperatively; prolapse in 13 (13 %) of patients versus 45 (45 %) preoperatively and difficulties with hygiene in 1 (1 %) versus 24 (24 %) preoperatively (all p hemorrhoidal disease. Our results show that this simple technique may be an effective but due to the important limitations of this study (loss to follow-up, non-comparative study) further studies are required.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khattak, R.; Naqvi, I.I.; Farrukh, M.A.
2007-01-01
Kinetic of the redox reaction between tris (2,2-bipyridine)iron(II) cation and ceric sulphate has been studied in aqueous sulphuric acid medium. Different methods were employed for the determination of order of reaction. The order of reaction is found to be first with respect to reductant however retarding effect of increasing initial concentration of oxidant is found. Influence of (H/sup +/), (SO/sub 4/sup 2-) and dielectric constant (D) on the rate of redox reaction has also been studied. Increase in (H/sup +/) and dielectric constant of the medium retard the rate while enhancement of the (SO/sub 4/sup 2-/) accelerates the rate first and then the reaction goes towards retardation. Effects of (H/sup +/) and (SO/sub 4/sup 2-/) were studied by using acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer for the first one and varying ionic concentrations of the salt sodium sulphate for the latter one, whereas dielectric constant was varied by using 0%, 10% and 20% ethanol-water mixtures. Results of effects of each one of the factors i.e., H/sup +/, SO/sub 4/sup 2-/ and dielectric constant (D) have been compared and on the basis of these factors, (Ce(SO/sub 4/ )/sub 3/)/sup 2-/ is suggested to be the active species of cerium(IV). However a rate law consistent with the observed kinetic data has also been derived supporting the proposed mechanism. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret; Bot, Caroline; Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine; Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha; Wong, Tony; Babler, Brian; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Fukui, Yasuo; Galametz, Maud; Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young; Glover, Simon; Israel, Frank; Li, Aigen
2014-01-01
The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380 −130 +250 ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200 −420 +1600 ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M ☉ pc –2 in the LMC and 0.03 M ☉ pc –2 in the SMC, corresponding to A V ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H 2 conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X CO to be 6 × 10 20 cm –2 K –1 km –1 s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z ☉ ) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10 21 cm –2 K –1 km –1 s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z ☉ ) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H 2 in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H 2 . Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X CO range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling and observations are required to break the degeneracy between dust grain coagulation, accretion, and CO-dark H 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roman-Duval, Julia; Gordon, Karl D.; Meixner, Margaret [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bot, Caroline [Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l' université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Bolatto, Alberto; Jameson, Katherine [Department of Astronomy, Lab for Millimeter-wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Hughes, Annie; Hony, Sacha [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Wong, Tony [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 North Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bernard, Jean-Philippe [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Clayton, Geoffrey C. [Louisiana State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 233-A Nicholson Hall, Tower Dr., Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Fukui, Yasuo [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Galametz, Maud [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Galliano, Frederic; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Lee, Min-Young [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Glover, Simon [Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Israel, Frank [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Li, Aigen, E-mail: duval@stsci.edu [314 Physics Building, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); and others
2014-12-20
The spatial variations of the gas-to-dust ratio (GDR) provide constraints on the chemical evolution and lifecycle of dust in galaxies. We examine the relation between dust and gas at 10-50 pc resolution in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC) based on Herschel far-infrared (FIR), H I 21 cm, CO, and Hα observations. In the diffuse atomic interstellar medium (ISM), we derive the GDR as the slope of the dust-gas relation and find GDRs of 380{sub −130}{sup +250} ± 3 in the LMC, and 1200{sub −420}{sup +1600} ± 120 in the SMC, not including helium. The atomic-to-molecular transition is located at dust surface densities of 0.05 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the LMC and 0.03 M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2} in the SMC, corresponding to A {sub V} ∼ 0.4 and 0.2, respectively. We investigate the range of CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor to best account for all the molecular gas in the beam of the observations, and find upper limits on X {sub CO} to be 6 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the LMC (Z = 0.5 Z {sub ☉}) at 15 pc resolution, and 4 × 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} K{sup –1} km{sup –1} s in the SMC (Z = 0.2 Z {sub ☉}) at 45 pc resolution. In the LMC, the slope of the dust-gas relation in the dense ISM is lower than in the diffuse ISM by a factor ∼2, even after accounting for the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2} in the translucent envelopes of molecular clouds. Coagulation of dust grains and the subsequent dust emissivity increase in molecular clouds, and/or accretion of gas-phase metals onto dust grains, and the subsequent dust abundance (dust-to-gas ratio) increase in molecular clouds could explain the observations. In the SMC, variations in the dust-gas slope caused by coagulation or accretion are degenerate with the effects of CO-dark H{sub 2}. Within the expected 5-20 times Galactic X {sub CO} range, the dust-gas slope can be either constant or decrease by a factor of several across ISM phases. Further modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-10-01
The second meeting of R and D in radioactive waste management was organized by ENRESA on June 1995 in Madrid. The main objective was to disseminate the most relevant works within the R and D plan, and to establish an adequate form involved for discussion R and D radioactive waste management. The meeting was articulated in the followings sessions: I.- Low and medium radioactive wastes II.- High level radioactive wastes: activities of ENRESA III.- High level radioactive wastes: near field IV.- Biosphere, radiological protection, behaviour evaluation V.-Dismantling and decommissioning nuclear facilities VI.- Geosphere (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodvarsson, G.S.; Lippmann, M.J.
1980-01-01
The computer program CCC (conduction-convection-consolidation), developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, solves numerically the heat and mass flow equations for a fully saturated medium, and computes one-dimensional consolidation of the simulated systems. The model employs the Integrated Finite Difference Method (IFDM) in discretizing the saturated medium and formulating the governing equations. The sets of equations are solved either by an iterative solution technique (old version) or an efficient sparse solver (new version). The deformation of the medium is calculated using the one-dimensional consolidation theory of Terzaghi. In this paper, the numerical code is described, validation examples given and areas of application discussed. Several example problems involving flow through fractured media are also presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barysheva, N.M.; Bochkov, A.V.; Bochkova, N.V.; Grebenkin, K.F.; Kryzhanovskii, V.A.; Magda, E.P.; Neznakhina, A.E.
1992-01-01
Based on measurements of the luminescence intensities of the 5s 2 2 D 5/2 →5p 2 P 3/2 (λ=0.4416 μm) and 5s 2 2 D 3/2 →5p 2 P 1/2 (λ=0.325 μm) lines in a dense He-Cd medium excited by fission fragments, the reaction constant is determined for Cd + (5s 2 2 D 3/2 )+He→Cd + (5s 2 2 D 5/2 )+He. The assumption that the 5s 2 2 D 3/2 state of the Cd II ion is strongly deexcited by collisions with atoms of the buffer gas was not confirmed. The question of quasicontinuous lasing at the 5s 2 2 D 3/2 → 5p 2 P 1/2 (λ=0.325 μm) transition requires further study. 6 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piran, T.
1982-01-01
There are many recent developments in numerical relativity, but there remain important unsolved theoretical and practical problems. The author reviews existing numerical approaches to solution of the exact Einstein equations. A framework for classification and comparison of different numerical schemes is presented. Recent numerical codes are compared using this framework. The discussion focuses on new developments and on currently open questions, excluding a review of numerical techniques. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Farin, Sebastien; Comte, Annabelle; Armand, Gilles; Crusset, Didier; Landais, Patrick; Lebon, Patrick; Plas, Frederic; Schumacher, Stephan; Bertrand, Domitille; Seghers, Elodie; Muzerelle, Sophie
2012-12-01
Within the frame of the public debate organized about the project of creation of a deep reversible disposal for radioactive wastes in Meuse/Haute-Marne, this publication proposes an overview of researches performed since 1991 when the ANDRA was commissioned to study the feasibility of such a disposal for the most radioactive French wastes. This publication deals with the different themes studied by the ANDRA and how, with which means and tools they have been and are addressed. More precisely, it also describes and comments how the geological medium is a guarantee for the storage safety, how waste behaviour is studied in detail, how the storage behaviour must be considered as a whole, how numerical simulation is an essential tool for experimentations, how an underground laboratory allows an as real as possible experimentation of deep storage, how the environment about Cigeo will be controlled and surveyed during at least 100 years, and how researches are performed through numerous international collaborations
Gas dynamics of H II regions. II. Two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodenheimer, P.; Tenorio-Tagle, G.; Yorke, H.W.
1979-01-01
The evolution of H II regions is calculated with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic numerical procedure under the assumption that the exciting star is born within a cool molecular cloud whose density is about 10 3 particles cm -3 . As the ionization of the cloud's edge is completed, a large pressure gradient is set up and ionized cloud material expands into the ionized low-density (1 particle cm -3 ) intercloud medium, with velocities larger than 30 km s -1 .The calculations are made under the simplifying assumptions that (i) within the H II region, ionization equilibrium holds at all times, (ii) the ionization front is a discontinuity, thus its detailed structure is not calculated, (iii) the temperature of each region (H II region, neutral cloud, and intercloud medium) is constant in time, (iv) all ionizing photons come radially from the exciting star. Four cases are calculated and compared with observations: (1) the edge of the cloud is overrun by a supersonic ionization front, (2) the initial Stroemgren sphere surrounding the star lies deep inside the cloud, thus the cloud's edge is ionized by a subsonic ionization front, (3) the ionization front breaks through two opposite faces of the same cloud simultaneously, (4) the flow encounters an isolated globule of density 10 3 particles cm -3 shortly after emerging from the molecular cloud.The phenomena here considered show how evolving H II regions are an important input of kinetic energy to the interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuipers, J.W.; Thorpe, R.W.
1979-01-01
Problems of numeric data are examined as these relate to the question of possible steps toward implementation of an integrated national information system for DOE. It is proposed that DOE make policy and organization changes in order to centralize and upgrade information management as a particular responsibility for the oversight of DOE-wide information requirements. Eight points to be emphasized in such a program are set forth
Khabaza, I M
1960-01-01
Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput
Shibata, Masaru
2016-01-01
This book is composed of two parts: First part describes basics in numerical relativity, that is, the formulations and methods for a solution of Einstein's equation and general relativistic matter field equations. This part will be helpful for beginners of numerical relativity who would like to understand the content of numerical relativity and its background. The second part focuses on the application of numerical relativity. A wide variety of scientific numerical results are introduced focusing in particular on the merger of binary neutron stars and black holes.
Schulreich, M. M.; Breitschwerdt, D.; Feige, J.; Dettbarn, C.
2017-08-01
Context. The discovery of radionuclides like 60Fe with half-lives of million years in deep-sea crusts and sediments offers the unique possibility to date and locate nearby supernovae. Aims: We want to quantitatively establish that the 60Fe enhancement is the result of several supernovae which are also responsible for the formation of the Local Bubble, our Galactic habitat. Methods: We performed three-dimensional hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations (with resolutions down to subparsec scale) of the Local Bubble and the neighbouring Loop I superbubble in different homogeneous, self-gravitating environments. For setting up the Local and Loop I superbubble, we took into account the time sequence and locations of the generating core-collapse supernova explosions, which were derived from the mass spectrum of the perished members of certain stellar moving groups. The release of 60Fe and its subsequent turbulent mixing process inside the superbubble cavities was followed via passive scalars, where the yields of the decaying radioisotope were adjusted according to recent stellar evolution calculations. Results: The models are able to reproduce both the timing and the intensity of the 60Fe excess observed with rather high precision, provided that the external density does not exceed 0.3 cm-3 on average. Thus the two best-fit models presented here were obtained with background media mimicking the classical warm ionised and warm neutral medium. We also found that 60Fe (which is condensed onto dust grains) can be delivered to Earth via two physical mechanisms: either through individual fast-paced supernova blast waves, which cross the Earth's orbit sometimes even twice as a result of reflection from the Local Bubble's outer shell, or, alternatively, through the supershell of the Local Bubble itself, injecting the 60Fe content of all previous supernovae at once, but over a longer time range.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tweed, Dylan; Yang, Xiaohu; Li, Shijie; Jing, Y. P. [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Huiyuan [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Cui, Weiguang [Departamento de Física Teórica, Módulo 15, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Zhang, Youcai [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Mo, H. J., E-mail: dtweed@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst MA, 01003-9305 (United States)
2017-05-20
The ELUCID project aims to build a series of realistic cosmological simulations that reproduce the spatial and mass distributions of the galaxies as observed in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This requires powerful reconstruction techniques to create constrained initial conditions (ICs). We test the reconstruction method by applying it to several N -body simulations. We use two medium-resolution simulations, which each produced three additional constrained N -body simulations. We compare the resulting friend-of-friend catalogs by using the particle indexes as tracers, and quantify the quality of the reconstruction by varying the main smoothing parameter. The cross-identification method we use proves to be efficient, and the results suggest that the most massive reconstructed halos are effectively traced from the same Lagrangian regions in the ICs. A preliminary time-dependence analysis indicates that high-mass-end halos converge only at a redshift close to the reconstruction redshift. This suggests that, for earlier snapshots, only collections of progenitors may be effectively cross-identified.
Siegler, Robert S.; Braithwaite, David W.
2016-01-01
In this review, we attempt to integrate two crucial aspects of numerical development: learning the magnitudes of individual numbers and learning arithmetic. Numerical magnitude development involves gaining increasingly precise knowledge of increasing ranges and types of numbers: from non-symbolic to small symbolic numbers, from smaller to larger…
Bright, William
In most languages encountered by linguists, the numerals, considered as a paradigmatic set, constitute a morpho-syntactic problem of only moderate complexity. The Indo-Aryan language family of North India, however, presents a curious contrast. The relatively regular numeral system of Sanskrit, as it has developed historically into the modern…
Rao, G Shanker
2006-01-01
About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chunyu Zhao
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The paper focuses on the quantitative analysis of the coupling dynamic characteristics of two non-identical exciters in a non-resonant vibrating system. The load torque of each motor consists of three items, including the torque of sine effect of phase angles, that of coupling sine effect and that of coupling cosine effect. The torque of frequency capture results from the torque of coupling cosine effect, which is equal to the product of the coupling kinetic energy, the coefficient of coupling cosine effect, and the sine of phase difference of two exciters. The motions of the system excited by two exciters in the same direction make phase difference close to π and that in opposite directions makes phase difference close to 0. Numerical results show that synchronous operation is stable when the dimensionless relative moments of inertia of two exciters are greater than zero and four times of their product is greater than the square of their coefficient of coupling cosine effect. The stability of the synchronous operation is only dependent on the structural parameters of the system, such as the mass ratios of two exciters to the vibrating system, and the ratio of the distance between an exciter and the centroid of the system to the equivalent radius of the system about its centroid.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puzynin, I.V.; Puzynina, T.P.; Tkhak, V.Ch.
2010-01-01
SLIPM (Sturm-LIouville Problem in MAPLE) is a program complex written in the language of the computer algebras system MAPLE. It consists of the main program SLIPM.mw and of some procedures. It is intended for a numerical solution with the help of the continuous analog of Newton's method (CANM) of Sturm-Liouville partial problems, i.e. for calculating some eigenvalue of linear second-order differential operator and a corresponding eigenfunction satisfying homogeneous boundary conditions of the general type. SLIPM is the development of the program complexes SLIP1 and SLIPH4 written in the Fortran language. It is added by two new ways of calculating the initial value of iterative parameter τ 0 , by a procedure for calculating a higher precision solution (eigenvalue and corresponding eigenfunction) with the help of Richardson's extrapolation method, by graphical visualization procedures of intermediate and final results of the iterative process and by saving of the results on a disk file. The descriptions of the procedures purposes and their parameters are given
Scott, L Ridgway
2011-01-01
Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...
A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.
1999-01-01
A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamagaki, Ryozo
2007-01-01
According to the formulation developed in I, we calculate energy gaps of the baryonic 3 P 2 -dominant superfluidity under the combined pion condensation with Δ-mixing at moderately high density in neutron star interior. Adopting a baryon-baryon potential extended from a 'root' NN potential to be workable in the N+Δ space, we obtain the concrete form of the pairing interaction matrix elements between the quasi-baryon pairs, which constitute a two-dimensional angular-momentum stretched state and a charge triplet. With use of OPEG-B as a 'root' NN potential and an available set of the parameters representing the combined pion condensation, we study the properties of two-dimensional pairing potentials and the matrix elements of pairing interaction. We find that the strong attraction of pairing interaction for the quasi-neutron pairs is brought about by the spin-orbit potential and the spin- and isospin-dependent core terms of the central potential, whose effects are enhanced due to the pion condensation. The quasi-neutron pair plays a decisive role to bring about meaningful energy gaps, while the coupling between different quasi-baryon pairs plays no important role, as a consequence of a unique feature of the combined pion condensation we adopt. We numerically solve the energy gap equation for baryon density of (2-6) times the nuclear density and clarify substantial aspects of resulting superfluid energy gaps, and discuss related problems by taking into account possible change in the factors affecting the energy gaps, such as baryon-baryon potentials, some of the pion condensation parameters and an effective mass of the quasi-particle. Standing on these results, we can say that the 3 P 2 -dominant superfluid is realized with the critical temperatures T c of the order of 10 9 K, equivalent to the energy gaps of the order of 0.1 MeV, under the combined pion condensation in neutron star matter. The key point of the recognition lies in the aspects that the
Tamagaki, R.; Takatsuka, T.
2007-05-01
According to the formulation developed in I, we calculate energy gaps of the baryonic (3) P_2-dominant superfluidity under the combined pion condensation with Delta-mixing at moderately high density in neutron star interior. Adopting a baryon-baryon potential extended from a ``root" NN potential to be workable in the N + Delta space, we obtain the concrete form of the pairing interaction matrix elements between the quasi-baryon pairs, which constitute a two-dimensional angular-momentum stretched state and a charge triplet. With use of OPEG-B as a ``root" NN potential and an available set of the parameters representing the combined pion condensation, we study the properties of two-dimensional pairing potentials and the matrix elements of pairing interaction. We find that the strong attraction of pairing interaction for the quasi-neutron pairs is brought about by the spin-orbit potential and the spin- and isospin-dependent core terms of the central potential, whose effects are enhanced due to the pion condensation. The quasi-neutron pair plays a decisive role to bring about meaningful energy gaps, while the coupling between different quasi-baryon pairs plays no important role, as a consequence of a unique feature of the combined pion condensation we adopt. We numerically solve the energy gap equation for baryon density of (2-6) times the nuclear density and clarify substantial aspects of resulting superfluid energy gaps, and discuss related problems by taking into account possible change in the factors affecting the energy gaps, such as baryon-baryon potentials, some of the pion condensation parameters and an effective mass of the quasi-particle. Standing on these results, we can say that the (3) P_2-dominant superfluid is realized with the critical temperatures T_c of the order of 10(9) K, equivalent to the energy gaps of the order of 0.1 MeV, under the combined pion condensation in neutron star matter. The key point of the recognition lies in the aspects that the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tease, Charles; Fisher, Graham
1996-01-01
The incidences of X-ray induced numerical and structural chromosome anomalies were screened in a range of developmental stages from metaphase II oocytes through to post-implantation embryos. Following 1 Gy of acute X-rays to immediately preovulatory stage oocytes, the rate of hyperploidy (chromosome gain) was found to be elevated over levels in unirradiated controls, at metaphase II, in 1-cell and 3.5 day pre-implantation embryos but not in 8.5 day post-implantation foetuses. In the latter, however, the frequency of mosaicism was significantly increased. A similar response of an increase in mosaicism but not in hyperploidy in 8.5 day post-implantation embryos was also found after irradiation of dictyate stage oocytes with 4 Gy of acute X-rays. Significantly elevated frequencies of structural chromosome anomalies were present in metaphase II oocytes and pre-implantation embryonic stages, but could not be detected in block-stained chromosome preparations from 8.5 day post-implantation foetuses. However, analysis of chromosome preparations after G-banding showed that almost 14% of 14.5 day foetuses carried a chromosome rearrangement after 1 Gy of X-rays to immediately preovulatory stage oocytes. Overall, our data indicate that the presence of radiation-induced chromosome gains are incompatible with embryonic survival but that a proportion of embryos with structural chromosome damage develop past mid-gestation. These latter embryos are therefore potentially capable of contributing to the genetic burden of the next generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyogtyev, Oleksandr
2017-03-02
The thesis dealing with the numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables covers the following issues: status of science and technology, concept for the performance of numerical studies on the bearing capacity of large-volume underground systems, application example salt cavern ASSE II - application of the developed concept/development of numerical tools for the overall system/application of the global model to the given questions/realization of the modification potential.
Brezinski, C
2012-01-01
Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<
Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are ... predicted infinite speed for propagation of ther- mal signals. Lord and ..... saturated reservoir rock (North-sea Sandstone) is chosen for the numerical model ...
Baker, John G.
2009-01-01
Recent advances in numerical relativity have fueled an explosion of progress in understanding the predictions of Einstein's theory of gravity, General Relativity, for the strong field dynamics, the gravitational radiation wave forms, and consequently the state of the remnant produced from the merger of compact binary objects. I will review recent results from the field, focusing on mergers of two black holes.
Graphene wire medium: Homogenization and application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andryieuski, Andrei; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2012-01-01
In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example of the g......In this contribution we analyze numerically the optical properties of the graphene wire medium, which unit cell consists of a stripe of graphene embedded into dielectric. We propose a simple method for retrieval of the isofrequency contour and effective permittivity tensor. As an example...... of the graphene wire medium application we demonstrate a reconfigurable hyperlens for the terahertz subwavelength imaging capable of resolving two sources with separation λ0/5 in the far-field....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Guerra
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Amostras de caulinita oriundas da região do Rio Capim, estado do Pará, Brasil, foram intercaladas com dimetilsulfóxido - DMSO. As amostras de caulinita naturais e intercaladas foram utilizadas em processo de adsorção com Zn(II em meio aquoso em pH 5,0 e temperatura controlada de 298 ± 1K. As propriedades físico-químicas das amostras de caulinita foram otimizadas pelo processo de intercalação, como: área superficial de 14,74 para 91,72 m²g-1 (A1 e diâmetro de poros de 2,79 para 10,72 nm (A1. A análise dos resultados experimentais de adsorção foi feita pelos modelos de Langmuir, Temkin e Freundlich. O modelo de Langmuir apresentou melhor aproximação com os dados experimentais de adsorção. Estes resultados foram bem representados pelo modelo cinético de segunda ordem de Lagergren, com a taxa constante K2 no intervalo de 4,76x10-3 a 11,81x10-3 g(mmol.min-1 (A2. O processo de adsorção foi considerado rápido alcançando o equilíbrio em 180 min.The kaolinite clay samples from Capim River region, Pará state, Brazil, were intercalated with dimethylsulfoxide - DMSO. The natural and intercalated kaolinite were used in adsorption process with Zn(II in aqueous medium at pH 5.0 and controlled temperature of 298 ± 1K. The physical-chemical properties of kaolinite samples were optimized for the intercalation process, such as: specific area of 14.74 to 91.72 m²g-1 (A1 and pore diameter of 2.79 to 10.72 nm (A1. The adsorption experimental results were analyzed for Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich models, the Langmuir model has been presented best approximation with experimental adsorption isotherms data. These results best fitted the second order kinetic of Lagergren model with rate constant K2, in the range of 4.76x10-3 to 11.81x10-3 g(mmol.min-1 (A2. The adsorption process was very fast and equilibrium was approached within 180 min.
1988-01-01
TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Dipartimento di Matematica -G.--iattelnuoz .’ Universita di Roma "La Sapienze" rlnlRr% Pnmaq (Tt-al’g) I$. CONTROLLING...guaranteed. 3. Adminisrtrative actions The following investigators are working on the contract: (i) Francesco Zirilli Dipartimento di Matematica "G...Castelnuovo" Universiti di Roma "La Sapienza" 00185 Romna (Italy) (ii) Filippo Aluffi-Pentini Dipartimento di Matematica Universiti di Barn 80125 Bari (Italy
Rattez, Hadrien; Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean; Veveakis, Manolis; Poulet, Thomas
2018-06-01
In this paper we study the phenomenon of localization of deformation in fault gouges during seismic slip. This process is of key importance to understand frictional heating and energy budget during an earthquake. A infinite layer of fault gouge is modeled as a Cosserat continuum taking into account Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) couplings. The theoretical aspects of the problem are presented in the companion paper (Rattez et al., 2017a), together with a linear stability analysis to determine the conditions of localization and estimate the shear band thickness. In this Part II of the study, we investigate the post-bifurcation evolution of the system by integrating numerically the full system of non-linear equations using the method of Finite Elements. The problem is formulated in the framework of Cosserat theory. It enables to introduce information about the microstructure of the material in the constitutive equations and to regularize the mathematical problem in the post-localization regime. We emphasize the influence of the size of the microstructure and of the softening law on the material response and the strain localization process. The weakening effect of pore fluid thermal pressurization induced by shear heating is examined and quantified. It enhances the weakening process and contributes to the narrowing of shear band thickness. Moreover, due to THM couplings an apparent rate-dependency is observed, even for rate-independent material behavior. Finally, comparisons show that when the perturbed field of shear deformation dominates, the estimation of the shear band thickness obtained from linear stability analysis differs from the one obtained from the finite element computations, demonstrating the importance of post-localization numerical simulations.
Nakamura, T
1993-01-01
In GR13 we heard many reports on recent. progress as well as future plans of detection of gravitational waves. According to these reports (see the report of the workshop on the detection of gravitational waves by Paik in this volume), it is highly probable that the sensitivity of detectors such as laser interferometers and ultra low temperature resonant bars will reach the level of h ~ 10—21 by 1998. in this level we may expect the detection of the gravitational waves from astrophysical sources such as coalescing binary neutron stars once a year or so. Therefore the progress in numerical relativity is urgently required to predict the wave pattern and amplitude of the gravitational waves from realistic astrophysical sources. The time left for numerical relativists is only six years or so although there are so many difﬁculties in principle as well as in practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyogtyev, Oleksandr
2017-01-01
The thesis dealing with the numerical analysis of the bearing capacity of complex rock mechanical underground systems with filigree structures in the presence of imponderables covers the following issues: status of science and technology, concept for the performance of numerical studies on the bearing capacity of large-volume underground systems, application example salt cavern ASSE II - application of the developed concept/development of numerical tools for the overall system/application of the global model to the given questions/realization of the modification potential.
Collective effects in shock propagation through a clumpy medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norman, M.L.; Dickel, J.R.; Livio, M.; Chu, Y.H.
1988-01-01
A numerical simulation of shock propagation in a clumpy medium with a weak magnetic field is presented which illustrates a number of dynamical processes of potential importance for explaining spectral line width and radio polarization measurements in supernova remnants
Options for Sustaining Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
FIRST LADY
problems in Nigeria due to numerous domestic and global economic problems, and policy ... national income till today remains low (Osamwonyi, 2009). For ... managers. Nwakoby (1988) defines Small and Medium-Scale business as “any.
A two-stage method for inverse medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi; Jin, Bangti; Zou, Jun
2013-01-01
We present a novel numerical method to the time-harmonic inverse medium scattering problem of recovering the refractive index from noisy near-field scattered data. The approach consists of two stages, one pruning step of detecting the scatterer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum, Peter
2005-01-01
The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
procedures. The supporting electrolyte, NaClO4 used in the voltammetric experiment was purchased from. Sigma. IR spectra were recorded in KBr medium on .... (13⋅6). L = Schiff base ligand form of one broad band envelope. The electronic spectra of Co(II) complex showed two spin-allowed transitions at 17856 and ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corge, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-01-01
Numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by s wave neutrons in time-of-flight experiments can be achieved in a fairly automatic way on an IBM 7094/II computer. The involved computations are carried out following a four step scheme: 1 - experimental raw data are processed to obtain the resonant transmissions, 2 - values of experimental quantities for each resonance are derived from the above transmissions, 3 - resonance parameters are determined using a least square method to solve the over determined system obtained by equalling theoretical functions to the correspondent experimental values. Four analysis methods are gathered in the same code, 4 - graphical control of the results is performed. (author) [French] L'automatisation, sur ordinateur IBM 7094/II, de l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons s dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol a ete accomplie en la decomposant selon un schema articule en quatre phases: 1 - le traitement des donnees experimentales brutes pour obtenir les transmissions interfero-resonnantes, 2 - la determination des grandeurs d'analyse a partir des transmissions precedentes, 3 - l'analyse proprement dite des resonances dont les parametres sont obtenus par la resolution d'un systeme surabondant. Quatre methodes d'analyse sont groupees en un meme programme, 4 - la procedure de verification graphique. (auteur)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corge, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1969-01-01
Numerical analysis of transmission resonances induced by s wave neutrons in time-of-flight experiments can be achieved in a fairly automatic way on an IBM 7094/II computer. The involved computations are carried out following a four step scheme: 1 - experimental raw data are processed to obtain the resonant transmissions, 2 - values of experimental quantities for each resonance are derived from the above transmissions, 3 - resonance parameters are determined using a least square method to solve the over determined system obtained by equalling theoretical functions to the correspondent experimental values. Four analysis methods are gathered in the same code, 4 - graphical control of the results is performed. (author) [French] L'automatisation, sur ordinateur IBM 7094/II, de l'analyse des resonances induites par les neutrons s dans les experiences de transmission par temps de vol a ete accomplie en la decomposant selon un schema articule en quatre phases: 1 - le traitement des donnees experimentales brutes pour obtenir les transmissions interfero-resonnantes, 2 - la determination des grandeurs d'analyse a partir des transmissions precedentes, 3 - l'analyse proprement dite des resonances dont les parametres sont obtenus par la resolution d'un systeme surabondant. Quatre methodes d'analyse sont groupees en un meme programme, 4 - la procedure de verification graphique. (auteur)
Jacques, Ian
1987-01-01
This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...
Lequeux, James
2005-01-01
Describing interstellar matter in our galaxy in all of its various forms, this book also considers the physical and chemical processes that are occurring within this matter. The first seven chapters present the various components making up the interstellar matter and detail the ways that we are able to study them. The following seven chapters are devoted to the physical, chemical and dynamical processes that control the behaviour of interstellar matter. These include the instabilities and cloud collapse processes that lead to the formation of stars. The last chapter summarizes the transformations that can occur between the different phases of the interstellar medium. Emphasizing methods over results, "The Interstellar Medium" is written for graduate students, for young astronomers, and also for any researchers who have developed an interest in the interstellar medium.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andriech, A.; Bivol, V.; Tridukh, G.; Tsiuleanu, D.
2002-01-01
The invention relates of the micro- and optoelectronics, computer engineering ,in particular, to tjhe optical information media and may be used in hilography. Summary of the invention consists in that the optical image recording medium, containing a dielectric substrates, onto one surface of which there are placed in series a transparent electricity conducting layer, a photo sensitive recording layer of chalcogenic glass and a thin film electrode of aluminium, is provided with an optically transparent protective layer, applied into the thin film electrode. The result of the invention consists in excluding the dependence of chemical processes course into the medium upon environmental conditions
Numerical simulation on coolant flow and heat transfer in core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Zhaohui; Wang Xuefang; Shen Mengyu
1997-01-01
To simulate the coolant flow and the heat transfer characteristics of a core, a computer code, THAPMA (Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Porous Medium Analysis) has been developed. In THAPMA code, conservation equations are based on a porous-medium formulation, which uses four parameters, i.e, volume porosity, directional surface porosity, distributed resistance, and distributed heat source (sink), to model the effects of fuel rods and other internal solid structures on flow and heat transfer. Because the scheme and the solution are very important in accuracy and speed of calculation, a new difference scheme (WSUC) has been used in the energy equation, and a modified PISO solution method have been employed to simulate the steady/transient states. The code has been proved reliable and can effectively solve the transient state problem by several numerical tests. According to the design of Qinshan NPP-II, the flow and heat transfer phenomena in reactor core have been numerically simulated. The distributions of the velocity and the temperature can provide a theoretical basis for core design and safety analysis
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DR. AMINU
Department of Chemistry Bayero University, P. M. B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. E-mail: hnuhu2000@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT. The manganese (II), cobalt (II), nickel (II) and .... water and common organic solvents, but are readily soluble in acetone. The molar conductance measurement [Table 3] of the complex compounds in.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamborski, C.
1989-01-01
The patent deals with a roentgen contrast medium containing a perfluorinebrominealkylether of the formula C m F 2m+1 OC n F 2n Br dispersed in water, preferentially in the presence of a non-ionic dispersing agent such as a fluorinated amidoaminoxide. 2 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)
1996-12-31
The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hricko, J.
1995-01-01
The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erdman, W.; Behnke, M.
2005-11-01
Kilowatt ratings of modern wind turbines have progressed rapidly from 50 kW to 1,800 kW over the past 25 years, with 3.0- to 7.5-MW turbines expected in the next 5 years. The premise of this study is simple: The rapid growth of wind turbine power ratings and the corresponding growth in turbine electrical generation systems and associated controls are quickly making low-voltage (LV) electrical design approaches cost-ineffective. This report provides design detail and compares the cost of energy (COE) between commercial LV-class wind power machines and emerging medium-voltage (MV)-class multi-megawatt wind technology. The key finding is that a 2.5% reduction in the COE can be achieved by moving from LV to MV systems. This is a conservative estimate, with a 3% to 3.5% reduction believed to be attainable once purchase orders to support a 250-turbine/year production level are placed. This evaluation considers capital costs as well as installation, maintenance, and training requirements for wind turbine maintenance personnel. Subsystems investigated include the generator, pendant cables, variable-speed converter, and padmount transformer with switchgear. Both current-source and voltage-source converter/inverter MV topologies are compared against their low-voltage, voltage-source counterparts at the 3.0-, 5.0-, and 7.5-MW levels.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum, Peter
2003-01-01
The present essays is an attempt to dertermine the architecural project of the 21st century in realation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of society as its program. This attempt adopts the internal point of view of an architect in describing a modern architectural...... project within the framework: concept - program, these notions being concieved as spatial representations primarily and immediately "given" to architecture....
Lytvynenko, A S; Kolotilov, S V; Kiskin, M A; Cador, O; Golhen, S; Aleksandrov, G G; Mishura, A M; Titov, V E; Ouahab, L; Eremenko, I L; Novotortsev, V M
2014-05-19
Linking of the trinuclear pivalate fragment Fe2CoO(Piv)6 by the redox-active bridge Ni(L)2 (compound 1; LH is Schiff base from hydrazide of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid and 2-pyridinecarbaldehyde, Piv(-) = pivalate) led to formation of a new porous coordination polymer (PCP) {Fe2CoO(Piv)6}{Ni(L)2}1.5 (2). X-ray structures of 1 and 2 were determined. A crystal lattice of compound 2 is built from stacked 2D layers; the Ni(L)2 units can be considered as bridges, which bind two Fe2CoO(Piv)6 units. In desolvated form, 2 possesses a porous crystal lattice (SBET = 50 m(2) g(-1), VDR = 0.017 cm(3) g(-1) estimated from N2 sorption at 78 K). At 298 K, 2 absorbed a significant quantity of methanol (up to 0.3 cm(3) g(-1)) and chloroform. Temperature dependence of molar magnetic susceptibility of 2 could be fitted as superposition of χMT of Fe2CoO(Piv)6 and Ni(L)2 units, possible interactions between them were taken into account using molecular field model. In turn, magnetic properties of the Fe2CoO(Piv)6 unit were fitted using two models, one of which directly took into account a spin-orbit coupling of Co(II), and in the second model the spin-orbit coupling of Co(II) was approximated as zero-field splitting. Electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of 2 were studied by cyclic voltammetry in suspension and compared with electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of a soluble analogue 1. A catalytic effect was determined by analysis of the catalytic current dependency on concentrations of the substrate. Compound 1 possessed electrocatalytic activity in organic halide dehalogenation, and such activity was preserved for the Ni(L)2 units, incorporated into the framework of 2. In addition, a new property occurred in the case of 2: the catalytic activity of PCP depended on its sorption capacity with respect to the substrate. In contrast to homogeneous catalysts, usage of solid PCPs may allow selectivity due to porous structure and simplify separation of product.
Numerical simulation support to the ESA/THOR mission
Valentini, F.; Servidio, S.; Perri, S.; Perrone, D.; De Marco, R.; Marcucci, M. F.; Daniele, B.; Bruno, R.; Camporeale, E.
2016-12-01
THOR is a spacecraft concept currently undergoing study phase as acandidate for the next ESA medium size mission M4. THOR has been designedto solve the longstanding physical problems of particle heating andenergization in turbulent plasmas. It will provide high resolutionmeasurements of electromagnetic fields and particle distribution functionswith unprecedented resolution, with the aim of exploring the so-calledkinetic scales. We present the numerical simulation framework which is supporting the THOR mission during the study phase. The THOR teamincludes many scientists developing and running different simulation codes(Eulerian-Vlasov, Particle-In-Cell, Gyrokinetics, Two-fluid, MHD, etc.),addressing the physics of plasma turbulence, shocks, magnetic reconnectionand so on.These numerical codes are being used during the study phase, mainly withthe aim of addressing the following points:(i) to simulate the response of real particle instruments on board THOR, byemploying an electrostatic analyser simulator which mimics the response ofthe CSW, IMS and TEA instruments to the particle velocity distributions ofprotons, alpha particle and electrons, as obtained from kinetic numericalsimulations of plasma turbulence.(ii) to compare multi-spacecraft with single-spacecraft configurations inmeasuring current density, by making use of both numerical models ofsynthetic turbulence and real data from MMS spacecraft.(iii) to investigate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis indifferent configurations of plasma turbulence
Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics
Garfinkle, David
2017-01-01
Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.
Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.
Garfinkle, David
2017-01-01
Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.
DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood
2005-06-30
Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Oceanographic station and other data from meteorological sensors, CTD, and bottle casts from numerous platforms from 1955-05-04 to 1986-09-24. Data were processed by...
The Abundance of Mg in the Interstellar Medium
Fitzpatrick, Edward L.
1997-06-01
An empirical determination of the f-values of the far-UV Mg II λλ1239, 1240 lines is reported. The strong near-UV Mg II λλ2796, 2803 lines are generally highly saturated along most interstellar sight lines outside the local interstellar medium (ISM) and usually yield extremely uncertain estimates of Mg+ column densities in interstellar gas. Since Mg+ is the dominant form of Mg in the neutral ISM, and since Mg is expected to be a significant constituent of interstellar dust grains, the far-UV lines are critical for assessing the role of this important element in the ISM. This study consists of complete component analyses of the absorption along the lines of sight toward HD 93521 in the Galactic halo and ξ Persei and ζ Ophiuchi in the Galactic disk, including all four UV Mg+ lines and numerous other transitions. The three analyses yield consistent determinations of the λλ1239, 1240 f-values, with weighted means of (6.4 +/- 0.4) × 10-4 and (3.2 +/- 0.2) × 10-4, respectively. These results are a factor of ~2.4 larger than a commonly used theoretical estimate, and a factor of ~2 smaller than a recently suggested empirical revision. The effects of this result on gas- and dust-phase abundance measurements of Mg are discussed. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, under NASA contract NAS5-2655. This Letter is dedicated to the memory of Professor Lyman Spitzer Jr. He was a great guy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Devlina; Charumathi, D.; Das, Nilanjana
2011-01-01
Single and binary effects of dye Basic Violet 3 and heavy metals, 'namely', Pb(II) and Cd(II), were investigated for their role in dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation by Candida tropicalis that was grown in a sugarcane bagasse extract medium containing 8 g/L, 16 g/L or 24 g/L of sugar. The optimum pH was found to be 4.0 in the single system and 5.0 in the binary system. A central composite design was successfully used to analyse the experimental results. Four numerical correlations that were fitted to a second order quadratic equation were used to estimate optimum combinations predicted by response surface methodology. In the dye-Pb(II) binary system, C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating 49.5% of the dye and 49.6% of the Pb(II), in comparison to 15.9% of the dye and 55.5% of the Cd(II) in the dye-Cd(II) binary system. In these two systems, the pollutants were dispersed at minimum working concentration levels. Competitive inhibition was observed in both the single and binary systems, which was suggested by an increase in the saturation constant, K s , and a simultaneous decrease in the specific growth rate that was calculated from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Atomic force microscopy images demonstrated changes in yeast cell morphology by exposure to these contaminants in the dye-Pb(II) binary system grown in a bioaccumulation medium.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jochum, Elizabeth Ann; Putnam, Lance
2017-01-01
Artists increasingly utilize computational tools to generate art works. Computational approaches to art making open up new ways of thinking about agency in interactive art because they invite participation and allow for unpredictable outcomes. Computational art is closely linked...... to the participatory turn in visual art, wherein spectators physically participate in visual art works. Unlike purely physical methods of interaction, computer assisted interactivity affords artists and spectators more nuanced control of artistic outcomes. Interactive art brings together human bodies, computer code......, and nonliving objects to create emergent art works. Computation is more than just a tool for artists, it is a medium for investigating new aesthetic possibilities for choreography and composition. We illustrate this potential through two artistic projects: an improvisational dance performance between a human...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kacunko, Slavko
of this kind as the marks of a meta-complex of method out of which new models of the image continually arise. The waxing intangibility of proliferating images be they of the mind, in dreams, through gestures, and the equally rampant growth of microstructuring in allocations of knowledge lay a challenge before...... to research. As a void in the apprehension of the world, the mirror obtained a scholarly perspective and the more so in areas beyond its own qualities as a medium, i.e. in images and metaphor, the paradigms of all research looking to image and text. This investigation sets out to comprehend paradoxes......, and space (albeit no expanse) is there to consider the methodological pros and cons of such a selective approach. Even in this synopsis, it has to be and can be stated that what makes for the affinities between psychological, literary and image-research approaches in research on the mirror is the shared...
The diffuse interstellar medium
Cox, Donald P.
1990-01-01
The last 20 years of the efforts to understand the diffuse ISM are reviewed, with recent changes of fundamental aspects being highlighted. Attention is given to the interstellar pressure and its components, the weight of the ISM, the midplane pressure contributions, and pressure contributions at 1 kpc. What velocity dispersions, cosmic ray pressure, and magnetic field pressure that can be expected for a gas in a high magnetic field environment is addressed. The intercloud medium is described, with reference to the work of Cox and Slavin (1989). Various caveats are discussed and a number of areas for future investigation are identified. Steps that could be taken toward a successful phase segregation model are discussed.
TJ-II Library Manual (Version 2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tribaldos, V.; Milligen, B. Ph. van; Lopez-Fraguas, A.
2001-01-01
This is a manual of use of the TJ2 Numerical Library that has been developed for making numerical computations of different TJ-II configurations. This manual is a new version of the earlier manual CIEMAT report 806. (Author)
Isogeometric frictionless contact analysis with the third medium method
Kruse, R.; Nguyen-Thanh, N.; Wriggers, P.; De Lorenzis, L.
2018-01-01
This paper presents an isogeometric formulation for frictionless contact between deformable bodies, based on the recently proposed concept of the third medium. This concept relies on continuum formulations not only for the contacting bodies but also for a fictitious intermediate medium in which the bodies can move and interact. Key to the formulation is a suitable definition of the constitutive behavior of the third medium. In this work, based on a number of numerical tests, the role of the material parameters of the third medium is systematically assessed. We also assess the rate of spatial convergence for higher-order discretizations, stemming from the regularization of the non-smooth contact problem inherent to the third medium approach. Finally, problems with self contact are considered and turn out to be an attractive application of the method.
Time's arrow: A numerical experiment
Fowles, G. Richard
1994-04-01
The dependence of time's arrow on initial conditions is illustrated by a numerical example in which plane waves produced by an initial pressure pulse are followed as they are multiply reflected at internal interfaces of a layered medium. Wave interactions at interfaces are shown to be analogous to the retarded and advanced waves of point sources. The model is linear and the calculation is exact and demonstrably time reversible; nevertheless the results show most of the features expected of a macroscopically irreversible system, including the approach to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, ergodicity, and concomitant entropy increase.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Chih Chiu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of blending and chemical interesterification reactions on the softening and melting behavior of chicken fat, its stearin and medium chain triacylglycerols, and blends thereof in various ratios. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the physical properties of fats. In the experimental design 7 samples corresponding to 7 different blend proportions were used. The results were represented in triangular diagrams. The addition of stearin influenced the softening and melting points. The mixture response surface methodology proved to be an extremely useful tool for the optimization of the fat mixtures.
Adiabatic supernova expansion into the circumstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Band, D.L.; Liang, E.P.
1987-01-01
We perform one dimensional numerical simulations with a Lagrangian hydrodynamics code of the adiabatic expansion of a supernova into the surrounding medium. The early expansion follows Chevalier's analytic self-similar solution until the reverse shock reaches the ejecta core. We follow the expansion as it evolves towards the adiabatic blast wave phase. Some memory of the earlier phases of expansion is retained in the interior even when the outer regions expand as a blast wave. We find the results are sensitive to the initial configuration of the ejecta and to the placement of gridpoints. 6 refs., 2 figs
Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B
2009-01-01
A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.
Type II supernovae modelisation: neutrinos transport simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mellor, P.
1988-10-01
A modelisation of neutrino transport in type II supernovae is presented. The first part is a description of hydrodynamics and radiative processes responsible of supernovae explosions. Macroscopic aspects of these are displayed in part two. Neutrino transport theory and usual numerical methods are also developed. A new technic of coherent scattering of neutrinos on nuclei or free nucleons is proposed in the frame work of the Lorentz bifluid approximation. This method deals with all numerical artifices (flux limiting schemes, closure relationship of Eddington moments) and allows a complete and consistent determination of the time-dependent neutrino distribution function for any value of the opacity, gradient of opacity and for all (relativistic) velocity fields of the diffusive medium. Part three is dedicated to microscopic phenomena (electronic capture, chimical composition, etc) which rule neutrinos emission-absorption mechanisms. The numerical treatments of those are presented, and some applications are useful for their parametrization. Finally, an extension of the method to inelastic scattering on light particules (electrons) is described in view to study neutrinos thermalization mechanism [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alejaldre, C.; Gozalo, J.J.A.; Perez, J.B.; Magaria, F.C.; Diaz, J.R.C.; Perez, J.G.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Garcia, L.; Krivenski, V.I.; Martin, R.; Navarro, A.P.; Perea, A.; Rodriguez-Yunta, A.; Ayza, M.S.; Varias, A.
1990-01-01
The TJ-II device is a medium-size helical-axis stellarator to be built in Madrid. Its main characteristics are potential for high-beta operation; flexibility, i.e., its rotational transform can be varied over a wide range and its shear to some extent; and bean-shaped plasma cross section. The latest understanding of TJ-II physics in the fields of electron cyclotron resonance heating, transport, and magneto-hydrodynamics, and the engineering solutions introduced in its final design are discussed
Optical activity via Kerr nonlinearity in a spinning chiral medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khan, Anwar Ali, E-mail: anwarali@uom.edu.pk [Department of Physics, University of Malakand at Chakdara Dir(L) (Pakistan); Bacha, Bakht Amin, E-mail: aminoptics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Malakand at Chakdara Dir(L) (Pakistan); Khan, Rahmat Ali, E-mail: rahmat_alipk@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, University of Malakand (Pakistan)
2016-11-11
Optical activity is investigated in a chiral medium by employing the four level cascade atomic model, in which the optical responses of the atomic medium are studied with Kerr nonlinearity. Light entering into a chiral medium splits into circular birefringent beams. The angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams and the polarization states of the two light beams is manipulated with Kerr nonlinearity. In the stationary chiral medium the angle of divergence between the circular birefringent beams is calculated to be 1.3 radian. Furthermore, circular birefringence is optically controlled in a spinning chiral medium, where the maximum rotary photon drag angle for left (right) circularly polarized beam is ±1.1 (±1.5) microradian. The change in the angle of divergence between circular birefringent beams by rotary photon drag is calculated to be 0.4 microradian. The numerical results may help to understand image designing, image coding, discovery of photonic crystals and optical sensing technology. - Highlights: • Coherent control of a circular birefringence in a chiral medium is studied. • Angle of divergence between birefringent beams is modified with Kerr nonlinearity. • Rotary photon drag is controlled for birefringent beams and enhanced with Kerr nonlinearity in a spinning medium. • Rotation of the angle of divergence is observed with mechanical rotation of the medium about an axis and modified with Kerr effect. • A change in the angle of divergence is calculated by about a microradian with rotary photon drag.
Dynamical Model about Rumor Spreading with Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaxia Zhao
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Rumor is a kind of social remark, that is untrue, and not be confirmed, and spreads on a large scale in a short time. Usually, it can induce a cloud of pressure, anxiety, and panic. Traditionally, it is propagated by word of mouth. Nowadays, with the emergence of the internet, rumors can be spread by instant messengers, emails, or publishing. With this new pattern of spreading, an ISRW dynamical model considering the medium as a subclass is established. Beside the dynamical analysis of the model, we mainly explore the mechanism of spreading of individuals-to-individuals and medium-to-individual. By numerical simulation, we find that if we want to control the rumor spreading, it will not only need to control the rate of change of the spreader subclass, but also need to control the change of the information about rumor in medium which has larger influence. Moreover, to control the effusion of rumor is more important than deleting existing information about rumor. On the one hand, government should enhance the management of internet. On the other hand, relevant legal institutions for punishing the rumor creator and spreader on internet who can be tracked should be established. Using this way, involved authorities can propose efficient measures to control the rumor spreading to keep the stabilization of society and development of economy.
Numerical Optimization in Microfluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg
2017-01-01
Numerical modelling can illuminate the working mechanism and limitations of microfluidic devices. Such insights are useful in their own right, but one can take advantage of numerical modelling in a systematic way using numerical optimization. In this chapter we will discuss when and how numerical...... optimization is best used....
Methods of numerical relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piran, T.
1983-01-01
Numerical Relativity is an alternative to analytical methods for obtaining solutions for Einstein equations. Numerical methods are particularly useful for studying generation of gravitational radiation by potential strong sources. The author reviews the analytical background, the numerical analysis aspects and techniques and some of the difficulties involved in numerical relativity. (Auth.)
Kotulla, M
2006-01-01
We discuss recent experimental results on the modification of hadron properties in a nuclear medium. Particular emphasis is placed on an $\\omega$ production experiment performed by the CBELSA/TAPS collaboration at the ELSA accelerator. The data shows a smaller $\\omega$ meson mass together with a significant increase of its width in the nuclear medium.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
CLEMENT O BEWAJI
Valine (2 - amino - 3 – methylbutanoic acid), is a chemical compound containing .... Stability constant (Kf). Gibb's free energy. ) (. 1. −. ∆. Mol. JG. [CuL2(H2O)2] ... synthesis and characterization of Co(ii), Ni(ii), Cu (II), and Zn(ii) complexes with ...
On Emulation of Flueric Devices in Excitable Chemical Medium.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Adamatzky
Full Text Available Flueric devices are fluidic devices without moving parts. Fluidic devices use fluid as a medium for information transfer and computation. A Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ medium is a thin-layer spatially extended excitable chemical medium which exhibits travelling excitation wave-fronts. The excitation wave-fronts transfer information. Flueric devices compute via jets interaction. BZ devices compute via excitation wave-fronts interaction. In numerical model of BZ medium we show that functions of key flueric devices are implemented in the excitable chemical system: signal generator, and, xor, not and nor Boolean gates, delay elements, diodes and sensors. Flueric devices have been widely used in industry since late 1960s and are still employed in automotive and aircraft technologies. Implementation of analog of the flueric devices in the excitable chemical systems opens doors to further applications of excitation wave-based unconventional computing in soft robotics, embedded organic electronics and living technologies.
On Emulation of Flueric Devices in Excitable Chemical Medium.
Adamatzky, Andrew
2016-01-01
Flueric devices are fluidic devices without moving parts. Fluidic devices use fluid as a medium for information transfer and computation. A Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) medium is a thin-layer spatially extended excitable chemical medium which exhibits travelling excitation wave-fronts. The excitation wave-fronts transfer information. Flueric devices compute via jets interaction. BZ devices compute via excitation wave-fronts interaction. In numerical model of BZ medium we show that functions of key flueric devices are implemented in the excitable chemical system: signal generator, and, xor, not and nor Boolean gates, delay elements, diodes and sensors. Flueric devices have been widely used in industry since late 1960s and are still employed in automotive and aircraft technologies. Implementation of analog of the flueric devices in the excitable chemical systems opens doors to further applications of excitation wave-based unconventional computing in soft robotics, embedded organic electronics and living technologies.
Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization Workshop
Trujillo, Leonardo; Legrand, Pierrick; Maldonado, Yazmin
2017-01-01
This volume comprises a selection of works presented at the Numerical and Evolutionary Optimization (NEO) workshop held in September 2015 in Tijuana, Mexico. The development of powerful search and optimization techniques is of great importance in today’s world that requires researchers and practitioners to tackle a growing number of challenging real-world problems. In particular, there are two well-established and widely known fields that are commonly applied in this area: (i) traditional numerical optimization techniques and (ii) comparatively recent bio-inspired heuristics. Both paradigms have their unique strengths and weaknesses, allowing them to solve some challenging problems while still failing in others. The goal of the NEO workshop series is to bring together people from these and related fields to discuss, compare and merge their complimentary perspectives in order to develop fast and reliable hybrid methods that maximize the strengths and minimize the weaknesses of the underlying paradigms. Throu...
Nimbus-2 Level 2 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) V001
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Nimbus II Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) was designed to measure electromagnetic radiation emitted and reflected from the earth and its atmosphere...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, R.T.; Manteufel, R.D.; Dodge, F.T.; Svedeman, S.J.
1993-07-01
The performance of a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste will be influenced to a large degree by thermohydrologic phenomena created by the emplacement of heat-generating radioactive waste. The importance of these phenomena is manifest in that they can greatly affect the movement of moisture and the resulting transport of radionuclides from the repository. Thus, these phenomena must be well understood prior to a definitive assessment of a potential repository site. An investigation has been undertaken along three separate avenues of analysis: (i) laboratory experiments, (ii) mathematical models, and (iii) similitude analysis. A summary of accomplishments to date is as follows. (1) A review of the literature on the theory of heat and mass transfer in partially saturated porous medium. (2) A development of the governing conservation and constitutive equations. (3) A development of a dimensionless form of the governing equations. (4) A numerical study of the importance and sensitivity of flow to a set of dimensionless groups. (5) A survey and evaluation of experimental measurement techniques. (6) Execution of laboratory experiments of nonisothermal flow in a porous medium with a simulated fracture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassabatere, Thierry
1994-01-01
The target of this research is to set up a unified and coherent working frame based upon the rigorous principles of thermodynamics and making it possible to model a large class of physical phenomena acting in unsaturated porous media, as well as the related interactions with the mechanical state of the structures. This class corresponds to reactive phenomena among which one finds the phase change (desiccation) for which the whole of its subsequent actions (creep but essentially shrinkage) is modelled and which will be treated as a specific application example. The first chapter recalls the bases of the adopted description of the porous medium as well as the global thermodynamical frame which underlays the whole modelling. Chapter II deals with the mainly new formulation and the identification of a non linear elastic constitutive law of the medium involved. Various reflexion elements related to the microscopic behaviours of the components and to experiments have orientated the model towards some more limitative hypotheses making it possible to have a complete and explicit determination of a law for the macroscopic behaviour. Chapter IV and V are examples of application: chapter IV studies the problem of shrinkage and creep in a coupled linear elastic behaviour. Chapter V is limited to the case of shrinkage treated by a numerical application of the whole non-linear elastic model. The results obtained are in good agreement with the corresponding experiments. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chanfray, G.
1996-07-01
We discuss various aspects of pion physics in the nuclear medium. We first study s-wave pion-nucleus interaction in connection with chiral symmetry restoration and quark condensate in the nuclear medium. We then address the question of p-wave pion-nucleus interaction and collective pionic modes in nuclei and draw the consequences for in medium ππ correlations especially in the scalar-isoscalar channel. We finally discuss the modification of the rho meson mass spectrum at finite density and/or temperature in connection with relativistic heavy ion collisions
7 CFR 1412.49 - Apportionment of long and medium grain rice.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. 1412.49... and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.49 Apportionment of long and medium grain rice. (a) Rice base... rice base acres in paragraph (a) of this section into two categories: (i) Long grain rice, and (ii...
Medium modifications of vector mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pant, L.M.
2004-01-01
The omega photoproduction in nuclear medium with the ELSA facility at Bonn and the present status of the HADES collaboration to investigate the in-medium hadron properties in proton, heavy ions and hadron induced reactions at GSI, Darmstadt are presented. Efforts are under way to utilise the electron beam at Indore for experimental hadron physics in order to step into the intermediate energy nuclear physics regime. The skeletal outline of the high energy electron beam now available at CAT, Indore is discussed
Medium effects in direct reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karakoc, M; Bertulani, C
2013-01-01
We discuss medium corrections of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections and their influence on direct reactions at intermediate energies ≳50 MeV/nucleon. The results obtained with free NN cross sections are compared with those obtained with a geometrical treatment of Pauli-blocking and Dirac-Bruecker methods. We show that medium corrections may lead to sizable modifications for collisions at intermediate energies and that they are more pronounced in reactions involving weakly bound nuclei.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Padma Latha
2007-04-01
Full Text Available Chemical speciation of Pb(II, Cd(II, Hg(II, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II complexes of L-methionine in 0.0-60 % v/v 1,2-propanediol-water mixtures maintaining an ionic strength of 0.16 M at 303 K has been studied pH metrically. The active forms of ligand are LH2+, LH and L-. The predominant species detected are ML, MLH, ML2, ML2H, ML2H2 and MLOH. Models containing different numbers of species were refined by using the computer program MINIQUAD 75. The best-fit chemical models were arrived at based on statistical parameters. The trend in variation of complex stability constants with change in the dielectric constant of the medium is explained on the basis of electrostatic and non-electrostatic forces.
Chemistry of neptunium and of other actinides in carbonate medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riglet, C.
1990-01-01
This work is a contribution to the establishment of a thermodynamic data base in order to forecast the behaviour of Np and other actinides in natural waters that might come into contact with a nuclear waste repository. Redox potentials and complexation constants in acidic and carbonate media are measured in aqueous solutions, in the presence of an inert salt (sodium perchlorate) of variable concentrations. The activity coefficients are calculated, from the variation of thermodynamic measurements with the ionic strength, with the Specific Interaction Theory (S.I.T.). The electrochemical data, obtained by polarography and voltamperometry, are interpreted, for irreversible systems, with numerical and graphical methods based on the Koutecky-Weber's and S.I.T. equations. The equilibrium constants in carbonate medium are measured by absorption spectrophotometry and a graphical method is proposed to determine the stoichiometries of polynuclear species. In this work are proposed numerical data relative to: - the redox potentials of the systems: M(VI/V) and M(IV/III) in acidic medium where M = U, Np, Pu; U(VI/V) in carbonate medium; Np(VI/V) in bicarbonate medium of ionic strength 3 M. - the formation constants of the hexakis (carbonato) tris [dioxoneptunate (VI)] complex in 3 M medium - the formation constants of the mono, di and tri (carbonato) dioxoneptunate (V) complexes - the influence of the ionic strength on some of the studied chemical equilibria by using, when necessary, literature results. All specific interaction coefficients (activity coefficients) of these species are also measured or calculated [fr
On modeling and measuring the temperature of the z ∼ 5 intergalactic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lidz, Adam; Malloy, Matthew
2014-01-01
The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and He II reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha (Lyα) forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since He II reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z ≳ 5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Lyα forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Lyα forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z ≳ 5 IGM temperature can be measured using existing samples of high resolution quasar spectra, and find that interesting constraints are possible. For example, an early reionization model in which reionization ends at z ∼ 10 should be distinguishable—at high statistical significance—from a lower redshift model where reionization completes at z ∼ 6. We discuss improvements to our modeling that may be required to robustly interpret future measurements.
Crystal Structure of Rat Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsiao,Y.; Jogl, G.; Esser, V.; Tong, L.
2006-01-01
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT-II) has a crucial role in the {beta}-oxidation of long-chain fatty acids in mitochondria. We report here the crystal structure of rat CPT-II at 1.9 Angstroms resolution. The overall structure shares strong similarity to those of short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, although detailed structural differences in the active site region have a significant impact on the substrate selectivity of CPT-II. Three aliphatic chains, possibly from a detergent that is used for the crystallization, were found in the structure. Two of them are located in the carnitine and CoA binding sites, respectively. The third aliphatic chain may mimic the long-chain acyl group in the substrate of CPT-II. The binding site for this aliphatic chain does not exist in the short- and medium-chain carnitine acyltransferases, due to conformational differences among the enzymes. A unique insert in CPT-II is positioned on the surface of the enzyme, with a highly hydrophobic surface. It is likely that this surface patch mediates the association of CPT-II with the inner membrane of the mitochondria.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
activities of Schiff base tin (II) complexes. Neelofar1 ... Conclusion: All synthesized Schiff bases and their Tin (II) complexes showed high antimicrobial and ...... Singh HL. Synthesis and characterization of tin (II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids. Spectrochim Acta Part A: Molec Biomolec.
Shock propagation in a heterogeneous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elbaz, D.
2011-01-01
In the frame of the inertial confinement fusion in direct drive, the use of foams as ablator allows the reduction of hydrodynamic instabilities created on the target by the direct laser irradiation. The foam is made up of carbon (CH) fibers impregnated of cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT). In the past, studies have been carried out considering this foam to be a homogeneous medium. Yet, the foam presents heterogeneous features. We study the effects of this heterogeneity on the shock velocity when the laser irradiates the target. Thanks to experimental and numerical studies, we show that the shock propagates faster in the heterogeneous medium than in the homogeneous one with the same averaged density. This velocity gap depends on the presence rate of the CH fibers in the foam, the density ratio, the adiabatic coefficient and the foam geometry. We model the foam by different ways, more and more complex. The shock velocity modification is due to the baroclinicity which, during the interaction between the shock front and the interface, creates a vorticity deposition, responsible for the shock acceleration. Accordingly, an interface, which is plane and perpendicular to the front shock, maximizes the vorticity deposition and increases the velocity gaps between heterogeneous and homogeneous media. We found a correlation between the kinetic energy behind the shock front and the velocities relative difference. We compared our results with two analytical models. However, the system is not closed, so we can't for the moment develop a predictive model. (author) [fr
Effect of thermal loading due to laser pulse on thermoelastic porous medium under G-N theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed I.A. Othman
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the wave propagation of generalized thermoelastic medium with voids under the effect of thermal loading due to laser pulse with energy dissipation. The material is a homogeneous isotropic elastic half-space and heated by a non-Gaussian laser beam with the pulse duration of 0.2 ps. A normal mode method is proposed to analyse the problem and obtain numerical solutions for the displacement components, stresses, temperature distribution and the change in the volume fraction field. The results of the physical quantities have been illustrated graphically by comparison between both types II and III of Green-Naghdi theory for two values of time, as well as with and without void parameters. Keywords: Laser pulse, Voids, Energy dissipation, Green-Naghdi theory, Wave propagation, Thermoelasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jahshan, S.N.; Wemple, C.A.; Ganapol, B.D.
1993-01-01
A comparison of the numerical solutions of the transport equation describing the steady neutron slowing down in an infinite medium with constant cross sections is made with stochastic solutions obtained from tracking successive neutron histories in the same medium. The transport equation solution is obtained using a numerical Laplace transform inversion algorithm. The basis for the algorithm is an evaluation of the Bromwich integral without analytical continuation. Neither the transport nor the stochastic solution is limited in the number of scattering species allowed. The medium may contain an absorption component as well. (orig.)
Properties of the nuclear medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldo, M; Burgio, G F
2012-01-01
We review our knowledge on the properties of the nuclear medium that have been studied, over many years, on the basis of many-body theory, laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations. Throughout the presentation particular emphasis is placed on the possible relationship and links between the nuclear medium and the structure of nuclei, including the limitations of such an approach. First we consider the realm of phenomenological laboratory data and astrophysical observations and the hints they can give on the characteristics that the nuclear medium should possess. The analysis is based on phenomenological models, that however have a strong basis on physical intuition and an impressive success. More microscopic models are also considered, and it is shown that they are able to give invaluable information on the nuclear medium, in particular on its equation of state. The interplay between laboratory experiments and astrophysical observations is particularly stressed, and it is shown how their complementarity enormously enriches our insights into the structure of the nuclear medium. We then introduce the nucleon–nucleon interaction and the microscopic many-body theory of nuclear matter, with a critical discussion about the different approaches and their results. The Landau–Fermi liquid theory is introduced and briefly discussed, and it is shown how fruitful it can be in discussing the macroscopic and low-energy properties of the nuclear medium. As an illustrative example, we discuss neutron matter at very low density, and it is shown how it can be treated within the many-body theory. The general bulk properties of the nuclear medium are reviewed to indicate at which stage of our knowledge we stand, taking into account the most recent developments both in theory and experiments. A section is dedicated to the pairing problem. The connection with nuclear structure is then discussed, on the basis of the energy density functional method. The possibility of
Numerical methods using Matlab
Lindfield, George
2012-01-01
Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of useful and important numerical algorithms that can be implemented into MATLAB for a graphical interpretation to help researchers analyze a particular outcome. Many worked examples are given together with exercises and solutions to illustrate how numerical methods can be used to study problems that have applications in the biosciences, chaos, optimization, engineering and science across the board. Numerical Methods using MATLAB, 3e, is an extensive reference offering hundreds of use
The interaction of supernova ejecta with an ambient medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevalier, R.A.
1983-01-01
Plausible environments for supernovae are the interstellar medium with constant density or a circumstellar medium built up by mass loss with rho proportional to r -2 . Self-similar solutions for the interaction region between the expanding supernova gas and the ambient gas exist provided that the expanding gas has rho proportional to rsup(-n) with n > 5. The circumstellar medium case is likely to be important for the early evolution of Type II supernovae because their progenitor stars are probably red supergiants. The radio and X-ray emission observed from extragalactic supernovae may be from this interaction region. The early self-similar solutions can also be applied to the young galactic remnants. (Auth.)
Generation and Cycloaddition of o-Quinodimethane in Aqueous Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Margarete F. da Silva
2001-04-01
Full Text Available o-Quinodimethane can be generated from =ÃŽÂ±,ÃŽÂ±'-dihalo-o-xylenes using zinc in aqueous solution. In the presence of activated dienophiles cycloadducts can be obtained directly. Catalysis with tris-triphenylphosphine ruthenium(II dichloride reduces side reactions such as reduction and polymerisation and improves the yield. This is the first example of an organometallic cyclisation in aqueous medium using dihalo compounds.
1 Medium Regiment, (SAHA), SAA
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 4 (1986) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. 1 Medium Regiment, (S.A.H.A.), ...
Hadron photoproduction at medium energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dainton, J.B.
1985-04-01
Results from measurements of multibody photoproduction at medium incident photon energy (2.8 to 4.8 GeV) are presented and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on topics which are not well understood and which therefore motivate experiments with the upgraded electron accelerator and storage ring ELSA at the University of Bonn, FR Germany. (author)
Animal Locomotion in Different Mediums
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wetlands are repositories of unique biodiversity. Wetlandorganisms are well adapted to their habitat, lying at theinterface of aquatic and terrestrial environments. In order tounderstand their adaptations in a better way, it is essential tograsp the basic properties of the medium in which variousorganisms live. This is attempted ...
Cloaking of 2D particle geometries in a surface medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexopoulos, A., E-mail: Aris.Alexopoulos@dsto.defence.gov.au [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia); Yau, K.S.B. [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia)
2013-06-17
We theoretically examine the cloaking condition for two-dimensional particles with varying geometry embedded inside a surface medium. General solutions are obtained for multi-layer particle configurations with either all positive or partially negative constitutive parameters respectively. Cloaking of particle geometries that are large relative to the incident wavelength is demonstrated. Theoretical predictions are compared to full-wave numerical simulations for arrays of particles consisting of different geometries.
Spatial Discrete Soliton in Two dimensional with Kerr medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aghdami, M.; Mostafavi, D.; Mokhtari, F.; Keradmand, R.
2012-01-01
In this theoretical work propagation of the Gaussian beam through a two dimensional waveguides array is numerically investigated, in which each waveguide contains medium with Kerr nonlinearity considering coupling to vertical, horizontal and diagonal neighbor through light electric field. Different values of intensity, nonlinear coefficient Kerr and Gaussian beam width of incident Gaussian beam are examined and finally suitable parameters for providing central spatial solitons are obtained.
Management of small and medium size enterprises as a carrier of economic growth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ožegović Lazar
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous studies in the world of market economy show that the share of small and medium size enterprises is constantly increasing compared to large enterprises. This does not decrease the significance of large enterprises, but the dependence between them gets larger every day. National economies which manage to find the optimal combination between small, medium size and large enterprises are more successful than the others. Management of small and medium size enterprises (SMEs in conceptual terms is similar to the process of management of large enterprises. An organization must be managed in order to function and this rule applies to small and medium size enterprises.
Blackbody emission from light interacting with an effective moving dispersive medium.
Petev, M; Westerberg, N; Moss, D; Rubino, E; Rimoldi, C; Cacciatori, S L; Belgiorno, F; Faccio, D
2013-07-26
Intense laser pulses excite a nonlinear polarization response that may create an effective flowing medium and, under appropriate conditions, a blocking horizon for light. Here, we analyze in detail the interaction of light with such laser-induced flowing media, fully accounting for the medium dispersion properties. An analytical model based on a first Born approximation is found to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on Maxwell's equations and shows that when a blocking horizon is formed, the stimulated medium scatters light with a blackbody emission spectrum. Based on these results, diamond is proposed as a promising candidate medium for future studies of Hawking emission from artificial, dispersive horizons.
Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor
Alshankiti, Buthainah
2015-01-01
Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II
Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hattel, Jesper Henri; Pryds, Nini; Thorborg, Jesper
Fundamentals of Numerical Modelling of Casting Processes comprises a thorough presentation of the basic phenomena that need to be addressed in numerical simulation of casting processes. The main philosophy of the book is to present the topics in view of their physical meaning, whenever possible......, rather than relying strictly on mathematical formalism. The book, aimed both at the researcher and the practicing engineer, as well as the student, is naturally divided into four parts. Part I (Chapters 1-3) introduces the fundamentals of modelling in a 1-dimensional framework. Part II (Chapter 4...
Ziegler, Gerhard
2011-01-01
Distance protection provides the basis for network protection in transmission systems and meshed distribution systems. This book covers the fundamentals of distance protection and the special features of numerical technology. The emphasis is placed on the application of numerical distance relays in distribution and transmission systems.This book is aimed at students and engineers who wish to familiarise themselves with the subject of power system protection, as well as the experienced user, entering the area of numerical distance protection. Furthermore it serves as a reference guide for s
Singh, Devraj
2015-01-01
Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept
Holographic Renormalization in Dense Medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Chanyong
2014-01-01
The holographic renormalization of a charged black brane with or without a dilaton field, whose dual field theory describes a dense medium at finite temperature, is investigated in this paper. In a dense medium, two different thermodynamic descriptions are possible due to an additional conserved charge. These two different thermodynamic ensembles are classified by the asymptotic boundary condition of the bulk gauge field. It is also shown that in the holographic renormalization regularity of all bulk fields can reproduce consistent thermodynamic quantities and that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is nothing but the renormalized thermal entropy of the dual field theory. Furthermore, we find that the Reissner-Nordström AdS black brane is dual to a theory with conformal matter as expected, whereas a charged black brane with a nontrivial dilaton profile is mapped to a theory with nonconformal matter although its leading asymptotic geometry still remains as AdS space
Medium modifications with recoil polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brand, J.F.J. van den [Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge Energiefysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ent, R. [CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)
1994-04-01
The authors show that the virtual Compton scattering process allows for a precise study of the off-shell electron-nucleon vertex. In a separable model, they show the sensitivity to new unconstrained structure functions of the nucleon, beyond the usual Dirac and Pauli form factors. In addition, they show the sensitivity to bound nucleon form factors using the reaction 4He({rvec e},e{prime},{rvec p}){sup 3}H. A nucleon embedded in a nucleus represents a complex system. Firstly, the bound nucleon is necessarily off-shell and in principle a complete understanding of the dynamical structure of the nucleon is required in order to calculate its off-shell electromagnetic interaction. Secondly, one faces the possibility of genuine medium effects, such as for example quark-exchange contributions. Furthermore, the electromagnetic coupling to the bound nucleon is dependent on the nuclear dynamics through the self-energy of the nucleon in the nuclear medium.
Medium modifications with recoil polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brand, J.F.J. van den; Ent, R.
1994-01-01
The authors show that the virtual Compton scattering process allows for a precise study of the off-shell electron-nucleon vertex. In a separable model, they show the sensitivity to new unconstrained structure functions of the nucleon, beyond the usual Dirac and Pauli form factors. In addition, they show the sensitivity to bound nucleon form factors using the reaction 4He(rvec e,e',rvec p) 3 H. A nucleon embedded in a nucleus represents a complex system. Firstly, the bound nucleon is necessarily off-shell and in principle a complete understanding of the dynamical structure of the nucleon is required in order to calculate its off-shell electromagnetic interaction. Secondly, one faces the possibility of genuine medium effects, such as for example quark-exchange contributions. Furthermore, the electromagnetic coupling to the bound nucleon is dependent on the nuclear dynamics through the self-energy of the nucleon in the nuclear medium
Medium Theory and Social Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tække, Jesper
the possibility for observation both of a social micro and a social macro level from a medium perspective. In the next section the paper frames the macro level by a tentative synthesis of the medium theory and the sociological systems theory briefly describing a socio......-evolutionary process where new media alter the societal capacity to handle complexity in time and space. In this section it becomes probable that by means of different media, social systems give different possibilities for actual social performance. In a way, social systems themselves can be...... seen as medium for formation. Finally the paper takes the micro level perspective by applying the theory to newsgroups, interpreting them as self-organizing interactive systems giving a differentiated and diversified scope for social inclusion. ...
Remarks on numerical semigroups
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, F.
1995-12-01
We extend results on Weierstrass semigroups at ramified points of double covering of curves to any numerical semigroup whose genus is large enough. As an application we strengthen the properties concerning Weierstrass weights state in [To]. (author). 25 refs
Numerical semigroups and applications
Assi, Abdallah
2016-01-01
This work presents applications of numerical semigroups in Algebraic Geometry, Number Theory, and Coding Theory. Background on numerical semigroups is presented in the first two chapters, which introduce basic notation and fundamental concepts and irreducible numerical semigroups. The focus is in particular on free semigroups, which are irreducible; semigroups associated with planar curves are of this kind. The authors also introduce semigroups associated with irreducible meromorphic series, and show how these are used in order to present the properties of planar curves. Invariants of non-unique factorizations for numerical semigroups are also studied. These invariants are computationally accessible in this setting, and thus this monograph can be used as an introduction to Factorization Theory. Since factorizations and divisibility are strongly connected, the authors show some applications to AG Codes in the final section. The book will be of value for undergraduate students (especially those at a higher leve...
Mastorakis, Nikos E
2009-01-01
Features contributions that are focused on significant aspects of current numerical methods and computational mathematics. This book carries chapters that advanced methods and various variations on known techniques that can solve difficult scientific problems efficiently.
Introductory numerical analysis
Pettofrezzo, Anthony J
2006-01-01
Written for undergraduates who require a familiarity with the principles behind numerical analysis, this classical treatment encompasses finite differences, least squares theory, and harmonic analysis. Over 70 examples and 280 exercises. 1967 edition.
Introduction to numerical analysis
Hildebrand, F B
1987-01-01
Well-known, respected introduction, updated to integrate concepts and procedures associated with computers. Computation, approximation, interpolation, numerical differentiation and integration, smoothing of data, other topics in lucid presentation. Includes 150 additional problems in this edition. Bibliography.
Numerical analysis of bifurcations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guckenheimer, J.
1996-01-01
This paper is a brief survey of numerical methods for computing bifurcations of generic families of dynamical systems. Emphasis is placed upon algorithms that reflect the structure of the underlying mathematical theory while retaining numerical efficiency. Significant improvements in the computational analysis of dynamical systems are to be expected from more reliance of geometric insight coming from dynamical systems theory. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Numerical computations with GPUs
Kindratenko, Volodymyr
2014-01-01
This book brings together research on numerical methods adapted for Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). It explains recent efforts to adapt classic numerical methods, including solution of linear equations and FFT, for massively parallel GPU architectures. This volume consolidates recent research and adaptations, covering widely used methods that are at the core of many scientific and engineering computations. Each chapter is written by authors working on a specific group of methods; these leading experts provide mathematical background, parallel algorithms and implementation details leading to
Medium energy ion scattering (MEIS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dittmann, K.; Markwitz, A.
2009-01-01
This report gives an overview about the technique and experimental study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) as a quantitative technique to determine and analyse the composition and geometrical structure of crystalline surfaces and near surface-layers by measuring the energy and yield of the backscattered ions. The use of a lower energy range of 50 to 500 keV accelerated ions impinging onto the target surface and the application of a high-resolution electrostatic energy analyser (ESA) makes medium energy ion scattering spectroscopy into a high depth resolution and surface-sensitive version of RBS with less resulting damage effects. This report details the first steps of research in that field of measurement technology using medium energetic backscattered ions detected by means of a semiconductor radiation detector instead of an ESA. The study of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) has been performed using the 40 keV industrial ion implanter established at GNS Sciences remodelled with supplementary high voltage insulation for the ion source in order to apply voltages up to 45 kV, extra apertures installed in the beamline and sample chamber in order to set the beam diameter accurately, and a semiconductor radiation detector. For measurement purposes a beam of positive charged helium ions accelerated to an energy of about 80 keV has been used impinging onto target surfaces of lead implanted into silicon (PbSi), scandium implanted into aluminium (ScAl), aluminium foil (Al) and glassy carbon (C). First results show that it is possible to use the upgraded industrial implanter for medium energy ion scattering. The beam of 4 He 2+ with an energy up to 88 keV has been focussed to 1 mm in diameter. The 5 nA ion beam hit the samples under 2 x 10 -8 mbar. The results using the surface barrier detector show scattering events from the samples. Cooling of the detector to liquid nitrogen temperatures reduced the electronic noise in the backscattering spectrum close to zero. A
Maina, Fadji Hassane; Ackerer, Philippe; Younes, Anis; Guadagnini, Alberto; Berkowitz, Brian
2017-06-07
We present a combined experimental and numerical modeling study that addresses two principal questions: (i) is any particular Eulerian-based method used to solve the classical advection-dispersion equation (ADE) clearly superior (relative to the others), in terms of yielding solutions that reproduce BTCs of the kind that are typically sampled at the outlet of a laboratory cell? and (ii) in the presence of matches of comparable quality against such BTCs, do any of these methods render different (or similar) numerical BTCs at locations within the domain? To address these questions, we obtained measurements from carefully controlled laboratory experiments, and employ them as a reference against which numerical results are benchmarked and compared. The experiments measure solute transport breakthrough curves (BTCs) through a square domain containing various configurations of coarse, medium, and fine quartz sand. The approaches to solve the ADE involve Eulerian-Lagrangian and Eulerian (finite volume, finite elements, mixed and discontinuous finite elements) numerical methods. Model calibration is not examined; permeability and porosity of each sand were determined previously through separate, standard laboratory tests, while dispersivities are assigned values proportional to mean grain size. We find that the spatial discretization of the flow field is of critical importance, due to the non-uniformity of the domain. Although simulated BTCs at the system outlet are observed to be very similar for these various numerical methods, computed local (point-wise, inside the domain) BTCs can be very different. We find that none of the numerical methods is able to fully reproduce the measured BTCs. The impact of model parameter uncertainty on the calculated BTCs is characterized through a set of numerical Monte Carlo simulations; in cases where the impact is significant, assessment of simulation matches to the experimental data can be ambiguous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All
HPC Benchmark Suite NMx, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the phase II effort, Intelligent Automation Inc., (IAI) and University of Central Florida (UCF) propose to develop a comprehensive numerical test suite for...
Accretion from an inhomogeneous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Livio, M.; Soker, N.; Koo, M. de; Savonije, G.J.
1986-01-01
The problem of accretion by a compact object from an inhomogeneous medium is studied in the general γnot=1 case. The mass accretion rate is found to decrease with increasing γ. The rate of accretion of angular momentum is found to be significantly lower than the rate at which angular momentum is deposited into the Bondi-Hoyle, symmetrical, accretion cylinder. The consequences of the results are studied for the cases of neutron stars accreting from the winds of early-type companions and white dwarfs and main-sequence stars accreting from winds of cool giants. (author)
Charmed hadrons in nuclear medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolos, L.; Gamermann, D.; Molina, R.; Nieves, J.; Oset, E.; Garcia-Recio, C.; Ramos, A.
2010-01-01
We study the properties of charmed hadrons in dense matter within a coupled-channel approach which accounts for Pauli blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We analyze the behaviour in this dense environment of dynamically-generated baryonic resonances as well as the open-charm meson spectral functions. We discuss the implications of the in-medium properties of open-charm mesons on the D s0 (2317) and the predicted X(3700) scalar resonances. (authors)
Development of brachytherapy medium doserate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atang Susila; Ari Satmoko; Ahmad Rifai; Kristiyanti
2010-01-01
Brachytherapy has proven to be an effective treatment for different types of cancers and it become a common treatment modality in most radiotherapy clinics. PRPN has had experience in development of Low Dose Rate Brachytherapy for cervix cancer treatment. However the treatment process using LDR device needs 5 hours in time that the patient feel uncomfort. Therefore PRPN develops Medium Dose Rate Brachytherapy with radiation activity not more than 5 Currie. The project is divided into two stages. Purchasing of TPS software and TDS design are held in 2010, and the construction will be in 2011. (author)
Sinha, Nikita; Reddy, K Mahendranadh; Gupta, Nidhi; Shastry, Y M
2017-01-01
Occlusal plane (OP) differs considerably in participants with skeletal Class I and Class II participants. In this study, cephalometrics has been used to help in the determination of orientation of the OP utilizing the nonresorbable bony anatomic landmarks in skeletal Class II participants and an attempt has been made to predict and examine the OP in individuals with skeletal class II jaw relationship. One hundred dentulous participants with skeletal Class II malocclusion who came to the hospital for correcting their jaw relationship participated in the study. Their right lateral cephalogram was taken using standardized procedures, and all the tracings were manually done by a single trained examiner. The cephalograms which were taken for the diagnostic purpose were utilized for the study, and the patient was not exposed to any unnecessary radiation. The numerical values obtained from the cephalograms were subjected to statistical analysis. Pearson's correlation of orientation of the OP in Class II edentulous participants. Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were performed, and a high correlation was found between A2 and (A2 + B2)/(B2 + C2) with " r " value of 0.5. A medium correlation was found between D2 and (D2 + E2)/(E2 + F2) with " r " value of 0.42. The formula obtained for posterior reference frame through linear regression equation was y = 0.018* × +0.459 and the formula obtained for anterior reference frame was y1 = 0.011* × 1 + 0.497. It was hypothesized that by substituting these formulae in the cephalogram obtained from the Class II edentate individual, the OP can be obtained and verified. It was concluded that cephalometrics can be useful in examining the orientation of OP in skeletal Class II participants.
Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandu, Corina; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi
2006-01-01
This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties
Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sandu, Corina, E-mail: csandu@vt.edu; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mechanical Engineering Department (United States)
2006-04-15
This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties.
Accelerated Numerical Processing API Based on GPU Technology, Phase II
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The recent performance increases in graphics processing units (GPUs) have made graphics cards an attractive platform for implementing computationally intense...
Numerical simulation of the cavitation's hydrodynamic excitement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassis, H.; Dueymes, E.; Lauro, J.F.
1993-01-01
First, we study the motion, the velocity, the phases plane and the acoustic sources associated to a spherical bubble in a compressible or incompressible medium. The bubble can be excited by periodic or random excitements. We study the parameters which influence their behaviour: periodicity or not of motion, implosion and explosion or oscillation of bubble. We take into account this behaviour in a model of cavitation: it is a numerical simulation using population of bubbles which are with positions (in the cavitation volume) and sizes are random. These bubbles are excited by a random excitement: a model of turbulent flow or implosion and explosion of bubble. (author)
Medium modification of fragmentation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nezza, Pasquale Di
2007-01-01
Deep Inelastic Scattering is the cleanest process to investigate the space-time evolution of the hadronization. This was studied by the influence of the nuclear medium on lepto-production of hadrons at the Hermes experiment at DESY in semi-inclusive DIS of 27.6 GeV positrons off deuterium, nitrogen, krypton and xenon targets. The differential multiplicity for heavy targets relative to that of deuterium has been measured for the first time for various identified hadrons (φ + , φ - , φ 0 , k + , k - , p and anti-p) as a function of the virtual photon energy ?, the fraction z of this energy transferred to the hadron, and the hadron transverse momentum squared p 2 t . The distribution of the hadron transverse momentum is broadened towards high p 2 t in the nuclear medium, in a manner resembling the Cronin effect observed in collisions of heavy ions and protons with nuclei. The pt -broadening results give also important information about the pre-hadron formation time. Moreover, by studying the hadron attenuation of the leading and sub-leading hadrons, we report, for the first time, the possibility to better understand the hadron absorption and the energy loss contributions to the attenuation mechanism. (Author)
Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.
Unsaturated medium hydrocarbons pollution evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Luise, G.
1991-01-01
When the so called porous unsaturated medium, that's the vertical subsoil section between both the ground and water-table level, is interested by a hydrocarbons spill, the problem to evaluate the pollution becomes difficult: considering, essentially, the natural coexistence in it of two fluids, air and water, and the interactions between them. This paper reports that the problems tend to increase when a third fluid, the pollutant, immiscible with water, is introduced into the medium: a three-phases flow, which presents several analogies with the flow conditions present in an oil-reservoir, will be established. In such a situation, it would be very useful to handle the matter by the commonly used parameters in the oil reservoirs studies such as: residual saturation, relative permeability, phases mobility, to derive a first semiquantitative estimation of the pollution. The subsoil pollution form hydrocarbons agents is one of the worldwide more diffused causes of contamination: such events are generally referable to two main effects: accidental (oil pipeline breakdowns, e.g.), and continuous (underground tanks breaks, industrial plants leakages, e.g.)
Is the intercloud medium pervasive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heiles, C.
1980-01-01
We consider the pervasiveness of the ''not strongly absorbing'' (NSA) H I gas, which is the intercloud medium in steady state theories of the interstellar medium. We study the question by analyzing wide emission components in nearby gas, and the absence of absorption components in distant gas. We conclude that the NSA material is deficient in the immediately local solar vicinity. In nearby regions it contains 38% of the interstellar H I; it is generally pervasive and often has internal motions which greatly increase its velocity dispersion above the 5 km s -1 minimum value. It contains large holes, perhaps ranging up to 400 pc diameter, which probably occupy 10--20% of the volume. In distant regions the NSA material seems to be pervasive outside 8 kpc galactic radius. For galactic radii between 8 and 10 kpc its thickness agrees with previous determinations of 370 pc for nearby regions. Outside 10 kpc the thickness increases dramatically. Inside 8 kpc there are no data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda
This thesis describes the development of a numerical model of the propagation of sound waves in fluids with viscous and thermal losses, with application to the simulation of acoustic transducers, in particular condenser microphones for measurement. The theoretical basis is presented, numerical...... manipulations are developed to satisfy the more complicated boundary conditions, and a model of a condenser microphone with a coupled membrane is developed. The model is tested against measurements of ¼ inch condenser microphones and analytical calculations. A detailed discussion of the results is given....
On numerical Bessel transformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, B.; Zabolitzky, J.G.
1979-01-01
The authors present a computer program to calculate the three dimensional Fourier or Bessel transforms and definite integrals with Bessel functions. Numerical integration of systems containing Bessel functions occurs in many physical problems, e.g. electromagnetic form factor of nuclei, all transitions involving multipole expansions at high momenta. Filon's integration rule is extended to spherical Bessel functions. The numerical error is of the order of the Simpson error term of the function which has to be transformed. Thus one gets a stable integral even at large arguments of the transformed function. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, S.; Elliott, C.M.
1986-01-01
The applications of mathematics to industrial problems involves the formulation of problems which are amenable to mathematical investigation, mathematical modelling, the solution of the mathematical problem and the inter-pretation of the results. There are 12 chapters describing industrial problems where mathematics and numerical analysis can be applied. These range from the numerical assessment of the flatness of engineering surfaces and plates, the design of chain links, control problems in tidal power generation and low thrust satellite trajectory optimization to mathematical models in welding. One chapter, on the ageing of stainless steels, is indexed separately. (UK)
How Does the Medium Affect the Message?
Dommermuth, William P.
1974-01-01
This experimental comparison of the advertising effectiveness of television, movies, radio, and print finds no support for McLuhan's idea that television is a "cool" medium and movies are a "hot" medium. (RB)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiessen, H.A.
1982-08-01
The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H - beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiessen, H.A.
1982-08-01
The present conception of LAMPF II is a high-intensity 16-GeV synchrotron injected by the LAMPF 800-MeV H/sup -/ beam. The proton beam will be used to make secondary beams of neutrinos, muons, pions, kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons more intense than those of any existing or proposed accelerator. For example, by taking maximum advantage of a thick target, modern beam optics, and the LAMPF II proton beam, it will be possible to make a negative muon beam with nearly 100% duty factor and nearly 100 times the flux of the existing Stopped Muon Channel (SMC). Because the unique features of the proposed machine are most applicable to beams of the same momentum as LAMPF (that is, < 2 GeV/c), it may be possible to use most of the experimental areas and some of the auxiliary equipment, including spectrometers, with the new accelerator. The complete facility will provide improved technology for many areas of physics already available at LAMPF and will allow expansion of medium-energy physics to include kaons, antiprotons, and hyperons. When LAMPF II comes on line in 1990 LAMPF will have been operational for 18 years and a major upgrade such as this proposal will be reasonable and prudent.
Numerical modeling of the pulsar wind interaction with ISM
Bogovalov, S. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.; Koldoba, A. V.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Battiston, R; Shea, MA; Rakowski, C; Chatterjee, S
2006-01-01
Time dependent numerical simulation of relativistic wind interaction with interstellar medium was performed. The winds are ejected from magnetosphere of rotation powered pulsars. The particle flux in the winds is assumed to be isotropic. The energy flux is taken as strongly anisotropic in accordance
Il concetto di medium artistico: Richard Wollheim interprete di Ludwig Wittgenstein
Maistrello, Andrea
2016-01-01
The aim of the dissertation is twofold: (i) analyzing the notion (well known by aestheticians, but not so intensively studied) of artistic medium; (ii) showing the relevance of such notion for aesthetics through the examination of some relevant aspects of Richard Wollheim’s philosophy of art, maybe the main figure in Anglo-American philosophy as for considering artistic medium central in art-theorizing. Artistic media, according to Wollheim, can develop only if properly connected to a cultura...
Arvo, James
1991-01-01
Graphics Gems II is a collection of articles shared by a diverse group of people that reflect ideas and approaches in graphics programming which can benefit other computer graphics programmers.This volume presents techniques for doing well-known graphics operations faster or easier. The book contains chapters devoted to topics on two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry and algorithms, image processing, frame buffer techniques, and ray tracing techniques. The radiosity approach, matrix techniques, and numerical and programming techniques are likewise discussed.Graphics artists and comput
27 CFR 19.914 - Medium plants.
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medium plants. 19.914... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.914 Medium plants. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant shall make application for and obtain in...
Mapping of moveout in a TTI medium
Stovas, A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2012-01-01
To compute moveout in a transversely isotropic medium with tilted symmetry axis is a very complicated problem. We propose to split this problem into two parts. First, to compute the moveout in a corresponding VTI medium. Second, to map the computed moveout to a TTI medium.
Anastassiou, George A
2015-01-01
This is the first numerical analysis text to use Sage for the implementation of algorithms and can be used in a one-semester course for undergraduates in mathematics, math education, computer science/information technology, engineering, and physical sciences. The primary aim of this text is to simplify understanding of the theories and ideas from a numerical analysis/numerical methods course via a modern programming language like Sage. Aside from the presentation of fundamental theoretical notions of numerical analysis throughout the text, each chapter concludes with several exercises that are oriented to real-world application. Answers may be verified using Sage. The presented code, written in core components of Sage, are backward compatible, i.e., easily applicable to other software systems such as Mathematica®. Sage is open source software and uses Python-like syntax. Previous Python programming experience is not a requirement for the reader, though familiarity with any programming language is a p...
Numerical Estimation in Preschoolers
Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Piazza, Manuela; Dehaene, Stanislas; Zorzi, Marco
2010-01-01
Children's sense of numbers before formal education is thought to rely on an approximate number system based on logarithmically compressed analog magnitudes that increases in resolution throughout childhood. School-age children performing a numerical estimation task have been shown to increasingly rely on a formally appropriate, linear…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sollogoub, Pierre
2001-01-01
Numerical analyses are needed in different steps of the overall design process. Complex models or non-linear reactor core behaviour are important for qualification and/or comparison of results obtained. Adequate models and test should be defined. Fuel assembly, fuel row, and the complete core should be tested for seismic effects causing LOCA and flow-induced vibrations (FIV)
Development of numerical concepts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sabine Peucker
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The development of numerical concepts is described from infancy to preschool age. Infants a few days old exhibit an early sensitivity for numerosities. In the course of development, nonverbal mental models allow for the exact representation of small quantities as well as changes in these quantities. Subitising, as the accurate recognition of small numerosities (without counting, plays an important role. It can be assumed that numerical concepts and procedures start with insights about small numerosities. Protoquantitative schemata comprise fundamental knowledge about quantities. One-to-one-correspondence connects elements and numbers, and, for this reason, both quantitative and numerical knowledge. If children understand that they can determine the numerosity of a collection of elements by enumerating the elements, they have acquired the concept of cardinality. Protoquantitative knowledge becomes quantitative if it can be applied to numerosities and sequential numbers. The concepts of cardinality and part-part-whole are key to numerical development. Developmentally appropriate learning and teaching should focus on cardinality and part-part-whole concepts.
Isaacson, Eugene
1994-01-01
This excellent text for advanced undergraduates and graduate students covers norms, numerical solution of linear systems and matrix factoring, iterative solutions of nonlinear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, polynomial approximation, and other topics. It offers a careful analysis and stresses techniques for developing new methods, plus many examples and problems. 1966 edition.
Paradoxes in numerical calculations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Brandts, J.; Křížek, Michal; Zhang, Z.
2016-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 3 (2016), s. 317-330 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-02067S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : round-off errors * numerical instability * recurrence formulae Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016
High-harmonic generation in a dense medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strelkov, V.V.; Platonenko, V.T.; Becker, A.
2005-01-01
The high-harmonic generation in a plasma or gas under conditions when the single-atom response is affected by neighboring ions or atoms of the medium is studied theoretically. We solve numerically the three-dimensional Schroedinger equation for a single-electron atom in the combined fields of the neighboring particles and the laser, and average the results over different random positions of the particles using the Monte Carlo method. Harmonic spectra are calculated for different medium densities and laser intensities. We observe a change of the harmonic properties due to a random variation of the harmonic phase induced by the field of the medium, when the medium density exceeds a certain transition density. The transition density is found to depend on the harmonic order, but it is almost independent of the fundamental intensity. It also differs for the two (shorter and longer) quantum paths. The latter effect leads for ionic densities in the transition regime to a narrowing of the harmonic lines and a shortening of the attosecond pulses generated using a group of harmonics
Blackbody Emission from Light Interacting with an Effective Moving Dispersive Medium
Petev, M.; Westerberg, N.; Moss, D.; Rubino, E.; Rimoldi, C.; Cacciatori, S. L.; Belgiorno, F.; Faccio, D.
2013-01-01
Intense laser pulses excite a nonlinear polarisation response that may create an effective flowing medium and, under appropriate conditions, a blocking horizon for light. Here we analyse in detail the interaction of light with such laser-induced flowing media, fully accounting for the medium dispersion properties. An analytical model based on a first Born-approximation is found to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on Maxwell's equations and shows that when a blocking ...
Secure data storage by three-dimensional absorbers in highly scattering volume medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matoba, Osamu; Matsuki, Shinichiro; Nitta, Kouichi
2008-01-01
A novel data storage in a volume medium with highly scattering coefficient is proposed for data security application. Three-dimensional absorbers are used as data. These absorbers can not be measured by interferometer when the scattering in a volume medium is strong enough. We present a method to reconstruct three-dimensional absorbers and present numerical results to show the effectiveness of the proposed data storage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogelweith, L.; Lavergne, J.C.; Martinot, G.; Weiss, A.
1977-01-01
CEA (TECHNICATOME) has developed a range of pressurized water reactors of the type ''CAS compact'' which are adapted to civil ship propulsion, or to electric power production, combined possibly with heat production, up to outputs equivalent to 125 MWe. Nuclear plants equipped with these reactors are suitable to medium-size electric networks. Among the possible realizations, two types of plants are mentioned as examples: 1) Floating electron-nuclear plants; and 2) Combined electric power and desalting plants. The report describes the design characteristics of the different parts of a 125 MWe unit floating electro-nuclear plant: nuclear steam system CAS 3 G, power generating plant, floating platform for the whole plant. The report gives attention to the different possibilities according to site conditions (the plant can be kept floating, in a natural or artificial basin, it can be put aground, ...) and to safety and environment factors. Such unit can be used in places where there is a growing demand in electric power and fresh water. The report describes how the reactor, the power generating plant and multiflash distillation units of an electric power-desalting plant can be combined: choice of the ratio water output/electric power output, thermal cycle combination, choice of the gain ratio, according to economic considerations, and to desired goal of water output. The report analyses also some technical options, such as: choice of the extraction point of steam used as heat supply of the desalting station (bleeding a condensation turbine, or recovering steam at the exhaust of a backpressure turbine), design making the system safe. Lastly, economic considerations are dealt with: combining the production of fresh water and electric power provides usually a much better energy balance and a lower cost for both products. Examples are given of some types of installations which combine medium-size reactors with fresh water stations yielding from 10000 to 120000 m 3 per day
Refractive and diffractive scattering in the interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cordes, J.M.; Pidwerbetsky, A.; Lovelace, R.V.E.
1986-01-01
Radio wave propagation through electron-density fluctuations in the ISM is studied. Observable propagation effects are explored using a one-dimensional thin-screen model for the turbulent medium. Diffraction caused by stochastic small-scale irregularities is combined with refraction from deterministic large-scale irregularities. Some of the effects are illustrated with numerical simulations of the wave propagation. Multiple imaging is considered, delineating the possible effects and discussing their extensions to two-dimensional screens and extended three-dimensional media. The case where refraction as well as diffraction is caused by a stochastic medium with a spectrum of a given form is considered. The magnitudes of observable effects is estimated for representative spectra that may be relevant to the ISM. The importance of the various effects for timing and scintillation observations of pulsars, VLBI observations of galactic and extragalactic radio sources, and for variability measurements of extragalactic sources is assessed. 47 references
Generalized Effective Medium Theory for Particulate Nanocomposite Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Usama Siddiqui
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites is strongly dependent on the size, shape, orientation and dispersion uniformity of the inclusions. To correctly estimate the effective thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite, all these factors should be included in the prediction model. In this paper, the formulation of a generalized effective medium theory for the determination of the effective thermal conductivity of particulate nanocomposites with multiple inclusions is presented. The formulated methodology takes into account all the factors mentioned above and can be used to model nanocomposites with multiple inclusions that are randomly oriented or aligned in a particular direction. The effect of inclusion dispersion non-uniformity is modeled using a two-scale approach. The applications of the formulated effective medium theory are demonstrated using previously published experimental and numerical results for several particulate nanocomposites.
An effective medium description of 'Swiss Rolls', a magnetic metamaterial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Williams, W; Hajnal, J V
2007-01-01
The 'Swiss Roll' metamaterial medium is well suited to operation in the radio frequency (RF) range, because it has a low resonant frequency and a strong magnetic response. Two prisms of this material, one hexagonal and one square, have been constructed and characterized both at the metamaterial's resonant frequency of 21.5 MHz and above it, where the effective permeability is strongly negative. A series of spatial resonances is observed in the field patterns on the surfaces of the prisms. Using an effective medium description, we have carried out both analytical and numerical modelling of the electromagnetic behaviour of the metamaterial, and find, within certain obvious limitations, extremely good agreement between the measured and modelled results
Industry, Brand, and the Role of Digital Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indro Adinugroho
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Rapid growth in information technology forces various industries and business owners to think strategically to reach public attention. This condition also brings the logical consequence of using online medium as their primary marketing tools. Various online medium or usually called as social media such as Twitter, Path, and Facebook have been used by numerous industries as tools to communicate their ideas, brands, and promotion to the public. Along with this condition, industries need to think strategically to develop contemporary marketing communication strategy. This research is a case analysis focusing on examining marketing communication strategy of a brand. One brand identified is Pocari Sweat, Japanese isotonic drink brand. This brand is selected due to the availability of our computer devices to track the tweets. From this study, we have concluded that in this disruption era, marketing communication strategy can be known and identified by others only by tracking their digital footprint.
Thermal emission characteristics of a graded index semitransparent medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yong; Dong Sujun; Yang Min; Wang Jun
2008-01-01
This paper develops a numerical model for thermal radiative transfer in a two-dimensional semitransparent graded index medium. A piecewise continuous refractive index model, the linear refractive index bar model, is presented. This model is established based on three hypotheses, and has a higher precision than the bar model used previously. This paper also studies the thermal emission from a two-dimensional graded index medium, which is scattering or non-scattering. We find that it can present an obvious pattern of directional distribution at times. The refractive index distribution and absorption coefficient are the two main influential factors. This finding differs from the common belief that thermal sources, such as the incandescent filament of a light bulb, emit a quasi-isotropic light. The finding also suggests that there maybe other important applications of artificial GRIN materials
A direct sampling method for inverse electromagnetic medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi
2013-09-01
In this paper, we study the inverse electromagnetic medium scattering problem of estimating the support and shape of medium scatterers from scattered electric/magnetic near-field data. We shall develop a novel direct sampling method based on an analysis of electromagnetic scattering and the behavior of the fundamental solution. It is applicable to a few incident fields and needs only to compute inner products of the measured scattered field with the fundamental solutions located at sampling points. Hence, it is strictly direct, computationally very efficient and highly robust to the presence of data noise. Two- and three-dimensional numerical experiments indicate that it can provide reliable support estimates for multiple scatterers in the case of both exact and highly noisy data. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Analysis of photonic band-gap structures in stratified medium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tong, Ming-Sze; Yinchao, Chen; Lu, Yilong
2005-01-01
in electromagnetic and microwave applications once the Maxwell's equations are appropriately modeled. Originality/value - The method validates its values and properties through extensive studies on regular and defective 1D PBG structures in stratified medium, and it can be further extended to solving more......Purpose - To demonstrate the flexibility and advantages of a non-uniform pseudo-spectral time domain (nu-PSTD) method through studies of the wave propagation characteristics on photonic band-gap (PBG) structures in stratified medium Design/methodology/approach - A nu-PSTD method is proposed...... in solving the Maxwell's equations numerically. It expands the temporal derivatives using the finite differences, while it adopts the Fourier transform (FT) properties to expand the spatial derivatives in Maxwell's equations. In addition, the method makes use of the chain-rule property in calculus together...
Medium energy nuclear physics research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.
1993-06-01
The University of Massachusetts (UMass) Nuclear Physics Program continues to concentrate upon the use of the electromagnetic interaction in a joint experimental and theoretical approach to the study of nucleon and nuclear properties. During the past year the activities of the group involved data analysis, design and construction of equipment, planning for new experiments, completion of papers and review articles for publication, writing of proposals for experiments, but very little actual data acquisition. Section II.A. described experiments at Bates Linear Accelerator Center. They include the following: electrodisintegration of deuteron; measurement of the elastic magnetic form factor of 3 He; coincidence measurement of the D(e,e'p) cross section; transverse form factors of 117 Sn; ground state magnetization density of 89 Y; and measurement of the 5th structure function in deuterium and 12 C. Section II.B. includes the following experiments at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center: deuteron threshold electrodisintegration; separation of charge and magnetic form factors of the neutron and proton; measurement of the X-, Q 2 , and A-dependence of R = σ L /σ T ; and analysis of 14.5 GeV electrons and positions scattered from gases in the PEP Storage Ring. Section III.C. includes the following experiments at NIKHEF and Lund: complementary studies of single-nucleon knockout and single-nucleon wave functions using electromagnetic interactions and single-particle densities of sd-shell nuclei. Section II.D. discusses preparations for future work at CEBAF: electronics for the CLAS region 1 drift chamber Section III. includes theoretical work on parity-violating electron scattering and nuclear structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Knudsen, Kim; Wriedt, Thomas
Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) aims to reconstruct inhomogeneities or inclusions in the interior of a medium based on current and voltage measurements at the boundary of the medium. In many practical applications of EIT, the e±ciency of the employed numerical inversion scheme is an essential...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rudolf, Frauke; Lemvik, Grethe; Abate, Ebba
2013-01-01
Abstract Background: The TBscore, based on simple signs and symptoms, was introduced to predict unsuccessful outcome in tuberculosis patients on treatment. A recent inter-observer variation study showed profound variation in some variables. Further, some variables depend on a physician assessing...... them, making the score less applicable. The aim of the present study was to simplify the TBscore. Methods: Inter-observer variation assessment and exploratory factor analysis were combined to develop a simplified score, the TBscore II. To validate TBscore II we assessed the association between start...
Tattoo: a multifaceted medium of communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Wymann
2010-11-01
Full Text Available This article suggests the systems theoretical distinction of form/medium as a useful tool for distinguishing social phenomena that might look as if they stem from the same process. This is shown to be the case for the tattoo and tattooing. The tattoo is conceived as a medium of communication through which different forms of communication emerge. Tattooing is one of these forms of communication that shapes the medium in a particular way. The current article sheds a special light on its intricate, communicational constellation, for which the concept of parallax is suggested. Law, medicine and cosmetics as other forms of communication use the medium of tattoo in their own way as well. The form/medium distinction allows us to grasp these different forms of communication, while it shows that they share the tattoo as medium. The article’s ultimate goal is to illustrate that the tattoo figures as a multifaceted medium of communication.
Effective Medium Theory for Anisotropic Metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan
2017-11-12
This dissertation includes the study of effective medium theories (EMTs) and their applications in describing wave propagation in anisotropic metamaterials, which can guide the design of metamaterials. An EMT based on field averaging is proposed to describe a peculiar anisotropic dispersion relation that is linear along the symmetry line but quadratic in the perpendicular direction. This dispersion relation is associated with the topological transition of the iso-frequency contours (IFCs), suggesting interesting wave propagation behaviors from beam shaping to beam splitting. In the framework of coherent potential approximation, an analytical EMT is further developed, with the ability to build a direct connection between the microscopic structure and the macroscopic material properties, which overcomes the requirement of prior knowledge of the field distributions. The derived EMT is valid beyond the long-wavelength limit. Using the EMT, an anisotropic zero-index metamaterial is designed. Moreover, the derived EMT imposes a condition that no scattered wave is generated in the ambient medium, which suggests the input signal cannot detect any object that might exist, making it invisible. Such correspondence between the EMT and the invisibilityinspires us to explore the wave cloaking in the same framework of coherent potential approximation. To further broaden the application realm of EMT, an EMT using the parameter retrieval method is studied in the regimes where the previously-developed EMTs are no longer accurate. Based on this study, in conjunction with the EMT mentioned above, a general scheme to realize coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in anisotropic metamaterials is proposed. As an exciting area in metamaterials, the field of metasurfaces has drawn great attention recently. As an easily attainable device, a grating may be the simplest version of metasurfaces. Here, an analytical EMT for gratings made of cylinders is developed by using the multiple scattering
Effect of switching-off of a plasma medium on a traveling wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalluri, D.K.
1989-01-01
It is known that a sudden creation of a plasma medium of plasma frequency ω ρ splits a traveling wave of frequency ω o into two new waves of frequencies. The negative value for the frequency here indicates a reflected wave. The effect of a sudden collapse of the plasma medium, on a travelling wave of frequency ω o is shown to be the creation of two new waves of frequencies. A numerical solution is obtained for the case of a gradual collapse of the plasma medium. For the case of a slow decay of the particle density an approximate WKB type solution is obtained. Several results are presented
Medium-Based Design: Extending a Medium to Create an Exploratory Learning Environment
Rick, Jochen; Lamberty, K. K.
2005-01-01
This article introduces "medium-based" design -- an approach to creating "exploratory learning environments" using the method of "extending a medium". First, the characteristics of exploratory learning environments and medium-based design are described and grounded in related work. Particular attention is given to "extending a medium" --…
Borcard, Daniel; Legendre, Pierre
2018-01-01
This new edition of Numerical Ecology with R guides readers through an applied exploration of the major methods of multivariate data analysis, as seen through the eyes of three ecologists. It provides a bridge between a textbook of numerical ecology and the implementation of this discipline in the R language. The book begins by examining some exploratory approaches. It proceeds logically with the construction of the key building blocks of most methods, i.e. association measures and matrices, and then submits example data to three families of approaches: clustering, ordination and canonical ordination. The last two chapters make use of these methods to explore important and contemporary issues in ecology: the analysis of spatial structures and of community diversity. The aims of methods thus range from descriptive to explanatory and predictive and encompass a wide variety of approaches that should provide readers with an extensive toolbox that can address a wide palette of questions arising in contemporary mul...
Numerical simulation in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyama, Shoken
1985-01-01
There have been many numerical simulations of hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics, e.g. processes of star formation, supernova explosion and formation of neutron stars, and general relativistic collapse of star to form black hole. The codes are made to be suitable for computing such problems. In astrophysical hydrodynamical problems, there are the characteristics: problems of self-gravity or external gravity acting, objects of scales very large or very short, objects changing by short period or long time scale, problems of magnetic force and/or centrifugal force acting. In this paper, we present one of methods of numerical simulations which may satisfy these requirements, so-called smoothed particle methods. We then introduce the methods briefly. Then, we show one of the applications of the methods to astrophysical problem (fragmentation and collapse of rotating isothermal cloud). (Mori, K.)
Hybrid undulator numerical optimization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hairetdinov, A.H. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zukov, A.A. [Solid State Physics Institute, Chernogolovka (Russian Federation)
1995-12-31
3D properties of the hybrid undulator scheme arc studied numerically using PANDIRA code. It is shown that there exist two well defined sets of undulator parameters which provide either maximum on-axis field amplitude or minimal higher harmonics amplitude of the basic undulator field. Thus the alternative between higher field amplitude or pure sinusoidal field exists. The behavior of the undulator field amplitude and harmonics structure for a large set of (undulator gap)/(undulator wavelength) values is demonstrated.
Comments on numerical simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.
1984-01-01
The author comments on a couple of things about numerical simulation. One is just about the philosophical discussion that is, spontaneous or driven. The other thing is the numerical or technical one. Frankly, the author didn't want to touch on the technical matter because this should be a common sense one for those who are working at numerical simulation. But since many people take numerical simulation results at their face value, he would like to remind you of the reality hidden behind them. First, he would point out that the meaning of ''driven'' in driven reconnection is different from that defined by Schindler or Akasofu. The author's definition is closer to Axford's definition. In the spontaneous case, for some unpredicted reason an excess energy of the system is suddenly released at a certain point. However, one does not answer how such an unstable state far beyond a stable limit is realized in the magnetotail. In the driven case, there is a definite energy buildup phase starting from a stable state; namely, energy in the black box increases from a stable level subject to an external source. When the state has reached a certain position, the energy is released suddenly. The difference between driven and spontaneous is whether the cause (plasma flow) to trigger reconnection is specified or reconnection is triggered unpredictably. Another difference is that in driven reconnection the reconnection rate is dependent on the speed of the external plasma flow, but in spontaneous reconnection the rate is dependent on the internal condition such as the resistivity
Numerical simulation of plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dnestrovskii, Y.N.; Kostomarov, D.P.
1986-01-01
This book contains a modern consistent and systematic presentation of numerical computer simulation of plasmas in controlled thermonuclear fusion. The authors focus on the Soviet research in mathematical modelling of Tokamak plasmas, and present kinetic hydrodynamic and transport models with special emphasis on the more recent hybrid models. Compared with the first edition (in Russian) this book has been greatly revised and updated. (orig./WL)
Handbook of numerical analysis
Ciarlet, Philippe G
Mathematical finance is a prolific scientific domain in which there exists a particular characteristic of developing both advanced theories and practical techniques simultaneously. Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Methods in Finance addresses the three most important aspects in the field: mathematical models, computational methods, and applications, and provides a solid overview of major new ideas and results in the three domains. Coverage of all aspects of quantitative finance including models, computational methods and applications Provides an overview of new ideas an
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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This investigation describes the use of non-living biomass of Aspergillus caespitosus for removal of ... Pb(II) production has exceeded 3.5 million tons per year. It has been used in the ... This biomass was selected after screening a wide range of microbes. .... prolonged, which proved better biopolymer in metal uptake (Gadd ...
A direct sampling method to an inverse medium scattering problem
Ito, Kazufumi
2012-01-10
In this work we present a novel sampling method for time harmonic inverse medium scattering problems. It provides a simple tool to directly estimate the shape of the unknown scatterers (inhomogeneous media), and it is applicable even when the measured data are only available for one or two incident directions. A mathematical derivation is provided for its validation. Two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations are presented, which show that the method is accurate even with a few sets of scattered field data, computationally efficient, and very robust with respect to noises in the data. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Realization of a complementary medium using dielectric photonic crystals.
Xu, Tao; Fang, Anan; Jia, Ziyuan; Ji, Liyu; Hang, Zhi Hong
2017-12-01
By exploiting the scaling invariance of photonic band diagrams, a complementary photonic crystal slab structure is realized by stacking two uniformly scaled double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal slabs together. The space cancellation effect in complementary photonic crystals is demonstrated in both numerical simulations and microwave experiments. The refractive index dispersion of double-zero-index dielectric photonic crystal is experimentally measured. Using pure dielectrics, our photonic crystal structure will be an ideal platform to explore various intriguing properties related to a complementary medium.
Diffusion of radionuclide chains through an adsorbing medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkholder, H.C.; DeFigh-Price, C.
1977-01-01
The diffusion of radionuclide chains from an underground nuclear waste disposal site through the surrounding geologic medium to the surface is investigated for impulse and band releases. Numerical calculation of the analytical solutions shows that differences in adsorption characteristics among chain members and radioactive decay during transit reduce radionuclide discharges to the biosphere. Results suggest that molecular diffusion is unlikely to be an important transfer mechanism from geologic isolation, and that disposal of radionuclides in deep geologic formations and in the seabed under conditions of very low or nonexistent water flow is likely to be very effective in preventing radioactivity releases to the biosphere
Data acquisition system for medium power neutral beam test facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stewart, C.R. Jr.; Francis, J.E. Jr.; Hammons, C.E.; Dagenhart, W.K.
1978-06-01
The Medium Power Neutral Beam Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was constructed in order to develop, test, and condition powerful neutral beam lines for the Princeton Large Torus experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The data acquisition system for the test stand monitors source performance, beam characteristics, and power deposition profiles to determine if the beam line is operating up to its design specifications. The speed of the computer system is utilized to provide near-real-time analysis of experimental data. Analysis of the data is presented as numerical tabulation and graphic display
Permeability of model porous medium formed by random discs
Gubaidullin, A. A.; Gubkin, A. S.; Igoshin, D. E.; Ignatev, P. A.
2018-03-01
Two-dimension model of the porous medium with skeleton of randomly located overlapping discs is proposed. The geometry and computational grid are built in open package Salome. Flow of Newtonian liquid in longitudinal and transverse directions is calculated and its flow rate is defined. The numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a given pressure drop at the boundaries of the area is realized in the open package OpenFOAM. Calculated value of flow rate is used for defining of permeability coefficient on the base of Darcy law. For evaluating of representativeness of computational domain the permeability coefficients in longitudinal and transverse directions are compered.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aden Evens
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Problematic at best, the desire for a transparent interface nevertheless drives much of digital culture and technology. But not the Web; or at least, not Web 1.0. Thoroughly commercialized, comfortably parsed into genres, serving billions of pages of predigested content to passive consumers, the World Wide Web as developed in the '90s unabashedly embraces its role as medium. While so many digital technologies work to hide their mediacy--drawing in the user with a total simulated sensorium, dematerializing the resistances of size and weight, untangling the knots of cables tying user to machine and machine to cubicle, minimizing the interface--Web 1.0 proudly clings to the browser as a glaring reminder of its medial character. While Web 2.0 has not forsaken the browser altogether, it nevertheless seems to offer a different sort of mediation. Arising alongside the atomization of browser functions, the ubiquitization of connectivity, and the coincidence of producer and user, Web 2.0 retains the form of a medium while reaching for the experiential logic of immediacy. This is not the immediacy of the transparent interface; rather, Web 2.0 effects an immediate relationship between the individual and culture. The interface does not disappear, but its mediacy is subsumed under the general form of cultural participation. Focusing on the "version upgrade" from Web 1.0 to 2.0, this essay will explore the implications for mediacy of this transition, noting that the fantasy of immediacy which drives Web 2.0 is layered and complex. The typical account of immediacy proposes to eliminate the interface and so construct a virtual reality (VR. But Web 2.0 mostly sidesteps the virtual, propelled instead by a fantasy of intuition in which the Web already knows what you want because it is you. Crucially, fantasies about the digital are effective: the computer's futurity inhabits our world, finding its expression in politics, advertising, budgeting, strategic planning
Biological iron(II) oxidation as pre-treatment to limestone neutralisation of acid water
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Maree
1998-01-01
Full Text Available at investigating the effect of surface area of the medium that supports bacterial growth on the rate of biological iron (II) oxidation. The study showed that the biological iron (II) oxidation rate is directly proportional to the square root of the medium specific...
Selection of culture medium and conditions for the production of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
defined medium–A, defined medium-B, synthetic medium, rich medium and industrial medium) showed that the synthetic medium yielded maximum yeast biomass (12.8 g/LDCW) followed by rich medium (11.7 g/L DCW) and defined medium B ...
FINDING THE FIRST COSMIC EXPLOSIONS. II. CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whalen, Daniel J.; Joggerst, Candace C.; Fryer, Chris L.; Stiavelli, Massimo; Heger, Alexander; Holz, Daniel E.
2013-01-01
Understanding the properties of Population III (Pop III) stars is prerequisite to elucidating the nature of primeval galaxies, the chemical enrichment and reionization of the early intergalactic medium, and the origin of supermassive black holes. While the primordial initial mass function (IMF) remains unknown, recent evidence from numerical simulations and stellar archaeology suggests that some Pop III stars may have had lower masses than previously thought, 15-50 M ☉ in addition to 50-500 M ☉ . The detection of Pop III supernovae (SNe) by JWST, WFIRST, or the TMT could directly probe the primordial IMF for the first time. We present numerical simulations of 15-40 M ☉ Pop III core-collapse SNe performed with the Los Alamos radiation hydrodynamics code RAGE. We find that they will be visible in the earliest galaxies out to z ∼ 10-15, tracing their star formation rates and in some cases revealing their positions on the sky. Since the central engines of Pop III and solar-metallicity core-collapse SNe are quite similar, future detection of any Type II SNe by next-generation NIR instruments will in general be limited to this epoch.
A two-stage method for inverse medium scattering
Ito, Kazufumi
2013-03-01
We present a novel numerical method to the time-harmonic inverse medium scattering problem of recovering the refractive index from noisy near-field scattered data. The approach consists of two stages, one pruning step of detecting the scatterer support, and one resolution enhancing step with nonsmooth mixed regularization. The first step is strictly direct and of sampling type, and it faithfully detects the scatterer support. The second step is an innovative application of nonsmooth mixed regularization, and it accurately resolves the scatterer size as well as intensities. The nonsmooth model can be efficiently solved by a semi-smooth Newton-type method. Numerical results for two- and three-dimensional examples indicate that the new approach is accurate, computationally efficient, and robust with respect to data noise. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.
The interstellar medium in galaxies
1997-01-01
It has been more than five decades ago that Henk van de Hulst predicted the observability of the 21-cm line of neutral hydrogen (HI ). Since then use of the 21-cm line has greatly improved our knowledge in many fields and has been used for galactic structure studies, studies of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of the mass distribution of the Milky Way and other galaxies, studies of spiral struc ture, studies of high velocity gas in the Milky Way and other galaxies, for measuring distances using the Tully-Fisher relation etc. Regarding studies of the ISM, there have been a number of instrumen tal developments over the past decade: large CCD's became available on optical telescopes, radio synthesis offered sensitive imaging capabilities, not only in the classical 21-cm HI line but also in the mm-transitions of CO and other molecules, and X-ray imaging capabilities became available to measure the hot component of the ISM. These developments meant that Milky Way was n...
Studies in medium energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, A.; Hoffmann, G.W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M.J.; Ray, R.L.; Read, D.E.; Worn, S.D.
1991-12-01
This document constitutes the (1991--1992) technical progress report and continuation proposal for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant DE-FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics; (2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind ''exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics
Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Monier, M., E-mail: monierchem@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt); Ayad, D.M.; Sarhan, A.A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura (Egypt)
2010-04-15
The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.
Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers.
Monier, M; Ayad, D M; Sarhan, A A
2010-04-15
The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adsorption of Cu(II), Hg(II), and Ni(II) ions by modified natural wool chelating fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monier, M.; Ayad, D.M.; Sarhan, A.A.
2010-01-01
The graft copolymerization of ethyl acrylate (EA) onto natural wool fibers initiated by potassium persulphate and Mohr's salt redox initiator system in limited aqueous medium was carried out in heterogeneous media. Ester groups of the grafted copolymers were partially converted into hydrazide function groups followed by hydrazone formation through reaction with isatin. Also the application of the modified fibers for metal ion uptake was studied using Cu(II), Hg(II) and Ni(II). The modified chelating fibers were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and X-ray diffraction.
Numerical Simulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles Injection into Two–phase Flow in a Porous Medium
El-Amin, Mohamed
2017-06-09
In this paper, the problem of magnetic nanoparticles injection into a water–oil two–phase flow under an external permanent magnetic field is investigated. The mathematical model of the problem under consideration has been developed. We treat the water-nanoparticles suspension as a miscible mixture while it is immiscible with the oil phase. The magnetized phase pressure includes an additional pressure term with the conventional thermodynamic pressure. The countercurrent imbibition flow problem is taken as an example. Physical variables including water–nanoparticles suspension saturation, nanoparticles concentration, and pore wall/throat deposited nanoparticles are investigated under the influence of the magnetic field.
Numerical assessment of the origin of deep salinity in a low permeability fractured medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guimera, Jordi; Ruiz, Eduardo; Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Domenech, Cristina; Jordana, Salvador; Saegusa, Hiromitsu; Iwatsuki, Teruki
2007-01-01
Many possible origins have been proposed for the saline groundwater observed in many deep geological environments. In particular, samples obtained from deep boreholes located in granite at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in Central Japan show total dissolved solids increasing to 50 mmol/L at depths below 800 m. Different hypothesis have been formulated to explain the observed fluid composition, among them, long-term water-rock interaction, mixing with residual fluids of magmatic origin and relict seawater dating from Miocene times. A review of the hydrochemical and isotopic data suggests that the three above hypotheses may be valid, at least to different degrees, or that processes acting over more recent geological times may be involved. The origin of the salinity was assessed by simulating land emersion by means of changing the upper recharge boundary. In this manner the Miocene seawater was modeled as being continually mixed with fresh water until the present time. The effects of different retardation processes were considered by varying factors such as matrix diffusion and fracture conductivity. Finally, geochemical reactions reproduced trends in major ions and master variables. This study shows that the salinity observed in the boreholes can be explained qualitatively as residual Miocene age seawater subjected to alteration due to long-term contact with the host material and continuous mixing with meteoric groundwater. (authors)
Numerical Simulation of Magnetic Nanoparticles Injection into Two–phase Flow in a Porous Medium
El-Amin, Mohamed; Saad, Ahmed M.; Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad
2017-01-01
In this paper, the problem of magnetic nanoparticles injection into a water–oil two–phase flow under an external permanent magnetic field is investigated. The mathematical model of the problem under consideration has been developed. We treat
Henderson, Michael
1997-08-01
The Numerical Analysis Objects project (NAO) is a project in the Mathematics Department of IBM's TJ Watson Research Center. While there are plenty of numerical tools available today, it is not an easy task to combine them into a custom application. NAO is directed at the dual problems of building applications from a set of tools, and creating those tools. There are several "reuse" projects, which focus on the problems of identifying and cataloging tools. NAO is directed at the specific context of scientific computing. Because the type of tools is restricted, problems such as tools with incompatible data structures for input and output, and dissimilar interfaces to tools which solve similar problems can be addressed. The approach we've taken is to define interfaces to those objects used in numerical analysis, such as geometries, functions and operators, and to start collecting (and building) a set of tools which use these interfaces. We have written a class library (a set of abstract classes and implementations) in C++ which demonstrates the approach. Besides the classes, the class library includes "stub" routines which allow the library to be used from C or Fortran, and an interface to a Visual Programming Language. The library has been used to build a simulator for petroleum reservoirs, using a set of tools for discretizing nonlinear differential equations that we have written, and includes "wrapped" versions of packages from the Netlib repository. Documentation can be found on the Web at "http://www.research.ibm.com/nao". I will describe the objects and their interfaces, and give examples ranging from mesh generation to solving differential equations.
Numerical differential protection
Ziegler, Gerhard
2012-01-01
Differential protection is a fast and selective method of protection against short-circuits. It is applied in many variants for electrical machines, trans?formers, busbars, and electric lines.Initially this book covers the theory and fundamentals of analog and numerical differential protection. Current transformers are treated in detail including transient behaviour, impact on protection performance, and practical dimensioning. An extended chapter is dedicated to signal transmission for line protection, in particular, modern digital communication and GPS timing.The emphasis is then pla
Optical illusions induced by rotating medium
Zang, XiaoFei; Huang, PengCheng; Zhu, YiMing
2018-03-01
Different from the traditional single-function electromagnetic wave rotators (rotate the electromagnetic wavefronts), we propose that rotating medium can be extended to optical illusions such as breaking the diffraction limit and overlapping illusion. Furthermore, the homogeneous but anisotropic rotating medium is simplified by homogeneous and isotropic positive-index materials according to the effective medium theory, which is helpful for future device fabrication. Finite element simulations for the two-dimensional case are performed to demonstrate these properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, X.Y. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: xyli@siom.ac.cn; Wu, Y.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Lab of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, Haerbin 150080 (China)], E-mail: yqwu@siom.ac.cn; Gu, D.D.; Gan, F.X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2009-02-25
Smooth thin films of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) complexes with azo barbituric acid were prepared by the spin-coating method. Absorption spectra of the thin films on K9 glass substrates in 300-700 nm wavelength region were measured. Optical constants (complex refractive index N = n + ik) of the thin films prepared on single-crystal silicon substrates in 275-695 nm wavelength region were investigated on rotating analyzer-polarizer type of scanning ellipsometer, and dielectric constant {epsilon} ({epsilon} = {epsilon}{sub 1} + i{epsilon}{sub 2}) as well as absorption coefficient {alpha} of thin films were calculated at 405 nm. In addition, static optical recording properties of the cobalt(II) complex thin film with an Ag reflective layer was carried out using a 406.7 nm blue-violet laser and a high numerical aperture (NA) of 0.90. Clear recording marks with high reflectivity contrast (>60%) at proper laser power and pulse width were obtained, and the size of recording mark was as small as 250 nm. The results indicate that these metal(II) complexes are promising organic recording medium for the blu-ray optical storage system.
Confidence in Numerical Simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-02-23
This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.
Confidence in Numerical Simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemez, Francois M.
2015-01-01
This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to ''forecast,'' that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists ''think.'' This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. ''Confidence'' derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.
A note on numerical solution to the problem of criticality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kyncl, J.
2002-01-01
The contribution deals with numerical solution to the problem of criticality for neutron transport equation by the external source iteration method. Especially, the speed of convergence is examined. It is shown that if neutron absorption in the medium considered is high and if the space region occupied by the medium is large then a slow convergence of the iterations can be expected. This expectation is confirmed by results to CB4 benchmark obtained by MCNP code. Besides the results presented some questions concerning applications of them to criticality calculations are pointed out (Author)
Numerical Modelling Of Humid Air Flow Around A Porous Body
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bohojło-Wiśniewska Aneta
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an example of humid air flow around a single head of Chinese cabbage under conditions of complex heat transfer. This kind of numerical simulation allows us to create a heat and humidity transfer model between the Chinese cabbage and the flowing humid air. The calculations utilize the heat transfer model in porous medium, which includes the temperature difference between the solid (vegetable tissue and fluid (air phases of the porous medium. Modelling and calculations were performed in ANSYS Fluent 14.5 software.
Solubility studies of oxovanadium(V) formate and vanadyl formate in aqueous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tripathi, V.S.; Bairwa, K.K.; Naik, D.B.; Raje, N.H.; Bera, S.
2014-01-01
The solubility of oxovanadium(V) formate and vanadyl formate in aqueous medium has been determined. These compounds are important for preparation of strong reducing V(II) compounds which are used in stainless steel based nuclear power plants for decontamination
Absorption of X-rays in the interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ride, S.K.; Stanford Univ., Calif.; Walker, A.B.C. Jr.; Stanford Univ., Calif.
1977-01-01
In order to interpret soft X-ray spectra of cosmic X-ray sources, it is necessary to know the photoabsorption cross-section of the intervening interstellar material. Current models suggest that the interstellar medium contains two phases which make a substantial contribution to the X-ray opacity: cool, relatively dense clouds that exist in pressure equilibrium with hot, tenuous intercloud regions. We have computed the soft X-ray photoabsorption cross-section (per hydrogen atom) of each of these two phases. The calculation are based on a model of the interstellar medium which includes chemical evolution of the galaxy, the formation of molecules and grains, and the ionization structure of each of each phase. These cross-sections of clouds and of intercloud regions can be combined to yield the total soft X-ray photoabsorption cross-section of the interstellar medium. By choosing the appropriate linear combination of cloud and intercloud cross-sections, we can tailor the total cross-section to a particular line-of-sight. This approach, coupled with our interstellar model, enables us to better describe a wide range of interstellar features such as H II regions, dense (molecular) clouds, or the ionized clouds which may surround binary X-ray sources. (orig.) [de
Components in the interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, E.R.
1981-01-01
An analysis is made of the lines of sight toward 32 stars with a procedure that gives velocity components for various interstellar ions. The column densities found for species expected to be relatively undepleted are used to estimate the column density of neutral hydrogen in each component. Whenever possible, the molecular hydrogen excitation temperature, abundances (relative to S II), electron density, and hydrogen volume density are calculated for each component. The results for each star are combined to give total HI column density as a function of (LSR) velocity. The derived velocities correspond well with those found in optical studies. The mean electron density is found to be approximately constant with velocity, but the mean hydrogen volume density is found to vary. The data presented here are consistent with the assumption that some of the velocity components are due to circumstellar material. The total HI column density toward a given star is generally in agreement with Lyman alpha measurements, but ionization and abundance effects are important toward some stars. The total HI column density is found to vary exponentially with velocity (for N(HI)> 10 17 cm -2 ), with an indication that the velocity dispersion at low column densities (N(HI) 17 cm -2 ) is approximately constant. An estimate is made of the kinetic energy density due to cloud motion which depends only on the total HI column density as a function of velocity. The value of 9 x 10 42 erg/pc 3 is in good agreement with a theoretical prediction
Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II)
2015-12-01
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-439 Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense... Bomb Increment II (SDB II) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants Department of the Navy Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Production...Mission and Description Small Diameter Bomb Increment II (SDB II) is a joint interest United States Air Force (USAF) and Department of the Navy
Biçer, M.; Kaşkaş, A.
2018-03-01
The infinite medium Green's function is used to solve the half-space albedo, slab albedo and Milne problems for the unpolarized Rayleigh scattering case; these problems are the most classical problems of radiative transfer theory. The numerical results are obtained and are compared with previous ones.
Impact of electric and magnetic fields in a resistant medium on the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we compare the impact of electric and magnetic fields in a resistant medium on the velocity of a particle subject to varying path angles by using numerical integration of finite difference method. The results show that the magnetic field has much impact on the velocity than the electric field. Journal of the Nigerian ...
Essential numerical computer methods
Johnson, Michael L
2010-01-01
The use of computers and computational methods has become ubiquitous in biological and biomedical research. During the last 2 decades most basic algorithms have not changed, but what has is the huge increase in computer speed and ease of use, along with the corresponding orders of magnitude decrease in cost. A general perception exists that the only applications of computers and computer methods in biological and biomedical research are either basic statistical analysis or the searching of DNA sequence data bases. While these are important applications they only scratch the surface of the current and potential applications of computers and computer methods in biomedical research. The various chapters within this volume include a wide variety of applications that extend far beyond this limited perception. As part of the Reliable Lab Solutions series, Essential Numerical Computer Methods brings together chapters from volumes 210, 240, 321, 383, 384, 454, and 467 of Methods in Enzymology. These chapters provide ...
Testability of numerical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soulas, B.
1992-01-01
In order to face up to the growing complexity of systems, the authors undertook to define a new approach for the qualification of systems. This approach is based on the concept of Testability which, supported by system modelization, validation and verification methods and tools, would allow Integrated Qualification process, applied throughout the life-span of systems. The general principles of this approach are introduced in the general case of numerical systems; in particular, this presentation points out the difference between the specification activity and the modelization and validation activity. This approach is illustrated firstly by the study of a global system and then by case of communication protocol as the software point of view. Finally MODEL which support this approach is described. MODEL tool is a commercial tool providing modelization and validation techniques based on Petri Nets with triple extension: Predicate/Transition, Timed and Stochastic Petri Nets
Models and numerical methods for time- and energy-dependent particle transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olbrant, Edgar
2012-04-13
Particles passing through a medium can be described by the Boltzmann transport equation. Therein, all physical interactions of particles with matter are given by cross sections. We compare different analytical models of cross sections for photons, electrons and protons to state-of-the-art databases. The large dimensionality of the transport equation and its integro-differential form make it analytically difficult and computationally costly to solve. In this work, we focus on the following approximative models to the linear Boltzmann equation: (i) the time-dependent simplified P{sub N} (SP{sub N}) equations, (ii) the M{sub 1} model derived from entropy-based closures and (iii) a new perturbed M{sub 1} model derived from a perturbative entropy closure. In particular, an asymptotic analysis for SP{sub N} equations is presented and confirmed by numerical computations in 2D. Moreover, we design an explicit Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method to the M{sub 1} model of radiative transfer in slab geometry and construct a scheme ensuring the realizability of the moment variables. Among other things, M{sub 1} numerical results are compared with an analytical solution in a Riemann problem and the Marshak wave problem is considered. Additionally, we rigorously derive a new hierarchy of kinetic moment models in the context of grey photon transport in one spatial dimension. For the perturbed M{sub 1} model, we present numerical results known as the two beam instability or the analytical benchmark due to Su and Olson and compare them to the standard M{sub 1} as well as transport solutions.
Design of a broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on a fluid medium
Zhu, Jian; Chen, Tianning; Liang, Qingxuan; Wang, Xiaopeng; Jiang, Ping
2014-10-01
A broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloak based on fluid medium was designed and numerically implemented with homogeneous metamaterials according to the transformation acoustics. In the present work, fluid medium as the body of the inclusion could be tuned by changing the fluid to satisfy the variant acoustic parameters instead of redesign the whole cloak. The effective density and bulk modulus of the composite materials were designed to agree with the parameters calculated from the coordinate transformation methodology by using the effective medium theory. Numerical simulation results showed that the sound propagation and scattering signature could be controlled in the broadband ultra-large area acoustic invisibility cloak, and good cloaking performance has been achieved and physically realized with homogeneous materials. The broadband ultra-large area acoustic cloaking properties have demonstrated great potentials in the promotion of the practical applications of acoustic cloak.
Numerical simulation in applied geophysics
Santos, Juan Enrique
2016-01-01
This book presents the theory of waves propagation in a fluid-saturated porous medium (a Biot medium) and its application in Applied Geophysics. In particular, a derivation of absorbing boundary conditions in viscoelastic and poroelastic media is presented, which later is employed in the applications. The partial differential equations describing the propagation of waves in Biot media are solved using the Finite Element Method (FEM). Waves propagating in a Biot medium suffer attenuation and dispersion effects. In particular the fast compressional and shear waves are converted to slow diffusion-type waves at mesoscopic-scale heterogeneities (on the order of centimeters), effect usually occurring in the seismic range of frequencies. In some cases, a Biot medium presents a dense set of fractures oriented in preference directions. When the average distance between fractures is much smaller than the wavelengths of the travelling fast compressional and shear waves, the medium behaves as an effective viscoelastic an...
Recordable storage medium with protected data area
2005-01-01
The invention relates to a method of storing data on a rewritable data storage medium, to a corresponding storage medium, to a corresponding recording apparatus and to a corresponding playback apparatus. Copy-protective measures require that on rewritable storage media some data must be stored which
Electromagnetic Sources in a Moving Conducting Medium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johannsen, Günther
1971-01-01
The problem of an arbitrary source distribution in a uniformly moving, homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, conducting medium is solved. The technique used is to solve the problem in the rest system of the medium and then write the result in an appropriate four-dimensional, covariant form which...
Kultivasi Scenedesmus SP. Pada Medium Air Limbah
Kawaroe, Mujizat
2011-01-01
Proses fotosintesis pada mikroalga membutuhkan CO2 dan cahaya matahari serta nutrien untuk pertumbuhannya. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. pada medium air limbah bertujuan guna mencukupi kebutuhan mikroalga akan nutrien dan mengurangi masukan dari bahan kimia yang terkandung dalam air limbah tersebut ke lingkungan. Kultivasi Scenedesmus sp. dilakukan selama tujuh hari pada medium air limbah industri tanpa penambahan nutri...
Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan; Wu, Ying
2015-01-01
-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided
Selective medium for aerobic incubation of Campylobacter
Studies were conducted on the formulation of a selective medium that could be used to isolate Campylobacter from mixed bacterial cultures using aerobic incubation. A non-selective, basal broth medium was prepared and supplemented with Bolton, Cefex, or Skirrow antibiotic mixtures. The ability of pur...
Effective medium theory for anisotropic metamaterials
Zhang, Xiujuan
2015-01-20
Materials with anisotropic material parameters can be utilized to fabricate many fascinating devices, such as hyperlenses, metasolids, and one-way waveguides. In this study, we analyze the effects of geometric anisotropy on a two-dimensional metamaterial composed of a rectangular array of elliptic cylinders and derive an effective medium theory for such a metamaterial. We find that it is possible to obtain a closed-form analytical solution for the anisotropic effective medium parameters, provided the aspect ratio of the lattice and the eccentricity of the elliptic cylinder satisfy certain conditions. The derived effective medium theory not only recovers the well-known Maxwell-Garnett results in the quasi-static regime, but is also valid beyond the long-wavelength limit, where the wavelength in the host medium is comparable to the size of the lattice so that previous anisotropic effective medium theories fail. Such an advance greatly broadens the applicable realm of the effective medium theory and introduces many possibilities in the design of structures with desired anisotropic material characteristics. A real sample of a recently theoretically proposed anisotropic medium, with a near-zero index to control the flux, is achieved using the derived effective medium theory, and control of the electromagnetic waves in the sample is clearly demonstrated.
Computing the Alexander Polynomial Numerically
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikael Sonne
2006-01-01
Explains how to construct the Alexander Matrix and how this can be used to compute the Alexander polynomial numerically.......Explains how to construct the Alexander Matrix and how this can be used to compute the Alexander polynomial numerically....
El-Amin, Mohamed; Ebrahiem, N.A.; Salama, Amgad; Sun, S.
2011-01-01
The interaction of mixed convection with thermal radiation of an optical dense viscous fluid adjacent to an isothermal cone imbedded in a porous medium with Rosseland diffusion approximation incorporating the variation of permeability and thermal conductivity is numerically investigated. The transformed conservation laws are solved numerically for the case of variable surface temperature conditions. Numerical results are given for the dimensionless temperature profiles and the local Nusselt number for various values of the mixed convection parameter , the cone angle parameter ?, the radiation-conduction parameter R d, and the surface temperature parameter H. Copyright 2011 M. F. El-Amin et al.
A new numerical approximation of the fractal ordinary differential equation
Atangana, Abdon; Jain, Sonal
2018-02-01
The concept of fractal medium is present in several real-world problems, for instance, in the geological formation that constitutes the well-known subsurface water called aquifers. However, attention has not been quite devoted to modeling for instance, the flow of a fluid within these media. We deem it important to remind the reader that the concept of fractal derivative is not to represent the fractal sharps but to describe the movement of the fluid within these media. Since this class of ordinary differential equations is highly complex to solve analytically, we present a novel numerical scheme that allows to solve fractal ordinary differential equations. Error analysis of the method is also presented. Application of the method and numerical approximation are presented for fractal order differential equation. The stability and the convergence of the numerical schemes are investigated in detail. Also some exact solutions of fractal order differential equations are presented and finally some numerical simulations are presented.
Numerical methods for stochastic partial differential equations with white noise
Zhang, Zhongqiang
2017-01-01
This book covers numerical methods for stochastic partial differential equations with white noise using the framework of Wong-Zakai approximation. The book begins with some motivational and background material in the introductory chapters and is divided into three parts. Part I covers numerical stochastic ordinary differential equations. Here the authors start with numerical methods for SDEs with delay using the Wong-Zakai approximation and finite difference in time. Part II covers temporal white noise. Here the authors consider SPDEs as PDEs driven by white noise, where discretization of white noise (Brownian motion) leads to PDEs with smooth noise, which can then be treated by numerical methods for PDEs. In this part, recursive algorithms based on Wiener chaos expansion and stochastic collocation methods are presented for linear stochastic advection-diffusion-reaction equations. In addition, stochastic Euler equations are exploited as an application of stochastic collocation methods, where a numerical compa...
Optimization of medium for antimycotic production by Streptomyces spp.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bajić Bojana Ž.
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous species of the genus Streptomyces, on the appropriate cultivation medium in the process of submerged biosynthesis, as a product of the secondary metabolism, and under aerobic conditions synthesize pharmacologically active compounds. The aim of presented study was optimization of different nitrogen sources in the cultivation medium for the production of antimycotics using a strain of Streptomyces spp. isolated from the environment. Experiments were carried out in accordance with Box-Behnken design with three factors at three levels (peptone: 3.0 g/l, 7.0 g/l and 11.0 g/l; yeast extract: 1.0 g/l, 3.0 g/l and 5.0 g/l; soybean meal: 5.0 g/l, 15.0 g/l and 25.0 g/l and three repetitions in the central point. Cultivation mediums were analyzed for determination of residual sugar, residual nitrogen, pellet diameter and RNA. Also, antimycotic activity of the obtained cultivation mediums was determined using diffusion disc method on the Aspergillus spp. as the test microorganism. For the optimization of selected parameters, a Response Surface Methodology was used and the obtained data were analyzed using the software package DESIGN EXPERT 8.1. Achieved model with a coefficient of determination (R of 0.952 predicted that the maximum inhibition zone diameter (24.0 mm against microorganism Aspergillus spp. and the minimum amount of residual sugar (0.551528 g/l under applied experimental conditions was produced when the contents of varied nitrogen sources were: peptone 11.0 g/l, yeast extract 4.32 g/l and soybean meal 25.00 g/l.
Micropropagation of Alstroemeria in liquid medium using slow release of medium components
Klerk, de G.J.M.; Brugge, ter J.
2010-01-01
Alstroemeria rhizomes were micropropagated on semi-solid medium (AM) and in liquid medium (LM). In LM, growth was much enhanced (ca. 70%). Adequate gas exchange was crucial. This was obtained by agitation and in static medium by a sufficient large contact area of the explant and the gaseous
Kavka, P.; Jeřábek, J.; Strouhal, L.
2016-12-01
The contribution presents a numerical model SMODERP that is used for calculation and prediction of surface runoff and soil erosion from agricultural land. The physically based model includes the processes of infiltration (Phillips equation), surface runoff routing (kinematic wave based equation), surface retention, surface roughness and vegetation impact on runoff. The model is being developed at the Department of Irrigation, Drainage and Landscape Engineering, Civil Engineering Faculty, CTU in Prague. 2D version of the model was introduced in last years. The script uses ArcGIS system tools for data preparation. The physical relations are implemented through Python scripts. The main computing part is stand alone in numpy arrays. Flow direction is calculated by Steepest Descent algorithm and in multiple flow algorithm. Sheet flow is described by modified kinematic wave equation. Parameters for five different soil textures were calibrated on the set of hundred measurements performed on the laboratory and filed rainfall simulators. Spatially distributed models enable to estimate not only surface runoff but also flow in the rills. Development of the rills is based on critical shear stress and critical velocity. For modelling of the rills a specific sub model was created. This sub model uses Manning formula for flow estimation. Flow in the ditches and streams are also computed. Numerical stability of the model is controled by Courant criterion. Spatial scale is fixed. Time step is dynamic and depends on the actual discharge. The model is used in the framework of the project "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Main goal of the project is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The methodology will account for
Numerical simulation methods to richtmyer-meshkov instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Ning; Yu Yan; Tang Weijun
2003-01-01
Front tracking algorithms have generally assumed that the computational medium is divided into piece-wise smooth subdomains bounded by interfaces and that strong wave interactions are solved via Riemann solutions. However, in multi-dimensional cases, the Riemann solution of multiple shock wave interactions are far more complicated and still subject to analytical study. For this reason, it is very desirable to be able to track contact discontinuities only. A new numerical algorithm to couple a tracked contact surface and an untracked strong shock wave are described. The new tracking algorithm reduces the complication of computation, and maintains the sharp resolution of the contact surface. The numerical results are good. (authors)
Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation to Mud Turbine for LWD
Yao, Xiaojiang; Dong, Jingxin; Shang, Jie; Zhang, Guanqi
Hydraulic performance analysis was discussed for a type of turbine on generator used for LWD. The simulation models were built by CFD analysis software FINE/Turbo, and full three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out for impeller group. The hydraulic parameter such as power, speed and pressure drop, were calculated in two kinds of medium water and mud. Experiment was built in water environment. The error of numerical simulation was less than 6%, verified by experiment. Based on this rationalization proposals would be given to choice appropriate impellers, and the rationalization of methods would be explored.
Emittance of a finite scattering medium with refractive index greater than unity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crosbie, A.L.
1980-01-01
Refractive index and scattering can significantly influence the transfer of radiation in a semitransparent medium such as water, glass, plastics, or ceramics. In a recent article (1979), the author presented exact numerical results for the emittance of a semiinfinite scattering medium with a refractive index greater than unity. The present investigation extends the analysis to a finite medium. The physical situation consists of a finite planar layer. The isothermal layer emits, absorbs, and isotropically scatters thermal radiation. It is characterized by single scattering albedo, optical thickness, refractive index, and temperature. A formula for the directional emittance is derived, the directional emittance being the emittance of the medium multiplied by the interface transmittance. The ratio of hemispherical to normal emittance is tabulated and discussed
Numerical aerodynamic simulation (NAS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, V.L.; Ballhaus, W.F. Jr.; Bailey, F.R.
1984-01-01
The Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is designed to provide a leading-edge computational capability to the aerospace community. It was recognized early in the program that, in addition to more advanced computers, the entire computational process ranging from problem formulation to publication of results needed to be improved to realize the full impact of computational aerodynamics. Therefore, the NAS Program has been structured to focus on the development of a complete system that can be upgraded periodically with minimum impact on the user and on the inventory of applications software. The implementation phase of the program is now under way. It is based upon nearly 8 yr of study and should culminate in an initial operational capability before 1986. The objective of this paper is fivefold: 1) to discuss the factors motivating the NAS program, 2) to provide a history of the activity, 3) to describe each of the elements of the processing-system network, 4) to outline the proposed allocation of time to users of the facility, and 5) to describe some of the candidate problems being considered for the first benchmark codes
Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises
Irianto, D.
2016-02-01
Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
UMADEVI K. S.
2017-07-01
Full Text Available WiMedia Medium Access Control (MAC provides high rate data transfer for wireless networking thereby enables construction of high speed home networks. It facilitates data communication between the nodes through two modes namely: i Distributed Reservation Protocol (DRP for isochronous traffic and ii Prioritized Contention Access (PCA for asynchronous traffic. PCA mode enables medium access using CSMA/CA similar to IEEE 802.11e. In the presence of DRP, the throughput of PCA saturates when there is an increase in the number of devices accessing PCA channel. Researchers suggest that the better utilization of medium resolves many issues in an effective way. To demonstrate the effective utilization of the medium, Contention Based Distributed Reservation Protocol Allocation Algorithm for WiMedia Medium Access Control is proposed for reserving Medium Access Slots under DRP in the presence of PCA. The proposed algorithm provides a better medium access, reduces energy consumption and enhances the throughput when compared to the existing methodologies.
Llano Zapata, José Eusebio
2015-01-01
Memorias, histórico, físicas, crítico, apologéticas de la América Meridional con unas breves advertencias y noticias útiles, a los que de orden de Su Majestad hubiesen de viajar y describir aquellas vastas regiones. Reino Vegetal, Tomo II. Por un anónimo americano en Cádiz por los años de 1757. Muy Señor mío, juzgo que los 20 artículos del libro que remití a Vuestra Merced le habrán hecho formar el concepto que merece la fecundidad de aquellos países en las producciones minerales. Y siendo es...
Dispersion of helically corrugated waveguides: Analytical, numerical, and experimental study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burt, G.; Ronald, K.; Young, A.R.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Cross, A.W.; Konoplev, I.V.; He, W.; Thomson, J.; Whyte, C.G.; Samsonov, S.V.; Denisov, G.G.; Bratman, V.L.
2004-01-01
Helically corrugated waveguides have recently been studied for use in various applications such as interaction regions in gyrotron traveling-wave tubes and gyrotron backward-wave oscillators and as a dispersive medium for passive microwave pulse compression. The paper presents a summary of various methods that can be used for analysis of the wave dispersion of such waveguides. The results obtained from an analytical approach, simulations with the three-dimensional numerical code MAGIC, and cold microwave measurements are analyzed and compared
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farhad Ali
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to analyze the influence of thermal radiation on some unsteady magnetohydrodynamic (MHD free convection flows of an incompressible Brinkman type fluid past a vertical flat plate embedded in a porous medium with the Newtonian heating boundary condition. The fluid is considered as a gray absorbing-emitting but nonscattering medium and the Rosseland approximation in the energy equations is used to describe the radiative heat flux for optically thick fluid. For a detailed analysis of the problem, four important situations of flow due to (i impulsive motion of the plate (ii uniform acceleration of the plate (iii nonuniform acceleration of the plate, and (iv highly nonuniform acceleration of the plate are considered. The governing equations are first transformed into a system of dimensionless equations and then solved analytically using the Laplace transform technique. Numerical results for temperature and velocity are shown graphically, while skin friction and Nusselt number are computed in tables. The results show that temperature and velocity increase on increasing radiation and Newtonian heating parameters. However, the results of magnetic and porosity parameters on velocity are found quite opposite.
Photonic-resonant left-handed medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen Jianqi
2006-01-01
A new scheme to realize simultaneously negative permittivity and permeability in a coherent atomic vapor medium (photonic-resonant material) via a coherent driving mechanism is suggested. It is verified that the atomic system coherently driven by a strong optical field will give rise to a negative refractive index in certain probe frequency ranges. One of the most remarkable features of the present scheme is such that a slab fabricated by the left-handed vapor medium is an ideal candidate for designing perfect lenses since the photonic-resonant atomic vapor cannot only exhibit an isotropic negative refractive index, but also provide a good impedance match at the air-medium interfaces
Physical processes in the interstellar medium
Spitzer, Lyman
2008-01-01
Physical Processes in the Interstellar Medium discusses the nature of interstellar matter, with a strong emphasis on basic physical principles, and summarizes the present state of knowledge about the interstellar medium by providing the latest observational data. Physics and chemistry of the interstellar medium are treated, with frequent references to observational results. The overall equilibrium and dynamical state of the interstellar gas are described, with discussions of explosions produced by star birth and star death and the initial phases of cloud collapse leading to star formation.
The Origins of [C ii] Emission in Local Star-forming Galaxies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Croxall, K. V. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 4051 McPherson Laboratory, 140 W. 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210 (United States); Smith, J. D. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Pellegrini, E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Groves, B. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Bolatto, A.; Wolfire, M. G. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Herrera-Camus, R. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessen-bachstr., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sandstrom, K. M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Draine, B. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Boquien, M. [Unidad de Astronomía, Fac. Cs. Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, Avda. U. de Antofagasta 02800, Antofagasta (Chile); Brandl, B. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dale, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Galametz, M. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hunt, L., E-mail: jd.smith@utoledo.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); and others
2017-08-20
The [C ii] 158 μ m fine-structure line is the brightest emission line observed in local star-forming galaxies. As a major coolant of the gas-phase interstellar medium, [C ii] balances the heating, including that due to far-ultraviolet photons, which heat the gas via the photoelectric effect. However, the origin of [C ii] emission remains unclear because C{sup +} can be found in multiple phases of the interstellar medium. Here we measure the fractions of [C ii] emission originating in the ionized and neutral gas phases of a sample of nearby galaxies. We use the [N ii] 205 μ m fine-structure line to trace the ionized medium, thereby eliminating the strong density dependence that exists in the ratio of [C ii]/[N ii] 122 μ m. Using the FIR [C ii] and [N ii] emission detected by the KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far- Infrared Survey with Herschel ) and Beyond the Peak Herschel programs, we show that 60%–80% of [C ii] emission originates from neutral gas. We find that the fraction of [C ii] originating in the neutral medium has a weak dependence on dust temperature and the surface density of star formation, and has a stronger dependence on the gas-phase metallicity. In metal-rich environments, the relatively cooler ionized gas makes substantially larger contributions to total [C ii] emission than at low abundance, contrary to prior expectations. Approximate calibrations of this metallicity trend are provided.
Hall effects on hydromagnetic Couette flow of Class-II in a rotating ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... Couette flow of class-II of a viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting fluid with ... Numerical solution of energy equation and numerical values of rate of heat transfer at ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Ashish; Saha, Sandip K.
2016-01-01
Graphical abstract: I. Metal matrix is used as the thermal conductivity enhancers (TCE) in PCM-based TES. II. Time evolution second law analysis is evaluated for different porosities and pore diameters. III. Reduction in fluctuation in HTF temperature is significantly affected by the change in porosity (ε) shown in figure. IV. Maximum energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for porosity of 0.85. V. Effect of pore diameter on first law and second law efficiencies is found to be marginal. - Abstract: Thermal energy storage system in a concentrating solar plant (CSP) reduces the gap between energy demand and supply caused by the intermittent behaviour of solar radiation. In this paper, detailed exergy and energy analyses of shell and tube type latent heat thermal storage system (LHTES) for medium temperature solar thermal power plant (∼200 °C) are performed to estimate the net useful energy during the charging and discharging period in a cycle. A commercial-grade organic phase change material (PCM) is stored inside the annular space of the shell and the heat transfer fluid (HTF) flows through the tubes. Thermal conductivity enhancer (TCE) in the form of metal matrix is embedded in PCM to augment heat transfer. A numerical model is developed to investigate the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics using the momentum equation and the two-temperature non-equilibrium energy equation coupled with the enthalpy method to account for phase change in PCM. The effects of storage material, porosity and pore-diameter on the net useful energy that can be stored and released during a cycle, are studied. It is found that the first law efficiency of sensible heat storage system is less compared to LHTES. With the decrease in porosity, the first law and second law efficiencies of LHTES increase for both the charging and discharging period. There is no significant variation in energy and exergy efficiencies with the change in pore-diameter of the metal matrix.
The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham
2007-01-01
The intergalactic medium-the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies-is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer
Optimization of medium composition for apple rootstocks
African Journals Online (AJOL)
User
2011-05-02
May 2, 2011 ... Key words: Apple rootstocks, medium composition, multiplication rate, plant growth regulators (PGRs). ... be extrapolated with the same success for another .... Analysis System (SAS) software program (SAS Institute Inc. 1999).
Jet multiplicity distributions: medium dependence in MLLA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armesto, Nestor; Pajares, Carlos; Quiroga-Arias, Paloma
2009-01-01
We study the medium dependence of the multiplicity distributions in the modified leading logarithmic approximation. We focus in the enhancement in the number of branchings as the partons travel trough a dense medium created in a heavy-ion collision. We study the effect of a higher number of splittings in some jet observables by introducing the medium as a constant (f med ) in the splitting functions. Having as our ansatz for the quark and gluon jets mean multiplicities left angle n G right angle =e γy and left angle n Q right angle =r -1 e γy , we study in an analytic approach the dependence with the medium (f med ) of the anomalous dimension (γ), the multiplicity ratio (r), and so the mean multiplicities. We also obtain the higher-order moments of the multiplicity distribution, what allows us to study its dispersion. (orig.)
Optimization of medium composition for thermostable protease ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
SERVER
2008-04-17
Apr 17, 2008 ... Optimization of the fermentation medium for maximization of thermostable neutral protease production by Bacillus sp. ..... Each contour curve represented an infinite number of combinations of two ..... Production in sea-water of.
Fractional diffusion equation for heterogeneous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polo L, M. A.; Espinosa M, E. G.; Espinosa P, G.; Del Valle G, E.
2011-11-01
The asymptotic diffusion approximation for the Boltzmann (transport) equation was developed in 1950 decade in order to describe the diffusion of a particle in an isotropic medium, considers that the particles have a diffusion infinite velocity. In this work is developed a new approximation where is considered that the particles have a finite velocity, with this model is possible to describe the behavior in an anomalous medium. According with these ideas the model was obtained from the Fick law, where is considered that the temporal term of the current vector is not negligible. As a result the diffusion equation of fractional order which describes the dispersion of particles in a highly heterogeneous or disturbed medium is obtained, i.e., in a general medium. (Author)
Small and medium power reactors 1987
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-12-01
This TECDOC follows the publication of TECDOC-347 Small and Medium Power Reactors Project Initiation Study - Phase I published in 1985 and TECDOC-376 Small and Medium Power Reactors 1985 published in 1986. It is mainly intended for decision makers in Developing Member States interested in embarking on a nuclear power programme. It consists of two parts: 1) Guidelines for the Introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in Developing Countries. These Guidelines were established during the Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 15 May 1987. Their purpose is to review key aspects relating to the introduction of Small and Medium Power Reactors in developing countries; 2) Up-dated Information on SMPR Concepts Contributed by Supplier Industries. According to the recommendations of the Second Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, this part contains the up-dated information formerly published in Annex I of the above mentioned TECDOC-347. Figs
Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delcour, Christian; Bruninx, Guy
2013-01-01
To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.
Study of niobium corrosion in alkaline medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almeida, S.H. de.
1987-01-01
A comparative study of niobium electrochemical behaviour in NaOH and KOH solution, with concentrations between 0,5 and 6,1M is presented. The studies were done through electrochemicals assays, consisting in the corrosion potential and anodic and cathodic polarization curves, complemented by loss of mass experiments. The niobium anodic behaviour in alkaline medium is characterized by passivation occurrence, with a stable film formation. The Na oH solution in alkaline medium are more corrosible to niobium than the KOH solution. The loss of mass assays showed that the corrosion velocit is more dependente of hydroxide concentration in KOH medium than the NaOH medium. (C.G.C.) [pt
Small and Medium Enterprises and Biopharmaceutical Innovations ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Erah
Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. All rights ... are challenges facing African Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in biopharmaceutical industry, the ... Network for Drug and Diagnostics recognizes .... functionality is in place, integration into the.
Sharing perspectives on English-medium instruction
Ackerley, Katherine; Helm, Francesca
2017-01-01
This volume gives voice to the views and experiences of researchers, lecturers, administrative staff, teacher trainers and students with regard to the implementation of English-medium instruction in a public university based in the north-east of Italy.
Medium Effects in Reactions with Rare Isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, C A; Karakoç, M
2012-01-01
We discuss medium effects in knockout reactions with rare isotopes of weakly-bound nuclei at intermediate energies. We show that the poorly known corrections may lead to sizable modifications of knockout cross sections and momentum dsitributions.
Effective medium theory principles and applications
Choy, Tuck C
2015-01-01
Effective medium theory dates back to the early days of the theory of electricity. Faraday in 1837 proposed one of the earliest models for a composite metal-insulator dielectric and around 1870 Maxwell and later Garnett (1904) developed models to describe a composite or mixed material medium. The subject has been developed considerably since and while the results are useful for predicting materials performance, the theory can also be used in a wide range of problems in physics and materials engineering. This book develops the topic of effective medium theory by bringing together the essentials of both the static and the dynamical theory. Electromagnetic systems are thoroughly dealt with, as well as related areas such as the CPA theory of alloys, liquids, the density functional theory etc., with applications to ultrasonics, hydrodynamics, superconductors, porous media and others, where the unifying aspects of the effective medium concept are emphasized. In this new second edition two further chapters have been...
Small and medium power reactors 1987
1987-12-01
This TECDOC follows the publication of TECDOC-347: Small and Medium Power Reactors (SMPR) Project Initiation Study, Phase 1, published in 1985 and TECDOC-376: Small and Medium Power Reactors 1985 published in 1986. It is mainly intended for decision makers in Developing Member States interested in embarking on a nuclear power program. It consists of two parts: (1) guidelines for the introduction of small and medium power reactors in developing countries. These Guidelines were established during the Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna from 11 to 15 May 1987. Their purpose is to review key aspects relating to the introduction of small and medium power reactors in developing countries; (2) up-dated information on SMPR Concepts Contributed by Supplier Industries. According to the recommendations of the Second Technical Committee Meeting on SMPRs held in Vienna in March 1985, this part contains the up-dated information formerly published in Annex 1 of the above mentioned TECDOC-347.
Switching power converters medium and high power
Neacsu, Dorin O
2013-01-01
An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Su-Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sackett, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2014-08-01
1. Objectives To produce a validation database out of those recorded signals it will be necessary also to identify the documents need to reconstruct the status of reactor at the time of the beginning of the recordings. This should comprehends the core loading specification (assemblies type and location and burn-up) along with this data the assemblies drawings and the core drawings will be identified. The first task of the project will be identify the location of the sensors, with respect the reactor plant layout, and the physical quantities recorded by the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) data acquisition system. This first task will allow guiding and prioritizing the selection of drawings needed to numerically reproduce those signals. 1.1 Scopes and Deliverables The deliverables of this project are the list of sensors in EBR-II system, the identification of storing location of those sensors, identification of a core isotopic composition at the moment of the start of system recording. Information of the sensors in EBR-II reactor system was summarized from the EBR-II system design descriptions listed in Section 1.2.
DYNAMIC DEFORMATION THE VISCOELASTIC TWOCOMPONENT MEDIUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Polenov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Summary. In the article are scope harmonious warping of the two-component medium, one component which are represent viscoelastic medium, hereditary properties which are described by the kernel aftereffect Abel integral-differential ratio BoltzmannVolterr, while second – compressible liquid. Do a study one-dimensional case. Use motion equation of two-component medium at movement. Look determination system these equalization in the form of damped wave. Introduce dimensionless coefficient. Combined equations happen to homogeneous system with complex factor relatively waves amplitude in viscoelastic component and in fluid. As a result opening system determinant receive biquadratic equation. Elastic operator express through kernel aftereffect Abel for space Fourier. With the help transformation and symbol series biquadratic equation reduce to quadratic equation. Come to the conclusion that in two-component viscoelastic medium exist two mode sonic waves. As a result solution of quadratic equation be found description advance of waves sonic in viscoelastic two-component medium, which physical-mechanical properties represent complex parameter. Velocity determination advance of sonic waves, attenuation coefficient, mechanical loss tangent, depending on characteristic porous medium and circular frequency formulas receive. Graph dependences of description advance of waves sonic from the temperature logarithm and with the fractional parameter γ are constructed.
Selective medium for culture of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.
Cook, Beth S; Beddow, Jessica G; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Maglennon, Gareth A; Rycroft, Andrew N
2016-11-15
The fastidious porcine respiratory pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has proven difficult to culture since it was first isolated in 1965. A reliable solid medium has been particularly challenging. Moreover, clinical and pathological samples often contain the fast-growing M. hyorhinis which contaminates and overgrows M. hyopneumoniae in primary culture. The aim of this study was to optimise the culture medium for recovery of M. hyopneumoniae and to devise a medium for selection of M. hyopneumoniae from clinical samples also containing M. hyorhinis. The solid medium devised by Niels Friis was improved by use of Purified agar and incorporation of DEAE-dextran. Addition of glucose or neutralization of acidity in liquid medium with NaOH did not improve the final yield of viable organisms or alter the timing of peak viability. Analysis of the relative susceptibility of M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis strains to four antimicrobials showed that M. hyopneumoniae is less susceptible than M. hyorhinis to kanamycin. This was consistent in all UK and Danish strains tested. A concentration of 2μg/ml of kanamycin selectively inhibited the growth of all M. hyorhinis tested, while M. hyopneumoniae was able to grow. This forms the basis of an effective selective culture medium for M. hyopneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Yang, Ping
2018-01-01
In this paper we make practical use of the recently developed first-principles approach to electromagnetic scattering by particles immersed in an unbounded absorbing host medium. Specifically, we introduce an actual computational tool for the calculation of pertinent far-field optical observables in the context of the classical Lorenzâ€"Mie theory. The paper summarizes the relevant theoretical formalism, explains various aspects of the corresponding numerical algorithm, specifies the input and output parameters of a FORTRAN program available at https://www.giss.nasa.gov/staff/mmishchenko/Lorenz-Mie.html, and tabulates benchmark results useful for testing purposes. This public-domain FORTRAN program enables one to solve the following two important problems: (i) simulate theoretically the reading of a remote well-collimated radiometer measuring electromagnetic scattering by an individual spherical particle or a small random group of spherical particles; and (ii) compute the single-scattering parameters that enter the vector radiative transfer equation derived directly from the Maxwell equations.
Mishchenko, Michael I.; Yang, Ping
2018-01-01
In this paper we make practical use of the recently developed first-principles approach to electromagnetic scattering by particles immersed in an unbounded absorbing host medium. Specifically, we introduce an actual computational tool for the calculation of pertinent far-field optical observables in the context of the classical Lorenz-Mie theory. The paper summarizes the relevant theoretical formalism, explains various aspects of the corresponding numerical algorithm, specifies the input and output parameters of a FORTRAN program available at https://www.giss.nasa.gov/staff/mmishchenko/Lorenz-Mie.html, and tabulates benchmark results useful for testing purposes. This public-domain FORTRAN program enables one to solve the following two important problems: (i) simulate theoretically the reading of a remote well-collimated radiometer measuring electromagnetic scattering by an individual spherical particle or a small random group of spherical particles; and (ii) compute the single-scattering parameters that enter the vector radiative transfer equation derived directly from the Maxwell equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cipriani, M.
1978-01-01
The possibility of separating quantitatively trace impurities like Cu, Fe, In and Pb, present in uranium base materials of nuclear grade, is demonstrated. A solvent extraction is employed which makes use of -benzoylphenylhydroxylamine(BPHA)-benzene solution and separation is effected in a medium containing 252 moles per liter of sodium-uranyl tricarbonate at pH of 9,0. Carbonate ions under such conditions inhibit uranium extraction by masking uranyl ion-BPHA reaction. The uranyl ions show a demasking action, releasing, thereby, Pb(II) ions which are being extracted from carbonate medium. The Atomic Absorption Spectrophometry technique is used to obtain the experimental data [pt
Introduction to precise numerical methods
Aberth, Oliver
2007-01-01
Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.
Representation of Numerical and Non-Numerical Order in Children
Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco
2012-01-01
The representation of numerical and non-numerical ordered sequences was investigated in children from preschool to grade 3. The child's conception of how sequence items map onto a spatial scale was tested using the Number-to-Position task (Siegler & Opfer, 2003) and new variants of the task designed to probe the representation of the alphabet…
Probing the intergalactic medium with fast radio bursts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng, Z.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Neill, J. D.; Juric, M.
2014-01-01
The recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs), presumably of extragalactic origin, have the potential to become a powerful probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We point out a few such potential applications. We provide expressions for the dispersion measure and rotation measure as a function of redshift, and we discuss the sensitivity of these measures to the He II reionization and the IGM magnetic field. Finally, we calculate the microlensing effect from an isolated, extragalactic stellar-mass compact object on the FRB spectrum. The time delays between the two lensing images will induce constructive and destructive interference, leaving a specific imprint on the spectra of FRBs. With a high all-sky rate, a large statistical sample of FRBs is expected to make these applications feasible.
A program in medium-energy nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.
1992-01-01
This report reviews progress on our nuclear-physics program for the last year, and includes as well copies of our publications and other reports for that time period. The structure of this report follows that of our 1991 Renewal Proposal and Progress Report: Sec. II outlines our research activities aimed at future experiments at CEBAF, NIKHEF, and Bates; Sec. III gives results of our recent research activities at NIKHEF, LAMPF, and elsewhere; Sec. IV provides an update of our laboratory activities at GWU, including the acquisition of our new Nuclear Detector Laboratory at our new Virginia Campus; and Sec. V is a list of our publications, proposals, and other reports. copies of those on medium-energy nuclear physics are reproduced in the Appendix
Inbuilt potential of YEM medium and its constituents to generate Ag/Ag₂O nanoparticles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G Yamal
Full Text Available We discovered that Yeast Extract Mannitol (YEM medium possessed immense potential to generate silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 upon autoclaving, which was evident from (i alteration in color of the medium; (ii peak at ∼410 nm in UV-Vis spectrum due to surface plasmon resonance specific to silver nanoparticles; and (iii TEM investigations. TEM coupled with EDX confirmed that distinct nanoparticles were composed of silver. Yeast extract and mannitol were key components of YEM medium responsible for the formation of nanoparticles. PXRD analysis indicated crystalline geometry and Ag/Ag2O phases in nanoparticles generated with YEM medium, yeast extract and mannitol. Our investigations also revealed that both mannitol and yeast extract possessed potential to convert ∼80% of silver ions in 0.5 mM AgNO3 to nanoparticles, on autoclaving for 30 min at 121°C under a pressure of 1.06 kg/cm(2. Addition of filter sterilized AgNO3 under ambient conditions to pre-autoclaved YEM medium and yeast extract brought about color change due to the formation of silver nanoparticles, but required prolonged duration. In general, even after 72 h intensity of color was significantly less than that recorded following autoclaving. Silver nanoparticles formed at room temperature were more heterogeneous compared to that obtained upon autoclaving. In summary, our findings demonstrated that (i YEM medium and its constituents promote synthesis of silver nanoparticles; and (ii autoclaving enhances rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles by YEM medium, yeast extract and mannitol.
Non-Darcy Mixed Convection in a Doubly Stratified Porous Medium with Soret-Dufour Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Srinivasacharya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the nonsimilarity solutions for mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a semi-infinite vertical plate embedded in a doubly stratified fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. The flow in the porous medium is described by employing the Darcy-Forchheimer based model. The nonlinear governing equations and their associated boundary conditions are initially cast into dimensionless forms and then solved numerically. The influence of pertinent parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration, heat, and mass transfer in terms of the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is discussed and presented graphically.
Virus spreading in wireless sensor networks with a medium access control mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ya-Qi; Yang Xiao-Yuan
2013-01-01
In this paper, an extended version of standard susceptible-infected (SI) model is proposed to consider the influence of a medium access control mechanism on virus spreading in wireless sensor networks. Theoretical analysis shows that the medium access control mechanism obviously reduces the density of infected nodes in the networks, which has been ignored in previous studies. It is also found that by increasing the network node density or node communication radius greatly increases the number of infected nodes. The theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. (general)
Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603 (Malaysia); Quadir, G. A. [School of Mechatronic Engineering, University Malaysia Perlis, Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)
2016-06-08
Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter.
Heat transfer in porous medium embedded with vertical plate: Non-equilibrium approach - Part A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Quadir, G. A.
2016-01-01
Heat transfer in a porous medium embedded with vertical flat plate is investigated by using thermal non-equilibrium model. Darcy model is employed to simulate the flow inside porous medium. It is assumed that the heat transfer takes place by natural convection and radiation. The vertical plate is maintained at isothermal temperature. The governing partial differential equations are converted into non-dimensional form and solved numerically using finite element method. Results are presented in terms of isotherms and streamlines for various parameters such as heat transfer coefficient parameter, thermal conductivity ratio, and radiation parameter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarazin, C.L.
1975-01-01
The purpose of this dissertation is to determine quantitatively the effects of U.V. absorbing dust on H II regions, and compare these effects with observations. Many observations indicate that dust grains are present within H II regions. An analytic theory is presented which describes all three of the effects of dust in H II regions. Although this model is relatively crude, it is useful in determining the approximate size of the modifications due to dust. In order to explore this problem more carefully, detailed numerical models of H II regions with dust were constructed. The ionization and thermal structure of these model H II regions is discussed. The observational consequences of the presence of dust are explored; the optical line intensities, radio continuum and line fluxes, and infrared emission of model H II regions with dust are given. These numerical models are compared with observations of diffuse nebulae. The optical line ratios are compared to several nearby bright H II regions, and it is found that the dust models may explain several anomalies in their spectrum
Collision density approach of radiation damage in a multispecies medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lux, I.; Pazsit, I.
1981-01-01
Space-energy dependent forward type equations for the collision densities of energetic atoms in a multispecies semi-infinite homogeneous medium are formulated. Introduction of the one-dimensional isotropic forward-backward model of Fermi for the scattering and application of the Laplace transform with respect to the lethargy variable will lead to a linear differential equation system with constant coefficients. This equation system is solved for an arbitrary number of species and relations between the collision densities and defect distributions of the different species are given in the Kinchin-Pease model of radiation damage. The case of an alien particle incident on a two-component target is examined in some detail and the sputtering spectra for the three species are given numerically. (author)
Collision density approach of radiation damage in a multispecies medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lux, I; Pazsit, I [Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary)
1981-01-01
Space-energy dependent forward type equations for the collision densities of energetic atoms in a multispecies semi-infinite homogeneous medium are formulated. Introduction of the one-dimensional isotropic forward-backward model of Fermi for the scattering and application of the Laplace transform with respect to the lethargy variable will lead to a linear differential equation system with constant coefficients. This equation system is solved for an arbitrary number of species and relations between the collision densities and defect distributions of the different species are given in the Kinchin-Pease model of radiation damage. The case of an alien particle incident on a two-component target is examined in some detail and the sputtering spectra for the three species are given numerically.
Medium-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy for cervical cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Eiichi; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Oh, Ryoong-Jin
2003-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of medium-dose-rate (MDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICRT) for cervical cancer. Between May 1991 and March 2001, 80 patients with cervical cancer were treated with external radiotherapy combined with MDR-ICRT. Two patients were excluded from this study. The median age of patients was 61 years (range: 30-87 years). Seventy-five patients had pathologically proved squamous cell carcinoma, and 3 had adenocarcinoma. The patients were staged by Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) classification as follows: Stage IA (2), Stage IB (4), Stage IIA (5), Stage IIB (22), Stage IIIA (1), Stage IIIB (32), Stage IVA (5), Stage IVB (7). Median follow-up for survivor was 68 months (range: 12-131 months). The radiation therapy was based on a combination of ICRT and external pelvic irradiation. Patients with stages II, III and IVA were treated with whole-pelvic irradiation with respective total doses of 20, 30, and 40 Gy. Doses of 40, 30, 20, and 20 Gy parametrial irradiation were added with central shield pelvic irradiation for stages IB, II, III and IVA lesions respectively. For MDR-ICRT, from May 1991 to December 1995, point A dose were 40 Gy/4 fractions for stages I and II, 38 Gy/4 fractions for stage III, and 28.5 Gy/3 fractions for stage IVA. And from January 1996 to March 2001, point A dose of 36 Gy/4 fractions for stages I and II, 34 Gy/4 fractions for stage III, and 25.5 Gy/3 fractions for stage IVA. The median dose rate at point A was 1.7 Gy/hour (range: 1.3-2.2 Gy/hour). The 5-year cause-specific survival rates were 100%, 76%, 51% and 40% for stages I, II, III and IVA respectively. All patients with stage IVB died from the tumor with a median survival time of 12 months. The 5-year pelvic control rates were 100%, 88%, 69% and 40% for stages I, II, III and IVA respectively. Major late complications occurred in 2 patients (3%). One patient developed vesico- and recto-vaginal fistulae, and died of pelvic infection
Overview of medium heterogeneity and transport processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsang, Y.; Tsang, C.F.
1993-11-01
Medium heterogeneity can have significant impact on the behavior of solute transport. Tracer breakthrough curves from transport in a heterogeneous medium are distinctly different from that in a homogeneous porous medium. Usually the shape of the breakthrough curves are highly non-symmetrical with a fast rise at early times and very long tail at late times, and often, they consist of multiple peaks. Moreover, unlike transport in a homogeneous medium where the same transport parameters describe the entire medium, transport through heterogeneous media gives rise to breakthrough curves which have strong spatial dependence. These inherent characteristics of transport in heterogeneous medium present special challenge to the performance assessment of a potential high level nuclear waste repository with respect to the possible release of radio nuclides to the accessible environment. Since an inherently desirable site characteristic for a waste repository is that flow and transport should be slow, then transport measurements in site characterization efforts will necessarily be spatially small and temporally short compare to the scales which are of relevance to performance assessment predictions. In this paper we discuss the role of medium heterogeneity in site characterization and performance assessment. Our discussion will be based on a specific example of a 3D heterogeneous stochastic model of a site generally similar to, the Aespoe Island, the site of the Hard Rock Laboratory in Southern Sweden. For our study, alternative 3D stochastic fields of hydraulic conductivities conditioned on ''point'' measurements shall be generated. Results of stochastic flow and transport simulations would be used to address the issues of (1) the relationship of tracer breakthrough with the structure of heterogeneity, and (2) the inference from small scale testing results to large scale and long term predictions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel Centeno
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF is a flexible and economic manufacturing process with a strong potential for manufacturing small and medium batches of highly customized parts. Formability and failure in SPIF have been intensively discussed in recent years, especially because this process allows stable plastic deformation well above the conventional forming limits, as this enhanced formability is only achievable within a certain range of process parameters depending on the material type. This paper analyzes formability and failure of AISI304-H111 sheets deformed by SPIF compared to conventional testing conditions (including Nakazima and stretch-bending tests. With this purpose, experimental tests in SPIF and stretch-bending were carried out and a numerical model of SPIF is performed. The results allow the authors to establish the following contributions regarding SPIF: (i the setting of the limits of the formability enhancement when small tool diameters are used, (ii the evolution of the crack when failure is attained and (iii the determination of the conditions upon which necking is suppressed, leading directly to ductile fracture in SPIF.
Parton fragmentation in the vacuum and in the medium
Albino, S.; Arleo, F.; Besson, Dave Z.; Brooks, William K.; Buschbeck, B.; Cacciari, M.; Christova, E.; Corcella, G.; D'Enterria, David G.; Dolejsi, Jiri; Domdey, S.; Estienne, M.; Hamacher, Klaus; Heinz, M.; Hicks, K.; Kettler, D.; Kumano, S.; Moch, S.O.; Muccifora, V.; Pacetti, S.; Perez-Ramos, R.; Pirner, H.J.; Pronko, Alexandre Pavlovich; Radici, M.; Rak, J.; Roland, C.; Rudolph, Gerald; Rurikova, Z.; Salgado, C.A.; Sapeta, S.; Saxon, David H.; Seidl, Ralf-Christian; Seuster, R.; Stratmann, M.; Tannenbaum, Michael J.; Tasevsky, M.; Trainor, T.; Traynor, D.; Werlen, M.; Zhou, C.
2008-01-01
We present the mini-proceedings of the workshop on ``Parton fragmentation in the vacuum and in the medium'' held at the European Centre for Theoretical Studies in Nuclear Physics and Related Areas (ECT*, Trento) in February 2008. The workshop gathered both theorists and experimentalists to discuss the current status of investigations of quark and gluon fragmentation into hadrons at different accelerator facilities (LEP, B-factories, JLab, HERA, RHIC, and Tevatron) as well as preparations for extension of these studies at the LHC. The main physics topics covered were: (i) light-quark and gluon fragmentation in the vacuum including theoretical (global fits analyses and MLLA) and experimental (data from e+e-, p-p, e-p collisions) aspects, (ii) strange and heavy-quark fragmentation, (iii) parton fragmentation in cold QCD matter (nuclear DIS), and (iv) medium-modified fragmentation in hot and dense QCD matter (high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions). These mini-proceedings consist of an introduction and short summ...
Yao, Yongchang; Zhai, Zhichen; Wang, Yingjun
2014-01-01
Background. The ATDC5 cell line is regarded as an excellent cell model for chondrogenesis. In most studies with ATDC5 cells, insulin medium (IM) was used to induce chondrogenesis while chondrogenic medium (CM), which was usually applied in chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), was rarely used for ATDC5 cells. This study was mainly designed to investigate the effect of IM, CM, and growth medium (GM) on chondrogenesis of ATDC5 cells. Methods. ATDC5 cells were, respectively, cultured ...
Modelling hair follicle growth dynamics as an excitable medium.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip J Murray
Full Text Available The hair follicle system represents a tractable model for the study of stem cell behaviour in regenerative adult epithelial tissue. However, although there are numerous spatial scales of observation (molecular, cellular, follicle and multi follicle, it is not yet clear what mechanisms underpin the follicle growth cycle. In this study we seek to address this problem by describing how the growth dynamics of a large population of follicles can be treated as a classical excitable medium. Defining caricature interactions at the molecular scale and treating a single follicle as a functional unit, a minimal model is proposed in which the follicle growth cycle is an emergent phenomenon. Expressions are derived, in terms of parameters representing molecular regulation, for the time spent in the different functional phases of the cycle, a formalism that allows the model to be directly compared with a previous cellular automaton model and experimental measurements made at the single follicle scale. A multi follicle model is constructed and numerical simulations are used to demonstrate excellent qualitative agreement with a range of experimental observations. Notably, the excitable medium equations exhibit a wider family of solutions than the previous work and we demonstrate how parameter changes representing altered molecular regulation can explain perturbed patterns in Wnt over-expression and BMP down-regulation mouse models. Further experimental scenarios that could be used to test the fundamental premise of the model are suggested. The key conclusion from our work is that positive and negative regulatory interactions between activators and inhibitors can give rise to a range of experimentally observed phenomena at the follicle and multi follicle spatial scales and, as such, could represent a core mechanism underlying hair follicle growth.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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Depending on the way goethite was pretreated with oxalic acid, affinity for Cd(II) varied ...... Effects and mechanisms of oxalate on Cd(II) adsorption on goethite at different ... precipitation, surfactant mediation, hydrothermal and micro-emulsion.
Numerical Asymptotic Solutions Of Differential Equations
Thurston, Gaylen A.
1992-01-01
Numerical algorithms derived and compared with classical analytical methods. In method, expansions replaced with integrals evaluated numerically. Resulting numerical solutions retain linear independence, main advantage of asymptotic solutions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohd Fairulnizal Md Noh; Tothill, I.E.
2011-01-01
A sensor incorporating a three electrodes configuration have been fabricated using low cost screen-printing technology. These electrodes couples with Square Wave Stripping Voltammetry (SWSV) has provided a convenient screening tool for on-site detection of trace levels of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II). Modification of the graphite carbon surface based on in situ deposition of mercury film has been carried out. By appropriate choice of supporting medium and optimized parameters setting such as amount of mercury used the deposition potential, deposition time, frequency and scan rate, well resolved and reproducible response for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) were obtained. The performance characteristics of the developed mercury film screen printed carbon electrode (MFSPCE) for 120 s deposition time showed that the linear range for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 10 to 200 μg L -1 . The detection limit recorded for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) were 2, 1 and 5 μg L -1 with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 6.5 %, 6.9 % and 7.5 %, respectively. Successful applications of the sensing device to waste-water and extracted soil samples were demonstrated. (author)
Nuclear medium effects in the evaluation of Callan Gross relation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaidi, F.; Haider, H.; Athar, M. Sajjad; Singh, S.K.
2015-01-01
JLab has recently measured F 1 (x) and F 2 (x) structure functions separately as well as studied the difference F 2 (x) - 2 xF 1 (x) (Callan-Gross relation) using electron-nucleus deep inelastic scattering (DIS) in the energy region of 2-6 GeV of the electron beam. Theoretically, it is important to understand nuclear medium effects for a fundamental process eN → eX (N is the nucleon and X is jet of hadrons) taking place with a nucleon bound inside the nucleus. Generally, nuclear medium effects in the DIS region are understood due to shadowing and antishadowing effects, mesonic cloud contributions, Fermi motion and binding energy etc. In the present paper we have studied nuclear medium effects in microscopic model using relativistic nucleon spectral function to describe nucleon momentum distribution. The Fermi motion, binding energy effect and nucleon-nucleon correlations are taken into account using spectral functions. The spectral functions that describe energy and momentum distribution of nucleon is obtained by using the Lehmann's representation for the relativistic nucleon propagator and nuclear many body theory is used to calculate it for an interacting Fermi sea in nuclear matter. A local density approximation is then applied to translate these results to a finite nucleus. We have taken into account pion and rho mesons cloud contributions which are found to have important contribution in the intermediate region of Bjorken variable x. Furthermore, shadowing and antishadowing effects are also taken into account using phenomenological model of Kulagin and Petti. Numerical evaluation have been performed both at the leading order (LO) and next-to-leading order (NLO)
'That proves my point': How mediums reconstrue disconfirmation in medium-sitter interactions.
Enoksen, Anette Einan; Dickerson, Paul
2018-04-01
Previous research has examined how the talk of mediums attends to the epistemological status of their readings. Such work has identified that mediums frequently use question-framed propositions that are typically confirmed by the sitter, thereby conferring epistemological status on the medium. This study seeks to investigate what happens when the sitter disconfirms the propositions of the medium. The study focuses on the ways in which such disconfirmation can be responded to such that it is reconstrued as evidence of the psychic nature of the medium's reading. Televised demonstrations of psychic readings involving British and US mediums and their sitters are analysed. The results suggest that mediums rework disconfirmation as proof in several ways: first, by emphasizing the different access that sitter and medium have to knowledge (e.g., about the future); second, as evidence that the medium has access to the actual voice of the deceased (and may therefore mishear what the deceased has said to them); and third, as revealing an important truth that has hitherto been concealed from the sitter. The implications of these findings are considered for cases where speakers bring different and potentially competing, epistemological resources to an interaction. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Determination of adsorption parameters in numerical simulation for polymer flooding
Bao, Pengyu; Li, Aifen; Luo, Shuai; Dang, Xu
2018-02-01
A study on the determination of adsorption parameters for polymer flooding simulation was carried out. The study mainly includes polymer static adsorption and dynamic adsorption. The law of adsorption amount changing with polymer concentration and core permeability was presented, and the one-dimensional numerical model of CMG was established under the support of a large number of experimental data. The adsorption laws of adsorption experiments were applied to the one-dimensional numerical model to compare the influence of two adsorption laws on the historical matching results. The results show that the static adsorption and dynamic adsorption abide by different rules, and differ greatly in adsorption. If the static adsorption results were directly applied to the numerical model, the difficulty of the historical matching will increase. Therefore, dynamic adsorption tests in the porous medium are necessary before the process of parameter adjustment in order to achieve the ideal history matching result.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathur, Praveen; Trivedi, Pradeep; Mehta, R.K.
1983-01-01
Studies on the interaction of newly synthesised ligand, O-(N-3, 5-dichloro-α-pyridone imino) benzene sulphonic acid (H 2 PB) with Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), UO 2 +2 and VO +2 have been carried out potentiometrically. Many physico-chemical studies on thermodynamics, elemental analysis, molecular weight, magnetic moment, conductance, electronic and IR spectra have also been made on the solid chelates and their adducts. The dissociation constants of H 2 PB and stabilities of its bivalent chelates have been evaluated potentiometrically at 25deg, 35deg and 45degC in aqueous medium (0.01M, 0.05M and 0.1M NaClO 4 ) by Bjerrum's method. The stability sequence is in agreement with the Irving-William's rule. (author)
How to Circumvent Church Numerals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goldberg, Mayer; Torgersen, Mads
2002-01-01
In this work we consider a standard numeral system in the lambda-calculus, and the elementary arithmetic and Boolean functions and predicates defined on this numeral system, and show how to construct terms that "circumvent" or "defeat" these functions: The equality predicate is satisfied when com...
Numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werneth, Charles M; Dhar, Mallika; Maung, Khin Maung; Sirola, Christopher; Norbury, John W
2010-01-01
A numerical Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization procedure is presented for constructing an orthonormal basis function set from a non-orthonormal set, when the number of basis functions is large. This method will provide a pedagogical illustration of the Gram-Schmidt procedure and can be presented in classes on numerical methods or computational physics.
Watanabe, K; Imase, M; Aoyagi, H; Ohmura, N; Saiki, H; Tanaka, H
2008-09-01
(i) Quantitative and qualitative analyses of photosynthetic metabolites of Chlorella sorokiniana and elucidation of the mechanism of their utilization by algal symbionts. (ii) Development of artificial medium that imitates photoautotroph-heterotroph interaction and investigation of its suitability for isolation of novel microbes from the environment. Various components, including free dissolved carbohydrates, nitrogenous compounds and vitamin, were detected and together contributed 11.1% (as carbon content) of the total photosynthetic metabolites in the medium. Utilization of these photosynthetic metabolites in algal culture broth by algal symbionts was studied. Many symbionts showed specific utilization patterns. A novel artificial extracellular released organic carbon medium, which imitated the nutritional conditions surrounding algae, was developed based on the pattern of utilization of the algal metabolites by the symbiotic heterotrophs. About 42.9% of the isolates were closely related to photoautotrophic-dependent and oligotrophic bacteria. With the novel artificial medium, it was possible to selectively isolate some bacterial strains. Synthetic bacterial growth medium is an important and basic tool for bacterial isolation from environmental samples. The current study shows that preferential separation of typical bacterial subset can be achieved by using artificial medium that mimics photosynthetic metabolites.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bilal Aslam, Iftikhar Hussain*, Muhammad Shahid Mahmood and Ahrar Khan1
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The present study was conducted to compare the effect of 3 formulations Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK medium on the growth of Borrelia (B. anserina, the causative agent of avian borreliosis. Three different formulations of BSK medium (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete medium were prepared. For the isolation of B. anserina, Argas ticks were inoculated in all the three (BSK-H, BSK-II and BSK-H complete formulations of BSK medium. All the samples were also observed for the impact of BSK medium on the growth (Generation time, Growth per hour, Specific growth rate of B. anserina. Phase contrast microscopy was performed for the observation of viable B. anserina cells, and additional confirmation of all the isolates was done by performing indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. BSK-H complete medium supplemented with 6% rabbit serum and sodium bicarbonate was found best when compared to two other formulations of BSK medium with respect to the isolation, generation time and growth rate of Borrelia spirochetes.
CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload
Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee
2013-01-01
Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839
Numerical simulation of laser resonators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, J. G.; Jeong, Y. U.; Lee, B. C.; Rhee, Y. J.; Cho, S. O.
2004-01-01
We developed numerical simulation packages for laser resonators on the bases of a pair of integral equations. Two numerical schemes, a matrix formalism and an iterative method, were programmed for finding numeric solutions to the pair of integral equations. The iterative method was tried by Fox and Li, but it was not applicable for high Fresnel numbers since the numerical errors involved propagate and accumulate uncontrollably. In this paper, we implement the matrix method to extend the computational limit further. A great number of case studies are carried out with various configurations of stable and unstable r;esonators to compute diffraction losses, phase shifts, intensity distributions and phases of the radiation fields on mirrors. Our results presented in this paper show not only a good agreement with the results previously obtained by Fox and Li, but also the legitimacy of our numerical procedures for high Fresnel numbers.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
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SYNTHESIS OF 2,2-DIMETHYL-4-PHENYL-[1,3]-DIOXOLANE USING ZEOLITE. ENCAPSULATED Co(II), Cu(II) AND Zn(II) COMPLEXES. B.P. Nethravathi1, K. Rama Krishna Reddy2 and K.N. Mahendra1*. 1Department of Chemistry, Bangalore University, Bangalore-560001, India. 2Department of Chemistry, Government ...
Elizabeth II uus kunstigalerii
1999-01-01
Tähistamaks oma troonile asumise 50. aastapäeva, avab Elizabeth II 6. II 2002 Buckinghami palees uue kunstigalerii, mis ehitatakse palee tiibhoonena. Arhitekt John Simpson. Elizabeth II kunstikogust
Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.
Buller, Dave; And Others
Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…
World War II Informational Fact Sheets.
Department of Defense, Washington, DC.
This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…
Effect of deformability on fluid flow through a fractured-porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsang, C.F.; Noorishad, J.; Witherspoon, P.A.
1985-01-01
A permeable geologic medium containing interstitial fluids generally undergoes deformation as the fluid pressure changes. Depending on the nature of the medium, the strain ranges from infinitesimal to finite quantities. This response is the result of a coupled hydraulic-mechanical phenomenon which can basically be formulated in the generalized three-dimensional theory of consolidation. Dealing mainly with media of little deformability, traditional hydrogeology accounts for medium deformability as far as it affects the volume of pore spaces, through the introduction of a coefficient of specific storage in the fluid flow equation. This treatment can be justified on the basis of a one-dimensional effective stress law and the assumption of homogeneity of the total stress field throughout the medium. The present paper uses a numerical model called ROCMAS (Noorishad et al., 1982; Noorishad e al., 1984) which was developed to calculate fluid flow through a deformable fractured-porous medium. The code employs the Finite Element Method based on a variational approach. It has been verified against a number of simple analytic solutions. In this work, the code is used to address the role of medium deformability in continuous and pulse testing techniques. The errors that may result because of application of traditional fluid flow methods are discussed. It is found that low pressure continuous well testing or pulse testing procedures can reduce such errors. 16 references, 9 figures, 1 table
Radiative transfer equation for graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, L.H.; Zhang, L.; Tan, H.P.
2006-01-01
In graded index medium, the ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle, and the curved ray-tracing is very difficult and complex. To avoid the complicated and time-consuming computation of curved ray trajectory, the methods not based on ray-tracing technique need to be developed for the solution of radiative transfer in graded index medium. For this purpose, in this paper the streaming operator along a curved ray trajectory in original radiative transfer equation for graded index medium is transformed and expressed in spatial and angular ordinates and the radiative transfer equation for graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are derived. The conservative and the non-conservative forms of radiative transfer equation for three-dimensional graded index medium are given, which can be used as base equations to develop the numerical simulation methods, such as finite volume method, discrete ordinates method, and finite element method, for radiative transfer in graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems
Numerical methods in dynamic fracture mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beskos, D.E.
1987-01-01
A review of numerical methods for the solution of dynamic problems of fracture mechanics is presented. Finite difference, finite element and boundary element methods as applied to linear elastic or viscoelastic and non-linear elastoplastic or elastoviscoplastic dynamic fracture mechanics problems are described and critically evaluated. Both cases of stationary cracks and rapidly propagating cracks of simple I, II, III or mixed modes are considered. Harmonically varying with time or general transient dynamic disturbances in the form of external loading or incident waves are taken into account. Determination of the dynamic stress intensity factor for stationary cracks or moving cracks with known velocity history as well as determination of the crack-tip propagation history for given dynamic fracture toughness versus crack velocity relation are described and illustrated by means of certain representative examples. Finally, a brief assessment of the present state of knowledge is made and research needs are identified
Hadrons in hot and dense medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mallik, S.
2004-01-01
We review chiral perturbation theory in some detail and construct interaction terms involving the Goldstone and the different non-Goldstone fields, in presence of external (classical) fields coupled to currents. The ensemble average of the two-point functions of the currents can now be expanded in terms of Feynman diagrams. We evaluate the one-loop diagrams in the neighbourhood of the respective poles to find the effective couplings and masses of the particles in medium. We also describe the virial formula for the self-energy of a particle in medium, giving its pole position. It proves useful if the scattering amplitude of the particle with particles in medium is known experimentally. (author)
Charmonium propagation through a dense medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kopeliovich B.Z.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Attenuation of a colourless c̄c dipole propagating with a large momentum through a hot medium originates from two sources, Debye screening (melting, and inelastic collisions with surrounding scattering centres (absorption. The former never terminates completely production of a bound charmonium in heavy ion collisions, even at very high temperatures. The latter, is controlled my the magnitude of the dipole cross section, related to the transport coefficient, which is the rate of transverse momentum broadening in the medium. A novel procedure of Lorentz boosting of the Schrödinger equation is developed, which allows to calculate the charmonium survival probability employing the path-integral technique, incorporating both melting and absorption. A novel mechanism of charmonium regeneration in a dense medium is proposed.
Coherent neutrino interactions in a dense medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiers, K.; Weiss, N.
1997-01-01
Motivated by the effect of matter on neutrino oscillations (the MSW effect) we study in more detail the propagation of neutrinos in a dense medium. The dispersion relation for massive neutrinos in a medium is known to have a minimum at nonzero momentum p∼G F ρ/√(2). We study in detail the origin and consequences of this dispersion relation for both Dirac and Majorana neutrinos both in a toy model with only neutral currents and a single neutrino flavor and in a realistic open-quotes standard modelclose quotes with two neutrino flavors. We find that for a range of neutrino momenta near the minimum of the dispersion relation, Dirac neutrinos are trapped by their coherent interactions with the medium. This effect does not lead to the trapping of Majorana neutrinos. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Temperature distribution in a uniformly moving medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitchell, Joseph D; Petrov, Nikola P
2009-01-01
We apply several physical ideas to determine the steady temperature distribution in a medium moving with uniform velocity between two infinite parallel plates. We compute it in the coordinate frame moving with the medium by integration over the 'past' to account for the influence of an infinite set of instantaneous point sources of heat in past moments as seen by an observer moving with the medium. The boundary heat flux is simulated by appropriately distributed point heat sources on the inner side of an adiabatically insulating boundary. We make an extensive use of the Green functions with an emphasis on their physical meaning. The methodology used in this paper is of great pedagogical value as it offers an opportunity for students to see the connection between powerful mathematical techniques and their physical interpretation in an intuitively clear physical problem. We suggest several problems and a challenging project that can be easily incorporated in undergraduate or graduate courses
Small and medium size nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al-Mugrabi, M.A.
1996-01-01
The purpose of this appendix is to provide up-to-date technical information relevant to the deployment of small and medium reactors (SMRs). It summarizes the status of SMRs and discusses areas of relevance to their utilization, including seawater desalination; and in particular their simplicity, their flexibility for a variety of applications and the use of passive safety features as fundamental to most of these designs. In response to important commercial developments, the energy range of small and medium reactors is now taken as being up to around 700 MW(e). Detailed information on SMR designs can be found in the IAEA report on The Design and Development Status of Small and Medium Reactor Systems 1995. 5 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
Numerical computation of gravitational field for general axisymmetric objects
Fukushima, Toshio
2016-10-01
We developed a numerical method to compute the gravitational field of a general axisymmetric object. The method (I) numerically evaluates a double integral of the ring potential by the split quadrature method using the double exponential rules, and (II) derives the acceleration vector by numerically differentiating the numerically integrated potential by Ridder's algorithm. Numerical comparison with the analytical solutions for a finite uniform spheroid and an infinitely extended object of the Miyamoto-Nagai density distribution confirmed the 13- and 11-digit accuracy of the potential and the acceleration vector computed by the method, respectively. By using the method, we present the gravitational potential contour map and/or the rotation curve of various axisymmetric objects: (I) finite uniform objects covering rhombic spindles and circular toroids, (II) infinitely extended spheroids including Sérsic and Navarro-Frenk-White spheroids, and (III) other axisymmetric objects such as an X/peanut-shaped object like NGC 128, a power-law disc with a central hole like the protoplanetary disc of TW Hya, and a tear-drop-shaped toroid like an axisymmetric equilibrium solution of plasma charge distribution in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like tokamak. The method is directly applicable to the electrostatic field and will be easily extended for the magnetostatic field. The FORTRAN 90 programs of the new method and some test results are electronically available.
M dwarfs from the Einstein extended medium sensitivity survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fleming, T.A.; Liebert, J.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T.
1988-01-01
A complete sample of X-ray selected M dwarfs are presented which were serendipitously detected in the extended Einstein Observatory Medium Sensitivity Survey (MSS). The MSS detected only early M dwarfs (type MO through M5), 84 percent of which were emission stars (i.e., type Me V). It was calculated that the X-ray luminosity function for early M dwarfs with a log Lx greater than 27.6 and, by comparison to optical luminosity functions, find that about 25 percent of all early M dwarfs emit X-rays at a level greater than log Lx = 27.6. This result is compared to luminosity function estimates from optically selected samples and discussed in light of the sample's kinematic and mean age. Also presented is H alpha and Ca II K line fluxes for each member of the sample and it is shown that the surface H alpha and Ca II K luminosities do indeed correlate with Lx. The significance of this effect to theories of chromospheric and coronal heating is explained. 76 references
Small-scale structure in the diffuse interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, D.M.
1990-01-01
The initial results of a study to probe the small-scale structure in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) through IUE and optical observations of interstellar absorption lines toward both components of resolvable binary stars is reported. The binaries (Kappa CrA, 57 Aql, 59 And, HR 1609/10, 19 Lyn, and Theta Ser) observed with IUE have projected linear separations ranging from 5700 to 700 Au. Except for Kappa CrA, the strengths of the interstellar absorption lines toward both components of these binaries agree to within 10 percent. In the case of Kappa CrA, the optically thin interstellar Mg I and Mn II lines are about 50 percent stronger toward Kappa-2 CrA than Kappa-1 CrA. Higher resolution observations of interstellar Ca II show that this difference is concentrated in the main interstellar component at V(LSR) = 9 + or - 2 km/s. Interestingly, this velocity corresponds to an intervening cloud that may be associated with the prominent Loop I shell in the local ISM. Given the separation (23 arcsec) and distance (120 pc) of Kappa CrA, the line strength variations indicate that this cloud has structure on scales of 2800 AU or less. 21 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vidyavati Reddy
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The complexes of the type ML2 [where M = Cu(II, Co(II, and Ni(II] L = 1-phenyl-1-ene-3-(2-hydroxyphenyl-prop-2-ene with 3- substituted-5-mercapto-4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles. Schiff base ligands have been prepared by reacting 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl-1-phenylprop-2-en-1-one and 3-phenyl/pyridyl-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazoles in an alcoholic medium. The complexes are non-electrolytes in DMF. The resulting complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic measurements, conductivity measurements and spectral studies. The Schiff base acts as a tridentate dibasic and coordinating through the deprotonated oxygen, thioenolic sulphur and azomethine nitrogen atoms. It is found that Cu(II, Co(II, and Ni(II complexes exhibited octahedral geometry. The antimicrobial activities of ligands and its complexes were screened by cup plate method.
H2 molecules and the intercloud medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hill, J.K.; Hollenbach, D.J.
1976-01-01
We discuss expected column of densities of H 2 in the intercloud medium and the possible use of molecules as indicators of intercloud physical conditions. We treat molecule formation by the H - process and on graphite grains and show that the Barlow-Silk hypothesis of a 1 eV semichemical hydrogen-graphite bond leads to a large enhancement of the intercloud molecule formation rate. Rotational excitation calculations are presented for both cloud and intercloud conditions which show, in agreement with Jura, that the presently observed optically thin H 2 absorption components are more likely to originate in cold clouds than in the intercloud medium