WorldWideScience

Sample records for medium energy deuterons

  1. POMME: A medium energy deuteron polarimeter based on semi-inclusive d-carbon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Fanet, H.; Fergerson, R.W.; Garcon, M.; Giorgetti, C.; Habault, J.; Le Meur, J.; Lombard, R.M.; Lugol, J.C.; Mayer, B.; Mouly, J.P.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Morlet, M.; Wiele, J. van de; Willis, A.; Greeniaus, G.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver; Gaillard, G.; Markowitz, P.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Abegg, R.; Hutcheon, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    POMME is the first calibrated deuteron polarimeter using a d + carbon semi-inclusive scattering reaction. We present the results of its calibration in the region T d =150-700 MeV, with the polarized deuteron beam from the synchrotron Saturne. A parametrization of the measured analyzing powers, and a discussion of the obtained efficiency and figure of merit are also given. (orig.)

  2. Medium size polarised deuteron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Yu.F.; Polyakov, V.V.; Kovalev, A.I.; Bunyatova, E.I.; Borisov, N.S.; Trautman, V.Yu.; Werner, K.; Kozlenko, N.G.

    1984-03-01

    A frozen polarised deuteron target based on ethanediol with a high percentage of deuterium is described. Analytical expressions for the NMR spectrum correction for non-linearity of the Q-meter are obtained and a method for the determination of the asymmetry is developed. Experimental results confirm the thermal mixing theory for deuteron and proton spin systems with a dipole-dipole reservoir of electron spins.

  3. On Low and Medium Energy Deuteron-induced Reactions on (63,65)CU

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimečková, Eva; Bém, Pavel; Honusek, Milan; Závorka, Lukáš; Fischer, U.; Simakov, SP.; Forrest, R.A.; Avrigeanu, V.; Roman, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 1928-1931 ISSN 0374-4884 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Deuterons * Activation * Breakup * Direct reactions Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2011

  4. A medium size polarised deuteron target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, Yu. F.; Polyakov, V. V.; Kovalev, A. I.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Borisov, N. S.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Werner, K.; Kozlenko, N. G.

    1984-03-01

    A frozen polarised deuteron target based on ethanediol with a high percentage of deuterium is described. Analytical expressions for the NMR spectrum correction for non-linearity of the Q-meter are obtained and a method for the determination of the asymmetry is developed. Experimental results confirm the thermal mixing theory for deuteron and proton spin systems with a dipole-dipole reservoir of electron spins.

  5. Intermediate energy nucleon-deuteron scattering theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Sloan's conclusion (1969) that terms of the multiple-scattering series beyond single scattering contribute only to S- and P-wave amplitudes in an S-wave separable model is examined. A comparison of experiments with the calculation at 146 MeV shows that the conclusion is valid in nucleon-deuteron scattering applications.

  6. Energy spectra of protons in diffraction break-up of deuterons on 12C and 40Ca at intermediate energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Davydovskyy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the diffraction approximation generalized to the case of inelastic processes with longitudinal momentum transfer, the reaction of the deuteron break-up on nuclei at medium energies is studied, taking into account the Coulomb and nuclear interactions. The formulas for the calculation of the energy spectra of the emerging protons are obtained up to the second order with respect to the ratio of the deuteron radius to the nucleus radius. Three types of model wave functions of the deuteron were used in the calculations: Yukawa, exponential and Gaussian. The wave function of np-pair in continuum is built orthogonal to the wave function of deuteron. This allows one to take into account qualitatively the interaction in the final state and avoid false contributions to the cross section at near zero momentum transfer. A comparison with experimental data on the break-up of deuterons with energy of 56 MeV on carbon and calcium with the registration of the emitted neutrons and protons at zero angles is carried out. It is shown that the contribution of the Coulomb mechanism dominates in the cross section. The best description of the spectra of protons is achieved by using the Yukawa form of the wave function of the deuteron. It is also shown that taking into account the transfer of longitudinal momentum to the deuteron nucleons improves the experimental data description. In the case of non-zero nucleon escape angles, the effect of taking into account longitudinal momentum can reach several hundred percent.

  7. Scattering of high energy electrons on deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, B.

    1964-12-01

    The aim of this work is to obtain information on the neutron form factor from the study of the scattering of electrons on deuterium. The first part is dedicated to the theoretical study of the elastic and inelastic scattering. We introduce different form factors: Sachs form factor, the Pauli and Dirac form factors, they appear in the analytic expression of the scattering cross-section. We show how the deuteron form factors can be deduced from neutron's and proton's form factors. In the case of the inelastic scattering we show how the cross section can be broken into components associated to partial waves and we obtain different formulas for the inelastic cross-section based on the Breit formula or the Durand formalism. The second part is dedicated to the experiment setting of electron scattering on deuterium. The elastic scattering experiment has been made on solid or liquid CD 2 targets while inelastic scattering has been studied on a liquid target. We have used an electron beam produced by the Orsay linear accelerator and the scattered electrons have been analysed by a magnetic spectrometer and a Cerenkov detector. The results give a very low value (slightly positive)for the charge form factor of the neutron and a magnetic form factor for the neutron slightly below that of the proton [fr

  8. Energy Loss of Coasting Gold Ions and Deuterons in RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, N P; Brown, K; Burkhardt, H; Butler, J; Fischer, W; Harvey, M; Tepikian, S

    2008-01-01

    The total energy loss of coasting gold ion beams at two different energies and deuterons at one energy were measured at RHIC, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2, 107.4 and 108.7 respectively. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total energy loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the energy loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured energy losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.

  9. High Energy Measurement of the Deuteron Photodisintegration Differential Cross Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, Elaine [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2002-05-01

    New measurements of the high energy deuteron photodisintegration differential cross section were made at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia. Two experiments were performed. Experiment E96-003 was performed in experimental Hall C. The measurements were designed to extend the highest energy differential cross section values to 5.5 GeV incident photon energy at forward angles. This builds upon previous high energy measurements in which scaling consistent with the pQCD constituent counting rules was observed at 90 degrees and 70 degrees in the center of mass. From the new measurements, a threshold for the onset of constituent counting rule scaling seems present at transverse momentum approximately 1.3 GeV/c. The second experiment, E99-008, was performed in experimental Hall A. The measurements were designed to explore the angular distribution of the differential cross section at constant energy. The measurements were made symmetric about 90 degrees

  10. Birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.; Rovba, A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of birefringence (spin rotation and spin dichroism) of high-energy deuterons, currently observed in experiments, is the macroscopic quantum effect similar to the birefringence effect known in optics. This paper considers the contribution coming to the spin dichroism effect from the interaction of deuteron electric quadrupole moment and nuclear electric field. The effect proves to be responsive to the behavior of deuteron ground state wave functions at a small distance. [ru

  11. Deuteron interaction with 124Sn nuclei at sub-barrier energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.N. Pavlenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of cross sections for deuteron elastic scattering and (d,p reaction on 124Sn nuclei have been performed with aim to study the features of sub-barrier deuteron interaction with heavy nuclei. Experimental data were obtained on the electrostatic Tandem accelerator EGP-10K of the Institute for Nuclear Research (Kyiv at the deuteron beam energies Ed = 4.0; 5.0 and 5.5 MeV. Cross sections of deuteron elastic scattering were calculated in approach where the deuteron interaction potential with heavy nuclei at sub-barrier energies has been constructed in the framework of single folding model using the complex dynamic polarization potential. It is shown that the account of finite deuteron size leads to the increasing the nuclear potential in outer region of interaction and significantly improves the description of the experimental data. The calculations of elastic scattering cross sections were performed without any variations of the nuclear potential parameters. The analysis of measured integral cross sections of the 124Sn(d,p reaction and calculated cross sections of deuteron breakup reaction 124Sn(d,pn124Sn shows the dominant contribution of the neutron transfer reaction in the processes of the formation of protons and elastic scattering cross sections.

  12. Dynamic Isovector Reorientation of Deuteron as a Probe to Nuclear Symmetry Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Li; Xiao, Zhigang; Yi, Han; Wang, Ning; Liu, Min; Tian, Junlong

    2015-11-20

    We present the calculations on a novel reorientation effect of deuteron attributed to isovector interaction in the nuclear field of heavy target nuclei. The correlation angle determined by the relative momentum vector of the proton and the neutron originating from the breakup deuteron, which is experimentally detectable, exhibits significant dependence on the isovector nuclear potential but is robust against the variation of the isoscaler sector. In terms of sensitivity and cleanness, the breakup reactions induced by the polarized deuteron beam at about 100 MeV/u provide a more stringent constraint to the symmetry energy at subsaturation densities.

  13. Incoherent photoproduction of ϕ-meson from deuteron at low energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiswandhi Alvin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The LEPS and CLAS data of the incoherent photoproduction of ϕ meson from deuteron at low energies are studied with a model for ϕ meson photoproduction from nucleon consisting of Pomeron, π, and η meson exchanges in the t-channel, and a postulated resonance, with parameters fitted to recent LEPS data on ϕ production from proton near threshold. The resonance was introduced to explain an observed bump in the forward differential cross section. Within impulse approximation, we find that the Fermi motion, final state interaction, and the resonance excitation all give important contributions to improve the agreement with data. However, discrepancies remain. Contributions from ϕ production via spectator nucleon by other mesons like π,ρ, and ϕ produced from the first nucleon need to be calculated in order to gain insight on the medium effects as well as the existence of the postulated nucleon resonance.

  14. Low energy deuteron-induced reactions on Fe isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, Pavel; Fischer, U.; Honusek, Milan; Katovsky, K.; Manailescu, C.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Šimečková, Eva; Závorka, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), 044613 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cross sections * proton spectra * polarized deuterons Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.733, year: 2014

  15. Low-energy deuteron-induced reactions on Nb-93

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.; Bém, Pavel; Fischer, U.; Honusek, Milan; Koning, A.J.; Mrázek, Jaromír; Šimečková, Eva; Štefánik, Milan; Závorka, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 1 (2013), 014612 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : deuteron-induced reactions * cross sections * breakup mechanism Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.881, year: 2013 http://prc. aps .org/pdf/PRC/v88/i1/e014612

  16. Pursuing nuclear energy with no nuclear contamination - from neutron flux reactor to deuteron flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. Z.; Wei, Q. M.; Liu, B.; Zhu, X. G.; Ren, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    Pursuing nuclear energy with no nuclear contamination has been a long endeavor since the first fission reactor in 1942. Four major concepts have been the key issues: i.e. resonance, negative feed back, self-sustaining, nuclear radiation. When nuclear energy was just discovered in laboratory, the key issue was to enlarge it from the micro-scale to the macro-scale. Slowing-down the neutrons was the key issue to enhance the fission cross-section in order to build-up the neutron flux through the chain-reactions using resonance between neutron and fissile materials. Once the chain-reaction was realized, the negative feed-back was the key issue to keep the neutron flux at the allowable level. The negative reaction coefficient was introduced by the thermal expansion, and the resonant absorption in cadmium or boron was used to have a self-sustaining fission reactor with neutron flux. Then the strong neutron flux became the origin of all nuclear contamination, and a heavy shielding limits the application of the nuclear energy. The fusion approach to nuclear energy was much longer; nevertheless, it evolved with the similar issues. The resonance between deuteron and triton was resorted to enlarge the fusion cross section in order to keep a self-sustaining hot plasma. However, the 14 MeV neutron emission became the origin of all nuclear contamination again. Deuteron plus helium-3 fusion reaction was proposed to avoid neutron emission although there are two more difficulties: the helium-3 is supposed to be carried back from the moon; and much more higher temperature plasma has to be confined while 50 years needed to realized the deuteron-triton plasma already. Even if deuteron plus helium-3 fusion plasma might be realized in a much higher temperature plasma, we still have the neutron emission from the deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction in the deuteron plus helium-3 fusion plasma. Polarized deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction was proposed early in 1980's to select the neutron

  17. Influence of laser frequency chirp on deuteron energy from laser-driven deuterated methane cluster expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.Y. [College of Physics and Electronic Information, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin, P.R. (China); Liu, J.S. [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, P.R. (China)

    2010-06-15

    The simulations of three-dimensional particle dynamics are carried out to investigate the Coulomb explosion dynamics of deuterated methane clusters under the irradiation of an ultrashort intense laser pulse. The final kinetic energy of deuterons produced from the cluster explosion is calculated as a function of the pulse width, the laser intensity and the pulse chirp. It is found that the deuteron energy obtained in an intense laser pulse with negative chirp is higher than that with positive chirp, which agrees qualitatively with the experimental results reported by Fukuda et al. [Y. Fukuda et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 061201 (2003)]. (authors)

  18. Influence of laser frequency chirp on deuteron energy from laser-driven deuterated methane cluster expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H. Y.; Liu, J. S.

    2010-06-01

    The simulations of three-dimensional particle dynamics are carried out to investigate the Coulomb explosion dynamics of deuterated methane clusters under the irradiation of an ultrashort intense laser pulse. The final kinetic energy of deuterons produced from the cluster explosion is calculated as a function of the pulse width, the laser intensity and the pulse chirp. It is found that the deuteron energy obtained in an intense laser pulse with negative chirp is higher than that with positive chirp, which agrees qualitatively with the experimental results reported by Fukuda et al. [Y. Fukuda et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 061201 (2003)].

  19. The activation of W and Zr by deuterons at energies up to 20 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimečková Eva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton and deuteron induced reactions are of a great interest for the assessment of induced radioactivity of accelerator components, target and beam stoppers. In order to investigate the important nuclides, we have carried up the irradiation experiments with the variable-energy cyclotron U-120 M of the NPI CAS Řež. The production cross sections of the nuclides 179,181,182m,182,183,184m,184,186Re and 187W from reaction on natural W were investigated by deuteron beams of 20 MeV energy. A part of preliminary results of deuteron activation of natural Zr is also shown. The stacked-foil technique was utilized. The comparison of present results to data of other authors and to predictions of evaluated data libraries is discussed.

  20. 1H(d,2p)n reaction at 2 GeV deuteron energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erohuml, J.; Fodor, Z.; Koncz, P.; Seres, Z.; Perdrisat, C.F.; Punjabi, V.; Boudard, A.; Bonin, B.; Garcon, M.; Lombard, R.; Mayer, B.; Terrien, Y.; Tomasi, E.; Boivin, M.; Yonnet, J.; Bhang, H.C.; Youn, M.; Belostotsky, S.L.; Grebenuk, O.G.; Nikulin, V.N.; Kudin, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    The 1 H(d,2p)n deuteron breakup reaction was measured at 2 GeV deuteron energy in a kinematically complete experiment. Fivefold differential cross sections are given in a wide range of kinematical variables and analyzed in terms of impulse approximation and NN rescattering. The deuteron momentum density was determined and deviations were found depending on the value of the four-momentum transfer |t| in the scattering process. At low |t| the momentum densities are in good agreement with the impulse approximation whereas large discrepancies were found above q∼200 MeV/c when the four-momentum transfer was large. Various possible origins of the anomalous behavior at high q values are discussed

  1. Medium-energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    One of the basic challenges of medium-energy physics is the development of a clear picure of the manner in which pions propagate in nuclear matter. Since the pion is a basic quantum of the nuclear force, understanding its propagation in nuclei contributes to our understanding of the basic nature of nuclear forces. Key to such understanding is a comprehensive and precise experimental description of pion interactions both with complex nuclei and few nucleon systems. This is a major objective of the ANL effort in medium-energy physics. Experiments are carried out as a part of a comprehensive nuclear program, and, because of this perspective, the pion studies are expected to give new insights into the nature of nuclear forces. At the present time, almost all experimental activity is concentrated on measurements using various pion beams of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility

  2. Beam energy variability and other system considerations for a deuteron linac materials research neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    There are many overall system aspects and tradeoffs that must be considered in the design of a deuteron linac based neutron source for materials research, in order to obtain a facility with the best possible response to the user's needs, efficient and reliable operation and maintenance, at the optimum construction and operating cost. These considerations should be included in the facility design from the earliest conceptual stages, and rechecked at each stage to insure consistency and balance. Some of system requirements, particularly that of beam energy variability and its implications, are outlined in this talk. (author)

  3. [Medium energy physics at Syracuse University: Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souder, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The primary focus of research has been an experiment at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center to measure the spin-dependence of elastic scattering of electrons from carbon. The Syracuse University Medium Energy Physics Group is also part of a collaboration which will measure the tensor polarization of deuterons scattered by electrons. Finally, analysis has been completed for an experiment at LAMPF in which the first observation of the exotic ion μ + e - e - was made. 17 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Azimuthal asymmetries of charged hadrons produced in high-energy muon scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C; Akhunzyanov, R; Alexeev, M G; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Andrieux, V; Anfimov, N V; Anosov, V; Augsten, K; Augustyniak, W; Austregesilo, A; Azevedo, C D R; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Ball, M; Barth, J; Beck, R; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bicker, K; Bielert, E R; Birsa, R; Bodlak, M; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Braun, C; Bressan, A; Buchele, M; Chang, W-C; Chatterjee, C; Chiosso, M; Choi, I; Chung, S-U; Cicuttin, A; Crespo, M L; Curiel, Q; Dalla Torre, S; Dasgupta, S S; Dasgupta, S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Dreisbach, Ch; Duic, V; Dunnweber, W; Dziewiecki, M; Efremov, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger jr, M; Fischer, H; Franco, C; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N; Friedrich, J M; Frolov, V; Fuchey, E; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gerassimov, S; Giarra, J; Giordano, F; Gnesi, I; Gorzellik, M; Grabmuller, S; Grasso, A; Grosse Perdekamp, M; Grube, B; Grussenmeyer, T; Guskov, A; Haas, F; Hahne, D; Hamar, G; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Heitz, R; Herrmann, F; Horikawa, N; d’Hose, N; Hsieh, C-Y; Huber, S; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, A; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jary, V; Joosten, R; Jorg, P; Kabuß, E; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Konigsmann, K; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O M; Kramer, M; Kremser, P; Krinner, F; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kulinich, Y; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Kurjata, R P; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levillain, M; Levorato, S; Lian, Y-S; Lichtenstadt, J; Longo, R; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Makins, N; Makke, N; Mallot, G K; Marianski, B; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Matousek, J; Matsuda, H; Matsuda, T; Meshcheryakov, G V; Meyer, M; Meyer, W; Mikhailov, Yu V; Mikhasenko, M; Mitrofanov, E; Mitrofanov, N; Miyachi, Y; Nagaytsev, A; Nerling, F; Neyret, D; Novy, J; Nowak, W-D; Nukazuka, G; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Orlov, I; Ostrick, M; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Peng, J-C; Pereira, F; Pesek, M; Peshekhonov, D V; Pierre, N; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polyakov, V A; Pretz, J; Quaresma, M; Quintans, C; Ramos, S; Regali, C; Reicherz, G; Riedl, C; Roskot, M; Rossiyskaya, N S; Ryabchikov, D I; Rybnikov, A; Rychter, A; Salac, R; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, C; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sawada, T; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schmidt, K; Schmieden, H; Schonning, K; Seder, E; Selyunin, A; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sirtl, S; Slunecka, M; Smolik, J; Srnka, A; Steffen, D; Stolarski, M; Subrt, O; Sulc, M; Suzuki, H; Szabelski, A; Szameitat, T; Sznajder, P; Takekawa, S; Tasevsky, M; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Thibaud, F; Thiel, A; Tosello, F; Tskhay, V; Uhl, S; Veloso, J; Virius, M; Vondra, J; Wallner, S; Weisrock, T; Wilfert, M; ter Wolbeek, J; Zaremba, K; Zavada, P; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Zhuravlev, N; Ziembicki, M; Zink, A

    2016-01-01

    Single hadron azimuthal asymmetries in the cross sections of positive and negative hadron production in muon semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering off longitudinally polarised deuterons are determined using the 2006 COMPASS data and also all deuteron COMPASS data. For each hadron charge, the dependence of the azimuthal asymmetry on the hadron azimuthal angle $\\phi$ is obtained by means of a five-parameter fitting function that besides a $\\phi$-independent term includes four modulations predicted by theory: $\\sin\\phi$, $\\sin 2 \\phi$, $\\sin 3\\phi$ and $\\cos\\phi$. The amplitudes of the five terms have been first extracted for the data integrated over all kinematic variables. In further fits, the $\\phi$-dependence is determined as a function of one of three kinematic variables (Bjorken-$x$, fractional energy of virtual photon taken by the outgoing hadron and hadron transverse momentum), while disregarding the other two. Except the $\\phi$-independent term, all the modulation amplitudes are very small, and no cl...

  5. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1992-06-01

    This paper covers the following topics: Experiment 87-02: Threshold Electrodisintegration of the Deuteron at High Q 2 ; Measurement of the 5th Structure Function in Deuterium and 12 C; Single-Particle Densities of sd-Shell Nuclei; Experiment 84-28: Transverse Form Factors of 117 Sn; Experiment 82-11: Elastic Magnetic Electron Scattering from 13 C; Experiment 89-09: Measurement of the Elastic Magnetic Form Factor of 3 He at High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 89-15: Coincidence Measurement of the D(e,e'p) Cross-Section at Low Excitation Energy and High Momentum Transfer; Experiment 87-09: Measurement of the Quadrupole Contribution to the N → Δ Excitation; Experiment E-140: Measurement of the x-, Q 2 and A-Dependence of R = σ L /σ T ; PEP Beam-Gas Event Analysis: Physics with the SLAC TPC/2γ Detector; Drift Chamber Tests at Brookhaven National Laboratory; Experiment PR-89-031: Multi-nucleon Knockout Using the CLAS Detector; Electronics Design for the CLAS Region 1 Drift Chamber; Color Transparencies in the Electroproduction of Nucleon Resonances; and Experiment PR-89-015: Study of Coincidence Reactions in the Dip and Delta-Resonance Regions

  6. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1991-06-01

    This report discusses research conducted on the following topics: transverse from factors of 117 Sn; elastic magnetic electron scattering from 13 C at Q 2 = 1 GeV 2 /c 2 ; a re-analysis of 13 C elastic scattering; deuteron threshold electrodisintegration; measurement of the elastic magnetic form factor of 3 He at high momentum transfer; coincidence measurement of the D(e,e'p) cross-section at low excitation energy and high momentum transfer; measurement of the quadrupole contribution to the N → Δ excitation; measurement of the x-, Q 2 -, and A-dependence of R = σ L /σ T ; the PEGASYS project; PEP beam-gas event analysis; plans for other experiments at SLAC: polarized electron scattering on polarized nuclei; experiment PR-89-015: study of coincidence reactions in the dip and delta-resonance regions; experiment PR-89-031: multi-nulceon knockout using the CLAS detector; drift chamber tests; a memorandum of understanding and test experiments; photoprotons from 10 B; and hadronic electroproduction at LEP

  7. Low-energy photodisintegration of the deuteron and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Czakon, N.G.; Howell, C.R.; Hutcheson, A.; Kelley, J.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Mikhailov, S.F.; Pinayev, I.V.; Weisel, G.J.; Witala, H.

    2003-01-01

    The photon analyzing power for the photodisintegration of the deuteron was measured for seven gamma-ray energies between 2.39 and 4.05 MeV using the linearly polarized gamma-ray beam of the high-intensity gamma-ray source at the Duke Free-Electron Laser Laboratory. The data provide a stringent test of theoretical calculations for the inverse reaction, the neutron-proton radiative capture reaction at energies important for Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. Our data are in excellent agreement with potential model and effective field theory calculations. Therefore, the uncertainty in the baryon density Ω B h 2 obtained from Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis can be reduced at least by 20%

  8. Production of (anti)deuterons in heavy-ion collisions at SPS energies

    CERN Document Server

    Kolesnikov, Vadim Ivanovich

    2015-01-01

    In this paper NA49 results on the production of deuterons and anti-deuterons in semi-central Pb+Pb collisions at 158A GeV are presented. Midrapidity transverse momentum spectra of d ( ̄ d ) are analysed in several centrality bins. A combined analysis of (anti)deuterons and (anti)protons iss performed in the framework of the coalescence model.

  9. The effect of a broad activation energy distribution on deuteron spin-lattice relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylinen, E E; Punkkinen, M; Birczyński, A; Lalowicz, Z T

    2015-10-01

    Deuteron NMR spectra and spin-lattice relaxation were studied experimentally in zeolite NaY(2.4) samples containing 100% or 200% of CD3OH or CD3OD molecules of the total coverage of Na atoms in the temperature range 20-150K. The activation energies describing the methyl and hydroxyl motions show broad distributions. The relaxation data were interpreted by improving a recent model (Stoch et al., 2013 [16]) in which the nonexponential relaxation curves are at first described by a sum of three exponentials with adjustable relaxation rates and weights. Then a broad distribution of activation energies (the mean activation energy A0 and the width σ) was assumed for each essentially different methyl and hydroxyl position. The correlation times were calculated from the Arrhenius equation (containing the pre-exponential factor τ0), individual relaxation rates computed and classified into three classes, and finally initial relaxation rates and weights for each class formed. These were compared with experimental data, motional parameters changed slightly and new improved rates and weights for each class calculated, etc. This method was improved by deriving for the deuterons of the A and E species methyl groups relaxation rates, which depend explicitly on the tunnel frequency ωt. The temperature dependence of ωt and of the low-temperature correlation time were obtained by using the solutions of the Mathieu equation for a threefold potential. These dependencies were included in the simulations and as the result sets of A0, σ and τ0 obtained, which describe the methyl and hydroxyl motions in different positions in zeolite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Methane formation during deuteron bombardment of carbon in the energy range of 100 to 1500 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, K.

    1982-01-01

    Methane (CD 4 ) formation rates during deuteron bombardment of carbon (Papyex) have been measured in the energy range of 100 to 1500 eV. The temperature dependence of the methane formation rate is well explained by the model proposed by Erents et al. in the temperature range of 600 to 1150 K. The model, however, does not explain the dependence of the methane formation rate on the flux of incident deuterons at a certain temperature near Tsub(m) at which the formation rate has a maximum value. An alternative model is proposed in which the methane formation rate is assumed to be proportional to the product of the following three parameters: the surface concentration of deuterium atoms, the chemical reaction rate for the formation of methane, and the rate of production of vacancies on the surface by the deuteron bombardment. This model predicts an energy dependence of methane formation which has a maximum around 900 eV even at different deuteron fluxes, when the calculated result by Weissman and Sigmund is used for the surface deposited energy responsible for the production of vacancies. (author)

  11. Dependency on the silicon detector working bias for proton–deuteron particle identification at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueñas, J.A.; Mengoni, D.; Assie, M.; Parkar, V.V.; Sánchez Benítez, A.M.; Shrivastava, A.; Triossi, A.; Beaumel, D.; Martel, I.

    2013-01-01

    Proton–deuteron identification at energies between 2.5 MeV and 6 MeV has been studied as a function of the detector working bias. Digital pulse shape analysis (DPSA) has been used to perform the separation from the two mono-energetic beams. The technique makes use of the current signal delivered by a 500μm neutron transmutation doped (NTD) silicon detector, which was setup for low-field injection. It is shown that identification of the H isotopes is better when the detector working bias is close to the depletion voltage rather than over-depletion. The presence of high frequency noise diminished the possibility of identification, however, the use of a simple triangular smoothing algorithm counteracted this

  12. Particle interaction with the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1974-09-01

    A study of the particle deuteron interactions at low, intermediate and high energies is presented. The differential cross section for pion deuteron scattering, near the 33 resonance, is calculated considering the Fermi motion and the off energy shell effects. We present formulae for the calculation of correction to the incoherent production cross section on deuteron arising from the multiple scattering and interference; we apply them to the case K + → K 0 π + between 1. and 5 Gev/c. is introduced. A relativistic correction to the double scattering Glauber formula and is done an application to the rho photoproduction on deuteron at high energies

  13. Hadron photoproduction at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dainton, J.B.

    1985-04-01

    Results from measurements of multibody photoproduction at medium incident photon energy (2.8 to 4.8 GeV) are presented and discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on topics which are not well understood and which therefore motivate experiments with the upgraded electron accelerator and storage ring ELSA at the University of Bonn, FR Germany. (author)

  14. Medium energy nuclear physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.; Dubach, J.F.; Hicks, R.S.; Miskimen, R.A.

    1988-09-01

    The UMass group has concentrated on using electromagnetic probes, particularly the electron in high-energy scattering experiments at the Stanford Liner Accelerator Center (SLAC). Plans are also being made for high energy work at the Continuous Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The properties of this accelerator should permit a whole new class of coincidence experiments to be carried out. At SLAC UMass has made major contributions toward the plans for a cluster-jet gas target and detector system at the 16 GeV PEP storage ring. For the future CEBAF accelerator, tests were made of the feasibility of operating wire drift chambers in the vicinity of a continuous electron beam at the University Illinois microtron. At the same time a program of studies of the nuclear structure of more complex nuclei has been continued at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center and in Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K laboratory. At the MIT-Bates Accelerator, because of an unforeseen change in beam scheduling as a result of problems with the T 20 experiment, the UMass group was able to complete data acquisition on experiments involving 180 degrees elastic magnetic scattering on 117 Sn and 41 Ca. A considerable effort has been given to preparations for a future experiment at Bates involving the high-resolution threshold electrodisintegration of the deuteron. The use of these chambers should permit a high degree of discrimination against background events in the measurement of the almost neutrino-like small cross sections that are expected. In Amsterdam at the NIKHEF-K facility, single arm (e,e') measurements were made in November of 1987 on 10 B in order to better determine the p 3/2 wave function from the transition from the J pi = 3 + ground state to the O + excited state at 1.74 MeV. In 1988, (e,e'p) coincidence measurements on 10 B were completed. The objective was to obtain information on the p 3/2 wave function by another means

  15. Cross-sections of residual nuclei from deuteron irradiation of thin thorium target at energy 7 GeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vespalec Radek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residual nuclei yields are of great importance for the estimation of basic radiation-technology characteristics (like a total target activity, production of long-lived nuclides etc. of accelerator driven systems planned for transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and for a design of radioisotopes production facilities. Experimental data are also essential for validation of nuclear codes describing various stages of a spallation reaction. Therefore, the main aim of this work is to add new experimental data in energy region of relativistic deuterons, as similar data are missing in nuclear databases. The sample made of thin natural thorium foil was irradiated at JINR Nuclotron accelerator with a deuteron beam of the total kinetic energy 7 GeV. Integral number of deuterons was determined with the use of aluminum activation detectors. Products of deuteron induced spallation reaction were qualified and quantified by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy method. Several important spectroscopic corrections were applied to obtain results of high accuracy. Experimental cumulative and independent cross-sections were determined for more than 80 isotopes including meta-stable isomers. The total uncertainty of results rarely exceeded 9%. Experimental results were compared with MCNP6.1 Monte-Carlo code predictions. Generally, experimental and calculated cross-sections are in a reasonably good agreement, with the exception of a few light isotopes in a fragmentation region, where the calculations are highly under-estimated. Measured data will be useful for future development of high-energy nuclear codes. After completion, final data will be added into the EXFOR database.

  16. The Activation of Fe by Deuterons at Energies up to 20 MeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závorka, Lukáš; Šimečková, Eva; Honusek, Milan; Katovsky, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2011), s. 1961-1964 ISSN 0374-4884 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Deuteron activation * Natural iron target * Stacked foil technique * Excitation function Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 0.447, year: 2011

  17. Studies in medium energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.; Hoffmann, G.W.; McDonough, J.; Purcell, M.J.; Ray, R.L.; Read, D.E.; Worn, S.D.

    1991-12-01

    This document constitutes the (1991--1992) technical progress report and continuation proposal for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant DE-FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) and the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics; (2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind ''exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics

  18. Measurement of neutron activation cross sections in the energy range between 2 and 7 MeV by using a Ti-deuteron target and a deuteron gas target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senga, T.; Sakane, H.; Shibata, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Kasugai, Yoshimi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Using a Ti-deuteron target in the neutron energy range between 2 and 4.5 MeV and a deuteron gas target between 4.5 and 7 MeV, mono-energetic neutrons could be generated enough for activation cross section measurements. The KN-3750 Van de Grraff accelerator at Nagoya University and the Fusion Neutronics Source (FNS) at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) were used. Preliminary results of activation cross sections were obtained for reactions of {sup 27}Al(n,p){sup 27}Mg, {sup 47}Ti(n,p){sup 47}Sc, {sup 58}Ni(n,p){sup 58}Co. The evaluation data of JENDL-3.2 showed reasonable agreement with our results. (author)

  19. Energy behaviour of neutrons generated by Witch-type distributed axi-symmetrical deuteron beams accelerated onto plane tritium targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timus, D.M.; Bradley, D.A.; Timus, B.D.; Kalla, S.L.; Srivastava, H.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an analytical study of the spatial dependency of the d-T neutron energy in the vicinity of a homogeneous tritium-occluded plane target. Close to the target, and along the path of incidence of axially symmetric deuteron beams, the transverse density of accelerated deuterons is assumed to be governed by a law approximated by the 'Witch' function. In particular circumstances, the elementary neutron emission process in non-dispersive media can be considered to be omni-directional (due consideration being paid to collision kinetics, depending upon mass and kinetic energy of particles involved in the nuclear collision, nuclear reaction energy, etc.). Consequently, analytical expressions can be considerably simplified. By applying the classical kinetic energy and momentum conservation laws to nuclear processes, a theoretical description is obtained, taking into account the exoergic character of d-T fusion reaction. A number of expressions for energetic prediction of the fast neutron field are proposed. The associated relations, involving elementary functions, can be investigated using a desk-top computer. Computationally tractable tools are of importance in the study of diverse situations such as induced reactions and activation analysis using 14 MeV neutron generators, investigations in health-physics, radiation dose measurements, nuclear medicine, damage effects, and simulation studies

  20. Elastic scattering of polarized deuterons from 40Ca and 58Ni at intermediate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, N. van; Arvieux, J.; Yanlin, Y.; Gaillard, G.; Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.; Babinet, R.; Hasegawa, T.; Soga, F.; Cameron, J.M.; Neilson, G.C.; Sheppard, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Angular distributions of cross section, and Asub(y) and Asub(yy) analyzing powers were measured for polarized deuteron elastic scattering from 58 Ni at 200, 400 and 700 MeV, and 40 Ca at 700 MeV. Phenomenological potentials were obtained from an optical model analysis of the data. The total reaction cross sections deduced were compared to predictions from the Glauber theory optical limit. (orig.)

  1. Deuteron D-wave and the non-eikonal effects in tensor asymmetries in elastic proton-deuteron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, G.; Bleszynski, M.; California Univ., Los Angeles; Santos, S.; Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the tensor asymmetries in the elastic proton-deuteron scattering at medium energies are very sensitive to the non-eikonal corrections to the Glauber model. This sensitivity originates from the fact that, in double scattering, the non-eikonal corrections affect in a different way the contributions coming from the S- and D-wave parts of the deuteron wave function. This leads to considerable change of the tensor asymmetries not only in the region of the interference between single and double scatterings, but also in the region of dominance of the double scattering. It is suggested that these effects should be taken into account in any careful analysis of the proton-deuteron polarization data, which has as a goal the extraction of the NN amplitudes. (author)

  2. Measurement of the photodissociation of the deuteron at energies relevant to Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannaske, Roland

    2016-07-01

    Between 10 and 1000 s after the Big Bang the first light nuclei were produced from protons and neutrons during Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The primordial abundances of these nuclei depended on the cross sections of the involved nuclear reactions. Comparisons between results of nuclear network calculations and astronomic observations offer a unique probe of the universe at that time. Experimental data for the p(n,γ)d reaction, which is one of the BBN key reactions, are scarce at the relevant energies. Its reaction rate used in network calculations relies on theoretical models constrained by nucleon-nucleon scattering data, by the capture cross section for thermal neutrons, and (via the principle of detailed balance) by experimental data of the d(γ,n)p reaction. The latter reaction, the photodissociation of the deuteron, is also only sparsely measured at BBN energies (T{sub cm}=20-200 keV). Large experimental uncertainties make a comparison of measurements with precise theoretical calculations difficult. In recent years, the d(γ,n)p reaction and especially the M1 contribution to its cross section have been studied using quasi-monochromatic γ rays from Laser-Compton scattering or electrodisintegration. Traditionally, d(γ,n)p cross sections were measured with γ-decay radiation, which is limited to a few discrete energies, or with bremsstrahlung, which requires an accurate photon flux normalization as well as the detection of one of the reaction products and its energy. Because this energy is relatively low in the BBN range, there has not yet been an absolute d(γ,n)p cross section measurement at T{sub cm}<5 MeV that used bremsstrahlung. The objective of this dissertation is such a measurement with a total uncertainty of about 5 % in the energy range relevant to BBN and up to T{sub cm}∼2.5 MeV with pulsed bremsstrahlung at the radiation source ELBE. This superconducting electron accelerator is located at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and delivered a

  3. Measurement of the differential neutron-deuteron scattering cross section in the energy range from 100 keV to 600 keV using a proportional counter

    CERN Document Server

    Nolte, R; Plompen, A; Röttger, S

    2014-01-01

    The angular distribution of neutron-deuteron scattering was investigated using the proportional counter P2 simultaneously as scattering target and detector for the recoil deuterons. The measurements were carried out using monoenergetic neutrons in the energy range from 150 keV to 500 keV. Various techniques were employed to reduce distortions of the experimental pulse-height distribution by photon-induced events. The experimental data were compared with realistic simulations which were carried out using different evaluated data sets. This comparison allows to conclude on inconsistencies in the evaluations.

  4. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes, M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in (1) and (2). Stochastic Cooling ((3)) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10 9 and 1.3 10 9 ions per bunch respectively.

  5. Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D' Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2011-03-28

    As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.

  6. First measurement of coherent $\\phi$-meson photoproduction on deuteron at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsutomu Mibe; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Hicks; Kevin Kramer; Stepan Stepanyan; David Tedeschi; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; Gerard Audit; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; Marco Battaglieri; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Barry Berman; Angela Biselli; Lukasz Blaszczyk; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Donald Crabb; Hall Crannell; Volker Crede; John Cummings; Natalya Dashyan; Rita De Masi; Raffaella De Vita; Enzo De Sanctis; Pavel Degtiarenko; Alexandre Deur; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Lamiaa Elfassi; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Paul Eugenio; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Christopher Gordon; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Cynthia Hadjidakis; Kawtar Hafidi; Hayk Hakobyan; Rafael Hakobyan; Charles Hanretty; John Hardie; F. Hersman; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; Yordanka Ilieva; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; John Johnstone; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Alexei Klimenko; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Viacheslav Kuznetsov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Tsung-shung Lee; Ji Li; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu; Marion MacCormick; Claude Marchand; Nikolai Markov; Paul Mattione; Bryan McKinnon; Bernhard Mecking; Joseph Melone; Mac Mestayer; Curtis Meyer; Konstantin Mikhaylov; Ralph Minehart; Marco Mirazita; Rory Miskimen; Viktor Mokeev; Kei Moriya; Steven Morrow; M. Moteabbed; E. Munevar; Gordon Mutchler; P. Nadel-Turonski; Rakhsha Nasseripour; Silvia Niccolai; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Bogdan Niczyporuk; Megh Niroula; Rustam Niyazov; Mina Nozar; Mikhail Osipenko; Alexander Ostrovidov; K. Park; Evgueni Pasyuk; Craig Paterson; S. Anefalos Pereira; Joshua Pierce; Nikolay Pivnyuk; Dinko Pocanic; Oleg Pogorelko; S. Pozdniakov; John Price; Yelena Prok; Dan Protopopescu; Brian Raue; Gregory Riccardi; Giovanni Ricco; Marco Ripani; Barry Ritchie; Federico Ronchetti; Guenther Rosner; Patrizia Rossi; Franck Sabatie; Julian Salamanca; Carlos Salgado; Joseph Santoro; Vladimir Sapunenko; Reinhard Schumacher; Vladimir Serov; Youri Sharabian; Dmitri Sharov; Nikolay Shvedunov; Elton Smith; Lee Smith; Daniel Sober; Daria Sokhan; A. Stavinsky; Samuel Stepanyan; B.E. Stokes; Paul Stoler; I.I. Strakovsky; Steffen Strauch; Mauro Taiuti; Ulrike Thoma; Avtandil Tkabladze; Svyatoslav Tkachenko; Luminita Todor; Clarisse Tur; Maurizio Ungaro; Michael Vineyard; Alexander Vlassov; Daniel Watts; Lawrence Weinstein; Dennis Weygand; M. Williams; Elliott Wolin; Michael Wood; Amrit Yegneswaran; Lorenzo Zana; Jixie Zhang; Bo Zhao; Zhiwen Zhao

    2007-11-01

    The cross section and decay angular distributions for the coherent \\phi meson photoproduction on the deuteron have been measured for the first time up to a squared four-momentum transfer t =(p_{\\gamma}-p_{\\phi})^2 =-2 GeV^2/c^2, using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The cross sections are compared with predictions from a re-scattering model. In a framework of vector meson dominance, the data are consistent with the total \\phi-N cross section \\sigma_{\\phi N} at about 10 mb. If vector meson dominance is violated, a larger \\sigma_{\\phi N} is possible by introducing larger t-slope for the \\phi N \\to \\phi N process than that for the \\gamma N \\to \\phi N process. The decay angular distributions of the \\phi are consistent with helicity conservation.

  7. First measurement of coherent φ-meson photoproduction on deuteron at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutomu Mibe; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Hicks; Kevin Kramer; Stepan Stepanyan; David Tedeschi; Moscov Amaryan; Pawel Ambrozewicz; Marco Anghinolfi; G. Asryan; Gerard Audit; Harutyun Avakian; Hovhannes Baghdasaryan; Nathan Baillie; Jacques Ball; Nathan Baltzell; Marco Battaglieri; Ivan Bedlinski; Ivan Bedlinskiy; Matthew Bellis; Nawal Benmouna; Barry Berman; Angela Biselli; Lukasz Blaszczyk; Sylvain Bouchigny; Sergey Boyarinov; Robert Bradford; Derek Branford; William Briscoe; William Brooks; Stephen Bueltmann; Volker Burkert; Cornel Butuceanu; John Calarco; Sharon Careccia; Daniel Carman; Shifeng Chen; Philip Cole; Patrick Collins; Philip Coltharp; Donald Crabb; Hall Crannell; Volker Crede; John Cummings; Natalya Dashyan; Rita De Masi; Raffaella De Vita; Enzo De Sanctis; Pavel Degtiarenko; Alexandre Deur; Kahanawita Dharmawardane; Richard Dickson; Chaden Djalali; Gail Dodge; Joseph Donnelly; David Doughty; Michael Dugger; Oleksandr Dzyubak; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Lamiaa Elfassi; Latifa Elouadrhiri; Paul Eugenio; Gleb Fedotov; Gerald Feldman; Herbert Funsten; Michel Garcon; Gagik Gavalian; Gerard Gilfoyle; Kevin Giovanetti; Francois-Xavier Girod; John Goetz; Atilla Gonenc; Christopher Gordon; Ralf Gothe; Keith Griffioen; Michel Guidal; Nevzat Guler; Lei Guo; Vardan Gyurjyan; Cynthia Hadjidakis; Kawtar Hafidi; Hayk Hakobyan; Rafael Hakobyan; Charles Hanretty; John Hardie; F. Hersman; Ishaq Hleiqawi; Maurik Holtrop; Charles Hyde; Charles Hyde-Wright; Yordanka Ilieva; David Ireland; Boris Ishkhanov; Eugeny Isupov; Mark Ito; David Jenkins; Hyon-Suk Jo; John Johnstone; Kyungseon Joo; Henry Juengst; Narbe Kalantarians; James Kellie; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Andreas Klein; Franz Klein; Alexei Klimenko; Mikhail Kossov; Zebulun Krahn; Laird Kramer; V. Kubarovsky; Joachim Kuhn; Sebastian Kuhn; Sergey Kuleshov; Viacheslav Kuznetsov; Jeff Lachniet; Jean Laget; Jorn Langheinrich; David Lawrence; Tsung-shung Lee; Ji Li; Kenneth Livingston; Haiyun Lu

    2007-01-01

    The cross section and decay angular distributions for the coherent φ meson photoproduction on the deuteron have been measured for the first time up to a squared four-momentum transfer t =(p γ -p φ ) 2 = -2 GeV 2 /c 2 , using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The cross sections are compared with predictions from a re-scattering model. In a framework of vector meson dominance, the data are consistent with the total φ-N cross section σ φN at about 10 mb. If vector meson dominance is violated, a larger σ φN is possible by introducing larger t-slope for the φN → φN process than that for the γN → φN process. The decay angular distributions of the φ are consistent with helicity conservation

  8. Azimuthal asymmetries of charged hadrons produced by high-energy muons scattered off longitudinally polarised deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Alekseev, M G; Alexandrov, Yu; Alexeev, G D; Amoroso, A; Austregesilo, A; Badełek, B; Balestra, F; Barth, J; Baum, G; Bedfer, Y; Bernhard, J; Bertini, R; Bettinelli, M; Birsa, R; Bisplinghoff, J; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Brona, G; Burtin, E; Bussa, M P; Chaberny, D; Chiosso, M; Chung, S U; Cicuttin, A; Colantoni, M; Crespo, M L; Dalla Torre, S; Das, S; Dasgupta, S S; Denisov, O Yu; Dhara, L; Diaz, V; Donskov, S V; Doshita, N; Duic, V; Dünnweber, W; Efremov, A; El Alaoui, A; Eversheim, P D; Eyrich, W; Faessler, M; Ferrero, A; Filin, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Franco, C; Friedrich, J M; Garfagnini, R; Gautheron, F; Gavrichtchouk, O P; Gazda, R; Gerassimov, S; Geyer, R; Giorgi, M; Gnesi, I; Gobbo, B; Goertz, S; Grabmüller, S; Grasso, A; Grube, B; Gushterski, R; Guskov, A; Haas, F; von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Heinsius, F H; Herrmann, F; Heß, C; Hinterberger, F; Horikawa, N; Höppner, Ch; d’Hose, N; Ilgner, C; Ishimoto, S; Ivanov, O; Ivanshin, Yu; Iwata, T; Jahn, R; Jasinski, P; Jegou, G; Joosten, R; Kabuß, E; Kang, D; Ketzer, B; Khaustov, G V; Khokhlov, Yu A; Kisselev, Yu; Klein, F; Klimaszewski, K; Koblitz, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Kolosov, V N; Kondo, K; Königsmann, K; Konopka, R; Konorov, I; Konstantinov, V F; Korzenev, A; Kotzinian, A M; Kouznetsov, O; Kowalik, K; Krämer, M; Kral, A; Kroumchtein, Z V; Kuhn, R; Kunne, F; Kurek, K; Lauser, L; Le Goff, J M; Lednev, A A; Lehmann, A; Levorato, S; Lichtenstadt, J; Liska, T; Maggiora, A; Maggiora, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Mann, A; Marchand, C; Martin, A; Marzec, J; Massmann, F; Matsuda, T; Meyer, W; Michigami, T; Mikhailov, Yu V; Moinester, M A; Mutter, A; Nagaytsev, A; Nagel, T; Nassalski, J; Negrini, T; Nerling, F; Neubert, S; Neyret, D; Nikolaenko, V I; Nunes, A S; Olshevsky, A G; Ostrick, M; Padee, A; Panknin, R; Panzieri, D; Parsamyan, B; Paul, S; Pawlukiewicz-Kaminska, B; Perevalova, E; Pesaro, G; Peshekhonov, D V; Piragino, G; Platchkov, S; Pochodzalla, J; Polak, J; Polyakov, V A; Pontecorvo, G; Pretz, J; Quintans, C; Rajotte, J F; Ramos, S; Rapatsky, V; Reicherz, G; Richter, A; Robinet, F; Rocco, E; Rondio, E; Ryabchikov, D I; Samoylenko, V D; Sandacz, A; Santos, H; Sapozhnikov, M G; Sarkar, S; Savin, I A; Sbrizzai, G; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schlüter, T; Schmitt, L; Schopferer, S; Schröder, W; Shevchenko, O Yu; Siebert, H W; Silva, L; Sinha, L; Sissakian, A N; Slunecka, M; Smirnov, G I; Sosio, S; Sozzi, F; Srnka, A; Stolarski, M; Sulc, M; Sulej, R; Takekawa, S; Tessaro, S; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Tkatchev, L G; Uhl, S; Uman, I; Virius, M; Vlassov, N V; Vossen, A; Weitzel, Q; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Wollny, H; Zaremba, K; Zavertyaev, M; Zemlyanichkina, E; Ziembicki, M; Zhao, J; Zhuravlev, N; Zvyagin, A

    2010-01-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of positive (h^+) and negative hadrons (h^-) have been measured by scattering 160 GeV muons off longitudinally polarised deuterons at CERN. The asymmetries were decomposed in several terms according to their expected modulation in the azimuthal angle phi of the outgoing hadron. Each term receives contributions from one or several spin and transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution and fragmentation functions. The amplitudes of all phi-modulation terms of the hadron asymmetries integrated over the kinematic variables are found to be consistent with zero within statistical errors, while the constant terms are nonzero and equal for h^+ and h^- within the statistical errors. The dependencies of the phi-modulated terms versus the Bjorken momentum fraction x, the hadron fractional momentum z, and the hadron transverse momentum p_h^T were studied. The x dependence of the constant terms for both positive and negative hadrons is in agreement with the longitudin...

  9. Hydrogen as an energy medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K. E.

    1976-01-01

    Coal, though abundant in certain geographical locations of the USA poses environmental problems associated with its mining and combustion. Also, nuclear fission energy appears to have problems regarding safety and radioactive waste disposal that are as yet unresolved. The paper discusses hydrogen use and market projection along with energy sources for hydrogen production. Particular attention is given to hydrogen production technology as related to electrolysis and thermochemical water decomposition. Economics of hydrogen will ultimately be determined by the price and availability of future energy carriers such as electricity and synthetic natural gas. Thermochemical methods of hydrogen production appear to offer promise largely in the efficiency of energy conversion and in capital costs over electrolytic methods.

  10. GAKER-KIRA, Energy Transfer of Protons in H2O or Polyethylene and Deuterons in D2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stammler, R.J.J.

    1965-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Evaluation of the energy transfer matrix and its first, second and third Legendre components for protons bound in water or polyethylene, and for deuterons bound in heavy water. Further output, the isotropic scattering matrix with diagonal elements corrected for first order anisotropy, scattering and transport cross sections, nth moment of energy transfer mn(e) (n=1,2,3), and Maxwellian averages of these moments, of the transport mean free path and of the scattering cross sections. 2 - Method of solution: For down-scattering the elements of the matrix are calculated directly from the analytical formulae (BNL 5826, p 69 FF (1961)). For scattering in the same speed (energy) group, a linear average is taken of four terms, scattering from the typical speed point of that group to four equidistant points in that same interval. Up-scattering elements are computed from detailed balance. The Bessel functions that appear are calculated following an algorithm due to Stegun and Abramowitz (see references). The anisotropic version of GAKER, which is due to Koppel and Young (see references) is also included in GAKER-KIRA, and the integration over the orientation angles is done by a 5-points Gauss quadrature. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A maximum number of 55 speed groups is permitted

  11. Deuteron structure in the deep inelastic regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Canal, C.A.; Tarutina, T. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP/CONICET y Departamento de Fisica, La Plata (Argentina); Vento, V. [Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Departamento de Fisica Teorica-IFIC, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-06-15

    We study nuclear effects in the deuteron in the deep inelastic regime using the newest available data. We put special emphasis on their Q{sup 2} dependence. The study is carried out using a scheme which parameterizes, in a simple manner, these effects by changing the proton and neutron stucture functions in medium. The result of our analysis is compared with other recent proposals. We conclude that precise EMC ratios cannot be obtained without considering the nuclear effects in the deuteron. (orig.)

  12. Determination of the Azimuthal Asymmetry of Deuteron Photodisintegration in the Energy Region Eγ = 1.1 - 2.3 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachariou, Nicholas [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2012-05-20

    Deuteron photodisintegration is a benchmark process for the investigation of the role of quarks and gluons in nuclei. Existing theoretical models of this process describe the available cross sections with the same degree of success. Therefore, spin-dependent observables are crucial for a better understanding of the underlying dynamical mechanisms. However, data on the induced polarization (P y), along with the polarization transfers (Cx and Cz ), have been shown to be insensitive to differences between theoretical models. On the other hand, the beam-spin asymmetry {Sigma} is predicted to have a large sensitivity and is expected to help in identifying the energy at which the transition from the hadronic to the quark-gluon picture of the deuteron takes place. Here, the work done to determine the experimental values of the beam-spin asymmetry in deuteron photodisintegration for photon energies between 1.1 - 2.3 GeV is presented. The data were taken with the CLAS at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility during the g13 experiment. Photons with linear polarization of ~80% were produced using the coherent bremsstrahlung facility in Hall B. The work done by the author to calibrate a specific detector system, select deuteron photodisintegration events, study the degree of photon polarization, and finally determine the azimuthal asymmetry and any systematic uncertainties associate with it, is comprehensively explained. This work shows that the collected data provide the kinematic coverage and statistics to test the available QCD-based models. The results of this study show that the available theoretical models in their current state do not adequately predict the azimuthal asymmetry in the energy region 1.1 - 2.3 GeV.

  13. Low and medium energy deuteron-induced reactions on (63,65)Cu nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimečková, Eva; Bém, Pavel; Honusek, Milan; Štefánik, Milan; Fischer, U.; Simakov, SP.; Forrest, R.A.; Koning, A.J.; Sublet, J.C.; Avrigeanu, M.; Roman, F.L.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 1 (2011), 014605/1-014605/12 ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-1TP1/101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : ACTIVATION CROSS-SECTIONS * INCLUSIVE PROTON SPECTRA * EXCITATION-FUNCTIONS * CHANNELS CALCULATIONS * MODEL Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.308, year: 2011

  14. Relativistic energy loss in a dispersive medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlrik, Jens Madsen

    2002-01-01

    The electron energy loss in a dispersive medium is obtained using macroscopic electrodynamics taking advantage of a static frame of reference. Relativistic corrections are described in terms of a dispersive Lorentz factor obtained by replacing the vacuum velocity c by the characteristic phase...... velocity c/n, where n is the complex index of refraction. The angle-resolved energy-loss spectrum of a Drude conductor is analyzed in detail and it is shown that the low-energy peak due to Ohmic losses is enhanced compared to the classical approximation....

  15. Measurement of the high-energy neutron flux on the surface of the natural uranium target assembly QUINTA irradiated by deuterons of 4- and 8-GeV energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Baldin, A.A.; Chilap, V.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments with a natural uranium target assembly QUINTA exposed to 4- and 8 GeV deuteron beams of the Nuclotron accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) are analyzed. The 129 I, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, nat U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 241 Am radioactive samples were installed on the surface of the QUINTA set-up and irradiated with secondary neutrons. The neutron flux through the RA samples was monitored by Al foils. The reaction rates of 27 Al(n, y 1 ) 24 Na, 27 Al(n, y 2 ) 22 Na and 27 Al(n, y 3 ) 7 Be reactions with the effective threshold energies of 5, 27 and 119 MeV were measured at both 4- and 8-GeV deuteron beam energies. The average neutron fluxes between the effective threshold energies and the effective ends of the neutron spectra (which are 800 or 1000 MeV for energy of 4- or 8-GeV deuterons) were determined. The evidence for the intensity shift of the neutron spectra to higher neutron energies with the increase of the deuteron energy from 4 to 8 GeV was found from the ratios of the average neutron fluxes. The reaction rates and the average neutron fluxes were calculated with MCNPX2.7 and MARS15 codes.

  16. Relativistic polarized deuteron fragmentation into protons as test of six-quark nature of deuteron at small distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobushkin, A.P.; Vizireva, L.

    1981-01-01

    A study of the nature of the short-range few-nucleon correlations in nuclei is proposed in the polarized high-energy deuteron fragmentation experiments. The presence of 6q-state in deuteron with probability of several percents is shown to change essentially the cross-section behaviour of this process in the momentum region where the fraction of the deuteron momentum carried out by proton in the infinite momentum frame is about 0.78. It is shown how the character of the cross-section of the transverse polarized deuteron fragmentation is changed depending on the parameters of 6q-admixure in deuteron [ru

  17. Medium-energy ion reflection from solids

    CERN Document Server

    Mashkova, ES

    1985-01-01

    ``Medium-Energy Ion Reflection from Solids'' analyses the results of experimental, theoretical and computer investigations on the process of scattering of ions by solid surfaces. Surface scattering is a relatively young and rapidly developing branch of the physics of atomic collisions and the literature on this subject has rapidly grown.As the first monograph devoted specifically to surface scattering of ions, this book is directed at scientists involved in ion-solid interaction studies.

  18. Medium energy hadron scattering from nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Wenes, G.

    1986-01-01

    The Glauber approximation for medium energy scattering of hadronic projectiles from nuclei is combined with the interacting boson model of nuclei to produce a transition matrix for elastic and inelastic scattering in algebraic form which includes coupling to all the intermediate states. We present closed form analytic expresions for the transition matrix elements for the three dynamical symmetries of the interacting boson model; that is for, a spherical quadrupole vibrator, a γ unstable rotor, and both prolate and oblate axially symmetric rotors. We give examples of application of this formalism to proton scattering from 154 Sm and 154 Gd. 27 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  19. A medium energy neutron deep penetration experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amian, W.; Cloth, P.; Druecke, V.; Filges, D.; Paul, N.; Schaal, H.

    1986-11-01

    A deep penetration experiment conducted at the Los Alamos WNR facility's Spallation Neutron Target is compared with calculations using intra-nuclear-cascade and S N -transport codes installed at KFA-IRE. In the experiment medium energy reactions induced by neutrons between 15 MeV and about 150 MeV inside a quasi infinite slab of iron have been measured using copper foil monitors. Details of the experimental procedure and the theoretical methods are described. A comparison of absolute reaction rates for both experimentally and theoretically derived reactions is given. The present knowledge of the corresponding monitor reaction cross sections is discussed. (orig.)

  20. Deuteron stripping reactions using dirac phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, E. A.; McNeil, J. A.

    2001-04-01

    In this work deuteron stripping reactions are studied using the distorted wave born approximation employing dirac phenomenological potentials. In 1982 Shepard and Rost performed zero-range dirac phenomenological stripping calculations and found a dramatic reduction in the predicted cross sections when compared with similar nonrelativistic calculations. We extend the earlier work by including full finite range effects as well as the deuteron's internal D-state. Results will be compared with traditional nonrelativistic approaches and experimental data at low energy.

  1. Correlations among observables in the neutron-deuteron elastic scattering at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederico, T.; Goldman, I.D.

    1984-01-01

    The 2 S amplitude of the n-d elastic scattering appears like function of the dublet ( 2 a) scattering length in the three nucleons calculations. The correlation of Kcotg 2 δ o with 2 a, with separable N-N potential calculations, is obtained and the result is independent of the N-N potential. The 2 δ o (n-d) values obtained with these lines, using 2 a=.65F (experimental value), agree with p-d data. 2 S and 4 S scattering amplitude and tritium energy (E T ) calculations are performed with the zero-range model and an alternative deduction is proposed. These results for the E T and Kcotg 2 δ o correlation with 2 a show the limitations of this model. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Simulation of dC and dCH{sub 2} reactions from 300 MeV up to 500 MeV of deuteron energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janek, M., E-mail: janek@fyzika.uniza.sk [Physics Dept., University of Zilina, 01026 Zilina (Slovakia); Trpisova, B. [Physics Dept., University of Zilina, 01026 Zilina (Slovakia); Ladygin, V.P.; Piyadin, S.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Researches, LHEP, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-15

    GEANT4 simulations of dC and dCH{sub 2} reactions at 300 MeV, 400 MeV and 500 MeV of deuteron energy for different detector configurations are presented. Two threads made from polyethylene and carbon are used as targets. The goal of the simulations is to find a method by means of which the signal from the dp non-mesonic breakup reaction can be separated from the background that mainly comes from the carbon content of the targets. The obtained results will be used in the experimental spin program that will be realized in Nuclotron in Dubna.

  3. Search for Δ-Δ component in deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, M.; Endo, I.; Harada, M.

    1989-10-01

    We investigated the Δ-Δ states in deuteron by Δ-spectator method in γd reaction. No candidates for spectator Δ ++ originating in deuteron were observed. An upper limit of the Δ-Δ state in deuteron was estimated as 0.14 % at the 95 % CL. This limit is consistent with most of the existing data, but it is incompatible with an earlier measurement with photons of higher energies. (author)

  4. The energy spectrum of neutrons from 7Li(d,n)8Be reaction at deuteron energy 2.9 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Konstantin V.; Piksaikin, Vladimir M.; Zolotarev, Konstantin I.; Egorov, Andrey S.; Gremyachkin, Dmitrii E.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron beams generated at the electrostatic accelerators using nuclear reactions T(p,n)3He, D(d,n)3He, 7Li(p,n)7Be, T(d,n)4He, 7Li(d,n)8Be, 9Be(d,n)10B are widely used in neutron physics and in many practical applications. Among these reactions the least studied reactions are 7Li(d,n)8Be and 9Be(d,n)10B. The present work is devoted to the measurement of the neutron spectrum from 7Li(d,n)8Be reaction at 0∘ angle to the deuteron beam axis on the electrostatic accelerator Tandetron (JSC "SSC RF - IPPE") using activation method and a stilbene crystal scintillation detector. The first time ever 7Li(d,n)8Be reaction was measured by activation method. The target was a thick lithium layer on metallic backing. The energy of the incident deuteron was 2.9 MeV. As activation detectors a wide range of nuclear reactions were used: 27Al(n,p)27Mg, 27Al(n,α)24Na, 113In(n,n')113mIn, 115In(n,n')115mIn, 115In(n,γ)116mIn, 58Ni(n,p)58mCo, 58Ni(n,2n)57Ni, 197Au(n,γ)198Au, 197Au(n,2n)196Au, 59Co(n,p)59Fe, 59Co(n,2n)58m+gCo, 59Co (n,g)60Co. Measurement of the induced gamma-activity was carried out using HPGe detector Canberra GX5019 [1]. The up-to-date evaluations of the cross sections for these reactions were used in processing of the data. The program STAYSL was used to unfold the energy spectra. The neutron spectra obtained by activation detectors is consistent with the corresponding data measured by a stilbene crystal scintillation detector within their uncertainties.

  5. The energy spectrum of neutrons from 7Li(d,n8Be reaction at deuteron energy 2.9 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrofanov Konstantin V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutron beams generated at the electrostatic accelerators using nuclear reactions T(p,n3He, D(d,n3He, 7Li(p,n7Be, T(d,n4He, 7Li(d,n8Be, 9Be(d,n10B are widely used in neutron physics and in many practical applications. Among these reactions the least studied reactions are 7Li(d,n8Be and 9Be(d,n10B. The present work is devoted to the measurement of the neutron spectrum from 7Li(d,n8Be reaction at 0∘ angle to the deuteron beam axis on the electrostatic accelerator Tandetron (JSC “SSC RF – IPPE” using activation method and a stilbene crystal scintillation detector. The first time ever 7Li(d,n8Be reaction was measured by activation method. The target was a thick lithium layer on metallic backing. The energy of the incident deuteron was 2.9 MeV. As activation detectors a wide range of nuclear reactions were used: 27Al(n,p27Mg, 27Al(n,α24Na, 113In(n,n'113mIn, 115In(n,n'115mIn, 115In(n,γ116mIn, 58Ni(n,p58mCo, 58Ni(n,2n57Ni, 197Au(n,γ198Au, 197Au(n,2n196Au, 59Co(n,p59Fe, 59Co(n,2n58m+gCo, 59Co (n,g60Co. Measurement of the induced gamma-activity was carried out using HPGe detector Canberra GX5019 [1]. The up-to-date evaluations of the cross sections for these reactions were used in processing of the data. The program STAYSL was used to unfold the energy spectra. The neutron spectra obtained by activation detectors is consistent with the corresponding data measured by a stilbene crystal scintillation detector within their uncertainties.

  6. [Spin dependent phenomena in medium energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souder, P.A.

    1992-11-01

    The Syracuse University Medium Energy Physics Group was actively engaged in several research projects. A laser was used to polarize muonic atoms with the goal of measuring fundamental spin-dependent parameters in the reaction μ - + 3 He → 3 H + ν. Time-averaged polarizations of 26.8±2.3% were achieved for the muon in muonic 3 He. The new approach uses atomic spin-dependent reactions between laser polarized Rb vapor and muonic helium. To exploit these high polarizations in a muon capture experiment an ion chamber which will detect the recoil tritons and also serve as a polarizing cell. Final data-taking will begin for an experiment to measure the spin-dependent structure functions of the neutron. A 288-element hodoscope system which features good timing and precise mechanical tolerances was constructed and evaluated

  7. Microscopic optical potential at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malecki, A.

    1979-01-01

    The problems concerning a microscopic optical model for the elastic nuclear collisions at medium energies are discussed. We describe the method for constructing the optical potential which makes use of the particular properties of quantum scattering in the eikonal limit. The resulting potential is expressed in terms of the nuclear wave functions and the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitudes. This potential has a dynamic character since by including the effects of multiple scattering it allows for the possibility of intermediate excitations of the projectile and target nuclei. The use of the potential in the exact wave equation accounts for the most important mechanisms present in the collisions between composite particles. The microscopic optical model was successfully applied in the analysis of elastic scattering of protons and α-particles on atomic nuclei in the energy range of 300-1000 MeV/nucleon. The dynamic optical potential in this case represents a considerable improvement over the eikonal Glauber model and the static optical potential of Watson. The possibilities to extend the microscopic description of the proton-nucleus interaction by considering the spin dependence of the elementary amplitude and the Majorana exchange effects were investigated. (author)

  8. Santilli’s hadronic mechanics of formation of deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S.

    2015-01-01

    In the present communication a brief review of the structure of deuteron proposed by Professor Santilli [1, 2] and its physical properties have been presented. Although Deuteron is a simple molecule, quantum mechanics has been unable to explain its different properties like the spin, magnetic moment, binding energy, stability, charge radius, dipole moment, etc. However, the Hadronic Mechanics developed by Santilli and applied by him [1, 2] to deuteron has succeeded in explaining the above properties to the scientific satisfaction. Santilli proposed Deuteron as a three body system which could take care of all the insufficiencies of quantum mechanics

  9. The deuteron bound state wave function with tensor forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemasa, Tadashi

    1991-01-01

    A FORTRAN program named DEUTERON is developed to calculate the binding energy and wave function of a deuteron, when the interaction between two nucleons is described in terms of central, tensor, spin-orbit, and quadratic LS potentials with or without a hard core. An important use of the program is to provide the deuteron wave function required in nuclear reaction calculations involving a deuteron. Also, this program may be employed in nuclear Hartree-Fock calculations using an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction with a tensor component. (author)

  10. Proton-deuteron elastic scattering for E > 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Sattarov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the first reliable numerical results for proton-deuteron elastic scattering observables for energies above the deuteron breakup threshold, for the Paris potential. The calculations have been performed within the screening and renormalisation approach. The theoretical results are compared with recent experimental data. Refs. 12, fig. 1 (author)

  11. The 270 MeV deuteron beam polarimeter at the Nuclotron Internal Target Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurilkin, P.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Ladygin, V.P., E-mail: vladygin@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Moscow State Institute of Radio-engineering Electronics and Automation (Technical University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Uesaka, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Suda, K. [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan); Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Itoh, K. [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama (Japan); Janek, M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Physics Department, University of Zilina, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Karachuk, J.-T. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Kawabata, T. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Khrenov, A.N.; Kiselev, A.S.; Kizka, V.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Institute of Physics of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krasnov, V.A.; Livanov, A.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Maeda, Y. [Kyushi University, Hakozaki (Japan); Malakhov, A.I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Matousek, V.; Morhach, M. [Institute of Physics of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-06-21

    A deuteron beam polarimeter has been constructed at the Internal Target Station at the Nuclotron of JINR. The polarimeter is based on spin-asymmetry measurements in the d-p elastic scattering at large angles and the deuteron kinetic energy of 270 MeV. It allows to measure vector and tensor components of the deuteron beam polarization simultaneously.

  12. Neutron production in deuteron-induced reactions on Li, Be, and C at an incident energy of 102 MeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araki Shouhei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Double-differential cross sections (DDXs of deuteron-induced neutron production reactions on Li, Be, and C at 102 MeV were measured at forward angles (≤ 25∘ by means of a time of flight method with NE213 liquid organic scintillators at the Research Center of Nuclear Physics, Osaka University. The experimental results were compared with model calculations with PHITS and DEURACS. The DEURACS calculation reproduces the experimental DDXs for C at very forward angles than the PHITS one. Moreover, the incident energy dependence of the Li(d,xn reaction was investigated by adding the DDX data measured previously at 25 and 40 MeV.

  13. Azimuthal asymmetries in production of charged hadrons by high energy muons scattered off polarised deuterons at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Savin, Igor A

    2010-01-01

    Azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive production of charged hadrons by muons scattered off longitudinally polarised deuterons have been searched for in the COMPASS experiment at CERN. The asymmetries are parameterised taking into account possible contributions from different nucleon parton distribution functions and parton fragmentation functions depending on the transverse or longitudinal components of the quark spin. They can be modulated with sin ($\\phi$), sin (2$\\phi$), sin (3$\\phi$) and cos ($\\phi$). The parameterisation includes also a $\\phi$- independent term. The amplitudes of all $\\phi$-modulation terms for hadrons integrated over kinematic variables are found to be consistent with zero, while the $\\phi$-independent terms are non zero and about equal for positive and negative hadrons. The dependence of the parameterization parameters on the kinematic variables $x$, $z$ and $p^{T}_{h}$ is also studied. The x-dependence of the $\\phi$- independent term is found to be in agreement with the COMPASS data...

  14. Precessing deuteron polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitnik, I.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Kirillov, D.A.; Piskunov, N.M.; Plis, Yu.A.

    2002-01-01

    The feasibility of the acceleration in the Nuclotron of deuterons polarized in the horizontal plane is considered. This horizontal polarization is named precessing polarization. The effects of the main magnetic field and synchrotron oscillations are included. The precessing polarization is supposed to be used in studying the polarization parameters of the elastic dp back-scattering and other experiments

  15. Deuteron diffractive dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, A.C.B.; Caruso, F.

    1984-01-01

    Deuteron diffractive dissociation is studied in the framework of the Three Components Deck Model. The applicability of this model to light nuclei diffractive dissociation is assumed. The existence of a slope-mass-cos theta correlation is pointed out. The relevant distributions are obtained. (Author) [pt

  16. Extension of the energy range of experimental activation cross-sections data of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium up to 50MeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárkányi, F; Ditrói, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2015-11-01

    The energy range of our earlier measured activation cross-sections data of longer-lived products of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on indium were extended from 40MeV up to 50MeV. The traditional stacked foil irradiation technique and non-destructive gamma spectrometry were used. No experimental data were found in literature for this higher energy range. Experimental cross-sections for the formation of the radionuclides (113,110)Sn, (116m,115m,114m,113m,111,110g,109)In and (115)Cd are reported in the 37-50MeV energy range, for production of (110)Sn and (110g,109)In these are the first measurements ever. The experimental data were compared with the results of cross section calculations of the ALICE and EMPIRE nuclear model codes and of the TALYS 1.6 nuclear model code as listed in the on-line library TENDL-2014. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutron production by deuteron breakup on 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.

    1994-10-01

    Neutron spectra of the deuteron breakup on 4 He have been measured at eight deuteron incident energies between 4.7 MeV and 12.1 MeV using the TOF method. The measurements carried out at angles of 0 deg, 5 deg and 10 deg were completed by measurements at 2.5 deg and 7.5 deg at some energies. The cross sections for these angles were reliably interpolated for the other energies. The normalization to absolute cross sections was carried out by reference to the well known data of the DD reaction. When a relative energy scale is introduced the spectral shape is almost angle-independent. It is shown that the use of the deuteron breakup on 4 He can considerably refine the correction for the deuteron breakup on deuterium in scattering experiments made with Monte Carlo simulations. (orig.)

  18. The deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.X., E-mail: sxpeng@pku.edu.cn; Zhu, F.; Wang, Z.; Gao, Y.; Guo, Z.Y.

    2016-06-01

    BISOL, which was named as Beijing-ISOL before (Cui et al., 2013), is the abbreviation of Beijing Isotope-Separation-On-Line neutron beam facility. It is proposed jointly by Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) for basic science study and application. It is a double driven facility that can be driven by a reactor or a deuteron accelerator. The deuteron driver accelerator should accelerate the deuteron beam up to 40 MeV with maximum beam current of 10 mA. Proton beams up to 33 MeV and He{sup 2+} beams up to 81.2 MeV can also be accelerated in this accelerator. The accelerator can be operated on either CW (continuous waveform) or pulsed mode, and the ion energy can be adjusted in a wide range. The accelerator will also allow independent operation of the RIB (Radioactive Ion Beams) system. It will be mainly charged by PKU group. Details of the deuteron accelerator preliminary design for BISOL will be given in this paper.

  19. Electromagnetic structure of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, R.; Gross, Franz

    2001-01-01

    Recent measurements of the deuteron electromagnetic structure functions A, B, and T 20 extracted from high energy elastic ed scattering, and the cross sections and asymmetries extracted from high energy photodisintegration gamma + d to n + p, are reviewed and compared to theory. The theoretical calculations range from nonrelativistic and relativistic models using the traditional meson and baryon degrees of freedom, to effective field theories, to models based on the underlying quark and gluon degrees of freedom of QCD, including nonperturbative quark cluster models and perturbative QCD. We review what has been learned from these experiments, and discuss why elastic ed scattering and photodisintegration seem to require very different theoretical approaches, even though they are closely related experimentally

  20. Saturated ablation in metal hydrides and acceleration of protons and deuterons to keV energies with a soft-x-ray laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasson, J; Iwan, B; Andrejczuk, A; Abreu, E; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Nelson, A J; Bajt, S; Chalupsky, J; Chapman, H N; Fäustlin, R R; Hajkova, V; Heimann, P A; Hjörvarsson, B; Juha, L; Klinger, D; Krzywinski, J; Nagler, B; Pálsson, G K; Singer, W; Seibert, M M; Sobierajski, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; Vinko, S M; Lee, R W; Hajdu, J; Tîmneanu, N

    2011-01-01

    Studies of materials under extreme conditions have relevance to a broad area of research, including planetary physics, fusion research, materials science, and structural biology with x-ray lasers. We study such extreme conditions and experimentally probe the interaction between ultrashort soft x-ray pulses and solid targets (metals and their deuterides) at the FLASH free-electron laser where power densities exceeding 10(17) W/cm(2) were reached. Time-of-flight ion spectrometry and crater analysis were used to characterize the interaction. The results show the onset of saturation in the ablation process at power densities above 10(16) W/cm(2). This effect can be linked to a transiently induced x-ray transparency in the solid by the femtosecond x-ray pulse at high power densities. The measured kinetic energies of protons and deuterons ejected from the surface reach several keV and concur with predictions from plasma-expansion models. Simulations of the interactions were performed with a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium code with radiation transfer. These calculations return critical depths similar to the observed crater depths and capture the transient surface transparency at higher power densities.

  1. Observable in the reversible reaction gamma + d yields n + p. [photodisintegration of deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustgi, M. L.; Vyas, R.; Nunemaker, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations are presented on the effect of the two-body charge and current density effects on the observables in the photodisintegration of a deuteron. The computations are performed in a cartesian coordinate system, initially for gamma rays plane-polarized in the x-direction. Unpolarized photons are treated with an incoherent superposition of transition amplitudes for gamma rays polarized in the x- and y- directions. Account is taken of recoil and interaction energies after an initial state is defined. Consideration is focused on the cross section, polarization, and asymmetry of the reaction at low and medium energy incident gamma rays.

  2. Strong interactions studies with medium energy probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seth, K.K.

    1993-10-01

    This progress report refers to the period August 1992 to August 1993, which includes the first year of the three-year period December 1, 1992--November 30, 1995 of the existing research contract. As anticipated in the 1992--1995 proposal the major preoccupation during 1992--1993 was with Fermilab experiment E760. This experiment, whose primary objective is to make very high-resolution study of Charmonium Spectroscopy via proton-antiproton annihilations, has turned out to be a veritable gold-mine of exciting hadronic physics in other areas as well. These include the proton from factor in the time-life region, proton-antiproton forward scattering, QCD scaling laws, and light quark spectroscopy. A large fraction of the data from E760 have been analyzed during this year, and several papers have been published. In addition to the E760 experiment at Fermilab continued progress was made earlier nuclear physics-related experiments at LAMPF, MIT, and NIKHEF, and their results for publication. Topics include high- resolution electron scattering, quasi-free electron scattering and low-energy pion double charge exchange

  3. Dependence of P-D and α-D scattering on deuteron cluster size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Kiran; Jain, A.K.

    The elastic scattering of protons and of alpha particles on a deuteron cluster, needed in the analysis of deuteron cluster knock-out reactions, have been investigated. The P-D elastic scattering angular distributions have been calculated for 90 MeV and 155 MeV incident energies using Born approximation. The d-α scattering calculations have been carried out in Born approximation as well as in a resonating group formalisms. In the Born approximation the d-α scattering has been treated: (a) in terms of phenomenological n-α interaction and (b) in terms of nucleon-nucleon interaction with a fully antisymmetrized six particle wave function; here the double exchange terms are found to be insignificant compared to single exchange terms. The resonating group method using a phenomenological n-α interaction gives a marked improvement over Born approximation results. The influence of deuteron cluster size on these cross sections has been found to be very significant at medium energies. (auth.)

  4. COMMISSIONING OF RHIC DEUTERON - GOLD COLLISIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SATOGATA,T.AHRENS,L.BAI,M.BEEBE-WANG,J.

    2003-05-12

    Deuteron and gold beams have been accelerated to a collision energy of {radical}s = 200 GeV/u in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), providing the first asymmetric-species collisions of this complex. Necessary changes for this mode of operation include new ramping software and asymmetric crossing angle geometries. This paper reviews machine performance, problem encountered and their solutions, and accomplishments during the 16 weeks of ramp-up and operations.

  5. The study of the dp{yields}ppn reaction at 500 MeV of the deuteron energy at ITS Nuclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piyadin, S.M., E-mail: piyadin@jinr.ru [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Janek, M. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Physics Dept, University of Zilina, 010 26 Zilina (Slovakia); Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Karachuk, J.-T. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Advanced Research Institute for Electrical Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Khrenov, A.N.; Krasnov, V.A.; Kurilkin, A.K.; Kurilkin, P.K.; Ladygin, V.P.; Livanov, A.N. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Martinska, G. [P.J.Safarik University, Kosice (Slovakia); Reznikov, S.G. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Semenov, A.K. [Moscow University Radioelectronic and Avtomatic, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Terekhin, A.A. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Tumanov, A.E. [Moscow University Radioelectronic and Avtomatic, Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, T.A. [LHEP-JINR, 141-980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    The experiment on dp non-mesonic breakup at Internal Target Station at Nuclotron-M is presented. The first results on the study of the dp-breakup reaction with 500 MeV unpolarized deuteron beam are discussed. Selection procedure of useful events for the dp{yields}ppn reaction with the registration of two protons is shown.

  6. Medium Access Control in Energy Harvesting - Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fafoutis, Xenofon

    Focusing on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) that are powered by energy harvesting, this dissertation focuses on energy-efficient communication links between senders and receivers that are alternating between active and sleeping states of operation. In particular, the focus lies on Medium Access......, collision avoidance, provision of Quality of Service (QoS) and security. Focusing on the particular requirements of an energy harvesting application, the dissertation continues with the presentation of a MAC protocol, named ODMAC, which extends the receiver-initiated paradigm with several energy......-efficient features that aim to adapt the consumed energy to match the harvested energy, distribute the load with respect to the harvested energy, decrease the overhead of the communication, address the requirements for collision avoidance, prioritize urgent traffic and secure the system against beacon replay attacks...

  7. Composite nucleon approach to the deuteron problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.K.

    1975-01-01

    A composite model is suggested for the nucleons by assuming a long-range strong gluon force between a diquark boson B and a quark A. In the proton, A is trapped inside B in an oscillator potential; and in the neutron, A is on the surface of B in a hydrogenlike state. Nucleon form factors are obtained in agreement with experiments. The model contains a mechanism for a large effective mass of the quark A. When B is identified with π and A with μ, one can fix the gluon charge value and obtain the magnetic moments of the proton and neutron. The (μπ) atomic model for the nucleon can be used to construct the deuteron on a hydrogen molecule model. It leads to values for the binding energy, electric quadrupole moment, and form factors of the deuteron that are in agreement with experiments

  8. In-medium effects around the Fermi energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study nuclear stopping in central collisions for heavy-ion induced reactions in the Fermi energy domain (15-100 AMeV. Using the large dataset provided by the 4π array INDRA, we determine that stopping can be directly related to the transport properties in the nuclear medium. By looking specifically at protons, we present a comprehensive body of experimental results concerning the mean free path, the nucleon-nucleon cross-section and in-medium effects in nuclear matter.

  9. Hadron fragment emission in cluster excitation processes at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zs.

    1985-12-01

    An extended version of the cluster excitation model is proposed to describe the emission of various particle types in nuclear reactions in a consistent way. At first pion, proton deuteron and triton spectra from neutron-carbon interactions at 545 MeV in the angular region from deg 73 to deg 165 were tried to interpret by the model. The results are compared with model calculations. (author)

  10. Effect of the deuteron anisotropy: longitudinal and transverse components of the electric dipole polarizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    The anisotropy effect of the electric polarization (stretching) of the deuteron in the Coulomb field, caused by the tensor character of the nuclear force, is investigated. The values of the longitudinal (with the major axis, or the spin of the deuteron, directed along the electric field), and transverse components of the deuteron electric dipole polarizability that correspond to the low-energy n-p data, are predicted to be α parallel =0.669 fm 3 and α perpendicular to =0.555 fm 3 (the potential YYm). The values of the major and minor semi-axes of the deuteron are calculated. (orig.)

  11. On the polarized beam acceleration in medium energy synchrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture note reviews physics of spin motion in a synchrotron, spin depolarization mechanisms of spin resonances, and methods of overcoming the spin resonances during acceleration. Techniques used in accelerating polarized ions in the low/medium energy synchrotrons, such as the ZGS, the AGS, SATURNE, and the KEK PS and PS Booster are discussed. Problems related to polarized proton acceleration with snakes or partial snake are also examined

  12. Low-energy deuteron polarimeter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellos, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kremers, HR; Messchendorp, JG; KalantarNayestanaki, N; Timmermans, RGE; Bakker, BLG

    2005-01-01

    Polarized beams or targets are used in nuclear few-body experiments to extract observables such as analyzing powers and spin-transfer coefficients. These measured observables can be compared to theoretical models to study, for example, three-body interactions, or, the properties of the spin-orbit

  13. A Program in Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, Gerald [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-03-23

    We report here on the final stages of the Berman grant. The study of the spectrum and properties of the excited states of the nucleon (the N* states) is one of the highest-priority goals of nuclear physics and one of the major programs of Jefferson Lab, especially in Hall B. We have most recently focused our attention on exclusive studies (in both spin and strangeness) of the neutron in the deuteron. Our g13 experiment, “Production of Kaons from the Deuteron with Polarized Photons” [Nadel-Turonski (2006)], was carried out between October 2006 and June 2007. This experiment was done using both linearly and circularly polarized photons, mainly to try to unscramble the multitude of wide and overlapping N* states and to measure their properties by studying in fine detail their decays into strange-particle reaction channels. To this end, one of our students, Edwin Munevar, has analyzed the γn→K+Σ- reaction channel for his Ph.D. topic. The strangeness-production channels constitute the subject of the original GW group’s g13 proposal. But the g13 data set, by virtue of its statistics, polarization, and kinematic coverage, is ideally suited for many other reaction channels as well. Among these is the azimuthal angular asymmetry for deuteron photodisintegration, which was analyzed by another of our students, Nicholas Zachariou, for his Ph.D. topic, with help from Nickolay Ivanov (from the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia). This study required a deuterium target and a linearly polarized photon beam.

  14. A Program in Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    We report here on the final stages of the Berman grant. The study of the spectrum and properties of the excited states of the nucleon (the N* states) is one of the highest-priority goals of nuclear physics and one of the major programs of Jefferson Lab, especially in Hall B. We have most recently focused our attention on exclusive studies (in both spin and strangeness) of the neutron in the deuteron. Our g13 experiment, @@@Production of Kaons from the Deuteron with Polarized Photons@@@ [Nadel-Turonski (2006)], was carried out between October 2006 and June 2007. This experiment was done using both linearly and circularly polarized photons, mainly to try to unscramble the multitude of wide and overlapping N* states and to measure their properties by studying in fine detail their decays into strange-particle reaction channels. To this end, one of our students, Edwin Munevar, has analyzed the @@n@@@K + @@ - reaction channel for his Ph.D. topic. The strangeness-production channels constitute the subject of the original GW group@@@s g13 proposal. But the g13 data set, by virtue of its statistics, polarization, and kinematic coverage, is ideally suited for many other reaction channels as well. Among these is the azimuthal angular asymmetry for deuteron photodisintegration, which was analyzed by another of our students, Nicholas Zachariou, for his Ph.D. topic, with help from Nickolay Ivanov (from the Yerevan Physics Institute in Armenia). This study required a deuterium target and a linearly polarized photon beam.

  15. Alpha-deuteron elastic scattering around 40 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, A.; Karmakar, S.; Roychaudhury, T.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ismail, M.; Banerjee, S.R.; Divatia, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Differential cross section for alpha-deuteron elastic scattering has been measured at several energies around 40 MeV incident alpha. General behaviour of angular distributions remaining close to that predicted by Faddeev type calculations, a sharp energy dependence is observed. (author). 8 refs

  16. Cross sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.

    2005-01-01

    Integral excitation functions for the production of residual nuclides with light charged particles are basic data for different applications. The proton induced nuclear reactions are the most widely used and their cross section data are extensively studied. For practical applications these reactions are followed in importance by deuteron induced reactions. Due to the stripping process the production yield of the deuteron induced reactions is significant. High intensity deuteron beams can be produced relatively simply by accelerators. Deuteron induced reactions play an important role in secondary fast neutron sources, in thin layer activation technology, etc. The search of the literature shows that the cross section database for deuteron induced reactions is very poor (very few data above 15-20 MeV). No systematical study has been performed earlier. In addition the published data (except for a few well measured monitor and medically important reactions) show large discrepancies. To meet the requirements of these applications we performed a systematical experimental study of deuteron induced activation cross sections for different targets up to 50 MeV deuteron energy during the last years. Here we summarize the results for the most widely used technological materials: i.e. for metals. The targets were irradiated with external beams of the cyclotrons of Debrecen, Brussels and Sendai, Residual nuclei were measured by X- and gamma-spectrometry without chemical separation. The investigation includes a few hundred reactions induced on the following 20 target elements: Al, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, Sn, Te, W, Ir, Pt, Pb. A significant part of the measured data is new. The measured excitation functions were compared with the theory by using the ALICE-IPPE and TALYS codes. For a few elements, isotopic cross sections were measured on highly enriched targets ( 100 Mo, 122,123 Te, 114 Cd) for medical radioisotope production Applications in the field of

  17. Analyses of relativistic optical potential for medium energy proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dachun; Liu Wenqin; Ma Zhongyu

    1993-01-01

    The influence of the parameters of the relativistic optical potential on the nucleon scattering properties, such as cross sections, angular distributions and spin observables etc., is studied based on a set of global Dirac phenomenological optical potentials. It is show that, in contrast with the case at low energies, the total scattering cross sections vary slowly as the energy and weakly depend on the potentials at E p <200 MeV. The differential cross sections and spin observables depend not only on the volume integrals of the optical potentials, but also on their strengths and shapes. The applicability of the relativistic microscopic optical potential based on Walecka model in the medium energy region is also discussed

  18. Theoretical interpretation of medium energy nucleon nucleus inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagrange, Christian

    1970-06-01

    A theoretical study is made of the medium energy nucleon-nucleus inelastic scattering (direct interaction), by applying the distorted wave Born approximation such as can be deduced from the paired equation method. It is applied to the interpretation of the inelastic scattering of 12 MeV protons by 63 Cu; this leads us to make use of different sets of wave functions to describe the various states of the target nucleus. We analyze the nature of these states and the shape of the nucleon-nucleus interaction potential, and we compare the results with those obtained from other theoretical and experimental work. (author) [fr

  19. Spin Asymmetries $A_1$ of the Proton and the Deuteron in the Low $x$ and Low $Q^2$ Region from Polarized High Energy Muon Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; De Botton, N R; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Eichblatt, S; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiselev, Yu F; Krämer, Dietrich; Kröger, W; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Litmaath, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nassalski, J P; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Rädel, G; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zhao, J

    1999-01-01

    We present the results of the spin asymmetries $A_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic region extending down to $x=6\\cdot 10^{-5}$ and $Q^2=0.01$ GeV$^2$. The data were taken with a dedicated low $x$ trigger, which required hadron detection in addition to the scattered muon, so as to reduce the background at low $x$. The results complement our previous measurements and the two sets are consistent in the overlap region. No sig\\-ni\\-fi\\-cant spin effects are found in the newly explored region.

  20. Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E. [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y. [SKLNPT, Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2012-02-15

    The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D{sup +} ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D{sup +} beam that passed through the {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16{pi} mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

  1. Deuteron forward photodisintegration: meson currents and relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friar, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The few-nucleon problem in nuclear physics and the few-electron problem in atomic physics are shown to possess similarities. Relativistic aspects of the latter are reviewed. The radiative decay of the 3 P 1 excited state of helium-like ions to the 1 S 0 ground state is shown to be a theoretical analogue of low-energy deuteron forward photodisintegration. Both have large relativistic components. The extended Siegert's theorem, which permits application of Siegert's technique to arbitrary photon wave lengths, is applied to both transitions. Physical arguments for the two processes are stressed, and the relevance of interaction currents is discussed. 28 references

  2. Precise calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, Franz L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Recently, two calculations of the deuteron quadrupole moment have have given predictions that agree with the measured value to within 1%, resolving a long-standing discrepancy. One of these uses the covariant spectator theory (CST) and the other chiral effective field theory (cEFT). In this talk I will first briefly review the foundations and history of the CST, and then compare these two calculations with emphasis on how the same physical processes are being described using very different language. The comparison of the two methods gives new insights into the dynamics of the low energy NN interaction.

  3. Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 production with 4.2 MeV deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, Mario; Morales, J.R.; Riquelme, H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The natural copper irradiation with deuterons produces the Cu-62, Cu-64 and Cu-66 radionuclides. Of two radioisotopes, those with deficiencies in neutrons, are applied in nuclear medicine diagnostic processes, mainly for the nuclear characteristic of the decay modes. The positron emitters, of short life mean Cu-62 (9.1 min, β + ) and Cu(12.7 h), are radionuclides applied in radio pharmacological preparation for brain, core, blood flux studies. The radiochemical process consists in the de solution of the irradiated metallic copper target, in acid medium. The result solution, can be neutralized with a base or a buffer at wished pH. Using a deuteron beam of 4,2 ± 0,1 MeV energy has been obtained total yields of 1,103 ± 0,011 μCl/μAh medium for 62 Cu and of 0,148 ± 0,015 μCl/μAh for 64 Cu

  4. Measurement of deuteron beam polarization before and after acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ramazani Moghaddam Arani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Beam polarization measurement in scattering experiments with a high accuracy and the lowest possible cost is an important issue. In this regard, deuteron beam polarization was measured in the low-energy beam line easily with a relatively low cost procedure and in a very short time by Lamb Shift Polarimeter (LSP. Also, the beam polarization has been measured in high-energy beam line with BINA. In low-energy line, a polarized beam of deuterons delivered by POLIS was decelerated and focused on LSP detection system. Three resonances between 52mT and 63mT show the distribution of different spin states of polarized deuteron beam. In high-energy beam line, polarization can be measured employing BINA via the H(d,dp reaction. The asymmetry ratio, was obtained as a function of azimuthal angle, φ, for several polar scattering angles. Knowing values of the analyzing powers, the ratio has been used to extract the polarization results. The obtained results show that polarization of deuteron beam that is accelerated up to the energy of 130 MeV is almost the same before and after acceleration

  5. Routes for the production of isotopes for PET with high intensity deuteron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias de Saavedra, F.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in accelerator science are opening new possibilities in different fields of physics. In particular, the development of compact linear accelerators that can provide charged particles of low-medium energy (few MeV) with high current (above mA) allows for the study of new possibilities in neutron production and for new routes for the production of radioisotopes. Keeping in mind how radioisotopes are actually produced in dedicated facilities, we have performed a study of alternative reactions to produce PET isotopes induced by low-energy deuterons. We have fitted the EXFOR cross sections data, used the fitted values of the stopping power by Andersen and Ziegler and calculated by numerical integration the production rate of isotopes for charged particles up to 20 MeV. The results for deuterons up to 3 MeV are compared with the ones from cyclotrons, which are able to provide higher energies to the charged projectiles but with lower intensities. Our results indicate that using linear accelerators may be a good alternative for producing PET isotopes, reducing the problem of neutron activation.

  6. COSY Juelich - a cooler synchrotron for unpolarized and polarized medium-energy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyfarth, H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The Forschungszentrum Juelich (Research Center Juelich) is one of the sixteen national research institutions in the 'Hermann von Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers'. It is dedicated to fundamental and applied research and development which can be summarized under five priorities: (i) structure of matter and materials research, (ii) information technology, (iii) life sciences, (iv) environment precaution research, and (v) energy technology. As one of the institutes within (i). the Institut fur Kernphysik (Institute for Nuclear Research) operates the COSY cooler synchrotron which allows to accelerate unpolarized and polarized protons and deuterons to the maximum momentum of 3450 MeV/c (2640 MeV and 2050 MeV kinetic energy for protons and deuterons, respectively). At low energy electron cooling can be used for beam preparation, whereas stochastic cooling can be applied to the accelerated beam. In the first years of operation since 1993 the experiments have been performed with the unpolarized proton beam. Since 1997 the polarized proton beam is available with increasing intensity and a typical degree of polarization of about 75 % up to the maximum beam energy. In 2000 the first unpolarized deuteron beam could be accelerated and stored at the maximum energy. Four target places exist for the internal experiments PISA. EDDA, COSY-II, and ANKE which use the circulating beam with thin solid strip or fiber targets and gas targets. The four experiments TOF, MOMO, GEM, NESSI, and JESSICA are using external beams. The programs of the experiments JESSICA (Juelich Experimental Spallation Setup in the COSY Area), NESSI (Neutron Scintillator and Silicon), and PISA (Proton Induced Spallation) aim at the measurement of data needed or the design of the target station of the planned European Spallation neutron Source (ESS). The set-up of PISA is replacing the earlier experiment COSY-13 which successfully completed its investigations on the production of

  7. (Anti-)deuteron production and anisotropic flow measured with ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lea, Ramona

    2016-01-01

    The high abundance of (anti-)deuterons in the statistics gathered in Run 1 of the LHC and the excellent performance of the ALICE setup allow for the simultaneous measurement of the elliptic flow and the deuteron production rates with a large transverse momentum ($p_{\\rm T}$) reach. The (anti-) deuterons are identified using the specific energy loss in the time projection chamber and the velocity information in the time-of-flight detector. The elliptic flow of (anti-)deuterons can provide insight into the production mechanisms of particles in heavy-ion collisions. Quark coalescence is one of the approaches to describe the elliptic flow of hadrons, while the production of light nuclei can be also depicted as a coalescence of nucleons. In these proceedings, the measured $v_{2}$ of deuterons produced in Pb--Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}$=2.76TeV will be compared to expectations from coalescence and hydrodynamic models.

  8. Phenomenology of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Abbott; Abdellah Ahmidouch; H. Anklin; J. Arvieux; James P. Ball; Shelton Beedoe; Elizabeth Beise; Louis Bimbot; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Samuel Danagoulian; K. Dow; Jean-Eric Ducret; Jim Dunne; Lars Ewell; L. Eyraud; C. Furget; Michel Garcon; Ron Gilman; Charles Glashausser; Paul Gueye; Kenneth Gustafsson; Kawtar Hafidi; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; Serge Kox; Gerfried Kumbartzki; L. Lu; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; Justin McIntyre; David Meekins; F. Merchez; Joseph Mitchell; R. Mohring; S. Mtingwa; H. Mrktchyan; D. Pitz; Liming Qin; Ronald Ransome; J.-S. R'eal; Philip Roos; Paul Rutt; Reyad Sawafta; Stepan Stepanyan; Raphael Tieulent; E. Tomasi-Gustafsson; William Turchinetz; K. Vansyoc; J. Volmer; E. Voutier; Claude Williamson; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Jianguo Zhao; W. Zhao

    2000-01-01

    A rigorous extraction of the deuteron charge form factors from tensor polarization data in elastic electron-deuteron scattering, at given values of the 4-momentum transfer, is presented. Then the world data for elastic electron-deuteron scattering is used to parameterize, in three different ways, the three electromagnetic form factors of the deuteron in the 4-momentum transfer range 0-7 fm. This procedure is made possible with the advent of recent polarization measurements. The parameterizations allow a phenomenological characterization of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. They can be used to remove ambiguities in the form factors extraction from future polarization data

  9. Towards High Precision Deuteron Polarimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva e Silva, M.; Crabb, DG; Day, DB; Liuti, S; Zheng,; Poelker, M; Prok, Y

    2009-01-01

    A finite electric dipole moment (EDM) in any fundamental system would constitute a signal for new physics. The deuteron presents itself as an optimal candidate both experimentally and theoretically. A new storage ring technique is being developed for which a small change in the vertical polarization

  10. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  11. Multiple scattering in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekou, A.

    1980-09-01

    It is shown that the multiple scattering mechanism is very important in the transfer of the large momenta involved in the nuclear rearrangement reactions at medium energy. In contrast to the usual belief, the reaction cross-section is not very sensitive to the high momenta components of the nuclear wave function. The multiple scattering mechanism is especially important in 4 He(p,d) 3 He reaction around 800 MeV. Here the collisions involving two nucleons of the target nucleus are dominant. The triple collisions contribution is also important. The four collision contribution is negligible in the forward direction and sizeable at large angles. Thus, using the K.M.T. approach in DWBA calculations, the second order term of the optical potential must be included. So, is it not well established that the second term of the K.M.T. optical potential is important for the proton elastic scattering on light nuclei. (author)

  12. A systematics of optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutrons, proton, deuteron, 3He and alpha particle incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Toru

    2000-01-01

    Simple formulae to reproduce the optical model compound nucleus formation cross sections for neutron, proton, deuteron, triton, 3 He and alpha particles are presented for target nuclei of light to medium weight mass region. (author)

  13. Deuteron nuclear interaction potential with heavy nuclei in single folding model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Babak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Deuteron interaction potential with heavy nuclei at sub-barrier energies has been constructed in the frame-work of single folding model using the complex dynamic polarization potential. It is shown that the account of finite deuteron size leads to significant increasing of nuclear potential in outer region of interaction. Cross sec-tions of deuteron elastic scattering on 208Pb at energy 7, 7.3 and 8 MeV were calculated and compared with ex-periment data. Calculations were performed without any variations of parameters.

  14. Spin asymmetries $A_1$ and structure functions $g_1$ of the proton and the deuteron from polarized high energy muon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067425; Arik, E; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Bardin, G; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birsa, R; Björkholm, P; De Botton, N R; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bravar, A; Bressan, A; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dalla Torre, S; Van Dantzig, R; Derro, B R; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S K; Dulya, C M; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Forthmann, S; Frois, Bernard; Gallas, A; Garzón, J A; Gilly, H; Giorgi, M A; von Goeler, E; Görtz, S; Golutvin, I A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Haft, K; Von Harrach, D; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; Kabuss, E M; Kageya, T; Karev, A G; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T; Kiryluk, J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kiselev, Yu F; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Krivokhizhin, V G; Kröger, W; Kukhtin, V V; Kurek, K; Kyynäräinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Le Goff, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B W; McCarthy, J S; Medved, K S; Meyer, W T; Van Middelkoop, G; Miller, D; Miyachi, Y; Mori, K; Moromisato, J H; Nagaitsev, A P; Nassalski, J P; Naumann, Lutz; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J; Ogawa, A; Ozben, C; Pereira, H; Perrot-Kunne, F; Peshekhonov, V D; Piegia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S K; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, H; Pretz, J; Puntaferro, R; Pussieux, T; Rädel, G; Rijllart, A; Reicherz, G; Roberts, J; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, Ewa; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Sandacz, A; Savin, I A; Schiavon, R P; Schiller, A; Schüler, K P; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y K; Sergeev, S; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Simeoni, F; Smirnov, G I; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stiegler, U; Stuhrmann, H B; Szleper, M; Tessarotto, F; Thers, D; Tlaczala, W; Tripet, A; Ünel, G; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, Rüdiger; Whitten, C; Windmolders, R; Willumeit, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Ylöstalo, J; Zanetti, A M; Zaremba, K; Zamiatin, N I; Zhao, J

    1998-01-01

    We present the final results of the spin asymmetries $A_1$ and the spin structure functions $g_1$ of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic range $0.0008

  15. Energy and momentum deposited into a QCD medium by a jet shower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, G-Y; Majumder, A; Song, H; Heinz, U

    2009-10-09

    For a hard parton moving through a dense QCD medium, we compute self-consistently the energy loss and the fraction deposited into the medium due to showering and rescattering of the shower, assuming weak coupling between probe and medium. The same transport coefficients thus determine both the energy loss and its deposition into the medium. This allows a parameter free calculation of the latter once the former are computed or measured. We compute them for a weakly interacting medium. Assuming a short thermalization time for the deposited energy, we determine the medium's hydrodynamical response and obtain a conical pattern that is strongly enhanced by showering.

  16. Nuclear structure and reaction studies at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, G.W.; Ray, R.L.

    1990-10-01

    This document constitutes the (1988--1991) technical progress report for the ongoing medium energy physics research program supported by the US Department of Energy through special Research Grant FG05-88ER40444. The experiments discussed are conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF), the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) facility of the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The overall motivation for the work discussed in this document is driven by three main objectives: (1) provide hadron-nucleon and hadron-nucleus scattering data which serve to facilitate the study of effective two-body interactions, test (and possibly determine) nuclear structure, and help study reaction mechanisms and dynamics;(2) provide unique, first-of-a-kind ''exploratory'' hadron-nucleus scattering data in the hope that such data will lead to discovery of new phenomena and new physics; and (3) perform precision tests of fundamental interactions, such as rare decay searches, whose observation would imply fundamental new physics

  17. Characterization of fast deuterons involved in the production of fusion neutrons in a dense plasma focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubes, P.; Paduch, M.; Sadowski, M. J.; Cikhardt, J.; Cikhardtova, B.; Klir, D.; Kravarik, J.; Munzar, V.; Rezac, K.; Zielinska, E.; Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Szymaszek, A.; Tomaszewski, K.; Zaloga, D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper considers regions of a fast deuteron production in a correlation with an evolution of ordered structures inside a pinch column of a mega-ampere plasma focus discharge. Ion pinhole cameras equipped with plastic PM-355 track-detectors recorded fast deuterons escaping in the downstream and other directions (up to 60° to the z-axis). Time-integrated ion images made it possible to estimate sources of the deuteron acceleration at the known magnetic field and deuteron energy values. The images of the fast deuterons emitted in the solid angle ranging from 0° to 4° showed two forms: central spots and circular images. The spots of 1-2 cm in diameter were produced by deuterons from the central pinch regions. The circular-shaped images of a radius above 3 cm (or their parts) were formed by deuterons from the region surrounding the dense pinch column. The ion pinhole cameras placed at angles above 20° to the z-axis recorded the ion spots only, and the ring-images were missing. The central region of the deuteron acceleration could be associated mainly with plasmoids, and the circular images could be connected with ring-shaped regions of the radius corresponding to tops of the plasma lobules outside the dense pinch column. The deuteron tracks forming ring-shaped images of a smaller (0.5-1) cm radius could be produced by deflections of the fast deuterons, which were caused by a magnetic field inside the dense pinch column.

  18. Field theory for a deuteron quantum liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Gabadadze, Gregory; Pirtskhalava, David

    2010-04-01

    Based on general symmetry principles we study an effective Lagrangian for a neutral system of condensed spin-1 deuteron nuclei and electrons, at greater-than-atomic but less-than-nuclear densities. We expect such matter to be present in thin layers within certain low-mass brown dwarfs. It may also be produced in future shock-wave-compression experiments as an effective fuel for laser-induced nuclear fusion. We find a background solution of the effective theory describing a net spin zero condensate of deuterons with their spins aligned and anti-aligned in a certain spontaneously emerged preferred direction. The spectrum of low energy collective excitations contains two spin-waves with linear dispersions — like in antiferromagnets — as well as gapped longitudinal and transverse modes related to the Meissner effect — like in superconductors. We show that counting of the Nambu-Goldstone modes of spontaneously broken internal and space-time symmetries obeys, in a nontrivial way, the rules of the Goldstone theorem for Lorentz non-invariant systems. We discuss thermodynamic properties of the condensate, and its potential manifestation in the low-mass brown dwarfs.

  19. Compressed Air Energy Storage – An Option for Medium to Large Scale Electrical-energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Budt, Marcus; Wolf, Daniel; Span, Roland; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    This contribution presents the theoretical background of compressed air energy storage, examples for large scale application of this technology, chances and obstacles for its future development, and areas of research aiming at the development of commercially viable plants in the medium to large scale range.

  20. Beam energy dependence of d and d ‾ production in Au+Au collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ning; STAR Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The binding energy of light nuclei is small compared to the temperature of the system created in heavy-ion collisions. Consequently, the yields of light nuclei can be used to probe the freeze-out properties, such as correlation volume and local baryon density of the medium created in high-energy nuclear collisions. In this paper, we report the results of deuteron and anti-deuteron production in Au+Au collision at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 14.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV, measured by STAR at RHIC. The collision energy, centrality and transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameter B2 for deuteron and anti-deuteron production are discussed. We find the values of B2 for anti-deuterons are systematically lower than those for deuterons indicating the correlation volume of anti-baryon are larger than that of baryon. In addition, the values of B2 are found to vary with collision energy and show a broad minimum around √{sNN} = 20GeV, implying a change of the equation of state of the medium in these collisions.

  1. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, C.J.; Macfarlane, M.H.; Matsui, T.; Serot, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e'p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus endash nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark endash gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon endash nucleon force

  2. Exclusive scattering off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amrath, D.

    2007-12-15

    Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)

  3. Deuteron transverse densities in holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondal, Chandan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Chakrabarti, Dipankar [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India); Zhao, Xingbo [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the transverse charge density in the longitudinally as well as transversely polarized deuteron using the recent empirical description of the deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the framework of holographic QCD. The predictions of the holographic QCD are compared with the results of a standard phenomenological parameterization. In addition, we evaluate GPDs and the gravitational form factors for the deuteron. The longitudinal momentum densities are also investigated in the transverse plane. (orig.)

  4. Proton and deuteron activation measurements at the NPI and future plans in SPIRAL2/NFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimečková, Eva; Bém, Pavel; Mrázek, Jaromír; Štefánik, Milan; Běhal, Radomír; Gladolev, Vadim

    2017-09-01

    The proton- and deuteron-induced reactions are of a great interest for the assessment of induced radioactivity of accelerator components, target and beam stoppers as well as isotope production for medicine. In the present work, the deuteron-induced reaction cross sections on zinc were investigated by stacked-foil activation technique with deuteron beam of 20 MeV energy from the cyclotron U-120M of NPI CAS Řež. Also the proton activation cross section measurement of iron is presented. The comparison of present results to data of other authors and to predictions of evaluated data libraries is discussed. The investigation shall continue for higher proton and deuteron energy interval 20-35 MeV at SPIRAL2/NFS facility using a charged particle irradiation chamber with pneumatic transport system to measure isotopes and isomers with half-lives in minutes-regions.

  5. Helicity dependence of the total inclusive cross section on the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Arends, H.-J.; Beck, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Blackston, M.A. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Braghieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Hose, N. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dutz, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Heid, E.; Jahn, O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Klein, F. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kondratiev, R. [INR, Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lang, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Lisin, V. [INR, Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Martinez Fabregate, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); McGeorge, J.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Meyer, W. [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Panzeri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: pedroni@pv.infn.it (and others)

    2009-03-02

    A measurement of the helicity dependence of the total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on the deuteron was carried out at MAMI (Mainz) in the energy range 200deuterons. These new results are a significant improvement on the existing data and allow a detailed comparison with state-of-the-art calculations.

  6. Time-resolved characteristics of deuteron-beam generated by plasma focus discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    The plasma focus device discussed herein is a Z-pinch pulsed-plasma arrangement. In this, the plasma is heated and compressed into a cylindrical column, producing a typical density of > 1025 particles/m3 and a temperature of (1–3) × 107 oC. The plasma focus has been widely investigated as a radiation source, including as ion-beams, electron-beams and as a source of x-ray and neutron production, providing considerable scope for use in a variety of technological situations. Thus said, the nature of the radiation emission depends on the dynamics of the plasma pinch. In this study of the characteristics of deuteron-beam emission, in terms of energy, fluence and angular distribution were analyzed. The 2.7 kJ plasma focus discharge has been made to operate at a pressure of less than 1 mbar rather than at its more conventional operating pressure of a few mbar. Faraday cup were used to determine deuteron-beam energy and deuteron-beam fluence per shot while CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors were employed in studying the angular distribution of deuteron emission. Beam energy and deuteron-beam fluence per shot have been found to be pressure dependent. The largest value of average deuteron energy measured for present conditions was found to be (52 ± 7) keV, while the deuteron-beam fluence per shot was of the order of 1015 ions/m2 when operated at a pressure of 0.2 mbar. The deuteron-beam emission is in the forward direction and is observed to be highly anisotropic. PMID:29309425

  7. Investigating the foil-generated deuteron beam interaction with a DT target in degenerate and classical plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrangiz, M.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2017-06-01

    Deuteron fast ignition of a conically guided pre-compressed DT fuel is investigated. For this purpose, the acceleration of the deuterated thin foil by the intense laser beam is evaluated. The acceleration values and the number of foil-generated deuterons are calculated in terms of the laser pulse duration. Using the created deuterons as the fast ignitors, we investigate the fast ignition scheme by comparing fully degenerate, partial degenerate and classical types of DT plasma. The total energy gain of deuterons "beam fusion" is calculated to show the efficiency of beam reactions in increasing fusion rate. Besides, the stopping time and stopping range of incident deuterons are evaluated. Our numerical results indicate that degeneracy increases the beam-target collisions. Thus, it prepares the ignition situation sooner than the classical plasma. Moreover, the number of generated deuterons and their acceleration depend on the foil thickness and laser parameters. We show that when a 4ps laser with intensity of 10^{19} W/cm^2 focused onto a 20μm foil, 35× 10^{15} deuterons are generated. Moreover, under our analysis, in order to have a practicable fast ignition, 18% of the laser energy is necessary to convert into a deuteron driver.

  8. Local and non-local potentials for deuteron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The nucleon--nucleus local potential (central and spin--orbit) and the deuteron--nucleus nonlocal potential (central, spin--orbit, spin--radial tensor) are calculated by the folding-model (FM). Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the nucleon--nucleus potential by the use of Gaussians to represent the nucleon--nucleus potential and the charge and mass densities of the target. The analytic expressions give qualitative descriptions of phenomenological nucleon--nucleus interactions. A systematic target--mass dependence of realistic local FM deueron potentials is also included. Local-equivalent, energy-dependent, deuteron potentials are obtained from the nonlocal FM deuteron potentials and the energy dependence of the local potential parameters are presented. The local FM deuteron potential is tested for 60 Ni(d,d) 60 Ni at E/sub α/ = 15 MeV by comparing the predictions of the FM potentials with data in which all five polarization moments were measured. A qualitative fit to the data is obtained, but it overestimates the volume integral of the central potential by 7%. Energy-dependence effects are estimated by evaluating the local-equivalent potentials at E/sub α/ = 30 MeV and comparing the predictions to the E/sub α/ = 15 MeV potentials. The energy dependence of the central potential dominates the angular dependence of all five observables while the energy dependence of the spin--orbit and tensor potentials produces only scale changes (approx. 3%) in the vector and tensor analyzing powers. The scattering formalism for a spin-1 on a spin-0 target nucleus, and a description of the coupled--channels computer code DDUNC1 which treats the spin--radial tensor potential exactly, are included

  9. Home energy monitors : Impact over the medium-term

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van S.S.; Bakker, C.A.; Hal, van J.D.M. (Anke)

    2010-01-01

    Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS), e.g. energy monitors, are intermediary products that can visualize, manage, and/or monitor the energy use of other products or whole households. HEMS increasingly receive attention for their role in energy conservation in households. A literature review and a

  10. Energy efficiency in small and medium scale foundry industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Patange

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the research results of surveys which were conducted in an Indian foundry cluster which are potential members of such sectors are presented. These results indicate that there is an enough potential improvement in the energy use. The use of energy efficient practices can result in their energy use effectively as well as cost reduction. The key findings about the energy pattern are a lack of energy efficient practices. The suggested recommendations can contribute to an increase in energy efficiency in such cluster.

  11. Neutron production in interactions of relativistic protons and deuterons with lead targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurevich, V.I.; Amelin, N.S.; Yakovlev, R.M.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Lyapin, V.G.; Tsvetkov, I.O.

    2005-01-01

    Results on the neutron double-differential cross sections and yields obtained in the time-of-flight measurements with different lead targets and beams of protons and deuterons at an energy of about 2 GeV are discussed. The neutron spatial-energy distribution for an extended lead target was studied by the threshold detector method in the energy range of protons and deuterons 1-3.7 GeV. A dependence of the mean neutron multiplicity, energy of neutrons, and process of neutron multiplication in lead on the target dimension, and the type and energy of the beam particle is analyzed. (author)

  12. Nucleon-deuteron scattering with the JISP16 potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibiński, R.; Golak, J.; Topolnicki, K.; Witała, H.; Volkotrub, Yu.; Kamada, H.; Shirokov, A. M.; Okamoto, R.; Suzuki, K.; Vary, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The nucleon-nucleon J -matrix inverse scattering potential JISP16 is applied to elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering and the deuteron breakup process at the laboratory nucleon energies up to 135 MeV. The formalism of the Faddeev equations is used to obtain three-nucleon scattering states. We compare predictions based on the JISP16 force with data and with results based on various two-body interactions, including the CD Bonn, the Argonne AV18, the chiral force with the semilocal regularization at the fifth order of the chiral expansion and with low-momentum interactions obtained from the CD Bonn force as well as with the predictions from the combination of the AV18 NN interaction and the Urbana IX 3 N force. JISP16 provides a satisfactory description of some observables at low energies but strong deviations from data as well as from standard and chiral potential predictions with increasing energy. However, there are also polarization observables at low energies for which the JISP16 predictions differ from those based on the other forces by a factor of two. The reason for such a behavior can be traced back to the P -wave components of the JISP16 force. At higher energies the deviations can be enhanced by an interference with higher partial waves and by the properties of the JISP16 deuteron wave function. In addition, we compare the energy and angular dependence of predictions based on the JISP16 force with the results of the low-momentum interactions obtained with different values of the momentum cutoff parameter. We found that such low-momentum forces can be employed to interpret the nucleon-deuteron elastic scattering data only below some specific energy which depends on the cutoff parameter. Since JISP16 is defined in a finite oscillator basis, it has properties similar to low momentum interactions and its application to the description of nucleon-deuteron scattering data is limited to a low momentum transfer region.

  13. The Energy Savings and Environmental Benefits for Small and Medium Enterprises by Cloud Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chieh Tseng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium enterprises (SMES play an important role in Taiwan’s economy. The reduction of energy costs and carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions are critical to preserving the environment. This paper uses the experimental results from 65 sites, gathered over two years since 2012, to determine how the integration of Internet communication, cloud computing technologies and a cloud energy management service (cloud EMS can reduce energy consumption by cost-effective means. The EMS has three levels: infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS and software as a service (SaaS. Working jointly with ChungHwa Telecom, Taiwan’s leading telecom service provider, data from detection devices, control devices, air-conditioning and lighting systems are all uploaded to a cloud EMS platform, to give a so called intelligent energy management network application service platform (IEN-ASP. Various energy saving management functions are developed using this platform: (1 air conditioning optimization; (2 lighting system optimization; (3 scheduling control; (4 power billing control and (5 occupancy detection and timing control. Using the international performance measurement and verification protocol (IPMVP, the energy used at the test sites, before and after the use of the IEN-ASP, are compared to calculate the energy saved. The experimental results show that there is an average energy saving of 5724 kWh per year, which represents a saving ratio of 5.84%. This translates to a total reduction in CO2 emissions of 9,926,829 kg per year. Using the data collected, a regression model is used to demonstrate the correlation between the power that is consumed, the energy that is saved and the area of the sites. Another interesting result is that, if the experimental sites are maintained by experienced electricians or other personnel and EMS protocols are followed, the energy saving can be as great as 6.59%.

  14. Tensor polarization in pion-deuteron elastic scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungricht, E.; Freeman, W. S.; Geesaman, D. F.; Holt, R. J.; Specht, J. R.; Zeidman, B.; Stephenson, E. J.; Moses, J. D.; Farkhondeh, M.; Gilad, S.; Redwine, R. P.

    1985-03-01

    Angular distributions of the deuteron tensor polarization, t20, in π-d elastic scattering have been measured at pion energies of 180, 220, and 256 MeV. The experiment and analysis are described in detail. Theoretical calculations in which the effects of pion absorption on the elastic channel are small seem to reproduce the data. An excitation function was measured in order to search for a rap- id energy dependence of t20. No rapid angular or energy dependence was found near a pion energy of 134 MeV, where other experiments have suggested the existence of dibaryon resonances.

  15. Technical Support Document: 50% Energy Savings Design Technology Packages for Medium Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A.; Wang, Weimin; Lane, Michael D.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Liu, Bing

    2009-09-01

    This Technical Support Document (TSD) describes the process and methodology for development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Offices (AEDG-MO or the Guide), a design guidance document which intends to provide recommendations for achieving 50% energy savings in medium office buildings that just meet the requirements of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

  16. a Calculation of the Deuteron as a Biskyrmion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Alec Judah

    A numerical relaxation procedure is used to find a suitable deuteron configuration in the Skyrme model of low energy strong interactions. The initial configuration used is that of two single skyrmion solutions place side by side on a lattice using the so-called product ansatz, without any a priori symmetry assumptions. Two such configurations are investigated, one with chiral symmetry explicitly broken by a massive pion field, the other in the chiral limit using a massless pion. A bound biskymion state is found for both cases, and the symmetry of the configurations explored. It is discovered that the relaxed configurations no longer appear to be that of a product of chiral fields, thus strengthening the validity of this ab initio approach to the deuteron. The research was conducted on the FPS -164 attached array processor at the Triangle Universities Computation Center.

  17. Final-state interaction in processes of deuteron breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome Filho, Z.D.

    1974-12-01

    Interaction between particles in the final state of reactions can strongly affect the experimental angular distributions, as in the scattering processes with the breaking of the deuteron target, where the final state interaction is responsible for the disappearance of the differential cross section in the front direction. It is then necessary to include the contribution of the final state interaction to small angles of incoherent processes particle-deuteron. In this work line, an analysis is made of the process πd → πpn for different values of the incident energy. The data obtained are compared with existing experimental data. The hypothesis is also considered of the nucleon which collides with the incident particle being outside the mass layer. An analytical extension of the resonant amplitude πN outwards the mass layer is also used

  18. D-Cluster Converter Foil for Laser-Accelerated Deuteron Beams: Towards Deuteron-Beam-Driven Fast Ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Fast Ignition (FI) uses Petawatt laser generated particle beam pulse to ignite a small volume called a pre-compressed Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target, and is the favored method to achieve the high energy gain per target burn needed for an attractive ICF power plant. Ion beams such as protons, deuterons or heavier carbon ions are especially appealing for FI as they have relative straight trajectory, and easier to focus on the fuel capsule. But current experiments have encountered problems with the 'converter-foil' which is irradiated by the Petawatt laser to produce the ion beams. The problems include depletion of the available ions in the convertor foils, and poor energy efficiency (ion beam energy/ input laser energy). We proposed to develop a volumetrically-loaded ultra-high-density deuteron deuterium cluster material as the basis for converter-foil for deuteron beam generation. The deuterons will fuse with the ICF DT while they slow down, providing an extra 'bonus' energy gain in addition to heating the hot spot. Also, due to the volumetric loading, the foil will provide sufficient energetic deuteron beam flux for 'hot spot' ignition, while avoiding the depletion problem encountered by current proton-driven FI foils. After extensive comparative studies, in Phase I, high purity PdO/Pd/PdO foils were selected for the high packing fraction D-Cluster converter foils. An optimized loading process has been developed to increase the cluster packing fraction in this type of foil. As a result, the packing fraction has been increased from 0.1% to 10% - meeting the original Phase I goal and representing a significant progress towards the beam intensities needed for both FI and pulsed neutron applications. Fast Ignition provides a promising approach to achieve high energy gain target performance needed for commercial Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). This is now a realistic goal for near term in view of the anticipated ICF target burn at the National Ignition

  19. Energy technologies for post Kyoto targets in the medium term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, H.

    2003-09-01

    The Risoe International Energy Conference took place 19 - 21 May 2003 and the aim was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may become main contributors to the energy scene in 15 to 20 years. The conference addressed R and D related to the individual technologies as well as system integration. The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 25 June 2003. (au)

  20. Energy technologies for post Kyoto targets in the medium term

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenderberg Petersen, L.; Larsen, H. (eds.)

    2003-09-01

    The Risoe International Energy Conference took place 19 - 21 May 2003 and the aim was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may become main contributors to the energy scene in 15 to 20 years. The conference addressed R&D related to the individual technologies as well as system integration. The proceedings are prepared from papers presented at the conference and received with corrections, if any, until the final deadline on 25 June 2003. (au)

  1. Nonlocal nucleon-nucleus interactions in (d ,p ) reactions: Role of the deuteron D state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, G. W.; Timofeyuk, N. K.; Tostevin, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Theoretical models of the (d ,p ) reaction are exploited for both nuclear astrophysics and spectroscopic studies in nuclear physics. Usually, these reaction models use local optical model potentials to describe the nucleon- and deuteron-target interactions. Within such a framework, the importance of the deuteron D state in low-energy reactions is normally associated with spin observables and tensor polarization effects, with very minimal influence on differential cross sections. In contrast, recent work that includes the inherent nonlocality of the nucleon optical model potentials in the Johnson-Tandy adiabatic-model description of the (d ,p ) transition amplitude, which accounts for deuteron break-up effects, shows sensitivity of the reaction to the large n -p relative momentum content of the deuteron wave function. The dominance of the deuteron D -state component at such high momenta leads to significant sensitivity of calculated (d ,p ) cross sections and deduced spectroscopic factors to the choice of deuteron wave function [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 162502 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.162502]. We present details of the Johnson-Tandy adiabatic model of the (d ,p ) transfer reaction generalized to include the deuteron D state in the presence of nonlocal nucleon-target interactions. We present exact calculations in this model and compare these to approximate (leading-order) solutions. The latter, approximate solutions can be interpreted in terms of local optical potentials, but evaluated at a shifted value of the energy in the nucleon-target system. This energy shift is increased when including the D -state contribution. We also study the expected dependence of the D -state effects on the separation energy and orbital angular momentum of the transferred nucleon. Their influence on the spectroscopic information extracted from (d ,p ) reactions is quantified for a particular case of astrophysical significance.

  2. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hemmers, O. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He{sup +}nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al.

  3. Partial cross sections of helium satellites at medium photon energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehlitz, R.; Sellin, I.A.; Hemmers, O.

    1997-01-01

    Still of current interest is the important role of single ionization with excitation compared to single ionization alone. The coupling between the electrons and the incoming photon is a single-particle operator. Thus, an excitation in addition to an ionization, leading to a so-called satellite line in a photoelectron spectrum, is entirely due to electron-electron interaction and probes the electron correlation in the ground and final state. Therefore the authors have undertaken the study of the intensity of helium satellites He + nl (n = 2 - 6) relative to the main photoline (n = 1) as a function of photon energy at photon energies well above threshold up to 900 eV. From these results they could calculate the partial cross-sections of the helium satellites. In order to test the consistency of their satellite-to-1s ratios with published double-to-single photoionization ratios, the authors calculated the double-to-single photoionization ratio from their measured ratios using the theoretical energy-distribution curves of Chang and Poe and Le Rouzo and Dal Cappello which proved to be valid for photon energies below 120 eV. These calculated double-to-single ionization ratios agree fairly well with recent ion measurements. In the lower photon energy range the authors ratios agree better with the ratios of Doerner et al. while for higher photon energies the agreement is better with the values of Levin et al

  4. Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniffen, D.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Palmeira, R.A.R.; Rao, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range can provide unique information with which to study many astrophysical problems. Observations in the 10-50 MeV range provide the cleanest window with which to view the isotropic diffuse component of the radiation and to study the possible cosmological implications of the spectrum. For the study of compact sources, this is the important region between the X-ray sky and the vastly different γ-ray sky seen by SAS-2 and COS-B. To understand the implications of medium energy γ-ray astronomy to the study of the galactic diffuse γ-radiation, the model developed to explain the high energy γ-ray observations of SAS-2 is extended to the medium energy range. This work illustrates the importance of medium energy γ-ray astronomy for studying the electromagnetic component of the galactic cosmic rays. To observe the medium energy component of the intense galactic center γ-ray emission, two balloon flights of a medium energy γ-ray spark chamber telescope were flown in Brazil in 1975. These results indicate the emission is higher than previously thought and above the predictions of the theoretical model

  5. Refinement of the AdEPT Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Science

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to explore the theoretical framework for the relatively unexplored field of medium energy (5--200 MeV) gamma-ray astronomy for a mission concept...

  6. Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthews, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the Workshop on Hydrogen Storage and Generation Technologies for Medium-Power and -Energy Applications which was held on April 8-10, 1997 at the Radisson Hotel Orlando Airport in Orlando, Florida...

  7. Medium energy measurements of n-n parameters. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This document constitutes a progress report (1985-86) for the ongoing medium energy nuclear physics research program. A major part of the work has been and will continue to be associated with research done at the Nucleon Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The aim of the experimental program is the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at medium energy. The required data include both elastic and inelastic experiments, and in addition the measurement of polarization and polarization transfer parameters. We have been emphasizing single pion production measurements using polarized proton beams, and expect that our present data base will provide stringent tests of theoretical models. With the development of the LAMPF high intensity polarized proton source, we expect that a reasonably intense beam of medium energy polarized neutrons will become available, and are planning a series of experiments utilizing polarized neutrons to determine the importance of the I = 0 reaction amplitudes at medium energies

  8. Energy dependent response of plastic scintillation detectors to photon radiation of low to medium energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenau, Melanie; Radeck, Désirée; Bambynek, Markus; Sommer, Holger; Flühs, Dirk; Spaan, Bernhard; Eichmann, Marion

    2016-08-01

    Plastic scintillation detectors are promising candidates for the dosimetry of low- to medium-energy photons but quantitative knowledge of their energy response is a prerequisite for their correct use. The purpose of this study was to characterize the energy dependent response of small scintillation detectors (active volume plastic scintillator BC400. Different detectors made from BC400 were calibrated at a number of radiation qualities ranging from 10 to 280 kV and at a (60)Co beam. All calibrations were performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the National Metrology Institute of Germany. The energy response in terms of air kerma, dose to water, and dose to the scintillator was determined. Conversion factors from air kerma to dose to water and to dose to the scintillator were derived from Monte Carlo simulations. In order to quantitatively describe the energy dependence, a semiempirical model known as unimolecular quenching or Birks' formula was fitted to the data and from this the response to secondary electrons generated within the scintillator material BC400 was derived. The detector energy response in terms of air kerma differs for different scintillator sizes and different detector casings. It is therefore necessary to take attenuation within the scintillator and in the casing into account when deriving the response in terms of dose to water from a calibration in terms of air kerma. The measured energy response in terms of dose to water for BC400 cannot be reproduced by the ratio of mean mass energy-absorption coefficients for polyvinyl toluene to water but shows evidence of quenching. The quenching parameter kB in Birks' formula was determined to be kB = (12.3 ± 0.9) mg MeV(-1) cm(-2). The energy response was quantified relative to the response to (60)Co which is the common radiation quality for the calibration of therapy dosemeters. The observed energy dependence could be well explained with the assumption of ionization quenching as described

  9. Polarized deuteron beam at the Dubna synchrophasotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, V.P.; Fimushkin, V.V.; Gai, G.I.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental equipment and setup used to accelerate a polarized deuteron beam at the Dubna synchrophasotron are briefly described. Basic characteristics of the cryogenic source of polarized deuterons POLARIS are presented. The results of measurements of the intensity of the accelerated beam, vector and tensor polarization at the output of the linac LU-20, inside the synchrophasotron ring and in the extracted beam are given. 16 refs.; 9 figs.; 3 tabs

  10. Radiation protection and dosimetry problems around medium energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovic, R.; Pavlovic, S.; Markovic, S.; Boreli, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Sciences 'VINCA', the Accelerator Installation 'TESLA', which is an ion accelerator facility consisting of an isochronous cyclotron 'VINCY', a heavy ion source, a D - / H - ion source, three low energy and five high energy experimental channels is now under construction. The Tesla Accelerator Installation should by the principal facility for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, biology, and material science, as well as for production of radioisotopes, medical diagnostics and therapy with radioisotopes and accelerated particle beams. Some problems in defining radiation protection and safety programme, particularly problems in construction appropriate shielding barriers at the Accelerator Installation 'TESLA' are discussed in this paper. (author) 1 fig., 9 refs

  11. Potentials of interaction between medium energy particles and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnoj, Yu.A.; Molev, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The potential of interaction between mean-energy particles and atomic nuclei is determined as a solution of an integral equation relating it to the scattering matrix. Potentials involving the central and spin-orbital or isospin parts are reconstructed on the basis of the scattering matrix of the diffraction model. Approximated expressions for central and spin-orbital potentials in the case of weak refraction are obtained. The effect of nuclear parameters on the shape of central potential of interaction between 156 MeV protons and the 208 Pb nuclei is considered. The calculated and phenomenological central and spin-orbital potentials of interaction between 185 MeV protons and the 90 Zr, 208 Pb nuclei are in good agreement only in the surface region of nuclei. The central and isospin potentials of interaction between the 3 He nuclei with 217 MeV energy and the 9 Be nuclei are studied

  12. Beam Profile Diagnostics for the Fermilab Medium Energy Electron Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, A.; Kazakevich, G.; Nagaitsev, S.; Tassotto, G.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.

    2005-10-01

    The Fermilab Recycler ring will employ an electron cooler to store and cool 8.9 GeV antiprotons. The cooler will be based on a Pelletron electrostatic accelerator working in an energy-recovery regime. Several techniques for determining the characteristics of the beam dynamics are being investigated. Beam profiles have been measured as a function of the beam line optics at the energy of 3.5 MeV in the current range of 10/sup -4/-1 A, with a pulse duration of 2 /spl mu/s. The profiles were measured using optical transition radiation produced at the interface of a 250-/spl mu/m aluminum foil and also from YAG crystal luminescence. In addition, beam profiles measured using multiwire detectors were investigated. These three diagnostics will be used together to determine the profile dynamics of the beam. In this paper we report the results so far obtained using these techniques.

  13. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, Sergei M. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electron beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.

  14. FNAL R and D in medium energy electron cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Nagaitsev, S; Crawford, A C; Kroc, T; MacLachlan, J; Saewert, G; Schmidt, C W; Shemyakin, A; Warner, A

    2000-01-01

    The first stage of the Fermilab Electron Cooling R and D program is now complete: a technology necessary to generate hundreds of milliamps of electron beam current at MeV energies has been demonstrated. Conceptual design studies show that with an electron beam current of 200 mA and with a cooling section of 20 m electron cooling in the 8.9 GeV/c Fermilab Recycler ring can provide antiproton stacking rates suitable for the Tevatron upgrades beyond Run II luminosity goals. A novel electron beam transport scheme with a weak magnetic field at the cathode and in the cooling section, and with discrete focusing elements in between will be used. A prototype of such an electron cooling system is now being built at Fermilab as part of the continuing R and D program. This paper describes the status of the electron cooling R and D program at Fermilab.

  15. A medium energy facility for variable temperature implantation and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaumont, J.; Lalu, F.; Salome, M.; Lamoise, A.M.; Bernas, H.

    1981-01-01

    We describe the new ion implantation system at Orsay, which operates from 5 to 190 kV. Sixty-five elements from H to U have been implanted in insulators, semiconductors or metals. Significant currents (several μA) of three-fold ionized elements have been implanted at energies up to 570 keV. Details are provided on the target-holders used, particularly on a variable temperature (1.7-300 K) cryostat and a variable temperature (80-300 K) goniometer, and on an in situ Rutherford back-scattering analysis set-up (using the 380 keV He 2+ beam) used in conjunction with all these target-holders. The latter system is used for studies of metastable low-temperature implanted alloys: specific examples will be given. (orig.)

  16. Feasibility of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility, energy management memorandum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-09-01

    The thermal-economic feasibility was studied of a medium-size central cogenerated energy facility designed to serve five varied industries. Generation options included one dual-fuel diesel and one gas turbine, both with waste heat boilers, and five fired boilers. Fuels included natural gas, and for the fired-boiler cases, also low-sulphur coal and municipal refuse. The fired-boiler cogeneration systems employed back-pressure steam turbines. For coal and refuse, the option of steam only without cogeneration was also assessed. The refuse-fired cases utilized modular incinerators. The options provided for a wide range of steam and electrical capacities. Deficient steam was assumed generated independently in existing equipment. Excess electrical power over that which could be displaced was assumed sold to Commonwealth Edison Company under PURPA (Public Utility Regulator Policies Act). The facility was assumed operated by a mutually owned corporation formed by the cogenerated power users. The economic analysis was predicted on currently applicable energy-investment tax credits and accelerated depreciation for a January 1985 startup date. Based on 100% equity financing, the results indicated that the best alternative was the modular-incinerator cogeneration system.

  17. Production of deuterons and antideuterons in proton-proton collisions at the CERN ISR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, W.M.; Duane, A.; Newman, H.; Ogren, H.; Henning, S.; Jarlskog, G.; Little, R.; Sanford, T.; Wu, S.L.; Boggild, H.; Duff, B.G.; Guettler, K.; Prentice, M.N.; Sharrock, S.J.

    1978-01-01

    The inclusive production of deuterons and antideuterons at 90sup(deg) in the c.m.s. has been measured at the CERN ISR. The measurements for antideuterons extend over 0.15< psub(T)<0.75 GeV/c and for deuterons from 0.25 - 0.75 GeV/c for √s= 45 and 53 GeV. In the overlapping psub(T) region average ratio d/average d = 4.1+-1.2 at both energies. The invariant cross-section for average d shows a psub(T) and energy dependence similar to those observed for average p

  18. Energetic Communities : Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sager-Klauß, C.V.

    2016-01-01

    Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders

  19. Design of medium energy beam transport line between the RFQ and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The design of a medium energy beam transport (MEBT) line comprising of a re-buncher and four quadrupoles, two upstream and the other two downstream of the re-buncher, has been presented. The design was done to ensure almost 100% transport of heavy-ion beams of about 99 keV/u energy from RFQ having ...

  20. Time-domain electromagnetic energy in a frequency-dispersive left-handed medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Tiejun; Kong Jinau

    2004-01-01

    From Maxwell's equations and the Poynting theorem, the time-domain electric and magnetic energy densities are generally defined in the frequency-dispersive media based on the conservation of energy. As a consequence, a general definition of electric and magnetic energy is proposed. Comparing with existing formulations of electric and magnetic energy in frequency-dispersive media, the new definition is more reasonable and is valid in any case. Using the new definition and staring from the equation of motion, we have shown rigorously that the total energy density and the individual electric and magnetic energy densities are always positive in a realistic artificial left-handed medium (LHM) [R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, Science 292, 77 (2001)], which obeys actually the Lorentz medium model, although such a LHM has negative permittivity and negative permeability simultaneously in a certain frequency range. We have also shown that the conservation of energy is not violated in LHM. The earlier conclusions can be easily extended to the Drude medium model and the cold plasma medium model. Through an exact analysis of a one-dimensional transient current source radiating in LHM, numerical results are given to demonstrate that the work done by source, the power flowing outwards a surface, and the electric and magnetic energy stored in a volume are all positive in the time domain

  1. Evaluation at the medium energy region for Pb-208 and Bi-209

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio; Pearlstein, S.

    1991-01-01

    Medium energy nuclear data in the 1--1000 MeV range is necessary to accelerator applications which include spallation neutron sources for radioactive waste treatment and accelerator shielding design, medical applications which include isotopes production and radiation therapy, and space applications. For the design of fission and fusion reactors, the nuclear data file for neutrons below 20 MeV is available and well evaluated. Evaluated nuclear data for protons and data in the medium energy region, however, have not been prepared completely. Evaluation in the medium energy region was performed using the theoretical calculation code ALICE-P or experimental data. In this paper, the evaluation of neutron and proton induced nuclear data for Pb-208 and Bi-209 has been performed using ALICE-P, empirical calculations and new systematics for the fission cross section. The evaluated data are compiled for possible inclusion in the ENDF/B-VI High Energy File. 204 refs., 51 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Energy density and velocity of electromagnetic waves in lossy chiral medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobyev, O B

    2014-01-01

    The average energy density of the macroscopic quasimonochromatic electromagnetic field U ts (t,r) in a linear passive chiral lossy medium described by the constitutive E–H relations is determined using a microscopic model. According to the model, U ts (t,r) is equal to the sum of the average energy densities of the electromagnetic field in free space U t0 (t,r) and electromagnetic oscillations in structural elements U s (t,r) induced by the electromagnetic wave. Making use of the Poynting theorem, the energy density U ts (t,r)≥U t0 (t,r) and power density of losses are derived as functions of the Poynting vector, polarization of the electromagnetic waves, phase shift between the field vectors and refractive index of a chiral medium. The exact energy velocity of the quasimonochromatic electromagnetic waves satisfying relativistic causality is determined using U ts (t,r). The approximate energy velocities of the quasimonochromatic electromagnetic wave are determined using energy density components approximating U ts (t,r) (e.g., the sum of the positive energy densities of the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields as well as the energy density of magnetoelectric cross-coupling). Comparison of the exact and approximate energy velocities with the group velocity in the case of a chiral lossy medium with a single-resonant frequency clarifies the concept of the electromagnetic energy and demonstrates the fundamental significance of the exact energy velocity. (paper)

  3. Cross-section activation measurement for U-238 through protons and deuterons in energy interval 10-14 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzhovskii, B.Y.; Abramovich, S.N.; Zvenigorodskii, A.G. [Russia Federal Nuclear Centre, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    There were presented results of cross-section measurements for nuclear reactions {sup 238}U(p,n){sup 238}Np, {sup 238}U(d,2n){sup 238}Np, {sup 238}U(d,t){sup 237}U, {sup 238}U(d,p){sup 239}U, and {sup 238}U(d,n){sup 239}Np. Interval of projectile energy was 10-14 MeV. For measurements of cross-sections it was used the activatio methods. The registration of {beta}- and {gamma}-activity was made with using of plastic scintillation detector and Ge(Li)-detector.

  4. Progress on using deuteron-deuteron fusion generated neutrons for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutte, Daniel; Renne, Paul R.; Becker, Tim; Waltz, Cory; Ayllon Unzueta, Mauricio; Zimmerman, Susan; Hidy, Alan; Finkel, Robert; Bauer, Joseph D.; Bernstein, Lee; van Bibber, Karl

    2017-04-01

    We present progress on the development and proof of concept of a deuteron-deuteron fusion based neutron generator for 40Ar/39Ar sample irradiation. Irradiation with deuteron-deuteron fusion neutrons is anticipated to reduce Ar recoil and Ar production from interfering reactions. This will allow dating of smaller grains and increase accuracy and precision of the method. The instrument currently achieves neutron fluxes of ˜9×107 cm-2s-1 as determined by irradiation of indium foils and use of the activation reaction 115In(n,n')115mIn. Multiple foils and simulations were used to determine flux gradients in the sample chamber. A first experiment quantifying the loss of 39Ar is underway and will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. In ancillary experiments via irradiation of K salts and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis we determined the cross-sections of the 39K(n,p)39Ar reaction at ˜2.8 MeV to be 160 ± 35 mb (1σ). This result is in good agreement with bracketing cross-section data of ˜96 mb at ˜2.45 MeV and ˜270 mb at ˜4 MeV [Johnson et al., 1967; Dixon and Aitken, 1961 and Bass et al. 1964]. Our data disfavor a much lower value of ˜45 mb at 2.59 MeV [Lindström & Neuer, 1958]. In another ancillary experiment the cross section for 39K(n,α)36Cl at ˜2.8 MeV was determined as 11.7 ± 0.5 mb (1σ), which is significant for 40Ar/39Ar geochronology due to subsequent decay to 36Ar as well as for the determination of production rates of cosmogenic 36Cl. Additional experiments resolving the cross section functions on 39K between 1.5 and 3.6 MeV are on their way using the LICORNE neutron source of the IPN Orsay tandem accelerator. Results will likely be available at the time of the presentation of this abstract. While the neutron generator is designed for fluxes of ˜109 cm-2s-1, arcing in the sample chamber currently limits the power—straightforwardly correlated to the neutron flux—the generator can safely be run at. Further

  5. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Bachman, M.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; Jobst, B.; McNaughton, K.H.; Nguyen, C.; Riley, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors report here progress made during the three year period January 1, 1990, to December 31, 1993, for the Department of Energy Three-Year Grant No. DE-FG05-88ER40446, third year. A major part of the work has been associated with nucleon-nucleon (N-N) research carried out at the Nucleon Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). During this period they also completed data acquisition and analyses of a TRIUMF experiment, but they have no further plans for experimental work at TRIUMF. Other research has been and will be continued to be carried out at BNL, and involves two rare kaon decay experiments, BNL E791, now completed, and a second generation rare kaon decay experiment, E871, which has just this summer completed an engineering test run. The authors are now also members of a proposed experiment, STAR, (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC) to be carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider facility, RHIC, at BNL. The past three years have been a time of rapid change in the focus of the experimental program. A LAMPF experiment, E1097, in which they spent a large amount of effort during the past three years, was terminated due to funding shortages after they had fabricated the detector, but before data acquisition, and consequently they increased their participation in the rare kaon experiment at BNL, E871. It now appears that there will be no LAMPF N-N program after 1993, so that the research efforts will concentrate on the BNL rare kaon decay measurement, E871, and on STAR. The authors expect that STAR, which requires the fabrication of a large colliding beam detector facility, will use an increasing amount of their research efforts during the next few years. In what follows they describe recent progress on the LAMPF and TRIUMF N-N measurements, on the BNL rare kaon decay work, and on the initial work with the STAR group

  6. Proceedings of the International symposium Dubna Deuteron-93

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Proceedings of international symposium on the deuteron structure problem are given. The results of investigations of hadron-deuteron interactions with polarized and unpolarized beams, lD, γD and NN interactions are discussed

  7. Measurement of activation cross-section of long-lived products in deuteron induced nuclear reactions on palladium in the 30-50MeV energy range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditrói, F; Tárkányi, F; Takács, S; Hermanne, A; Ignatyuk, A V

    2017-10-01

    Excitation functions were measured in the 31-49.2MeV energy range for the nat Pd(d,xn) 111,110m,106m,105,104g,103 Ag, nat Pd(d,x) 111m,109,101,100 Pd, nat Pd(d,x), 105,102m,102g,101m,101g,100,99m,99g Rh and nat Pd(d,x) 103,97 Ru nuclear reactions by using the stacked foil irradiation technique. The experimental results are compared with our previous results and with the theoretical predictions calculated with the ALICE-D, EMPIRE-D and TALYS (TENDL libraries) codes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parity violation in radiative neutron capture on the deuteron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Ho; Lazauskas, Rimantas; Gudkov, Vladimir

    2012-10-01

    Parity-violating (PV) effects in neutron-deuteron radiative capture are studied using Desplanques, Donoghue, and Holstein (DDH) and effective field theory weak potentials. The values of PV effects are calculated using wave functions, obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space for realistic strong potentials. The relations between physical observables and low-energy constants are presented, and dependencies of the calculated PV effects on strong and weak potentials are discussed. The presented analysis shows the possible reason for the existing discrepancy in PV nuclear data analysis using the DDH approach and reveals a new opportunity to study short-range interactions in nuclei.

  9. Charged Antiparticle To Particle Ratios Near Midrapidity In Deuteron+gold And Proton+proton Collisions At Center Of Mass Energy = 200 Gev

    CERN Document Server

    Bickley, A A

    2004-01-01

    Experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory are designed to investigate the behavior of strongly interacting matter at high temperatures and densities. The conditions created during a heavy ion collision at RHIC energies are predicted to be sufficient to form a quark-gluon plasma. As part of this investigation, smaller collision systems need to be studied to aid in the understanding and interpretation of results from the more complicated heavy ion collisions. This thesis reports the ratios of the yields of antiparticles to particles for primary charged pious, kaons, and protons emitted in p+p and d+Au collisions at sNN = 200 GeV. In the d+Au collision system the results are measured as a function of collision centrality. The data analyzed were collected by the PHOBOS detector during the 2003 run of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Comparison of the results obtained in this thesis with the antiparticle to particle ratios measured in 200 GeV Au+Au collision...

  10. Acceleration of deuterons in the KEK accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Mizumachi, Yoshihiko; Okumura, Shoji.

    1975-11-01

    A possibility for acceleration of deuterons in the KEK accelerator is presented with some modifications required to the present machine. Deuteron beam of an intensity as high as 350 mA was obtained in the present duoplasmatron ion source. The emittance and acceptane of the 20-MeV proton linac are calculated for deuterons. A modification in the field distribution by means of tuners is considered to save the rf power and to improve the longitudinal emittance. Acceleration in the booster and main synchrotrons as well as in the 180-GeV intersecting storage ring proposed for a KEK future project are discussed. Intensity of the obtainable neutron beam is also estimated. (auth.)

  11. Relativistic deuteron wave function on light front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    In the framework of the one boson exchange model the approximate analytical expression for the deuteron wave function (WF) at relativistic relative momenta is obtained. WF depends on extra variable having the form of a unit vector and is determined by six functions instead of two ones (S-and D-waves) in the nonrelativistic case. At moderate momenta the WF is matched with WF in the Reid model. It is emphasized the importance of indication of the qualitative observed phenomena associated with change of parametrization and spin structure of relativistic deuteron WF

  12. Deuteron cross section evaluation for safety and radioprotection calculations of IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blideanu, Valentin [Commissariat a l' energie atomique CEA/IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Garcia, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Joyer, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.joyer@cea.fr [Commissariat a l' energie atomique CEA/IRFU, Centre de Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette cedex (France); Lopez, Daniel; Mayoral, Alicia; Ogando, Francisco [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Ortiz, Felix [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Javier; Sauvan, Patrick [Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    In the frame of IFMIF/EVEDA activities, a prototype accelerator delivering a high power deuteron beam is under construction in Japan. Interaction of these deuterons with matter will generate high levels of neutrons and induced activation, whose predicted yields depend strongly on the models used to calculate the different cross sections. A benchmark test was performed to validate these data for deuteron energies up to 20 MeV and to define a reasonable methodology for calculating the cross sections needed for EVEDA. Calculations were performed using the nuclear models included in MCNPX and PHITS, and the dedicated nuclear model code TALYS. Although the results obtained using TALYS (global parameters) or Monte Carlo codes disagree with experimental values, a solution is proposed to compute cross sections that are a good fit to experimental data. A consistent computational procedure is also suggested to improve both transport simulations/prompt dose and activation/residual dose calculations required for EVEDA.

  13. Deuteron cross section evaluation for safety and radioprotection calculations of IFMIF/EVEDA accelerator prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blideanu, Valentin; Garcia, Mauricio; Joyer, Philippe; Lopez, Daniel; Mayoral, Alicia; Ogando, Francisco; Ortiz, Felix; Sanz, Javier; Sauvan, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    In the frame of IFMIF/EVEDA activities, a prototype accelerator delivering a high power deuteron beam is under construction in Japan. Interaction of these deuterons with matter will generate high levels of neutrons and induced activation, whose predicted yields depend strongly on the models used to calculate the different cross sections. A benchmark test was performed to validate these data for deuteron energies up to 20 MeV and to define a reasonable methodology for calculating the cross sections needed for EVEDA. Calculations were performed using the nuclear models included in MCNPX and PHITS, and the dedicated nuclear model code TALYS. Although the results obtained using TALYS (global parameters) or Monte Carlo codes disagree with experimental values, a solution is proposed to compute cross sections that are a good fit to experimental data. A consistent computational procedure is also suggested to improve both transport simulations/prompt dose and activation/residual dose calculations required for EVEDA.

  14. Measurement of (anti)deuteron and (anti)proton production in DIS at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.

    2007-05-01

    The first observation of (anti)deuterons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA has been made with the ZEUS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 300-318 GeV using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb -1 . The measurement was performed in the central rapidity region for transverse momentum per unit of mass in the range 0.3 T /M<0.7. The particle rates have been extracted and interpreted in terms of the coalescence model. The (anti)deuteron production yield is smaller than the (anti)proton yield by approximately three orders of magnitude, consistent with the world measurements. (orig.)

  15. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  16. Study of the deuteron emission in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{6}$He

    CERN Multimedia

    Karny, M; Tengblad, O; Riisager, K; Perkowski, J; Garcia borge, M J; Raabe, R; Kowalska, M; Fynbo, H O U; Perea martinez, A; Ter-akopian, G; Huyse, M L

    The main goal of the present proposal is to measure the continuous spectrum of deuterons emitted in the $\\beta$-decay of $^{6}$He. In particular, we want to focus on the low energy part of the spectrum, below 400 keV, which could not be accessed by all previous experiments. For the decay spectroscopy the Warsaw Optical Time Projection Chamber (OTPC) will be used. The bunches of $^{6}$He ions produced by REX-ISOLDE facility will be implanted into the active volume of the OTPC, where the rare events of deuteron emission will be recorded, practically background free.

  17. Development of a code system DEURACS for theoretical analysis and prediction of deuteron-induced reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Nakayama Shinsuke; Kouno Hiroshi; Watanabe Yukinobu; Iwamoto Osamu; Ye Tao; Ogata Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an integrated code system dedicated for theoretical analysis and prediction of deuteron-induced reactions, which is called DEUteron-induced Reaction Analysis Code System (DEURACS). DEURACS consists of several calculation codes based on theoretical models to describe respective reaction mechanisms and it was successfully applied to (d,xp) and (d,xn) reactions. In the present work, the analysis of (d,xn) reactions is extended to higher incident energy up to nearly 100 MeV and ...

  18. Study By Spin Tracking of A Storage Ring For Deuteron Electric Dipole Moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, F.; Malitsky, N. D.; Luccio, A. U.; Morse, W. M.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlov, Y. F.

    2009-01-01

    Spin tracking of polarized deuterons for a proposed experiment to measure a possible Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of the deuteron was done by using the codes UAL and SPINK. In the experiment the direction of spin polarization will be frozen using crossed electric and magnetic fields. Systematics, in particular the effects of non-linearities of the lattice on a beam with finite emittance and energy spread, have been extensively simulated and the effect of sextuple corrections to increase the spin coherence time has been studied.

  19. Space-time picture of relativistic propagation of medium energy hadrons through nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleszynski, M.; Jaroszewicz, T.

    1985-01-01

    Relativistic virtual pair creation effects in hadron-nucleus scattering at medium energies are discussed. A close analogy is found between these effects (particle propagation backwards in time) and some of noneikonal correlations to the Glauber theory, arising from particle propagation backwards in space. In multiple scattering both effects appear only for configurations involving overlapping scatterers and lead to the non-additivity of phase shifts. The proper-time path-integral formalism is found to provide an intuitive geometrical picture of these phenomena. The relativistic corrections are estimated to be of the order k/(aE/sup 2/), k being the particle momentum, E its energy, and a the target size. At medium energies they are comparable to noneikonal corrections, of order 1/(ak). Both effects vanish at high energy, when particle propagation in space-time can be described by means of geometrical optics

  20. The medium reorganization energy for the charge transfer reactions in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtalik, Lev I

    2011-11-01

    A low static dielectric permittivity of proteins causes the low reorganization energies for the charge transfer reactions inside them. This reorganization energy does not depend on the pre-existing intraprotein electric field. The charge transferred inside the protein interacts with its aqueous surroundings; for many globular proteins, the effect of this surroundings on the reorganization energy is comparable with the effect of reorganization of the protein itself while for the charge transfer in the middle of membrane the aqueous phase plays a minor role. Reorganization energy depends strongly on the system considered, and hence there is no sense to speak on the "protein reorganization energy" as some permanent characteristic parameter. We employed a simple algorithm for calculation of the medium reorganization energy using the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. Namely, the reaction field energy was computed in two versions - all media having optical dielectric permittivity, and all the media with the static one; the difference of these two quantities gives the reorganization energy. We have calculated reorganization energies for electron transfer in cytochrome c, various ammine-ruthenated cytochromes c, azurin, ferredoxin, cytochrome c oxidase, complex of methylamine dehydrogenase with amicyanin, and for proton transfer in α-chymotrypsin. It is shown that calculation of the medium reorganization energy can be a useful tool in analysis of the mechanisms of the charge transfer reactions in proteins. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A new measurement of the Collins and Sivers asymmetries on a transversely polarised deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ageev, E.; Alexakhin, V.; Alexandrov, Y.; Alexeev, G.; Amoroso, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Berglund, P.; Bernet, C.; Bertini, R.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Burtin, E.; Bussa, M.; Bytchkov, V.; Cerini, L.; Chapiro, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Colavita, A.; Costa, S.; Crespo, M.; d'Hose, N.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; De Masi, R.; Dedek, N.; Denisov, O.; Dhara, L.; Diaz Kavka, V.; Dinkelbach, A.; Dolgopolov, A.; Donskov, S.; Dorofeev, V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dünnweber, W.; Ehlers, J.; Eversheim, P.; Eyrich, W.; Fabro, M.; Faessler, M.; Falaleev, V.; Fauland, P.; Ferrero, A.; Ferrero, L.; Finger, M.; Finger jr., M.; Fischer, H.; Franz, J.; Friedrich, J.; Frolov, V.; Fuchs, U.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorin, A.; Grajek, O.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Grünemaier, A.; Hannappel, J.; von Harrach, D.; Hasegawa, T.; Hedicke, S.; Heinsius, F.; Hermann, R.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; von Hodenberg, M.; Horikawa, N.; Horikawa, S.; Ijaduola, R.; Ilgner, C.; Ioukaev, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Janata, A.; Joosten, R.; Jouravlev, N. I.; Kabuss, E.; Kalinnikov, V.; Kang, D.; Karstens, F.; Kastaun, W.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.; Khokhlov, Y.; Khomutov, N.; Kisselev, Y.; Klein, F.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.; Kolosov, V.; Komissarov, E.; Kondo, K.; Königsmann, K.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.; Korentchenko, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.; Koutchinski, N.; Kowalik, K.; Kravchuk, N.; Krivokhizhin, G.; Kroumchtein, Z.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Ladygin, M.; Lamanna, M.; Le Goff, J.; Leberig, M.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Ludwig, I.; Maggiora, A.; Maggiora, M.; Magnon, A.; Mallot, G.; Manuilov, I.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Maximov, A.; Medved, K.; Meyer, W.; Mielech, A.; Mikhailov, Y.; Moinester, M.; Nähle, O.; Nassalski, J.; Neliba, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nozdrin, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Olshevsky, A.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Pagano, P.; Panebianco, S.; Panzieri, D.; Paul, S.; Pereira, H.; Peshekhonov, D.; Peshekhonov, V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Platzer, K.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.; Popov, A.; Pretz, J.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Rebourgeard, P.; Reicherz, G.; Reymann, J.; Rith, K.; Rozhdestvensky, A.; Rondio, E.; Sadovski, A.; Saller, E.; Samoylenko, V.; Sandacz, A.; Sans, M.; Sapozhnikov, M.; Savin, I.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitt, H.; Schmitt, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shishkin, A.; Siebert, H.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.; Skachkova, A.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.; Sozzi, F.; Sugonyaev, V.; Srnka, Aleš; Stinzing, F.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Takabayashi, N.; Tchalishev, V.; Tassarotto, F.; Teufel, A.; Thers, D.; Tkatchev, L.; Toeda, T.; Tretyak, V.; Trousov, S.; Varanda, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.; Wagner, M.; Webb, R.; Weise, E.; Weitzel, Q.; Wiedner, U.; Wiesmann, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wirth, S.; Wislicki, W.; Zanetti, A.; Zaremba, K.; Zhao, J.; Ziegler, R.; Zvyagin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 765, 1-2 (2007), s. 31-70 ISSN 0550-3213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : transversity * deuteron * Collins asymmetry * Sivers asymmetry Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.645, year: 2007

  2. The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering angular distribution at 95 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mermod, Philippe

    2004-04-01

    The neutron-deuteron elastic scattering differential cross section has been measured at 95 MeV incident neutron energy, with the Medley setup at TSL in Uppsala. The neutron-proton differential cross section has also been measured for normalization purposes. The data are compared with theoretical calculations to investigate the role of three-nucleon force effects.

  3. Dissociation of deuteron, 6He and 11Be from Coulomb dissociation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The fragmentation of deuteron, 6He and 11Be have been studied during in- teraction with the 208Pb nucleus at various projectile energies. The Coulomb dissocia- tion cross-sections and the momentum distribution of the break-up fragments have been analysed within the framework of the direct fragmentation ...

  4. Interpretation of enhancements in the antiproton-neutron from antiproton-Deuteron annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.J.; Mason, G.C.; Opat, G.I.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented from a low energy antiproton-Deuteron experiment that show an enhancement near 1930 MeV in the antiproton-neutron mass spectrum. This, and other enhancements observed at nearby masses, may be interpreted in terms of a double-scattering effect

  5. Analysis of low and medium energy physics records in databases. Science and technology indicators in low and medium energy physics. With particular emphasis on nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillebrand, C.D.

    1998-12-01

    An analysis of the literature on low and medium energy physics, with particular emphasis on nuclear data, was performed on the basis of the contents of the bibliographic database INIS (International Nuclear Information System). Quantitative data were obtained on various characteristics of relevant INIS records such as subject categories, language and country of publication, publication types, etc. Rather surprisingly, it was found that the number of records in nuclear physics has remained nearly constant over the last decade. The analysis opens up the possibility of further studies, e.g. on international research co-operation and on publication patterns. (author)

  6. Medium-energy physics program. Progress report, February 1--April 1, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, E.

    1976-09-01

    A quarterly report on the medium-energy physics program at LAMPF is given. Topics covered include: (1) engineering support; (2) accelerator support; (3) accelerator systems development; (4) injector systems; (5) electronic instrumentation and computer systems; (6) accelerator operations; (7) experimental areas; (8) beam line development; (9) large-spectrometer systems; (10) research; (11) nuclear chemistry; (12) practical applications of LAMPF; and (13) management

  7. Performance of a Polarized Deuterium Internal Target in a Medium-Energy Electron Storage Ring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Z.L.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Alarcon, R.; van Bommel, R.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Buchholz, M.; Choi, S.; Comfort, J.; Doets, M.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Gaulard, C.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Miller, M.A.; Passchier, E.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.R.; Six, E.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Unal, O.; de Vries, H.

    1996-01-01

    A polarized deuterium target internal to a medium-energy electron storage ring is described in the context of spindependent (e, e′d) and (e ,e′p) experiments. Tensor polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell target. A Breit-Rabi polarimeter was used

  8. Medium modification of strange hadronic resonances at SIS, RHIC and LHC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolos, Laura

    2018-02-01

    The properties of strange pseudoscalar and vectors mesons as well as strange baryon resonances in dense matter are reviewed. Some open questions on the properties of strange hadrons in medium are addressed, such as the experimental signatures of inmedium effects coming from the hadronic phase on the final observables in heavy-ion collisions for the experimental conditions at SIS, RHIC and LHC energies.

  9. Medium-sized grazing incidence high-energy X-ray telescopes employing continuously graded multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Schnopper, H. W.

    1993-01-01

    The authors present a concept of continuously graded multilayer structures for medium-sized X-ray telescopes which is based on several material combinations. They show that the theoretical reflectivity characteristics of these structures make them very advantageous when applied to high energy X-r...

  10. Design of medium energy beam transport line between the RFQ and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Design of medium energy beam transport line between the RFQ and the Linac in the radioactive ion beam facility at VECC, Kolkata. S Dechoudhury Vaishali Naik Manas Mondal Hemendra Kumar Pandey Avik Chatterjee Dirtha Sanyal Debasis Bhowmick Alok Chakrabarti. Research Articles Volume 75 Issue 3 September ...

  11. Medium-energy physics program. Progress report, August 1--October 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dyck, O.B.; Dunn, E.D.

    1978-05-01

    A report is given of the medium-energy physics program at the LAMPF linac for the period from August 1 through October 31, 1977. Topics discussed include: (1) accelerator facilities and development; (2) the main beam lines; (3) experimental areas; (4) research; (5) nuclear chemistry; (6) practical applications; (7) linac technology; and (8) management

  12. Coherent pi0 Photoproduction on the Deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meekins, David G. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2004-11-01

    The differential scattering cross section for the process gamma d → d pi0 was measured, as part of experiment E89-012 at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The experiment was performed in Hall C during the Spring of 1996 as the commissioning experiment for the Hall C cryogenic target. The High Momentum Spectrometer was used to detect the recoil deuteron and no effort was made to detect the pi0 or its decay photons. The differential cross section was measured at a number of incident photon energies between 0.8 GeV and 4.0 GeV for the center-of-mass angles of 90 degrees and 136 degrees. The data were found to disagree with both the constituent counting rule and reduced nuclear amplitude predictions. These are the first data at large deuteron center-of-mass angles for photon energies larger than 1.6 GeV.

  13. Medium Access Control for Thermal Energy Harvesting in Advanced Metering Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vithanage, Madava D.; Fafoutis, Xenofon; Andersen, Claus Bo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the feasibility of powering wireless metering devices, namely heat cost allocators, by thermal energy harvested from radiators. The goal is to take a first step toward the realization of Energy-Harvesting Advanced Metering Infrastructures (EH-AMIs). While traditional...... battery-powered devices have a limited amount of energy, energy harvesting can potentially provide an infinite amount of energy for continuous operating lifetimes, thus reducing the cost involved in installation and maintenance. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we experimentally identify...... the potential energy that can be harvested from Low Surface Temperature (LST) radiators. The experiments are based on a developed Energy-Harvesting Heat Cost Allocator (EH-HCA) prototype. On the basis of this measured power budget, we model and analytically compare the currently used Medium Access Control (MAC...

  14. BSRF-3B3 Medium Energy X-ray Beamline and Its Application for XAFS Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Chenyan; Cui Mingqi; Zhou Kejin; Zhao Yidong; Tian Yulian; Wu Ziyu; Zheng Lei; Zhu Jie; Zhao Jia; Chen Kai; Sun Lijuan

    2007-01-01

    A new medium X-ray beamline 3B3 covering energy from 1.2 keV up to 6.0 keV was built at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) in 2005. With perfect capability of high monochromaticity, good focus and low harmonics, it could be applied to study metrology, optic component characteristics and medium X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). A simple XAFS apparatus has been set up and some measurements such as S, P, Cl, Ca, Al, Mg K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) in their compounds have also been carried out. The results show that it is feasible to do XAFS research at 3B3 beamline under present condition. The fabrication of a more delicate medium XAFS spectrometer is underway including transmission, fluorescence and electronic yield modes

  15. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Leach, Matt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-06-05

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings - 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, E.; Leach, M.; Pless, S.

    2013-06-01

    This Technical Support Document describes the process and methodology for the development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium to Big Box Retail Buildings: Achieving 50% Energy Savings Toward a Net Zero Energy Building (AEDG-MBBR) ASHRAE et al. (2011b). The AEDG-MBBR is intended to provide recommendations for achieving 50% whole-building energy savings in retail stores over levels achieved by following ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (Standard 90.1-2004) (ASHRAE 2004b). The AEDG-MBBR was developed in collaboration with the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American Institute of Architects (AIA), the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Spin asymmetries A[sub 1] of the proton and the deuteron in the low [ital x] and low Q[sup 2] region from polarized high energy muon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, G.; Bueltmann, S.; Kraemer, D.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Tripet, A. (University of Bielefeld, Physics Department, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany)); Arik, E.; Cuhadar, T.; Ozben, C.; Unel, G. (Bogazici University and Istanbul Technical University, 80676 Istanbul (Turkey)); Goertz, S.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. (University of Bochum, Physics Department, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)); Derro, B.; Dulya, C.; Igo, G.; Whitten, C. (University of California, Department of Physics, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States)); Hautle, P.; Heusch, C.A.; Kroeger, W.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Raedel, G.; Stiegler, U.; Voss, R. (CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)); Gilly, H.; Kessler, H.J.; Landgraf, U.; Witzmann, A. (University of Freiburg, Physics Department, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)); Stuhrmann, H.; Willumeit, R.; Zhao, J. (GKSS, D-21494 Geesthacht (Germany)); Berglund, P.; Kyynaeraeinen, J. (Helsinki University of Technology, Low Temperature Laboratory and Institute of Particle Physics Technology,

    1999-10-01

    We present the results of the spin asymmetries A[sub 1] of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic region extending down to x=6[times]10[sup [minus]5] and Q[sup 2]=0.01 hthinsp;GeV[sup 2]. The data were taken with a dedicated low [ital x] trigger, which required hadron detection in addition to the scattered muon, so as to reduce the background at low [ital x]. The results complement our previous measurements and the two sets are consistent in the overlap region. No significant spin effects are found in the newly explored region. thinsp [copyright] [ital 1999] [ital The American Physical Society

  18. Spin asymmetries A{sub 1} of the proton and the deuteron in the low {ital x} and low Q{sup 2} region from polarized high energy muon scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, G.; Bueltmann, S.; Kraemer, D.; Kyynaeraeinen, J.; Tripet, A. [University of Bielefeld, Physics Department, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Arik, E.; Cuhadar, T.; Ozben, C.; Unel, G. [Bogazici University and Istanbul Technical University, 80676 Istanbul (Turkey); Goertz, S.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [University of Bochum, Physics Department, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Derro, B.; Dulya, C.; Igo, G.; Whitten, C. [University of California, Department of Physics, Los Angeles, California 90024 (United States); Hautle, P.; Heusch, C.A.; Kroeger, W.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Raedel, G.; Stiegler, U.; Voss, R. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gilly, H.; Kessler, H.J.; Landgraf, U.; Witzmann, A. [University of Freiburg, Physics Department, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Stuhrmann, H.; Willumeit, R.; Zhao, J. [GKSS, D-21494 Geesthacht (Germany); Berglund, P.; Kyynaeraeinen, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Low Temperature Laboratory and Institute of Particle Physics Technology, 02150 Espoo (Finland); Fernandez, C.; Garzon, J.A.; Mayes, B.; Pinsky, L. [University of Houston, Department of Physics and Institute for Beam Particle Dynamics, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Karev, A.; Kisselev, Y.; Medved, K.; Peshekhonov, D.; Pose, D.; Savin, I.; Smirnov, G.I. [JINR, Dubna, RU-141980 Dubna (Russia); Bravar, A.; von Harrach, D.; Kabuss, E.M.; Mallot, G.K.; Pretz, J.; Steinmetz, A. [University of Mainz, Institute for Nuclear Physics, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Windmolders, R. [University of Mons, Faculty of Science, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Betev, L.; Haft, K.; Staude, A.; Vogt, J. [University of Munich, Physics Department, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, N.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuda, T.; Miyachi, Y.; Mori, K.; Ogawa, A. [Nagoya University, CIRSE and Department of Physics, Furo-Cho, Chikusa-Ku, 464 Nagoya (Japan); Cuhadar, T.; van Dantzig, R.; de Groot, N.; Ketel, T.J.; Litmaath, M.; van Middelkoop, G.; and others

    1999-10-01

    We present the results of the spin asymmetries A{sub 1} of the proton and the deuteron in the kinematic region extending down to x=6{times}10{sup {minus}5} and Q{sup 2}=0.01&hthinsp;GeV{sup 2}. The data were taken with a dedicated low {ital x} trigger, which required hadron detection in addition to the scattered muon, so as to reduce the background at low {ital x}. The results complement our previous measurements and the two sets are consistent in the overlap region. No significant spin effects are found in the newly explored region. thinsp {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Deuteron-induced reactions generated by intense lasers for PET isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Sachie; Bonasera, Aldo

    2011-05-01

    We investigate the feasibility of using laser accelerated protons/deuterons for positron emission tomography (PET) isotope production by means of the nuclear reactions 11B(p, n) 11C and 10B(d, n) 11C. The second reaction has a positive Q-value and no energy threshold. One can, therefore, make use of the lower energy part of the laser-generated deuterons, which includes the majority of the accelerated deuterons. By assuming that the deuteron spectra are similar to the proton spectra, the 11C produced from the reaction 10B(d, n) 11C is estimated to be 7.4×10 9 per laser-shot at the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Meanwhile a high-repetition table-top laser irradiation is estimated to generate 3.5×10 711C per shot from the same reaction. In terms of the 11C activity, it is about 2×10 4 Bq per shot. If this laser delivers kHz, the activity is integrated to 1 GBq after 3 min. The number is sufficient for the practical application in medical imaging for PET.

  20. A Precise Measurement of the Deuteron Elastic Structure Function A(Q2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honegger, Andrian [Univ. of Basel (Switzerland)

    1999-12-07

    During summer 1997 experiment 394-018 measured the deuteron tensor polarization in D(e,e'$vec\\{d}$) scattering in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. In a momentum transfer range between 0.66 and 1.8 (GeV=c)2, with slight changes in the experimental setup, the collaboration performed six precision measurements of the deuteron structure function A(Q2) in elastic D(e,e'd) scattering . Scattered electrons and recoil deuterons were detected in coincidence in the High Momentum Spectrometer and the recoil polarimeter POLDER, respectively. At every kinematics H(e,e') data were taken to study systematic effects of the measurement. These new precise measurements resolve discrepancies between older data sets and put significant constraints on existing models of the deuteron electromagnetic structure. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation, the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique and the Commissariat 'a l'Energie Atomique, the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation and the K.C. Wong Foundation.

  1. Search for effects of nuclear matter in quasi-elastic pion-deuteron backscattering on sup 6 Li

    CERN Document Server

    Abramov, B M; Bulychev, S A; Dukhovskoy, I A; Krutenkova, A P; Kulikov, V V; Matsyuk, M A; Radkevich, I A; Turdakina, E N; Khanov, A I

    2001-01-01

    The results of the experiment on studying the quasi-elastic pi sup - d backscattering in the complete kinematic on the sup 6 Li nuclei are presented. The work was accomplished on the ITEP three-meter magnetic spectrometer on the pion beams by the pulses 0.72, 0.88 and 1.28 GeV/s.The parameters of the quasi-deuteron cluster Fermi motion and the effective number of the quasi-deuterons in the sup 6 Li are determined for the sup 6 Li(pi sup - , pi sup - d) sup 4 He reaction. These values are in good agreement with the measurements on the proton and electron beams. The possibility of observing the modification effects of the deuteron wave function in the nuclear medium in this reation is discussed

  2. Some topics concerning N--N and N--D experiments at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The status of recent proton-proton phase shift analyses is reviewed at medium energy with mention of the state of the n-p I = 0 analyses. Some conclusions are reached, including a recommendation for renewed theoretical effort to calculate absorption parameters for N--N scattering above 300 MeV in higher partial waves (l greater than or equal to 3). Recent experimental data are examined for p-p small angle scattering at 630 MeV and also near 500 MeV. Further small angle experiments on p-p and p-d scattering are deemed desirable. A brief discussion of recent n-p charge exchange experiments is given. Finally, the status of medium to high energy (100 to 2000 MeV) p-d elastic scattering is reviewed with emphasis on back angle scattering and the usefulness of p-d polarization measurements. (1 table, 12 figures, 94 references) (U.S.)

  3. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betzler, Benjamin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martin, William R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-04

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  4. A Pair Production Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Depaola, Gerardo O.; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Hanu, A. R.; Iparraguirre, M. L.; Legere, Jason; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the science motivation and development of a pair production telescope for medium-energy gamma-ray polarimetry. Our instrument concept, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), takes advantage of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager, a low-density gaseous time projection chamber, to achieve angular resolution within a factor of two of the pair production kinematics limit (~0.6 deg at 70 MeV), continuum sensitivity comparable with the Fermi-LAT front detector (

  5. Medium-energy physics program. Progress report, February 1--April 1, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, E. (comp.)

    1976-09-01

    A quarterly report on the medium-energy physics program at LAMPF is given. Topics covered include: (1) engineering support; (2) accelerator support; (3) accelerator systems development; (4) injector systems; (5) electronic instrumentation and computer systems; (6) accelerator operations; (7) experimental areas; (8) beam line development; (9) large-spectrometer systems; (10) research; (11) nuclear chemistry; (12) practical applications of LAMPF; and (13) management. (PMA)

  6. Medium energy hadron-nucleus scattering in the 1/N expansion formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuyucak, S.; Morrison, I.

    1992-01-01

    The algebraic-eikonal approach to the medium energy hadron-nucleus scattering is generalized to arbitrary interactions and boson types using the 1/N expansion technique for the interacting boson model. The results are used in a comparative study of proton scattering from deformed nuclei in the sd and sdg boson models. The two models give almost identical results for a pure quadrupole interaction but widely differ when a hexadecapole interaction is included. 25 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  7. Positron beam production with a deuteron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, D B; Shefer, R E; Klinkowstein, R; Hughey, B J

    2002-01-01

    A graphite target was bombarded with 1.5 MeV deuterons, producing the isotope sup 1 sup 3 N, which is a positron emitter. Using the activated material a slow positron beam with an intensity of 0.7 (0.14)x10 sup 5 s sup - sup 1 was produced. A (saturated) sup 1 sup 3 N yield of 63 (11) MBq/mu A was observed, with 1.5 MeV deuterons, which is consistent with previous calculations and experiments. Our results show that, with the method we outline, positron beams with an average intensity of up to 1x10 sup 8 s sup - sup 1 may be produced.

  8. The spin structure of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1993-01-01

    The SMC collaboration has measured for the first time the spin-dependent structure function g 1 d of the deuteron in the deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized deuterons. The first moment is smaller than the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rules. It was found that the fraction of the nucleon spin carried by strange quarks Δs is appreciable and negative. Using earlier measurements of g 1 p , the first moment of the spin-dependent neutron structure function g 1 n is calculated. The combined analysis of all the available data on the spin-dependent structure functions of the nucleon shows an excellent agreement among the data sets. No significant deviations from the prediction of the Bjorken sum-rule has been found. (author) 52 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Electron-deuteron scattering in a relativistic theory of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.

    1998-11-01

    The author reviews a three-dimensional formalism that provides a systematic way to include relativistic effects including relativistic kinematics, the effects of negative-energy states, and the boosts of the two-body system in calculations of two-body bound-states. He then explains how to construct a conserved current within this relativistic three-dimensional approach. This general theoretical framework is specifically applied to electron-deuteron scattering both in impulse approximation and when the ρπγ meson-exchange current is included. The experimentally-measured quantities A, B, and T 20 are calculated over the kinematic range that is probed in Jefferson Lab experiments. The role of both negative-energy states and meson retardation appears to be small in the region of interest

  10. Dual sightline measurements of MeV range deuterons with neutron and gamma-ray spectroscopy at JET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, J.; Nocente, M.; Binda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations made in a JET experiment aimed at accelerating deuterons to the MeV range by third harmonic radio-frequency (RF) heating coupled into a deuterium beam are reported. Measurements are based on a set of advanced neutron and gamma-ray spectrometers that, for the first time, observe...... the plasma simultaneously along vertical and oblique lines of sight. Parameters of the fast ion energy distribution, such as the high energy cut-off of the deuteron distribution function and the RF coupling constant, are determined from data within a uniform analysis framework for neutron and gamma...... around the resonance, which is not correctly portrayed within the adopted one dimensional model. A framework to calculate neutron and gamma-ray emission from a spatially resolved, two-dimensional deuteron distribution specified by energy/pitch is thus developed and used for a first comparison...

  11. THEORY OF ELECTRON-DEUTERON SCATTERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durand, L. III

    1963-06-15

    Information on the electromagnetic form factors of the neutron is obtained from the theory of inelastic electrondeuteron scattering. Problems in the analysis of these experiments that are related to the detailed structure of the deuteron and to the strong final state interactions between the emergent nucleons are considered. Problems arising from an ambiguity in the sign of the Dirac or charge form factor are also discussed. (C.E.S.)

  12. Deuteron stripping reactions with Tabakin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-05-01

    Deuteron stripping reactions are considered. Due to the strong repulsion between nucleons at very short distances, we have investigated the nuclear short-range correlations. The neutron proton nuclear potential in the deuteron is taken as a short-range repulsive core surrounded by a long-range attractive potential. The neutron-proton potential is taken as the Tabakin separable potential to take into account the short-range correlations. The differential cross-sections for deuteron stripping reactions have been calculated in two different cases by taking Yamaguchi or Breit et al type parameters for the Tabakin potential used. The angular distributions for different (d,p) stripping reactions on the different target nuclei 28 Si, 32 , 34 S, 36 Ar, 40 , 48 Ca, 50 , 52 , 54 Cr have been calculated using the DWBA calculations. Our present theoretical calculations for the angular distributions of the different reactions cosidered have been fitted to the experimental data, where good agreement is obtained. The extracted spectroscopic factors from the present work are found to be more reliable

  13. Anomalous resonance-radiation energy-transfer rate in a scattering dispersive medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekhtman, V.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a generalization of the concept of group velocity as an energy-transfer rate in a dispersive medium with complex refractive index when the polaritons, which are energy carriers, undergo scattering, in contrast to the classical concept of the group velocity of free polaritons (i.e., without scattering in the medium). The concept of delay time from quantum multichannel-scattering, theory is used as the fundamental concept. Based on Maxwell's equations and the new mathematical Φ-function method, a consistent conceptual definition of group velocity in terms of the ratio of the coherent-energy flux density to the coherent-energy density is obtained for the first time, and a critical analysis of the earlier (Brillouin) understanding of energy-transfer rate is given in the light of radiation-trapping theory and the quantum theory of resonance scattering. The role of generalized group velocity is examined for the interpretation of the phenomenon of multiple resonance scattering, or radiation diffusion. The question of causality for the given problem is touched upon; a new relationship is obtained, called the microcausality condition, which limits the anomalous values of group velocity by way of the indeterminacy principle and the relativistic causality principle for macroscopic time intervals directly measurable in experiment, whereby attention is focused on the connection of the given microcausality condition and the well-known Wigner inequality for the time delay of spherical waves. 22 refs

  14. Experimental studies of fast deuterons, impurity- and admixture-ions emitted from a plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozer, A.; Sadowski, M.; Herold, H.; Schmidt, H.

    1982-01-01

    The energy and mass analysis of ions emitted from a 50-kJ, 18-kV, plasma focus machine was performed with a Thomson analyzer. Energy distribution functions of fast deuterons (E> or =350 keV) and those of impurity ions have been determined. The energy distributions of the O, N, and C impurity ions in different ionization states have similar character. They usually increase exponentially and after reaching the maximum at E/Zroughly-equal1.0 MeV they decrease exponentially to E/Zroughly-equal1.8 MeV. For deuterons at lower operating pressures (p 0 + -Ar 7+ ions of energy from 0.5 to 14 MeV are produced

  15. Examples from P2 and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischman, M.; Watters, J.C.; Cobourn, W.G.; Collins, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Using engineering student-faculty teams, the U.S. Department of energy sponsored industrial assessment center (IAC) at the university of louisville does free pollution prevention and energy assessments at small to medium size manufacturers (SIC 20-39) in kentucky and indiana. Each client plant must meet three of the following four criteria: Annual energy bills less than $1, 750, 000 and more than $50, 00. Gross annual sales of less than $75 million. Less than 500 employees. Lack a dedicated energy/waste engineer. Lack of in-house staff to perform these analyses. The program criteria and assessment procedures are briefly described and summaries of assessment at a sheet fed offset (lithographic) printing plant and 2 denim jeans pre washing plants are presented. 4 figs., 8 tabs

  16. RF System Requirements for a Medium-Energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JLab is studying options for a medium energy electron-ion collider that could fit on the JLab site and use CEBAF as a full-energy electron injector. A new ion source, linac and booster would be required, together with collider storage rings for the ions and electrons. In order to achieve the maximum luminosity these will be high-current storage rings with many bunches. We present the high-level RF system requirements for the storage rings, ion booster ring and high-energy ion beam cooling system, and describe the technology options under consideration to meet them. We also present options for staging that might reduce the initial capital cost while providing a smooth upgrade path to a higher final energy. The technologies under consideration may also be useful for other proposed storage ring colliders or ultimate light sources.

  17. Monte Carlo study of medium-energy electron penetration in aluminium and silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydın Asuman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monte Carlo simulations are very useful for many physical processes. The transport of particles was simulated by Monte Carlo calculating the basic parameters such as probabilities of transmitted–reflected and angular-energy distributions after interaction with matter. Monte Carlo simulations of electron scattering based on the single scattering model were presented in the medium-energy region for aluminium and silver matters. Two basic equations are required the elastic scattering cross section and the energy loss. The Rutherford equation for the different screening parameters is investigated. This scattering model is accurate in the energy range from a few keV up to about 0.50 MeV. The reliability of the simulation method is analysed by comparing experimental data from transmission measurements.

  18. Cyclotron production of {sup 64}Cu by deuteron irradiation of {sup 64}Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, K. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: kamel.abbas@jrc.it; Kozempel, J. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Bonardi, M. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Groppi, F. [LASA, Radiochemistry Laboratory, University and INFN, via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Alfarano, A. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Holzwarth, U. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Simonelli, F. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Hofman, H. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Horstmann, W. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy); Menapace, E. [ENEA, Applied Physics Division, Bologna (Italy); Leseticky, L. [Charles University Prague, Faculty of Science, Department of Organic and Nuclear Chemistry, 128 43 Prague (Czech Republic); Gibson, N. [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, TP 500, I-21020 Ispra (VA) (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    The short-lived (12.7 h half-life) {sup 64}Cu radioisotope is both a {beta} {sup +} and a {beta} {sup -} emitter. This property makes {sup 64}Cu a promising candidate for novel medical applications, since it can be used simultaneously for therapeutic application of radiolabelled biomolecules and for diagnosis with PET. Following previous work on {sup 64}Cu production by deuteron irradiation of natural zinc, we report here the production of this radioisotope by deuteron irradiation of enriched {sup 64}Zn. In addition, yields of other radioisotopes such as {sup 61}Cu, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 65}Zn, {sup 69m}Zn, {sup 66}Ga and {sup 67}Ga, which were co-produced in this process, were also measured. The evaporation code ALICE-91 and the transport code SRIM 2003 were used to determine the excitation functions and the stopping power, respectively. All the nuclear reactions yielding the above-mentioned radioisotopes were taken into account in the calculations both for the natural and enriched Zn targets. The experimental and calculated yields were shown to be in reasonable agreement. The work was carried out at the Scanditronix MC-40 Cyclotron of the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (Ispra site, Italy). The irradiations were carried out with 19.5 MeV deuterons, the maximum deuteron energy obtainable with the MC-40 cyclotron.

  19. Development of a Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunter, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Since the launch of AGILE and FERMI, the scientific progress in high-energy (Eg greater than approximately 200 MeV) gamma-ray science has been, and will continue to be dramatic. Both of these telescopes cover a broad energy range from approximately 20 MeV to greater than 10 GeV. However, neither instrument is optimized for observations below approximately 200 MeV where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. Hence, while significant progress from current observations is expected, there will nonetheless remain a significant sensitivity gap in the medium-energy (approximately 0.1-200 MeV) regime; the lower end of this range remains largely unexplored whereas the upper end will allow comparison with FERMI data. Tapping into this unexplored regime requires significant improvements in sensitivity. A major emphasis of modern detector development, with the goal of providing significant improvements in sensitivity in the medium-energy regime, focuses on high-resolution electron tracking. The Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) technology being developed at GSFC provides high resolution tracking of the electron-positron pair from gamma-ray interactions from 5 to 200 MeV. The 3-DTI consists of a time projection chamber (TPC) and 2-D cross-strip microwell detector (MWD). The low-density and homogeneous design of the 3-DTI, offers unprecedented sensitivity by providing angular resolution near the kinematic limit. Electron tracking also enables measurement of gamma-ray polarization, a new tool to study astrophysical phenomenon. We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 3-DTI detector prototype of a medium-energy gamma-ray telescope.

  20. Utilization of industrial dairy waste as microalgae cultivation medium : a potential study for sustainable energy resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmayani, S.; Sugiarti, Y.; Putra, R. H.

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae is one of biodiesel resources and call as third generation biofuel. Biodiesel is one alternative energy that being developed. So study about resource of biodiesel need a development, for the example is development the basic material such as microalgae. In this paper we explain the potential use of dairy waste from industry as a cultivation medium of microalgae for biodiesel production. Dairy waste from dairy industry contains 34.98% protein, 4.42% lactose, 9.77% fiber, 11.04% fat, 2.33% calcium, 1.05% phosfor, and 0.4 % magnesium, meaning that the dairy waste from dairy industry has a relatively high nutrient content and complete from a source of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as macro nutrients. The method in this paper is literature review to resulting a new conclusion about the potency of waste water from dairy industry as microalgae cultivation medium. Based on the study, the dairy waste from dairy industry has potency to be used as cultivation medium of Botryococcus braunii in the production of biodiesel, replacing the conventional cultivation medium.

  1. Angular distributions of the quasifree deuteron-proton and deuteron-neutron scattering in the reaction dd → dpn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.

    1978-06-01

    The mechanism of the quasifree scattering (QFS) in the reaction dd → dpn has been investigated systematically by means of kinematically complete coincidence experiments using 52 MeV deuterons. In order to measure the angular distributions of the quasifree dp scattering and the quasifree dn scattering, the kinematical conditions were chosen to favour quasifree scattering of deuterons on bound nucleons of the target deuteron. (orig.) [de

  2. Intercomparison of medium-energy neutron attenuation in iron and concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, H.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron attenuation of medium energy below 1 GeV has not been well understood until now. It is desired to obtain common agreements concerning the behaviours of neutrons inside various materials. This is necessary in order to agree on definitions of the attenuation length, which is very important for shielding calculations involving high energy accelerators. As one attempt, it was proposed by Japanese attendants of SATIF-2 to compare the attenuation of medium-energy neutrons inside iron and concrete shields between various computer codes and data, and was cited as a suitable action for SATIF. The first results from three groups were presented at SATIF-3. It has become clear that neutrons above 20 MeV are important for understanding the attenuation inside materials and that the geometry, planar or spherical, does not affect the results very much. Considering the CPU times required for Monte Carlo calculations and this result, revised problems to be calculated were prepared by the Japanese Working Group and sent to the participants of this action. The geometry is only plane, and calculations are required only for neutrons above 20 MeV. The secondary neutrons from high energy protons, which were calculated by H. Nakashima, are also included in the problem. The results from four groups were sent to the organizer at the end of August. This paper presents a comparison between groups concerning the attenuation length together with the neutron spectrum and the future themes which come from this intercomparison. (author)

  3. Forward amplitude in pion deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.

    1979-06-01

    The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt

  4. Deuteron beam interaction with lithium jet in a neutron source test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1996-01-01

    Testing and evaluating candidate fusion reactor materials in a high-flux, high-energy neutron environment are critical to the success and economic feasibility of a fusion device. The current understanding of materials behavior in fission-like environments and existing fusion facilities is insufficient to ensure the necessary performance of future fusion reactor components. An accelerator-based deuterium-lithium system to generate the required high neutron flux for material testing is considered to be the most promising approach in the near future. In this system, a high-energy (30-40 MeV) deuteron beam impinges on a high-speed (10-20 m/s) lithium jet to produce the high-energy (≥14 MeV) neutrons required to simulate a fusion environment via the Li (d,n) nuclear stripping reaction. Interaction of the high-energy deuteron beam and the subsequent response of the high-speed lithium jet are evaluated in detail. Deposition of the deuteron beam, jet-thermal hydraulic response, lithium-surface vaporization rate, and dynamic stability of the jet are modeled. It is found that lower beam kinetic energies produce higher surface temperature and consequently higher Li vaporization rates. Larger beam sizes significantly reduce both bulk and surface temperatures. Thermal expansion and dynamic velocities (normal to jet direction) due to beam energy deposition and momentum transfer are much lower than jet flow velocity and decrease substantially at lower beam current densities. (orig.)

  5. Medium-energy nuclear physics research. Final technical progress report, May 1, 1971-November 30, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willard, H.B.

    1981-01-01

    Final results are summarized for this program with the primary emphasis on measurement of ten independent parameters for proton-proton elastic scattering at 800 MeV and four independent such parameters at 650 MeV. Inelastic proton-proton reactions have also been measured at 800 MeV. Proton-deuteron elastic scattering cross sections and polarization analyzing powers have been obtained at 800 MeV. Proton-nucleus total and total reaction cross sections were measured at 700 MeV for a number of nuclei. Major instrumentation was designed and constructed to carry out this program

  6. Barriers to energy efficiency improvement. Empirical evidence from small-and-medium-sized enterprises in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Genia; Moslener, Ulf; Andreas, Jan G.

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes barriers for energy efficiency investments for small-and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China. Based on a survey of 480 SMEs in Zhejiang Province, this study assesses financial, informational, and organizational barriers for energy efficiency investments in the SME sector. The conventional view has been that the lack of appropriate financing mechanisms particularly hinders SMEs to adopt cost-effective energy efficiency measures. As such, closing the financing gap for SMEs is seen as a prerequisite in order to promote energy efficiency in the sector. The econometric estimates of this study, however, suggest that access to information is an important determinant of investment outcomes, while this is less clear with respect to financial and organizational factors. More than 40 percent of enterprises in the sample declared that that they are not aware of energy saving equipments or practices in their respective business area, indicating that there are high transaction costs for SMEs to gather, assess, and apply information about energy saving potentials and relevant technologies. One implication is that the Chinese government may assume an active role in fostering the dissemination of energy-efficiency related information in the SME sector. (orig.)

  7. Energy conserved and costs saved by small and medium-size manufacturers, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, F.W.

    1991-05-01

    Energy Analysis and Diagnostic Centers (EADCs) provided energy-conserving and cost saving assistance in 339 small and medium-size manufacturing plants nationwide during 1988-89. This report presents the results of what was recommended to those manufacturers, the record of what was implemented by them, and an analysis of the financial rewards gained by them. It also includes an accounting of the financial returns to the federal government, derived from taxes upon the cost savings, or incremental income, of the manufacturers who implement the EADCs` recommendations. EADCs collect implementation data within a year of the energy audit, and for these results that time period extended through 1990. The EADCs are located at accredited engineering departments of universities and staffed by faculty and students. At present there are 18 EADCs serving manufacturers in 37 states; of these, two were established as a result of the 1989 competition, and five more were chosen competitively in 1990. Most of the results in this report were generated by 11 EADCs (named in the Appendix); two others withdrew voluntarily after completing only 10 energy audits during 1988-89. Primary responsibility for selecting, training, evaluating, and managing the EADCs belongs to the Industrial Technology and Energy Management (ITEM) division of University City Science Center (UCSC). The Department of Energy`s Office of Industrial Technologies sponsors the EADC program through an agreement with UCSC.

  8. Analysis of Humid Air Turbine Cycle with Low- or Medium-Temperature Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongbin Zhao, H.; Yue, P.; Cao, L.

    2009-01-01

    A new humid air turbine cycle that uses low- or medium-temperature solar energy as assistant heat source was proposed for increasing the mass flow rate of humid air. Based on the combination of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, this paper described and compared the performances of the conventional and the solar HAT cycles. The effects of some parameters such as pressure ratio, turbine inlet temperature (TIT), and solar collector efficiency on humidity, specific work, cycle's exergy efficiency, and solar energy to electricity efficiency were discussed in detail. Compared with the conventional HAT cycle, because of the increased humid air mass flow rate in the new system, the humidity and the specific work of the new system were increased. Meanwhile, the solar energy to electricity efficiency was greatly improved. Additionally, the exergy losses of components in the system under the given conditions were also studied and analyzed.

  9. Progress in the development of global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical model potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Two existing global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus phenomenological optical model potentials are described and compared with experiment and with each other. The first of these employs a Dirac approach (second-order reduction) that is global in projectile energy and projectile isospin and applies to the target nucleus 208 Pb. The second of these employs a relativistic equivalent to the Schroedinger equation (including relativistic kinematics) that is global in projectile energy, projectile isospin, and target (Z,A). Finally, current work is described and the influence of the nuclear bound state problem (treated in relativistic mean field theory) on the Dirac scattering problem is mentioned. Spherical target nuclei are treated in the present work and strongly-collective target nuclei (rotational and vibrational) requiring coupled-channels approaches will be treated in a future paper. (author)

  10. MCNP6 Simulation of Light and Medium Nuclei Fragmentation at Intermediate Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mashnik, Stepan Georgievich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kerby, Leslie Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    2015-08-24

    Fragmentation reactions induced on light and medium nuclei by protons and light nuclei of energies around 1 GeV/nucleon and below are studied with the Los Alamos transport code MCNP6 and with its CEM03.03 and LAQGSM03.03 event generators. CEM and LAQGSM assume that intermediate-energy fragmentation reactions on light nuclei occur generally in two stages. The first stage is the intranuclear cascade (INC), followed by the second, Fermi breakup disintegration of light excited residual nuclei produced after the INC. CEM and LAQGSM account also for coalescence of light fragments (complex particles) up to sup>4He from energetic nucleons emitted during INC. We investigate the validity and performance of MCNP6, CEM, and LAQGSM in simulating fragmentation reactions at intermediate energies and discuss possible ways of further improving these codes.

  11. A single-beam deuteron compact accelerator for neutron generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Wagner Leite; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de

    2011-01-01

    Portable neutron generators are devices composed by small size accelerators that produce neutrons through fusion between hydrogen isotopes. These reactions are characterized by appreciable cross section at energies at the tens of keV, which enables device portability. The project baselines follow the same physical and engineering principles of any other particle accelerators. The generator consists of a gas reservoir, apparatus for ion production, few electrodes to accelerate and focus the ion beam, and a metal hydride target where fusion reactions occur. Neutron generator applications include geophysical measurements, indus- trial process control, environmental, research, nation's security and mechanical structure analysis.This article presents a design of a compact accelerator for d-d neutron generators, describing the physical theory applied to the deuteron extraction system, and simulating the ion beam transport in the accelerator. (author)

  12. Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Polarization in Elastic Electron Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Kenneth K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear physics traces it roots back to the very beginning of the last century. The concept of the nuclear atom was introduced by Rutherford around 1910. The discovery of the neutron Chadwick in 1932 gave us the concept of two nucleons: the proton and the neutron. The Jlab electron accelerator with its intermediate energy high current continuous wave beam combined with the Hall C high resolution electron spectrometer and a deutron recoil polarimeter provided experiment E94018 with the opportunity to study the deuteron electomagnetic structure, in particular to measure the tensor polarization observable t20, at high four momentum transfers than ever before. This dissertation presents results of JLab experiment E94018.

  13. Development strategy of green energy industry for Taipei—A modern medium-sized city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Shyi-Min; Huang, May-Yao; Su, Pu-Ti; Tseng, Kuo-Tung; Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    Taipei, a subtropical modern medium city, is essentially featured with high population density, scarce land, and large traffic flow. Moreover, there are abundant green energy resources reserved in Taipei. If they were fully developed, there would be 13,040 GWh electricity generated per year, resulting in a total of 9.37 million tons of carbon dioxide emissions abatement. The development of the green energy industry in this city not only can bring significant energy-saving and carbon-reducing benefits, but also may create huge derivative business opportunities. For example, the total output values of the solar PV and electric vehicles industries would be as high as 700 billion yuan. In this study, through Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis, we concluded that the top priorities for Taipei for the development of green energy industries are building energy conservation and electrified transportation, specifically, the following four items: electric vehicles, Light-Emitting Diode (LED) lighting, inverter air conditioning, and Energy Service Company (ESCO). Meanwhile, Taipei is a domestic and international key of politics, transportation, technology, commerce, and finance. Taipei is very likely to become an internationalized green energy industrial hub, achieving the “3E” goals of economic prosperousness, environmental protection, and energy security. -- Highlights: •Building energy conservation and electrified transportation are top priorities. •SWOT analysis applied to systematically conclude four green energy industrial items for Taipei. •Specifically, electric vehicles, LED lighting, inverter air conditioning, and ESCO. •13,040 GWh electricity would be generated per year from Taipei's rich renewables. •The derivative business opportunities would exceed 700 billion yuan

  14. Computer simulation program for medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomoaki

    2016-03-01

    A computer simulation program for ion scattering and its graphical user interface (MEISwin) has been developed. Using this program, researchers have analyzed medium-energy ion scattering and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry at Ritsumeikan University since 1998, and at Rutgers University since 2007. The main features of the program are as follows: (1) stopping power can be chosen from five datasets spanning several decades (from 1977 to 2011), (2) straggling can be chosen from two datasets, (3) spectral shape can be selected as Gaussian or exponentially modified Gaussian, (4) scattering cross sections can be selected as Coulomb or screened, (5) simulations adopt the resonant elastic scattering cross section of 16O(4He, 4He)16O, (6) pileup simulation for RBS spectra is supported, (7) natural and specific isotope abundances are supported, and (8) the charge fraction can be chosen from three patterns (fixed, energy-dependent, and ion fraction with charge-exchange parameters for medium-energy ion scattering). This study demonstrates and discusses the simulations and their results.

  15. Probing in-medium spin–orbit interaction with intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An

    2013-01-01

    Incorporating for the first time both the spin and isospin degrees of freedom explicitly in transport model simulations of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions, we observe that a local spin polarization appears during collision process. Most interestingly, it is found that the nucleon spin up–down differential transverse flow is a sensitive probe of the spin–orbit interaction, providing a novel approach to probe both the density and isospin dependence of the in-medium spin–orbit coupling that is important for understanding the structure of rare isotopes and synthesis of superheavy elements

  16. A wide-range magnetic spectrometer for electron scattering in medium energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Zhenlin

    1988-01-01

    A non-focusing magnetic spectrometer design for electron scattering in medium energy region is proposed. The positions read out from the position-sensitive detectors in the spectrometer are used for track reconstruction and momentum measurement by means of a computer program. The construction of this spectrometer is simple and there is no special technique and element for correction to aberration. It is suitable for usage of spectrometer with large solid angle and wide momentum range. The momentum resolution, momentum range and acceptance in a practical case are calculated by Monte Carlo simulation

  17. Optimal removal of scattered particles at medium energy storage rings with internal target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steger, U.; Koch, H.R.; Schult, O.W.B.

    1991-01-01

    We have studied at which places projectiles that have been scattered by an internal target out of the acceptance of a medium energy storage ring, can be dumped locally so that the effort for shielding can be minimized. General arguments are given where slits should be installed and their effect on the useful ring acceptance is discussed. In addition we have carried out Monte Carlo simulations for the dispersion-free mode of operation of COSY, which show that ≅ 86% of the lost beam can be removed locally with the use of only two sets of slits. (orig.)

  18. Energy use and carbon dioxide emission of Indonesian small and medium scale industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priambodo, A.; Kumar, S. [Asian Inst. of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program

    2001-07-01

    In Asia, small and medium scale industries (SMIs) form a significant number of establishments contributing to economic growth, stimulating indigenous entrepreneurship, leading to overall development and serving as a training center for developing skills of industrial workers and entrepreneurs. Because of the nature of these enterprises with their inefficient use of energy and other resources, they contribute to local pollution and other environmental problems. Studies on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from these industries are few, especially in developing countries. This article presents an estimation of CO{sub 2} emission due to energy (fuel and electricity) consumption in seven SMI sectors in Indonesia. The specific energy consumption and the energy intensity (energy use per value addition) of these sectors have been estimated. Results of the energy use survey and detailed energy audits show that the highest specific fuel consumption is found in the textile industry, followed by the fabricated metal and chemical industries, while the highest specific electricity consumption is found in the fabricated metal industry, followed by the textile and chemical industries. The highest energy intensity among small industry sectors is found in the food and beverages sector. CO{sub 2} emission from the SMI sectors of Indonesia was estimated based on Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change methodology by considering the emission from each audited factory and from the aggregated energy consumption data of the SMI sectors. The textile and fabricated metal industry contribute the highest specific CO{sub 2} emission. The analysis shows that the contribution of liquid fuels to CO{sub 2} emission is very significant in the SMI sector. The overall contribution by the small industrial sector is about 366,000 tons in 1993 compared to about 46 million tons generated by all industrial sectors. (Author)

  19. Anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Gari, M.; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie

    1981-01-01

    The anti-neutrino disintegration of the deuteron (anti ν + D → anti ν + n + p and anti νsub(e) + D → + e + + n + n) is calculated using realistic two-body states. Meson-exchange currents are considered in the one-boson-exchange limit. The results are discussed as corrections to the cross sections obtained in effective range approximations. It is shown that the ratio of the cross sections (sigma - /sigma 0 ) for reactor antineutrinos is practically independent of the nuclear physics uncertainties. (orig.)

  20. Science Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Polarized Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider at Jlab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeyratne, S; Ahmed, S; Barber, D; Bisognano, J; Bogacz, A; Castilla, A; Chevtsov, P; Corneliussen, S; Deconinck, W; Degtiarenko, P; Delayen, J; Derbenev, Ya; DeSilva, S; Douglas, D; Dudnikov, V; Ent, R; Erdelyi, B; Evtushenko, P; Fujii, Yu; Filatov, Yury; Gaskell, D; Geng, R; Guzey, V; Horn, T; Hutton, A; Hyde, C; Johnson, R; Kim, Y; Klein, F; Kondratenko, A; Kondratenko, M; Krafft, G; Li, R; Lin, F; Manikonda, S; Marhauser, F; McKeown, R; Morozov, V; Dadel-Turonski, P; Nissen, E; Ostroumov, P; Pivi, M; Pilat, F; Poelker, M; Prokudin, A; Rimmer, R; Satogata, T; Sayed, H; Spata, M; Sullivan, M; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Tiefenback, M; Wang, M; Wang, S; Weiss, C; Yunn, B

    2012-08-01

    Researchers have envisioned an electron-ion collider with ion species up to heavy ions, high polarization of electrons and light ions, and a well-matched center-of-mass energy range as an ideal gluon microscope to explore new frontiers of nuclear science. In its most recent Long Range Plan, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) of the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation endorsed such a collider in the form of a 'half-recommendation.' As a response to this science need, Jefferson Lab and its user community have been engaged in feasibility studies of a medium energy polarized electron-ion collider (MEIC), cost-effectively utilizing Jefferson Lab's already existing Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). In close collaboration, this community of nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists has rigorously explored the science case and design concept for this envisioned grand instrument of science. An electron-ion collider embodies the vision of reaching the next frontier in Quantum Chromodynamics - understanding the behavior of hadrons as complex bound states of quarks and gluons. Whereas the 12 GeV Upgrade of CEBAF will map the valence-quark components of the nucleon and nuclear wave functions in detail, an electron-ion collider will determine the largely unknown role sea quarks play and for the first time study the glue that binds all atomic nuclei. The MEIC will allow nuclear scientists to map the spin and spatial structure of quarks and gluons in nucleons, to discover the collective effects of gluons in nuclei, and to understand the emergence of hadrons from quarks and gluons. The proposed electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab will collide a highly polarized electron beam originating from the CEBAF recirculating superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) linear accelerator (linac) with highly polarized light-ion beams or unpolarized light- to heavy-ion beams from a new ion accelerator and storage complex. Since the very

  1. Study of Coherent {pi}{sup 0}-Photoproduction on the Deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Zohry Aly, Mohamed Ahmed; Akopov, N. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Br. Alikhanian 2, 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Darwish, E. [Taibah University (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    In the present paper, we consider the coherent neutral-pion photoproduction reaction on the deuteron in the energy region from pion-threshold up to 1 GeV using an enhanced elementary pion photoproduction operator on the free nucleon and a realistic high-precision nucleon-nucleon potential model for the deuteron wave function. Numerical results for total and differential cross sections are presented for which the sensitivity to various models for the elementary pion photoproduction amplitude is investigated. Considerable dependence of the results on the elementary amplitude is found at photon lab-energies close to threshold and above 600 MeV. In addition, the results of differential and total cross sections are compared with the available experimental data and a good agreement was found. (authors)

  2. Study of depolarization of deuteron and proton beams in the Nuclotron ring

    CERN Document Server

    Golubeva, N Y; Kondratenko, A M; Kondratenko, A M; Mikhajlov, V A; Strokovsky, E A

    2002-01-01

    The scheme for acceleration of polarized deuterons at the Nuclotron accelerator facility includes a cryogenic polarized deuteron source 'Polaris', a 5 MeV/nucl. linac, a superconducting heavy ion synchrotron of a 6 GeV/nucl. energy with 10 s spill slow extraction, thin internal targets and wide net of external beam lines. This scheme also allows one to generate high energy polarized proton and neutron beams with well determined characteristics. There are two principal problems of polarized particle acceleration: to keep spin orientation during beam acceleration and to produce the high ion intensity sufficient for data taking in physics experiments. The first problem is discussed in this paper. The reasons of depolarization effects in the mentioned parts of the Nuclotron have been analysed and four methods of the polarization conserving have been suggested. They are the spin resonance strength compensation increasing of the resonance strength, the betatron tune jump and the spin tune jump. Among their number, ...

  3. Differential cross-section measurements for deuteron elastic scattering on natN, suitable for EBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkoris, M.; Aslanoglou, X.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Misaelides, P.; Ntemou, E.; Patronis, N.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Tsintari, P.

    2017-11-01

    The elastic scattering of deuterons on natN has been studied in the present work in the energy range of Ed,lab = 1000-2200 keV, in steps of 10 keV, at six backscattering detection angles (120°, 130°, 140°, 150°, 160° and 170°), suitable for analytical purposes. The measurements were performed using the 5.5 MV TN11 HV Tandem Accelerator of N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Athens, Greece and a high-precision goniometer. The target used for the measurements was a self-supported Si3N4 thin foil, with an ultra-thin Au layer evaporated on top for normalization purposes. The obtained differential cross-section datasets are compared to already existing ones in literature and the observed similarities and discrepancies are discussed and analyzed, along with the effect of the various nuclear reaction mechanisms in low-energy deuteron elastic scattering.

  4. CsI electromagnetic calorimeter development for a low or medium energy e+e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    Design considerations for an electromagnetic Csl calorimeter suitable for use at low and medium energy, high-luminosity e + e - storage rings are presented, together with results of a test of an array of Csl(Tl) crystals in an e - /π - beam (120 to 400 MeV) at TRIUMF. The crystal array used in the test was designed to explore longitudinal and transverse crystal segmentation, and a redundant wavelength-shifter and photodiode readout system. Energy resolution of (1.69 ± 0.08)%/√E and (1.83 ± 0.05)%/√E was obtained for two different crystal tower configurations. Position resolution of 6.5 (9.0) mm was obtained at 300 (120)MeV for four 4x4 cm 2 , 4 rl. Csl crystals

  5. MINOS+: a Proposal to FNAL to run MINOS with the medium energy NuMI beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzanankos, G.; /Athens U.; Bishai, M.; Diwan, M.; /Brookhaven; Escobar, C.O.; Gomes, R.A.; Gouffon, P.; /Campinas State U. /Goias U. /Sao Paulo U.; Blake, A.; Thomson, M.; /Cambridge U.; Patterson, R.B.; /Caltech; Adamson, P.; Childress, S.; /Fermilab /IIT, Chicago /Los Alamos /Minnesota U. /Minnesota U., Duluth /Bhubaneswar, NISER /Iowa State U.

    2011-05-01

    This is a proposal to continue to expose the two MINOS detectors to the NuMI muon neutrino beam for three years starting in 2013. The medium energy setting of the NuMI beam projected for NO{nu}A will deliver about 18 x 10{sup 20} protons-on-target during the first three years of operation. This will allow the MINOS Far Detector to collect more than 10,000 charged current muon neutrino events in the 4-10 GeV energy range and provide a stringent test for non-standard neutrino interactions, sterile neutrinos, extra dimensions, neutrino time-of-flight, and perhaps more. In addition there will be more than 3,000 neutral current events which will be particularly useful in extending the sterile neutrino search range.

  6. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok [Rare Isotope Science Project, Institute for Basic Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  7. ρ-meson self-energy and dielectron emissivity in an isospin-asymmetric pion medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, A.I.; Gulamov, T.I.; Kaempfer, B.

    1996-01-01

    The ρ-meson self-energy in an isospin-asymmetric pion gas at finite temperature and charged-pion chemical potential is evaluated. We utilize a conventional effective π-ρ Lagrangian and the functional integral representation of the partition function in the second order in the ρππ coupling constant. We analyze the ρ-meson polarization operator and its dependence on the invariant mass M and spatial momentum parallel p parallel of the ρ meson. The pole positions and the values of the imaginary parts of the self-energy for different polarization states have different functional dependences on M and parallel p parallel. The corresponding dielectron rate (calculated from the imaginary part of the in-medium ρ-meson propagator) shows a distinctive asymmetry when the momentum t=p + -p - is perpendicular or parallel to p, where p ± are the e ± momenta of the electron pair. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Near-field thermal upconversion and energy transfer through a Kerr medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandekar, Chinmay; Rodriguez, Alejandro W

    2017-09-18

    We present an approach for achieving large Kerr χ (3) -mediated thermal energy transfer at the nanoscale that exploits a general coupled-mode description of triply resonant, four-wave mixing processes. We analyze the efficiency of thermal upconversion and energy transfer from mid- to near-infrared wavelengths in planar geometries involving two slabs supporting far-apart surface plasmon polaritons and separated by a nonlinear χ (3) medium that is irradiated by externally incident light. We study multiple geometric and material configurations and different classes of intervening mediums-either bulk or nanostructured lattices of nanoparticles embedded in nonlinear materials-designed to resonantly enhance the interaction of the incident light with thermal slab resonances. We find that even when the entire system is in thermodynamic equilibrium (at room temperature) and under typical drive intensities ~ W/μm 2 , the resulting upconversion rates can approach and even exceed thermal flux rates achieved in typical symmetric and non-equilibrium configurations of vacuum-separated slabs. The proposed nonlinear scheme could potentially be exploited to achieve thermal cooling and refrigeration at the nanoscale, and to actively control heat transfer between materials with dramatically different resonant responses.

  9. National absorbed dose to water references for radiotherapy medium energy X-rays by water calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perichon, N.

    2012-01-01

    LNE-LNHB current references for medium energy X-rays are established in terms of air kerma. Absorbed dose to water, which is the quantity of interest for radiotherapy, is obtained by transfer dosimetric techniques following a methodology described in international protocols. The aim of the thesis is to establish standards in terms of absorbed dose to water in the reference protocol conditions by water calorimetry. The basic principle of water calorimetry is to measure the absorbed dose from the rise in temperature of water under irradiation. A calorimeter was developed to perform measurements at a 2 cm depth in water according to IAEA TRS-398 protocol for medium energy x-rays. Absorbed dose rates to water measured by calorimetry were compared to the values established using protocols based on references in terms of air kerma. A difference lower than 2.1% was reported. Standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being 0.8%, the one associated to the values from protocols being around 3.0%, results are consistent considering the uncertainties. Thanks to these new standards, it will be possible to use IAEA TRS-398 protocol to determine absorbed dose to water: a significant reduction of uncertainties is obtained (divided by 3 by comparison with the application of the IAEA TRS-277 protocol). Currently, none of the counterparts' laboratories own such an instrument allowing direct determination of standards in the reference conditions recommended by the international radiotherapy protocols. (author) [fr

  10. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Progress report, January 1, 1992--March 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1994-08-01

    This renewal proposal requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past three years we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons at CEBAF. We are part of the Hall-B Collaboration at CEBAF. We are co-spokespersons on two approved CEBAF experiments, Photoreactions on {sup 3}He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei, and we are preparing another, Nondiffractive Photoproduction of the {rho} Meson with Linearly Polarized Photons, for presentation to the next CEBAF PAC. We are part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger and a high-energy tagged polarized-photon beam for Hall B; some of the instrumentation for these projects is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Our recent measurements of pion scattering from {sup 3}H and {sup 3}He at LAMPF and of cluster knockout from few-body nuclei at NIKHEF have yielded very provocative results, showing the importance of the very light nuclei as a laboratory for quantifying important aspects of the nuclear many-body force. We look forward to expanding our studies of short-range forces in nuclei, particularly the very fight nuclei using electromagnetic probes and employing the extraordinary power of CEBAF and the CLAS.

  11. P-986 Letter of Intent: Medium-Energy Antiproton Physics at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asner, David M. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Phillips, Thomas J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Apollinari, Giorgio [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Broemmelsiek, Daniel R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Brown, Charles N. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Christian, David C. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Derwent, Paul [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gollwitzer, Keith [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Hahn, Alan [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Papadimitriou, Vaia [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Stefanski, Ray [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Werkema, Steven [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); White, Herman B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Baldini, Wander [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ferrara (Italy); Stancari, Giulio [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ferrara (Italy); Stancari, Michelle [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Ferrara (Italy); Jackson, Gerald P. [Hbar Technologies, Chicago, IL (United States); Kaplan, Daniel M. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Torun, Yagmur [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); White, Christopher G. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Park, HyangKyu [HyungPook National Univ., DaeGu (Korea, Republic of); Pedlar, Todd K. [Luther College, Decorah, IA (United States); Gustafson, H. Richard [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Rosen, Jerome [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Wayne, Mitchell [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States); Chakravorty, Alak [St. Xavier Univ., Chicago, IL (United States); Dukes, E. Craig [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2009-02-05

    Fermilab has long had the world's most intense antiproton source. Despite this, the opportunities for medium-energy antiproton physics at Fermilab have been limited in the past and - with the antiproton source now exclusively dedicated to serving the needs of the Tevatron Collider - are currently nonexistent. The anticipated shutdown of the Tevatron in 2010 presents the opportunity for a world-leading medium-energy antiproton program. We summarize the current status of the Fermilab antiproton facility and review some physics topics for which the experiment we propose could make the world's best measurements. Among these, the ones with the clearest potential for high impact and visibility are in the area of charm mixing and CP violation. Continued running of the Antiproton Source following the shutdown of the Tevatron is thus one of the simplest ways that Fermilab can restore a degree of breadth to its future research program. The impact on the rest of the program will be minor. We request a small amount of effort over the coming months in order to assess these issues in more detail.

  12. A program in medium-energy nuclear physics. Renewal proposal and progress report August 1, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1994-01-01

    This renewal proposal requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past three years we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons at CEBAF. We are part of the Hall-B Collaboration at CEBAF. We are co-spokespersons on two approved CEBAF experiments, Photoreactions on 3 He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei, and we are preparing another, Nondiffractive Photoproduction of the ρ Meson with Linearly Polarized Photons, for presentation to the next CEBAF PAC. We are part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger and a high-energy tagged polarized-photon beam for Hall B; some of the instrumentation for these projects is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Our recent measurements of pion scattering from 3 H and 3 He at LAMPF and of cluster knockout from few-body nuclei at NIKHEF have yielded very provocative results, showing the importance of the very light nuclei as a laboratory for quantifying important aspects of the nuclear many-body force. We look forward to expanding our studies of short-range forces in nuclei, particularly the very fight nuclei using electromagnetic probes and employing the extraordinary power of CEBAF and the CLAS

  13. Electric dipole moment of the deuteron in the standard model with NN - ΛN - ΣN coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka

    2017-07-01

    We calculate the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron in the standard model with | ΔS | = 1 interactions by taking into account the NN - ΛN - ΣN channel coupling, which is an important nuclear level systematics. The two-body problem is solved with the Gaussian Expansion Method using the realistic Argonne v18 nuclear force and the YN potential which can reproduce the binding energies of Λ3H, Λ3He, and Λ4He. The | ΔS | = 1 interbaryon potential is modeled by the one-meson exchange process. It is found that the deuteron EDM is modified by less than 10%, and the main contribution to this deviation is due to the polarization of the hyperon-nucleon channels. The effect of the YN interaction is small, and treating ΛN and ΣN channels as free is a good approximation for the EDM of the deuteron.

  14. Selectivity of the nucleon-induced deuteron breakup and relativistic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Witała, H.; Golak, J.; Skibiński, R.

    2006-01-01

    Theoretical predictions for the nucleon induced deuteron breakup process based on solutions of the three-nucleon Faddeev equation including such relativistic features as the relativistic kinematics and boost effects are presented. Large changes of the breakup cross section in some complete configurations are found at higher energies. The predicted relativistic effects, which are mostly of dynamical origin, seem to be supported by existing data.

  15. The spin structure of the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frois, B. [DAPNIA/SPHN, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1994-12-01

    The Spin Muon Collaboration (SMC) has measured for the first time the spin-dependent structure function g{sub 1}{sup d} of the deuteron in the deep inelastic scattering of polarized muons on polarized deuterons in the kinematic range Q{sup 2} > 1 GeV{sup 2}, 0.006 < x < 0.6. The first moment {Gamma}{sub 1}{sup d} = {integral}{sub 0}{sup 1}g{sub 1}{sup d}dx = 0.023 {+-} 0.020(stat.) {+-} 0.015(syst.) is smaller than the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rules. The author finds that the fraction of the nucleon spin carried by strange quarks {Delta}s is appreciable and negative. Using earlier measurements of g{sub 1}{sup p}, the group can infer the first moment of the spin-dependent neutron structure function g{sub 1}{sup n}. The combined analysis of all the available data on the spin-dependent structure functions of the nucleon shows an excellent agreement among the data sets. The author does not find significant deviations from the prediction of the Bjorken sum rule.

  16. Production of deuterons in 16Op - collisions at 3.25 A GeV/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazarov, E.; Gulamov, K.G.; Kratenko, M.Yu.; Lutpullaev, S.L.; Olimov, K.; Yuldashev, A.A.; Glagolev, V.V.; Khamidov, Kh.Sh.; Fazylov, M.I.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Sharipova, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the central problems of high energy physics is relativistic nuclei fragmentation mechanisms research in their interactions with nucleons and nuclei. The most effective way to solve this question is, on our opinion, to study light fragments production processes ( 1 H 1 , 2 H 1 , 3 H 1 , 3 He 2 and 4 He 2 ). There is a lack of data on deuterons production in hadron-nucleus collisions, and their major part was obtained by means of electronic methods in a narrow solid angle, and therefore deuterons production momentum interval is not fully covered. This, in turn, significantly narrows a range of useful information on the deuterons production dynamics. In connection to the above mentioned it is of great interest to obtain new experimental data on neutron yield in 16 Op-collisions at high energies (at 4 π-geometry) covering almost whole deuterons production momentum region. The experimental data is compared to the cascade-fragmentation evaporation model (CFEM) [1]. In frames of CFEM for interaction of light nuclei with nucleons the main mechanism fragments (excluding nucleons) production is break-up of excited thermalized remnant nucleus after completion of intranuclear cascade. For light nuclei such as 16 O the evaporative mechanism of fragments (including nucleons) production is neglected. Thus, for 16Op-collisions in frames of CFEM the main mechanism of multinucleon fragments production is Fermi break-up. Discussed below data was obtained from 1-meter HEL JINR hydrogen bubble chamber irradiated by oxygen-16 nuclei beam at momentum of 3.25 A GeV/C. Statistics analyzed In This Work consists of 11098 measured 16 Op-events. Topics related to the processing of stereo images from 1-meter bubble chamber as well as with secondary particles and fragments identification procedures are presented in [2-4]. For the first time, in 4π-geometry, deuterons production in 16 Op-collisions at 3.25 A GeV/C was studied. These studies resulted in the following: in

  17. Progress on the design of the polarized Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider at JLAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, F.; Bogacz, A.; Brindza, P.; Camsonne, A.; Daly, E.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Douglas, D.; Ent, R.; Gaskell, D.; Geng, R.; Grames, J.; Guo, J.; Harwood, L.; Hutton, A.; Jordan, K.; Kimber, A.; Krafft, G.; Li, R.; Michalski, T.; Morozov, V. S.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; /Jefferson Lab /Argonne /DESY /Moscow , Inst. Phys. Tech., Dolgoprydny /Dubna, JINR /Northern Illinois U. /Old Doominion U. /Novosibirsk, GOO Zaryad /SLAC /Texas A-M

    2015-07-14

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC) at JLab is designed to provide high luminosity and high polarization needed to reach new frontiers in the exploration of nuclear structure. The luminosity, exceeding 1033 cm-2s-1 in a broad range of the center-of-mass (CM) energy and maximum luminosity above 1034 cm-2s-1, is achieved by high-rate collisions of short small-emittance low-charge bunches made possible by high-energy electron cooling of the ion beam and synchrotron radiation damping of the electron beam. The polarization of light ion species (p, d, 3He) can be easily preserved and manipulated due to the unique figure-8 shape of the collider rings. A fully consistent set of parameters have been developed considering the balance of machine performance, required technical development and cost. This paper reports recent progress on the MEIC accelerator design including electron and ion complexes, integrated interaction region design, figure-8-ring-based electron and ion polarization schemes, RF/SRF systems and ERL-based high-energy electron cooling. Luminosity performance is also presented for the MEIC baseline design.

  18. Dose distribution considerations of medium energy electron beams at extended source-to-surface distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saw, Cheng B.; Ayyangar, Komanduri M.; Pawlicki, Todd; Korb, Leroy J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of extended source-to-surface distance (SSD) on dose distributions for a range of medium energy electron beams and cone sizes. Methods and Materials: The depth-dose curves and isodose distributions of 6 MeV, 10 MeV, and 14 MeV electron beams from a dual photon and multielectron energies linear accelerator were studied. To examine the influence of cone size, the smallest and the largest cone sizes available were used. Measurements were carried out in a water phantom with the water surface set at three different SSDs from 101 to 116 cm. Results: In the region between the phantom surface and the depth of maximum dose, the depth-dose decreases as the SSD increases for all electron beam energies. The effects of extended SSD in the region beyond the depth of maximum dose are unobservable and, hence, considered minimal. Extended SSD effects are apparent for higher electron beam energy with small cone size causing the depth of maximum dose and the rapid dose fall-off region to shift deeper into the phantom. However, the change in the depth-dose curve is small. On the other hand, the rapid dose fall-off region is essentially unaltered when the large cone is used. The penumbra enlarges and electron beam flatness deteriorates with increasing SSD

  19. Technical and economic analysis of integrating low-medium temperature solar energy into power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fu; Li, Hailong; Zhao, Jun; Deng, Shuai; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of solar thermal energy. • Economic analysis was conducted on new built plants and retrofitted power plants. • Using solar thermal energy to preheat high pressure feedwater shows the best performance. - Abstract: In order to mitigate CO 2 emission and improve the efficiency of the utilization of solar thermal energy (STE), solar thermal energy is proposed to be integrated into a power plant. In this paper, seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of STE. A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the reference, chemical absorption using monoethanolamine solvent was employed for CO 2 ​capture, and parabolic trough collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used for STE collection. Both technical analysis and economic evaluation were conducted. Results show that integrating solar energy with post-combustion CO 2 ​ capture can effectively increase power generation and reduce the electrical efficiency penalty caused by CO 2 capture. Among the different configurations, Config-2 and Config-6, which use medium temperature STE to replace high pressure feedwater without and with CO 2 capture, show the highest net incremental solar efficiency. When building new plants, integrating solar energy can effectively reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The lowest LCOE, 99.28 USD/MWh, results from Config-6, with a parabolic trough collector price of 185 USD/m 2 . When retrofitting existing power plants, Config-6 also shows the highest net present value (NPV), while Config-2 has the shortest payback time at a carbon tax of 50 USD/ton CO 2 . In addition, both LCOE and NPV/payback time are clearly affected by the relative solar load fraction, the price of solar thermal collectors and the carbon tax. Comparatively, the carbon tax can affect the configurations with CO 2 capture more clearly than those without CO 2 capture.

  20. Energetic Communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Valeska Sager-Klauss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Cities and communities are central players in the energy transition process. Energy demand is determined by the built environment. Renewable energy production needs space. The conflicts between different interest groups often break out in the context of local implementation measures that affect urban planning and the appearance of landscapes. Small- and medium-sized communities might prove to be game-changers in the overall energy transition because many problems have to be solved within their ambit. Urban planning is dealing with the numerous processes of urban change. Energy is a fairly new task to be addressed and many stakeholders lack experience and criteria for strategic decision making. After a period of fierce determination to turn the wheel against climate change, it seems that there is a growing resignation among politicians, planners and the public because some things have not turned out the way we’d expected and the hope for quick solutions fades. Rebound-effects seem to eat up the savings to a good extent, and alternative ideas of how sustainable energy systems may be put into place have not yet been persuasive in many cases. Energy systems have proved to be complex. They are still perceived to be important but in practice there is a growing uneasiness about the right steps to take. The overarching research question of this thesis is: What do decision makers in smalland medium-sized communities need to become more successful in implementing

  1. Thermal Impact of Medium Deep Borehole Thermal Energy Storage on the Shallow Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Bastian; Schulte, Daniel O.; Rühaak, Wolfram; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Borehole heat exchanger arrays are a well-suited and already widely applied method for exploiting the shallow subsurface as seasonal heat storage. However, in most of the populated regions the shallow subsurface also comprises an important aquifer system used for drinking water production. Thus, the operation of shallow geothermal heat storage systems leads to a significant increase in groundwater temperatures in the proximity of the borehole heat exchanger array. The magnitude of the impact on groundwater quality and microbiology associated with this temperature rise is controversially discussed. Nevertheless, the protection of shallow groundwater resources has priority. Accordingly, water authorities often follow restrictive permission policies for building such storage systems. An alternative approach to avoid this issue is the application of medium deep borehole heat exchanger arrays instead of shallow ones. The thermal impact on shallow aquifers can be significantly reduced as heat is stored at larger depth. Moreover, it can be further diminished by the installation of a thermally insulating materials in the upper section of the borehole heat exchangers. Based on a numerical simulation study, the advantageous effects of medium deep borehole thermal energy storage are demonstrated and quantified. A finite element software is used to model the heat transport in the subsurface in 3D, while the heat transport in the borehole heat exchangers is solved analytically in 1D. For this purpose, an extended analytical solution is implemented, which also allows for the consideration of a thermally insulating borehole section.

  2. Measurement of (anti)deuteron and (anti)proton production in DIS at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)

    2007-05-15

    The first observation of (anti)deuterons in deep inelastic scattering at HERA has been made with the ZEUS detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 300-318 GeV using an integrated luminosity of 120 pb{sup -1}. The measurement was performed in the central rapidity region for transverse momentum per unit of mass in the range 0.3deuteron production yield is smaller than the (anti)proton yield by approximately three orders of magnitude, consistent with the world measurements. (orig.)

  3. Influence of Surface Energy Effects on Elastic Fields of a Layered Elastic Medium under Surface Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supakorn Tirapat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of a layered elastic half space under the action of axisymmetric surface loading and the influence of the surface energy effects. The boundary value problems for the bulk and the surface are formulated based on classical linear elasticity and a complete Gurtin-Murdoch constitutive relation. An analytical technique using Love’s representation and the Hankel integral transform is employed to derive an integral-form solution for both displacement and stress fields. An efficient numerical quadrature is then applied to accurately evaluate all involved integrals. Selected numerical results are presented to portray the influence of various parameters on elastic fields. Numerical results indicate that the surface stress displays a significant influence on both displacement and stress fields. It is also found that the layered half space becomes stiffer with the presence of surface stresses. In addition, unlike the classical elasticity solution, size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is noted. The present analytical solutions provide fundamental understanding of the influence of surface energy on layered elastic materials. It can also be used as a benchmark solution for the development of numerical techniques such as FEM and BEM, for analysis of more complex problems involving a layered medium under the influence of surface energy effects.

  4. Beam dynamics and commissioning of low and medium energy H- beam at Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Satri, Masoomeh Yarmohammadi; Lombardi, Alessandra; Lamehi-Rachti , Mohammad

    The First step of the CERN Large Hadron Collider injectors upgrade (LIU) project is Linac4. It accelerates H- ions to 160 MeV in an 80 m long accelerator housed in a tunnel 12 m underground, presently under construction. It will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex to increase the LHC luminosity. It consists of a 45 keV RF volume source, a twosolenoid Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam to 3 MeV, a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line. The MEBT houses a fast chopper to selectively remove unwanted micro-bunches in the 352 MHz sequence and avoid losses at capture in the CERN PSB (1 MHz). After chopping, the beam acceleration continues by a 50 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a 100 MeV Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac and a Pi-Mode Structure bringing the beam to the final energy of 160 MeV. Linac4 has been commissioned with a temporary source up to 12 MeV. The beam commissioning stages of Linac4 in LEBT...

  5. A Pair Production Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter , Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Depaola, Gerardo O.; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Hanu, Andrei; Iparraguirre, Marcos; Legere, Jason; Longo, Francesco; McConnell, Mark L.; Nowicki, Suzanne F.; Ryan, James M.; Son, Seunghee; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-08-01

    We describe the science motivation and development of a pair production telescope for medium-13 energy gamma-ray polarimetry. Our instrument concept, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope 14 (AdEPT), takes advantage of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager, a low-density gaseous time 15 projection chamber, to achieve angular resolution within a factor of two of the pair production 16 kinematics limit (~0.6° at 70 MeV), continuum sensitivity comparable with the Fermi-LAT front 17 detector (<3×10-6 MeV cm-2 s-1 at 70 MeV), and minimum detectable polarization less than 10% 18 for a 10 millicrab source in 106 seconds.

  6. Software-Defined Solutions for Managing Energy Use in Small to Medium Sized Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peffer, Therese [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Blumstein, Carl [Council on International Education Exchange (CIEE), Portland, ME (United States); Culler, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences (EECS); Modera, Mark [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Western Cooling Efficiency Center (WCEC); Meier, Alan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-10

    The Project uses state-of-the-art computer science to extend the benefits of Building Automation Systems (BAS) typically found in large buildings (>100,000 square foot) to medium-sized commercial buildings (<50,000 sq ft). The BAS developed in this project, termed OpenBAS, uses an open-source and open software architecture platform, user interface, and plug-and-play control devices to facilitate adoption of energy efficiency strategies in the commercial building sector throughout the United States. At the heart of this “turn key” BAS is the platform with three types of controllers—thermostat, lighting controller, and general controller—that are easily “discovered” by the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. The user interface showcases the platform and provides the control system set-up, system status display and means of automatically mapping the control points in the system.

  7. A Pair Production Telescope for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Depaola, Gerardo; Dion, Michael P.; DeNolfo, Georgia A.; Hanu, Andrei; Iparraguirre, Marcos; Legere, Jason; Longo, Francesco; McConnell, Mark L.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We describe the science motivation and development of a pair production telescope for medium-energy (approximately 5-200 Mega electron Volts) gamma-ray polarimetry. Our instrument concept, the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT), takes advantage of the Three-Dimensional Track Imager, a low-density gaseous time projection chamber, to achieve angular resolution within a factor of two of the pair production kinematics limit (approximately 0.6 deg at 70 Mega electron Volts), continuum sensitivity comparable with the Fermi-LAT front detector (is less than 3 x 10(exp -6) Mega electron Volts per square centimeter per second at 70 Mega electron Volts), and minimum detectable polarization less than 10% for a 10 milliCrab source in 10(exp 6) s.

  8. The energy principle in astrophysics and the instabilities of the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachieze-Rey, Marc.

    1976-01-01

    The interstellar medium is considered as a two-fluid mixture (a heavy thermal gas and relativistic massless gas) to which magnetohydrodynamic equations are applied: the magnetic field and current vector obey Maxwell equations, both fluids obey the mass and momentum conservation equations, their thermodynamic behaviors being described with two polytropic γ and GAMMA indices. The simplest state that may be described is the stratified state assuming an isothermal medium (the temperature is defined by the eddy motion of the clouds), a horizontal magnetic field, and three proportional pressures (the gas pressure, cosmic ray pressure, and field pressure). A one-dimensional equilibrium is obtained (depending on the distance to the galactic plane). More generally a method of stability analysis is developed: the energy principle. The principle makes the equilibrium stability versus perturbation to depend on the sign of the potential energy variation dW(x) due to the perturbation. The general case involves the solution of two differential equations, and the case where p+GAMMA.P=p is reduced to solving only one equation. In the horizontal case the stability criterion for every horizontal state is written: γ>[p+P+P(magn)/P']-GAMMA.P/p, where p, P and P(magn) are the three pressures of the thermal gas, cosmic rays, and field respectively, and the tagged ' symbols are for the drivatives with respect to the heights above the galactic plane. The result is applied to the horizontal equilibrium, this state is shown to be rather more stable than the stratified one near the galactic plane but at higher levels, perturbations tend to rapidly develop. A stability principle is also presented for the more general equilibrium: gas + magnetic field + relativistic gas [fr

  9. Elastic electron-deuteron scattering in vectorlike theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakh, G.I.

    1979-01-01

    The P odd effects caused by neutral weak currents in the elastic electron-deuteron scattering have been investigated in the vectorlike theories. Cross sections for scattering of both nonpolarized and longitudinally polarized electrons by the deuterons which have both vector and tensor polarizations have been calculated. The general case of the P invariance violation in the elastic electron-deuteron scattering amplitude is considered. The P invariance is violated both in the lepton and the hadron vertices. The vectorlike theory is a particular case when the P invariance is violated only in the hadron vertex

  10. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlimme B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm−1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm−1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  11. Technical Support Document: Development of the Advanced Energy Design Guide for Medium Box Retail -- 50% Energy Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, E. T.; Macumber, D. L.; Long, N. L.; Griffith, B. T.; Benne, K. S.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2008-09-01

    This report provides recommendations that architects, designers, contractors, developers, owners, and lessees of medium box retail buildings can use to achieve whole-building energy savings of at least 50% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004. The recommendations are given by climate zone and address building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems, HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outside air treatment, service water heating, plug loads, and photovoltaic systems. The report presents several paths to 50% savings, which correspond to different levels of integrated design. These are recommendations only, and are not part of a code or standard. The recommendations are not exhaustive, but we do try to emphasize the benefits of integrated building design, that is, a design approach that analyzes a building as a whole system, rather than as a disconnected collection of individually engineered subsystems.

  12. Energy-Efficient Boarder Node Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razaque

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC for wireless sensor networks (WSNs, which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN, which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS, which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS, which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  13. Energy-efficient boarder node medium access control protocol for wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaque, Abdul; Elleithy, Khaled M

    2014-03-12

    This paper introduces the design, implementation, and performance analysis of the scalable and mobility-aware hybrid protocol named boarder node medium access control (BN-MAC) for wireless sensor networks (WSNs), which leverages the characteristics of scheduled and contention-based MAC protocols. Like contention-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC achieves high channel utilization, network adaptability under heavy traffic and mobility, and low latency and overhead. Like schedule-based MAC protocols, BN-MAC reduces idle listening time, emissions, and collision handling at low cost at one-hop neighbor nodes and achieves high channel utilization under heavy network loads. BN-MAC is particularly designed for region-wise WSNs. Each region is controlled by a boarder node (BN), which is of paramount importance. The BN coordinates with the remaining nodes within and beyond the region. Unlike other hybrid MAC protocols, BN-MAC incorporates three promising models that further reduce the energy consumption, idle listening time, overhearing, and congestion to improve the throughput and reduce the latency. One of the models used with BN-MAC is automatic active and sleep (AAS), which reduces the ideal listening time. When nodes finish their monitoring process, AAS lets them automatically go into the sleep state to avoid the idle listening state. Another model used in BN-MAC is the intelligent decision-making (IDM) model, which helps the nodes sense the nature of the environment. Based on the nature of the environment, the nodes decide whether to use the active or passive mode. This decision power of the nodes further reduces energy consumption because the nodes turn off the radio of the transceiver in the passive mode. The third model is the least-distance smart neighboring search (LDSNS), which determines the shortest efficient path to the one-hop neighbor and also provides cross-layering support to handle the mobility of the nodes. The BN-MAC also incorporates a semi

  14. EFFECT OF LOW ENERGY VERSUS MEDIUM ENERGY RADIAL SHOCK WAVE THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC PLANTER FASCIITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Z. Fouda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plantar fasciitis (PF is the most common cause of heel pain and it can often be a challenge for clinicians to treat successfully. Radial shock wave therapy (RSWT has been introduced recently for treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Different energy levels of shock wave therapy have been used in the literatures for treatment of PF with no clear settled parameters. Therefore, the purpose of this study was intended to investigate and compare the efficacy of two different energy levels of RSWT on PF patients. Methods: Forty patients having unilateral chronic PF were recruited for the study from orthopedic outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals and National Institute of Neuromotor System Cairo Egypt, with a mean age of (47.15±4.57 years. Patients were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A treated with low intensity level of 1.6 bars (0.16 mJ/mm2 RSWT and group (B treated with medium intensity level of 4 bars (0.38 mJ/mm2 RSWT. Functional assessment of the foot based on Foot Function Index (FFI and Present pain intensity was measured during rest by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Results: There was as significant decreased in the total FFI scores from (118.42 ±6.51 to (81.37 ±3.46 for group (A and from (118.93 ±6.85 to (58.50 ±3.22 for group (B. Also regarding VAS Scores there was as significant decreased in the pain intensity from (5.11 ±0.41 to (2.85 ±0.31 for group (A and from (4.95 ±0.39 to (2.05 ±0.22 for group (B. Conclusion: Radial shock wave therapy is an effective modality that should be considered in the treatment of chronic PF, while the medium energy level RSWT is better than the low energy level RSWT in regarding to the measured treatment outcomes.

  15. Nucleon and Deuteron Form Factors from BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasell, D. K.

    2009-01-01

    The BLAST experiment was designed to study in a systematic manner the spin-dependent, electromagnetic interaction on hydrogen and deuterium. Measuring only asymmetries in electron scattering with respect to the beam helicity, target spin, or both; the BLAST experiment was able to extract information on nucleon and deuteron form factors independent of beam intensity or target density. By further forming 'super-ratios' of asymmetries, measurements were possible independent of beam and target polarization thus reducing uncertainties due to these quantities as well. Some of the form factor results from BLAST will be briefly presented here. Also, in response to observed discrepancies between polarization measurements and those obtained using traditional Rosenbluth separation techniques a proposed experiment, OLYMPUS, which will use the BLAST detector to measure the two photon contribution to elastic electron scattering will also be presented.

  16. Measurement of the time-resolved reflection matrix for enhancing light energy delivery into a scattering medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Youngwoon; Hillman, Timothy R; Choi, Wonjun; Lue, Niyom; Dasari, Ramachandra R; So, Peter T C; Choi, Wonshik; Yaqoob, Zahid

    2013-12-13

    Multiple scatterings occurring in a turbid medium attenuate the intensity of propagating waves. Here, we propose a method to efficiently deliver light energy to the desired target depth in a scattering medium. We measure the time-resolved reflection matrix of a scattering medium using coherent time-gated detection. From this matrix, we derive and experimentally implement an incident wave pattern that optimizes the detected signal corresponding to a specific arrival time. This leads to enhanced light delivery at the target depth. The proposed method will lay a foundation for efficient phototherapy and deep-tissue in vivo imaging in the near future.

  17. An Exploratory Energy Analysis of Electrochromic Windows in Small and Medium Office Buildings - Simulated Results Using EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, David B.

    2010-08-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building Technologies Program (BTP) has had an active research program in supporting the development of electrochromic (EC) windows. Electrochromic glazings used in these windows have the capability of varying the transmittance of light and heat in response to an applied voltage. This dynamic property allows these windows to reduce lighting, cooling, and heating energy in buildings where they are employed. The exploratory analysis described in this report examined three different variants of EC glazings, characterized by the amount of visible light and solar heat gain (as measured by the solar heat gain coefficients [SHGC] in their “clear” or transparent states). For these EC glazings, the dynamic range of the SHGC’s between their “dark” (or tinted) state and the clear state were: (0.22 - 0.70, termed “high” SHGC); (0.16 - 0.39, termed “low” SHGC); and (0.13 - 0.19; termed “very low” SHGC). These glazings are compared to conventional (static) glazing that meets the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004 energy standard for five different locations in the U.S. All analysis used the EnergyPlus building energy simulation program for modeling EC windows and alternative control strategies. The simulations were conducted for a small and a medium office building, where engineering specifications were taken from the set of Commercial Building Benchmark building models developed by BTP. On the basis of these simulations, total source-level savings in these buildings were estimated to range between 2 to 7%, depending on the amount of window area and building location.

  18. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  19. Cross correlation analysis of medium energy gamma rays for the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.; Zanrosso, E.; Zych, A.D.; White, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Data obtained with the UCR gamma telescope have been analyzed using the cross-correlation method. The observations extended over 37.5 hr from 0930 UT, 30 Sept. to 2300 UT, 1 oct. 1978 at 32deg N. Lat. (Palestine, Texas). The Crab Nebula- Anticenter region was observed on consecutive days. The telescope's wide field-of-view permitted the search for a number of other medium energy (1-30 MeV) source candidates. As the telescope swept the sky, the count rates for fixed celestial directions were correlated with the expected response as a function of time and telescope geometry. Similar correlations were carried out for sources measured in the laboratory and computer-simulated sources. In the correlation method the time independence and azimuthal symmetry of the atmospheric and cosmic diffuse backgrounds provide zero correlation. In contrast, a celestial source produces an asymmetric response with respect to the azimuthal direction which varies predictably in time to give a positive correlation. Preliminary correlation skymaps of the Anticenter region are presented and their statistical significance discussed. An energy spectrum obtained from the ''correlated counts'' is compared with measurements by other methods

  20. TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SCALE GRID CONNECTED RENEWABLE ENERGY IN RWANDA

    OpenAIRE

    NTIHINYUZWA, Isaac

    2012-01-01

    This project work is focused on the economic and feasibility study for small and medium scale renewable energies available in Rwanda to determine the requirements in terms of infrastructure, policy and demonstrating interesting potentials of off and on grid connected renewable energy by analyzing them referring to technical and economic feasibility criteria. In addition, this survey data will help to understand how the energy projects will be implemented through private and public partnership...

  1. Deuteron-, triton - and alpha - clusters in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bando, H.; Coelho, H.T.; Delfino, A.

    1981-01-01

    It is studied with a simple model how deuteron-, triton- and α-clusters behave concerning their cluster structure identities during the scatterring process and just after reaching nuclear matter of finite size. (Author) [pt

  2. A program in medium energy nuclear physics. Progress report and continuation proposal October 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, B.L.; Dhuga, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This progress report and continuation proposal summarizes our achievements for the period from July 1, 1994 to September 30, 1995 and requests continued funding for our program in experimental medium-energy nuclear physics. The focus of our program remains the understanding of the short-range part of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. In the past year we have focused our attention ever more sharply on experiments with real tagged photons, and we have successfully defended two new experimental proposals: Photofission of Actinide and Preactinide Nuclei at SAL and Photoproduction of the ρ Meson from the Proton with Linearly Polarized Photons at CEBAF. (We are co-spokespersons on two previously approved Hall-B experiments at CEBAF, Photoreactions on 3 He and Photoabsorption and Photofission of Nuclei.) As part of the team that is instrumenting the Photon Tagger for Hall B; we report excellent progress on the focal-plane detector array that is being built at our Nuclear Detector Laboratory, as well as progress on our plans for instrumentation of a tagged polarized-photon beam using coherent bremsstrahlung. Also, we shall soon receive a large computer system (from the SSC) which will form the basis for our new Data Analysis Center, which, like the Nuclear Detector Laboratory, will be operated under the auspices of The George Washington University Center for Nuclear Studies. Finally, during the past year we have published six more papers on the results of our measurements of pion scattering at LAMPF and of electron scattering at NIKHEF and Bates, and we can report that nearly all of the remaining papers documenting this long series of measurements are in the pipeline

  3. Medium energy measurements of n-n parameters: Progress in research, January 1, 1986-December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    A major part of the work has been and will continue to be associated with research done at the Nucleon Physics Laboratory (NPL) at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The aim of the experimental program is the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at medium energy. The required data include both elastic and inelastic experiments, and in addition the measurement of polarization and polarization transfer parameters. We have been emphasizing single pion production measurements using polarized proton beams, and expect that our present data base will provide stringent tests of theoretical models. With the development of the LAMPF high intensity polarized proton source, we expect that a reasonably intense beam of medium energy polarized neutrons will become available, and are planning a series of experiments utilizing polarized neutrons to determine the importance of the I = 0 reaction amplitudes at medium energies

  4. Acceleration of polarized protons and deuterons in the ion collider ring of JLEIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondratenko, A. [Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Kondratenko, M. [Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Filatov, Yu. N. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Moscow (Russian Federation); Derbenev, Yaroslav S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Lin, Fanglei [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Morozov, Vasily S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Zhang, Yuhong [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The figure-8-shaped ion collider ring of Jefferson Lab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) is transparent to the spin. It allows one to preserve proton and deuteron polarizations using weak stabilizing solenoids when accelerating the beam up to 100 GeV/c. When the stabilizing solenoids are introduced into the collider's lattice, the particle spins precess about a spin field, which consists of the field induced by the stabilizing solenoids and the zero-integer spin resonance strength. During acceleration of the beam, the induced spin field is maintained constant while the resonance strength experiences significant changes in the regions of "interference peaks". The beam polarization depends on the field ramp rate of the arc magnets. Its component along the spin field is preserved if acceleration is adiabatic. We present the results of our theoretical analysis and numerical modeling of the spin dynamics during acceleration of protons and deuterons in the JLEIC ion collider ring. We demonstrate high stability of the deuteron polarization in figure-8 accelerators. We analyze a change in the beam polarization when crossing the transition energy.

  5. Giant deuteron migration during the isosymmetric phase transition in deuterated 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Samantha J; Delamore, Oliver J; Evans, John S O; McIntyre, Garry J; Johnson, Mark R; Radosavljević Evans, Ivana

    2011-12-23

    Deuterated 3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid exhibits reversible temperature-induced deuteron migration of a magnitude unprecedented in this class of compounds. We used a combination of variable-temperature powder and single-crystal neutron diffraction and density functional theory (DFT)-based computational methods to elucidate the origin of this remarkable behaviour. Single-crystal neutron diffraction shows that between 15 and 300 K, the deuteron moves by 0.32(1) Å and the structure changes from a low-temperature N-D···O form to a high-temperature N···D-O form. Variable-temperature powder neutron-diffraction data, which was fitted by using parametric Rietveld refinement, show that this deuteron migration is due to an isosymmetric, first-order phase transition that occurs by growth of the daughter phase in the parent-phase matrix. Similar phase transitions are observed in two selectively deuterated forms of the material. DFT calculations demonstrate the role of phonons and show that vibrational free-energy stabilisation, which plays a key role in the observed structural phase transitions, is more pronounced in the fully deuterated material and proportional to the mass of the molecule, that is, the level of deuteration. This is consistent with our experimental work, for which distinct crystallographic phase transitions were clearly observed for the three deuterated systems, but not for the fully protonated material. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Bridging the energy gap through small and medium sized nuclear reactors in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.

    1987-01-01

    India is the only country in the world which is employing small sized nuclear reactors for its nuclear power programme. It has now embarked on a programme of augmenting the contribution of the nuclear power by way of employing both medium and small sized nuclear reactors in the next 15 years. This paper discusses the Indian experience and its efforts for industrial mobilisation for rapidly constructing 235/500 MWe nuclear reactor units in a period of about 8 to 9 years. The current energy situation in India and this context the near term role of nuclear power for supplementing the existing sources of commercial energy have been evaluated. Nuclear power has reached such a stage of maturity whereby it has now become a commercially viable source of electricity and it could be utilised on large scale to bridge the energy gap. At present six reactor units of 210/235 MWe capacity are in operation and eight more are in different stages of construction. While we are continuing with the construction of 235 MWe units, a programme of being pursued to construct 550 MWe capacity reactor units from midnineties onwards. This has become possible with the strengthening of regional electricity grids and simultaneous efforts undertaken for augmentation of fuel supply, heavy water production and industrial infrastructure. For a developing country like India, implementation of a sizable nuclear power programme has posed certain special challenges as major inputs are required to be made available with indigeneous efforts. This paper discusses such challenges and presents the ways and means adopted to surmount them. Other developing countries with conditions comparable to those in India could benefit from Indian experience in this regard. This paper also proposes India's willingness to cooperate with other countries for exchange of information and assistance in terms of technical knowhow. (author)

  7. Deuteron Coulomb Excitation in Peripheral Collisions with a Heavy Ion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weijie; Yin, Peng; Li, Yang; Chen, Guangyao; Zuo, Wei; Zhao, Xingbo; Vary, James P.

    2017-09-01

    We develop an ab initio time-dependent Basis Function (tBF) method to solve non-perturbative and time-dependent problems in non-relativistic quantum mechanics. As a test problem, we apply this method to the Coulomb excitation of a deuteron by an impinging heavy ion. We employ wave functions for the bound and excited states of the deuterium system based on a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction and study the evolution of the transition probability, the r.m.s. radius and the r.m.s. momentum of the system during the scattering process. The dependencies of these quantities on the external field strength and the bombarding energy are also analyzed and compared to corresponding results obtained from first-order perturbation theory. The time evolution of both the charge and the momentum distributions is shown. This work was supported in part by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Grants No. DESC0008485 (SciDAC/NUCLEI) and DE-FG02-87ER40371. W. Zuo and P. Yin are supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11435014).

  8. Deuteron electromagnetic form factors in the transitional region between nucleon-meson and quark-gluon pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobushkin, A.P.; Syamtomov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Experimental observables of the elastic ed-scattering in the region of intermediate energies are discussed. We offer the numerical analysis of the available experimental data, which reproduces the results of the calculations with popular NN-potentials at low energies (Q 2 2 ), but, at the same time, provides the right asymptotic behavior of the deuteron e.m. form factors, following from the quark counting rules, at high energies (Q 2 >>1(GeV/c) 2 ). The numerical analysis developed allows to make certain estimations of the characteristic energy scale, at what the consideration of quark-gluon degrees of freedom in the deuteron becomes essential. (author). 18 refs., 2 tab., 10 figs

  9. Experimental medium energy physics. Annual progress report, June 1983-May 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    During the past year the principal activities of the C-MU Medium Energy Physics Group have included running of previously approved experiments, the development of hardware and software for new experiments, continued analysis of previously accumulated data, and the development of model calculations to be compared with these data. Major data runs have taken place on a hypernuclear experiment (AGS 781) at the AGS, and on an antiproton run at CERN/LEAR (PS-185). In addition, planning is continuing for further hypernuclear lifetime measurements in 4 5 He, and for a possible search for the H-particle. For these experiments extensive hardware and software development has taken place, requiring much of the group's effort. In our ongoing studies of the pion annihilation mechanism, the emphasis has shifted from two-body processes to those involving three-body final states. A large effort is being devoted to the analysis of our (π,xy) data accumulated at LAMPF on targets of 6 7 Li, 14 N, 16 O and CD 2 . During the year considerable effort was devoted to Monte Carlo simulations of the rare weak decay K + → π + nu anti nu; this experiment has been approved as AGS 787. In addition, work has continued on the development of model calculations of the (π,pp) and anti pp → anti ΛΛ reactions

  10. Experimental Medium Energy Physics annual progress report, June 1984-May 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    During the past year the principal activities of the CMU Medium Energy Physics Group have included the running of three previously approved experiments, the development of hardware and software for these experiments, and final analysis of previously accumulated data. In a two week run at LEAR at the beginning of this year 100 data tapes were collected on experiment PS-185. This spring sigma hyperon production in Lithium was studied in a run on AGS experiment E-774. We are currently setting up AGS experiment E-788 in an investigation of Lambda weak decay in Helium hypernuclei. In addition a new experiment to search for strangeness S = -2 dibaryon production was presented and approved by the AGS program advisory committee for 1000 h (E-813). For these experiments extensive hardware and software development has taken place, requiring much of the group's effort. Analysis of LEAR experiment PS-185 is in full progress at CMU. Both the weak decay studies of 12 C (AGS E-759) and the pion annihilation studies in Lithium and Oxygen have now been fully analyzed with the results submitted for publication in several papers. All of these activities are described. Specific hardware and software projects are discussed

  11. Diagnosis and dynamics in a simple low energy medium current electron beam channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghitu, S.; Marghitu, O.; Oproiu, C.; Marin, G.; Scarlat, Fl.

    2004-05-01

    We present a simple experimental setup and an associated method enabling both the non-destructive diagnosis and the calculation of the beam evolution in a low energy medium current electron beam channel, where the space-charge and emittance effects are comparable. The diagnosis makes use of an axially symmetric magnetic lens while a second lens is added to increase the flexibility in the beam processing. The paper emphasizes the three steps involved in the method: the evaluation of the lenses' magnetic field by numerical simulation, the beam diagnosis, and the computation of the beam envelope. The calculation of the magnetic field is based on the finite element method. Subsequently, the beam parameters at the electron source exit - emittance and cross-over radius and position - are found with the modified three gradient method. Finally, the beam dynamics are modeled with the K-V equation adapted for the particular case of axial symmetry. The results obtained in this paper can be used to optimize technological processes, such as welding, hardening, cladding, and surface alloying.

  12. Strain relaxation of CdTe on Ge studied by medium energy ion scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillet, J.C., E-mail: jean-christophe.pillet@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Département Optique et Photonique, F38054 Grenoble (France); Pierre, F. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, Service de Caractérisation des Matériaux et Composants, F38054 Grenoble (France); Jalabert, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, CEA, LETI, MINATEC campus, F38000 Grenoble (France); CEA-INAC/UJF-Grenoble 1 UMR-E, SP2M, LEMMA, Minatec Grenoble F-38054 (France)

    2016-10-01

    We have used the medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) technique to assess the strain relaxation in molecular-beam epitaxial (MBE) grown CdTe (2 1 1)/Ge (2 1 1) system. A previous X-ray diffraction study, on 10 samples of the same heterostructure having thicknesses ranging from 25 nm to 10 μm has allowed the measurement of the strain relaxation on a large scale. However, the X-ray diffraction measurements cannot achieve a stress measurement in close proximity to the CdTe/Ge interface at the nanometer scale. Due to the huge lattice misfit between the CdTe and Ge, a high degree of disorder is expected at the interface. The MEIS in channeling mode is a good alternative in order to profile defects with a high depth resolution. For a 21 nm thick CdTe layer, we observed, at the interface, a high density of Cd and/or Te atoms moved from their expected crystallographic positions followed by a rapid recombination of defects. Strain relaxation mechanisms in the vicinity of the interface are discussed.

  13. Nuclear calculation for employing medium enrichment in reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1979-01-01

    The fuel used for the research reactors of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is presently highly enriched uranium of 93%. However, the U.S. government (the supplier of fuel) is claiming to utilize low or medium enriched uranium from the viewpoint of resistivity to nuclear proliferation, and the availability of highly enriched uranium is becoming hard owing to the required procedure. This report is described on the results of nuclear calculation which is the basis of fuel design in the countermeasures to the reduction of enrichment. The basic conception in the reduction of enrichment is three-fold: to lower the latent potential of nuclear proliferation as far as possible, to hold the present reactor performance as far as possible, and to limit the reduction in the range which is not accompanied by the modification of reactor core construction and cooling system. This time, the increase of the density and thickness of fuel plates and the effect of enrichment change to 45% on reactivity and neutron flux were investigated. The fuel of UAl sub(x) - Al system was assumed, which was produced by powder metallurgical method. The results of investigations on JRR-2 and JMTR reactors revealed that 45% enriched fuel does not affect the performances much. However, deterioration of the performances is not neglegible if further reduction is needed. In future, the influence of the burn-up effect of fuel on the life of reactor cores must be investigated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  14. Quantitative considerations in medium energy ion scattering depth profiling analysis of nanolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalm, P.C.; Bailey, P. [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Reading, M.A. [Physics and Materials Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Rossall, A.K. [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom); Berg, J.A. van den, E-mail: j.vandenberg@hud.ac.uk [International Institute for Accelerator Applications, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    The high depth resolution capability of medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) is becoming increasingly relevant to the characterisation of nanolayers in e.g. microelectronics. In this paper we examine the attainable quantitative accuracy of MEIS depth profiling. Transparent but reliable analytical calculations are used to illustrate what can ultimately be achieved for dilute impurities in a silicon matrix and the significant element-dependence of the depth scale, for instance, is illustrated this way. Furthermore, the signal intensity-to-concentration conversion and its dependence on the depth of scattering is addressed. Notably, deviations from the Rutherford scattering cross section due to screening effects resulting in a non-coulombic interaction potential and the reduction of the yield owing to neutralization of the exiting, backscattered H{sup +} and He{sup +} projectiles are evaluated. The former mainly affects the scattering off heavy target atoms while the latter is most severe for scattering off light target atoms and can be less accurately predicted. However, a pragmatic approach employing an extensive data set of measured ion fractions for both H{sup +} and He{sup +} ions scattered off a range of surfaces, allows its parameterization. This has enabled the combination of both effects, which provides essential information regarding the yield dependence both on the projectile energy and the mass of the scattering atom. Although, absolute quantification, especially when using He{sup +}, may not always be achievable, relative quantification in which the sum of all species in a layer adds up to 100%, is generally possible. This conclusion is supported by the provision of some examples of MEIS derived depth profiles of nanolayers. Finally, the relative benefits of either using H{sup +} or He{sup +} ions are briefly considered.

  15. High resolution medium energy ion scattering study of silicon oxidation and oxy nitridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, E.P.; Lu, H.C.; Garfunkel, E.; Gustafsson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Silicon oxide is likely to remain the material of choice for gate oxides in microelectronics for the foreseeable future. As device become ever smaller and faster, the thickness of these layers in commercial products is predicted to be less than 50 Angstroms in just a few years. An understanding of such devices will therefore likely to be based on microscopic concepts and should now be investigated by atomistic techniques. With medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) using an electrostatic energy analyzer, depth profiling of thin (<60 Angstroms) silicon oxide films on Si(100) with 3 - 5 Angstroms depth resolution in the near region has been done. The growth mechanism of thin oxide films on Si(100) has been studied, using sequential oxygen isotope exposures. It is found that the oxide films are stoichiometric to within approx. 10 Angstroms of the interface. It is also found that the oxidation reactions occur at the surface, in the transition region and at interface, with only the third region being included in the conventional (Deal-Grove) model for oxide formation. Nitrogen is sometimes added to gate oxides, as it has been found empirically that his improves some of the electrical properties. The role, location and even the amount of nitrogen that exists in such films are poorly understood, and represent interesting analytical challenges. MEIS data will be presented that address these questions, measured for a number of different processing conditions. We have recently demonstrated how to perform nitrogen nano-engineering in such ultrathin gate dielectrics, and these results will also be discussed

  16. Relaxation in the glass former acetylsalicylic acid studied by deuteron magnetic resonance and dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, R.; El Goresy, T.; Geil, B.; Zimmermann, H.; Böhmer, R.

    2006-08-01

    Supercooled liquid and glassy acetylsalicylic acid was studied using dielectric spectroscopy and deuteron relaxometry in a wide temperature range. The supercooled liquid is characterized by major deviations from thermally activated behavior. In the glass the secondary relaxation exhibits the typical features of a Johari-Goldstein process. Via measurements of spin-lattice relaxation times the selectively deuterated methyl group was used as a sensitive probe of its local environments. There is a large difference in the mean activation energy in the glass with respect to that in crystalline acetylsalicylic acid. This can be understood by taking into account the broad energy barrier distribution in the glass.

  17. Model-independent analysis of polarization effects in elastic electron-deuteron scattering in presence of two-photon exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakh, G.I.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.

    2006-01-01

    The general spin structure of the matrix element, taking into account the 2-photon exchange contribution, for the elastic electron (positron) - deuteron scattering has been derived using general symmetry properties of the hadron electromagnetic interaction, such as P-, C- and T-invariances as well as lepton helicity conservation in QED at high energy. Taking into account also crossing symmetry, the amplitudes of e ± d scattering can be parametrized in terms of fifteen real functions. The expressions for the differential cross section and for all polarization observables are given in terms of these functions. We consider the case of an arbitrary polarized deuteron target and polarized electron beam (both longitudinal and transverse). The transverse polarization of the electron beam induces a single-spin asymmetry which is non-zero in presence of 2-photon exchange. It is shown that elastic deuteron electromagnetic form factors can still be extracted in presence of 2 photon exchange, from the measurements of the differential cross sections and of one polarization observable (for example, the tensor asymmetry) for electron and positron deuteron elastic scattering, in the same kinematical conditions. (authors)

  18. Advertisement-Based Energy Efficient Medium Access Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Surjya Sarathi

    One of the main challenges that prevents the large-scale deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is providing the applications with the required quality of service (QoS) given the sensor nodes' limited energy supplies. WSNs are an important tool in supporting applications ranging from environmental and industrial monitoring, to battlefield surveillance and traffic control, among others. Most of these applications require sensors to function for long periods of time without human intervention and without battery replacement. Therefore, energy conservation is one of the main goals for protocols for WSNs. Energy conservation can be performed in different layers of the protocol stack. In particular, as the medium access control (MAC) layer can access and control the radio directly, large energy savings is possible through intelligent MAC protocol design. To maximize the network lifetime, MAC protocols for WSNs aim to minimize idle listening of the sensor nodes, packet collisions, and overhearing. Several approaches such as duty cycling and low power listening have been proposed at the MAC layer to achieve energy efficiency. In this thesis, I explore the possibility of further energy savings through the advertisement of data packets in the MAC layer. In the first part of my research, I propose Advertisement-MAC or ADV-MAC, a new MAC protocol for WSNs that utilizes the concept of advertising for data contention. This technique lets nodes listen dynamically to any desired transmission and sleep during transmissions not of interest. This minimizes the energy lost in idle listening and overhearing while maintaining an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable loads. Additionally, ADV-MAC enables energy efficient MAC-level multicasting. An analytical model for the packet delivery ratio and the energy consumption of the protocol is also proposed. The analytical model is verified with simulations and is used to choose an optimal value of the advertisement period

  19. Investigation of activation cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural Mo up to 50 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarkanyi, F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Ditroi, F., E-mail: ditroi@atomki.hu [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Takacs, S.; Kiraly, B. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary); Hermanne, A. [Cyclotron Laboratory, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Sonck, M. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control, Ravenstein 36, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Baba, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ignatyuk, A.V. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE), Obninsk 249020 (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excitation function measurement of deuteron induced reactions on molybdenum up to 50 MeV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model code calculations with EMPIRE-D, ALICE-D and TALYS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integral production yield calculation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Medical radioisotope production; {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo. - Abstract: Cross-sections of deuteron induced nuclear reactions on natural molybdenum have been studied in the frame of a systematic investigation of charged particle induced nuclear reactions on metals for different applications. The excitation functions of {sup 93,94g,94m,95g,95m,96,99m}Tc, {sup 90,93m,99}Mo, {sup 90,91m,92m,95m,95g,96}Nb and {sup 88,89}Zr were measured up to 50 MeV deuteron energy by using the stacked foil technique and activation method. The goal of this work was first of all to study the production possibility of the medically important {sup 99m}Tc, and its {sup 99}Mo parent, to get experimental data useful in accelerator technology, and for testing nuclear reaction theories. The thick target yields and production possibilities of {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 99}Mo were estimated up to 50 MeV deuteron energy, and it is shown that besides the proton induced reactions, deuteron induced reactions on enriched molybdenum target seem to be promising. For most of the reaction products published experimental data for excitation functions are available only up to 20 MeV, and our new values confirm and extend the dataset. The experimental data were compared with the results of model calculations obtained by using ALICE-IPPE-D, EMPIRE-II-D and two versions of the TALYS code resulting in moderate agreement.

  20. Study of the possibility to use dp-elastic scattering for the Nuclotron external deuteron beam polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurchin, Yu.V.; Isupov, A.Yu.; Khrenov, A.N.; Kiselev, A.S.; Ladygin, V.P.; Reznikov, S.G.; Vasil'ev, T.A.; Janek, M.; Karachuk, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    A selection of dp-elastic scattering events at energies of 1.6 and 2.0 GeV by using scintillation counters has been performed. The procedure of the CH 2 -C subtraction has been established. The dependence of the elastic events yield on the filter thickness has been investigated. This method can be used to develop the efficient high-energy deuteron beam polarimetry

  1. Feasibility study analysis for multi-function dual energy oven (case study: tapioca crackers small medium enterprise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soraya, N. W.; El Hadi, R. M.; Chumaidiyah, E.; Tripiawan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional drying process is constrained by weather (cloudy / rainy), and requires wide drying area, and provides low-quality product. Multi-function dual energy oven is the appropriate technology to solve these problems. The oven uses solar thermal or gas heat for drying various type of products, including tapioca crackers. Investment analysis in technical, operational, and financial aspects show that the multi-function dual energy oven is feasible to be implemented for small medium enterprise (SME) processing tapioca crackers.

  2. Energy in the small- and medium-sized business sector (MKB) in the Netherlands. The first experiences of the MKB in the free energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    The most important results of a survey on the title subject are presented, focusing on the first experiences in a liberalized energy market and the expectations of customers who do no yet have the possibility to choose an energy supplier. Also attention is paid to failures in the supply of energy and financial consequences for the consumers. Finally, the vision of the Dutch association for small- and medium-sized businesses (MKB-Nederland) on the privatization of the energy sector is presented, including a reaction to the renewable energy policy plans of the Dutch government [nl

  3. Experimental medium energy physics. Annual progress report, June 1985-May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    During the past year the CMU Medium Energy Physics Group has been involved in the running of three experiments. In addition, software and hardware for two new experiments scheduled to take place over the next few months have been developed. A new proposal, ''Search for a Strangeness -2 Dibaryon Using a 3 He Target,'' was submitted to the Brookhaven Program Advisory Committee and recently approved. In the spring of this year, studies of hypernuclear decay shifted to few body systems. Data on the decay of 5 /sub Λ/He was taken along with preliminary data on 4 /sub Λ/He. This was followed a month later by a run at LEAR to study anti ΛΛ production. The high statistics runs should allow extraction of the spin correlation coefficients not previously obtainable and also includes a detailed study at threshold. In December, a second run at LEAR began the start of anti ΛΣ production studies and tested the ability to measure K/sub s/K/sub s/ production; this channel will be used to search for the ξ(2230) in the summer of 1986. In preparation for the ξ(2230) search, extensive Monte Carlo simulations have been performed at CMU to aid in the design of the detector system. Data analysis routines from hyperon production studies were modified and the first K/sub s/K/sub s/ event was extracted from existing data. The CMU group has had extensive involvement in an experiment to search for strangeness production relativistic heavy ion collisions. Hardware to provide the online analysis and data storage facilities for the experiment has been purchased and developed. CMU personnel has also worked on the development of software with the flexibility required to monitor this complex experiment. 37 refs., 53 figs., 8 tabs

  4. Local governments and climate change: sustainable energy planning and implementation in small and medium sized communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Staden, Maryke; Musco, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    The focus of 'Local governments and climate change' is on how small and medium-sized communities in Europe are effectively responding to climate change, with a particular focus on different approaches...

  5. Computer studies of the field for the superconducting magnetic system of the deuteron cyclotron DC-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Dudareva, T.N.; Zaplatin, N.L.; Samsonov, E.V.

    1983-01-01

    The calculation results are presented concerning the magnetic system parameters for the 90 MeV deuteron cyclotron (DC-1). Dynamic characteristics of the equilibrium orbits have been calculated too. It is shown that stability of the circUlation frequency in the 15-103 MeV energy range is maintained with the accuracy +-2x10 -3 or +-0.03 MHz. Calculations of the pondermotive forces affecting the coil showed that the maximum density of normal and axial forces equals 2.7 MN/m and 0.5 MN/m respectively

  6. Medical Application of the SARAF-Proton/Deuteron 40 MeV Superconducting Linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Shlomi

    2007-11-01

    The Soreq Applied Research Accelerator Facility (SARAF) is based on a superconducting linear accelerator currently being built at the Soreq research center (Israel). The SARAF is planned to generate a 2 mA 4 MeV proton beam during its first year of operation and up to 40 MeV proton or deuteron beam in 2012. The high intensity beam, together with the linac ability to adjust the ion energy provides opportunities for medical research, such as Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) and the production of medical radioisotopes, for instance 103Pd for prostate brachytherapy.

  7. The dosimetric standards for low and medium energy X-rays; Les references dosimetriques pour les rayons X de basses et moyennes energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksouri, W.; Denoziere, M.; Lecerf, N.; Leroy, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Laboratoire national Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB) has developed national dosimetric standards for x-rays of low and medium energies. This article describes these standards which are aimed at applications of radiation protection of workers and patients in the fields of medical diagnosis and industrial x-ray radiation. Developments for contact radiotherapy are also discussed. (author)

  8. Quasielastic electron-deuteron scattering in the weak binding approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ethier, Jacob J. [William and Mary College, JLAB; Doshi, Nidhi P. [Carnegie Mellon University; Malace, Simona P. [JLAB; Melnitchouk, Wally [JLAB

    2014-06-01

    We perform a global analysis of all available electron-deuteron quasielastic scattering data using Q^2-dependent smearing functions that describe inclusive inelastic e-d scattering within the weak binding approximation. We study the dependence of the cross sections on the deuteron wave function and the off-shell extrapolation of the elastic electron-nucleon cross section, which show particular sensitivity at x >> 1. The excellent overall agreement with data over a large range of Q^2 and x suggest a limited need for effects beyond the impulse approximation, with the exception of the very high-x or very low-Q^2 regions, where short-distance effects in the deuteron become more relevant.

  9. Exclusive $\\rho^0$ muoproduction on transversely polarised protons and deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Adolph, C.; Alexakhin, V.Yu.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Antonov, A.A.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Bedfer, Y.; Bernhard, J.; Bertini, R.; Bettinelli, M.; Bicker, K.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bravar, A.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Crespo, M.L.; Dalla Torre, S.; Das, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Dhara, L.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Filin, A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; du Fresne von Hohenesche, N.; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Garfagnini, R.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giorgi, M.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Grube, B.; Gushterski, R.; Guskov, A.; Guthorl, T.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, C.; Hinterberger, F.; Horikawa, N.; Hoppner, Ch.; d'Hose, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, O.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jegou, G.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Kang, D.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu.A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koblitz, S.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Korzenev, A.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Lauser, L.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Liska, T.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Mann, A.; Marchand, C.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matsuda, T.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Moinester, M.A.; Morreale, A.; Mutter, A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Negrini, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, A.S.; Olshevsky, A.G.; Ostrick, M.; Padee, A.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Perevalova, E.; Pesaro, G.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Piragino, G.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polak, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Rajotte, J.F.; Ramos, S.; Rapatsky, V.; Reicherz, G.; Richter, A.; Rocco, E.; Rondio, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmitt, L.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Schroder, W.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sissakian, A.N.; Slunecka, M.; Smirnov, G.I.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Ter Wolbeek, J.; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Tkatchev, L.G.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Virius, M.; Vlassov, N.V.; Wang, L.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wislicki, W.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zhuravlev, N.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-01-01

    The transverse target spin azimuthal asymmetry A_UT in hard exclusive production of rho^0 mesons was measured at COMPASS by scattering 160 GeV/c muons off transversely polarised protons and deuterons. The measured asymmetry is sensitive to the nucleon helicity-flip generalised parton distributions E^q, which are related to the orbital angular momentum of quarks in the nucleon. The Q^2, x_B and p_t^2 dependence of A_UT is presented in a wide kinematic range. Results for deuterons are obtained for the first time. The measured asymmetry is small in the whole kinematic range for both protons and deuterons, which is consistent with the theoretical interpretation that contributions from GPDs E^u and E^d approximately cancel.

  10. Development of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) for Medium-Energy Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; Bloser, Peter F.; Dion, Michael P.; McConnell, Mark L.; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Son, Seunghee; Ryan, James M.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2011-01-01

    Progress in high-energy gamma-ray science has been dramatic since the launch of INTEGRAL, AGILE and FERMI. These instruments, however, are not optimized for observations in the medium-energy (approx.0.3< E(sub gamma)< approx.200 MeV) regime where many astrophysical objects exhibit unique, transitory behavior, such as spectral breaks, bursts, and flares. We outline some of the major science goals of a medium-energy mission. These science goals are best achieved with a combination of two telescopes, a Compton telescope and a pair telescope, optimized to provide significant improvements in angular resolution and sensitivity. In this paper we describe the design of the Advanced Energetic Pair Telescope (AdEPT) based on the Three-Dimensional Track Imager (3-DTI) detector. This technology achieves excellent, medium-energy sensitivity, angular resolution near the kinematic limit, and gamma-ray polarization sensitivity, by high resolution 3-D electron tracking. We describe the performance of a 30x30x30 cm3 prototype of the AdEPT instrument.

  11. The local distribution of radiation quality of a collimated fast neutron beam from 15 MeV deuterons on beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidorra, J.; Booz, J.

    1978-01-01

    The local distribution of radiation quality (ysub(F), ysub(D)) of a collimated fast neutron beam from 14 MeV deuterons on Beryllium was studied with a spherical 1/2 inch EG and G proportional counter simulating a diameter of 2μm. The deuterons were accelerated by the compact cyclotron CV-28 of the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich. The collimator was constructed by the Cyclotron Corporation. The mean neutron energy was 6 MeV. The measurements were performed in air and in a water phantom at a target skin distance of 125 cm. The energy deposition spectra of fast neutrons obtained at various positions were separated into three components of different radiation quality: the gamma component, the recoil proton component, and the heavy ion component

  12. Policy options to promote energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies in small- and medium-scale industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiruchelvam, M.; Kumar, S.; Visvanathan, C.

    2003-01-01

    The rapid industrialization of Asian developing countries has pushed the need for more energy at the cost of environmental degradation. Though large industries are targeted for energy conservation and pollution prevention, small and medium scale industries (SMI) also contribute to significant pollution. This paper discusses the role of SMI in the economy, its energy consumption and impact on the environment. An overview of the energy and environment policies of China, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Vietnam, and the role of energy efficient and environmentally sound technologies (E 3 ST) as a viable means to meet these modern challenges in SMI is discussed. The barriers faced in adopting these technologies have been identified and an analysis has been done of the various strategies and policy options available to governments to promote E 3 ST in SMI. Examples and illustrations of such successful efforts have also been highlighted

  13. Large enhancement of deuteron polarization with frequency modulated microwaves

    CERN Document Server

    Adeva, B; Arik, S; Arvidson, A; Badelek, B; Ballintijn, M K; Bardin,; Baum, G; Berglund, P; Betev, L; Birda, I G; Birsa, R; Bjrkholm, P; Bonner, B E; de Botton, N; Boutemeur, M; Bradamante, Franco; Bressan, A; Brullc, A; Buchanan, J; Bültmann, S; Burtin, E; Cavata, C; Chen, J P; Clement, J; Clocchiatti, M; Corcoran, M D; Crabb, D; Cranshaw, J; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Deshpande, S; Dalla Torre, A; Van Dantzig, R; Dhawan, S; Dulya, C; Dyring, A; Eichblatt, S; Faivre, Jean-Claude; Fasching, D; Day, D; Feinstein, F; Fernández, C; Frois, B; Garabatos, C; Garzón, J A; Gaussiran, T; Giorgi, M; von Goeler, E; Goloutvin, Igor A; Gómez, A; Gracia, G; De Groot, N; Grosse-Perdekamp, M; Gülmez, E; Hasegawa, T; Hautle, P; Hayashi, N; Heusch, C A; Horikawa, D; von Harrach, N; Hughes, V W; Igo, G; Ishimoto, S; Iwata, T; De Jong, M; Kabu, E M; Kageya, T; Kaiser, R; Karev, A; Kessler, H J; Ketel, T J; Kiryushin, Yu T; Kishi, A; Kisselev, Yu; Klostermann, L; Krämer, Dietrich; Kukhtin, V; Kyynarinen, J; Lamanna, M; Landgraf, U; Lau, V; Krivokhijinea, K; Layda, T; Le Go, J M; Lehár, F; de Lesquen, A; Lichtenstadt, J; Lindqvist, T; Litmaath, M; López-Ponte, S; Loewe, M; Magnon, A; Mallot, G K; Marie, F; Martin, A; Martino, J; Matsuda, T; Mayes, B; McCarthy, J S; van Middelkoop, K; Medved, G; Miller, D; Mitchell, J; Mori, K; Moromisato, J; Mutchler, G S; Nagaitsev, A; Nassalski, J; Naumann, Lutz; Neganov, B; Niinikoski, T O; Oberski, J E J; Ogawa, A; Okumi, S; Ozben, C S; Penzo, Aldo L; Pérez, C A; Perrot-Kunne, F; Piegaia, R; Pinsky, L; Platchkov, S; Pló, M; Pose, D; Postma, D; Peshekhonov, H; Pretz, J; Pussieux, T; Pyrlik, J; Reyhancan, I; Rieubland, Jean Michel; Rijllart, A; Roberts, J B; Rock, S E; Rodríguez, M; Rondio, E; Rondon, O; Ropelewski, Leszek; Rosado, A; Sabo, I; Saborido, J; Salvato, G; Sandacz, A; Sanders, D; Savin, I; Schiavon, Paolo; Schüler, K P; Segel, R; Seitz, R; Semertzidis, Y; Sergeev, S; Sever, F; Shanahan, P; Sichtermann, E P; Smirnov, G; Staude, A; Steinmetz, A; Stuhrmann, H; Teichert, K M; Tessarotto, F; Thiel, W; Velasco, M; Vogt, J; Voss, R; Weinstein, R; Whitten, C; Willumeit, R; Windmolders, R; Wislicki, W; Witzmann, A; Yañez, A; Zanetti, A M; Zhao, J; Zamiatin, N I

    1996-01-01

    We report a large enhancement of 1.7 in deuteron polarization up to values of 0.6 due to frequency modulation of the polarizing microwaves in a two liters polarized target using the method of dynamic nuclear polarization. This target was used during a deep inelastic polarized muon-deuteron scattering experiment at CERN. Measurements of the electron paramagnetic resonance absorption spectra show that frequency modulation gives rise to additional microwave absorption in the spectral wings. Although these results are not understood theoretically, they may provide a useful testing ground for the deeper understanding of dynamic nuclear polarization.

  14. Design of a Deuteron RFQ for Neutron Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Z Y; Fang, J; Lu, Y R; Peng, S X; Song, Z Z; Yu Jin Xiang; Zhang, C; Zhu, K

    2004-01-01

    A deuteron RFQ is designed for neutron generation with 9Be(d,n)10B reaction. Considering the limitation of available RF transmitter, the frequency was chosen as 201.5 MHz and the peak RF power was set to 400 kW with 10% duty factor. The deuteron beam will be extracted from an ECR ion source also with 10% duty factor and then be accelerated to about 2 MeV by RFQ with high transmission efficiency. The system will be described and the design results of particle dynamics and structure will be given.

  15. Spin tracking for a deuteron EDM storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skawran, A.; Lehrach, A.

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the Jülich Electric Dipole moment Investigations (JEDI) collaboration is the measurement of the Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of charged particles like protons or deuterons. There are two possible concepts under consideration for the realization of EDM measurement with deuterons; the Frozen Spin (FS) and Quasi-Frozen Spin (QFS) method. Both approaches are discussed and compared in this paper. Detailed spin- and beam dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the effect of various misalignments of ring elements and systematic effects. Furthermore, the utilization of counter rotating beams is studied and checked for its validity.

  16. Probing CP Violation with the Deuteron Electric Dipole Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Lebedev, Oleg; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam; Lebedev, Oleg; Olive, Keith A.; Pospelov, Maxim; Ritz, Adam

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the deuteron as induced by CP-violating operators of dimension 4, 5 and 6 including theta QCD, the EDMs and color EDMs of quarks, four-quark interactions and the Weinberg operator. We demonstrate that the precision goal of the EDM Collaboration's proposal to search for the deuteron EDM, (1-3)\\times 10^{-27} e cm, will provide an improvement in sensitivity to these sources of one-two orders of magnitude relative to the existing bounds. We consider in detail the level to which CP-odd phases can be probed within the MSSM.

  17. Past, present and future polarization experiments with deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, V.; Perdrisat, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Recent experimental data for the inclusive breakup reaction A(d, p)X, with emphasis on 1 H(d, p)X, and the backward elastic scattering reaction dp → pd are discussed. There is now a fairly complete data base for these reactions, with measurements of the differential cross section, the tensor analyzing power T 20 and the deuteron to proton polarization transfer k 0 . The relevance of these reactions to the study of the short range properties of the deuteron is estimated [ru

  18. Spallation reaction study for fission products in nuclear waste: Cross section measurements for 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd on proton and deuteron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spallation reactions for the long-lived fission products 137Cs, 90Sr and 107Pd have been studied for the purpose of nuclear waste transmutation. The cross sections on the proton- and deuteron-induced spallation were obtained in inverse kinematics at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. Both the target and energy dependences of cross sections have been investigated systematically. and the cross-section differences between the proton and deuteron are found to be larger for lighter fragments. The experimental data are compared with the SPACS semi-empirical parameterization and the PHITS calculations including both the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes.

  19. Influence of polar medium on the reorganization energy of charge transfer between dyes in a dye sensitized film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaissier, Valérie; Barnes, Piers; Kirkpatrick, James; Nelson, Jenny

    2013-04-07

    We study the kinetics of the lateral hole transfer occurring between dye molecules anchored at the surface of the metal oxide in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC). We use Marcus' charge transfer rate equation for which we need the electronic coupling between two molecules (J) and the reorganization energy (λtot). In DSSC the medium surrounding the dyes is highly polar. This means that the contribution of the solvent to the reorganization energy cannot be neglected. Here we elaborate a method to calculate, from first principles, the total (i.e., inner- and outer-sphere) reorganization energy of hole exchange between ruthenium dyes. The influence of the solvent and of the ions in the solvent is incorporated. The inner-sphere reorganization energy depends on the nature of the dye, 0.1 eV for ruthenium dyes with CN ligands, 0.2 eV for ruthenium dyes with NCS ligands. In acetonitrile, the solvent reorganization energy contributes for at least 80% of the total giving a total reorganization energy of around 0.86 eV for ruthenium dyes with CN ligands and 0.95 eV for ruthenium dyes with NCS ligands. We use these results to estimate the rate of hole transfer within Marcus theory. We suggest that low diffusion coefficients observed experimentally may arise from the high polarity of the medium rather than by the chemical structure of the dye.

  20. Energy service contracts in regional engineering center for small and medium businesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil'manshin, I. R.; Kashapov, N. F.

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of the energy service contracts development in Russia is given in the article. The role of the Complex learning centres in the field of energy efficiency in the promotion of energy service contracts is described. The reasons of constraining the development of energy service contracts are described.

  1. Enhancement of deuteron-fusion reactions in metals and experimental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huke, A.; Heide, P.; Czerski, K.; Ruprecht, G.; Targosz, N.; Zebrowski, W.

    2008-01-01

    Recent measurements of the reaction 2 H(d,p) 3 H in metallic environments at very low energies performed by different experimental groups point to an enhanced electron screening effect. However, the resulting screening energies differ strongly for diverse host metals and different experiments. Here, we present new experimental results and investigations of interfering processes in the irradiated targets. These measurements inside metals set special challenges and pitfalls that make them and the data analysis particularly error prone. There are multiparameter collateral effects that are crucial for the correct interpretation of the observed experimental yields. They mainly originate from target surface contaminations owing to residual gases in the vacuum as well as from inhomogeneities and instabilities in the deuteron density distribution in the targets. To address these problems an improved differential analysis method beyond the standard procedures has been implemented. Profound scrutiny of the other experiments demonstrates that the observed unusual changes in the reaction yields are mainly due to deuteron density dynamics simulating the alleged screening energy values. The experimental results are compared with different theoretical models of the electron screening in metals. The Debye-Hueckel model that has been previously proposed to explain the influence of the electron screening on both nuclear reactions and radioactive decays can be clearly excluded

  2. The role of small and medium reactors in the energy security of a country, IRIS example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavlina, N.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear options for electricity generations are assessed in this paper. Probabilistic (stochastic) method is used for economic comparison of nuclear power plants, wind plants and natural gas fired plants. Optimal nuclear power plant size is also discussed. IRIS is presented as a representative of small and medium reactors

  3. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters. Progress in research, January 1, 1983-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The aim of the experimental program is the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes at medium energy. Experiments described include D/sub SS/, D/sub LS/, D/sub SL/, D/sub LL/, and P for p-p elastic scattering, the measurement of polarization observables in ppvector → pvector π + nu and ppvector → ppvector π, and measurements of the spin rotation parameters for pvector d → pvector d elastic scattering at 496, 647, and 800 MeV. Also, progress on an energy dependent proton-carbon analyzing power fit is reported. Current approved LAMPF proposals are described and 1983 publications are listed

  4. Dose to tissue medium or water cavities as surrogate for the dose to cell nuclei at brachytherapy photon energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, Shirin A.; Ahnesjö, Anders; Verhaegen, Frank; Beaulieu, Luc

    2012-07-01

    It has been suggested that modern dose calculation algorithms should be able to report absorbed dose both as dose to the local medium, Dm,m, and as dose to a water cavity embedded in the medium, Dw,m, using conversion factors from cavity theory. Assuming that the cell nucleus with its DNA content is the most important target for biological response, the aim of this study is to investigate, by means of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, the relationship of the dose to a cell nucleus in a medium, Dn,m, to Dm,m and Dw,m, for different combinations of cell nucleus compositions and tissue media for different photon energies used in brachytherapy. As Dn,m is very impractical to calculate directly for routine treatment planning, while Dm,m and Dw,m are much easier to obtain, the questions arise which one of these quantities is the best surrogate for Dn,m and which cavity theory assumptions should one use for its estimate. The Geant4.9.4 MC code was used to calculate Dm,m, Dw,m and Dn,m for photon energies from 20 (representing the lower energy end of brachytherapy for 103Pd or125I) to 300 keV (close to the mean energy of 192Ir) and for the tissue media adipose, breast, prostate and muscle. To simulate the cell and its nucleus, concentric spherical cavities were placed inside a cubic phantom (10 × 10 × 10 mm3). The diameter of the simulated nuclei was set to 14 µm. For each tissue medium, three different setups were simulated; (a) Dn,m was calculated with nuclei embedded in tissues (MC-Dn,m). Four different published elemental compositions of cell nuclei were used. (b) Dw,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dw,m) and compared with large cavity theory calculated Dw,m (LCT-Dw,m), and small cavity theory calculated Dw,m (SCT-Dw,m). (c) Dm,m was calculated with MC (MC-Dm,m). MC-Dw,m is a good substitute for MC-Dn,m for all photon energies and for all simulated nucleus compositions and tissue types. SCT-Dw,m can be used for most energies in brachytherapy, while LCT-Dw,m should only be

  5. Photoproduction of ηπ pairs off nucleons and deuterons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeser, A.; Mueller, F.; Dieterle, M.; Garni, S.; Jaegle, I.; Keshelashvili, I.; Krusche, B.; Maghrbi, Y.; Oberle, M.; Pheron, F.; Rostomyan, T.; Strub, T.; Walford, N.K.; Witthauer, L. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Bartolome, P.A.; Ostrick, M.; Otte, P.; Thomas, A. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Annand, J.R.M.; Hamilton, D.; Howdle, D.; Livingston, K.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Mancell, J.; McGeorge, J.C.; McNicoll, E.; Robinson, J. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Bantawa, K.; Manley, D.M. [Kent State University, Kent, OH (United States); Beck, R.; Nikolaev, A.; Schumann, S.; Unverzagt, M. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); University Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Costanza, S.; Mushkarenkov, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Briscoe, W.J.; Marinides, Z. [The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Cherepnya, S.; Fil' kov, L.V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Downie, E.J. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Drexler, P.; Metag, V.; Novotny, R.; Thiel, M. [University of Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Glazier, D.I. [University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Hornidge, D.; Middleton, D.G. [Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick (Canada); Huber, G.M. [University of Regina, Regina (Canada); Jude, T.C.; Sikora, M.H.; Watts, D.P. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA School of Physics, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kashevarov, V.L. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V.; Polonski, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Korolija, M.; Mekterovic, D.; Micanovic, S.; Supek, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Oussena, B. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); The George Washington University, Center for Nuclear Studies, Washington (United States); Prakhov, S.; Starostin, A. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Sober, D. [The Catholic University of America, Washington (United States); Werthmueller, D. [University of Basel, Department of Physics, Basel (Switzerland); University of Glasgow, SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Collaboration: The A2 Collaboration

    2016-09-15

    Quasi-free photoproduction of πη-pairs has been investigated from threshold up to incident photon energies of 1.4 GeV, respectively up to photon-nucleon invariant masses up to 1.9 GeV. Total cross sections, angular distributions, invariant-mass distributions of the πη and meson-nucleon pairs, and beam-helicity asymmetries have been measured for the reactions γp → pπ{sup 0}η, γn → nπ{sup 0}η, γp → nπ{sup +}η, and γn → pπ{sup -}η from nucleons bound inside the deuteron. For the γp initial-state data for free protons have also been analyzed. Finally, the total cross sections for quasi-free production of π{sup 0}η pairs from nucleons bound in {sup 3} He nuclei have been investigated in view of final state interaction (FSI) effects. The experiments were performed at the tagged photon beam facility of the Mainz MAMI accelerator using an almost 4π covering electromagnetic calorimeter composed of the Crystal Ball and TAPS detectors. The shapes of all differential cross section data and the asymmetries are very similar for protons and neutrons and agree with the conjecture that the reactions are dominated by the sequential Δ*3/2{sup -} → ηΔ(1232) → πηN decay chain, mainly with Δ(1700)3/2{sup -} and Δ(1940)3/2{sup -}. The ratios of the magnitude of the total cross sections also agree with this assumption. However, the absolute magnitudes of the cross sections are reduced by FSI effects with respect to free proton data. (orig.)

  6. Predictions for the energy loss of light ions in laser-generated plasmas at low and medium velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayzac, W; Bagnoud, V; Basko, M M; Blažević, A; Frank, A; Gericke, D O; Hallo, L; Malka, G; Ortner, A; Tauschwitz, An; Vorberger, J; Roth, M

    2015-11-01

    The energy loss of light ions in dense plasmas is investigated with special focus on low to medium projectile energies, i.e., at velocities where the maximum of the stopping power occurs. In this region, exceptionally large theoretical uncertainties remain and no conclusive experimental data are available. We perform simulations of beam-plasma configurations well suited for an experimental test of ion energy loss in highly ionized, laser-generated carbon plasmas. The plasma parameters are extracted from two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, and a Monte Carlo calculation of the charge-state distribution of the projectile ion beam determines the dynamics of the ion charge state over the whole plasma profile. We show that the discrepancies in the energy loss predicted by different theoretical models are as high as 20-30%, making these theories well distinguishable in suitable experiments.

  7. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

  8. Energy technologies for Post Kyoto targets in the medium term. Proceedings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The Risø International Energy Conference took place 19 - 21 May 2003 and the aim was to present and discuss new developments and trends in energy technologies which may become main contributors to the energy scene in 15 to 20 years. The conferenceaddressed R&D related to the individual technologies...

  9. Correcting systematic errors in high-sensitivity deuteron polarization measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brantjes, N. P. M.; Dzordzhadze, V.; Gebel, R.; Gonnella, F.; Gray, F. E.; van der Hoek, D. J.; Imig, A.; Kruithof, W. L.; Lazarus, D. M.; Lehrach, A.; Lorentz, B.; Messi, R.; Moricciani, D.; Morse, W. M.; Noid, G. A.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Ozben, C. S.; Prasuhn, D.; Sandri, P. Levi; Semertzidis, Y. K.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Stephenson, E. J.; Stockhorst, H.; Venanzoni, G.; Versolato, O. O.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports deuteron vector and tensor beam polarization measurements taken to investigate the systematic variations due to geometric beam misalignments and high data rates. The experiments used the In-Beam Polarimeter at the KVI-Groningen and the EDDA detector at the Cooler Synchrotron COSY

  10. Study of double scattering effect in antiproton--deuteron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemany, P.D.

    1975-01-01

    The double scattering process in the deuteron is investigated for the reaction anti pd → p/sub s/ + mesons. About 30 percent of the apparent anti pn annihilations are involved in double scattering. A model which describes the properties of protons emerging from apparent anti pn annihilations is presented

  11. (Anti-)deuteron production at the LHC with the ALICE-HMPID detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barile, F

    2015-01-01

    The high center-of-mass energies delivered by the LHC during the last three years of operation led to accumulate a significant statistics of light (hyper-)nuclei in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions. The ALICE apparatus allows for the detection of these rarely produced particles over a wide momentum range thanks to its excellent vertexing, tracking and particle identification capabilities. The last is based on the specific energy loss in the Time Projection Chamber and the velocity measurement with the Time-Of-Flight detector. The Cherenkov tech- nique, exploited by a small acceptance detector (HMPID), has been also recently used for the most central Pb-Pb collisions to extend the identification range of the (anti-)deuteron at intermediate transverse momentum. An overview of the recent results on the (anti-)deuteron production in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions mea- sured with ALICE experiment are presented, giving a particular emphasis to the description of the Cherenkov technique

  12. Final-state interaction in spin asymmetry and GDH sum rule for incoherent pion production on the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, E.M.; Arenhoevel, H.; Schwamb, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, D-55099, Mainz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The contribution of incoherent single-pion photoproduction to the spin response of the deuteron, i.e., the asymmetry of the total photoabsorption cross-section with respect to parallel and antiparallel spins of photon and deuteron, is calculated over the region of the {delta}-resonance with inclusion of final-state NN and {pi}N rescattering. Sizeable effects, mainly from NN rescattering, are found leading to an appreciable reduction of the spin asymmetry. Furthermore, the contribution to the Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn integral is explicitly evaluated by integration up to a photon energy of 550 MeV. Final-state interaction reduces the value of the integral to about half of the value obtained for the pure impulse approximation. (orig.)

  13. Study of the Two-pion Photoproduction on the Deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Lewis P. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding the structure of baryons in terms of the fundamental interaction of the constituent quarks and gluons is one of the primary challenges in strong interaction physics. This interaction is governed by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is a theory for understanding the dynamics of strong. QCD displays the asymptotic freedom of hadrons at very short distances and also the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. However, solutions of this QCD theory in the non-perturbative domain of the interaction are extremely difficult to achieve, mainly because confinement happens on the hadronic scale on which the coupling constant is large and prevents any perturbative approach. Thus leaving us with strategies such as lattice QCD or formulating QCD sum rules to get around this problem. In exclusive hadron production the yN interaction is recognized for being a powerful method for investigating hadrons and the mysteries that still exist within the strong interaction. From reactions with the nucleon, the strong interaction can be investigated through the transition amplitudes to the N and Delta resonances. More specifically, if an electromagnetic interaction is well known then the intermediate resonance states may be evaluated through meson photoproduction. To gain more detailed insight into this interaction, we look to probe the baryon structure of the nucleon and the photo-excited resonance decays through photon scattering off a deuteron producing two pions in the final state. This photoproduction process off the deuteron will be used to investigate known baryon resonances in the two pion channel. The two pion final state will be investigated for unraveling new information into the photo-coupling strengths. We want to explore final state interactions, search for properties of known resonances, and to explore the possibility of seeing missing states that are predicted by quark models but have not yet been found experimentally. Using the CEBAF Large

  14. Recent results in the development of a global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus optical-model potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madland, D.G.

    1988-02-01

    Initial results are presented for the determination of a global medium-energy nucleon-nucleus phenomenological optical-model potential using a relativistic Schroedinger representation. The starting point for this work is the global phenomenological optical-model potential of Schwandt /ital et al./, which is based on measured elastic scattering cross sections and analyzing power for polarized protons ranging from 80 to 180 MeV. This potential is optimally modified to reproduce experimental proton reaction cross sections as a function of energy, while allowing only minimal deterioration in the fits to the elastic cross sections and analyzing powers. Further modifications in the absorptive potential were found necessary to extrapolate the modified potential to higher energies. The final potential is converted to a neutron-nucleus potential by use of standard Lane model assumptions and by accounting approximately for the Coulomb correction. Comparisons of measured and calculated proton reaction and neutron total cross sections are presented for 27 Al, 56 Fe, and 208 Pb. Medium-energy optical-model potentials for complex projectiles are briefly discussed in an appendix. 7 refs., 20 figs

  15. Hard QCD processes in the nuclear medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Adam

    The environment inside the atomic nucleus is one of the most fascinating arenas for the study of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The strongly-interacting nature of the nuclear medium a?ects the nature of both QCD processes and the quark-gluon structure of hadrons, allowing several unique aspects of the strong nuclear force to be investigated in reactions involving nuclear targets. The research presented in this dissertation explores two aspects of nuclear QCD: firstly, the partonic structure of the nucleus itself; and secondly, the use of the nucleus as a micro-laboratory in which QCD processes can be studied. The partonic structure of the nucleus is calculated in this work by deriving and utilizing a convolution formula. The hadronic structure of the nucleus and the quark-gluon structure of its constituent nucleons are taken together to determine the nuclear partonic structure. Light cone descriptions of short range correlations, in terms of both hadronic and partonic structure, are derived and taken into account. Medium modifications of the bound nucleons are accounted for using the color screening model, and QCD evolution is used to connect nuclear partonic structure at vastly di?erent energy scales. The formalism developed for calculating nuclear partonic structure is applied to inclusive dijet production from proton-nucleus collisions at LHC kinematics, and novel predictions are calculated and presented for the dijet cross section. The nucleus is investigated as a micro-laboratory in vector meson photoproduction reactions. In particular, the deuteron is studied in the break-up reaction gammad → Vpn, for both the φ(1020) and J/v vector mesons. The generalized eikonal approximation is utilized, allowing unambiguous separation of the impulse approximation and final state interactions (FSIs). Two peaks or valleys are seen in the angular distribution of the reaction cross section, each of which is due to an FSI between either the proton and neutron, or the

  16. Thermal mass impact on energy performance of a low, medium and heavy mass building in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Bojan V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy mass materials used in building structures and architecture can significantly affect building energy performance and occupant comfort. The purpose of this study was to investigate if thermal mass can improve the internal environment of a building, resulting in lower energy requirements from the mechanical systems. The study was focused on passive building energy performance and compared annual space heating and cooling energy requirements for an office building in Belgrade with several different applications of thermal mass. A three-dimensional building model was generated to represent a typical office building. Building shape, orientation, glazing to wall ratio, envelope insulation thickness, and indoor design conditions were held constant while location and thickness of building mass (concrete was varied between cases in a series of energy simulations. The results were compared and discussed in terms of the building space heating and cooling energy and demand affected by thermal mass. The simulation results indicated that with addition of thermal mass to the building envelope and structure: 100% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space heating energy requirements, 67% of all simulated cases experienced reduced annual space cooling energy requirements, 83% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space heating demand and 50% of all simulated cases experienced reduced peak space cooling demand. The study demonstrated that there exists a potential for reducing space heating and cooling energy requirements with heavy mass construction in the analyzed climate region (Belgrade, Serbia.

  17. Exploring drivers for energy efficiency within small- and medium-sized enterprises: First evidences from Italian manufacturing enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; Trianni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Allowances, public financing and external pressures as major external drivers. ► Ambitious decision-makers with great entrepreneurial mind as major internal drivers. ► Effect of firm’s size (even within SMEs) on drivers to industrial energy efficiency. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s internal and external complexity. ► Preliminary evidences of the effect of firm’s innovation characteristics. - Abstract: Several studies have investigated the barriers to industrial energy efficiency, but few have focused on the most effective means (drivers) to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies and practices. In this respect, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have been completely overlooked despite interesting consequences for their overall energy consumption and their concurrent low levels of adoption of energy-efficiency measures. Starting from insights garnered from the extant literature on the drivers of industrial energy efficiency, this paper presents an empirical investigation of 71 Italian manufacturing SMEs through a multiple case-study approach. The research highlights the importance of allowances or public financing for energy efficiency interventions, as well as the importance of external pressures such as increases in energy prices and the introduction or increasing of fees on both resources consumed and on emissions of pollutants. Moreover, enterprises look favourably upon energy-efficient technologies which are able to provide long-term benefits, evidence of their willingness to adopt seemingly radical solutions when these are able to improve their long-term competitiveness. Other drivers considered as strategic for increasing energy efficiency are the presence within the company of people with great ambition and entrepreneurial mind and the management sensitivity to the issue. This paper also provides a preliminary analysis of how factors such as firm size, sector, supply chain complexity, and

  18. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Mardan, Nawzad; Karlsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic

  19. Energy efficiency and sustainability assessment of about 500 small and medium-sized enterprises in Central Europe region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viesi, Diego; Pozzar, Francesca; Federici, Alessandro; Crema, Luigi; Mahbub, Md Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays more than 20 million small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are located in the European Union (EU): they are a key driver for economic growth, innovation, employment and social integration. The first step towards better industrial energy and environmental performance is the acknowledgement of the savings potential that can be realized by the company ownership and management board. Following this goal, the CEEM (Central Environmental and Energy Management) project provided to about 500 Central Europe SMEs of 5 countries (Austria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy and Slovenia) a user friendly and free of charge web tool called 3EMT (Eco Energy Efficiency Management Tool). Through a questionnaire the 3EMT analyzes and sums up eco-energy patterns, helps to self-assess the company environmental performance, benchmarks a company with other Central Europe’s enterprises, delivers a customized Assessment Report, suggests further services and facilities. In this paper, the large 3EMT database is analyzed, and statistics focused on SMEs eco-energy performance and future & innovation perspectives are presented and discussed. Furthermore, key challenges and key intervention points were defined by local stakeholders (policy makers, Energy Service Companies, SMEs representatives, researchers), this paper summarizes the main policy outcomes. - Highlights: • Evaluation of Central Europe SME performance in energy efficiency and sustainability. • Extension of SME statistics at European and national level. • Identification of key challenges and key interventions for new industrial policies.

  20. Energy Storage Characteristic Analysis of Voltage Sags Compensation for UPQC Based on MMC for Medium Voltage Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchun Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The modular multilevel converter (MMC, as a new type of voltage source converter, is increasingly used because it is a distributed storage system. There are many advantages of using the topological structure of the MMC on a unified power quality controller (UPQC, and voltage sag mitigation is an important use of the MMC energy storage system for the power quality compensation process. In this paper, based on the analysis of the topology of the MMC, the essence of energy conversion in a UPQC of voltage sag compensation is analyzed; then, the energy storage characteristics are calculated and analyzed to determine the performance index of voltage sag compensation; in addition, the simulation method is used to verify the voltage sag compensation characteristics of the UPQC; finally, an industrial prototype of the UPQC based on an MMC for 10 kV of medium voltage distribution network has been developed, and the basic functions of UPQC have been tested.

  1. The triple helix frame for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for innovation and development of offshore wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2016-01-01

    This research reveals how small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can enable innovation and contribute to a reduction in the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in offshore wind farms. The research provides findings from a longitudinal qualitative study of 10 SMEs for the understanding of the impact...... innovation for the reduction of the LCOE in the wind farm industry. This knowledge space also provides important insight and understanding for the governmental and university helices for active contribution to offshore wind energy. The governmental policy impact stresses the need for a more strategic long......-term support of industry knowledge spaces for offshore wind energy. Governmental bodies would actively enhance political growth strategies regulating competition and collaboration. Universities can contribute actively towards knowledge creation and dissemination. All three helices could benefit from...

  2. Decentralized energy management strategy based on predictive controllers for a medium voltage direct current photovoltaic electric vehicle charging station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torreglosa, Juan P.; García-Triviño, Pablo; Fernández-Ramirez, Luis M.; Jurado, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic, batteries and grid connection is analyzed. • The bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system by decentralized approach. • Decentralized control approach facilities the enlargement of the system. • Photovoltaic and battery systems are controlled by model predictive controllers. • Response by model predictive controllers improves that by PI controllers. - Abstract: The use of distributed charging stations based on renewable energy sources for electric vehicles has increased in recent years. Combining photovoltaic solar energy and batteries as energy storage system, directly tied into a medium voltage direct current bus, and with the grid support, results to be an interesting option for improving the operation and efficiency of electric vehicle charging stations. In this paper, an electric vehicle charging station supplied by photovoltaic solar panels, batteries and with grid connection is analysed and evaluated. A decentralized energy management system is developed for regulating the energy flow among the photovoltaic system, the battery and the grid in order to achieve the efficient charging of electric vehicles. The medium voltage direct current bus voltage is the key parameter for controlling the system. The battery is controlled by a model predictive controller in order to keep the bus voltage at its reference value. Depending on the state-of-charge of the battery and the bus voltage, the photovoltaic system can work at maximum power point tracking mode or at bus voltage sustaining mode, or even the grid support can be needed. The results demonstrate the proper operation and energy management of the electric vehicle charging station under study.

  3. Hot nuclei and search for multifragmentation in medium-energy heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doubre, H.

    1988-01-01

    Some recent determinations of the excitation energies and temperatures of composite systems formed in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions are described and the issue of a limiting temperature is discussed. Several examples of experimental investigations of an eventual occurrence of a multifragmentation process are also described

  4. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters. Final technical report, April 1, 1994--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, D.; Betts, W.; Coffey, P.; Glass, G.; McDonough, J.; Riley, P.; Tang, J.L.

    1998-08-01

    This document is a final technical report describing the accomplishments of the medium/high energy nuclear physics research program at the University of Texas at Austin. The research program had four main thrusts, only one of which can be considered as measurements of N-N parameters: (1) finishing the data analyses associated with recent LAMPF and TRIUMPF N-N experiments, whose overall purpose has been the determination of the nucleon-nucleon amplitudes, both for isospin 0 and 1 at medium energies; (2) continuing work on BNL E871, a search for rare decay modes of the K L ; (3) work on the RHIC-STAR project, an experiment to create and study a quark gluon plasma and nuclear matter at high energy density; (4) beginning a new AGS experiment (E896) which will search for the lowest mass state of the predicted strange di-baryons, the Ho, and other exotic states of nuclear matter through nucleus-nucleus collisions

  5. Nuclear structure studies by the scattering of medium-energy electrons. Progress report, September 1, 1984-August 31, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, G.A.; Hicks, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    The University of Massachusetts Medium Energy Nuclear Physics Group reports the status of its experimental and theoretical programs. An overview of projects in elastic and quasi-elastic electron scattering which have been completed in the past year is given. Projects which have been designed and which will soon be started are described as well. Descriptions of the theoretical models for nucleon-nucleon interactions, nuclear structure, electromagnetic interactions, and weak interactions are given as well. Listings of the literature of the group are given

  6. Innovative Medium-Speed Drivetrain Design Program and Dynamometer Testing; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan; Halse, Christopher

    2015-05-19

    Presented at the American Wind Energy Association WINDPOWER 2015 conference. This presentation covers the concept of the next-generation drivetrain, including its impacts, innovations, design and design benefits, instrumentation, assembly, and testing programs.

  7. Direct acceleration of ions to low and medium energies by a crossed-laser-beam configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef I. Salamin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Calculations show that 10 keV helium and carbon ions, injected midway between two identical 1 TW-power crossed laser beams of radial polarization, can be accelerated in vacuum to energies of utility in ion lithography. As examples, identical laser beams, crossed at 10° and focused to waist radii of 7.42  μm, accelerate He^{2+} and C^{6+} ions to average kinetic energies near 75 and 165 keV over distances averaging less than 7 and 6 mm, respectively. The spread in kinetic energy in both cases is less than 1% and the particle average angular deflection is less than 7 mrad. More energy-demanding industrial applications require higher-power laser beams for their direct ion laser acceleration.

  8. Deuteron induced Tb-155 production, a theranostic isotope for SPECT imaging and auger therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, C; Guertin, A; Haddad, F; Michel, N; Métivier, V

    2016-12-01

    Several terbium isotopes are suited for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. Tb-155 is of interest for SPECT imaging and/or Auger therapy. High radionuclide purity is mandatory for many applications in medicine. The quantification of the activity of the produced contaminants is therefore as important as that of the radionuclide of interest. The experiments performed at the ARRONAX cyclotron (Nantes, France), using the deuteron beam delivered up to 34MeV, provide an additional measurement of the excitation function of the Gd-nat(d,x)Tb-155 reaction and of the produced terbium and gadolinium contaminants. In this study, we investigate the achievable yield for each radionuclide produced in natural gadolinium as a function of the deuteron energy. Other reactions are discussed in order to define the production route that could provide Tb-155 with a high yield and a high radionuclide purity. This article aims to improve data for the Gd-nat(d,x) reaction and to optimize the irradiation conditions required to produce Tb-155. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energetic communities: Planning support for sustainable energy transition in small- and medium-sized communities

    OpenAIRE

    Sager-Klauß, Christina

    2016-01-01

    The necessity for transition in the energy sector is beyond dispute and high on the political agendas. Climate change, the depletion of fossil fuels and the vulnerability of economies to resource speculation and unreliable political systems in the producing countries lay path for a broad implementation of smart alternative solutions. This means the integration of more sustainable renewable energy sources in the existing supply structures or the displacement of existing systems by new ones. Ci...

  10. Medium Duty ARRA Data Reporting and Analysis; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Kenneth; Duran, Adam; Ragatz, Adam; Prohaska, Robert; Walkowicz, Kevin

    2015-06-11

    Medium-duty (MD) electric vehicle (EV) data collection and analysis will help drive design, purchase, and research investments. Over 4 million miles and 160,000 driving days of EV driving data were collected under this project. Publicly available data help drive technology research, development, and deployment. Feeding the vocational database for future analysis will lead to a better understanding of usage and will result in better design optimization and technology implementation. The performance of a vehicle varies with drive cycle and cargo load - MD vehicles are 'multi-functional.' Environment and accessory loads affect vehicle range and in turn add cost by adding battery capacity. MD EV vehicles can function in vocations traditionally serviced by gasoline or diesel vehicles. Facility implications (i.e., demand charges) need to be understood as part of site-based analysis for EV implementation.

  11. Determination of the energy dependence of the BC-408 plastic scintillation detector in medium energy x-ray beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, H.; Çubukçu, Ş.; Uyar, E.; Engin, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The energy dependence of the response of BC-408 plastic scintillator (PS), an approximately water-equivalent material, has been investigated by employing standardized x-ray beams. IEC RQA and ISO N series x-ray beam qualities, in the range of 40-100 kVp, were calibrated using a PTW-type ionization chamber. The energy response of a thick BC-408 PS detector was measured using the multichannel pulse height analysis method. The response of BC-408 PS increased gradually with increasing energy in the energy range of 40-80 kVp and then showed a flat behavior at about 80 to 120 kVp. This might be due to the self-attenuation of scintillation light by the scintillator itself and may also be partly due to the ionization quenching, leading to a reduction in the intensity of the light output from the scintillator. The results indicated that the sensitivity drop in BC-408 PS material at lower photon energies may be overcome by adding some high-Z elements to its polyvinyltoluene (PVT) base. The material modification may compensate for the drop in the response at lower photon energies. Thus plastic scintillation dosimetry is potentially suitable for applications in diagnostic radiology.

  12. Seismic Performance of low to medium rise reinforces concrete building using passive energy dissipation devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, A.; Qazi, A.U.; Rasool, M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major concerns in structural engineering is the development of new design concepts to improve structural performance and safety from the damaging effects of destructive earthquakes and winds. With the intent to achieve cost-effective seismic-resistant constructions the structures must be constructed to dissipate a large amount of seismic energy. Supplemental damping strategies are useful for improving the seismic response of structures to natural and manmade hazards. Passive energy dissipation devices, when integrated into a structure, dissipate a part of the input energy, thereby reducing energy dissipation requirement on primary structural members and reducing probable structural damage. The purpose of this research is to study the performance of building structure by using passive energy dissipation devices. Different types of devices used in this study are hysteretic dampers, friction dampers viscous and visco-elastic dampers. The finite element modeling technique is used to observe the behavior of structure with dampers. Three prototype concrete buildings (3, 5 and 10 Story) with same configuration are analyzed with damper using time history analysis. The buildings are analyzed with different types of dampers and by using different variation of their properties along the height of the building and the responses of buildings are observed in terms of, displacements, base shear and floor accelerations. It is found that the viscous and visco-elastic dampers are more effective for 3 and 5 storey buildings while friction and hysteresis dampers are effective for 10 storeys. (author)

  13. Development of the 3-D Track Imager for Medium and High-Energy Gamma-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Stanley D.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) and Advanced Pair Telescope (APT) are envisioned as the next medium (0.3 ^ 50 MeV) and high-energy (30 MeV - greater than 100 GeV) gamma-ray missions. These missions will address many research focus areas of the Structure and Evolution of the Universe Roadmap. These areas include: element formation, matter, energy, & magnetic field interactions in galaxies, AGN & GRB emission, and behavior of matter in extreme environments of black holes & pulsars. Achieving these science goals requires a substantial increases in telescope sensitivity and angular resolution. This talk will discuss how these goals can be met with the three-dimensional track imager (3-DTI), a large volume, low density, time projection chamber with two-dimensional micro-well detector readout and report on our development of a 10 cm x 10 cm x 30 prototype instrument.

  14. Free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, designed for medium energy X-ray dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, S. M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The primary standard for X-ray photons is based on parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is tried to design and build the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The main aim of the present work is to investigate specification of the FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber and design it. FAC-IR-300 dosimeter is composed of two parallel plates, a high voltage (HV) plate and a collector plate, along with a guard electrode that surrounds the collector plate. The guard plate and the collector were separated by an air gap. For obtaining uniformity in the electric field distribution, a group of guard strips was used around the ionization chamber. These characterizations involve determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation and introducing correction factors.

  15. The strategies of European energy operators. Which strategic and capitalistic evolutions for the sector on a medium term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-11-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at describing the current regulatory context of energy markets in Europe and the degree of openness to competition, at analysing all figures concerning electricity and natural gas in different countries (production, consumption, balance of trade), at analysing development strategies of electricity providers and gas operators and at assessing their strengths and weaknesses, at comparing financial performance of leader groups and at assessing their financial flexibility, and at anticipating the reconfiguration of the sector on a medium term. Fifteen energy companies or operators have been analysed: Centrica, CEZ, E.ON, EDF, EDP, Enel, ENI, Fortum, Gas Natural, GDF Suez, Iberdrola, RWE, SSE, Vattenfall, Verbund

  16. Exploring the particle nature of dark matter with the All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Regina; Meyer, Manuel; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel; AMEGO

    2018-01-01

    The era of precision cosmology has revealed that ~80% of the matter in the universe is dark matter. Two leading candidates, motivated by both particle and astrophysics, are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs) like axions and axionlike particles. Both WIMPs and WISPs have distinct gamma-ray signatures. Data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) continues to be an integral part of the search for these dark matter signatures spanning the 50 MeV to >300 GeV energy range in a variety of astrophysical targets. Thus far, there are no conclusive detections; however, there is an intriguing excess of gamma rays associated with Galactic center (GCE) that could be explained with WIMP annihilation. The angular resolution of the LAT at lower energies makes source selection challenging and the true nature of the detected signal remains unknown. WISP searches using, e.g. supernova explosions, spectra of blazars, or strongly magnetized environments, would also greatly benefit from increased angular and energy resolution, as well as from polarization measurements. To address these, we are developing AMEGO, the All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory. This instrument has a projected energy and angular resolution that will increase sensitivity by a factor of 20-50 over previous instruments. This will allow us to explore new areas of dark matter parameter space and provide unprecedented access to its particle nature.

  17. Quality indexes based on water measurements for low and medium energy x-ray beams: A theoretical study with PENELOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, U. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain and FISRAD S.A.S Carrera 64 a No 22-41, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Anguiano, M.; Lallena, A. M., E-mail: lallena@ugr.es [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Vilches, M. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario “San Cecilio”, Avda. Dr. Olóriz, 16, E-18012 Granada (Spain)

    2014-01-15

    Purpose : To study the use of quality indexes based on ratios of absorbed doses in water at two different depths to characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies. Methods : A total of 55 x-ray beam spectra were generated with the codes XCOMP5R and SPEKCALC and used as input of a series of Monte Carlo simulations performed with PENELOPE, in which the percentage depth doses in water and thek{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} factors, defined in the TRS-398 protocol, were determined for each beam. Some of these calculations were performed by simulating the ionization chamber PTW 30010. Results : The authors found that the relation betweenk{sub Q,Q{sub 0}} and the ratios of absorbed doses at two depths is almost linear. A set of ratios statistically compatible with that showing the best fit has been determined. Conclusions : The results of this study point out which of these ratios of absorbed doses in water could be used to better characterize x-ray beams of low and medium energies.

  18. Precise Measurement of Deuteron Tensor Analyzing Powers with BLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, C.; Akdogan, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Botto, T.; Clasie, B.; DeGrush, A.; Dow, K.; Farkhondeh, M.; Franklin, W.; Gilad, S.; Hasell, D.; Kolster, H.; Maschinot, A.; Matthews, J.; Meitanis, N.; Milner, R.; Redwine, R.; Seely, J.; Shinozaki, A.; Tschalaer, C.

    2011-01-01

    We report a precision measurement of the deuteron tensor analyzing powers T 20 and T 21 at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center. Data were collected simultaneously over a momentum transfer range Q=2.15-4.50 fm -1 with the Bates Large Acceptance Spectrometer Toroid using a highly polarized deuterium internal gas target. The data are in excellent agreement with calculations in a framework of effective field theory. The deuteron charge monopole and quadrupole form factors G C and G Q were separated with improved precision, and the location of the first node of G C was confirmed at Q=4.19±0.05 fm -1 . The new data provide a strong constraint on theoretical models in a momentum transfer range covering the minimum of T 20 and the first node of G C .

  19. Online polarimetry of the Nuclotron internal deuteron and proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isupov, A. Yu

    2017-12-01

    The spin studies at Nuclotron require fast and precise determination of the deuteron and proton beam polarization. For these purposes new powerful VME–based data acquisition (DAQ) system has been designed for the Deuteron Spin Structure setup placed at the Nuclotron Internal Target Station. The DAQ system is built using the netgraph–based data acquisition and processing framework ngdp. The software dealing with VME hardware is a set of netgraph nodes in form of the loadable kernel modules, so works in the operating system kernel context. The specific for current implementation nodes and user context utilities are described. The online events representation by ROOT classes allows us to generalize code for histograms filling and polarization calculations. The DAQ system was successfully used during 53rd and 54th Nuclotron runs, and their suitability for online polarimetry is demonstrated.

  20. Relativistic correction to the deuteron magnetic moment and angular condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, L.A.; Strikman, M.I.

    1983-01-01

    The relativistic correction (RC) to the deuteron magnetic moment μsub(d) is investigated using the light-cone dynamics. The restrictions imposed by the angular condition on the electromagnetic current operator of deuteron are discussed in detail. It is shown that the additive model for the current operator of interacting consistuencies is consistent with the angular condition only for the two first terms of expansion of the ''good'' electromagnetic current component jsub(+) in powers of the momentum transfer q. The RC into μsub(d) is calculated using the mattix element of the ''good'' component. The account of RC decreases essentially the discrepancy between the theoretical and experimental values. The value of Δsub(μ) is determined for the Hamada-Johnston potential hard core potential (0.93x10 -2 ) for the Reid soft core potential (0.71x10 -2 ) and for the Paris potential (0.63x10 -2 )

  1. First Results from BM@N Technical Run with Deuteron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, D.; Kapishin, M.; Kulish, E.; Maksymchuk, A.; Mamontova, T.; Pokatashkin, G.; Rufanov, I.; Vasendina, V.; Zinchenko, A.

    2018-03-01

    BM@N (Baryonic Matter at Nuclotron) is the first experiment to be realized at the accelerator complex of NICA-Nuclotron at JINR (Dubna). The aim of the experiment is to study interactions of relativistic heavy ion beams with a kinetic energy from 1 to 4.5 AGeV with fixed targets. The BM@N set-up at the starting phase of the experiment is introduced. First results of the analysis of minimum bias experimental data collected in the technical run in interactions of the deuteron beam of 4 AGeV with different targets are presented. The spacial, momentum and primary vertex resolution of the GEM tracker are studied. The signal of Lambda-hyperon is reconstructed in the proton-pion invariant mass spectrum. The data results are described by Monte Carlo simulations. The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High Energy Physics, JINR.

  2. Study of the deuteron break-up with protons and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.; Moeller, K.; Moesner, J.; Schmidt, G.

    1977-06-01

    A review is given on the present situation and the results obtained in the experimental and theoretical investigation of the break-up of deuterons by protons and neutrons at bombarding energies up to 50 MeV. The nonrelativistic three-particle kinematics, experimental techniques and the basic theoretical equations for three particle scattering are described and the most important experimental results of the last years are discussed together with theoretical interpretation. It is shown that the reaction mechanism of the N-d break-up is well understood and that one can extract two-particle low energy scattering parameters (e.g., the n-n scattering length) with good accuracy. But despite of a relatively good agreement between experimental spectra and theoretical calculations (except polarisation measurements) no reliable quantitative information on the off-shell behaviour of the two-particle interaction and on three-body forces can be obtained at present. (author)

  3. Electron-deuteron DIS with spectator tagging at EIC: Development of theoretical framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosyn, W.; Guzey, V.; Sargsian, M.; Strikman, M.; Weiss, C.

    2016-03-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on the deuteron with detection of a forward-moving nucleon (p, n) and measurement of its recoil momentum ("spectator tagging"). Such experiments offer full control of the nuclear configuration during the high-energy process and can be used for precision studies of the neutron's partonic structure and its spin dependence, nuclear modifications of partonic structure, and nuclear shadowing at small x. We review the theoretical description of spectator tagging at EIC energies (light-front nuclear structure, on-shell extrapolation in the recoil nucleon momentum, final-state interactions, diffractive effects at small x) and report about on-going developments.

  4. Electron-deuteron DIS with spectator tagging at EIC: Development of theoretical framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosyn, Wim B. [University of Ghent, Belgium; Guzey, Vadim A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, 188300, Russia; Sargsian, Misak M. [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Strikman, Mark M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Weiss, Christian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    An Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) would enable next-generation measurements of deep-inelastic scattering (DIS) on the deuteron with detection of a forward-moving nucleon (p, n) and measurement of its recoil momentum ("spectator tagging''). Such experiments offer full control of the nuclear configuration during the high-energy process and can be used for precision studies of the neutron's partonic structure and its spin dependence, nuclear modifications of partonic structure, and nuclear shadowing at small x. We review the theoretical description of spectator tagging at EIC energies (light-front nuclear structure, on-shell extrapolation in the recoil nucleon momentum, final-state interactions, diffractive effects at small x) and report about on-going developments.

  5. Elastic scattering of polarised deuterons from 16O at 200, 400 and 700 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Sen; Ye Yanlin; Arvieux, J.; Gaillard, G.; Bonin, B.; Boudard, A.; Bruge, G.; Lugol, J.C.; Babinet, R.; Antonuk, L.E.; Cameron, J.M.; Lam, S.T.; Neilson, G.C.; Roy, G.; Sheppard, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Angular distributions of cross section, and A y and A yy analysing powers were measured for polarised deuteron elastic scattering from 16 O at 200, 400 and 700 MeV. The data at 200 MeV bear evidence of the nuclear rainbow phenomenon while those at 400 and 700 MeV are reminiscent of the proton scattering results at equivalent energies. The data were analysed in terms of the optical model. The real central potential shape changes from an attractive Woods-Saxon form at 200 MeV to a wine-bottle-bottom form with a repulsive interior at 700 MeV. The total reaction cross sections deduced display a clear nuclear transparency effect in the present energy domain in agreement with predictions from the Glauber theory optical limit. Comparison with previous results for 40 Ca and 58 Ni targets is made. (orig.)

  6. Assessing Losses of Power and Electrical Energy in Unbalanced Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The work is dedicated to calculating electricity losses related to power lines average voltage overhead or underground, which in terms of construction can be three-phase (three or four wire in unbalanced sinusoidal harmonic, determining energy efficiency indicators (such as positive and negative factors of unbalance thereof. It examines a case study and argues the results.

  7. Forster resonance energy transfer rate in any dielectric nanophotonic medium with weak dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the ongoing debate about nanophotonic control of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET), notably by the local density of optical states (LDOS), we study FRET and spontaneous emission in arbitrary nanophotonic media with weak dispersion and weak absorption in the frequency overlap...

  8. Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy nuclear collisions --What next?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, G.; Aichelin, J.; Allton, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Bass, S. A.; Bedda, C.; Brambilla, N.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bruno, G. E.; Dahms, T.; Das, S. K.; Dembinski, H.; Djordjevic, M.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Frawley, A.; Gossiaux, P. B.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Grelli, A.; He, Ming; Horowitz, W. A.; Innocenti, G. M.; Jo, M.; Kaczmarek, O.; Kuijer, P; Laine, M.; Lombardo, M. P.; Mischke, A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nahrgang, M.; Nguyen, Mai; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Petreczky, P.; Rothkopf, A.; Schmelling, M.; Scomparin, E.; Song, Ting; Stachel, J.; Suaide, A. A P; Tolos, L.; Trzeciak, B.; Uras, A.; van Doremalen, L.; Vermunt, L.; Vigolo, S.; Xu, N.; Ye, Z.; Zanoli, H.J.C.; Zhuang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Recent results

  9. Proton and light ion deflection at medium energies with planar bent crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, C.; Dauvergne, D.

    2017-07-01

    The transmission of protons in planar channeling or in the regime of crystal reflection in bent crystals is now routinely used at high energy. We used the property that channeling critical angle increases as the incident particle momentum decreases, to explore the region of moderate energies (100 MeV-1 GeV). Indeed, such energies are particularly interesting since medical applications such as particle therapy have to face the constraints of being compatible with hospital-based accelerators. Therefore, replacing tens- or even hundreds-tons gantries by bent crystals would - if feasible - meet societal applications. We used binary-encounter simulations of trajectories inside crystals oriented along planar directions. The Molière potential with thermally vibrating lattice atoms was used, and additional transverse heating was introduced to account for multiple elastic scattering by close-collisions on electrons, which depends on the transverse energy of the channeled ions. The survival yield (i.e. the fraction of ions keeping trajectories within plus-minus one critical planar channeling angle with respect to lattice planes) was simulated for protons and carbon ions, as a function of crystal nature (silicon or germanium), crystal temperature, thickness and curvature. Although the transmitted yields are far from the necessary yields required to treat patients, significant survival yields were found through cm-thick crystals at angles beyond 10°. We will discuss possible experimental verification of these findings, and in particular practical aspects of such very large bending angles.

  10. Final states in electroproduction and photoproduction at low and medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of electroproduction and photoproduction at photon energies extending from the resonance region up to about 10 GeV. Comparisons are made between the various experiments and the appropriate theories in an attempt to understand more about the different production mechanisms - s channel resonances, t and u channel exchanges and quark-parton effects. (orig.) [de

  11. Polarized deuteron elastic scattering from a polarized proton target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelzer, R.; Kuiper, H.; Schoeberl, M.; Berber, S.; Hilmert, H.; Koeppel, R.; Pferdmenges, R.; Zankel, H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the spin correlation parameter Cy,y for the elastic scattering of 10.0 MeV vector polarized deuterons from a polarized proton target at five CM angles (76 0 ,85 0 ,98 0 ,115 0 ,132 0 ). The experimental results are compared with different predictions. A Faddeev type calculation on the basis of local potentials also including approximate Coulomb distortion is favoured by our experimental results. (orig.)

  12. Development of optical-pumping polarized deuteron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamae, Tadaaki; Yokokawa, Tamio; Nishikawa, Itaru; Abe, Kazuhiro; Konno, Osamu; Nakagawa, Itaru; Sugawara, Masumi; Tanaka, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Yamazaki, Hirohito; Miyase, Haruhisa; Tsubota, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    An optical-pumping system of rubidium atoms for a laser-driven polarized deuteron target was constructed. The density and polarization of the rubidium atoms were measured using Faraday rotation. The rotation angle was determined within an error of 0.01 deg. Our preliminary result showed a polarization of 0.4 at a gas thickness of 4x10 13 atoms/cm 2

  13. Dipole stabilizer rods for 400 keV deuteron RFQ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sista, V.L.S. Rao; Srivastava, S.C.L.; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Singh, P.

    2009-01-01

    In our 400 keV deuteron RFQ for neutron production, the destructive dipolar modes are very close to the required quadrupolar mode. In order to increase the spacing between the quadrupole and dipole modes the dipolar stabilizer rods (DSR's) are used. The design of the DSR's is done using the computer code CST Microwave studio. The variation of the quadrupole and dipolar mode frequencies with the radius and length of the DSR's are studied. (author)

  14. A liquid hydrocarbon deuteron source for neutron generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwoebel, P. R.

    2017-06-01

    Experimental studies of a deuteron spark source for neutron generators using hydrogen isotope fusion reactions are reported. The ion source uses a spark discharge between electrodes coated with a deuterated hydrocarbon liquid, here Santovac 5, to inhibit permanent electrode erosion and extend the lifetime of high-output neutron generator spark ion sources. Thompson parabola mass spectra show that principally hydrogen and deuterium ions are extracted from the ion source. Hydrogen is the chief residual gas phase species produced due to source operation in a stainless-steel vacuum chamber. The prominent features of the optical emission spectra of the discharge are C+ lines, the hydrogen Balmer Hα-line, and the C2 Swan bands. Operation of the ion source was studied in a conventional laboratory neutron generator. The source delivered an average deuteron current of ˜0.5 A nominal to the target in a 5 μs duration pulse at 1 Hz with target voltages of -80 to -100 kV. The thickness of the hydrocarbon liquid in the spark gap and the consistency thereof from spark to spark influences the deuteron yield and plays a role in determining the beam-focusing characteristics through the applied voltage necessary to break down the spark gap. Higher breakdown voltages result in larger ion beam spots on the target and vice-versa. Because the liquid self-heals and thereby inhibits permanent electrode erosion, the liquid-based source provides long life, with 104 pulses to date, and without clear evidence that, in principle, the lifetime could not be much longer. Initial experiments suggest that an alternative cylindrical target-type generator design can extract approximately 10 times the deuteron current from the source. Preliminary data using the deuterated source liquid as a neutron-producing target are also presented.

  15. Analysis of optical scheme for medium-range directed energy laser weapon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabczyński, Jan K.; Kaśków, Mateusz; Gorajek, Łukasz; Kopczyński, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    The relations between range of operation and aperture of laser weapon system were investigated, taking into account diffraction and technical limitations as beam quality, accuracy of point tracking, technical quality of optical train, etc. As a result for the medium ranges of 1 - 2 km we restricted the analysis to apertures not wider than 150 mm and the optical system without adaptive optics. To choose the best laser beam shape, the minimization of aperture losses and thermooptical effects inside optics as well as the effective width of laser beam in far field should be taken into account. We have analyzed theoretically such a problem for the group of a few most interesting from that point of view profiles including for reference two limiting cases of Gaussian beam and `top hat' profile. We have found that the most promising is the SuperGaussian profile of index p = 2 for which the surfaces of beam shaper elements can be manufactured in the acceptable cost-effective way and beam quality does not decrease noticeably. Further, we have investigated the thermo-optic effects on the far field parameters of Gaussian and `top hat' beams to determine the influence of absorption in optical elements on beam quality degradation. The simplified formulae were derived for beam quality measures (parameter M2 and Strehl ratio) which enables to estimate the influence of absorption losses on degradation of beam quality.

  16. Low energy consumption method for separating gaseous mixtures and in particular for medium purity oxygen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jujasz, Albert J.; Burkhart, James A.; Greenberg, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    A method for the separation of gaseous mixtures such as air and for producing medium purity oxygen, comprising compressing the gaseous mixture in a first compressor to about 3.9-4.1 atmospheres pressure, passing said compressed gaseous mixture in heat exchange relationship with sub-ambient temperature gaseous nitrogen, dividing the cooled, pressurized gaseous mixture into first and second streams, introducing the first stream into the high pressure chamber of a double rectification column, separating the gaseous mixture in the rectification column into a liquid oxygen-enriched stream and a gaseous nitrogen stream and supplying the gaseous nitrogen stream for cooling the compressed gaseous mixture, removing the liquid oxygen-enriched stream from the low pressure chamber of the rectification column and pumping the liquid, oxygen-enriched steam to a predetermined pressure, cooling the second stream, condensing the cooled second stream and evaporating the oxygen-enriched stream in an evaporator-condenser, delivering the condensed second stream to the high pressure chamber of the rectification column, and heating the oxygen-enriched stream and blending the oxygen-enriched stream with a compressed blend-air stream to the desired oxygen concentration.

  17. Preparation of the FXG gel dosemeter and studying its response for low and medium energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bero, M.; Kharita, M. H.

    2008-02-01

    Gel dosimetry method was found to be capable of addressing complicated issues related to dose measurements particularly in modern sophisticated radiotherapy applications. Ferrous-sulphate Xylenol-orange and Gelatin (FXG) radiochromic gel dosemeter is one of the systems used for such applications. Some chemical dosemeters show different response for low and medium energies X-rays in comparison with high energy-photons. The energy and dose rate dependence of the FXG dose response was examined. In addition to the detector response other important dosimetric properties of the system were investigated for different X-ray beam qualities with tube voltages in the range 100 - 300 kv. An orthovoltage X-ray therapy unit was used to irradiate standard sized samples of FXG from different batches for radiation doses in the range 0 - 8 Gy. This work includes in the first stage the preparation of the radiochromic gel dosemeter (FXG) as well as its calibration in gamma radiation field. Furthermore, the stability and reproducibility of measurements were tested. The obtained results were found to be suitable as a basis to carry on the next stage of this study. The second phase was centred about the delivery of radiation doses from X-ray source that has increasing energy and evaluating the gel material properties as a dosemeter in this case, with concentration on finding the changes of the gel material response with the changes in the applied X-ray energy. Therefore establishing the response radiation energy dependence and comparing the measurement results with other results taken from other known dosimetry system such as ion chambers. Experiments shows that the FXG gel detector has a dynamic rage suitable for the dose delivered in radiotherapy treatment; its response as a function of the dose rate is also stable in the range of radiation energies applied.(Author)

  18. Feasibility of satisfying electrical energy needs with hybrid systems for a medium-size hotel on Kish Island, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazelpour, Farivar; Soltani, Nima; Rosen, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    The utilization of renewable resources is growing, in part due to the environmental impacts caused by fossil fuels. The largest sources of renewable energy are wind and solar and many predict that these energy sources will be increasingly used for distributed generation. In this paper, the feasibility is examined of a grid-independent system applied for a medium-size hotel in Kish Island, Iran. Furthermore, economic optimization is included in the assessment by using the Homer software as the optimization tool. Renewable and non-renewable energy sources (fossil fuels) are considered, and the final adoption of both cases is primarily based on their associated cost and efficiency. Sensitivity analyses are performed to determine the impact on performance of several key parameters: wind speed, solar radiation and fuel costs. The target location in this study is a hotel that has 125 rooms with the total annual electrical energy consumption of 2,628,000 kWh, and a peak demand of about 620 kW. The results of a comprehensive feasibility data analysis along with its economic evaluation indicate that the wind-diesel hybrid system with battery storage is most efficient energy system for supplying the hotel's electrical energy demands. - Highlights: • The required energy for a hotel in Kish Island, Iran is determined. • HOMER software is used in the analyses for both technical and economic criteria. • Four feasible systems are classified and the most economic system is identified. • Annual greenhouse gas emissions are considered for all systems

  19. Rho meson self-energy and dielectron emissivity in an isospin-asymmetric pion medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamov, T.I.; Titov, A.I.; Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V.; Kaempfer, B.; Technische Univ., Dresden

    1995-06-01

    The ρ meson self-energy in an isospin asymmetric pion gas at finite temperature and charged-pion chemical potential is evaluated. We utilize a conventional effective π-ρ Lagrangian and the functional integral representation of the partition function in the second order in the ρππ coupling constant. We analyze the gauge invariant rho meson polarization operator and its dependence on the invariant mass M and spatial momentum vertical stroke pvertical stroke of the ρ meson. The pole positions and the values of the imaginary parts of the self-energy for different polarization states have different functional dependences on M and vertical stroke pvertical stroke . The corresponding dielectron rate (calculated from the imaginary part of the polarization operators) shows a distinctive asymmetry when the momentum t=p + -p - is perpendicular or parallel to p, where p ± are the momenta of the electron pair. (orig.)

  20. Technical manual: a survey of scintillating medium for high-energy particle detection

    OpenAIRE

    Baitenov, Adil; Iakovlev, Alexander; Beznosko, Dmitriy

    2016-01-01

    There are various particle detection methods used nowadays and the most common is using scintillators. Among scintillating materials, solid plastic and water-based liquid scintillators (WbLS) are the latest development. In particular, WbLS allows researchers to apply different particle detection methods for increased experiment efficiency. This survey attempts to make an overview on detection methods and detectors in high-energy physics using scintillators. It is meant as a summary for those ...

  1. Power Output Stability Research for Harvesting Automobile Exhaust Energy with Heat Capacity Material as Intermediate Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Longjie; He, Tianming; Mei, Binyu; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Zongsong; Tan, Gangfeng

    2018-01-01

    Automobile exhaust energy thermoelectric utilization can promote energy-saving and emission-reduction. Unexpected urban traffic conditions lead to the hot-end temperature instability of the exhaust pipe-mounted thermoelectric generator (TEG), and influence the TEG power generation efficiency. The heat conduction oil circulation located at the hot-end could smooth the temperature fluctuation, at the expense of larger system size and additional energy supply. This research improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability by installing solid heat capacity material (SHCM) to the area between the outer wall of the exhaust pipe and the TEG, which has the merits of simple structure, light weight and no additional energy consumption. The exhaust temperature and flow rate characteristics with various driving conditions are firstly studied for the target engine. Then the convective heat transfer models of SHCM's hot-end and thermoelectric material's cold-end are established. Meanwhile, SHCM thermal properties' effects on the amplitude and response speed of the TEG hot-end temperature are studied. The candidate SHCM with the characteristics of low thermal resistance and high heat capacity is determined. And the heat transfer model going through from TEG's hot-end to the cold-end is established. The results show that the SHCM significantly improves the TEG hot-end temperature stability but slightly reduces the average power output. When the engine working conditions change a lot, the SHCM's improvement on the TEG hot-end temperature stability is more significant, but the reduction of the average power output becomes more remarkable.

  2. Medium and Short Wave RF Energy Harvester for Powering Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Gil, Jesus A; Cortes-Loredo, Agustin; Fabian-Mijangos, Angel; Martinez-Flores, Javier J; Tovar-Padilla, Marco; Cardona-Castro, M Antonia; Morales-Sánchez, Alfredo; Alvarez-Quintana, Jaime

    2018-03-03

    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging platform in which every day physical objects provided with unique identifiers are connected to the Internet without requiring human interaction. The possibilities of such a connected world enables new forms of automation to make our lives easier and safer. Evidently, in order to keep billions of these communicating devices powered long-term, a self-sustainable operation is a key point for realization of such a complex network. In this sense, energy-harvesting technologies combined with low power consumption ICs eliminate the need for batteries, removing an obstacle to the success of the IoT. In this work, a Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvester tuned at AM broadcast has been developed for low consumption power devices. The AM signals from ambient are detected via a high-performance antenna-free LC circuit with an efficiency of 3.2%. To maximize energy scavenging, the RF-DC conversion stage is based on a full-wave Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CWVM) with efficiency up to 90%. System performance is evaluated by rating the maximum power delivered into the load via its output impedance, which is around 62 μW, although power level seems to be low, it is able to power up low consumption devices such as Leds, portable calculators and weather monitoring stations.

  3. Medium and Short Wave RF Energy Harvester for Powering Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus A. Leon-Gil

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is an emerging platform in which every day physical objects provided with unique identifiers are connected to the Internet without requiring human interaction. The possibilities of such a connected world enables new forms of automation to make our lives easier and safer. Evidently, in order to keep billions of these communicating devices powered long-term, a self-sustainable operation is a key point for realization of such a complex network. In this sense, energy-harvesting technologies combined with low power consumption ICs eliminate the need for batteries, removing an obstacle to the success of the IoT. In this work, a Radio Frequency (RF energy harvester tuned at AM broadcast has been developed for low consumption power devices. The AM signals from ambient are detected via a high-performance antenna-free LC circuit with an efficiency of 3.2%. To maximize energy scavenging, the RF-DC conversion stage is based on a full-wave Cockcroft–Walton voltage multiplier (CWVM with efficiency up to 90%. System performance is evaluated by rating the maximum power delivered into the load via its output impedance, which is around 62 μW, although power level seems to be low, it is able to power up low consumption devices such as Leds, portable calculators and weather monitoring stations.

  4. dc power system for deuteron accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creek, K.O.; Liska, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility dc power system provides excitation current for all linac and High-Energy Beam Transport (HEBT) quadrupole and bending magnets, excitation for horizontal and vertical beam steering, and current-bypass shunts.

  5. Optimization as investment decision support in a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry - A move beyond traditional energy auditing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thollander, Patrik; Mardan, Nawzad; Karlsson, Magnus [Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry's investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces - which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic

  6. Energy efficient medium access protocol for wireless medical body area sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omeni, O; Wong, A; Burdett, A J; Toumazou, C

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a novel energy-efficient MAC Protocol designed specifically for wireless body area sensor networks (WBASN) focused towards pervasive healthcare applications. Wireless body area networks consist of wireless sensor nodes attached to the human body to monitor vital signs such as body temperature, activity or heart-rate. The network adopts a master-slave architecture, where the body-worn slave node periodically sends sensor readings to a central master node. Unlike traditional peer-to-peer wireless sensor networks, the nodes in this biomedical WBASN are not deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Joining a network is centrally managed and all communications are single-hop. To reduce energy consumption, all the sensor nodes are in standby or sleep mode until the centrally assigned time slot. Once a node has joined a network, there is no possibility of collision within a cluster as all communication is initiated by the central node and is addressed uniquely to a slave node. To avoid collisions with nearby transmitters, a clear channel assessment algorithm based on standard listen-before-transmit (LBT) is used. To handle time slot overlaps, the novel concept of a wakeup fallback time is introduced. Using single-hop communication and centrally controlled sleep/wakeup times leads to significant energy reductions for this application compared to more ldquoflexiblerdquo network MAC protocols such as 802.11 or Zigbee. As duty cycle is reduced, the overall power consumption approaches the standby power. The protocol is implemented in hardware as part of the Sensiumtrade system-on-chip WBASN ASIC, in a 0.13- mum CMOS process.

  7. Theoretical study on pp → pnπ+ reaction at medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Zhen; Xie, Jujun; Zou, Bingsong; Xu, Hushan

    2009-01-01

    The pp → pnπ + reaction is a channel with the largest total cross section for pp collision in COSY/CSR energy region. In this work, we investigate individual contributions from various N* and Δ* resonances with mass up to about 2 GeV for the pp → pnπ + reaction. We extend a resonance model, which can reproduce the observed total cross section quite well, to give theoretical predictions of various differential cross sections for the present reaction at T p = 2.88 GeV. It could serve as a reference for identifying new physics in the future experiments at HIRFL-CSR. (author)

  8. Feasibility study and energy efficiency estimation of geothermal power station based on medium enthalpy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .

  9. Cascade multiplicity inside deuteron in Π d high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisielewska, D.

    1983-01-01

    Multiplicity distribution of double scattering events is analysed using the additive quark model including the cascading effect. The mean multiplicity of particles produced in the process of cascading estimated for Π d experiments at 100, 205 and 360 GeV/c is equal to 1.15 ± .31. This value does not depend on the momentum of the incident pion. Some indications are found that the probability of cascading depends on multiplicity of the collision with the first nucleon and is smaller for low multiplicities. (author)

  10. Gamma Ray Production Cross-Sections from Deuteron Induced Nuclear Reaction Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the present PIGE CRP our group decided to take part in several p-PIGE and d-PIGE thin target cross section measurements. The first task was the energy calibration of our accelerator, followed by the determination of the efficiency curve of the HPGe gamma-ray detector, and finally, to perform gamma-yield measurements and determine the first cross section values as a function of bombarding beam energy. For this experimental programme we chose deuterons as bombarding particles because d-PIGE data are scarce in IBANDL. Silicon nitride was selected as target material, since it has the advantage of being commercially available, and of giving data simultaneously for nitrogen and silicon. The proton and deuteron beams necessary for calibration and measurement were provided by the 5 MV electrostatic accelerator of ATOMKI. The accelerator has a 90-degree homogeneous field analysing magnet with adjustable energy defining slits before and after it. The magnetic field of the magnet is measured by a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluxmeter. After passing through a switching magnet, the beam was transported to the PIGE reaction chamber specifically dedicated to this project and installed to the J30 beam-line. The rather small chamber (with a diameter of 9.5 cm) was insulated from the rest of the beam pipe, but both shared a common vacuum system. The chamber had several diaphragms in its long entrance tube to form a beam of 2 mm diameter and also to eliminate secondary particles, and ended in a long Faraday cup. The accumulated beam charge was measured by an ORTEC 439 Digital Current Integrator. According to the test measurements, the stability of charge measurement was below 1%.. Gamma-rays were detected by a CANBERRA Model GR4025-7600SL coaxial type HPGe detector (59.5 mm diameter, 170 cm 3 volume, energy resolution 2.3 keV at 1.33 MeV) at an angle of 55 o relative to the incident beam direction and at a distance of 9.5 cm between the front face of the

  11. Electrification pathways for Kenya-linking spatial electrification analysis and medium to long term energy planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moksnes, Nandi; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark

    2017-09-01

    In September 2015 UN announced 17 Sustainable Development goals (SDG) from which goal number 7 envisions universal access to modern energy services for all by 2030. In Kenya only about 46% of the population currently has access to electricity. This paper analyses hypothetical scenarios, and selected implications, investigating pathways that would allow the country to reach its electrification targets by 2030. Two modelling tools were used for the purposes of this study, namely OnSSET and OSeMOSYS. The tools were soft-linked in order to capture both the spatial and temporal dynamics of their nature. Two electricity demand scenarios were developed representing low and high end user consumption goals respectively. Indicatively, results show that geothermal, coal, hydro and natural gas would consist the optimal energy mix for the centralized national grid. However, in the case of the low demand scenario a high penetration of stand-alone systems is evident in the country, reaching out to approximately 47% of the electrified population. Increasing end user consumption leads to a shift in the optimal technology mix, with higher penetration of mini-grid technologies and grid extension.

  12. Simulating the formation and evolution of galaxies: multi-phase description of the interstellar medium, star formation, and energy feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, E.; Chiosi, C.

    2007-10-01

    Context: Modelling the gaseous component of the interstellar medium (ISM) by Smoothed Particles Hydrodynamics in N-Body simulations (NB-TSPH) is still very crude when compared to the complex real situation. In the real ISM, many different and almost physically decoupled components (phases) coexist for long periods of time, and since they spread over wide ranges of density and temperature, they cannot be correctly represented by a unique continuous fluid. This would influence star formation which is thought to take place in clumps of cold, dense, molecular clouds, embedded in a warmer, neutral medium, that are almost freely moving throughout the tenuous hot ISM. Therefore, assuming that star formation is simply related to the gas content without specifying the component in which this is both observed and expected to occur may not be physically sound. Aims: We consider a multi-phase representation of the ISM in NB-TSPH simulations of galaxy formation and evolution with particular attention to the case of early-type galaxies. Methods: Cold gas clouds are described by the so-called sticky particles algorithm. They can freely move throughout the hot ISM medium; stars form within these clouds and the mass exchange among the three baryonic phases (hot gas, cold clouds, stars) is governed by radiative and Compton cooling and energy feedback by supernova (SN) explosions, stellar winds, and UV radiation. We also consider thermal conduction, cloud-cloud collisions, and chemical enrichment. Results: Our model agrees with and improves upon previous studies on the same subject. The results for the star formation rate agree with recent observational data on early-type galaxies. Conclusions: These models lend further support to the revised monolithic scheme of galaxy formation, which has recently been strengthened by high redshift data leading to the so-called downsizing and top-down scenarios.

  13. Measurement of the longitudinal deuteron spin-structure function in deep-inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    Experiment E143 at SLAC performed deep-inelastic scattering measurements with polarized electrons incident on polarized protons and deuterons. The data for the beam energy of 29 GeV cover the kinematical range of x Bj > 0.03 and 1 2 2 . From these data, the spin-dependent structure functions g 1 were determined. This dissertation describes the experiment and its analysis and discusses the results. The measured integral of g 1 d over x from x = 0 to x = 1 is Γ 1 d = 0.046 ± 0.003 (stat)±0.004 (syst) at Q 2 = 3 GeV 2 and disagrees by more than three standard deviations with the prediction of the Ellis-Jaffe, sum rule. The data suggest that the quark contribution to the nucleon helicity is 0.35 ± 0.05. From the proton data of the same experiment, the integral over the proton spin-structure functional g 1 d was determined to be Γ 1 p = 0.127 ± 0.003(stat)±0.008(syst). By Combining the deuteron data with the proton data, the integral Γ 1 n was extracted as -0.027 ± 0.008 (stat)±0.010 (syst). The integral Γ 1 p - Γ 1 n is 0.154±0.010(stat) ±0.016 (syst) according to the E143 analysis. This result agrees with the important Bjorken sum rule of 0.171 ± 0.009 at Q 2 = 3 GeV 2 within less than one standard deviation. Furthermore, results of a separate analysis involving GLAP evolution equations are shown. Data were also collected for beam energies of 16.2 and 9.7 GeV, Results for g 1 at these energies are presented

  14. Characterisation of urinary stones in the presence of iodinated contrast medium using dual-energy CT: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Takahashi, Naoki; Kawashima, Akira; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2012-12-15

    To develop a dual-energy CT (DECT) method for differentiating uric acid (UA) from non-UA stones in the presence of iodinated contrast medium. Thirty UA and 45 non-UA stones were selected after infra-red spectroscopic analysis and independently placed in a 1.5-ml vial, which was filled first with saline and then with increasing concentrations of iodine. For each condition, tubes were put in a 35-cm water phantom and examined using a dual-source CT system at 100 and 140 kV. Virtual unenhanced images created from CT data sets of the stones in iodine-containing solutions provided position and volume information. This map was used to calculate a CT number ratio to differentiate stone type. A region-growing method was developed to improve the ability to differentiate between UA and non-UA stones with iodinated contrast medium. The sensitivity for detecting UA stones was 100 % for unenhanced images but fell to 18 % with 20 mgI/ml iodine solution and 0 % for higher concentrations. With region growing, the sensitivity for detecting UA stones was increased to 100 %, 82 %, 57 %, 50 % and 21 % for iodine solutions of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mgI/ml. The region-growing method improves differentiation of UA from non-UA stones on contrast-enhanced DECT urograms. (orig.)

  15. Characterisation of urinary stones in the presence of iodinated contrast medium using dual-energy CT: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia; Qu, Mingliang; Duan, Xinhui; Takahashi, Naoki; Kawashima, Akira; Leng, Shuai; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2012-01-01

    To develop a dual-energy CT (DECT) method for differentiating uric acid (UA) from non-UA stones in the presence of iodinated contrast medium. Thirty UA and 45 non-UA stones were selected after infra-red spectroscopic analysis and independently placed in a 1.5-ml vial, which was filled first with saline and then with increasing concentrations of iodine. For each condition, tubes were put in a 35-cm water phantom and examined using a dual-source CT system at 100 and 140 kV. Virtual unenhanced images created from CT data sets of the stones in iodine-containing solutions provided position and volume information. This map was used to calculate a CT number ratio to differentiate stone type. A region-growing method was developed to improve the ability to differentiate between UA and non-UA stones with iodinated contrast medium. The sensitivity for detecting UA stones was 100 % for unenhanced images but fell to 18 % with 20 mgI/ml iodine solution and 0 % for higher concentrations. With region growing, the sensitivity for detecting UA stones was increased to 100 %, 82 %, 57 %, 50 % and 21 % for iodine solutions of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mgI/ml. The region-growing method improves differentiation of UA from non-UA stones on contrast-enhanced DECT urograms. (orig.)

  16. ON THE RELATIVE 'TRANSPARENCY' OF GAS-PHASE CORONENE MOLECULES TO LOW-ENERGY ELECTRONS: EFFECTS ON THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, F.; Gianturco, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Free, gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are understood to play an important role in the interstellar medium (ISM), as they are thought to significantly contribute to both diffused and unidentified infrared interstellar bands. They are also considered fundamental blocks of the interstellar dust, whose nature has important implications for a plethora of physical and chemical nanoscopic processes within the ISM. Since free electrons represent a versatile alternative way to transport energy in the interstellar space, in this paper we compute from quantum scattering methods the angular redistributions of free electrons by gas-phase coronene molecules, the latter of which are believed to be one of the most representative PAHs, in order to assess their role in describing the efficiency of electron deflection by this molecule. The associated rates can provide useful information about the coupling mechanism between external radio-frequency fields and complex molecular plasmas containing neutral and ionized PAHs. They can also yield information on the possible presence of such species in the dust phase of the medium.

  17. Heavy-flavor production and medium properties in high-energy nuclear collisions. What next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, G.; Allton, C. [Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom); Aichelin, J.; Gossiaux, P.B.; Nahrgang, M. [Universite de Nantes, SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, Nantes (France); Arnaldi, R.; Scomparin, E. [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bass, S.A. [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Bedda, C.; Grelli, A.; Trzeciak, B.; Doremalen, L. van; Vermunt, L.; Vigolo, S. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Brambilla, N. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Advanced Study, Munich (Germany); Bratkovskaya, E. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Braun-Munzinger, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Research Division and ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bruno, G.E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bari (Italy); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Dahms, T. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Das, S.K. [University of Catania, Catania (Italy); Dembinski, H.; Schmelling, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Djordjevic, M. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Serbia); Ferreiro, E. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Frawley, A. [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Jo, M.; Nguyen, M. [Ecole Polytechnique, Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Palaiseau (France); He, M. [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Nanjing (China); Horowitz, W.A. [University of Cape Town, Department of Physics, Rondebosch (South Africa); Innocenti, G.M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kaczmarek, O. [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld (Germany); Kuijer, P.G. [National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Laine, M. [University of Bern, AEC, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Lombardo, M.P. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Mischke, A. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); National Institute for Subatomic Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Munhoz, M.G.; Suaide, A.A.P. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira da Silva, A.C.; Zanoli, H.J.C. [Utrecht University, Institute for Subatomic Physics, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo (Brazil); Petreczky, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Rothkopf, A. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Heidelberg (Germany); Song, T. [Frankfurt University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Stachel, J. [Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Tolos, L. [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt (Germany); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Bellaterra (Spain); Uras, A. [Domaine Scientifique de la Doua, Institute of Nuclear Physics, Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Xu, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ye, Z. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhuang, P. [Tsinghua University, Beijng Shi (China)

    2017-05-15

    Open and hidden heavy-flavor physics in high-energy nuclear collisions are entering a new and exciting stage towards reaching a clearer understanding of the new experimental results with the possibility to link them directly to the advancement in lattice Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD). Recent results from experiments and theoretical developments regarding open and hidden heavy-flavor dynamics have been debated at the Lorentz Workshop Tomography of the Quark-Gluon Plasma with Heavy Quarks, which was held in October 2016 in Leiden, The Netherlands. In this contribution, we summarize identified common understandings and developed strategies for the upcoming five years, which aim at achieving a profound knowledge of the dynamical properties of the quark-gluon plasma. (orig.)

  18. Medium corrections to the first order optical potential for low-energy pion-4He scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, J. de; Geffen, F. van; Velde, M. van der

    1980-01-01

    We study the Pauli-principle corrections for low energy π- 4 He elastic scattering. In our approach we take into account explicitly the spin and isospin dependence of the Pauli-principle effect. Furthermore we discuss the combined effect of the Pauli-principle correction and the nuclear binding. Contrary to the Pauli principle we treat the binding corrections in an approximate way, using an effective mass for the residual nucleus. In our calculations we use the first-order optical potential of Celenza, Liu and Shakin. The Pauli-principle correction is found to have a considerable effect on the differential cross section. Our results indicate that the Pauli-principle corrections are largely compensated by the nuclear binding. (orig.)

  19. Contributions to the second workshop on medium energy electron cooling -MEEC96

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLachlan, J.

    1997-09-01

    MEEC96 was a workshop devoted primarily to discussion within four working groups, not a mini-conference of prepared reports. Therefore, although there are contributions bearing the name of a single author, much of what was learned came in extemporaneous discussion of the issues posed to the participants. The original plan to produce formal proceedings has been dropped because of the limited number of participants willing to write up their own contributions and because of the difficulty of converting free-wheeling discussion to the written word. The premsise for the 1996 gathering was to set a critique of Fermilab''s R ampersand D effort at cooling a ring of 8 GeV bar p''s. Separate abstracts have been submitted to the energy database for contributions to this workshop

  20. Magnesium fluoride as energy storage medium for spacecraft solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurio, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    MgF2 was investigated as a phase-change energy-storage material for LEO power systems using solar heat to run thermal cycles. It provides a high heat of fusion per unit mass at a high melting point (1536 K). Theoretical evaluation showed the basic chemical compatibility of liquid MgF2 with refractory metals at 1600 K, though transient high pressures of H2 can occur in a closed container due to reaction with residual moisture. The compatibility was tested in two refractory metal containers for over 2000 h. Some showed no deterioration, while there was evidence that the fluoride reacted with hafnium in others. Corollary tests showed that the MgF2 supercooled by 10-30 K and 50-90 K.

  1. Theoretical aspects of electroweak and other interactions in medium energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1990-01-01

    The project, supported by the Department of Energy grant, deals with the theory of electroweak and other interactions of nucleons and nuclei, with emphasis on the electromagnetic production of mesons, and the theory of hadron structure inspired by quantum chromodynamics. On these topics, twenty-seven papers and other scientific communications have been completed during the current project period, April 1988 to present, including a number of invited papers presented at international meetings and workshops. One student has got his Ph.D. degree, and two working toward it; the latter have been rewarded by the organizers of the PANIC-XII Conference at MIT (June 1990) with financial support to present their papers A DEC-3100 workstation has been installed for the dedicated use of this project, and it has been upgraded with additional funding from Rensselaer and Digital Equipment Corporation. A new research collaboration with Professor F. Iachello, a theorist from Yale University has been started

  2. Deuteron Induced ( d,p) and ( d,2p) Nuclear Reactions up to 50 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiğit, M.; Tel, E.; Kara, A.

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that the nuclear reactions of charged particles with nuclei are very important in many fields of nuclear physics. The interactions of deuterons with nuclei have been especially the subject of common research in the history of nuclear physics. Moreover, the knowledge of cross section for deuteron-nucleus interactions are required for various application such as space applications, accelerator driven sub-critical systems, nuclear medicine, nuclear fission reactors and controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors. Particularly, the future of controlled thermonuclear fusion reactors is largely dependent on the nuclear reaction cross section data and the selection of structural fusion materials. Finally, the reaction cross section data of deuteron induced reactions on fusion structural materials are of great importance for development and design of both experimental and commercial fusion devices. In this work, reaction model calculations of the cross sections of deuteron induced reactions on structural fusion materials such as Al ( Aluminium), Ti ( Titanium), Cu ( Copper), Ni ( Nickel), Co ( Cobalt), Fe ( Iron), Zr ( Zirconium), Hf ( Hafnium) and Ta ( Tantalum) have been investigated. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 27 Al( d,2p) 27 Mg, 47 Ti( d,2p) 47 Sc, 65 Cu( d,2p) 65 Ni, 58 Ni( d,2p) 58 Co, 59 Co( d,2p) 59 Fe, 58 Fe( d,p) 59 Fe, 96 Zr( d,p) 97 Zr, 180 Hf ( d,p) 181 Hf and 181 Ta( d,p) 182 Ta have been carried out for incident deuteron energies up to 50 MeV. In these calculations, the equilibrium and pre-equilibrium effects for ( d,p) and ( d,2p) reactions have been investigated. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing ( WE) Model. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the new evaluated the Geometry Dependent Hybrid Model ( GDH) and Hybrid Model. In the calculations the program code ALICE/ASH was used. The calculated results are discussed and compared with the experimental data taken from the

  3. On the large COMPASS polarized deuteron target

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ball, J.; Baum, G.; Doshita, N.; Finger Jr., M.; Finger, M.; Gautheron, F.; Goertz, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Heckmann, J.; Hess, C.; Horikawa, N.; Ishimoto, S.; Iwata, T.; Kisselev, Y.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kondo, K.; Le Goff, J.M.; Magnon, A.; Marchand, C.; Matsuda, T.; Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G.; Srnka, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. F (2006), F295-F305 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 492 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : COMPASS * polarized target * Dilution refrigerator Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  4. Beam dynamics and error study of the medium energy beam transport line in the Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chanmi; Kim, Eun-San; Hahn, Garam

    2016-11-01

    The Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator consists of an injector and a synchrotron for an ion medical accelerator that is the first carbon-ion therapy system in Korea. The medium energy beam transport(MEBT) line connects the interdigital H-mode drift tube linac and the synchrotron. We investigated the beam conditions after the charge stripper by using the LISE++ and the SRIM codes. The beam was stripped from C4+ into C6+ by using the charge stripper. We investigated the performance of a de-buncher in optimizing the energy spread and the beam distribution in z-dW/W (direction of beam progress-beam and energy) phase. We obtained the results of the tracking simulation and the error analysis by using the TRACK code. Possible misalignments and rotations of the magnets were considered in the simulations. States of the beam were examined when errors occurred in the magnets by the applying analytic fringe field model in TRACK code. The condition for the beam orbit was optimized by using correctors and profile monitors to correct the orbit. In this paper, we focus on the beam dynamics and the error studies dedicated to the MEBT beam line and show the optimized beam parameters for the MEBT.

  5. MuSAE: A European Project for the Diffusion of Energy and Environmental Planning in Small-Medium Sized Municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baldinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic idea of the EU LIFE+ 2011 project MuSAE (“Municipalities Subsidiarity for Actions on Energy”, code LIFE11 ENV/IT/000016 consists of transferring the skills and experience related to energy planning, acquired by the leading beneficiary, the Municipality of Perugia, to three small- or medium-sized Umbrian Municipalities (Marsciano, Umbertide and Lisciano Niccone. This transfer is aimed, among other objectives, at the drafting of the Municipal Energy and Environmental Plan (MEEP and the opening of an energy information office in each partner Municipality, in cooperation with CIRIAF and Umbria Region. The present paper provides a summary of MuSAE activities, analyzing the procedures and modalities of implementation of the various phases of the MEEPs, on the basis of the experience gained over the years through the collaboration with the Municipality of Perugia and adapted to smaller territories such as those represented by the other partner Municipalities. A summary of the dissemination activities and pilot projects is also presented, testifying the first concrete results of the planning activity developed by each administration within the project.

  6. Production of fast neutrons from deuteron beams in view of producing radioactive heavy ions beams; Etude de la production de neutrons rapides a partir de faisceaux de deutons en vue de la mise en oeuvre de faisceaux d'ions lourds radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, N

    2000-11-01

    This thesis is part of two research and development programmes for the study of neutron rich radioactive nuclear beam production. The technique is based on the ISOL method and can be summarized as follows. Fast neutrons are generated by the break-up of deuterons in a thick target. These neutrons irradiate a fissionable {sup 238}U target. The resulting fission products are extracted from the target, ionised, mass selected and post-accelerated. The aim of the thesis is to study the neutron angular and energetic distributions. After a bibliographical research to justify the choice of deuterons as the best projectile, we developed more specifically three points: - the extension of the activation detector method for neutron spectroscopy to a wide energy range (1 to 150 MeV), - the experimental measurement of neutron angular and energetic distributions produced by deuterons on thick targets. The deuteron energy ranges from 17 to 200 MeV and the thick targets were Be, C and U, - the realization of a code based on Serber's theory to predict the neutron distribution for any couple (deuteron energy-thick target). We conclude that for our application the most suitable target is C and the best deuteron energy is about 100 MeV. (author)

  7. Intercomparison of the medium energy primary standards for X-ray exposure of NPL and ENEA, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, C.J.; Heaton, J.A.; Laitano, R.F.; Toni, M.P.

    1991-04-01

    An intercomparison between the primary standards of exposure for medium energy X-rays held by the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and ENEA in Italy is described. The intercomparison, using four different transfer chambers, took place at NPL in December 1989 and at ENEA during March 1990. Measurements were made at four therapy-level qualities, with half value layers of 0.15, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5 mm Cu (nominal generating voltages of 100, 135, 180 and 250 kV respectively). At the 2.5 mm Cu HVL quality the primary standards were found to agree to within about 0.8%; for the other three qualities the chambers differed by no more than 0.3%. (author)

  8. Medium-energy theory group. Progress report, July 1, 1976--June 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.A.

    1977-05-01

    Research carried out during the contract period by R. A. Bryan, principal investigator, and associates R. B. Clark and B. J. VerWest is reported. Most of the work has centered on the nucleon-nucleon interaction at low to intermediate energies and has ranged from purely theoretical studies, such as the behavior of two-pion-exchange Feynman amplitudes at far off-shell initial and final nucleon momenta, to the more practical work of phase-shift analyzing nucleon-nucleon data. One has also investigated the possibility that the NN interaction is not invariant under time-reversal and have provided predictions for some relevant experimental observables for the case where such time-irreversibility is due to short-range processes. Finally, research on topics which fall in the domain of elementary-particle physics but which are felt can lend guidance in trying to determine the NN force at very short distances is completed; this is the current frontier in nucleon-nucleon research. A list of publications is included

  9. Investigation of proton induced reactions on niobium at low and medium energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditroi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Corniani, E.; Takacs, S.; Tarkanyi, F.; Csikai, J.; Shubin, Yu. N.

    2009-01-01

    Niobium is a metal with important technological applications: use as alloying element to increase strength of super alloys, as thin layer for tribological applications, as superconductive material, in high temperature engineering systems, etc. In the frame of a systematic study of activation cross-sections of charged particle induced reactions on structural materials proton induced excitation functions on Nb targets were determined with the aim of applications in accelerator and reactor technology and for thin layer activation (TLA). The charged particle activation cross-sections on this element are also important for yield calculation of medical isotope production ( 88,89 Zr, 86,87,88 Y) and for dose estimation in PET targetry. As niobium is a monoisotopic element it is an ideal target material to test nuclear reaction theories. We present here the experimental excitation functions of 93 Nb(p,x) 90,93m Mo, 92m,91m,90 Nb, 88,89 Zr and 88 Y in the energy range 0-37 MeV. The results were compared with the theoretical cross-sections calculated by means of the code ALICE-IPPE, EMPIRE-3, TALYS and with the literature data. The theory reproduces the shape of the measured results well and magnitude is also acceptable. Thick target yields calculated from our fitted cross-section give reliable estimations for production of medically relevant radioisotopes and for dose estimation in accelerator technology.

  10. Relative response of the alanine dosimeter to medium energy x-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, M; Büermann, L

    2015-08-07

    The response of the alanine dosimeter to kilovoltage x-rays with respect to the dose to water was measured, relative to the response to Co-60 radiation.Two series of x-ray qualities were investigated, one ranging from 30 kV to 100 kV tube voltage (TW series), the other one ranging from 70 kV to 280 kV (TH series). Due to the use of the water calorimeter as a primary standard, the uncertainty of the delivered dose is significantly lower than for other published data. The alanine response was measured as described in a previous publication (Anton et al 2013 Phys. Med. Biol. 58 3259-82). The uncertainty component due to the alanine measurement and analysis is ⩽0.4%, the major part of the combined uncertainty of the relative response originates from the uncertainty of the delivered dose. The relative uncertainties of the relative response vary from ⩽2% for the TW series to ⩽1.1% for the TH series.Different from the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter for megavoltage x-rays or electrons, the relative response drops significantly from unity for Co-60 radiation to less than 64% for the TW quality with a tube voltage of 30 kV. In order to reproduce this behaviour through Monte Carlo simulations, not only the ratio of the absorbed dose to alanine to the absorbed dose to water has to be known, but also the intrinsic efficiency, i.e. the dependence of the number of free radicals generated per unit of absorbed dose on the photon energy. This quantity is not yet accessible for the TW series.For a possible use of the alanine dosimeter for kilovoltage x-rays, for example in electronic brachytherapy, users should rely on the measured data for the relative response which have become available with this publication.

  11. Radiosensitivity of chlorella after medium energy accelerated electron irradiation; Radiosensibilite des chlorelles aux electrons acceleres de moyenne energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roux, J.C. [commissariat a L' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The survival curves (capability of multiplication) of chlorella pyrenoidosa after irradiations can be used for soft electrons (0.65 and 1 MeV), hence penetrating into only 2 to 4 millimeters of water: the algae are laying on porous membranes and the doses are calculated from the power of the electron beam measured by the electric current on a metallic target or by Fricke's dosimetry. With these techniques, it is showed and discussed the part of anoxia in the radioprotection (magnitude or reduction of the dose calculated from the slope of survival curves: 2.5 ) that is more important than the restoration studied by the fractionation of the dose. The 0.65 and 1 MeV electrons have a biologic effect lesser than 180 keV X-rays (RBE - relative biological efficiency - calculated on the slope of survival curves is 0.92 in aerated irradiation, 0.56 in the deoxygenated irradiation). (author) [French] Les courbes de survie clonale (capacite de multiplication) de chlorella pyrenoidosa apres irradiation sont realisables meme avec des electrons peu energetiques (0.65 et 1 MeV), donc peu penetrants, par l'irradiation d'algues deposees sur membrane filtrante et grace au calcul de la dose a partir de l'energie du faisceau mesure par le courant que celui-ci cree dans une cible metallique ou par dosimetrie de Fricke. Par ces techniques, on a montre et discute le role de l'anoxie dans la radioprotection des chlorelles (facteur de reduction de la dose calcule sur la pente des courbes de survie de 2.5) qui est plus important que le pouvoir de restauration etudie par le fractionnement de la dose. Les electrons utilises ont un effet biologique moins grand que les rayons X de 180 keV (l'efficacite biologique relative - EBR - calculee sur la pente des courbes de survie est de 0.9 en presence d'air, 0.6 en presence d'azote)

  12. Fluid dynamics characteristics of IFMIF Li-jet under deuteron load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuertes, F.M.; Casal, N.; Barbero, R.; Garcia, A.; Branas, B.; Riccardi, B.

    2006-01-01

    IFMIF is an accelerator-based neutron source with the purpose of testing and fully qualify fusion candidate materials. Two 40 MeV deuteron beams, 125 mA current each, strike a target of liquid lithium flowing over a concave back-plate. The deuteron-lithium stripping reactions produce an intense high energy neutron flux which simulates the fusion reactor irradiation. To remove the beam power deposited on it (up to 10 MW), the lithium jet must have a speed around 20 m/s, which may give rise to flow instabilities. However, a stable liquid free surface is a very critical requirement of the target system, otherwise the neutron field could be altered. Therefore, the possible occurrences that could affect the hydrodynamical stability of the lithium jet are being examined in the frame of EFDA Technology Workprogramme. This paper summarizes the studies of the fluid dynamics characteristics of the lithium jet under the deuteron heat load, based on applications of the CFX 5.7 code, a commercial Navier-Stokes equations solver with specific modelling of turbulence, like the classical k - ε among others. Significant effort has been dedicated to develop an optimized and reliable numerical mesh, able to illustrate the behaviour of the lithium free surface and other issues like heat transport along the stream and to the back-plate, and lithium vaporization. First activities were dedicated to explore the effects on the results of a three-dimensional unstructured numerical mesh covering the area from the nozzle upstream the target to the exit of the target region. Subsequently, a more effective approach to this issue has been undertaken by developing a fine two-dimensional mesh along the longitudinal flow direction, with refined areas in the free surface and close to the wall regions. The numerical convergence criteria have been found to be strongly sensitive with respect to small modifications of the adopted unstructured mesh. Owing to the uncertainties associated with modelling

  13. Antideuteron and deuteron production in mid-central Pb+Pb collisions at 158$A$ GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Anticic, T; Bartke, J; Beck, H; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Blume, C; Bogusz, M; Boimska, B; Book, J; Botje, M; Buncic, P; Cetner, T; Christakoglou, P; Chung, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J.G; Eckardt, V; Fodor, Z; Foka, P; Friese, V; Gazdzicki, M; Grebieszkow, K; Hohne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kolesnikov, V I; Kowalski, M; Kresan, D; Laszlo, A; Lacey, R; van Leeuwen, M; Mackowiak-Pawlowska, M; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A.I; Mateev, M; Melkumov, G L; Mitrovski, M; Mrowczynski, St; Nicolic, V; Palla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Peryt, W; Pluta, J; Prindle, D; Puhlhofer, F; Renfordt, R; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Schmitz, N; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P; Sikler, F; Skrzypczak, E; Slodkowski, M; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Strobele, H; Susa, T; Szuba, M; Utvic, M; Varga, D; Vassiliou, M; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wlodarczyk, Z; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A

    2012-01-01

    Production of deuterons and antideuterons was studied by the NA49 experiment in the 23.5% most central Pb+Pb collisions at the top SPS energy of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=17.3 GeV. Invariant yields for $\\bar{d}$ and $d$ were measured as a function of centrality in the center-of-mass rapidity range $-1.2

  14. Measurement of the reaction 2H(e,e') at 180 degrees close to the deuteron breakup threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryezayeva, N; Arenhövel, H; Burda, O; Byelikov, A; Chernykh, M; Enders, J; Griesshammer, H W; Kalmykov, Y; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Ozel, B; Poltoratska, I; Pysmenetska, I; Rangacharyulu, C; Rathi, S; Richter, A; Schrieder, G; Shevchenko, A; Yevetska, O

    2008-05-02

    Inclusive inelastic electron scattering off the deuteron under 180 degrees has been studied at the S-DALINAC close to the breakup threshold at momentum transfers q=0.27 fm;{-1} and 0.74 fm;{-1} with good energy resolution sufficient to map in detail the spin flip M1 response, which governs the starting reaction pn-->dgamma of big-bang nucleosynthesis over most of the relevant temperature region. Results from potential model calculations and (for q=0.27 fm;{-1}) from pionless nuclear effective field theory are in excellent agreement with the data.

  15. Study of inclusive proton spectra from 20 MeV deuteron breakup by bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiger, N.M.; Hallur, B.R.; Madhusoodhanan, T.; Sathyavathiamma, M.P.; Puttaswamy, N.G.; Darshan, V.P.; Sharma, H.; Chintalapudi, S.N.

    1997-01-01

    The breakup of deuteron into proton and neutron has been studied earlier to understand the breakup mechanism. Inclusive measurements show the expected broad bumps near the beam velocity. In the present experiment, the breakup of 20 MeV deuterons by bismuth target has been investigated

  16. QED corrections in deep-inelastic scattering from tensor polarized deuteron target

    CERN Document Server

    Gakh, G I

    2001-01-01

    The QED correction in the deep inelastic scattering from the polarized tensor of the deuteron target is considered. The calculations are based on the covariant parametrization of the deuteron quadrupole polarization tensor. The Drell-Yan representations in the electrodynamics are used for describing the radiation real and virtual particles

  17. Synthesis of chromium (V) complex in deuterated propanediol for a target with ``frozen'' polarisation of deuterons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyatova, E. I.; Bubnov, N. N.

    1987-02-01

    A deuteron polarized frozen spin target was developed. To reach higher deuteron content and maximum polarization, the chromium (V) complex with ligands on the basis of fully deuterated propanediol-1,2 was synthesized. The synthesis and the EPR investigation is described. The research has been performed at the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems, JINR.

  18. Excitation and photon decay of giant multipole resonances - the role and future of medium-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.; Horen, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon 17 O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the 208 Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented

  19. Toroidal deuteron accelerator for Mo-98 neutron activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wagner L., E-mail: wagner.leite@ifnmg.edu.br, E-mail: tprcampos@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais (IFN-MG), Montes Claros, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    The radionuclide Tc-{sup 99m} is the most useful radioisotope in nuclear medicine. It can be produced by the Mo-99 beta minus decay. Mo-99 has often been produced in a high- flux nuclear reactor through radioactive neutron capture reactions on Mo-98. The present paper provides a preliminary design of a toroidal transmutation system (TTS) based on a toroidal compact deuteron accelerator, which can provide the Mo-98 transmutation into Mo-99. This system is essentially composed of a multi-aperture plasma electrode and a target, submitted to 180 kV, where a positive deuteron beam is accelerated toward a titanium-target loaded with deuterium in which nuclear d-d fusion reactions are induced. The Particle Studio package of the Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software was applied to design, simulate and optimize the deuteron beam on the target. MCNP code provided to neutronic analysis. Based on electromagnetic and neutronic simulations, the neutron yield and reaction rates were estimated. The simulated data allowed appraising the Mo-99 activity. A TTS, in a specific configuration, could produce a total deuterium current of 1.6 A at the target and a neutron yield of 10{sup 13} n.s{sup -1}. In a arrangement of 30 column samples, TTS provides 230 mCi s{sup -1} Mo{sup 99} in each column, which represents 80% of Tc-99m in secular equilibrium. As conclusion, the system holds potential for generating Mo-99 and Tc-99m in a suitable activity in secular equilibrium. (author)

  20. Recoil corrections in antikaon-deuteron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the non-relativistic effective field theory approach for K−d scattering, it is demonstrated that a systematic perturbative expansion of the recoil corrections in the parameter ξ = MK/mN is possible in spite of the fact that K−d scattering at low energies is inherently non-perturbative due to the large values of the K̄N scattering lengths. The first order correction to the K−d scattering length due to single insertion of the retardation term in the multiple-scattering series is calculated. The recoil effect turns out to be reasonably small even at the physical value of MK/mN ≃ 0:5.

  1. Determination of neutron spectra formed by 40-MeV deuteron bombardment of a lithium target with multi-foil activation technique

    CERN Document Server

    Maekawa, F; Wada, M; Wilson, P P H; Ikeda, Y

    2000-01-01

    Neutron flux spectra at an irradiation field produced by a 40-MeV deuteron bombardment on a thick lithium-target at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, have been determined by the multi-foil activation technique. Twenty-seven dosimetry reactions having a wide energy range of threshold energies up to 38 MeV were employed as detectors for the neutron flux spectra extending to 55 MeV. The spectra were adjusted with the SAND-II code with the experimental reaction rates based on an iterative method. The adjusted spectra validated quantitatively the Monte Carlo deuteron-lithium (d-Li) neutron source model code (M sup C DeLi) which was used to calculate initial guess spectra and also has been used for IFMIF nuclear designs. Accuracy of the adjusted spectra was approx 10% that was suitable for successive integral tests of activation cross section data.

  2. New approach to a global description of the deuteron electromagnetic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnickova, A.Z.; Dubnicka, S.

    1991-07-01

    A new approach to a global description of the deuteron electro-magnetic (EM) structure is developed on the bases of a modification of the well known vector-meson-dominance (VMD) model of EM hadron interactions by incorporating the true deuteron form factor (FF) analytic properties, non-zero vector meson widths and the correct power asymptotic behaviour as predicted by QCD. As a result, the experimental data on elastic electron-deuteron scattering structure functions A(t) and B(t) are described quite well, the deuteron EM FF's in the space-like region are reproduced and their behaviour in the time- like region is predicted. At the same time the couplings of the ω-mesons to deuteron are evaluated and the total cross section of e + e - → dd-bar process is determined for the first time. (author). 47 refs, 5 figs

  3. Is there an interest to use deuteron beams to produce non-conventional radionuclides?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferid eHaddad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recent interest on the theranostic approach, there has been a renewed interest for alternative radionuclides in nuclear medicine. They can be produced using common production routes i.e. using protons accelerated by biomedical cyclotrons or neutrons produced in research reactors. However, in some cases, it can be more valuable to use deuterons as projectiles. In the case of Cu-64, smaller quantities of the expensive target material, Ni-64, are used with deuterons as compared with protons for the same produced activity. For the Sc-44m/Sc-44g generator, deuterons afford a higher Sc-44m production yield than with protons. Finally, in the case of Re-186g, deuterons lead to a production yield five times higher than protons. These three examples show that it is of interest to consider not only protons or neutrons but also deuterons to produce alternative radionuclides.

  4. Photoproduction of Neutral Kaons on Deuterons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, Brian

    2006-11-01

    Experimentation to greater understand the strangeness production mechanism can be performed by observing the electromagnetic interaction that leads to Kaon photoproduction. The n (γ, K^0) λ reaction may assist in answering questions about the strangeness photo-production process. An experiment into the elementary Kaon photoproduction process was investigated in an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science of Tohoku University (LNS) using the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer. (NKS). The experiment was conducted by the d (γ, K^0) reaction. K^0 will be measured in the K^0->π^+π^- decay chain by the NKS. The NKS implements many detectors working in coincidence: These ranging from the Tagged Photon Beam generated by the 1.2 GeV Electron beam via bremsstrahlung, an Inner Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope (IH), a Straw Drift Chamber (SDC), a Cylindrical Drift Chamber (CDC), and an Outer Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope. Due to the background produced through the γ-> e+e- process, electron veto counters (EV) were placed in the middle of the OH to reject charged particles in the horizontal plane of the beam line. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates the need for pulse height correction. This was achieved by analysis of the Inner and Outer hodoscopes, and determining the energy deposit in the scintillators.

  5. High-intensity deuteron linear accelerator (FMIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    For fusion reactors to become operational, one of the many problems to be solved is to find materials able to withstand the intense bombardment of 14-MeV neutrons released by the fusion process. The development of alloys less likely to become damaged by this neutron bombardment will require years of work, making it desirable to begin studies in parallel with other aspects of fusion power generators. The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility, to be built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, will provide a high neutron flux and a neutron energy spectrum representative of fusion reactor conditions in volumes adequate to screen and qualify samples of candidate fusion reactor materials. FMIT's design goal is to provide an irradiation test volume of 10 cm 3 at a neutron flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 -s, and 500 cm 3 at a flux of 10 14 n/cm 2 -s. This will not allow testing of actual components, but samples in the most intense flux region can be subjected to accelerated life testing, accumulating in one year the total number of neutrons seen by a fusion reactor in 10 to 20 years of operation

  6. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal morphology and energy metabolism of intrauterine growth retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Wang, Tian

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0.04 kg BW; NBW: 1.58 ± 0.04 kg BW) and their weights at the time of weaning (IUGR: 5.26 ± 0.15 kg BW; NBW: 6.98 ± 0.19 kg BW). The piglets were fed a diet of either long-chain triglycerides (LCT) (containing 5% LCT) or MCT (containing 1% LCT and 4% MCT) for 28 d. Then, the piglets' intestinal morphology, biochemical parameters and mRNA abundance related to intestinal damage and energy metabolism were determined. IUGR was found to impair intestinal morphology, with evidence of decreased villus height and increased crypt depth; however, these negative effects of IUGR were ameliorated by MCT treatment. IUGR piglets showed compromised intestinal digestion and absorption functions when compared with NBW piglets. However, feeding MCT increased the maltase activity in the jejunum and alleviated IUGR-induced reductions in plasma d-xylose concentrations and jejunal sucrase activity. IUGR decreased the efficiency of the piglets' intestinal energy metabolism; however, piglets fed an MCT diet exhibited increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP synthase F1 complex beta polypeptide expression, as well as decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase alpha 1 expression in the jejunum of piglets. In addition, up-regulation of the piglets' citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase levels was found to occur following MCT treatment at both the activity and the transcriptional levels of the jejunum. Therefore, it can be postulated that

  7. Experimental medium energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: search for the ξ(2230) at LEAR; hyperon-antihyperon production studies at LEAR; relativistic proton-nucleus and heavy ion-nucleus collisions at the SPS; search for the H dibaryon at the AGS; hypernuclear physics research; CEBAF activities; pion physics at PSI; and H particle experiment design and development

  8. [Medium energy particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Investigations currently carried out by the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group can be arranged into four programs: Pion-Nucleon Scattering; Tests of Charge Symmetry and Isospin Invariance; Light Nuclei (Strong Form Factors of 3 H, 3 He, 4 He; Detailed Balance in pd right reversible γ 3 H; Interaction Dynamics); and Search for the Rare Decay Μ + → e + + γ (MEGA). The general considerations which led to the choice of physics problems investigated by our group are given in the next section. We also outline the scope of the research being done which includes over a dozen experiments. The main body of this report details the research carried out in the past year, the status of various experiments, and new projects

  9. Experimental medium energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: search for the H-dibaryon at the AGS; weak interaction studies with hypernuclear decays at the AGS; search for the ξ(2230) at LEAR; relativistic proton-nucleus and heavy ion-nucleus collisions at the SPS; hyperon-antihyperon production studies at LEAR; photoproduction of strange CEBAF; and experiment design development

  10. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  11. A Harmonic Kicker Scheme for the Circulator Cooler Ring in the Proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissen, Edward W.; Hutton, Andrew M.; Kimber, Andrew J.

    2013-06-01

    The current electron cooler design for the proposed Medium Energy Electron-Ion collider (MEIC) at Jefferson Lab utilizes a circulator ring for reuse of the cooling electron bunch up to 100 times to cool the ion beams. This cooler requires a fast kicker system for injecting and extracting individual bunches in the circulator ring. Such a kicker must work at a high repetition rate, up to 7.5 to 75 MHz depending on the number of turns in the recirculator ring. It also must have a very short rise and fall time (of order of 1 ns) such that it will kick an individual bunch without disturbing the others in the ring. Both requirements are orders of magnitude beyond the present state-of-the-art as well as the goals of other on-going kicker R&D programs such as that for the ILC damping rings. In this paper we report a scheme of creating this fast, high repetition rate kicker by combining RF waveforms at multiple frequencies to create a kicker waveform that will, for example, kick every eleventh bunch while leaving the other ten unperturbed. We also present a possible implementation of this scheme as well as discuss its limitations.

  12. Ejection of fast recoil atoms from solids under ion bombardment (medium-energy ion scattering by solid surfaces: Pt. 3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonoy, A.I.; Mashkova, E.S.; Molchanov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is the third part of our review surface scattering. Part I, which was devoted to the scattering of ions by the surfaces of disordered solids, was published in 1972; Part II, concerning scattering by crystal surfaces, was published in 1974. Since the publication of these reviews the material contained in them has become obsolete in many respects. A more recent account of the status of the problem has been given in a number of studies, including the book by E.S. Mashkova and V.A. Molchanov, Medium-Energy Ion Scattering by Solid Surfaces (Atomizdat, Moscow, 1980), than extended version of which was published by North-Holland in 1985. We note, however, that at the time these reviews were written the study of fast recoil atoms had not been carried out systematically; the problem was studied only as a by-product of surface scattering and sputtering. For this reason, in the above-mentioned works and in other reviews the data relating to recoil atoms were considered only occasionally. In recent years there have appeared a number of works - theoretical, experimental and computer -specially devoted to the study of the ejection of recoil atoms under ion bombardment. A number of interesting effects, which are due to the crystal structure of the target, have been discovered. It therefore, appeared desirable to us to systematize the available material and to present it as Part III of our continuing review. (author)

  13. Medium energy heavy ion accelerator (14 UD pelletron) facility (BARC-TIFR): report for the period July 1989 - December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eswaran, M.A.; Tandon, P.N.

    1993-01-01

    A medium energy heavy ion accelerator facility has been set up jointly by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) at Bombay. It is based on a 14 MV tandem accelerator (14 UD Pelletron) supplied by Electrostatic International Incorporated, USA. The facility was commissioned in 1988, however the accelerator began to be utilized regularly for experimental programmes from June 1989. Since then a number of research programmes have been undertaken. Some of these are: nuclear structure at high excitations through heavy ion resonances, nuclear structure studies at high angular momentum, elastic and inelastic scattering and transfer reactions, heavy-ion fusion and fusion-fission reactions, hyperfine interaction studies, channeling and blocking studies, and atomic physics studies of highly charged ions. This is the first comprehensive progress report on research and development activities based on the pelletron accelerator facility. It covers the period from June 1989 to December 1992. The report is presented in the form of 82 research papers. (M.G.B.)

  14. Polar Ozone Response to Energetic Particle Precipitation Over Decadal Time Scales: The Role of Medium-Energy Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M. E.; Verronen, P. T.; Marsh, D. R.; Seppälä, A.; Päivärinta, S.-M.; Rodger, C. J.; Clilverd, M. A.; Kalakoski, N.; van de Kamp, M.

    2018-01-01

    One of the key challenges in polar middle atmosphere research is to quantify the total forcing by energetic particle precipitation (EPP) and assess the related response over solar cycle time scales. This is especially true for electrons having energies between about 30 keV and 1 MeV, so-called medium-energy electrons (MEE), where there has been a persistent lack of adequate description of MEE ionization in chemistry-climate simulations. Here we use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) and include EPP forcing by solar proton events, auroral electron precipitation, and a recently developed model of MEE precipitation. We contrast our results from three ensemble simulations (147 years) in total with those from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) in order to investigate the importance of a more complete description of EPP to the middle atmospheric ozone, odd hydrogen, and odd nitrogen over decadal time scales. Our results indicate average EPP-induced polar ozone variability of 12-24% in the mesosphere, and 5-7% in the middle and upper stratosphere. This variability is in agreement with previously published observations. Analysis of the simulation results indicate the importance of inclusion of MEE in the total EPP forcing: In addition to the major impact on the mesosphere, MEE enhances the stratospheric ozone response by a factor of 2. In the Northern Hemisphere, where wintertime dynamical variability is larger than in the Southern Hemisphere, longer simulations are needed in order to reach more robust conclusions.

  15. Mixed moderate thermophilic bioleaching of Cu, Mo and Re from molybdenite concentrate: effects of silver ion, medium and energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Abdollahi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of different additives such as silver ion, medium and energy sources on the efficiency of mixed moderate thermophilic bioleaching approach to extract Cu, Mo and Re from molybdenite concentrate containing 0.98% Cu, 1.56% Fe, 53.84% Mo, and 0.055% Re. Molybdenite was the major phase of Mo-bearing mineral and chalcopyrite, covellite and pyrite were distinguished as minor phases. The higher copper extraction was obtained in tests with silver additives in all types and quantities rather than tests without silver ion. Kinetic of copper dissolution varied in these experiments and depended on the types and amounts of silver, and other supplemented additives such as ferric ion. There was no clear difference in the copper extraction by various culture media and 100% of Cu was dissolved after 30 days of treatment, using 50 mg/L of silver nitrate as additives. In the best condition and without silver additives, maximum 60% of copper was extracted even in the presence of energy sources such as sulfur, ferrous and ferric ions. In the most effective test with initial pH 1.57, 50 mg/L silver nitrate, and 50 g/L ferric sulfate, 100% of copper was dissolved in less than a week with highest kinetics rate. Molybdenum and rhenium extraction had the same tends with redox potential graph. By increasing the redox potential to the 550-600mV, molybdenite started to dissolve and finally, molybdenum and rhenium were extracted 2% and 9.53% in the best condition; respectively.

  16. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    small and medium-sized energy enterprises, implemented in five countries by United Nations Environmental Programme between 2002 and 2012, as a means to expand access to sustainable energy products and services in sub-Saharan Africa. While access to affordable finance was found to be the primary......In the context of the ‘decade for sustainable energy’ (2014–2024) under the UN's Sustainable Energy for All initiative, this article presents findings from primary research conducted into the ‘African Rural Energy Enterprise Development’ (AREED) programme. AREED was a donor-backed effort to support...

  17. Triton, deuteron and proton responses of the CR-39 track detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Hiroyoshi; Oda, Keiji [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan)

    1996-07-01

    In the present study, we assessed the response of the CR-39 detector to proton, deuteron and triton from their etch-pit growth curves obtained by multi-step etching technique and the difference among their track registration properties was discussed. In order to avoid incorrect evaluation due to the missing track effect, particle irradiation was performed at various incident energies. The response function, S(R), etch rate ratio, S, as a function of the residual range, R, was experimentally evaluated for all hydrogen isotopes by this method. In the next, we obtained another form of response functions of S(E), S({beta}) and S(LET{sub 200}), which were presented as functions of the particle energy, E, the particle velocity, {beta}(=v/c), and the linear energy transfer in the case where the cut-off energy is 200 eV, LET{sub 200}, respectively. These information will be useful also in understanding the fundamentals of the latent track formation mechanism in the plastic track detectors. (J.P.N.)

  18. Comparison of the air-kerma standards of the PTB and the BIPM in the medium-energy X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.T.; Bueermann, L.; Kramer, H.M.; Lange, B.

    2002-06-01

    An indirect comparison has been made between the air erma standards of the PTB and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in general agreement at the level of the stated standard uncertainty, although the result for the 100 kV radiation quality differs significantly from that for the other qualities. (authors)

  19. Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron near the η-production threshold including polarization observables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Eed M., E-mail: eeddarwish@gmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, P.O. Box 30002 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Thoyaib, Suleiman S. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Qassim University, Buraydah 51452, P.O. Box 6644 (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-12-15

    Coherent π{sup 0}-photoproduction on the deuteron including polarization observables is studied in the energy region near the η-production threshold at backward center-of-mass angles of the outgoing pion. This work is motivated by the measurements of the CLAS Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, where a cusp-like structure in the energy dependence of the differential cross section has been observed at extremely backward pion angles. The present approach is based on the impulse approximation and first-order rescattering diagrams with intermediate production of both π- and η-mesons. Numerical results for unpolarized cross sections, the linear photon asymmetry (Σ), the vector (T{sub 11}) and tensor (T{sub 2M}, M=0, 1, 2) deuteron target asymmetries, and the double polarization E-asymmetry are predicted and compared with available experimental data and other theoretical models. The effect of first-order rescattering is found to be much larger in spin asymmetries than in the unpolarized cross sections. It reaches on average about 40% in the tensor target and E asymmetries. Compared to the experimental data from CLAS Collaboration, sizable discrepancies are found. This is not the case for the linear photon asymmetry, for which a better comparison with the data from YerPhI Collaboration is obtained.

  20. Deuteron flux production in a small high-voltage high-current diode with pulsed magnetic insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Isaev, A. A.; Kozlovskii, K. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2017-06-01

    The results of new studies on the production of accelerated deuteron fluxes in a small ion diode with pulsed magnetic insulation of electrons have been presented. A plasma anode of the diode has been formed under the action of a 1.06 μm laser radiation with a pulse duration of 10 ns, a pulse energy of up to 1 J, and a power density on the target of 5 × 1015 W m-2. An accelerating voltage of up to 300 kV has been created using an Arkad'ev-Marx pulsed voltage generator with a stored energy of 50 J and a repetition rate of 1 Hz. A magnetic field of higher than 0.6 T for insulating electrons has been formed by a current pulse of the first cascade of the generator in a spiral line before a conical cascade. Stable deuteron acceleration to 300 keV with a current of up to 1.5 kA and a pulse duration of 0.3 μs has been achieved.

  1. Focus neutron spectra. 2nd part: calculation of a distribution function of accelerated deuterons from the experimental spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genta, Philippe; Millet, Francois; Vezin, Robert.

    1975-01-01

    Bernstein simplifying hypotheses are used to describe the FOCUS plasma producing nuclear reactions, by means of two populations: the accelerated deuterons described by the space-time mean value of their single velocity distribution f 1 (E(d), theta(d)); and a beam of target deuterons with a kinetic energy E(T). The neutron spectrum S(M)(P 0 ,E,theta(n)) being obtained by a time-of-flight measurement, a possible determination of the function f 1 (E(d), theta(d)) giving the same spectrum is developed. When theta(n) is not zero, the Gauss-Legendre two-step method used for the programming allows a precise computation for the infinite branches. There is no difficulty in the case where theta(n)=0,π. A discrete solution is developed from two or three different values of theta(n) and a ten energy values with 100keV steps. The minimization leads to solving a linear system by the Gauss-Seidel method [fr

  2. Analysis of {sup 209} Bi and {sup 238} U photofission cross section in the quasi-deuteron region of photonuclear absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Terranova, M.L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Rome (Italy)

    1992-12-31

    An analysis of the photofission reactions in the quasi-deuteron energy range of photonuclear absorption ({approx} 30-140 MeV) has been performed for {sup 209} Bi and {sup 238} U nuclei. Experimental cross section data available in the literature have been compared with calculated values obtained from a model in which the incoming photon is assumed to be absorbed by a neutron-proton pair (Levinger`s quasi-deuteron photoabsorption), followed by a mechanism of evaporation-fission competition for the excited residual nuclei. The model has been shown to reproduce the main experimental features of {sup 209} Bi and {sup 238} U photofission cross section, although unexplained differences still remain in the case of {sup 238} U-fission by 30-50 MeV incident photons. (author). 49 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs.

  3. Preliminary results on neutron production from a Pb/U target irradiated by deuteron beam at 1.25 GeV/amu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragopoulou, M.; Manolopoulou, M.; Jokic, S.; Zamani, M.; Krivopustov, M.; Sosnin, A.; Stoulos, S.

    2008-01-01

    A spallation neutron source consisted of a cylindrical Pb target and surrounded by uranium blanket was irradiated by deuteron beam 1.25 GeV/amu provided from the Nuclotron accelerator at High Energy Laboratory, JINR, Dubna. For radiation protection purpose a polyethylene shielding was placed around the spallation neutron source. Neutron distributions along the surface of the U-blanket were measured by using solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) as particle and fission detectors. The neutron distributions appear to be similar to those obtained by proton irradiations. Applying a fitting procedure to the experimental data the inelastic cross section of deuteron in Pb was estimated. The escaping neutron distribution from the polyethylene shielding and parallel to the target was also measured and presented to be two orders of magnitude less than that over the U-blanket surface

  4. Production of deuterons, tritons, $^{3}$He nuclei and their anti-nuclei in pp collisions at $\\mathbf{\\sqrt{{\\textit s}}}$~=~0.9, 2.76 and 7~TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; 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Zou, Shuguang

    2018-02-22

    Invariant differential yields of deuterons and anti-deuterons in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7~TeV and the yields of tritons, $^{3}$He nuclei and their anti-nuclei at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7~TeV have been measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The measurements cover a wide transverse momentum ($p_{\\text{T}}$) range in the rapidity interval $|y|<0.5$, extending both the energy and the $p_{\\text{T}}$ reach of previous measurements up to 3~GeV/$c$ for $A=2$ and 6~GeV/$c$ for $A=3$. The coalescence parameters of (anti-)deuterons and $^{3}\\overline{\\text{He}}$ nuclei exhibit an increasing trend with $p_{\\text{T}}$ and are found to be compatible with measurements in pA collisions at low $p_{\\text{T}}$ and lower energies. The integrated yields decrease by a factor of about 1000 for each increase of the mass number with one (anti-)nucleon. Furthermore, the deuteron-to-proton ratio is reported as a function of the average charged particle multiplicity at different center-of-mass energies.

  5. Spin effects at fragmentation of polarized deuterons into cumulative pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanasiev, S.; Arkhipov, V.; Bondarev, V.; Isupov, A.; Khrenov, A.; Kirillov, D.; Ladygin, V.; Litvinenko, A.; Malakhov, A.; Pilipenko, Yu.; Reznikov, S.; Rukoyatkin, P.; Zolin, L.; Daito, I.; Horikawa, N.; Wakai, A.; Doushita, N.; Fukui, S.; Iwata, T.; Kondo, K.

    2002-01-01

    Tensor analyzing power T 20 of the reaction d-vectorA→π(0 deg.)X was measured in the fragmentation of 9 GeV deuterons into points with the momenta from 3.5 to 5.3 GeV/c at hydrogen, beryllium and carbon targets. This momentum range corresponds to region of cumulative pion production The values of T 20 are found to be small and consistent with positive values in contradiction with the Impulse Approximation calculations based on assuming a direct mechanism of pion production (NN→NNπ). New data on tensor Ayy analyzing power for pion production at the non-zero angle (θ π =135,180mr) with pion transverse momenta up to P t =0.8 GeV/c are presented. Ayy increases with rise of P t in the cumulative region

  6. Experimental physics with polarized protons, neutrons and deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Lehar, František; Wilkin, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The monograph gives a comprehensive overview of the diverse aspects of the experimental study of polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-deuteron collisions. The special nature of this volume is that it is based on the original physics results and knowledge gained by one of the authors (F. Lehar), who was a respected researcher in the field for nearly fifty years. The results of these experiments provide valuable information on the spin dependence of the forces acting between nucleons in atomic nuclei, of which all matter is ultimately composed. The fundamental importance of the results means that the subject will remain topical for years to come. The book is designed for teachers and students of natural sciences, espe - cially those with interests in nuclear and particle physics, as well as for ex - perimental physicists who are investigating polarization phenomena using accelerators of charged particles. The writing of the book was initiated by F. Lehar who was the driving force beh...

  7. Ionisation of L subshells of heavy atoms by deuteron collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokhi, R.S.; Crumpton, D.; Trautmann, D.

    1989-01-01

    L i subshell ionisation cross sections for 1.2-3.0 MeV deuteron impact on thin targets of W, Au, Pb and Bi have been measured experimentally. Measurements were made with the Birmingham University's 3MV Dynamitron accelerator and the cross sections were deduced from the emitted L X-rays. These cross sections and their ratios have been compared graphically with the ECPSSR and RHSCA models. The ECPSSR model underestimates the measured L 2 subshell cross sections but shows very good agreement with the L 3 subshell values. The RHSCA theory in general exhibits good agreement with the measured cross sections for the L 1 and L 2 subshells but overestimates the L 3 cross sections by up to 60%. (orig.)

  8. Elastic nucleon-deuteron scattering and breakup with chiral forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witała Henryk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results on three-nucleon (3N elastic scattering and breakup below the pion production threshold are discussed. The large discrepancies found between a theory based on numerical solutions of 3N Faddeev equations with standard nucleon-nucleon (NN potentials only and data point to the need for three-nucleon forces (3NF’s. This notion is supported by the fact that another possible reason for the discrepancies in elastic nucleon-deuteron (Nd scattering, relativistic effects, turned out to be small. Results for a new generation of chiral NN forces (up to N4LO together with theoretical truncation errors are shown. They support conclusions obtained with standard NN potentials

  9. Evaluation of even- and odd-chain medium-chain triglycerides as energy sources for neonatal piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were evaluated as a supplemental energy source for the newborn piglet. In three experiments, piglets were force-fed 12 mi of MCT, varying in fatty acid (FA) composition. Blood fatty acid and ketone body concentrations peaked 1-2 h after force feeding then returned to baseline by 4 h, illustrating rapid digestion, absorption and oxidation. Peak 3-OH-butyrate concentrations never exceeded 80 μM which is dramatically lower than observed in rats (>2 mM). Improved clinical energy status was also documented by elevated blood glucose concentration and lower nitrogen excretion than observed in fasted controls. Piglets showed an improvement in ability to utilize MCT between 6 and 18 h of age based on a two fold increase in blood concentration of FA and 3-OH-butyrate but no further change between 18 and 48 h. Peak plasma FA concentration decreased progressively as triglyceride-FA chain length increased from C7 (2.1 mM) to C10 (0.4 mM). In two subsequent experiments, hepatocyte metabolism of FA was studied. Hepatocytes oxidized [1- 14 C]- C7 or C9 (1 mM) greater than 40% faster and consumed oxygen 7% faster than cells given C8 or C10. L-carnitine (1 mM) was without effect. Theoretical calculations from FA flux accounted for 95-140% of observed O 2 consumption, indicating the FA were the major fuel source for the cells. Hepatocytes from 2 d pigs oxidized FA 48% faster than cells from 6 h pigs, but this was likely due to an increased metabolic rate observed in the older animals. No differences were detected in ability of small (700-950 g) pigs to oxidize FA relative to large (1,050-1,800 g) littermates. In a final in vivo experiment, pigs were continuously infused with 10 μCi of [1- 14 C]-C7,C8, C9 or C10 via a catheter passed through the umbilical artery to the heart at a rate of 20, 50 or 100 mole FA/min for 5 h

  10. Anomalous behavior in temporal evolution of ripple wavelength under medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion bombardment on Si: A case of initial wavelength selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, Sandeep Kumar [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India); Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Cuerno, Rodolfo [Departamento de Matematicas and Grupo Interdisciplinar de Sistemas Complejos (GISC), Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganes (Spain); Kanjilal, Dinakar [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Som, Tapobrata, E-mail: tsom@iopb.res.in [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar 751 005 (India)

    2016-06-14

    We have studied the early stage dynamics of ripple patterns on Si surfaces, in the fluence range of 1–3 × 10{sup 18} ions cm{sup −2}, as induced by medium energy Ar{sup +}-ion irradiation at room temperature. Under our experimental conditions, the ripple evolution is found to be in the linear regime, while a clear decreasing trend in the ripple wavelength is observed up to a certain time (fluence). Numerical simulations of a continuum model of ion-sputtered surfaces suggest that this anomalous behavior is due to the relaxation of the surface features of the experimental pristine surface during the initial stage of pattern formation. The observation of this hitherto unobserved behavior of the ripple wavelength seems to have been enabled by the use of medium energy ions, where the ripple wavelengths are found to be order(s) of magnitude larger than those at lower ion energies.

  11. Spin observables for pion photoproduction on the deuteron in the {delta}(1232)-resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Eed M [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Sohag 82524 (Egypt)

    2005-02-01

    Spin observables for the three charge states of the pion for the pion photoproduction reaction on the deuteron, {gamma}d {yields} {pi}NN, with polarized photon beam and/or oriented deuteron target are predicted. For the beam-target double-spin asymmetries, it is found that only the longitudinal asymmetries T{sup l}{sub 20} and T{sup l}{sub 2{+-}}{sub 2} do not vanish, whereas all the circular and the other longitudinal asymmetries do vanish. The sensitivity of spin observables to the model deuteron wavefunction is investigated. It has been found that only T{sub 21} and T{sub 22} are sensitive to the model deuteron wavefunction, in particular in the case of {pi}{sup 0}-production above the {delta}-region, and that other asymmetries are not.

  12. Investigation of the 27Al(d,x24Na nuclear reaction for deuteron beam monitoring purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khandaker Mayeen Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation cross-sections for the 27Al(d,x24Na nuclear reaction was measured by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high purity germanium (HPGe γ-ray spectrometry over deuteron energy range of 2–24 MeV. Measured data were critically compared with the available literature data and also with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL data base. Accuracy of the 27Al(d,x24Na cross-sections were confirmed by the simultaneous measurements of the natTi(d,x48V monitor reaction cross-sections. Present results reproduced well the IAEA recommended natTi(d,x48V reaction cross-sections, but provide slight deviation with the IAEA recommended 27Al(d,x24Na cross-sections. It may be concluded that the use of 27Al(d,x24Na in deuteron beam monitoring should not be a perfect choice if one has the option to use the natTi(d,x48V reaction.

  13. 208Pb giant resonance excitation by inelastic scattering of 201MeV protons, 108MeV deuterons and 218MeV alphas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djalali, C.

    1981-01-01

    The region of the giant resonances has been studied in Pb by inelastic scattering of protons, deuterons and alpha particles. The new experimental set up at the Orsay synchrocyclotron allows measurements at angles as small as 3 deg with an energy resolution of 3.10 -4 . Using DWBA the data have been analysed within the collective model. The importance of the Coulomb excitation of the GDR(ΔT=1) is stressed, especially for protons. A resonance located at 21.5 MeV is strongly excited by protons, at forward angles and it is interpreted as a sum of a GQR(ΔT=1) and a GDR(ΔT=0) exhausting respectively 80 % AND 12 % of their corresponding EWSR. A HEOR(ΔT=0) is excited by deuterons at 17.8 MeV, exhausting 12 % of the EWSR. The strengthes extracted for the GQR(ΔT=0) with deuterons and alpha particles are in agreement (approximately 60 % of the EWSR); much less strength is found with protons (approximately 30 %). These differences show that the use of electromagnetic transitions operators and sum rules for 201 MeV protons is not correct. In the GQR region, fine structures are detected, however there is no clear evidence for M1(ΔT=1) transitions [fr

  14. Structures revealed in the neutron-proton mass spectrum in the deuteron break-up reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiarczuk, T.; Stepaniak, J.; Zieliński, P.

    1983-09-01

    A sample of “non-spectator” events in the dp→(pn) p break-up reaction at 3.3 GeV/ c deuteron momentum is studied using films from 1 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The effective mass distribution of two nucleons from the deuteron break-up exhibits enhancements near the sum of neutron and proton masses and at Mpn = 2020 and 2130 MeV.

  15. Detailed EXOSAT and optical observations of the intermediate polar 3A0729+103: discovery of two medium energy X-ray emission regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHardy, I.M.; Pye, J.P.; Fairall, A.P.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    EXOSAT observations of the intermediate polar cataclysmic variable 3A0729+103 reveal a strong orbital modulation, with the 2-4KeV X-rays being significantly more modulated than the 4-6keV X-rays, indicative of photoelectric absorption. The 913 second modulation which is very prominent in the optical light curve, is weakly detected in the medium-energy X-ray light curve, confirming that it represents the white dwarf spin period. These observations are well explained by a combination of two sources of medium-energy X-ray emission. The presence of two emission regions is also clearly seen in the optical spectroscopy, particularly in the intensity of the He II4686 line which has two peaks during the orbit. The authors identify the two optical emission regions with the two X-ray emission regions. (author)

  16. Top management and the adoption of energy efficiency practices: Evidence from small and medium-sized manufacturing firms in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blass, Vered; Corbett, Charles J.; Delmas, Magali A.; Muthulingam, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Barriers to energy efficiency have been extensively discussed in the energy literature, but little is known about positive drivers. This paper investigates the role of top managers and more specifically of top operations managers on the adoption of energy-efficiency practices, based on 5779 energy efficiency recommendations made to 752 small and medium-sized manufacturing firms under the US Department of Energy's IACs (Industrial Assessment Centers) Program, through which teams of students and faculty from engineering schools provide free energy assessments. Top operations managers possess knowledge of production processes, for maximizing the effective manufacture and distribution of goods. We find that their involvement significantly increases the adoption of energy-efficiency initiatives, while involvement of general top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. Involvement of top operations managers increases the percentage of recommended energy savings that are implemented by 13.4% on average and increases the probability of adoption of more disruptive individual recommendations related to process and equipment change from 31% to 44%. Our findings imply that, in order to advance energy efficiency in SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises), it may be advisable to target managers who are sufficiently senior but still in a clearly operationally-focused position. - Highlights: • We examine how top managers influence the adoption of energy-efficiency practices. • Top operations managers implement 13.4% more of recommended savings. • Involvement of top managers without an operational role has little or no effect. • Top operations managers enhance adoption of recommendations that are disruptive

  17. A Proposal to the Department of Energy for The Fabrication of a Very High Energy Polarized Gama Ray Beam Facility and A Program of Medium Energy Physics Research at The National Synchrotron Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandorfi, A.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Thorn, C.E.; Giordano, G.; Matone, G.

    1982-09-01

    This proposal requests support for the fabrication and operation of a modest facility that would provide relatively intense beams of monochromatic and polarized photons with energies in the range of several hundreds of MeV. These {gamma} rays would be produced by Compton backscattering laser light from the electrons circulating in the 2.5-3.0 GeV 'X-RAY' storage ring of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The excellent emittance, phase space, and high current of this state-of-the-art storage ring will allow the production of 2 x 10{sup 7} {gamma} rays per second. These photons would be tagged by detecting the scattered electrons, thereby determining the energy to 2.7 MeV for all {gamma}-ray energies. The efficiency of this tagging procedure is 100% and the {gamma}-ray beam would be essentially background free. Tagging will also allow the flexibility of operating with a dynamic range as large as 200 MeV in photon energy while still preserving high resolution and polarization. These beams will permit a fruitful study of important questions in medium-energy nuclear physics. The initial goals of this program are to reach reliable operation with photon energies up to 300 MeV and to develop {gamma}-ray beams with energies up to about 500 MeV. To demonstrate reliable operation, a modest physics program is planned that, for the most part, utilizes existing magnets and detector systems but nonetheless addresses several important outstanding problems. Gamma ray beams of the versatility, intensity, energy, and resolution that can be achieved at this facility are not currently available at any other world facility either existing or under construction. Furthermore, the proposed program would produce the first intense source of medium-energy {gamma} rays that are polarized. Because of the difficulties in producing such polarized beams, it is very unlikely that viable alternate sources can be developed in the near future; at

  18. Dosimetric references for low and medium energy X rays at the LNE-LHB: X ray spectrum simulation and calculation of corrective factors using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksouri, W.; Gouriou, J.; Denoziere, M.

    2010-01-01

    As the LNHB (Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel) has set dosimetric references for low and medium energy X rays in medical and industrial applications, the authors report the determination of different corrective factors: those related to the mechanical realization of the ionization chamber, and those related to physical phenomena in this room (electron loss or Ke, and photon diffusion or Ksc). These factors are computed using the Monte Carlo PENELOPE code. As the determination of Ke and Ksc requires the knowledge of the energy spectral distribution of impinging photons, and as spectrum measurement exhibit ambiguities, spectra are determined through a Monte Carlo simulation using PENELOPE and EGS codes, by modelling the X ray tube

  19. The performance of the INER improved free-air ionization chamber in the comparison of air kerma calibration coefficients for medium-energy X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.-H.; Kotler, L.H.; Bueermann, Ludwig; Hwang, W.-S.; Chiu, J.-H.; Wang, C.-F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modifications to an original design, correction factors and uncertainty evaluations for an improved free-air ionization chamber constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). In addition, a comparison of secondary standard air kerma calibration coefficients for 100-250 kV medium-energy X-rays was performed to verify the experimental accuracy and measurement consistency of the improved chamber. The comparison results showed a satisfactory agreement in the measurements which were within the combined expanded uncertainties (k=2)

  20. Pauli-blocking effect in two-body collisions dominates the in-medium effects in heavy-ion reactions near Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yong-Zhong, E-mail: yzxing@tsnu.edu.cn [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang, H.F. [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Xiao-Bin [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zheng, Yu-Ming [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(18), Beijing 102413 (China)

    2017-01-15

    The dissipation phenomenon in the heavy-ion reaction at incident energy near Fermi energy is studied by simulating the reactions {sup 129}Xe + {sup 129}Sn and {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni with isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model (IQMD). The isotropy ratio in terms of transverse and longitudinal energies of the free protons emitted in the final states of these reactions is quantitatively analyzed to explore the in-medium correlation of the binary collisions. Comparison of the calculations with the experimental data recently released by INDRA collaboration exhibits that the ratio is very sensitive to the Pauli blocking effect in two-body collisions and Pauli exclusion principle is indispensable in the theoretical simulations for the heavy-ion reactions near the Fermi energy.

  1. Weak interactions in deuterons: exchange currents and nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautry, F.; Rho, M.; Riska, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    While the meson-exchange electromagnetic current has been tested with an impressive success in the two-nucleon system, nothing much is known about the reliability of the exchange currents in weak interactions. This question is studied using muon absorption in the deuteron, μ - + d→n + n + γ. The meson-exchange current, previously derived in parallel to those of the electromagnetic interaction, is checked for consistency against the p-wave piece of the p + p→d + π + process near threshold and then tested with the total capture rate for which some (though not so accurate) data are available. The same Hamiltonian is then used to calculate the matrix elements for the solar neutrino processes p + p→d + e + + γ and p + p + e - → d + γ in the hope that they would be measured and help resolve the solar neutrino puzzle. Finally a detailed analysis is made of the differential capture rate dGAMMA/dEsub(n), Esub(n) being the kinematic energy in the c.m. of the two neutrons, in the expectation that it will be used to pin down the ever elusive n-n scattering length. (Auth.)

  2. Semi-Inclusive Single Pion Electroproduction From Deuteron and Proton Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantarians, Narbe [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Semi-inclusive electroproduction of all three pion flavors (π+, π-0) from both deuteron and proton targets is measured for Q^2 > 1.1 GeV2, 0.12 < x < 0.48, 0.3 < z < 0.7. and Mx > 1.4 GeV. We study the PT, Z, and Φh dependences for the ratio of yields d(e,e',π)X/p(e,e'π)X. From these ratios it is possible to study the d/u valence quark distributions for the neutron and proton as well as the ratio of (current) fragmentation functions D-/D+. The data presented is from Jefferson Lab experiment PR94-102, using an electron beam with energy 5.769 GeV with beam current of 7nA. The results agree with previous data as well as provide an extended kinematic coverage.

  3. Acceleration factor for propagation of a stationary wave in its wave medium: movement of energy in the 3-D space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Shigeto

    2013-01-01

    According to the formerly reported 4-D spherical model of the time and universe, any energy in the 3-dimensional space is a vibration of the intrinsic space energy. There is a special frame stationary to the space energy and the principle of relativity is no longer valid. Accordingly, abandonment of the Special Relativity and then introduction of a factor of acceleration for energy in the 3-D space are proposed.

  4. Muon induced deuteron disintegration in three-dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topolnicki Kacper

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional (3D description of muon induced deuteron disintegration. This reaction is treated as the decay of the muonic atom with the muon initially on the lowest K shell. Our aim is to calculate the total and differential decay rates. We work in momentum space and use 3D momentum eigenstates directly. This approach allowed us to calculate the appropriate nuclear matrix elements, necessary building blocks for the differential decay rate, in a single step. For contrast - in classical calculations many partial-waves have to be taken into account. We achieved a very good agreement between the 3D and partial-wave methods for calculations that involve single-nucleon currents. Our result for the total decay rate is also in agreement with experimental values, though these are not very precise. This success motivates us to also include two-nucleon current contributions that include the meson exchange currents. Additionally, our formalism can also be applied to other, so far poorly described, processes like: μ +3 He→ ν + n + d or μ +3 He → ν + n + n + p.

  5. Coulomb nuclear interference with deuterons in even palladium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Ukita, G.M. [Universidade de Santo Amaro, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Psicologia

    2004-09-15

    Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of 13.0 MeV deuterons on {sup 104,106,108,110}Pd were measured with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility in the range of 12{sup 0} {<=}{theta}{sub lab} {<=}64{sup 0}. A Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analysis, employing the Distorted Wave Born Approximation with the Deformed Optical Model as transition potential, under well established global optical parameters, was applied to the first quadrupolar excitations. The values of C = {delta}{sub LC}/{delta}{sub LN}, the ratio of charge to isoscalar deformation lengths, and of ({delta}{sub LN}){sup 2} were extracted through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions. The ratios of reduced charge to isoscalar transition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. For {sup 104}Pd, and preliminary for {sup 108}Pd, the respective values of C = 1.18(3) and C = 1.13(4) reveal an enhanced contribution of the protons relative to the neutrons to the excitation, while a smaller effect is found for {sup 106}Pd, C = 1.06(3) and for {sup 110}Pd, C 1.07(3), in comparison with the value C 1.00 expected for homogenous collective excitations. (author)

  6. Coulomb nuclear interference with deuterons in even palladium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Rodrigues, C.L.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Horodynski-Matsushigue, L.B.; Duarte, J. L.M.; Ukita, G.M.

    2004-01-01

    Angular distributions for the inelastic scattering of 13.0 MeV deuterons on 104,106,108,110 Pd were measured with the Sao Paulo Pelletron-Enge-Spectrograph facility in the range of 12 0 ≤θ lab ≤64 0 . A Coulomb-Nuclear Interference analysis, employing the Distorted Wave Born Approximation with the Deformed Optical Model as transition potential, under well established global optical parameters, was applied to the first quadrupolar excitations. The values of C = δ LC /δ LN , the ratio of charge to isoscalar deformation lengths, and of (δ LN ) 2 were extracted through the comparison of experimental and predicted cross section angular distributions. The ratios of reduced charge to isoscalar transition probabilities, B(EL) to B(ISL) respectively, are related to the square of the parameter C and were thus obtained with the advantage of scale uncertainties cancellation. For 104 Pd, and preliminary for 108 Pd, the respective values of C = 1.18(3) and C = 1.13(4) reveal an enhanced contribution of the protons relative to the neutrons to the excitation, while a smaller effect is found for 106 Pd, C = 1.06(3) and for 110 Pd, C 1.07(3), in comparison with the value C 1.00 expected for homogenous collective excitations. (author)

  7. Preliminary Physics Summary: Deuteron and anti-deuteron production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism which is behind the production of light (anti–)nuclei in ultra-relativistic collisions is one of the open questions in high-energy physics. We present the preliminary results obtained from the analyses of the (anti-)deuteron production for two different data samples collected in the LHC run 2: pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=5.02$ TeV. In particular, the production yields, the ratio between the production of anti-matter and matter, the d/p ratio and the coalescence parameter $B_2$ are compared for the two colliding systems and discussed in the context of thermal and coalescence models.

  8. Regional energy saving project for the medium and small business sector in the Netherlands. Making money by energy conservation; Regionaal MKB Besparingsproject. Geld verdienen door energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korver, H. [ed.

    1998-11-01

    The Dutch energy utility GGR-Gas is involved in the title project. Florists, furniture shops, hair dressers and catering businesses are visited to carry out energy audits and advise on options to save energy

  9. Exergy-topological analysis and optimization of a binary power plant utilizing medium-grade geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhanlall, Deodat; Zhang, Fuzhen; Xu, Ruina; Jiang, Peixue

    2015-01-01

    While it is generally accepted that high efficiency conversion of low- and medium-grade heat to electrical power strongly relies on a suitable combination of thermodynamic cycle and working fluid, the selection of suitable operating parameters may be of even more importance. This study shows that medium-grade geothermal heat-to-power conversion in a well-designed secondary regenerative Rankine cycle can achieve a high degree of thermodynamic perfection and exergy efficiency, without the use of high-cost advance powerfluids. The study is carried out by combining a recently developed exergy-topological analysis scheme with CyclePad ® , an open-source cognitive thermodynamic tool. The powerful sensitivity analysis capability of CyclePad ® is used to determine optimal operating conditions. In addition, application of an extensive exergy-flow diagram, which includes flows in the geothermal production well and cooling cycle, is discussed. A key strategy for improving the thermodynamic efficiency of medium-grade geothermal power plants is also presented

  10. Measurements of deuteron-induced reaction cross-sections on natural nickel up to 24 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, Ahmed Rufai [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Umaru Musa Yar’adua University, Katsina (Nigeria); Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu_khandaker@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Masashi [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Otuka, Naohiko [Nuclear Data Section, Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-02-01

    Deuteron-induced cross-sections of the {sup nat}Ni(d,x){sup 55–58,60}Co, {sup 57}Ni, {sup 52g,54}Mn and {sup 61}Cu reactions were measured from the respective threshold energies to 24 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The results were compared with the available experimental data and also with the evaluated data in the TENDL-2014 library. Present results show a reasonable agreement with the recently reported experimental data while a partial agreement is found with the evaluated data. The results are expected to further enrich the experimental database and to understand the discrepancies among the previous measurements. The {sup nat}Ni(d,x){sup 61}Cu cross-sections recommended by the IAEA overestimate recent experimental ones, and their upgrade has been proposed.

  11. Studies of $\\Lambda n$ interaction through polarization observables for final-state interactions in exclusive $\\Lambda$ photoproduction off the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilieva, Yordanka [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Cao, Tongtong [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Zachariou, Nicholas [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical studies suggest that experimental observables for hyperon production reactions can place stringent constraints on the free parameters of hyperon-nucleon potentials, which are critical for the understanding of hypernuclear matter and neutron stars. Here we present preliminary experimental results for the polarization observables S, Py, Ox, Oz, Cx, and Cz for final-state interactions (FSI) in exclusive L photoproduction off the deuteron. The observables were obtained from data collected during the E06-103 (g13) experiment with the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The g13 experiment ran with unpolarized deuteron target and circularly- and linearly-polarized photon beams with energies between 0.5 GeV and 2.5 GeV and collected about 51010 events with multiple charged particles in the final state. To select the reaction of interest, the K+ and the L decay products, a proton and a negative pion, were detected in the CLAS. The missing-mass technique was used to identify exclusive hyperon photoproduction events. Final-state interaction events were selected by requesting that the reconstructed neutron has a momentum larger than 200 MeV/c. The large statistics of E06-103 provided statistically meaningful FSI event samples, which allow for the extraction of one- and two-fold differential single- and double-polarization observables. Here we present preliminary results for a set of six observables for photon energies between 0.9 GeV and 2.3 GeV and for several kinematic variables in the Ln center-of-mass frame. Our results are the very first estimates of polarization observables for FSI in hyperon photoproduction and will be used to constrain the free parameters of hyperon-nucleon potentials.

  12. Characteristics of voltage regulators with serial NPN transistor in the fields of medium and high energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukic, V.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    Variation of collector - emitter dropout voltage on serial transistors of voltage regulators LM2990T-5 and LT1086CT5 were used as the parameter for detection of examined devices' radiation hardness in X and ? radiation fields. Biased voltage regulators with serial super-β transistor in the medium dose rate X radiation field had significantly different response from devices with conventional serial NPN transistor. Although unbiased components suffered greater damage in most cases, complete device failure happened only among the biased components with serial super-β transistor in Bremsstrahlung field. Mechanisms of transistors degradation in ionizing radiation fields were analysed [sr

  13. Medium-Term Stability of the Photon Beam Energy of An Elekta CompactTM Linear Accelerator Based on Daily Measurements of Beam Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Mosleh-Shirazi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In this study, we aimed to assess the medium-term energy stability of a 6MV Elekta CompactTM linear accelerator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published article to evaluate this linear accelerator in terms of energy stability. As well as investigating the stability of the linear accelerator energy over a period of several weeks, the results will be useful for estimation of the required tolerance values for the beam quality factor (BQF of the PTW QUICKCHECK weblineTM (QCW daily checking device. Materials and Methods Over a 13 week period of routine clinical service, 52 daily readings of BQF were taken and then analyzed for a 10×10 cm2 field. Results No decreasing or increasing trend in BQF was observed over the study period. The mean BQF value was estimated at 5.4483 with a standard deviation (SD of 0.0459 (0.8%. The mean value was only 0.1% different from the baseline value. Conclusion The results of this medium-term stability study of the Elekta Compact linear accelerator energy showed that 96.2% of the observed BQF values were within ±1.3% of the baseline value. This can be considered to be within the recommended tolerance for linear accelerator photon beam energy. If an approach of applying ±3 SD is taken, the tolerance level for BQF may be suggested to be set at ±2.5%. However, further research is required to establish a relationship between BQF value and the actual changes in beam energy and penetrative quality.

  14. Emissions from Medium-Duty Conventional and Diesel-Electric Hybrid Vehicles; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragatz, A.; Duran, A.; Thornton, M.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-04-02

    This presentation discusses the results of emissions testing for medium-duty conventional and diesel-electric hybrid vehicles. Testing was based on a field evaluation approach that utilized the Fleet DNA drive cycle database and NREL’s Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) Laboratory chassis dynamometer. Vehicles tested included parcel delivery (Class 6 step vans), beverage delivery (Class 8 tractors), and parcel delivery (Class 7 box trucks) vehicles, all with intended service class medium/heavy heavy-duty diesel (MHDD).
    Results for fuel economy and tailpipe NOx emissions included: diesel hybrid electric vehicles showed an average fuel economy advantage on identified test cycles: Class 6 Step Vans: 26%; Class 7 Box Trucks: 24.7%; Class 8 Tractors: 17.3%. Vehicle miles traveled is an important factor in determining total petroleum and CO2 displacement. Higher NOx emissions were observed over some test cycles: highly drive cycle dependent; engine-out differences may result from different engine operating point; and selective catalyst reduction temperature may play a role, but does not explain the whole story.

  15. Nonlinear image blending for dual-energy MDCT of the abdomen: can image quality be preserved if the contrast medium dose is reduced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileto, Achille; Ramirez-Giraldo, Juan Carlos; Marin, Daniele; Alfaro-Cordoba, Marcela; Eusemann, Christian D; Scribano, Emanuele; Blandino, Alfredo; Mazziotti, Silvio; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the image quality of a dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique at reduced load of contrast medium with a simulated 120-kVp linear blending technique at a full dose during portal venous phase MDCT of the abdomen. Forty-five patients (25 men, 20 women; mean age, 65.6 ± 9.7 [SD] years; mean body weight, 74.9 ± 12.4 kg) underwent contrast-enhanced single-phase dual-energy CT of the abdomen by a random assignment to one of three different contrast medium (iomeprol 400) dose injection protocols: 1.3, 1.0, or 0.65 mL/kg of body weight. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise at the portal vein, liver, aorta, and kidney were compared among the different datasets using the ANOVA. Three readers qualitatively assessed all datasets in a blinded and independent fashion. Nonlinear blended images at a 25% reduced dose allowed a significant improvement in CNR (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), compared with simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. No statistically significant difference existed in CNR and noise between the nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose and the simulated 120-kVp linear blended images at a full dose. Nonlinear blended images at a 50% reduced dose were considered in all cases to have acceptable image quality. The dual-energy nonlinear image blending technique allows reducing the dose of contrast medium up to 50% during portal venous phase imaging of the abdomen while preserving image quality.

  16. Gamma-ray energy absorption in absorbing homogeneous medium. Applications to Oceanography and Geophysics (Gamma-ray spectroscopy from 500 to 1500 keV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicque, G.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish a general algebrical approach for the calculation, without any program, of the full energy peak efficiency of a detecting probe designed to measure the gamma activity of a radio-element in a (semi) infinite homogeneous absorbing medium such as the Sea. The radio-active source may be punctual or, most often, constitute an integral part of the medium. The proposed theory is valid for any purely absorptive process of particles moving along straight trajectories, diffusion effects being allowed for separately. The formulation assumes a spherical detector and calculations are made for models having the same volume as two standard phosphors (10 cm x8 cm and 5 cm x 4.5 cm) in the energy band 0.5 to 1.5 MeV. The parameters are the detector radius and, at energy E 0 , the absorption coefficients in the various media for gamma rays together with the 'peak/total' ratio in the detector. The fact that this latter factor, which varies with each trajectory, cannot be obtained with accuracy, constitutes the main limitation of the formulation. The comparison with experimental results obtained with a 10 cm x 8 cm phosphor at the C.F.R. (Centre des Faibles Radioactivites, Gif-sur-Yvette) and with various data indicates an error of about +-5% for a point source at contact and -30% for a homogeneously distributed source in an infinite medium. This latter value may be interpreted as a superiority of the spherical shape over the cylinder (used in practice), for detectors operating in infinite media. Calculations are made without allowing for the Compton effect, which is found to give an approximate correction of +5% in water for a band width of 10 keV in the MeV region. Finally, the shape of the detecting probe around the detector is shown to be indifferent in the assumption of a constant peak/total ratio [fr

  17. Low (50 keV) and medium (∼10 MeV) energy radioactive beams at Louvain-la-Neuve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyse, M.; Decrock, P.; Dendooven, P.; Reusen, G.; Duppen, P. Van; Wauters, J.

    1991-01-01

    Low energy radioactive beams are produced at the Leuven Isotope Separator On Line (LISOL) facility in Louvain-la-Neuve. The beams are used for standard nuclear spectroscopy studies and for nuclear orientation on line measurements. Since September 1987 a new project has been started up to accelerate radioactive beams to energies in the range of astrophysical interest. A beam of 10 6 13 N ions per seconde with an energy of 8.5 MeV has been produced last June. (author) 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  18. Technique for approximate analytical calculating the internuclear cascade initiated by medium-energy nucleons in accelerator shields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarnovskij, M.V.; Matushko, G.K.; Matushko, V.L.; Par'ev, Eh.Ya.; Serezhnikov, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    The problem on propagation of the internuclear cascade initiated by nucleons of 0.1-1 GeV energy in accelerator schielding is solved approximately in the analytical form. Analytical expressions for the function of spatial, angular and energy distribution of the flux density of nucleons with the energy above 20 MeV and some functionals from it are obtained. The results of the calculations obtained by the developed methods are compared with calculations obtained by the method of direct simulation. It is shown that at the atomic mass of shielding material [ru

  19. NMR determination of the order parameter in proton and deuteron glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinc, R.; Dolinsek, J.; Zalar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The inhomogeneous broadening of the ND + deuteron, O-D--O deuteron and 87 Rb quadrapole perturbed NMR spectra in Rb 0.56 (ND 4 ) 0.44 D 2 PO 4 is used for a direct determination of the Edwards-Anderson pseudo-spin glass order parameter. The data provide strong support for a model where the basic difference between magnetic spin glasses and proton or deuteron glasses is the presence of an inherent random field resulting from substitutional disorder which linearly couples to the O-D--O pseudo spins. In these systems we do not deal with a transition from a paraelectric to a pseudo-spin glass phase but rather with a transition from an ergodic pseudo-spin glass phase with a single order parameter q to a non-ergodic pseudo-spin glass phase with an infinite number of order parameters. (author). 11 refs.; 6 figs

  20. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Ajitanand, N. N.; Alekseev, I.; Anderson, D. M.; Aoyama, R.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Ashraf, M. U.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Behera, A.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Brown, D.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chankova-Bunzarova, N.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Elsey, N.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Esumi, S.; Evdokimov, O.; Ewigleben, J.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Federicova, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, S.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Harlenderova, A.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, B.; Huang, X.; Huang, H. Z.; Humanic, T. J.; Huo, P.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Jowzaee, S.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Kocmanek, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kulathunga, N.; Kumar, L.; Kvapil, J.; Kwasizur, J. H.; Lacey, R.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Lidrych, J.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, H.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, S.; Luo, X.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, R.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Mallick, D.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Miller, Z. W.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mizuno, S.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J. M.; Nie, M.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Nonaka, T.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Przybycien, M.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Ray, R. L.; Reed, R.; Rehbein, M. J.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Roth, J. D.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Saur, M.; Schambach, J.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Schweid, B. R.; Seger, J.; Sergeeva, M.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sugiura, T.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Y.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, X.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, A. H.; Tang, Z.; Taranenko, A.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, G.; Wang, Y.; Wang, F.; Wang, Y.; Webb, J. C.; Webb, G.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xu, J.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Yang, C.; Yang, S.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, C.; Zhu, X.; Zhu, Z.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present measurements of bulk properties of the matter produced in Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=7.7 ,11.5 ,19.6 ,27 , and 39 GeV using identified hadrons (π±, K±, p , and p ¯) from the STAR experiment in the Beam Energy Scan (BES) Program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Midrapidity (|y |<0.1 ) results for multiplicity densities d N /d y , average transverse momenta 〈pT〉 , and particle ratios are presented. The chemical and kinetic freeze-out dynamics at these energies are discussed and presented as a function of collision centrality and energy. These results constitute the systematic measurements of bulk properties of matter formed in heavy-ion collisions over a broad range of energy (or baryon chemical potential) at RHIC.

  1. Bulk properties of the medium produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions from the beam energy scan program

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Chaloupka, P.; Federič, Pavol; Federičová, P.; Harlenderová, A.; Kocmánek, Martin; Kvapil, J.; Lidrych, J.; Rusňák, Jan; Rusňáková, O.; Šaur, Miroslav; Šimko, Miroslav; Šumbera, Michal; Trzeciak, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), č. článku 044904. ISSN 2469-9985 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15001; GA MŠk LM2015054 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : STAR collaboration * RHIC * Beam Energy Scan Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics OBOR OECD: Particles and field physics Impact factor: 3.820, year: 2016

  2. Experimental study of spallation: neutron angular distributions induced by protons (0.8.,1.2 et 1.6 GeV) and deuterons (0.8 et 1.6 GeV) beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borne, F.

    1998-01-01

    Angular distributions of spallation neutrons, produced by 0,8 to 1,6 GeV protons and 0,8 to 1,6 GeV deuterons, with two experimental and complementary techniques: the flight time measure and the use of a liquid hydrogen converter associated with a magnetic spectrometer of higher energy (2000 MeV). Experimental results obtained at Saturne (Cea) are analysed and interpreted. They allowed the determination of the neutrons production behaviour on thin targets (Al, Fe, Zr, W, Pb and Th) in function of the angle emission and the atomic number of the target and to compare the variation of neutrons production, coming from protons and incident deuterons of same total energy on a Pb target. Experimental results are compared with simulation results obtained with the TIERCE code, including Bertini and Cugnon intra-nuclear cascades. (A.L.B.)

  3. Stopping power and energy loss cross section of a point charge penetrating through a dense medium of bound electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkacem, A.; Sigmund, P.; Odense Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We have derived the dielectric function ε(k,ω) in the Lindhard approximation for a medium consisting of electrons individually bound by harmonic forces. The dielectric function is expressible in terms of a hypergeometric series and approaches well-known results in the limits of negligible binding, large momentum transfer, and long wavelength, respectively. The stopping power of a moving point charge scales very well with the shifted resonance frequency α 0 = (ω O 2 + ω P 2 ) 1/2 (ω O = oscillator frequency; ω P = plasma frequency) that follows from classical dispersion theory. The results differ noticeably from free-electron behavior even at rather high electron density. The discrete excitation levels of an isolated harmonic oscillator are increasingly shifted and broadened with increasing electron density. 15 refs., 2 figs

  4. Tensor polarization in elastic electron-deuteron scattering to the highest possible momentum transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcon, M; Ahmidouch, A; Anklin, H; Arvieux, J; Ball, J; Beedoe, S; Beise, E J; Bimbo, L; Boeglin, W; Breuer, H; Carlini, R; Chant, N S; Danagoulian, S; Dow, K; Ducret, J -E; Dunne, J; Ewell, L; Eyraud, L; Furget, C; Gilman, R; Glashausser, C; Gueye, P; Gustafsson, K; Hafidi, K; Honegger, A; Jourdan, J; Kox, S; Kumbartzki, G; Lu, L; Lung, A; Mack, D; Markowitz, P; McIntyre, J; Meekins, D; Merchez, F; Mitchell, J; Mohring, R; Mtingwa, S; Mrktchyan, H; Pitz, D; Qin, L; Ransome, R; Raoul, J -S; Roos, P G; Rutt, P; Schmidt, W; Sawafta, R; Stepanyan, S; Stephenson, R; Tieulent, R; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E

    1999-07-01

    In elastic electron-deuteron scattering, the tensor polarization moments t{sub 20}, t{sub 21} and t{sub 22}, together with the unpolarized cross-sections, have been measured up to a momentum transfer of 1.8 (GeV/c){sup 2}, or 6.8 fm{sup -1}. The experiment was performed at Jefferson Laboratory using the recoil deuteron polarimeter POLDER. Preliminary results are presented and discussed, especially in view of their significance concerning the applicability of perturbative QCD to this exclusive process.

  5. Production of longer lived radionuclides in deuteron induced reactions on niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Hermanne, A.; Ditroi, F.; Takacs, S.; Kiraly, B.; Baba, M.; Ohtsuki, T.; Kovalev, S.F.; Ignatyuk, A.V.

    2007-01-01

    Production of residual radionuclides in deuteron induced reactions is important for medical radioisotope production, accelerator technology and activation analysis. In the frame of a systematic study of deuteron induced reactions on different metals we present here the integral excitation functions of 93 Nb(d, x) 93m Mo, 92m,91m,90 Nb, 89,88 Zr and 90m Y up to 40 MeV, all measured for the first time. Results obtained with the nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE are compared to the experimental data and show an acceptable agreement

  6. High-automated system of film data mathematical processing for polarized deuteron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balgansuren, Ya.; Buzdavina, N.A.; Glagolev, V.V.

    1986-01-01

    A specialized software system which allowed to reduce essentially the time of experimental data analysis has been developed in order to provide timely processing of film information in polarized deuteron experiments. With its help preliminary data on deuteron polarization has been obtained in a few months after experiment start up, and the total data processing (15 thousand events) has been carried out in less than in a year from the chamber irradiation time. High rate of data processing has been achieved due to complex automation of all stages of processing

  7. A polarized deuteron source and its application to nuclear physics (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beurtey, R.

    1963-11-01

    Principles and realization of a polarized deuteron source fitted to the 22 MeV Saclay cyclotron are described. Various vector and tensor polarizations are obtained using radio-frequency transitions between Zeeman sub-levels of the deuterium atoms. Such polarized deuterons enable us the study of spin-dependent interactions in (d, d) scattering and (d, p) reactions. The asymmetries obtained by 40 Ca (d, d) 40 Ca, 12 C (d, p) 13 C and 28 Si (d, p) 29 Si are presented. (author) [fr

  8. Stoichiometric analysis of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors using deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, S.M.; Ong, T.H.; Tan, M.G.; Loh, K.K.; Sow, C.H.; Yuan, B.; Orlic, I.

    1993-01-01

    In principle, deuteron irradiation can be used for a complete stoichiometric analysis of Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. The contents of all the four chemical constituents can be determined by simultaneous detection of the 0.871 MeV prompt gamma rays from the 16 O(d, pγ) 17 O * reaction and of the characteristic X-rays produced by DIXE (deuteron induced X-ray emission). In this paper we present the approach taken and the results obtained in exploring the applicability of this technique for accurate quantitative determinations of the chemical constituents of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. (orig.)

  9. Deuteron tensor polarization in the e-+d →e-+p+n process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekalo, M.P.; Gakh, G.I.; Rekalo, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The polarization phenomena in the d-vector(e, ep)n reaction caused by the deuteron tensor polarization have been investigated in the relativistic impulse approximation (IA) framework. It is shown that in general case the tensor polarization leads to 16 Asymmetries. Sensitivity of these observables to the choice of the deuteron wave function parametrization has been investigated. The calculated asymmetry in the d-vector(e, pn)e' reation caused by the tensor polarization of the target is in good agreement with experimental data obtained in Novosibirsk. The calculated asymmetry in the nonrelativistic and relativistic IA are significantly different

  10. Coupled channel theory of pion--deuteron reaction applied to threshold scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, T.; Koltun, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    Scattering and absorption of pions by a nuclear target are treated together in a coupled channel theory. The theory is developed explicitly for the problem of pion scattering and absorption by a deuteron. The equations are presented in terms of the integral equations of three-body scattering theory. The method is then applied in an approximate from to calculate the contribution of pion absorption to the scattering length for pion--deuteron scattering. The sensitivity of the calculated results to the model assumptions and approximations is investigated

  11. Orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Siberian snakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A D; Butenko, A V; Kekelidze, V D; Mikhaylov, V A; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yu N; Kondratenko, A M

    2016-01-01

    Two solenoid Siberian snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in the “spin transparency” mode of the NICA collider. The field integrals of the solenoid snakes for protons and deuterons at maximum momentum of 13.5 GeV/c are equal to 2×50 T·m and 2×160 T·m respectively. The snakes introduce strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in NICA collider with solenoid snakes are presented. (paper)

  12. Spin Transparency Mode in the NICA Collider with Solenoid Siberian Snakes for Proton and Deuteron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A. D.; Butenko, A. V.; Mikhaylov, V. A.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Filatov, Yu N.

    2017-12-01

    Two solenoid Siberian Snakes are required to obtain ion polarization in spin transparency mode of the NICA collider. The snake solenoids with a total field integral of 2×50 T·m are placed into the straight sections of the NICA collider. It allows one to control polarization of protons and deuterons up to 13.5 GeV/c and 4 GeV/c respectively. The snakes introduce a strong betatron oscillation coupling. The calculations of orbital parameters of proton and deuteron beams in the NICA collider with solenoid Snakes are presented.

  13. Experimental study of the production of light fragments in the α+α interactions at medium energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avome-Nze, M.-M.

    1979-01-01

    The production of light nuclides 3 He, 4 He, 6 Li, 7 Li and 7 Be in the α+α interactions to 103 MeV and to 218 MeV of incident energy is studied. The technique of semiconductors telescope has permitted to proceed to identification of these nuclides, to measure their energy spectra and their angular range. The cross sections of different nuclides were measured by integration on energy E and on solid angle Ω. The different values show that the α + α reactions can take prominent part in the production of helium-3. They appear sufficient to expound 6 Li abundance in the interstellar environment. On the contrary, the spallation is not sufficient to explain 7 Li abundance in the interstellar environment [fr

  14. Rise of energy price, rise of agricultural prices: what medium- and long-term relations and implications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voituriez, T.

    2009-01-01

    We review in this study the different factors which have been presented by the scientific community as possible explanations of the sudden upsurge in commodity prices between 2006 and 2008. We examine whether scientific evidence validates any causal relationship, and particularly emphasize the role of explanatory variables underpinning the co-movement of energy and food price rises. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date understanding of food and energy market relationships, so as to better anticipate the possible changes in the evolution of prices in the coming years. (author)

  15. Structure of ultrathin films of Co on Cu(111) from normal-incidence x-ray standing wave and medium-energy ion scattering measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, M.T.; Crapper, M.D.; Noakes, T.C.Q.; Bailey, P.; Jackson, G.J.; Woodruff, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of the techniques of normal-incidence x-ray standing wave (NIXSW) and medium-energy ion scattering (MEIS) to the elucidation of the structure of an ultrathin metallic film, Co on Cu(111), are reported. NIXSW and MEIS are shown to yield valuable and complementary information on the structure of such systems, yielding both the local stacking sequence and the global site distribution. For the thinnest films of nominally two layers, the first layer is of entirely fcc registry with respect to the substrate, but in the outermost layer there is significant occupation of hcp local sites. For films up to 8 monolayers (ML) thick, the interlayer spacing of the Co layers is 0.058±0.006 Aa smaller than the Cu substrate (111) layer spacing. With increasing coverage, the coherent fraction of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW decreases rapidly, indicating that the film does not grow in a fcc continuation beyond two layers. For films in this thickness range, hcp-type stacking dominates fcc twinning by a ratio of 2:1. The variation of the (1(bar sign)11) NIXSW coherent fraction with thickness shows that the twinning occurs close to the Co/Cu interface. For thicker films of around 20 ML deposited at room temperature, medium-energy ion scattering measurements reveal a largely disordered structure. Upon annealing to 300 deg. C the 20-ML films order into a hcp structure

  16. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S.; Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V.; Buermann, L.; Burns, D.T.; Takeyeddin, M.; Shaha, V.V.; Srimanoroth, S.; Meghzifene, A.; Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J.; Kadni, T.B.; Takata, N.; Msimang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  17. APMP/TCRI key comparison report of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (APMP.RI(I)-K3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H.; Hwang, W.S. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Longtan, Taiwan (China); Kotler, L.H.; Webb, D.V. [Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, Yallambie (Australia); Buermann, L. [Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Burns, D.T. [Bureau International de Poids et Mesures, 92 - Sevres (France); Takeyeddin, M. [Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shaha, V.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Srimanoroth, S. [Department of Medical Sciences, Nonthaburi (Thailand); Meghzifene, A. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Hah, S.H.; Chun, K.J. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Yusong (Korea, Republic of); Kadni, T.B. [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Kajang (Malaysia); Takata, N. [National Metrology Institute of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Msimang, Z. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-10-15

    The APMP/TCRI Dosimetry Working Group performed the APMP.RI(I)-K3 key comparison of measurement of air kerma for medium-energy x-rays (100 kV to 250 kV) between 2000 and 2003. In total, 11 institutes took part in the comparison, among which 8 were APMP member laboratories. Two commercial cavity ionization chambers were used as transfer instruments and circulated among the participants. All the participants established the 100 kV, 135 kV, 180 kV and 250 kV x-ray beam qualities equivalent to those of the BIPM. The results showed that the maximum difference between the participants and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range, evaluated using the comparison data of the linking laboratories ARPANSA and PTB, is less than 1.4%. The degrees of equivalence between the participants are presented and this comparison confirms the calibration capabilities of the participating laboratories. (authors)

  18. Modeling the Use of Mine Waste Rock as a Porous Medium Reservoir for Compressed Air Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donelick, R. A.; Donelick, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    We are studying the engineering and economic feasibilities of constructing Big Mass Battery (BiMBy) compressed air energy storage devices using some of the giga-tonnes of annually generated and historically produced mine waste rock/overburden/tailings (waste rock). This beneficial use of waste rock is based on the large mass (Big Mass), large pore volume, and wide range of waste rock permeabilities available at some large open pit metal mines and coal strip mines. Porous Big Mass is encapsulated and overlain by additional Big Mass; compressed air is pumped into the encapsulated pore space when renewable energy is abundant; compressed air is released from the encapsulated pore space to run turbines to generate electricity at the grid scale when consumers demand electricity. Energy storage capacity modeling: 1) Yerington Pit, Anaconda Copper Mine, Yerington, NV (inactive metal mine): 340 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 390k-710k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 2) Berkeley Pit, Butte Copper Mine, Butte, MT (inactive metal mine): 870 Mt Big Mass, energy storage capacity equivalent to 1.4M-2.9M home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 20% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. 3) Rosebud Mine, Colstrip, MT (active coal strip mine): 87 Mt over 2 years, energy storage capacity equivalent to 45k-67k home batteries of size 10 kW•h/charge, assumed 30% porosity, 50% overall efficiency. Encapsulating impermeable layer modeling: Inactive mine pits like Yerington Pit and Berkeley Pit, and similar active pits, have associated with them low permeability earthen material (silt and clay in Big Mass) at sufficient quantities to manufacture an encapsulating structure with minimal loss of efficiency due to leakage, a lifetime of decades or even centuries, and minimal need for the use of geomembranes. Active coal strip mines like Rosebud mine have associated with them low permeability earthen material such as

  19. Tailoring medium energy proton beam to induce low energy nuclear reactions in ⁸⁶SrCl₂ for production of PET radioisotope ⁸⁶Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Dmitri G; Mausner, Leonard F; Pile, Philip

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports results of experiments at Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) aiming to investigate effective production of positron emitting radioisotope (86)Y by the low energy (86)Sr(p,n) reaction. BLIP is a facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory designed for the proton irradiation of the targets for isotope production at high and intermediate proton energies. The proton beam is delivered by the Linear Accelerator (LINAC) whose incident energy is tunable from 200 to 66 MeV in approximately 21 MeV increments. The array was designed to ensure energy degradation from 66 MeV down to less than 20 MeV. Aluminum slabs were used to degrade the proton energy down to the required range. The production yield of (86)Y (1.2+/-0.1 mCi (44.4+/-3.7) MBq/μAh) and ratio of radioisotopic impurities was determined by assaying an aliquot of the irradiated (86)SrCl2 solution by gamma spectroscopy. The analysis of energy dependence of the (86)Y production yield and the ratios of radioisotopic impurities has been used to adjust degrader thickness. Experimental data showed substantial discrepancies in actual energy propagation compared to energy loss calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A graphite calorimeter for absolute measurements of absorbed dose to water: application in medium-energy x-ray filtered beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, M; Pimpinella, M; Quini, M; D'Arienzo, M; Astefanoaei, I; Loreti, S; Guerra, A S

    2016-02-21

    The Italian National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (ENEA-INMRI) has designed and built a graphite calorimeter that, in a water phantom, has allowed the determination of the absorbed dose to water in medium-energy x-rays with generating voltages from 180 to 250 kV. The new standard is a miniaturized three-bodies calorimeter, with a disc-shaped core of 21 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness weighing 1.134 g, sealed in a PMMA waterproof envelope with air-evacuated gaps. The measured absorbed dose to graphite is converted into absorbed dose to water by means of an energy-dependent conversion factor obtained from Monte Carlo simulations. Heat-transfer correction factors were determined by FEM calculations. At a source-to-detector distance of 100 cm, a depth in water of 2 g cm(-2), and at a dose rate of about 0.15 Gy min(-1), results of calorimetric measurements of absorbed dose to water, D(w), were compared to experimental determinations, D wK, obtained via an ionization chamber calibrated in terms of air kerma, according to established dosimetry protocols. The combined standard uncertainty of D(w) and D(wK) were estimated as 1.9% and 1.7%, respectively. The two absorbed dose to water determinations were in agreement within 1%, well below the stated measurement uncertainties. Advancements are in progress to extend the measurement capability of the new in-water-phantom graphite calorimeter to other filtered medium-energy x-ray qualities and to reduce the D(w) uncertainty to around 1%. The new calorimeter represents the first implementation of in-water-phantom graphite calorimetry in the kilovoltage range and, allowing independent determinations of D(w), it will contribute to establish a robust system of absorbed dose to water primary standards for medium-energy x-ray beams.