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Sample records for mediterranean-type ecosystems natural

  1. Proceedings of the symposium on dynamics and management of Mediterranean-type ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Eugene Conrad; Walter C. Oechel

    1982-01-01

    The symposium, held at San Diego State University, provided information about the Mediterranean-type ecosystems found throughout the world. In the papers, and in brief summeries of poster displays, both researchers and managers addressed concerns relating to vegetation, fauna, soils, hydrology, fire, and planning. A Review and Follow-up section presents general...

  2. Mediterranean-type ecosystems: the influence of biodiversity on their functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George W.; Richardson, David M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Mooney, H.A.; Cushman, J.H.; Medina, E.; Sala, O.E.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystems in the Mediterranean-climate regions of the world have served as a unit for comparative ecological studies for over two decades. The cohesiveness of research in this set of widely distributed regions rests on the similarity of the climates where they occur, and the identifiable convergence in elements of their vegetation structure (Di Castri and Mooney 1973). In this chapter we review functional aspects of what have come to be known as Mediterranean-type ecosystems (METs) in the context of a concerned global interest in the sustainability of the human environment and its dependence on biological diversity. The approach we adopt here is to look for evidence that this biodiversity, for which some MTEs are renowned (Cowling, 1992; Hobbs, 1992), has an influence on processes which are important both for the maintenance of natural systems, and for providing "ecosystem services" with human utility. Almost a century ago, Schimper (1903) recognized the biological similarities between five widely separated regions characterized by Mediterranean-type climates, and much comparative work has been done on that basis since. These regions comprise the Mediterranean basin itself, a major portion of California, central Chile, the southwestern and southern extremities of South Africa, and parts of southwestern and southern Australia (Figure 7.1). The first attention paid to MTEs in terms of quantitative ecological research arose out of the International Biological Programme (IBP) of the 1960s and 1970s. Those efforts focused on comparisons between the Chilean and Californian systems (Mooney 1977), and dealt with parallel models of ecosystem processes, especially water flux (Fuentes et al 1995). Because of the already perceived similarities between vegetation in these and the other three regions, the project was soon extended to include all five regions. The first broad comparative overview was published as an anthology which considered the origins and the convergent

  3. Heterogeneity of soil surface ammonium concentration and other characteristics, related to plant specific variability in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Cristina; Bio, Ana M.F.; Jullioti, Aldo; Tavares, Alice; Dias, Teresa; Martins-Loucao, Maria Amelia

    2008-01-01

    Heterogeneity and dynamics of eight soil surface characteristics essential for plants-ammonium and nitrate concentrations, water content, temperature, pH, organic matter, nitrification and ammonification rates-were studied in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem on four occasions over a year. Soil properties varied seasonally and were influenced by plant species. Nitrate and ammonium were present in the soil at similar concentrations throughout the year. The positive correlation between them at the time of greatest plant development indicates that ammonium is a readily available nitrogen source in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. The results presented here suggest that plant cover significantly affects soil surface characteristics. - In Mediterranean-type ecosystems ammonium is present in the soil throughout the year and its concentration is dependent on plant cover

  4. Environmental and community controls on plant canopy chemistry in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, Kyla M; Asner, Gregory P; Field, Christopher B

    2013-04-23

    Understanding how and why plant communities vary across space has long been a goal of ecology, yet parsing the relative importance of different influences has remained a challenge. Species-specific models are not generalizable, whereas broad plant functional type models lack important detail. Here we consider plant trait patterns at the local scale and ask whether plant chemical traits are more closely linked to environmental gradients or to changes in species composition. We used the visible-to-shortwave infrared (VSWIR) spectrometer of the Carnegie Airborne Observatory to develop maps of four plant chemical traits--leaf nitrogen per mass, leaf carbon per mass, leaf water concentration, and canopy water content--across a diverse Mediterranean-type ecosystem (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, CA). For all four traits, plant community alone was the strongest predictor of trait variation (explaining 46-61% of the heterogeneity), whereas environmental gradients accounted for just one fourth of the variation in the traits. This result emphasizes the critical role that species composition plays in mediating nutrient and carbon cycling within and among different communities. Environmental filtering and limits to similarity can act strongly, simultaneously, in a spatially heterogeneous environment, but the local-scale environmental gradients alone cannot account for the variation across this landscape.

  5. Pollination in the Chilean Mediterranean-type ecosystem: a review of current advances and pending tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medel, R; González-Browne, C; Fontúrbel, F E

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature published on plant-pollinator interactions, from both the plant and pollinator perspective, in the Chilean Mediterranean-type ecosystem (MTE hereafter). Our search identified 69 published papers on 235 native plant species from 62 families. Less than 7.9% of the flowering species inhabiting the Chilean Mediterranean have been studied, and most studies were restricted to only one locality and one reproductive season. The geographic location of the studies differed from a random pattern, showing two well-defined areas where most studies were conducted. Likewise, most studies in the Andes Range were performed above 2000 m a.s.l. The number of species of flower visitor per plant species was low (4.25 ± 0.22), which probably results from the historical and biogeographic isolation of Chile. This literature survey shows that studies relating floral traits with pollinator attraction and plant reproduction are the most frequent topics of research, reaching 37.6% of studies, followed by studies that examine pollination in relation to human impact (16.1%), micro- and macroevolution (14.0%), relationships between pollination and other ecological interactions (10.8%), community and network assessments (11.8%), and effects of abiotic variables on pollination interactions (9.7%). Our review highlights a lack of research on the effects of pollination for anthropogenic land use especially as agricultural practice is one of the most salient features of the Chilean MTE. Future directions to increase our understanding of the role of plant-pollinator relationships for biodiversity maintenance should include: to extend the taxonomic and geographic scope of research, to increase the number of spatial and temporal replicates, to increase the number of studies on pollination networks as they provide estimates of community complexity and putative stability, to develop studies that estimate the importance of pollination for

  6. Final Technical Report: Response of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Associated Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechel, Walter C

    2002-08-15

    This research incorporated an integrated hierarchical approach in space, time, and levels of biological/ecological organization to help understand and predict ecosystem response to elevated CO{sub 2} and concomitant environmental change. The research utilized a number of different approaches, and collaboration of both PER and non-PER investigators to arrive at a comprehensive, integrative understanding. Central to the work were the CO{sub 2}-controlled, ambient Lit, Temperature controlled (CO{sub 2}LT) null-balance chambers originally developed in the arctic tundra, which were re-engineered for the chaparral with treatment CO{sub 2} concentrations of from 250 to 750 ppm CO{sub 2} in 100 ppm increments, replicated twice to allow for a regression analysis. Each chamber was 2 meters on a side and 2 meters tall, which were installed over an individual shrub reprouting after a fire. This manipulation allowed study of the response of native chaparral to varying levels of CO{sub 2}, while regenerating from an experimental burn. Results from these highly-controlled manipulations were compared against Free Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) manipulations, in an area adjacent to the CO{sub 2}LT null balance greenhouses. These relatively short-term results (5-7 years) were compared to long-term results from Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) surrounding natural CO{sub 2} springs in northern Italy, near Laiatico, Italy. The springs lack the controlled experimental rigor of our CO{sub 2}LT and FACE manipulation, but provide invaluable validation of our long-term predictions.

  7. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ochoa-Hueso; E.B. Allen; C. Branquinho; C. Cruz; T. Dias; Mark Fenn; E. Manrique; M.E. Pérez-Corona; L.J. Sheppard; W.D. Stock

    2011-01-01

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N...

  8. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul, E-mail: raul.ochoa@ccma.csic.es [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Allen, Edith B. [Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Conservation Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa [Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Centro de Biologia Ambiental, Campo Grande, Bloco C4, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Fenn, Mark E. [US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, 4955 Canyon Crest Drive, Riverside, CA 92507 (United States); Manrique, Esteban [Department of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Centro de Ciencias Medioambientales, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, C/Serrano 115 Dpdo., 28006 Madrid (Spain); Perez-Corona, M. Esther [Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, C/Jose Antonio Novais 2, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sheppard, Lucy J. [Centre of Ecology and Hydrology, Bush Estate, Penicuik EH26 0QB (United Kingdom); Stock, William D. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: > N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. > Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. > Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. > Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  9. Nitrogen deposition effects on Mediterranean-type ecosystems: An ecological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa-Hueso, Raul; Allen, Edith B.; Branquinho, Cristina; Cruz, Cristina; Dias, Teresa; Fenn, Mark E.; Manrique, Esteban; Perez-Corona, M. Esther; Sheppard, Lucy J.; Stock, William D.

    2011-01-01

    We review the ecological consequences of N deposition on the five Mediterranean regions of the world. Seasonality of precipitation and fires regulate the N cycle in these water-limited ecosystems, where dry N deposition dominates. Nitrogen accumulation in soils and on plant surfaces results in peaks of availability with the first winter rains. Decoupling between N flushes and plant demand promotes losses via leaching and gas emissions. Differences in P availability may control the response to N inputs and susceptibility to exotic plant invasion. Invasive grasses accumulate as fuel during the dry season, altering fire regimes. California and the Mediterranean Basin are the most threatened by N deposition; however, there is limited evidence for N deposition impacts outside of California. Consequently, more research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type based on the most sensitive elements, such as changes in lichen species composition and N cycling. - Highlights: → N deposition impacts are understudied in Mediterranean ecosystems out of California. → Dry N deposition is dominant and N flushes are common after rainless periods. → Water availability and P fertility regulate ecosystem responses to N deposition. → Research is needed to determine critical loads for each region and vegetation type. - Nitrogen deposition threatens the Mediterranean regions of the world.

  10. Monitoring post-fire recovery of shrublands in Mediterranean-type ecosystems using MODIS and TM/ETM+ data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Allen; Albers, Noah; Bart, Ryan

    2010-05-01

    Wildland fires in Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems (MTEs) are episodic events that dramatically alter land-cover conditions. Monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery is important for land management applications such as the scheduling of prescribed burns, post-fire resource management and soil erosion control. Full recovery of MTE shrublands may take many years and have a prolonged effect on water, energy and carbon fluxes in these ecosystems. Comparative studies of fynbos ecosystems in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa (Western Cape Region) and chaparral ecosystems of California have demonstrated that there is a considerable degree of convergence in some aspects of post-fire vegetation regeneration and marked differences in other aspects. Since these MTEs have contrasting rainfall and soil nutrient conditions, an obvious question arises as to the similarity or dissimilarity in remotely sensed post-fire recovery pathways of vegetation stands in these two regions and the extent to which fire severity and drought impact the rate of vegetation recovery. Post-fire recovery pathways of chaparral and fynbos vegetation stands were characterized using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) based on TM/ETM+ and MODIS (250 m) data. Procedures based on stands of unburned vegetation (control) were implemented to normalize the NDVI for variations associated with inter-annual differences in rainfall. Only vegetation stands that had not burned for 20 years were examined in this study to eliminate potential effects of variable fire histories on the recovery pathways. Post-fire recovery patterns of vegetation in both regions and across different vegetation types were found to be very similar. Post-fire stand age was the primary control over vegetation recovery and the NDVI returned to pre-fire values within seven to 10 years of the fires. Droughts were shown to cause slight interruptions in recovery rates while fire severity had no discernable effect. Intra

  11. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    .1016/j.earscirev.2014.07.005 Bodí, M. B., Martin, D. A., Balfour, V. N., Santín, C., Doerr, S. H., Pereira, P., . . . Mataix-Solera, J. (2014). Wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2013.12.007 Cerdà, A., González-Pelayo, O., Giménez-Morera, A., Jordán, A., Pereira, P., Novara, A., . . . Ritsema, C. J. (2016). Use of barley straw residues to avoid high erosion and runoff rates on persimmon plantations in eastern spain under low frequency-high magnitude simulated rainfall events. Soil Research, 54(2), 154-165. doi:10.1071/SR15092 Cerdà, A., Lavee, H., Romero-Díaz, A., Hooke, J., & Montanarella, L. (2010). Preface: Soil erosion and degradation in mediterranean type ecosystems. Land Degradation and Development, 21(2), 71-74. doi:10.1002/ldr.968 Dlapa, P., Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., & Doerr, S. H. (2015). Organic matter and wettability characteristics of wildfire ash from mediterranean conifer forests. Catena, 135, 369-376. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.018 Keesstra, S., Pereira, P., Novara, A., Brevik, E. C., Azorin-Molina, C., Parras-Alcántara, L., . . . Cerdà, A. (2016). Effects of soil management techniques on soil water erosion in apricot orchards. Science of the Total Environment, 551-552, 357-366. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.01.182 Lucas-Borja, M. E., Hedo, J., Cerdá, A., Candel-Pérez, D., & Viñegla, B. (2016). Unravelling the importance of forest age stand and forest structure driving microbiological soil properties, enzymatic activities and soil nutrients content in mediterranean spanish black pine(pinus nigra ar. ssp. salzmannii) forest. Science of the Total Environment, 562, 145-154. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.160 Novara, A., Cerdà, A., Carmelo, D., Giuseppe, L. P., Antonino, S., & Luciano, G. (2015). Effectiveness of carbon isotopic signature for estimating soil erosion and deposition rates in sicilian vineyards. Soil and

  12. Modeling the eco-hydrologic response of a Mediterranean type ecosystem to the combined impacts of projected climate change and altered fire frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tague, Christina; Seaby, Lauren Paige; Hope, Allen

    2009-01-01

    Global Climate Models (GCMs) project moderate warming along with increases in atmospheric CO2 for California Mediterranean type ecosystems (MTEs). In water-limited ecosystems, vegetation acts as an important control on streamflow and responds to soil moisture availability. Fires are also key...... disturbances in semiarid environments, and few studies have explored the potential interactions among changes in climate, vegetation dynamics, hydrology, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and fire. We model ecosystem productivity, evapotranspiration, and summer streamflow under a range of temperature...... climate scenarios, biomass in chaparral-dominated systems is likely to increase, leading to reductions in summer streamflow. However, within the range of GCM predictions, there are some scenarios in which vegetation may decrease, leading to higher summer streamflows. Changes due to increases in fire...

  13. Do diurnal patterns of branch carbon uptake and transpiration recover after heat waves? Results from a Mediterranean-type ecosystem experiencing seasonal and exceptional drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovaroff, A. L.; Pesqueira, A.; Sun, W.; Seibt, U.

    2016-12-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are biodiversity hotspots, but increasing temperature and changes in precipitation will have significant impacts on vegetation, as evidenced by the current die-back of many woody species in southern California, USA, due to exceptional drought conditions. We installed flow-through chambers on four native woody plant species at Stunt Ranch, a University of California Natural Reserve System site, in order to continuously monitor fluxes of carbon and water at the branch-scale from the growing season through the annual seasonal drought period. Study species included Heteromeles arbutifolia, Malosma laurina, Salvia leucophylla, and Quercus agrifolia. Here we present the results of diurnal flux patterns before, during, and after two extreme heat waves events, when daily maximum temperatures doubled. Under typical summer conditions, which include hot, sunny days, study species exhibited two peaks in carbon assimilation during a diurnal cycle: a peak in the morning and a smaller, secondary peak in the afternoon, separated by a midday depression. During heat wave events, which generally lasted 3 days, species exhibited a small morning peak and no afternoon peak at all. All study species returned to their pre-heat wave diurnal flux patterns, which included the second afternoon peak, when weather conditions returned to normal. Since soil moisture was not affected by the short-term heat wave events, we conclude that the pronounced changes in diurnal patterns, including disappearance of the secondary afternoon peak, are the result of stomatal regulation in response to atmospheric water demand rather than root responses to soil moisture deficits. Our results demonstrate that carbon uptake of native species may be impacted under ongoing climate change when increased temperatures and drought conditions may be sustained.

  14. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.

  15. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems' capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  16. The use of straw to reduce the soil and water losses in agriculture and forest ecosystems in the Mediterranean Type-Ecosystem. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Artemi; Burguet, Maria; Keesstra, Saskia; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Hedo, Javier; Brevik, Eric; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Jordan, Antonio; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Taguas, Encarnacion

    2016-04-01

    using paired plots under natural and simulated rainfall at the Soil Erosion Stations of Montesa, El Teularet and Celler del Roure. Rainfall simulation experiments with very small (0.25 m2), small (1 m2) and medium (20 m2) plots were carried out in scrublands and recently fire-affected land, and on vineyards and orchards. The plots under natural rainfall conditions ranged from 1 to 300 m2. The results show a positive influence of the straw mulch to reduce the soil and water losses, although is more efficient to control the sediment delivery due to the reduction of the raindrop impact. Reduction in one order of magnitude is usual after the immediate application of the straw on vineyards (Prosdocimi et al., 2016) and apricots (Keesstra et al., under review) and in persimmon plantations (Cerdà et al., in press). The above-mentioned results show the positive effect of the straw mulch found by other researchers with other types of mulches such as rock fragments (Cerdà, 2001; Jordán et al., 2009; Jordan and Martínez-Zavala, 2008; Martínez-Zavala and Jordán, 2008, Zavala et al., 2010). There is a need to develop new and advanced research on the effects of the straw cover and other mulches such as litter on the recently forest fire affected soils, and pruned chipped branches and other organic amendments on agriculture land (Yazdanpanah et al., 2016). This new reseach challenge should give information about the soil and water losses, but also about the organic matter recovery, the soil water retention, and the biological, chemical and physical soil properties changes. . Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Berendse, F., van Ruijven, J., Jongejans, E., Keesstra, S. 2015. Loss of plant species diversity reduces soil erosion resistance. Ecosystems, 18 (5), 881-888. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-015-9869-6 Biswas H

  17. Defining Ecosystem Assets for Natural Capital Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks. PMID:27828969

  18. Defining ecosystem assets for natural capital accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; de Jong, Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present value of the expected flow of ecosystem services. In this paper we argue that several additional conceptualisations of ecosystem assets are needed to understand ecosystems as assets, in support of ecosystem assessments, ecosystem accounting and ecosystem management. In particular, we define ecosystems’ capacity and capability to supply ecosystem services, as well as the potential supply of ecosystem services. Capacity relates to sustainable use levels of multiple ecosystem services, capability involves prioritising the use of one ecosystem service over a basket of services, and potential supply considers the ability of ecosystems to generate services regardless of demand for these services. We ground our definitions in the ecosystem services and accounting literature, and illustrate and compare the concepts of flow, capacity, capability, and potential supply with a range of conceptual and real-world examples drawn from case studies in Europe and North America. Our paper contributes to the development of measurement frameworks for natural capital to support environmental accounting and other assessment frameworks.

  19. Defining ecosystem assets for natural capital accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Lars; Bagstad, Ken; Edens, Bram; Obst, Carl; Jong, de Rixt; Lesschen, Jan Peter

    2016-01-01

    In natural capital accounting, ecosystems are assets that provide ecosystem services to people. Assets can be measured using both physical and monetary units. In the international System of Environmental-Economic Accounting, ecosystem assets are generally valued on the basis of the net present

  20. How natural capital delivers ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, A.C.; Harrison, P.A.; Pérez Soba, M.; Archaux, F.; Blicharska, M.; Egoh, B.N.; Erős, T.; Fabrega Domenech, N.; György, I.; Haines-Young, R.; Li, S.; Lommelen, E.; Meiresonne, L.; Miguel Ayala, L.; Mononen, L.; Simpson, G.; Stange, E.; Turkelboom, F.; Uiterwijk, M.; Veerkamp, C.J.; Wyllie de Echeverria, V.

    2017-01-01

    There is no unified evidence base to help decision-makers understand how the multiple components of natural capital interact to deliver ecosystem services. We systematically reviewed 780 papers, recording how natural capital attributes (29 biotic attributes and 11 abiotic factors) affect the

  1. Global climate change and California's natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botkin, D.B.; Nisbet, R.A.; Woodhouse, C.; Ferren, W.; Bicknell, S.; Bentley, B.

    1991-01-01

    If projections of global climate models are correct, the natural ecosystems of California might undergo major changes during the next century. Such changes might include large economic losses in timber, fisheries, and recreation; major changes in our national and state parks and forests and in our nature preserves and conservation areas; increase in extinction of endangered species; loss of large areas of existing habitats; and development of new habitats whose location and areal extent can only be surmised. Many areas currently set aside for the conservation of specific ecosystems might no longer be suitable to them. Yet, in spite of the potential seriousness of these problems, which could dwarf all other environmental changes, California is at present in a poor situation to project what the effects of global change on its natural ecosystems might be

  2. Ecosystem Services: Benefits Supplied to Human Societies by Natural Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The module provides a link to an article that is part of a series of articles in Issues in Ecology. This article discusses the many services an ecosystem provides in order to sustain and fulfill human needs.

  3. Our natural capital: Ecosystem service delivery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dziba, L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available new technologies in Earth observation that target relevant ecosystem attributes for monitoring ecosystem service changes, tools for spatial development planning in multifunctional landscapes such as ecological infrastructure mapping for disaster...

  4. Remote sensing the vulnerability of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alistair M. S. Smith; Crystal A. Kolden; Wade T. Tinkham; Alan F. Talhelm; John D. Marshall; Andrew T. Hudak; Luigi Boschetti; Michael J. Falkowski; Jonathan A. Greenberg; John W. Anderson; Andrew Kliskey; Lilian Alessa; Robert F. Keefe; James R. Gosz

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is altering the species composition, structure, and function of vegetation in natural terrestrial ecosystems. These changes can also impact the essential ecosystem goods and services derived from these ecosystems. Following disturbances, remote-sensing datasets have been used to monitor the disturbance and describe antecedent conditions as a means of...

  5. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Thapa; Dean Gjerstad; John Kush; Bruce Zutter

    2010-01-01

    The Southeastern United States was once dominated by a longleaf pine ecosystem which ranged from Virginia to Texas and covered approximately 22 to 36 million ha. The unique fire tolerant species provided the necessary habitat for numerous plant and animal species. Different seasons of prescribed fire have various results on the ecosystem and the carbon which is stored...

  6. Modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, Rupert; Fernandes, Paulo M.; Fonseca, Teresa F.; Gillet, François; Jönsson, Anna Maria; Merganičová, Katarína; Netherer, Sigrid; Arpaci, Alexander; Bontemps, Jean-Daniel; Bugmann, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Natural disturbances play a key role in ecosystem dynamics and are important factors for sustainable forest ecosystem management. Quantitative models are frequently employed to tackle the complexities associated with disturbance processes. Here we review the wide variety of approaches to modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems, addressing the full spectrum of disturbance modelling from single events to integrated disturbance regimes. We applied a general, process-based framework f...

  7. Improvements in ecosystem services from investments in natural capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zheng, Hua; Xiao, Yi; Polasky, Stephen; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Weihua; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lu; Xiao, Yang; Rao, Enming; Jiang, Ling; Lu, Fei; Wang, Xiaoke; Yang, Guangbin; Gong, Shihan; Wu, Bingfang; Zeng, Yuan; Yang, Wu; Daily, Gretchen C

    2016-06-17

    In response to ecosystem degradation from rapid economic development, China began investing heavily in protecting and restoring natural capital starting in 2000. We report on China's first national ecosystem assessment (2000-2010), designed to quantify and help manage change in ecosystem services, including food production, carbon sequestration, soil retention, sandstorm prevention, water retention, flood mitigation, and provision of habitat for biodiversity. Overall, ecosystem services improved from 2000 to 2010, apart from habitat provision. China's national conservation policies contributed significantly to the increases in those ecosystem services. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Impacts of aerosol lead to natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murozumi, Masayo; Nakamura, Seiji; Yoshida, Katsumi

    1982-01-01

    Impacts of aerosol lead have changed the concentration and isotopic ratios of the element circulating in remote ecosystems in the Hidaka and Tarumae mountains. Concentrations of lead in successive each 10 years ring veneer of Cercidiphyllum Japonica show that amount of the element residing on the bark and supwood layers has increased by a factor of 2 or more in comparison with that of the core part. The isotopic ratios of lead in the basement rocks and soils under the ecosystems converge to a certain narrow spot along the isochron Iine of the element, and distinguish their geochronogical characteristics from other leads of different sources. In these ecosystems, however, the lead isotopic ratios of materials exposed to the atmosphere are similar to those of foreign and anthropogenic aerosol lead but are evidently dissimilar to those of the rocks and soils. Furthermore, the lead isotopic ratios in yearly ring veneers of Ceridiphyllum Japonica and Ostrya Japonica show a certain differentiation towards the bark from the core, i.e., an approach to those of anthropogenic aerosol lead from those of the basement rocks and soils, as listed in Table 7. The lead burden per hectare in these remote ecosystems has increased to 4 g by the impact of 2 g of aerosol lead. (author)

  9. Carbon sequestration and natural longleaf pine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph S. Meldahl; John S. Kush

    2006-01-01

    A fire-maintained longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystem may offer the best option for carbon (C) sequestration among the southern pines. Longleaf is the longest living of the southern pines, and products from longleaf pine will sequester C longer than most since they are likely to be solid wood products such as structural lumber and poles....

  10. Ecosystem service markets 101: supply and demand for nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Jeff Kline; Trista Patterson

    2012-01-01

    Establishing markets for ecosystem services—the benefits that nature provides, such as clean air, water, and wildlife habitat—has gained traction in some circles as a way to finance the conservation of these public goods. Market influences on supply and demand work in tandem to encourage ecosystem protection. Jeff Kline and Trista Patterson, scientists with the...

  11. Modelling natural disturbances in forest ecosystems: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidl, R.; Fernandes, P.M.; Fonseca, T.F.; Gillet, F.; Jöhnsson, A.M.; Merganičová, K.; Netherer, S.; Arpaci, A.; Bontemps, J.D.; Bugmann, H.; González-Olabarria, J.R.; Lasch, P.; Meredieu, C.; Moreira, F.; Schelhaas, M.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Natural disturbances play a key role in ecosystem dynamics and are important factors for sustainable forest ecosystem management. Quantitative models are frequently employed to tackle the complexities associated with disturbance processes. Here we review the wide variety of approaches to modelling

  12. Rangeland Ecosystem Services: Nature's Supply and Humans' Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that society receives from nature and they include the regulation of climate, the pollination of crops, the provisioning of intellectual inspiration and recreational environment, as well as many essential goods such as food, fiber, and wood. Rangeland ecosystem se...

  13. Topographically mediated controls on aboveground biomass across a mediterranean-type landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, K.; Asner, G. P.; Field, C. B.

    2009-12-01

    Aboveground biomass accumulation is a useful metric for evaluating habitat restoration and ecosystem services projects, in addition to being a robust measure of carbon sequestration. However, at the landscape scale non-anthropogenic controls on biomass accumulation are poorly understood. In this study we combined field measurements, high resolution data from the NASA JPL Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) system to create a comprehensive map of aboveground biomass across a patchy mediterranean-type landscape (Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford, CA). Candidate explanatory variables (e.g. slope, elevation, incident solar radiation) were developed using a geologic map and a digital elevation model derived from the lidar data. Finally, candidate variables were tested, and a model was produced to predict aboveground biomass from environmental data. Though many of the explanatory variables have only indirect effects on plant growth, the model permits inferences to be made about the relative importance of light, water, temperature, and edaphic characteristics on carbon accumulation in mediterranean-type systems.

  14. Mainstreaming Natural Capital into Decisions: Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnas Palaima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to review current paradigms in ecosystem services valuation, existing gaps and current trends in addressing those gaps. Natural capital, often defined as the stock of natural ecosystems that yields a flow of valuable ecosystem goods or services into the future, is often undervalued or not valued at all by governments, business and society, which leads to environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity. One of the major reasons of such undervaluation is the lack of practical, realistic quantitative methods/models that would establish ecosystem services value and its change due to human development. A promising, recently developed ecosystem services modeling system is InVEST: “Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-Offs.” InVEST is a set of Geographic Information Systems (GIS models that predict the provision and value of ecosystem services and habitat provision given land use/land cover maps and related biophysical, economic, and institutional data for the study region. InVEST, if further developed and applied in a systematic way, could facilitate mainstreaming the natural capital into decisions at all levels and provide a strong foundation for local natural resources managers to improve and optimize their environmental management strategies.

  15. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  16. The radioecological significance of semi-natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.; Howard, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The transfer of radiocaesium to many food products either produced in or harvested from semi-natural ecosystems is high compared with intensive agricultural areas. Radiocaesium contamination levels in semi-natural foods are highly variable and difficult to predict. Spatial analysis may help to explain some of the variability and give improved estimates of the total output of radiocaesium in food products produced or harvested from semi-natural ecosystems. Consumption of foodstuffs from semi-natural ecosystems can contribute significantly to radiocaesium ingestion by humans. The long effective half-lives that occur for some semi-natural products lead to an increase with time in their importance compared with agricultural products. In determining the importance of semi-natural food products, the diet needs to be considered for both the average population and for special groups who utilize these environments to a greater extent than normal. Effective countermeasures have been developed to reduce radiocaesium levels in some semi-natural products. (author)

  17. Microbial ecology and nematode control in natural ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, S.R.; Van der Putten, W.H.; Kerry, B.R.

    2011-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes have traditionally been studied in agricultural systems, where they can be pests of importance on a wide range of crops. Nevertheless, nematode ecology in natural ecosystems is receiving increasing interest because of the role of nematodes in soil food webs, nutrient

  18. The importance of bees in natural and agricultural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Rhoades

    2013-01-01

    As the world’s most important group of pollinators, bees are a crucial part of agricultural production and natural ecosystem function. Bees and the pollination they provide are relevant to the nursery industry because of their role in the performance of seed increase plots as well as the importance of pollination in supporting persistent plant communities in restored...

  19. Post-Fire Recovery of Eco-Hydrologic Behavior Given Historic and Projected Climate Variability in California Mediterranean Type Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaby, L. P.; Tague, C. L.; Hope, A. S.

    2006-12-01

    The Mediterranean type environments (MTEs) of California are characterized by a distinct wet and dry season and high variability in inter-annual climate. Water limitation in MTEs makes eco-hydrological processes highly sensitive to both climate variability and frequent fire disturbance. This research modeled post-fire eco- hydrologic behavior under historical and moderate and extreme scenarios of future climate in a semi-arid chaparral dominated southern California MTE. We used a physically-based, spatially-distributed, eco- hydrological model (RHESSys - Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System), to capture linkages between water and vegetation response to the combined effects of fire and historic and future climate variability. We found post-fire eco-hydrologic behavior to be strongly influenced by the episodic nature of MTE climate, which intensifies under projected climate change. Higher rates of post-fire net primary productivity were found under moderate climate change, while more extreme climate change produced water stressed conditions which were less favorable for vegetation productivity. Precipitation variability in the historic record follows the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and these inter-annual climate characteristics intensify under climate change. Inter-annual variation in streamflow follows these precipitation patterns. Post-fire streamflow and carbon cycling trajectories are strongly dependent on climate characteristics during the first 5 years following fire, and historic intra-climate variability during this period tends to overwhelm longer term trends and variation that might be attributable to climate change. Results have implications for water resource availability, vegetation type conversion from shrubs to grassland, and changes in ecosystem structure and function.

  20. Predicting richness effects on ecosystem function in natural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dangles, Olivier; Crespo-Pérez, Verónica; Andino, Patricio

    2011-01-01

    rates in the field, although water discharge may also play a role locally. We also examined the relative contribution of the three most abundant shredders on decomposition rates by manipulating shredder richness and community composition in a field experiment. Transgressive overyielding was detected....... Despite the increased complexity of experimental and theoretical studies on the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (B-EF) relationship, a major challenge is to demonstrate whether the observed importance of biodiversity in controlled experimental systems also persists in nature. Due...... to their structural simplicity and their low levels of human impacts, extreme species-poor ecosystems may provide new insights into B-EF relationships in natural systems. We address this issue using shredder invertebrate communities and organic matter decomposition rates in 24 high-altitude (3200-3900 m) Neotropical...

  1. Natural resilience: healthy ecosystems as climate shock insurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Joanna [Royal Society for the Protection of the Birds (United Kingdom); Heath, Melanie [Birdlife International (United Kingdom); Reid, Hannah

    2009-12-15

    Resilience to climate change has many roots. A healthy, biodiverse environment is increasingly recognised as key to resilience, particularly in poor communities directly dependent on natural resources. Knowledge about ways of coping with climate variability is also essential - and for many of the poor who live in climate-vulnerable regions, already an area of expertise. A look at the National Adaptation Programmes of Action of the Least Developed Countries shows that many of these nations recognize and prioritise the role that biodiversity, ecosystems and natural habitats play in adaptation. It is now up to policymakers to follow suit.

  2. Biological factors of natural and artificial ecosystems stable (unstable) functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechurkin, Nikolai S.

    The problem of sustainable development of humanity on Earth and the problem of supporting human life in space have the same scientific and methodological bases. The key to solve both problems is a long term maintenance of balanced material cycle. As a whole, natural or artificial ecosystems are to be more closed than open, but their elements (links of systems) are to be substantially open in interactions with each other. Prolonged stable interactions of different links have to have unique joint results - closed material cycling or biotic turnover. It is necessary to include, at least, three types of main links into any system to support real material cycling: producers, consumers, reducers. Producer links are now under studies in many laboratories. It is evident that the higher productivity of link, the lower link stability. Especially, it concerns with parasite impact to plants. As usual, artificial ecosystems are more simple (incomplete) than natural ecosystems, sometimes, they have not enough links for prolonged stable functioning. For example, life support system for space flight can be incomplete in consumer link, having only some crew persons, instead of interacting populations of consumers. As for reducer link, it is necessary to "organize" a special coordinated work of microbial biocenoses to fulfill proper cycling. Possible evolution of links, their self development is a matter of special attention for the maintenance of prolonged stable functioning. It's the most danger for systems with populations of quickly reproducing, so-called, R - strategists, according to symbols of logistic equation. From another side, quick reproduction of R - strategists is able to increase artificial ecosystems and their links functioning. After some damages of system, R - strategist's link can be quickly "self repaired" up to level of normal functioning. Some experimental data of this kind and mathematical models are to be discussed in the paper. This work is supported by

  3. Calibrating a forest landscape model to simulate frequent fire in Mediterranean-type shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, A.D.; Yang, J.; Franklin, J.; He, H.S.; Keeley, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    In Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs), fire disturbance influences the distribution of most plant communities, and altered fire regimes may be more important than climate factors in shaping future MTE vegetation dynamics. Models that simulate the high-frequency fire and post-fire response strategies characteristic of these regions will be important tools for evaluating potential landscape change scenarios. However, few existing models have been designed to simulate these properties over long time frames and broad spatial scales. We refined a landscape disturbance and succession (LANDIS) model to operate on an annual time step and to simulate altered fire regimes in a southern California Mediterranean landscape. After developing a comprehensive set of spatial and non-spatial variables and parameters, we calibrated the model to simulate very high fire frequencies and evaluated the simulations under several parameter scenarios representing hypotheses about system dynamics. The goal was to ensure that observed model behavior would simulate the specified fire regime parameters, and that the predictions were reasonable based on current understanding of community dynamics in the region. After calibration, the two dominant plant functional types responded realistically to different fire regime scenarios. Therefore, this model offers a new alternative for simulating altered fire regimes in MTE landscapes. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanza, Robert; D'Arge, Ralph; Groot, Rudolf de; Farber, Stephen; Grasso, Monica; Hannon, Bruce; Limburg, Karin; Naeem, Shahid; O'Neill, Robert V.; Paruelo, Jose; Raskin, Robert G.; Sutton, Paul; Belt, Marjan van den

    1998-01-01

    The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on published studies and a few original calculations. For the entire biosphere, the value (most of which is outside the market) is estimated to be in the range of US$ 16-54 trillion (10 12 ) per year, with an average of US$ 33 trillion per year. Because of the nature of the uncertainties, this must be considered a minimum estimate. Global gross national product total is around US$ 18 trillion per year

  5. Isotopic identification of nitrogen hotspots across natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N influences local biological processes, ecosystem productivity, the composition of the atmospheric-climate system, and the human endeavour as a whole. Here we use natural variations in N isotopes, coupled with two models, to trace global pathways of N loss from the land to the water and atmosphere. We show that denitrification accounts for approximately 35 % of total N losses from the natural soil, with NO, N2O, and N2 fluxes equal to 15.7 ± 4.7 Tg N yr−1, 10.2 ± 3.0 Tg N yr−1, and 21.0 ± 6.1 Tg N yr−1, respectively. Our analysis points to tropical regions as the major "hotspot" of nitrogen export from the terrestrial biosphere, accounting for 71 % of global N losses from the natural land surface. The poorly studied Congo Basin is further identified as one of the major natural sources of atmospheric N2O. Extra-tropical areas, by contrast, lose a greater fraction of N via leaching pathways (~77 % of total N losses than do tropical biomes, likely contributing to N limitations of CO2 uptake at higher latitudes. Our results provide an independent constraint on global models of the N cycle among different regions of the unfertilized biosphere.

  6. Weed management practices in natural ecosystems: a critical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.F. Reinhardt

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing public pressure against the use of pesticides and other agricultural inputs has placed increased emphasis on the development of ecologically based pest management. One distinct reaction of the Weed Science discipline has been the swing away from herbicide research to increased research on the basic biology and ecology of weeds in hopes of reduced reliance on "technological crutches" such as herbicides and other practices that are potentially harmful to the environment. Biological control is the long-standing alternative to the use of herbicides and interest in the former practice has been boosted by the realization that the use of herbicides may lead to the development of herbicide resistance in weed populations, and that herbicide residues occur in surface and groundwater. Supporters of herbicide use would point out that biological control is generally not effective in crop production systems, and is basically slow-acting. Debates between protagonists for the exclusive use of one or the other weed management practice tend to obscure the benefits that integration of different techniques are likely to have. For natural ecosystems it is proposed that integration of the more subtle practice of biological control with the use of herbicides, which relatively quickly overwhelm a biological system with mortality, is likely to be the most effective weed management tool. Different weed management practices that could be considered in natural ecosystems are discussed in terms of three key performance rating criteria, viz. activity, selec- tivity and persistence In this concise review, general discussion is focussed on the fundamentals of weed management practices, with the view to promote concept-based approaches that are critical for the development of effective weed management strate- gies.

  7. Monetary ecosystem services valuation in natural environment management

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, David

    2017-01-01

    As it happened with Stern Report, which made international community change their attitude related to climate change, TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity) was a turning point in valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services. This change of attitude happened, partially, thanks to include monetary ecosystem valuation of ecosystem services and how much their conservation and avoid their loss worth to the entire society. Integrate monetary valuation in green infrastructur...

  8. Fire-mediated disruptive selection can explain the reseeder-resprouter dichotomy in Mediterranean-type vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altwegg, Res; De Klerk, Helen M; Midgley, Guy F

    2015-02-01

    Crown fire is a key selective pressure in Mediterranean-type plant communities. Adaptive responses to fire regimes involve trade-offs between investment for persistence (fire survival and resprouting) and reproduction (fire mortality, fast growth to reproductive maturity, and reseeding) as investments that enhance adult survival lower growth and reproductive rates. Southern hemisphere Mediterranean-type ecosystems are dominated by species with either endogenous regeneration from adult resprouting or fire-triggered seedling recruitment. Specifically, on nutrient-poor soils, these are either resprouting or reseeding life histories, with few intermediate forms, despite the fact that the transition between strategies is evolutionarily labile. How did this strong dichotomy evolve? We address this question by developing a stochastic demographic model to assess determinants of relative fitness of reseeders, resprouters and hypothetical intermediate forms. The model was parameterised using published demographic data from South African protea species and run over various relevant fire regime parameters facets. At intermediate fire return intervals, trade-offs between investment in growth versus fire resilience can cause fitness to peak at either of the extremes of the reseeder-resprouter continuum, especially when assuming realistic non-linear shapes for these trade-offs. Under these circumstances, the fitness landscape exhibits a saddle which could lead to disruptive selection. The fitness gradient between the peaks was shallow, which may explain why this life-history trait is phylogenetically labile. Resprouters had maximum fitness at shorter fire-return intervals than reseeders. The model suggests that a strong dichotomy in fire survival strategy depends on a non-linear trade-off between growth and fire persistence traits.

  9. Environmental effects of radionuclides--observations on natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, D; Toal, M E; Johnson, M S; Jackson, D; Jones, S R

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d(-1)) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1), 2.2 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) and 1.0 x 10(-3) mGy d(-1) respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d(-1) level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed.

  10. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copplestone, D.; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d -1 ) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 , 2.2x10 -3 mGy d -1 and 1.0x10 -3 mGy d -1 respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d -1 level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  11. Consumers control diversity and functioning of a natural marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Altieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the functional consequences of changes in biodiversity has been hampered by several limitations of previous work, including limited attention to trophic interactions, a focus on species richness rather than evenness, and the use of artificially assembled communities. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we manipulated the density of an herbivorous snail in natural tide pools and allowed seaweed communities to assemble in an ecologically relevant and non-random manner. Seaweed species evenness and biomass-specific primary productivity (mg O(2 h(-1 g(-1 were higher in tide pools with snails because snails preferentially consumed an otherwise dominant seaweed species that can reduce biomass-specific productivity rates of algal assemblages. Although snails reduced overall seaweed biomass in tide pools, they did not affect gross primary productivity at the scale of tide pools (mg O(2 h(-1 pool(-1 or mg O(2 h(-1 m(-2 because of the enhanced biomass-specific productivity associated with grazer-mediated increases in algal evenness. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that increased attention to trophic interactions, diversity measures other than richness, and particularly the effects of consumers on evenness and primary productivity, will improve our understanding of the relationship between diversity and ecosystem functioning and allow more effective links between experimental results and real-world changes in biodiversity.

  12. Environmental effects of radionuclides - observations on natural ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, D. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom). E-mail: copplest at liv.ac.uk; Toal, M.E.; Johnson, M.S. [Industrial Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R. [Westlakes Scientific Consulting, Princess Royal Building, Westlakes Science and Technology Park, Moor Row, Cumbria CA24 3LN (United Kingdom)

    2000-03-01

    To better quantify risk to non-human species from exposure to environmental radioactivity, understanding of the behaviour of radionuclides in the biosphere needs to be increased. This study outlines current thinking on ecological risk assessment (ERA) methodology and applies the indicator species or critical groups approach to biota inhabiting a semi-natural coniferous woodland contaminated with the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 241}Am. The majority of these radionuclides originate from routine aerial emissions from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL, Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. Radionuclide activity concentrations have been determined in biota from the woodland and estimates of absorbed dose rates (mGy d{sup -1}) have been calculated using the dosimetric models outlined. Dose rates to the key indicator species, Oniscus asellus, Carabus violaceous and Apodemus sylvaticus (detritivorous invertebrate, predatory invertebrate and the granivorous wood mouse) have been determined at 3.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1}, 2.2x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} and 1.0x10{sup -3} mGy d{sup -1} respectively. The values are at least three orders of magnitude lower than the 1 mGy d{sup -1} level below which no observable effects on populations in a terrestrial ecosystem are thought to occur. Limitations of this approach are discussed. (author)

  13. Natural and human impacts on ecosystem services in Guanzhong - Tianshui economic region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhou, Z X

    2016-04-01

    Due to the accelerated growth of society, the gaps between the capacity of ecosystems to provide services and human needs are steadily widening. Natural, semi-natural, or managed ecosystems had been able to provide ecosystem services to meet the needs of social development. Four agricultural ecosystem services (net primary production (NPP), carbon sequestration and oxygen production (CSOP), water interception, soil conservation and agriculture production) were quantified in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region. Estimates of ecosystem services were obtained from the analysis of satellite imagery and the use of well-known models. Based on the ecological services in Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region, this study mainly analysed the driving mechanism of the changes from the two aspects of natural drivers and human drivers. Natural drivers (climate, soil, elevation, land cover) had incentive to the ecological services. Human activity was quantified by an integrated human activity index (HAI) based on population density, farmland ratio, and the influence of road networks and residential areas. We found relationships between ecosystem services, human activities and many natural factors, however these varied according to the service studied. Human activities were mostly negatively related to each ecosystem services, while population and residential land ware positively related to agricultural production. Land use change had made a contribution to ecosystem services. Based on the selected ecosystem services and HAI, we provided sustainable ecosystem management suggestions.

  14. How natural capital delivers ecosystem services: A typology derived from a systematic review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available There is no unified evidence base to help decision-makers understand how the multiple components of natural capital interact to deliver ecosystem services. We systematically reviewed 780 papers, recording how natural capital attributes (29 biotic...

  15. Coastal Plain Soil Fertility Degradation And Natural Forest Ecosystem Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casagrande, J. C.; Sato, C. A.; Reis-Duarte, R. M.; Soares, M. R.; Galvão Bueno, M. S.

    2009-04-01

    The sand coastal plain vegetation (Restinga Forest) has been described as an ecosystem associated with the Atlantic Forest, constituted of mosaics, which occur in areas of great ecological diversity, particularly the features of the soil which mostly influence the forest, therefore assigned as edaphic community. The Restinga forest is one of the most fragile, showing low resilience to human damage This work was carried out in several points (14) of Restinga Forest (six low - trees from 3 to 10 m high - and eight high forest - trees from 10 to 15 m high) in the litoral coast of the state of São Paulo. Each sample was made of 15 subsamples of each area collected in each depth (one in 0 - 5, 5 - 10, 10 - 15, 15 - 20, and another in 0 - 20, 20 - 40, 40 and 60 cm). Soil characteristics analyzed were pH, P, Na, K, Ca, Mg, S, H + Al, Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn contents and base saturation, cation exchange capacity and aluminum saturation. The vegetation physiognomies of Restinga forest (low and high) were associated with soil results and with the history of human occupation. The soils are sandy (2 to 4% of clay), resulting in a low capacity of nutrient retention. Soil fertility analysis to low and high Restinga forest were similar and showed very low contents of phosphorous, calcium and magnesium in all areas investigated. The base saturation was low due to low amounts of Na, K, Ca and Mg. Base saturation presents low level in all cases, less than 10, indicating low nutritional reserve in the soil. The aluminum saturation values varied from 58 to 69%. The level of calcium and magnesium were low in the subsurface soil layer mainly, associate with high aluminum saturation, representing an limiting factor for the root system development in depth. If soil fertility parameters do not show any significant difference between low and high Restinga physiognomy, what make distinction is the recuperation time. In the areas of high Forest can be note a too long time of recuperation

  16. Ecosystem accounts define explicit and spatial trade-offs for managing natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Heather; Vardon, Michael; Stein, John A; Stein, Janet L; Lindenmayer, David

    2017-11-01

    Decisions about natural resource management are frequently complex and vexed, often leading to public policy compromises. Discord between environmental and economic metrics creates problems in assessing trade-offs between different current or potential resource uses. Ecosystem accounts, which quantify ecosystems and their benefits for human well-being consistent with national economic accounts, provide exciting opportunities to contribute significantly to the policy process. We advanced the application of ecosystem accounts in a regional case study by explicitly and spatially linking impacts of human and natural activities on ecosystem assets and services to their associated industries. This demonstrated contributions of ecosystems beyond the traditional national accounts. Our results revealed that native forests would provide greater benefits from their ecosystem services of carbon sequestration, water yield, habitat provisioning and recreational amenity if harvesting for timber production ceased, thus allowing forests to continue growing to older ages.

  17. Contrasting biogeographic and diversification patterns in two Mediterranean-type ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerki, Sven; Jose, Sarah; Yadav, Shrirang R; Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C; Forest, Félix

    2012-01-01

    The five Mediterranean regions of the world comprise almost 50,000 plant species (ca 20% of the known vascular plants) despite accounting for less than 5% of the world's land surface. The ecology and evolutionary history of two of these regions, the Cape Floristic Region and the Mediterranean Basin, have been extensively investigated, but there have been few studies aimed at understanding the historical relationships between them. Here, we examine the biogeographic and diversification processes that shaped the evolution of plant diversity in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin using a large plastid data set for the geophyte family Hyacinthaceae (comprising ca. 25% of the total diversity of the group), a group found mainly throughout Africa and Eurasia. Hyacinthaceae is a predominant group in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin both in terms of number of species and their morphological and ecological variability. Using state-of-the-art methods in biogeography and diversification, we found that the Old World members of the family originated in sub-Saharan Africa at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and that the two Mediterranean regions both have high diversification rates, but contrasting biogeographic histories. While the Cape diversity has been greatly influenced by its relationship with sub-Saharan Africa throughout the history of the family, the Mediterranean Basin had no connection with the latter after the onset of the Mediterranean climate in the region and the aridification of the Sahara. The Mediterranean Basin subsequently contributed significantly to the diversity of neighbouring areas, especially Northern Europe and the Middle East, whereas the Cape can be seen as a biogeographical cul-de-sac, with only a few dispersals toward sub-Saharan Africa. The understanding of the evolutionary history of these two important repositories of biodiversity would benefit from the application of the framework developed here to other groups of plants present in the two regions.

  18. Contrasting biogeographic and diversification patterns in two Mediterranean-type ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Buerki

    Full Text Available The five Mediterranean regions of the world comprise almost 50,000 plant species (ca 20% of the known vascular plants despite accounting for less than 5% of the world's land surface. The ecology and evolutionary history of two of these regions, the Cape Floristic Region and the Mediterranean Basin, have been extensively investigated, but there have been few studies aimed at understanding the historical relationships between them. Here, we examine the biogeographic and diversification processes that shaped the evolution of plant diversity in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin using a large plastid data set for the geophyte family Hyacinthaceae (comprising ca. 25% of the total diversity of the group, a group found mainly throughout Africa and Eurasia. Hyacinthaceae is a predominant group in the Cape and the Mediterranean Basin both in terms of number of species and their morphological and ecological variability. Using state-of-the-art methods in biogeography and diversification, we found that the Old World members of the family originated in sub-Saharan Africa at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary and that the two Mediterranean regions both have high diversification rates, but contrasting biogeographic histories. While the Cape diversity has been greatly influenced by its relationship with sub-Saharan Africa throughout the history of the family, the Mediterranean Basin had no connection with the latter after the onset of the Mediterranean climate in the region and the aridification of the Sahara. The Mediterranean Basin subsequently contributed significantly to the diversity of neighbouring areas, especially Northern Europe and the Middle East, whereas the Cape can be seen as a biogeographical cul-de-sac, with only a few dispersals toward sub-Saharan Africa. The understanding of the evolutionary history of these two important repositories of biodiversity would benefit from the application of the framework developed here to other groups of plants present in the two regions.

  19. Deposition and processing of airborne nitrogen pollutants in mediterranean-type ecosystems of southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip J. Riggan; Robert N. Lockwood; Ernest N. Lopez

    1985-01-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, associated with chronic urban air pollution, has produced stream water nitrate concentrations as high as 7.0 mg of N L-l in chaparral watersheds in the San Gabriel Mountains of Los Angeles County, CA. Stream water [NO3-] and discharge were greatest at high flow and may...

  20. Effects of Climate and Ecosystem Disturbances on Biogeochemical Cycling in a Semi-Natural Terrestrial Ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, Claus; Schmidt, Inger Kappel; Kristensen, Hanne Lakkenborg

    2004-01-01

    The effects of increased temperature and potential ecosystem disturbances on biogeochemical cycling were investigated by manipulation of temperature in a mixed Calluna/grass heathland in Denmark. A reflective curtain covered the vegetation during the night to reduce the heat loss of IR radiation from the ecosystem to the atmosphere. This 'night time warming' was done for 3 years and warmed the air and soil by 1.1 deg. C. Warming was combined with ecosystem disturbances, including infestation by Calluna heather beetles (Lochmaea suturalis Thompson) causing complete defoliation of Calluna leaves during the summer 2000, and subsequent harvesting of all aboveground biomass during the autumn. Small increases in mineralisation rates were induced by warming and resulted in increased leaching of nitrogen from the organic soil layer. The increased nitrogen leaching from the organic soil layer was re-immobilised in the mineral soil layer as warming stimulated plant growth and thereby increased nitrogen immobilisation. Contradictory to the generally moderate effects of warming, the heather beetle infestation had very strong effects on mineralisation rates and the plant community. The grasses completely out-competed the Calluna plants which had not re-established two years after the infestation, probably due to combined effects of increased nutrient availability and the defoliation of Calluna. On the short term, ecosystem disturbances may have very strong effects on internal ecosystem processes and plant community structure compared to the more long-term effects of climate change

  1. Soil respiration in different agricultural and natural ecosystems in an arid region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Lai

    Full Text Available The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%-386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO(2 absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO(2 emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions.

  2. Soil respiration in different agricultural and natural ecosystems in an arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liming; Zhao, Xuechun; Jiang, Lianhe; Wang, Yongji; Luo, Liangguo; Zheng, Yuanrun; Chen, Xi; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2012-01-01

    The variation of different ecosystems on the terrestrial carbon balance is predicted to be large. We investigated a typical arid region with widespread saline/alkaline soils, and evaluated soil respiration of different agricultural and natural ecosystems. Soil respiration for five ecosystems together with soil temperature, soil moisture, soil pH, soil electric conductivity and soil organic carbon content were investigated in the field. Comparing with the natural ecosystems, the mean seasonal soil respiration rates of the agricultural ecosystems were 96%-386% higher and agricultural ecosystems exhibited lower CO(2) absorption by the saline/alkaline soil. Soil temperature and moisture together explained 48%, 86%, 84%, 54% and 54% of the seasonal variations of soil respiration in the five ecosystems, respectively. There was a significant negative relationship between soil respiration and soil electrical conductivity, but a weak correlation between soil respiration and soil pH or soil organic carbon content. Our results showed that soil CO(2) emissions were significantly different among different agricultural and natural ecosystems, although we caution that this was an observational, not manipulative, study. Temperature at the soil surface and electric conductivity were the main driving factors of soil respiration across the five ecosystems. Care should be taken when converting native vegetation into cropland from the point of view of greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Net nitrogen mineralization in natural ecosystems across the conterminous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeeAnna Y. Chapman; Steven G. McNulty; Ge Sun; Yang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the primary nutrient limiting ecosystem productivity over most of the US. Although soil nitrogen content is important, knowledge about its spatial extent at the continental scale is limited. The objective of this study was to estimate net nitrogen mineralization for the conterminous US (CONUS) using an empirical modeling approach by scaling up site level...

  4. Considerations on the role of natural ecosystems in the eventual contamination of man and his environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmet, G.; Myttenaere, C.

    1988-01-01

    After the Chernobyl event, the problem of contamination of natural and semi-natural ecosystems has been particularly salient even where these non-agricultural land areas appear to generate only a small fraction of the annual food intakes of certain populations. A concise discussion of some features of natural ecosystems is presented here, with the objective of stimulating a closer inspection of the relative impact of these natural ecosystems on the eventual dose to man. The ability of natural systems to scavenge considerable amounts of contamination is emphasized and it is suggested that there is a need for further work to quantify the importance of these environments, relative to agricultural systems, in terms of producing eventual transfers to man. (author)

  5. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, Anne D.; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C.; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J.; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W.; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M.; Keeler, Bonnie L.; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H.; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals. PMID:26082539

  6. Natural capital and ecosystem services informing decisions: From promise to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerry, Anne D; Polasky, Stephen; Lubchenco, Jane; Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Daily, Gretchen C; Griffin, Robert; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Bateman, Ian J; Duraiappah, Anantha; Elmqvist, Thomas; Feldman, Marcus W; Folke, Carl; Hoekstra, Jon; Kareiva, Peter M; Keeler, Bonnie L; Li, Shuzhuo; McKenzie, Emily; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Reyers, Belinda; Ricketts, Taylor H; Rockström, Johan; Tallis, Heather; Vira, Bhaskar

    2015-06-16

    The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.

  7. Effects of natural gas development on forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; W. Mark Ford; Thomas M. Schuler; Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, an energy company leased the privately owned minerals that underlie the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia. The Fernow, established in 1934, is dedicated to long-term research. In 2008, a natural gas well was drilled on the Fernow and a pipeline and supporting infrastructure constructed. We describe the impacts of natural gas development on the...

  8. Global Trends in Exposure to Light Pollution in Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bennie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth in electric light usage across the globe has led to increasing presence of artificial light in natural and semi-natural ecosystems at night. This occurs both due to direct illumination and skyglow - scattered light in the atmosphere. There is increasing concern about the effects of artificial light on biological processes, biodiversity and the functioning of ecosystems. We combine intercalibrated Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS images of stable night-time lights for the period 1992 to 2012 with a remotely sensed landcover product (GLC2000 to assess recent changes in exposure to artificial light at night in 43 global ecosystem types. We find that Mediterranean-climate ecosystems have experienced the greatest increases in exposure, followed by temperate ecosystems. Boreal, Arctic and montane systems experienced the lowest increases. In tropical and subtropical regions, the greatest increases are in mangroves and subtropical needleleaf and mixed forests, and in arid regions increases are mainly in forest and agricultural areas. The global ecosystems experiencing the greatest increase in exposure to artificial light are already localized and fragmented, and often of particular conservation importance due to high levels of diversity, endemism and rarity. Night time remote sensing can play a key role in identifying the extent to which natural ecosystems are exposed to light pollution.

  9. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  10. Nature vs. Nurture: the Making of the Montado Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Miguel Pereira

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern Iberian Peninsula is dominated by a savannah-like ecosystem, the montado, which is a typically Mediterranean cultural adaptation to generally poor productive areas. Montados are exploited for three main uses: forestry, agriculture, and extensive grazing, in proportions that vary according to local conditions (more or less productive land and historical circumstances. Because these ecosystems occur over a large geographic area (they occupy some 6 million ha, biodiversity would be expected to vary among montados. However, differences in management practices may also influence species distribution. In this paper, we investigate differences in plant and bird species diversity among 60 montados distributed all across southern Portugal. The environmental variables studied included geographical coordinates, climatological data, soil type, and altitude. We also investigated agro-economic variables that could describe human activities at each site: animal husbandry (breeds, stock density, grazing rotation, etc., agriculture (fallow rotation frequency, use of fertilizers, etc., and forestry (cork harvesting, thinning, etc.. Finally, land-use type and metrics were assessed from rectified aerial photographs. Species richness among these two groups was not correlated, sites with high or low numbers of plant species not necessarily having high or low numbers of bird species. However, both plant and bird communities exhibited a similar pattern of species composition and turnover. This pattern was ecologically based, rather than a result of biological similarities between groups: direct gradient analyses and variance partitioning revealed strong correlations between species distribution and spatial gradients, namely longitude and latitude. In trying to distinguish anthropogenic from biophysical processes, we found that both were equally important as drivers of montado biodiversity. Plants and birds exhibited a similar ecological pattern, although

  11. Natural hazards, disasters and human kind: Whither ecosystem management?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Mudholkar, A.V.

    in the way of powerful natural forces. Abandoning vulnerable geomorphic features, managed retreat, or safer setback with intervening forested landforms are feasible long-term options. The incalculable human misery that ultimately follows ia an ideal...

  12. Natural areas as a basis for assessing ecosystem vulnerability to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret H. Massie; Todd M. Wilson; Anita T. Morzillo; Emilie B. Henderson

    2016-01-01

    There are more than 580 natural areas in Oregon and Washington managed by 20 federal, state, local, and private agencies and organizations. This natural areas network is unparalleled in its representation of the diverse ecosystems found in the Pacific Northwest, and could prove useful for monitoring long-term ecological responses to climate change. Our objectives were...

  13. Opportunities and challenges for private sector entrepreneurship and investment in biodiversity, ecosystem services and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooy, T.E.; Levashova, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Private companies and investors can profit from the enhancement of nature in general and from specific investments allocated to improve biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES). The question is: What is the incentive, from a private sector point of view, to invest in nature, and what are the

  14. Conditions of natural regeneration of Norway spruce ecosystems in the Krkonose Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cudlín, Pavel; Goldbold, L D.; Bonifacio, E.; Egli, S.; Fritz, W H.; Gonthier, P.; Chmelíková, Ewa; Kowalik, P.; Martinotti, M G.; Moravec, Ivo; Nicolotti, G.; Varese, C.; Peter, M.; Zanini, E.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 22, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 66-79 ISSN 1335-342X. [Long Term Air Pollution Effect on Forest Ecosystems (International Meeting for Specialists in Air Pollution Effects on Forest Ecosystems)/20./. Zvolen, 30.08.2002-01.09.2002] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 355 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : forest decline * acid precipitation * natural regeneration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.100, year: 2003

  15. THE WIDESPREAD OF Fe(III)-REDUCING BACTERIA IN NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS OF ECUADOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashyrev, O B; Govorukha, V M

    2015-01-01

    The widespread of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in natural ecosystems of Ecuador of La Favorita, Tungurahua volcano and Papallacta areas was experimentally proved. High efficiency of microbial precipitation of soluble iron compounds was also demonstrated. Obtained results indicate the potential ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to influence the formation of carbon and iron vector fluxes in ecosystems, as well as development of effective biotechnologies of water purification from iron compounds.

  16. Incorporating effects of natural disturbances in managed ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Rotenberry; Robert J. Cooper; Joseph M. Wunderle; Kimberley G. Smith

    1993-01-01

    We briefly review the effects of climate (particularly drought and hurricanes), insect outbreaks, and fire on populations of migrant birds. An important feature of all of these natural disturbances is that they occur over a variety of spatial and temporal scales, thus precluding any simple generalization of their effects or of methods for mitigating those effects. We...

  17. Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austel, A; Ranke, C; Wagner, N; Görge, J; Ellrott, T

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that Mediterranean diets with a high proportion of olive oil and nuts can be effective for weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. It might be difficult for populations with other eating habits to follow such diets. Therefore, a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification through neutral and butter-flavored canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil with two portion-controlled sweet daily snacks was tested in Germany. Randomized waiting-list control study with overweight/grade 1 obese subjects: 12-week self-help modified Mediterranean-type diet, 6 weeks of diet plans and 6 weeks of weight loss maintenance training. Trial duration was 12 months. Intervention group (IG) included 100 participants (average age of 52.4 years, weight 85.1 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.1 kg/m(2)), waiting-list control group (CG) included 112 participants (52.6 years, 84.1 kg and 30.1 kg/m(2)). Per-protocol weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.2 kg in IG vs 0.4 kg in CG (P ⩽ 0.0001), BMI -1.8 vs -0.1 kg/m(2) (P ⩽ 0.0001), waist circumference -4.7 vs -0.9 cm (P ⩽ 0.0001). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol improved significantly in IG but not in CG. One-year dropouts: 44% in IG and 53% in CG. Weight loss after 12 months: 4.2 kg (pooled data). A five-meal modified Mediterranean-type diet with two daily portion-controlled sweet snacks was effective for weight management in a self-help setting for overweight and grade 1 obese subjects. Fat modification through canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil improved blood lipids even at 12 months.

  18. The methane sink associated to soils of natural and agricultural ecosystems in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldi, Simona; Costantini, Massimo; Cenciarelli, Pietro; Ciccioli, Paolo; Valentini, Riccardo

    2007-01-01

    In the present work, the CH4 sink associated to Italian soils was calculated by using a process-based model controlled by gas diffusivity and microbial activity, which was run by using a raster-based geographical information system. Georeferenced data included land cover CLC2000, soil properties from the European Soil Database, climatic data from the MARS-STAT database, plus several derived soils properties based on published algorithms applied to the above mentioned databases. Overall CH4 consumption from natural and agricultural sources accounted for a total of 43.3 Gg CH4 yr(-1), with 28.1 Gg CH4 yr(-1) removed in natural ecosystems and 15.1 Gg CH4 yr(-1) in agricultural ecosystems. The highest CH4 uptake rates were obtained for natural areas of Southern Apennines and islands of Sardinia and Sicily, and were mainly associated to areas covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (259.7+/-30.2 mg CH4 m(-2) yr(-1)) and broad-leaved forest (237.5 mg CH4 m(-2) yr(-1)). In terms of total sink strength broad-leaved forests were the dominant ecosystem. The overall contribution of each ecosystem type to the whole CH4 sink depended on the total area covered by the specific ecosystem and on its exact geographic distribution. The latter determines the type of climate present in the area and the dominant soil type, both factors which showed to have a strong influence on CH4 uptake rates. The aggregated CH4 sink, calculated for natural ecosystems present in the Italian region, is significantly higher than previously reported estimates, which were extrapolated from fluxes measured in other temperate ecosystems.

  19. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the White sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.; Shevchenko, V.; Bogunov, A.

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) concentrations in the White Sea was presented. The study was conducted to determine natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in order to aid in future zoning plans. Hydrocarbons were extracted from samples of aerosols, ice, water, particulate matter, phyto- and zooplankton, and bottom sediments. Results of the study suggested that HC concentrations in aerosols above the White Sea were lower than in marine aerosols above the southeastern Atlantic and lower than Alkane concentrations in aerosols in the Mediterranean Sea. A study of PAH behaviour in Northern Dvina estuaries showed that the submicron fractions contained light polyarenes. Particulate matter collected in sedimentation traps was enriched in phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Aliphatic HC enrichment was due to the presence of phytoplankton and other microorganisms. Between 54 per cent and 85 per cent of initial organic matter was consumed during diagenesis in the bottom sediments, indicating a high rate of HC transformation. It was suggested that the majority of oil HC transported with river water is precipitated. Fluoranthene was the dominant PAH in the study, and was assumed to be caused by natural transformation of PAH composition during distant atmospheric transport. Pyrogenic contamination of the bottom sediments was attributed to an aluminium plant. It was concluded that the detection of significant amounts of HC is not direct evidence of their anthropogenic origins. 31 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs

  20. Climate-dependence of ecosystem services in a nature reserve in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiaohui; Song, Huali; Zhang, Yiran; Li, Yanran; Liu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of ecosystem services has become a hotspot in terms of research focus, but uncertainties over appropriate methods remain. Evaluation can be based on the unit price of services (services value method) or the unit price of the area (area value method). The former takes meteorological factors into account, while the latter does not. This study uses Kunyu Mountain Nature Reserve as a study site at which to test the effects of climate on the ecosystem services. Measured data and remote sensing imagery processed in a geographic information system were combined to evaluate gas regulation and soil conservation, and the influence of meteorological factors on ecosystem services. Results were used to analyze the appropriateness of the area value method. Our results show that the value of ecosystem services is significantly affected by meteorological factors, especially precipitation. Use of the area value method (which ignores the impacts of meteorological factors) could considerably impede the accuracy of ecosystem services evaluation. Results were also compared with the valuation obtained using the modified equivalent value factor (MEVF) method, which is a modified area value method that considers changes in meteorological conditions. We found that MEVF still underestimates the value of ecosystem services, although it can reflect to some extent the annual variation in meteorological factors. Our findings contribute to increasing the accuracy of evaluation of ecosystem services.

  1. Integrating adaptive management and ecosystem services concepts to improve natural resource management: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epanchin-Niell, Rebecca S.; Boyd, James W.; Macauley, Molly K.; Scarlett, Lynn; Shapiro, Carl D.; Williams, Byron K.

    2018-05-07

    Executive Summary—OverviewNatural resource managers must make decisions that affect broad-scale ecosystem processes involving large spatial areas, complex biophysical interactions, numerous competing stakeholder interests, and highly uncertain outcomes. Natural and social science information and analyses are widely recognized as important for informing effective management. Chief among the systematic approaches for improving the integration of science into natural resource management are two emergent science concepts, adaptive management and ecosystem services. Adaptive management (also referred to as “adaptive decision making”) is a deliberate process of learning by doing that focuses on reducing uncertainties about management outcomes and system responses to improve management over time. Ecosystem services is a conceptual framework that refers to the attributes and outputs of ecosystems (and their components and functions) that have value for humans.This report explores how ecosystem services can be moved from concept into practice through connection to a decision framework—adaptive management—that accounts for inherent uncertainties. Simultaneously, the report examines the value of incorporating ecosystem services framing and concepts into adaptive management efforts.Adaptive management and ecosystem services analyses have not typically been used jointly in decision making. However, as frameworks, they have a natural—but to date underexplored—affinity. Both are policy and decision oriented in that they attempt to represent the consequences of resource management choices on outcomes of interest to stakeholders. Both adaptive management and ecosystem services analysis take an empirical approach to the analysis of ecological systems. This systems orientation is a byproduct of the fact that natural resource actions affect ecosystems—and corresponding societal outcomes—often across large geographic scales. Moreover, because both frameworks focus on

  2. Natural Ecosystem Surrounding a Conventional Banana Crop Improves Plant Health and Fruit Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence P. Castelan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural ecosystems near agricultural landscapes may provide rich environments for growing crops. However, the effect of a natural ecosystem on crop health and fruit quality is poorly understood. In the present study, it was investigated whether the presence of a natural ecosystem surrounding a crop area influences banana plant health and fruit postharvest behavior. Plants from two conventional banana crop areas with identical planting time and cultural practices were used; the only difference between banana crop areas is that one area was surrounded by a natural forest (Atlantic forest fragment (Near-NF, while the other area was inserted at the center of a conventional banana crop (Distant-NF. Results showed that bananas harvested from Near-NF showed higher greenlife and a more homogeneous profile during ripening compared to fruits harvested from Distant-NF. Differences in quality parameters including greenlife, carbohydrate profile, and pulp firmness between fruits harvested from Near-NF and Distant-NF are explained, at least partly, by differences in the balance of plant growth regulators (indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in bananas during ripening. Furthermore, plants from Near-NF showed a lower severity index of black leaf streak disease (BLSD and higher levels of phenolic compounds in leaves compared to plants from Distant-NF. Together, the results provide additional evidence on how the maintenance of natural ecosystems near conventional crop areas could be a promising tool to improve plant health and fruit quality.

  3. Nutrigenetics: links between genetic background and response to Mediterranean-type diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairon, Denis; Defoort, Catherine; Martin, Jean-Charles; Amiot-Carlin, Marie-Jo; Gastaldi, Marguerite; Planells, Richard

    2009-09-01

    It has been substantiated that the onset of most major diseases (CVD, diabetes, obesity, cancers, etc.) is modulated by the interaction between genetic traits (susceptibility) and environmental factors, especially diet. We aim to report more specific observations relating the effects of Mediterranean-type diets on cardiovascular risk factors and the genetic background of subjects. In the first part, general concepts about nutrigenetics are briefly presented. Human genome has, overall, only marginally changed since its origin but it is thought that minor changes (polymorphisms) of common genes that occurred during evolution are now widespread in human populations, and can alter metabolic pathways and response to diets. In the second part, we report the data obtained during the Medi-RIVAGE intervention study performed in the South-East of France. Data obtained in 169 subjects at moderate cardiovascular risk after a 3-month dietary intervention indicate that some of the twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) studied exhibit interactions with diets regarding changes of particular parameters after 3-month regimens. Detailed examples are presented, such as interactions between SNP in genes coding for microsomial transfer protein (MTTP) or intestinal fatty acid binding protein (FABP2) and triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol or Framigham score lowering in responses to Mediterranean-type diets. The data provided add further evidence of the interaction between particular SNP and metabolic responses to diets. Finally, improvement in dietary recommendations by taking into account known genetic variability has been discussed.

  4. Different types of interactions of links in artificial and natural ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, Lydia; Pisman, Tamara; Mikheeva, Galina; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    The life of organisms in an ecosystem depends not only on abiotic factors, but also on the interaction of organisms in which they come with each other. The study of mechanisms of the bioregulation based on ecological - biochemical interactions of ecosystem links is necessary to know the ecosystem development, its stability, survival of ecosystem organisms. It is of high importance as for the creation of artificial ecosystems, and also for the study of natural ecosystems under anthropogenic pressure on them. To create well-functioning ecosystems is necessary to study and consider the basic types of relationships between organisms. The basic types of interactions between organisms have been studied with simple terrestrial and water ecosystems. 1. The interaction of microbiocenoses and plants were studied in experiments with agrocenoses. Microbiocenosis proposed for increase of productivity of plants and for obtaining ecologically pure production of plants has been created taking into account mutual relationships between species of microorganisms. 2. The experimental model of the atmosphere closed «autotroph - heterotroph» system in which heterotrophic link was the mixed population of yeasts (Candida utilis and Candida guilliermondii) was studied. The algae Chlorella vulgaris was used as an autotroph link. It was shown, that the competition result for heterotrophic link depended on strategy of populations of yeast in relation to a substrate and oxygen utilization. 3. As a result of experimental and theoretical modelling of a competition of algae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda at continuous cultivation, the impossibility of their coexistence in the conditions of limitation on nitrogen was shown. 4. Pray-predator interactions between algae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus quadricauda) and invertebrates (Paramecium caudatum, Brachionus plicatilis) were studied in experimental closed ecosystem. This work was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for

  5. LAW, THE LAWS OF NATURE AND ECOSYSTEM ENERGY SERVICES: A CASE OF WILFUL BLINDNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Hodas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems services include the collection, concentration, and storage of solar energy as fossil fuels (e.g., coal, petroleum, and natural gas. These concentrated forms of energy were produced by ancient ecosystem services. However, our legal and economic systems fail to recognise the value of the ecosystem service subsidies embedded in fossil fuels. This ecosystem services price subsidy causes overuse and waste of fossil fuels in the free market: fossil fuels are consumed more quickly than they can be replaced by ecosystem services and in far larger quantities than they would be if the price of fossil fuels included the cost of solar energy collection, concentration and manufacturing of raw fossil fuels. Moreover, burning fossil fuels produces enormous environmental, human health and welfare costs and damage. Virtually no legal literature on ecosystem services, sustainable development, or sustainable energy, considers fossil fuels in this context. Without understanding stored energy as an ecosystem service, we cannot reasonably expect to manage our fossil fuel energy resources sustainably. International and domestic energy law and policy systems generally ignore this feature of fossil fuel energy, a blind spot that explains why reducing greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels is fundamentally a political challenge. This paper will use new understandings emerging from the field of complex systems to critique existing legal decision-making models that do not adequately account for energy ecosystem services in policy design, resource allocation and project approvals. The paper proposes a new "least-social-cost" decision-making legal structure that includes ecosystem energy services.

  6. Application of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems to ecosystem-based urban natural resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaohui Zhang; George Ball; Eve Halper

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated system to support urban natural resource management. With the application of remote sensing (RS) and geographic information systems (GIS), the paper emphasizes the methodology of integrating information technology and a scientific basis to support ecosystem-based management. First, a systematic integration framework is developed and...

  7. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Bradford; Nicholas R. Jensen; Grant M. Domke; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior...

  8. The tension between nature conservation and economic valuation of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Economic valuation of ecosystem services is a popular yet troubled approach in modern nature conservation. It's effectiveness remains unknown while a lot of criticism is noted in the literature about potential consequences of this approach. This thesis first clarifies the various discourses extant

  9. Mimicking natural ecosystems to develop sustainable supply chains : A theory of socio-ecological intergradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruner, Richard L.; Power, Damien

    2017-01-01

    For most firms, the development of sustainable supply chain practices remains challenging. Using a theory-building approach, we develop a theory of socio-ecological intergradation to provide managers with guidance in mimicking natural ecosystems to develop more local and thus sustainable supply

  10. EnviroAtlas - Biological nitrogen fixation in natural/semi-natural ecosystems by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean biological nitrogen fixation in natural/semi-natural ecosystems per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006....

  11. Contribution of Cultural Ecosystem Services to Natural Capital in the coastal area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelli, Marco; Madonia, Alice; Tofani, Anna; Molino, Chiara; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Natural Capital evaluation is emerging as a fundamental tool to support the management of natural resources. Indeed, the achievement of the compatibility among their multiple uses, often in conflict in coastal areas, is a priority to avoid the increasing undesirable effects which threat both ecosystems and human health and well-being. It represents the scientific basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of those systems and their contribution to human well-being. Furthermore the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (called by Kofi Annan in 2000), assessed the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being, and in particular, the analysis method has been centered on the linkages between "ecosystem services" and human well-being. This "Ecosystem Approach" allows to evaluate the consequences of ecosystems changes on human well-being through the assessment of the Ecosystem Services (ES), which are defined as "the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems". These include provisioning services (food, water, timber, etc.), regulating services (climate, floods, disease, etc.); cultural services (recreational, aesthetic and spiritual benefits) and supporting services (soil formation, photosynthesis, nutrient cycling, etc.) Also the reference guidelines for European Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56 / EC - MSFD; Maritime Spatial Planning Directive 2014/89 / EC - MSP) are based on the principle of the Ecosystem Approach to define the monitoring criteria of marine and maritime space management ecosystems. The assessment of ES provided by Natural Capital cannot overlook the integration of ecological data with economic and socio-cultural ones, since they are considered as the direct and indirect contributions to human well-being provided by ecosystems. Cultural Ecosystem Services (CES), often omitted in the cost-benefit impact studies, has been receiving increasing interest from the scientific community in order

  12. Trade-off analysis of ecosystem service provision in nature networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogdrup-Schmidt, Mathias; Strange, Niels; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2017-01-01

    We propose a spatial multi-criteria decision analysis approach as a value-focused decision support tool for evaluating land use change decisions affecting multiple ecosystem services. In an empirical case study concerned with creating a robust and interconnected network of natural areas in a Danish...... municipality, we first conduct a biophysical and economic baseline mapping of ecosystem services. We then construct a spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis model which is utilized to identify candidate areas for inclusion in the network. We define a base scenario for future land use in the area......, where all criteria have equal weight, and assess the outcome in terms of welfare economic benefits of ecosystem services and opportunity cost of reducing forest and agricultural production. As weights in multi-criteria analysis is innately a subjective task, we conduct a sensitivity analysis using four...

  13. Nature as a nuisance? Ecosystem services and disservices to urban lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyytimäki, Jari; Petersen, Lars Kjerulf; Normander, Bo

    2008-01-01

    - such as safety issues in dark parks or pollen causing health problems - have gained only sporadic attention in environmental studies focused on urban ecosystems. We review and discuss different urban ecosystem disservices from a Northern European perspective. We conclude by addressing the key limitations......  The lifestyle of people living in urban areas has profound direct and indirect impacts on biodiversity. However, the role of urban lifestyle as a driving force of biodiversity change is not very well understood. This is partly because there is a gap between a social science approach focusing...... on lifestyle and a natural science approach focusing on biodiversity. We propose that the concept of ecological services and disservices is useful in connecting these approaches. Ecosystem services produced by urban green areas are the focus of a wide range of environmental studies, but disservices...

  14. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  15. Climate Regulation Services of Natural and Managed Ecosystems of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.; Snyder, P. K.; Twine, T. E.; Costa, M. H.; Cuadra, S.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems regulate climate through both biogeochemical mechanisms (greenhouse gas regulation) and biophysical mechanisms (regulation of water and energy). Land management therefore provides some of the most effective strategies for climate change mitigation. However, most policies aimed at climate protection through land management, including UNFCCC mechanisms and bioenergy sustainability standards, account only for biogeochemical climate services. By ignoring biophysical climate regulation services that in some cases offset the biogeochemical regulation services, these policies run the risk of failing to advance the best climate solutions. Quantifying the combined value of biogeochemical and biophysical climate regulation services remains an important challenge. Here, we use a combination of data synthesis and modeling to quantify how biogeochemical and biophysical effects combine to shape the climate regulation value (CRV) of 18 natural and managed ecosystem types across the Western Hemisphere. Natural ecosystems generally had higher CRVs than agroecosystems, largely driven by differences in biogeochemical services. Biophysical contributions ranged from minimal to dominant. They were highly variable in space and across ecosystem types, and their relative importance varied strongly with the spatio-temporal scale of analysis. Our findings pertain to current efforts to protect climate through land management. Specifically, they reinforce the importance of protecting tropical forests and recent findings that the climatic effects of bioenergy production may be somewhat more positive than previously estimated. Given that biophysical effects in some cases dominate, ensuring effective climate protection through land management requires consideration of combined biogeochemical and biophysical climate regulation services. While quantification of ecosystem climate services is necessarily complex, our CRV index serves as one potential approach to measure the

  16. Impacts of Nitrogen and Phosphorus: From Genomes to Natural Ecosystems and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïté S. Guignard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N and/or phosphorus (P availability can limit growth of primary producers across most of the world's aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. These constraints are commonly overcome in agriculture by applying fertilizers to improve yields. However, excessive anthropogenic N and P inputs impact natural environments and have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences, from individual species up to entire ecosystems. The extent to which global N and P cycles have been perturbed over the past century can be seen as a global fertilization experiment with significant redistribution of nutrients across different ecosystems. Here we explore the effects of N and P availability on stoichiometry and genomic traits of organisms, which, in turn, can influence: (i plant and animal abundances; (ii trophic interactions and population dynamics; and (iii ecosystem dynamics and productivity of agricultural crops. We articulate research priorities for a deeper understanding of how bioavailable N and P move through the environment and exert their ultimate impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services.

  17. Ecosystem changes in the Neva Estuary (Baltic Sea): natural dynamics or response to anthropogenic impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubkov, Sergey; Alimov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The Neva Estuary situated in the eastern Gulf of Finland is one of the largest estuaries of the Baltic Sea with a large conurbation, St. Petersburg, situated on its coast. Eutrophication, alien species and large-scale digging and dumping of bottom sediment are the most prominent anthropogenic impacts on its ecosystem. However, many ecosystem responses, which are traditionally attribute to these impacts, are related to natural dynamics of the ecosystem. Fluctuations in discharge of the Neva River, intrusions of bottom hypoxic waters from the western part of the Gulf of Finland, higher summer temperatures and a shorter period of ice cover are climatic mediated factors inducing adverse changes in its ecosystem from the 1980s onwards. The main ecosystem responses to these factors are 2-3-fold increase of trophic status, deterioration of native zoobenthic communities and establishment of alien species, as well as the many fold decrease of fish catch and the population of ringed seal in the region. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Illustrating the Interaction of Nature and People in Ecosystem Services: The Case of Terroir in Wine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The ecosystem services (ES) approach is increasingly used in research and policy, with the Common International Framework on Ecosystem Services (CICES) "cascade" gaining traction as a framework for conceptualizing the production of ecosystem services by the natural environment, and then people consuming these services and obtaining benefits depending on their values. However, uptake of the ES concept on the ground by ecosystem managers, and understanding by everyday citizens, is still limited. One barrier is the challenge of providing tangible, examples of everyday benefits and values that people can readily connect with the biophysical structures and functions that underlie their provision. Winegrowing offers one promising case to illustrate the linkages all along the chain of production and consumption of ecosystem services. The sensitive winegrape has long been known for its properties of terroir, where the taste of wine reflects the environmental conditions of the place where it is grown, a feature valued by consumers. Here the CICES framework is illustrated with the case of winegrowing, demonstrating that the current linear model of natural production and human consumption of ES needs to be modified for this case because people influence each of the five stages by shaping and responding to their environment, producing a two-way interaction between people and the environment throughout. For example, while natural drivers such as climate and soils are key to the provision of the service of winegrape yields, landowners modify the biophysical environment through site selection and growers modify plant ecophysiological function through farming practices such as pruning and irrigation in order to influence the final service. Similarly, winemakers' expertise is needed to transform the service of winegrape yields into the product of wine that can be enjoyed and valued by consumers, whose preferences shape wine styles as well. This case illustrates how incorporating

  19. Radiocesium in semi-natural ecosystems in Soer-Varanger, North-Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikelmann, I.M.; Floe, L.; Larsen, E.

    1995-01-01

    The content of radionuclides in the semi-natural ecosystem in Soer-Varanger are mainly fallout from nuclear weapon tests in the fifties and sixties at Novija Zemlja. Favourable natural conditions have encouraged use of semi-natural ecosystems for household, and reindeer herding is still economical important in the area. Samples of reindeer meat, lichen, mushrooms and moose were taken from the area of current interest. The mean radiocesium concentration in reindeer meat was 325 Bq/kg. There is seasonal variations in radiocesium concentration in reindeer, with up to five times higher values in winter than summer. The high intake of lichen in winter is obviously the reason for this increase. Lichens have a high ability to absorb radionuclides directly from precipitation. Radiocesium concentration in lichen samples varied between 210 Bq/kg and 570 Bq/kg. It is concluded that radiocesium from bomb fallout is still existing in some foodstuff produced in semi-natural ecosystem i Soer-Varanger. Lichen-reindeer-man is the important foodchain for the radioactivity. 6 refs., 4 figs

  20. Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Sanchirico, James N; Baskett, Marissa L

    2018-02-13

    Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history. Optimal management trajectories generally approached similar harvest levels, but the pathways toward those levels varied considerably by ecological scenario. Application of the wrong harvest trajectory, which would happen if one type of ecological interaction were assumed but in fact another were occurring, generally led to only modest reductions in NPV. However, the risks were not equal across fleets: risks of incurring large losses of NPV and missing management targets were much higher in the fishery targeting piscivores, especially when piscivores were heavily depleted. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem approach might provide the greatest benefits when used to identify system states where management performs poorly with imperfect knowledge of system linkages so that management strategies can be adopted to avoid those states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. Culture, Nature, and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services in Northern Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schnegg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining culture as shared knowledge, values, and practices, we introduce an anthropological concept of culture to the ecosystem-service debate. In doing so, we shift the focus from an analysis of culture as a residual category including recreational and aesthetic experiences to an analysis of processes that underlie the valuation of nature in general. The empirical analysis draws on ethnographic fieldwork conducted along the Okavango River in northern Namibia to demonstrate which landscape units local populations value for which service(s. Results show that subjects perceive many places as providing multiple services and that most of their valuations of ecosystem services are culturally shared. We attribute this finding to common experiences and modes of activities within the cultural groups, and to the public nature of the valuation process.

  2. Anthropogenic and natural influence on disease prevalence at the humanlivestockwildlife interface in the Serengeti ecosystem, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Fyumagwa, Robert Dominikus

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities in ecosystems interfere with natural processes and cause habitat fragmentation and loss. Habitat fragmentation and loss restrict wildlife movement between populations consequently reducing the gene flow and genetic diversity. Increased human encroachment on wildlife habitat compromises immunity and disturbs host-pathogen relationships resulting in disease outbreaks in naïve populations. Tick-borne and infectious diseases are considered a major threat to the health of ...

  3. Man-nature ecosystemic relationship of Helicobacter pylori contamination on water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Acosta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The link between man and nature has been acknowledged since ancient times. However, the comprehension of this re­lationship from health perspective suggests a more holistic interpretation from a historical framework. This article ex­plores: a the links about the use and management of water using an ecosystemic approach, including its relationship with human health. b systemic approach between man-na­ture relationship and Helicobacter pylori contamination.

  4. Climate change impacts utilizing regional models for agriculture, hydrology and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafatos, M.; Asrar, G. R.; El-Askary, H. M.; Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, J.; Kim, S.; Medvigy, D.; Prasad, A. K.; Smith, E.; Stack, D. H.; Tremback, C.; Walko, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change impacts the entire Earth but with crucial and often catastrophic impacts at local and regional levels. Extreme phenomena such as fires, dust storms, droughts and other natural hazards present immediate risks and challenges. Such phenomena will become more extreme as climate change and anthropogenic activities accelerate in the future. We describe a major project funded by NIFA (Grant # 2011-67004-30224), under the joint NSF-DOE-USDA Earth System Models (EaSM) program, to investigate the impacts of climate variability and change on the agricultural and natural (i.e. rangeland) ecosystems in the Southwest USA using a combination of historical and present observations together with climate, and ecosystem models, both in hind-cast and forecast modes. The applicability of the methodology to other regions is relevant (for similar geographic regions as well as other parts of the world with different agriculture and ecosystems) and should advance the state of knowledge for regional impacts of climate change. A combination of multi-model global climate projections from the decadal predictability simulations, to downscale dynamically these projections using three regional climate models, combined with remote sensing MODIS and other data, in order to obtain high-resolution climate data that can be used with hydrological and ecosystem models for impacts analysis, is described in this presentation. Such analysis is needed to assess the future risks and potential impacts of projected changes on these natural and managed ecosystems. The results from our analysis can be used by scientists to assist extended communities to determine agricultural coping strategies, and is, therefore, of interest to wide communities of stakeholders. In future work we will be including surface hydrologic modeling and water resources, extend modeling to higher resolutions and include significantly more crops and geographical regions with different weather and climate conditions

  5. Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are the many life-sustaining benefits we receive from nature and contribute to environmental and human health and well-being. Ecosystem-focused research will develop methods to measure ecosystem goods and services.

  6. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus in a fenced nature reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Fløjgaard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Body condition, as a sign of animal welfare, is of management concern in rewilding projects where fenced animals are subject to winter starvation, which may conflict with animal welfare legislation. Investigating the relationship between body condition, age, sex, diet quality and diet composition is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured body mass and body size of 91 culled red deer, and determined diet composition using DNA metabarcoding and diet quality using fecal nitrogen on 246 fecal samples. We found that body condition was predicted by age and diet composition, but not diet quality. We also found that individuals of different body condition had different diets, i.e., the fecal samples of red deer in poorer body condition contained significantly more Ericaceae sequences than red deer in good body condition. This may imply that certain functions of red deer in ecosystems, such as regeneration of heather by grazing, may depend on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation.

  7. Risk and contributing factors of ecosystem shifts over naturally vegetated land under climate change in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Xingcai

    2016-02-12

    Identifying the areas at risk of ecosystem transformation and the main contributing factors to the risk is essential to assist ecological adaptation to climate change. We assessed the risk of ecosystem shifts in China using the projections of four global gridded vegetation models (GGVMs) and an aggregate metric. The results show that half of naturally vegetated land surface could be under moderate or severe risk at the end of the 21(st) century under the middle and high emission scenarios. The areas with high risk are the Tibetan Plateau region and an area extended northeastward from the Tibetan Plateau to northeast China. With the three major factors considered, the change in carbon stocks is the main contributing factor to the high risk of ecosystem shifts. The change in carbon fluxes is another important contributing factor under the high emission scenario. The change in water fluxes is a less dominant factor except for the Tibetan Plateau region under the high emission scenario. Although there is considerable uncertainty in the risk assessment, the geographic patterns of the risk are generally consistent across different scenarios. The results could help develop regional strategies for ecosystem conservation to cope with climate change.

  8. Life around the North Water ecosystem: Natural and social drivers of change over a millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastrup, Kirsten; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck; Grønnow, Bjarne; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads Peter

    2018-04-01

    The formation of the North Water in Smith Sound about 4500 years ago, as evidenced by the establishment of bird colonies and human presence, also initiated a long-term anthropogenic agent as part of this High Arctic ecosystem. Different epochs have influenced the human occupation in the area: immigration pulses from Canada and Alaska, trade with meteorite iron throughout the Arctic, introduction of new technologies by whalers and explorers, exploitation of resources by foreigners, political sequestration, export of fox and seal skins and later narwhal products, and recently fishing. Physical drivers in terms of weather and climate affecting the northern hemisphere also impact accessibility and productivity of the ecosystem, with cascading effects on social drivers, again acting back on the natural ecologies. Despite its apparent isolation, the ecosystem had and still has wide ranging spatial ramifications that extend beyond the High Arctic, and include human activity. The challenge is to determine what is internal and what is external to an ecosystem.

  9. Assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity in Natural Protected Areas for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Silvia; Salata, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Recently, in Italy, a legislative proposal has been set to reform the role and the functions of natural protected areas promoting their aggregation (or the abolition) pursuing a better efficiency for their administration and economic saving. The system of natural protected areas is composed of different conservation levels: there are the Natural parks, established in the ‘80 by national or regional institution for the safeguard of natural elements, the Natura 2000 -Habitat 92/43/CEE promoted by European Union, with conservation measures for maintaining or restoring habitats and species of Communitarian interest, and the local parks of supra-municipal interest (namely PLIS) created by single municipalities or their aggregation aimed at limiting the soil sealing process. The hierarchical level of protection has determined differences in the management of the areas which leads to various approaches and strategies for biodiversity conservation and integrity. In order to assess strengths and weaknesses of the legislative initiative, the new management framework should be designed, considering the ecosystem characteristics of each natural protected area to define the future opportunities and critics, rather than, in the extreme case, remove the level of protection due to the absence of valuable ecosystem conditions. The paper provides an operative support to better apply the legislative proposal investigating the dynamics that affect all protected areas using the land take process as a major threat to biodiversity conservation in natural zones. The land take process is explored using the Land Use Change analysis (LUCa) as a possible way to determine the impact and the environmental effects of land transitions. LUCa is also useful to determine the loss of protected zones capacity to support Ecosystem Services. Finally, the assessment of the Ecosystem Services Capacity (ESC) index expresses the ability of each LULC to provide ES and, in particular, the Ecological

  10. Ask not what nature can do for you: A critique of ecosystem services as a communication strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekessy, Sarah A.; Runge, Michael C.; Kusmanoff, Alex; Keith, David A.; Wintle, Brendan A.

    2018-01-01

    Given the urgent need to raise public awareness on biodiversity issues, we review the effectiveness of “ecosystem services” as a frame for promoting biodiversity conservation. Since its inception as a communications tool in the 1970s, the concept of ecosystem services has become pervasive in biodiversity policy. While the goal of securing ecosystem services is absolutely legitimate, we argue that it has had limited success as a vehicle for securing public interest and support for nature, which is crucial to securing long-term social mandates for protection. Emerging evidence suggests that focusing on ecosystem services rather than the intrinsic value of nature is unlikely to be effective in bolstering public support for nature conservation. Theory to guide effective communication about nature is urgently needed. In the mean-time, communicators should reflect on their objectives and intended audience and revisit the way nature is framed to ensure maximum resonance.

  11. Nitrogen Cycling and GHG Emissions of Natural and Managed Tropical Ecosystems at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutlein, A.; Ralf, K.; Gerschlauer, F.; Dannenmann, M.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Diaz-Pines, E.

    2016-12-01

    In a rapidly changing world understanding of natural ecosystems response to human perturbations such as land use and climate changes as well as habitat destruction is crucial with respect to sustainability of ecosystem services. This is particularily true for tropical forest ecosystems which have significant effects on the major biogeochemical cycles and global climate. Here we present a comprehensive dataset of nitrogen cycling and GHG emissions of natural and managed ecosystems along land use and climate gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania including different forest ecosystems, homegardens, and coffee plantations. Soil N turnover rates were highest in the Ocotea forest and progressively decreased with decreasing annual rainfall and increasing land use intensity. Nitrogen production and immobilization rates positively correlated with soil organic C and total N concentrations as well as substrate availability of dissolved organic C and N, but correlated less with soil ammonium and nitrate concentrations. By using indicators of N retention and characteristics of soil nutrient status, we observed a grouping of faster, but tighter N cycling in the (semi-) natural savanna, Helychrysum and Ocotea forest. This contrasted with a more open N cycle in managed systems (homegarden and coffee plantation) where N was more prone to leaching or gaseous losses due to high nitrate production rates. The partly disturbed lower montane forest ranged in between these two groups. These finding could be supported by differences in natural 15N abundance of litter and soil across all sites. Comparing GHG emissions at the land use gradient showed, that with increasing intensification (lower montane forest - homegarden - coffee plantation) N2O emissions increased but at the same time the soil sink for atmospheric CH4 decreased. GHG emission measurements at the climate gradient (savanna, lower montane, Ocotea and Podocarpus forest, Helychrysum) revealed that differences in soil moisture

  12. The ecosystem services agenda: bridging the worlds of natural science and economics, conservation and development, and public and private policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braat, L.C.; Groot, de R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The Ecosystem Services Journal starts in 2012 with a formidable basis in the reports and books from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and TEEB projects. Following a half-century history of growing awareness and associated scientific based policy development a bridging concept with natural and

  13. Potential increases in natural disturbance rates could offset forest management impacts on ecosystem carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, John B.; Jensen, Nicholas R.; Domke, Grant M.; D’Amato, Anthony W.

    2013-01-01

    Forested ecosystems contain the majority of the world’s terrestrial carbon, and forest management has implications for regional and global carbon cycling. Carbon stored in forests changes with stand age and is affected by natural disturbance and timber harvesting. We examined how harvesting and disturbance interact to influence forest carbon stocks over the Superior National Forest, in northern Minnesota. Forest inventory data from the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program were used to characterize current forest age structure and quantify the relationship between age and carbon stocks for eight forest types. Using these findings, we simulated the impact of alternative management scenarios and natural disturbance rates on forest-wide terrestrial carbon stocks over a 100-year horizon. Under low natural mortality, forest-wide total ecosystem carbon stocks increased when 0% or 40% of planned harvests were implemented; however, the majority of forest-wide carbon stocks decreased with greater harvest levels and elevated disturbance rates. Our results suggest that natural disturbance has the potential to exert stronger influence on forest carbon stocks than timber harvesting activities and that maintaining carbon stocks over the long-term may prove difficult if disturbance frequency increases in response to climate change.

  14. The natural sediment regime in rivers: broadening the foundation for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen E.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Poff, N. LeRoy; Rathburn, Sara L.; Walters, David M.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    Water and sediment inputs are fundamental drivers of river ecosystems, but river management tends to emphasize flow regime at the expense of sediment regime. In an effort to frame a more inclusive paradigm for river management, we discuss sediment inputs, transport, and storage within river systems; interactions among water, sediment, and valley context; and the need to broaden the natural flow regime concept. Explicitly incorporating sediment is challenging, because sediment is supplied, transported, and stored by nonlinear and episodic processes operating at different temporal and spatial scales than water and because sediment regimes have been highly altered by humans. Nevertheless, managing for a desired balance between sediment supply and transport capacity is not only tractable, given current geomorphic process knowledge, but also essential because of the importance of sediment regimes to aquatic and riparian ecosystems, the physical template of which depends on sediment-driven river structure and function.

  15. Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Bok Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp. and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease.

  16. Transfer of radionuclides by terrestrial food products from semi-natural ecosystems to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    The potential radiological significance of radionuclide transfer to humans via foodstuffs derived from semi-natural ecosystems has become apparent since the Chernobyl accident. Foodchain models developed before this time usually did not take such transfers into account. The processes leading to contamination of food in these environments are complex and current understanding of the transfer mechanisms is incomplete. For these reasons the approach adopted in Chapter 3 is to represent, by means of aggregated parameters, the empirical relationships between ground deposits and concentration in the food product. 107 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  17. Evaluating natural flood management measures using an ecosystem based adaptation framework: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Oana; Rowan, John; Brown, Iain; Ellis, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Climate change is projected to alter river flows and the magnitude/frequency characteristics of floods and droughts. As a result flood risk is expected to increase with environmental, social and economic impacts. Traditionally flood risk management has been heavily relying on engineering measures, however with climate change their capacity to provide protection is expected to decrease. Ecosystem-based adaptation highlights the interdependence of human and natural systems, and the potential to buffer the impacts of climate change by maintaining functioning ecosystems that continue to provide multiple societal benefits. Natural flood management measures have the potential to provide a greater adaptive capacity to negate the impacts of climate change and provide ancillary benefits. To understand the impacts of different NFM measures on ecosystem services a meta-analysis was undertaken. Twenty five studies from across the world were pulled together to assess their effectiveness on reducing the flood risk but also on other ecosystems services as defined by the UK National Ecosystem Assessment, which distinguishes between provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services. Four categories of NFM measures were considered: (i) afforestation measures, (ii) drainage and blocking the drains, (iii) wetland restoration and (iv) combined measures. Woodland expansion measures provide significant benefits for flood protection more pronounced for low magnitude events, but also for other services such as carbon sequestration and water quality. These measures however will come at a cost for livestock and crop provisioning services as a result of land use changes. Drainage operations and blocking the drains have mixed impacts on carbon sequestration and water quality depending on soil type, landscape settings and local characteristics. Wetland and floodplain restoration measures have generally a few disbenefits and provide improvements for regulating and supporting services

  18. Modeling techniques for predicting long-term consequences of the effects of radiation on natural aquatic populations and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winkle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Appropriate modeling techniques already exist for investigating some long-term consequences of the effects of radiation on natural aquatic populations and ecosystems, even if to date these techniques have not been used for this purpose. At the low levels of irradiation estimated to occur in natural aquatic systems, effects are difficult to detect at even the individual level much less the population or ecosystem level where the subtle effects of radiation are likely to be completely overshadowed by the effects of other environmental factors and stresses and the natural variability of the system. The claim that population and ecosystem models can be accurate and reliable predictive tools in assessing any stress has been oversold. Nonetheless, the use of these tools can be useful for learning more about the effects of radioactive releases on aquatic populations and ecosystems

  19. Nitrogen leaching from natural ecosystems under global change: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, Maarten C.; Rebel, Karin T.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Smith, Benjamin; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Wassen, Martin J.

    2017-12-01

    To study global nitrogen (N) leaching from natural ecosystems under changing N deposition, climate, and atmospheric CO2, we performed a factorial model experiment for the period 1901-2006 with the N-enabled global terrestrial ecosystem model LPJ-GUESS (Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator). In eight global simulations, we used either the true transient time series of N deposition, climate, and atmospheric CO2 as input or kept combinations of these drivers constant at initial values. The results show that N deposition is globally the strongest driver of simulated N leaching, individually causing an increase of 88 % by 1997-2006 relative to pre-industrial conditions. Climate change led globally to a 31 % increase in N leaching, but the size and direction of change varied among global regions: leaching generally increased in regions with high soil organic carbon storage and high initial N status, and decreased in regions with a positive trend in vegetation productivity or decreasing precipitation. Rising atmospheric CO2 generally caused decreased N leaching (33 % globally), with strongest effects in regions with high productivity and N availability. All drivers combined resulted in a rise of N leaching by 73 % with strongest increases in Europe, eastern North America and South-East Asia, where N deposition rates are highest. Decreases in N leaching were predicted for the Amazon and northern India. We further found that N loss by fire regionally is a large term in the N budget, associated with lower N leaching, particularly in semi-arid biomes. Predicted global N leaching from natural lands rose from 13.6 Tg N yr-1 in 1901-1911 to 18.5 Tg N yr-1 in 1997-2006, accounting for reductions of natural land cover. Ecosystem N status (quantified as the reduction of vegetation productivity due to N limitation) shows a similar positive temporal trend but large spatial variability. Interestingly, this variability is more strongly related to vegetation type than N input

  20. Lognormal distribution of natural radionuclides in freshwater ecosystems and coal-ash repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drndarski, N.; Lavi, N.

    1997-01-01

    This study summarizes and analyses data for natural radionuclides, 40 K, 226 Ra and 'Th, measured by gamma spectrometry in water samples, sediments and coal-ash samples collected from regional freshwater ecosystems and near-by coal-ash repositories during the last decade, 1986-1996, respectively. The frequency plots of natural radionuclide data, for which the hypothesis of the regional scale log normality was accepted, exhibited single population groups with exception of 226 Ra and 232 Th data for waters. Thus the presence of break points in the frequency distribution plots indicated that 226 Ra and 232 Th data for waters do not come from a single statistical population. Thereafter the hypothesis of log normality was accepted for the separate population groups of 226 Ra and '-32 Th in waters. (authors)

  1. Complementing endozoochorous seed dispersal patterns by donkeys and goats in a semi-natural island ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treitler, Julia Tabea; Drissen, Tim; Stadtmann, Robin; Zerbe, Stefan; Mantilla-Contreras, Jasmin

    2017-12-19

    Endozoochory is, in grazing systems, a substantial vector for seed dispersal. It can play an important role in vegetation dynamics, especially in colonization processes through seed input on the vegetation and on the soil seed bank. We investigated the endozoochorous seed input of donkeys and goats on a semi-natural island ecosystem in the Mediterranean. Through germination experiments, we assessed the viable seed content of the dung of these grazing animals to estimate their suitability and efficiency for seed dispersal of the vegetation types of the island. We show different dispersal patterns of donkeys and goats. Goats disperse a high number of diaspores from shrubs while donkeys disperse more diaspores of grasses. In addition, goats disperse plants of greater growth height and donkeys plants of shorter height. These dispersal patterns are in accordance with the vegetation types of which donkeys and goats disperse indicator species. Both, donkeys and goats, feed on and disperse species of the vegetation types, open grassland and temporarily wet grassland. In addition, goats feed on and disperse diagnostic species of the semi-open maquis and preforest formations. Overall, our results show that donkeys and goats are complementing each other in their endozoochorous seed dispersal potential. This emphasizes the importance of both grazing animals for the vegetation dynamics of the semi-natural island ecosystem. Therefore, the adaption of the goat management to a traditional land management based on directed transhumance might maintain and enrich vegetation types.

  2. Influence of forest management systems on natural resource use and provision of ecosystem services in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Ayron M; Rurai, Masegeri T; Almedom, Astier M

    2016-09-15

    Social, religious and economic facets of rural livelihoods in Sub-Saharan Africa are heavily dependent on natural resources, but improper resource management, drought, and social instability frequently lead to their unsustainable exploitation. In rural Tanzania, natural resources are often governed locally by informal systems of traditional resource management (TRM), defined as cultural practices developed within the context of social and religious institutions over hundreds of years. However, following independence from colonial rule, centralized governments began to exercise jurisdictional control over natural resources. Following decades of mismanagement that resulted in lost ecosystem services, communities demanded change. To improve resource protection and participation in management among stakeholders, the Tanzanian government began to decentralize management programs in the early 2000s. We investigated these two differing management approaches (traditional and decentralized government) in Sonjo communities, to examine local perceptions of resource governance, management influences on forest use, and their consequences for forest and water resources. While 97% of households understood the regulations governing traditionally-managed forests, this was true for only 39% of households for government-managed forests, leading to differences in forest use. Traditional management practices resulted in improved forest condition and surface water quality. This research provides an essential case study demonstrating the importance of TRM in shaping decision frameworks for natural resource planning and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  4. Diagnosing phosphorus limitations in natural terrestrial ecosystems in carbon cycle models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Peng, Shushi; Goll, Daniel S.; Ciais, Philippe; Guenet, Bertrand; Guimberteau, Matthieu; Hinsinger, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Peñuelas, Josep; Piao, Shilong; Poulter, Benjamin; Violette, Aurélie; Yang, Xiaojuan; Yin, Yi; Zeng, Hui

    2017-07-01

    Most of the Earth System Models (ESMs) project increases in net primary productivity (NPP) and terrestrial carbon (C) storage during the 21st century. Despite empirical evidence that limited availability of phosphorus (P) may limit the response of NPP to increasing atmospheric CO2, none of the ESMs used in the previous Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment accounted for P limitation. We diagnosed from ESM simulations the amount of P need to support increases in carbon uptake by natural ecosystems using two approaches: the demand derived from (1) changes in C stocks and (2) changes in NPP. The C stock-based additional P demand was estimated to range between -31 and 193 Tg P and between -89 and 262 Tg P for Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 and RCP8.5, respectively, with negative values indicating a P surplus. The NPP-based demand, which takes ecosystem P recycling into account, results in a significantly higher P demand of 648-1606 Tg P for RCP2.6 and 924-2110 Tg P for RCP8.5. We found that the P demand is sensitive to the turnover of P in decomposing plant material, explaining the large differences between the NPP-based demand and C stock-based demand. The discrepancy between diagnosed P demand and actual P availability (potential P deficit) depends mainly on the assumptions about availability of the different soil P forms. Overall, future P limitation strongly depends on both soil P availability and P recycling on ecosystem scale.

  5. Body condition, diet and ecosystem function of red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a fenced nature reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; De Barba, Marta; Taberlet, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    is therefore relevant to increase understanding of herbivores' ecosystem function and to inform management. In this study, we focused on red deer, Cervus elaphus, in a fenced nature reserve in Denmark, where the deer are managed as ecosystem engineers to contribute to biodiversity conservation. We measured...... on variation in body condition within the population. Our findings call for the need to consider the consequences of management practices, including culling or supplemental feeding, on the outcomes of habitat restoration, and more broadly underline the importance of preserving the overall breath of herbivore...... ecosystem functions for effective biodiversity conservation....

  6. When did a Mediterranean-type climate originate in southwestern Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Byron B.; He, Tianhua

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the environments under which biota have evolved is essential for understanding the functional traits that they possess. Here, we ask when a Mediterranean-type climate (MTC) originated in Western Australia that might help to explain some of its special plant adaptations to summer drought and heat, mild wet winters and intense summer fires. Periodic drought and fire can be traced back to the Cretaceous in southwestern Australia (SWA) but its seasonality is unknown. Previous estimates of the origin of the MTC in SWA have varied from 30 to 3 million years ago (Ma). An early proposal was that it originated in northwestern Australia 30 Ma and migrated south to its present location for which we find independent support. We collated 47 cases of what is currently known about the time of origin of adaptive responses to summer drought and heat, wet winters and periodic intense fire among flowering plants in SWA. About 15% arose in the 40-30-million-year (My) period, 32% in the 30-20-My period and 47% in the 20-10-My period, suggesting that a MTC may have been widespread in SWA by the mid-Miocene, but there may have been local appearances (proto-MTC) up to 20 My earlier. Uncertainties remain about the location of lineages at various times, the fitness benefits of apparent adaptive traits and their confinement to a MTC, and the significance of the origin versus the onset of diversification of traits. The current dearth of C4 grasses in SWA is consistent with other indications of the absence of a prior history of a summer-dominant rainfall, suggesting that the current MTC arose from a uniform-rainfall climate. Other lines of evidence that might refine these findings include the chemical composition of, and application of geochronometers to, laterites, carbonates and corals that have been used with success elsewhere. We conclude by noting that there may have been a mixture of climates for much of the time, indicated by the persistence of a few rainforest species up to 3

  7. The greenhouse gas balance of Italy. An insight on managed and natural terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Riccardo; Miglietta, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensively addresses the full greenhouse gases budget of the Italian landscape. Presents the results of the national project CARBOITALY. Provides new data and analyses in the framework of climate policies. The book addresses in a comprehensive way the full greenhouse gases budget of the Italian landscape, focusing on land use and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of terrestrial ecosystems with regard to the carbon cycle and only recently a regional approach has been considered for its specificity in terms of new methodologies for observations and models and its relevance for national policies on mitigation and adaptation to climate changes. In terms of methods this book describes the role of flux networks and data-driven models, airborne regional measurements of fluxes and specific sectoral approaches related to important components of the human and natural landscapes. There is also a growing need on the part of institutions, agencies and policy stakeholders for new data and analyses enabling them to improve their national inventories of greenhouse gases and their compliance with the UNFCCC process. In this respect the data presented is a basis for a full carbon accounting and available to relevant stakeholders for improvements and/or verification of national inventories. The wealth of research information is the result of a national project, CARBOITALY, which involved 15 Italian institutions and several researchers to provide new data and analyses in the framework of climate policies.

  8. The greenhouse gas balance of Italy. An insight on managed and natural terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentini, Riccardo [Tuscia Univ., Viterbo (Italy). Dept. for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest System (DIBAF); Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Changes (CMCC), Viterbo (Italy). Impacts on Agriculture, Forest and Natural Ecosystem Division (IAFENT); Miglietta, Franco (ed.) [National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and Edmund Mach Foundation, San Michele all' Adige (Italy). FoxLab Inst. of Biometeorology

    2015-04-01

    Comprehensively addresses the full greenhouse gases budget of the Italian landscape. Presents the results of the national project CARBOITALY. Provides new data and analyses in the framework of climate policies. The book addresses in a comprehensive way the full greenhouse gases budget of the Italian landscape, focusing on land use and terrestrial ecosystems. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of terrestrial ecosystems with regard to the carbon cycle and only recently a regional approach has been considered for its specificity in terms of new methodologies for observations and models and its relevance for national policies on mitigation and adaptation to climate changes. In terms of methods this book describes the role of flux networks and data-driven models, airborne regional measurements of fluxes and specific sectoral approaches related to important components of the human and natural landscapes. There is also a growing need on the part of institutions, agencies and policy stakeholders for new data and analyses enabling them to improve their national inventories of greenhouse gases and their compliance with the UNFCCC process. In this respect the data presented is a basis for a full carbon accounting and available to relevant stakeholders for improvements and/or verification of national inventories. The wealth of research information is the result of a national project, CARBOITALY, which involved 15 Italian institutions and several researchers to provide new data and analyses in the framework of climate policies.

  9. Deriving Vegetation Dynamics of Natural Terrestrial Ecosystems from MODIS NDVI/EVI Data over Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Gulbeyaz, Onder

    2008-09-01

    The 16-day composite MODIS vegetation indices (VIs) at 500-m resolution for the period between 2000 to 2007 were seasonally averaged on the basis of the estimated distribution of 16 potential natural terrestrial ecosystems (NTEs) across Turkey. Graphical and statistical analyses of the time-series VIs for the NTEs spatially disaggregated in terms of biogeoclimate zones and land cover types included descriptive statistics, correlations, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), time-series decomposition, and simple linear regression (SLR) models. Our spatio-temporal analyses revealed that both MODIS VIs, on average, depicted similar seasonal variations for the NTEs, with the NDVI values having higher mean and SD values. The seasonal VIs were most correlated in decreasing order for: barren/sparsely vegetated land > grassland > shrubland/woodland > forest; (sub)nival > warm temperate > alpine > cool temperate > boreal = Mediterranean; and summer > spring > autumn > winter. Most pronounced differences between the MODIS VI responses over Turkey occurred in boreal and Mediterranean climate zones and forests, and in winter (the senescence phase of the growing season). Our results showed the potential of the time-series MODIS VI datasets in the estimation and monitoring of seasonal and interannual ecosystem dynamics over Turkey that needs to be further improved and refined through systematic and extensive field measurements and validations across various biomes.

  10. Effects of ionizing radiation upon natural populations and ecosystems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Accomplishments throughout a 10-year period summarized include: a study of the effects of radiation from a γ source on the ecology of the El Verde rain forest in Puerto Rico, with emphasis on the role of secondary succession in the recovery of forest ecosystems following irradiation; the effects of light and temperature on gaseous exchange in trees using 14 CO 2 as a tracer in Palcourea; the nature of the sensitivity of pine trees to ionizing radiation and the possible synergistic effects of elevated ozone levels on radiosensitivity; the combined effects of radioactive and thermal effluents on plant communities of a swamp hardwood forest; and the development of a new conceptual approach to the evaluation of environmental quality, with emphasis on ecological perspectives in land use planning

  11. Modelling Regional Climate Change Effects On Potential Natural Ecosystems in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, D.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M.T. [Centre for GeoBiosphere Science, Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, Soelvegatan 12, S-223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2006-10-15

    This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) - HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 - were used in simulations to explore changes in tree species distributions, vegetation structure, productivity and ecosystem carbon stocks for the late 21st Century, thus accommodating a proportion of the GCM-based and emissions-based uncertainty in future climate development. The simulations represented in this study were of the potential natural vegetation ignoring direct anthropogenic effects. Results suggest that shifts in climatic zones may lead to changes in species distribution and community composition among seven major tree species of natural Swedish forests. All four climate scenarios were associated with an extension of the boreal forest treeline with respect to altitude and latitude. In the boreal and boreo-nemoral zones, the dominance of Norway spruce and to a lesser extent Scots pine was reduced in favour of deciduous broadleaved tree species. The model also predicted substantial increases in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), especially in central Sweden. Expansion of forest cover and increased local biomass enhanced the net carbon sink over central and northern Sweden, despite increased carbon release through decomposition processes in the soil. In southern Sweden, reduced growing season soil moisture levels counterbalanced the positive effects of a longer growing season and increased carbon supply on NPP, with the result that many areas were converted from a sink to a source of carbon by the late 21st

  12. Modelling Regional Climate Change Effects On Potential Natural Ecosystems in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca, D.; Smith, B.; Sykes, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the potential of a process-based regional ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, driven by climate scenarios generated by a regional climate model system (RCM) to generate predictions useful for assessing effects of climatic and CO2 change on the key ecosystem services of carbon uptake and storage. Scenarios compatible with the A2 and B2 greenhouse gas emission scenarios of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) and with boundary conditions from two general circulation models (GCMs) - HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3 - were used in simulations to explore changes in tree species distributions, vegetation structure, productivity and ecosystem carbon stocks for the late 21st Century, thus accommodating a proportion of the GCM-based and emissions-based uncertainty in future climate development. The simulations represented in this study were of the potential natural vegetation ignoring direct anthropogenic effects. Results suggest that shifts in climatic zones may lead to changes in species distribution and community composition among seven major tree species of natural Swedish forests. All four climate scenarios were associated with an extension of the boreal forest treeline with respect to altitude and latitude. In the boreal and boreo-nemoral zones, the dominance of Norway spruce and to a lesser extent Scots pine was reduced in favour of deciduous broadleaved tree species. The model also predicted substantial increases in vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), especially in central Sweden. Expansion of forest cover and increased local biomass enhanced the net carbon sink over central and northern Sweden, despite increased carbon release through decomposition processes in the soil. In southern Sweden, reduced growing season soil moisture levels counterbalanced the positive effects of a longer growing season and increased carbon supply on NPP, with the result that many areas were converted from a sink to a source of carbon by the late 21st

  13. A Conceptual Model of Natural and Anthropogenic Drivers and Their Influence on the Prince William Sound, Alaska, Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Cummins, Kenneth W; Highsmith, Raymond C; Hilborn, Ray; McRoy, C Peter; Parrish, Julia; Weingartner, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Prince William Sound (PWS) is a semi-enclosed fjord estuary on the coast of Alaska adjoining the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA). PWS is highly productive and diverse, with primary productivity strongly coupled to nutrient dynamics driven by variability in the climate and oceanography of the GOA and North Pacific Ocean. The pelagic and nearshore primary productivity supports a complex and diverse trophic structure, including large populations of forage and large fish that support many species of marine birds and mammals. High intra-annual, inter-annual, and interdecadal variability in climatic and oceanographic processes as drives high variability in the biological populations. A risk-based conceptual ecosystem model (CEM) is presented describing the natural processes, anthropogenic drivers, and resultant stressors that affect PWS, including stressors caused by the Great Alaska Earthquake of 1964 and the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989. A trophodynamic model incorporating PWS valued ecosystem components is integrated into the CEM. By representing the relative strengths of driver/stressors/effects, the CEM graphically demonstrates the fundamental dynamics of the PWS ecosystem, the natural forces that control the ecological condition of the Sound, and the relative contribution of natural processes and human activities to the health of the ecosystem. The CEM illustrates the dominance of natural processes in shaping the structure and functioning of the GOA and PWS ecosystems.

  14. Law, the Laws of Nature and Ecosystem Energy Services: A Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, our legal and economic systems fail to recognise the value of the ... energy ecosystem services in policy design, resource allocation and project approvals. ... ecosystem services; ecological economics; complex systems; renewable ...

  15. Investigating and Modeling Ecosystem Response to an Experimental and a Natural Ice Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhraei, H.; Driscoll, C. T.; Rustad, L.; Campbell, J. L.; Groffman, P.; Fahey, T.; Likens, G.; Swaminathan, R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of ecosystem response to the extreme events is generally limited to rare observations from the natural historical events. However, investigating extreme events under controlled conditions can improve our understanding of these natural phenomena. A novel field experiment was conducted in a northern hardwood forest at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire in the northeastern United States to quantify the influence of ice storms on the ecological processes. During subfreezing conditions in the winters of 2016 and 2017, water from a nearby stream was pumped and sprayed on the canopy of eight experimental plots to accrete ice to a targeted thickness on the canopy. The experiment was conducted at three levels of icing thickness (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 in.) in 2016 comparable to the naturally occurring 1998 ice storm and a second 0.5 in. treatment 2017 which were compared with reference plots. The most notable response of the icing treatments was a marked increase in fine and course litter fall which increased exponentially with increases in the icing thickness. Post-treatment openings in the canopy caused short-term increases in soil temperature in the ice-treatment plots compared to the reference plots. No response from the ice storm treatments were detected for soil moisture, net N mineralization, net nitrification, or denitrification after both natural and experimental ice storm. In contrast to the marked increase in the stream water nitrate after the natural occurring 1998 ice storm, we have not observed any significant change in soil solution N concentrations in the experimental ice storm treatments. Inconsistency in the response between the natural and experimental ice storm is likely due to differences in geophysical characteristics of the study sites including slope and lateral uptake of nutrient by the trees outside the experimental plots. In order to evaluate the long-term impacts of ice storms on northern hardwood forests, we used

  16. Incorporating Ecosystem Processes Controlling Carbon Balance Into Models of Coupled Human-Natural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W.; Brown, D. G.; Brunner, A.; Fouladbash, L.; Hadzick, Z.; Hutchins, M.; Kiger, S. E.; Makino, Y.; Nassauer, J. I.; Robinson, D. T.; Riolo, R. L.; Sun, S.

    2012-12-01

    A key element in the study of coupled human-natural systems is the interactions of human populations with vegetation and soils. In human-dominated landscapes, vegetation production and change results from a combination of ecological processes and human decision-making and behavior. Vegetation is often dramatically altered, whether to produce food for humans and livestock, to harvest fiber for construction and other materials, to harvest fuel wood or feedstock for biofuels, or simply for cultural preferences as in the case of residential lawns with sparse trees in the exurban landscape. This alteration of vegetation and its management has a substantial impact on the landscape carbon balance. Models can be used to simulate scenarios in human-natural systems and to examine the integration of processes that determine future trajectories of carbon balance. However, most models of human-natural systems include little integration of the human alteration of vegetation with the ecosystem processes that regulate carbon balance. Here we illustrate a few case studies of pilot-study models that strive for this integration from our research across various types of landscapes. We focus greater detail on a fully developed research model linked to a field study of vegetation and soils in the exurban residential landscape of Southeastern Michigan, USA. The field study characterized vegetation and soil carbon storage in 5 types of ecological zones. Field-observed carbon storage in the vegetation in these zones ranged widely, from 150 g C/m2 in turfgrass zones, to 6,000 g C/m2 in zones defined as turfgrass with sparse woody vegetation, to 16,000 g C/m2 in a zone defined as dense trees and shrubs. Use of these zones facilitated the scaling of carbon pools to the landscape, where the areal mixtures of zone types had a significant impact on landscape C storage. Use of these zones also facilitated the use of the ecosystem process model Biome-BGC to simulate C trajectories and also

  17. Urban Environment and Nature. A Methodological Proposal for Spaces’ Reconnection in an Ecosystem Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Prestamburgo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our main objective is to highlight the profound disconnect between natural and anthropic elements within urban areas, with particular reference to the morpho-functional dimensions of the urban and territorial pattern. Heterogeneity in the elements underpinning relations in urban environments, absent governing principles, predisposes to conditions of widespread dysfunction and inefficiency in the modalities of anthropic utilization of the various contexts. As a result, the functions inherent to ecological and natural networks tend to be undermined, negatively impacting the environment. To this end, this paper proposes the adoption of ecoducts, on the one hand as a means to support planning and a measure aimed at reactivating the complex functions typical of urban environments and, on the other hand, as a two-way correlation between anthropic and ecological interactions at the territorial scale. Finally, the analysis of an Italian case study will highlight the potential of such instruments in terms of creating an integrated eco-systemic service, capable of significantly contributing to long-term improvement in the quality of life of urban systems.

  18. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics branch--interdisciplinary research for addressing complex natural resource issues across landscapes and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Wilson, Juliette T.

    2013-01-01

    The Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center offers an interdisciplinary team of talented and creative scientists with expertise in biology, botany, ecology, geology, biogeochemistry, physical sciences, geographic information systems, and remote-sensing, for tackling complex questions about natural resources. As demand for natural resources increases, the issues facing natural resource managers, planners, policy makers, industry, and private landowners are increasing in spatial and temporal scope, often involving entire regions, multiple jurisdictions, and long timeframes. Needs for addressing these issues include (1) a better understanding of biotic and abiotic ecosystem components and their complex interactions; (2) the ability to easily monitor, assess, and visualize the spatially complex movements of animals, plants, water, and elements across highly variable landscapes; and (3) the techniques for accurately predicting both immediate and long-term responses of system components to natural and human-caused change. The overall objectives of our research are to provide the knowledge, tools, and techniques needed by the U.S. Department of the Interior, state agencies, and other stakeholders in their endeavors to meet the demand for natural resources while conserving biodiversity and ecosystem services. Ecosystem Dynamics scientists use field and laboratory research, data assimilation, and ecological modeling to understand ecosystem patterns, trends, and mechanistic processes. This information is used to predict the outcomes of changes imposed on species, habitats, landscapes, and climate across spatiotemporal scales. The products we develop include conceptual models to illustrate system structure and processes; regional baseline and integrated assessments; predictive spatial and mathematical models; literature syntheses; and frameworks or protocols for improved ecosystem monitoring, adaptive management, and program evaluation. The descriptions

  19. Natural capital and ecosystem services for sustainable livelihoods in Costa Vicentina, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Antunes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The OpenNESS project, funded by EC FP7, aims to translate the concepts of Natural Capital (NC and Ecosystem Services (ES into operational frameworks that provide tested, practical and tailored solutions for integrating ES into land, water and urban management and decision-making, while promoting local stakeholders well-being. Central to the project is a multi-scale case study approach, designed to ground concepts and theories on real world observations and analysis. This paper presents one of the project case studies, located in the Portuguese southwest coast – Costa Vicentina. This case study is focused on the use of NC and ES concepts to design instruments for sustainable management of living resources (algae, shellfish and fish and to promote a sustainable nature-based tourism. The research aims to (1 identify the linkages between marine natural capital stocks (e.g. bottom algae, shellfish populations,... with ES provision; (2 explore the perceptions and importance of ES to local stakeholders’ wellbeing and their economic value; and (3 evaluate the use of ES in land-use planning and conservation, and the potential of different policy instruments and governance arrangements to ensure the delivery of ES and to promote local stakeholders well-being. The combination of methods such as ES mapping, monetary and non-monetary valuation of ES, and system dynamics modelling, will ultimately be used to inform and support decision makers and policy instruments design. The research is rooted on a participatory process involving the main stakeholder groups, thus fostering dialogue and social learning.

  20. Joint Slovak-Ukraine-Germany Beech Ecosystems as the World Natural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vološčuk Ivan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The European beech Fagus sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica L. is exclusively found in Europe. The beech survived the ice age in small refuges in the south and south-east Europe and went on to colonise large parts of the continent. The post-ice age colonisation of the landscape by the beech took place parallel to the settlement of land by humans and the formation of a more complex society. For centuries much of the Carpathian mountain forests remained untouched (Fig. 1. Virgin forests constitute a natural heritage of global significance. In 2007, 10 protected areas with the Primeval Beech Forests of Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. On 25 June 2011, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee added five of Germany’s beech forest protected areas to the World Heritage List. This extended the transboundary world natural heritage site ‘Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathians’, located in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine, to include a German forest protected areas, and renamed it ‘Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Ancient Beech Forests of Germany’. This paper is aimed at the presentation of the outstanding universal value of the ecological processes in the Joint World Heritage Sites, short description of protected areas and principles of their integrated management plan. This paper also deals with problems in management plan realisation in practice. Ultimate goal is to achieve that management and socio-economic sustainable development practices are in harmony with primary objectives of World Heritage Site protection, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape stability, rational use of natural resources, ecotourism development and with potential of the landscape in largest possible extend.

  1. Natural ecosystem mimicry in traditional dryland agroecosystems: Insights from an empirical and holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Julien; Michon, Geneviève; Carrière, Stéphanie M

    2017-12-15

    While the aim of Ecological Intensification is to enable the design of more sustainable and productive agricultural systems, it is not suited to dryland agroecosystems that are driven by non-equilibrium dynamics and intrinsic variability. Instead, a model based on mobility and variability management has been proposed for these agroecosystems. However, this model remains under-applied in southern Morocco where there have been few studies on the functioning of traditional agroecosystems. This paper focuses on an agroecosystem in the Moroccan Saharan fringe zone that combines agriculture and pastoralism in an acacia parkland. A grounded theory approach was used over a three-year investigation period (i) to highlight how agro-pastoral activities interface with environmental variability, and (ii) to analyze the formal and informal institutions that support these activities. Results show that farmers interface with rainfall variability through (i) an opportunistic agricultural calendar, (ii) a variation of cultivated areas, and (iii) crop diversification. Herders combine macro-mobility (nomads move over long distances to track rainfall) and micro-mobility (nomadic and sedentary herds are driven on a daily basis around settlements) to optimize the exploitation of ecological heterogeneity. During droughts, they also resort to State-subsidized forage supplies. Both cultivation and pastoral activities tend to interface with ecological dynamics and to mimic nature, resulting in a human-modified parkland that could be considered as a 'green agroecosystem'. The sustainability of natural resource use relies on flexible property rights, backed up by a social and cultural norm-based regulation system, that allow crop-livestock integration and landscape collective management. Despite encouraging results, the agroecosystem appears to be threatened by current agricultural policies, rural exodus and the lack of social recognition of nomadism. Nevertheless, because ecosystem mimicry of

  2. The Importance of Ecology-Based Nature Education Project in Terms of Nature Integration and Understanding the Human-Ecosystem Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meydan, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to define the importance of 12-day ecology-based education training upon integration with nature and understanding the human-ecosystem relationship. In accordance with this purpose, there has been collected some survey data interviewing with the participants of "Lake Beysehir National Park and Ecology-based Nature…

  3. Soil "ecosystem" services and natural capital: Critical appraisal of research on uncertain ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Baveye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, considerable attention has been devoted in the scientific literature and in the media to the concept of ecosystem services of soils. The monetary valuation of these services, demanded by many governments and international agencies, is often depicted as a necessary condition for the preservation of the natural capital that soils represent. This focus on soil services is framed in the context of a general interest in ecosystem services that allegedly started in 1997, and took off in earnest after 2005. The careful analysis of the literature proposed in this article shows that, in fact, interest in the multifunctionality of soils emerged already in the mid-60s, at a time when hundreds of researchers worldwide were trying, and largely failing, to figure out how to put price tags meaningfully on nature's services. Soil scientists, since, have tried to better understand various functions/services of soils, as well as their possible relation with key soil characteristics, like biodiversity. They have also tried to make progress on the challenging quantification of soil functions/services. However, researchers have shown very little interest in monetary valuation, undoubtedly in part because it is not clear what economic and financial markets might do with prices of soil functions/services, even if we could somehow come up with such numbers, and because there is no assurance at all, based on neoclassical economic theory, that markets would manage soil resources optimally. Instead of monetary valuation, focus in the literature has been put on decision-making methods, like Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA and Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN, which do not require the systematic monetization of soil functions/services and easily accommodate deliberative approaches involving a variety of stakeholders. A prerequisite to progress in such public deliberations is that participants be very cognizant of the extreme relevance of soils

  4. Modeling aesthetics to support an ecosystem services approach for natural resource management decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Pieter N; Law, Sheryl A; Ma, Jane; Buonagurio, John; Boyd, James; Turnley, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    This paper reviews literature on aesthetics and describes the development of vista and landscape aesthetics models. Spatially explicit variables were chosen to represent physical characteristics of natural landscapes that are important to aesthetic preferences. A vista aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetics of natural landscapes viewed from distances of more than 1000 m, and a landscape aesthetics model evaluates the aesthetic value of wetlands and forests within 1000 m from the viewer. Each of the model variables is quantified using spatially explicit metrics on a pixel-specific basis within EcoAIM™, a geographic information system (GIS)-based ecosystem services (ES) decision analysis support tool. Pixel values are "binned" into ranked categories, and weights are assigned to select variables to represent stakeholder preferences. The final aesthetic score is the weighted sum of all variables and is assigned ranked values from 1 to 10. Ranked aesthetic values are displayed on maps by patch type and integrated within EcoAIM. The response of the aesthetic scoring in the models was tested by comparing current conditions in a discrete area of the facility with a Development scenario in the same area. The Development scenario consisted of two 6-story buildings and a trail replacing natural areas. The results of the vista aesthetic model indicate that the viewshed area variable had the greatest effect on the aesthetics overall score. Results from the landscape aesthetics model indicate a 10% increase in overall aesthetics value, attributed to the increase in landscape diversity. The models are sensitive to the weights assigned to certain variables by the user, and these weights should be set to reflect regional landscape characteristics as well as stakeholder preferences. This demonstration project shows that natural landscape aesthetics can be evaluated as part of a nonmonetary assessment of ES, and a scenario-building exercise provides end users with a tradeoff

  5. IUFRO Fourth Meeting of Working Party 7.02.09, Phytophthoras in Forest and Natural Ecosystems: Meeting Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Frankel

    2009-01-01

    On behalf of the Fourth Phytophthoras in Forest and Natural Ecosystems local organizing committee and co-chairs Everett Hansen, Clive Brasier, and Giles Hardy, I thank you for your contributions to this Working Party meeting. The past week has stimulated much thought and discussion, thanks to the 100 participants from 15 countries, 48 papers and 31 posters, two field...

  6. Integration of Field Studies and Undergraduate Research into an Interdisciplinary Course: Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eves, Robert L.; Davis, Larry E.; Brown, D. Gordon; Lamberts, William L.

    2007-01-01

    According to Carl Sagan (1987), "Science is a way of thinking much more than it is a body of knowledge." Field studies and undergraduate research provide students with the best opportunities for "thinking" about science, while at the same time acquiring a body of knowledge. Natural History of Tropical Carbonate Ecosystems is a…

  7. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Samad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gas (LNG processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.

  8. Experimental and theoretical study of microalgal competition in laboratory and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisman, T. I.; Somova, L. A.

    An important aspect of studying mixed cultures of microalgae is the artificial ecosystems containing algal culture as a regeneration link and a source of vegetable substances. The peculiarities of studying the stability of microalgae mixed cultures in the laboratory and natural environment have been considered in the work. The role of factors most essentially affecting the species structure of phytoplankton community (temperature factor, light intensity, pH environments, elements of mineral nutrition, algal metabolites, predation and fluctuation of environmental conditions) has been displayed. As a result of experimental and theoretical modelling of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus quadricauda competition under limitation on nitrogen, the impossibility of their co-existence has been revealed. Under these conditions Chl. vulgaris turned out to be less competitive than Sc. quadricauda. The influence of the ratio of biogenic elements concentration in the environment, which should be recognized as an independent regulatory factor limiting growth of populations in the community and, thus affecting its structure, has been analyzed.

  9. Bioindication in natural-like aquatic ecosystems: endocrine disruptors in outdoor microcosms. Status-report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, K.W.; Severin, G.F.

    2002-07-01

    Over the past few decades scientists have shown that the hormone system of a wide range of organisms can be affected by numerous environmental chemicals. Society strongly demands studies about the fate and effects of such endocrine disruptors on the aquatic environment. It has been scientifically accepted that risk assessment studies done in aquatic microcosms can be used to extrapolate the potential impact of the tested compound on natural ecosystems. Realistic exposure situations were simulated and screening methods as well as analytical methods with high accuracy were applied on water and sediment. For the comprehensive risk assessment as many trophic levels as possible have to be investigated. Changes in the population dynamics and the community structure serve as ecotoxicological endpoints. Modelling the concentrations of the chemicals in the different aquatic compartments complements and confirms the analytical diagnostics. A directed design of the analytical procedures according to amount of sample and limits of determination becomes possible. Bridging acute and chronic time scales in effect diagnostics the 'area under the curve' - approach has been followed in combination with multivariate statistics. Haber's rule have been applied to the results about complex effect- and exposure-conditions. In some cases the interpretation of results becomes more easy and clear by this approach. (orig.)

  10. Does using the ecosystem services concept provoke the risk of assigning virtual prices instead of real values to nature? Some reflections on the benefit of ecosystem services for planning and policy consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fürst Christine

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This forum article intends to discuss the question if using the ecosystem services concept in planning, management and decision-making can impair nature conservation objectives by hiding the intrinsic values of nature through overemphasizing monetary aspects in environmental assessments. The conclusion is drawn that using ecosystem services in a holistic social-ecological system understanding would help to overcome justified criticisms of a too narrow perspective on the real values of nature.

  11. Valuing Supporting Soil Ecosystem Services in Agriculture: A Natural Capital Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brady, M.V.; Hedlund, K.; Cong, R.G.; Hemerik, L.; Hotes, S.; Machado, S.; Mattson, L.; Schulz, E.; Thomsen, I.K.

    2015-01-01

    Soil biodiversity through its delivery of ecosystem functions and attendant supporting ecosystem services—benefits soil organisms generate for farmers—underpins agricultural production. Yet lack of practical methods to value the long-term effects of current farming practices results, inevitably, in

  12. Optimal control of soybean aphid in the presence of natural enemies and the implied value of their ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M

    2012-04-15

    By suppressing pest populations, natural enemies provide an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agricultural ecosystems systems and potentially mitigates producers' pest control costs. Integrating natural control services into decisions about pesticide-based control has the potential to significantly improve the economic efficiency of pesticide use, with socially desirable outcomes. Two gaps have hindered the incorporation of natural enemies into pest management decision rules: (1) insufficient knowledge of pest and predator population dynamics and (2) lack of a decision framework for the economic tradeoffs among pest control options. Using a new intra-seasonal, dynamic bioeconomic optimization model, this study assesses how predation by natural enemies contributes to profit-maximizing pest management strategies. The model is applied to the management of the invasive soybean aphid, the most significant serious insect threat to soybean production in North America. The resulting lower bound estimate of the value of natural pest control ecosystem services was estimated at $84 million for the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan and Minnesota in 2005. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Proceedings of the fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09: Phytophthoras in forests and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. Goheen; S.J. Frankel

    2009-01-01

    The fourth meeting of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO) Working Party S07.02.09, Phytophthoras in Forests and Natural Ecosystems provided a forum for current research on Phytophthora species worldwide. Seventy-eight submissions describing papers and posters on recent developments in Phytophthora diseases of trees and natural ecosystems in...

  14. Assessing atmospheric nitrogen deposition to natural and semi-natural ecosystems – experience from Danish studies using the DAMOS system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Frohn, Lise

    2013-01-01

    and ammonium (reaction products of nitrogen oxides and ammonia), but also dry deposition of other reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly nitrogen oxides in the form of gas phase nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide). In Denmark's environmental management of the sensitive terrestrial ecosystems modelling tools...... are required that account for both the local and the long-range transported contributions. This motivated development of the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS) that has been successfully applied to the assessment of atmospheric nitrogen loadings to sensitive Danish ecosystems. We present here three...... different examples of such assessments. Our results show that ecosystems located in Western Denmark (Case 1) receive the highest loads of atmospheric nitrogen depositions which generally exceed the critical load. This part of the country has the highest livestock density. In the Eastern part of the country...

  15. Natural occurring radionuclide 210Po in the components of the Black Sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazorenko, G. G.; Polikarpov, G. G.

    2006-01-01

    The interest to study of the behavior of naturally occurring radionuclide 2 10Po in marine ecosystem was caused by its main contribution to the doses of irradiation to hydrobionts. This work presents own data of 2 10Po concentrations determined in water, bottom sediments and hydrobionts of the Black Sea in 1998-2004. 2 10Po concentrations in water varied from 0.58 to 1.02 Bqxm - 3. Their range in bottom sediments from shelf zone and open part of the Black Sea was 11.5-496.5 Bqxkg - 1 dry weight with maximum in the North-West region. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in bottom sediments from the Eastern part of the Black Sea was 4.5-220 Bqxkg-1 dry weight. Concentration factors (CF) of 2 10Po in bottom sediments reached 10 4 -10 5 . 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea hydrobionts are reported and compared with published data in the same taxa. The range of 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mesozooplankton was 1.7-3.5 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight. It was 1.9-2.9 Bqxkg - 1 wet weight in the representative species of macro plankton community, namely the ctenophore Beroe ovata. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea fishes depend on their belonging to different ecological groups and decrease from pelagic species to demersal and bottom ones. 2 10Po concentrations in the Black Sea mollusks excluding small species Nana nerithea were on the highest levels determined in hydrobionts inhabiting in this region. Concentration factors of this radionuclide, estimated on a wet weight basis, reached values of 1.5x10 3 for macrophytes, 4x10 3 for total zooplankton, 10 3 -10 4 for the entire fishes, depending on their ecological groups affiliation and (3.0-6.7) x10 4 for mollusks. So, the ability of the Black Sea hydrobionts to accumulate natural radionuclide 2 10Po is comparable with that of similar species from others marine and oceanic areas

  16. Microbial Communities in the Vertical Atmosphere: Effects of Urbanization and the Natural Environment in Four North American Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, K. M.; Lemmer, K. M.; Domingue, K. D.; Spring, A.; Kerber, T. V.; Mooney, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    Airborne transport of microbial communities is a key component of the global ecosystem because it serves as a mechanism for dispersing microbial life between all surface habitats on the planet. However, most of our understanding of airborne microbial distribution is derived from samples collected near the ground. Little is understood about how the vertical layers of the air may act as a habitat filter or how local terrestrial ecosystems contribute to a vast airborne microbial seedbank. Specifically, urbanization may fundamentally alter the terrestrial sources of airborne microbial biodiversity. To address this question, we conducted airborne sampling at minimally disturbed natural sites and paired urban sites in 4 different North American ecosystems: shortgrass steppe, desert scrub, eastern deciduous forest, and northern mesic forest. All natural area sites were co-located with NEON/Ameriflux tower sites collecting atmospheric data. We developed an airborne sampling platform that uses tethered helikites at 3 replicate locations within each ecosystem to launch remote-controlled sampler payloads. We designed sampler payloads to collect airborne bacteria and fungi from 150, 30 and 2 m above the ground. Payload requirements included: ability to be disinfected and remain contaminant-free during transport, remote open/close functionality, payload weight under 6 lbs and automated collection of weather data. After sampling for 6 hours at each location, we extracted DNA collected by the samplers. We also extracted DNA from soil and plant samples collected from each location, and characterized ground vegetation. We conducted bacterial 16S amplicon-based sequencing using Mi-Seq and sequence analysis using QIIME. We used ArcGIS to determine percent land use coverage. Our results demonstrate that terrestrial ecosystem type is the most important factor contributing to differences in airborne bacterial community composition, and that communities differed by ecosystem. The

  17. Environmental water requirements of groundwater dependent ecosystems: conflict between nature and man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witczak, S.; Kania, J.; Rozanski, K.; Wachniew, P.; Zurek, A.; Dulinski, M.

    2012-04-01

    The presented study was aimed at investigating possible interactions between the porous sandy aquifer intensively exploited for drinking water purposes and the groundwater dependent ecosystem (GDE) consisting of a valuable forest stand. The investigated aquifer (Bogucice Sands) and the associated GDE (Niepolomice Forest) are located in the south of Poland. The aquifer covers the area of ca. 200 km2 and belongs to the category of medium groundwater basins in Poland. The Niepolomice Forest is a lowland forest covering around 110 km2. This relic of once vast forests is protected as a Natura 2000 Special Protection Area "Puszcza Niepolomicka" (PLB120002) that supports bird populations of European importance. Additionally, a fen in the western part of the Niepolomice Forest comprises a separate Natura 2000 area "Torfowisko Wielkie Bloto" (PLH120080), a significant habitat of endangered butterfly species associated with wet meadows. The Niepolomice Forest contains also several nature reserves and the European bison breeding centre and has an important recreational value as the largest forest complex in the vicinity of Krakow. Due to spatially variable lithologies and groundwater levels, the Niepolomice Forest is a mosaic of various forest and non-forest habitats, including wetlands, marsh forests, humid forests and fresh forests. Dependence of the Niepolomice Forest stands on groundwater is enhanced by low available water capacity and low capillary rise of soils in the area. Groundwater conditions in the Niepolomice Forest, including Wielkie Bloto fen have been affected by meliorations carried out mostly in the period 1900-1930 and after the Second World War and by forest management. Due to artesian conditions in the area and relatively thin clay layer separating Tertiary aquifer layers from shallow Quaternary aquifer, the upward leaching of deeper groundwater may contribute in a significant way to the water balance of the investigated GDE. In September 2009 a cluster of

  18. Marcellus and mercury: Assessing potential impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on aquatic ecosystems in northwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Christopher J; Weimer, Alexander B; Marks, Nicole K; Perow, Elliott S; Oster, Jacob M; Brubaker, Kristen M; Trexler, Ryan V; Solomon, Caroline M; Lamendella, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a persistent element in the environment that has the ability to bioaccumulate and biomagnify up the food chain with potentially harmful effects on ecosystems and human health. Twenty-four streams remotely located in forested watersheds in northwestern PA containing naturally reproducing Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout), were targeted to gain a better understanding of how Marcellus shale natural gas exploration may be impacting water quality, aquatic biodiversity, and Hg bioaccumulation in aquatic ecosystems. During the summer of 2012, stream water, stream bed sediments, aquatic mosses, macroinvertebrates, crayfish, brook trout, and microbial samples were collected. All streams either had experienced hydraulic fracturing (fracked, n = 14) or not yet experienced hydraulic fracturing (non-fracked, n = 10) within their watersheds at the time of sampling. Analysis of watershed characteristics (GIS) for fracked vs non-fracked sites showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), justifying comparisons between groups. Results showed significantly higher dissolved total mercury (FTHg) in stream water (P = 0.007), lower pH (P = 0.033), and higher dissolved organic matter (P = 0.001) at fracked sites. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in crayfish (P = 0.01), macroinvertebrates (P = 0.089), and predatory macroinvertebrates (P = 0.039) were observed to be higher for fracked sites. A number of positive correlations between amount of well pads within a watershed and THg in crayfish (r = 0.76, P shale natural gas exploration is having an effect on aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Characterization of a Bacillus thuringiensis strain collection isolated from diverse Costa Rican natural ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Arrieta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Costa Rican natural ecosystems are among the most diverse in the world. For this reason, we isolated strains of the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt to determine their diversity, distribution and abundance. A total of 146 Bt strains were obtained from environmental samples collected from diverse natural ecosystems and life zones of Costa Rica. We recovered Bt strains from 71%, 63%, 61% and 54% of soil samples, fresh leaves, other substrates and leaf litter respectively. Bt was isolated in 65%of the samples collected in the humid tropical forest in national parks (Braulio Carrillo, Gandoca Manzanillo, Sierpe, Hitoy Cerere, and Cahuita, and in 59% of the samples collected in the dry tropical forest (Parque Nacional Marino las Baulas, Palo Verde and Santa Rosa. In the very humid tropical forest (Tortuguero Bt was isolated in 75% of the samples and in the very humid tropical forest transition perhumid (Cararait was found in 69% of the samples. The strains exhibit a diverse number, size and morphology of parasporal inclusion bodies: irregular (47%,oval (20%, bipyramidal (3%, bipyramidal and cubic (1%, bipyramidal, oval and irregular (5% and bipyramidal, oval and cubic crystals (2%. Strains isolated from Braulio Carrillo, Tortuguero and Cahuita, presented predominantly irregular crystals. On the other hand, more than 60% of the isolates from Térraba-Sierpe and Hitoy-Cerere had medium oval crystals. Strains from Gandoca-Manzanillo, Palo Verde and Carara presented mainly combinations of oval and irregular crystals. Nevertheless, the greatest diversity in crystal morphology was observed in those from Santa Rosa, Llanos del Río Medio Queso and Parque Marino las Baulas. Protein analyses of the crystal-spore preparations showed ä -endotoxin with diverse electrophoretic patterns, with molecular weights in the range of 20 to 160 kDa. Fifty six percent of the strains amplified with the cry2 primer, 54% with vip3, 20% with cry1, 9% with

  20. Improved understanding of drought controls on seasonal variation in Mediterranean forest canopy CO2 and water fluxes through combined in situ measurements and ecosystem modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sabate

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is a defining characteristic of Mediterranean ecosystems, and is likely to become more severe in the coming decades. Simulation models are key tools for making predictions, but our current understanding of how soil moisture controls ecosystem functioning is not sufficient to adequately constrain parameterisations. Canopy-scale flux data from four forest ecosystems with Mediterranean-type climates were used in order to analyse the physiological controls on carbon and water flues through the year. Significant non-stomatal limitations on photosynthesis were detected, along with lesser changes in the conductance-assimilation relationship. New model parameterisations were derived and implemented in two contrasting modelling approaches. The effectiveness of two models, one a dynamic global vegetation model ("ORCHIDEE", and the other a forest growth model particularly developed for Mediterranean simulations ("GOTILWA+", was assessed and modelled canopy responses to seasonal changes in soil moisture were analysed in comparison with in situ flux measurements. In contrast to commonly held assumptions, we find that changing the ratio of conductance to assimilation under natural, seasonally-developing, soil moisture stress is not sufficient to reproduce forest canopy CO2 and water fluxes. However, accurate predictions of both CO2 and water fluxes under all soil moisture levels encountered in the field are obtained if photosynthetic capacity is assumed to vary with soil moisture. This new parameterisation has important consequences for simulated responses of carbon and water fluxes to seasonal soil moisture stress, and should greatly improve our ability to anticipate future impacts of climate changes on the functioning of ecosystems in Mediterranean-type climates.

  1. Evolving Ecosystems in Education: The Nature and Implications of Private Supplementary Tutoring in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark; Kobakhidze, Magda Nutsa

    2015-01-01

    An established literature draws on ecological concepts to analyze interrelationships within education structures and processes, and the impact of shifting balances. Private supplementary tutoring--relatively new in ecosystems of education around the world--is creating significant changes in relationships, particularly as they concern teachers'…

  2. Climate change adaptation and mitigation options a guide for natural resource managers in southern forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Kier D. Klepzig

    2014-01-01

    The rapid pace of climate change and its direct and indirect effects on forest ecosystems present a pressing need for better scientific understanding and the development of new science-management partnerships. Understanding the effects of stressors and disturbances (including climatic variability), and developing and testing science-based management options to deal...

  3. Soil ecology and ecosystem services of dairy and semi-natural grasslands on peat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deru, Joachim G.C.; Bloem, Jaap; Goede, de Ron; Keidel, Harm; Kloen, Henk; Rutgers, Michiel; Akker, van den Jan; Brussaard, Lijbert; Eekeren, van Nick

    2018-01-01

    Peat wetlands are of major importance for ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water regulation and maintenance of biodiversity. However, peat drainage for farming leads to CO2 emission, soil subsidence and biodiversity losses. In the peat areas in the Netherlands, solutions are sought in

  4. Integrative approaches to investigating human-natural systems: the Baltimore ecosystem study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary L. Cadenasso; Steward T.A. Pickett; Morgan J. Grove; Morgan J. Grove

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the research approaches used to study metropolitan Baltimore (Maryland, USA) as an ecological system. The urban ecosystem is a complex of biophysical, social, and built components, and is studied by an interdisciplinary teamof biological, social, and physical scientists, and urban designers. Ecology ?of? themetropolis is addressed...

  5. Embedding ecosystem services in coastal planning leads to better outcomes for people and nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkema, Katie K; Verutes, Gregory M; Wood, Spencer A; Clarke-Samuels, Chantalle; Rosado, Samir; Canto, Maritza; Rosenthal, Amy; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Guannel, Gregory; Toft, Jodie; Faries, Joe; Silver, Jessica M; Griffin, Robert; Guerry, Anne D

    2015-06-16

    Recent calls for ocean planning envision informed management of social and ecological systems to sustain delivery of ecosystem services to people. However, until now, no coastal and marine planning process has applied an ecosystem-services framework to understand how human activities affect the flow of benefits, to create scenarios, and to design a management plan. We developed models that quantify services provided by corals, mangroves, and seagrasses. We used these models within an extensive engagement process to design a national spatial plan for Belize's coastal zone. Through iteration of modeling and stakeholder engagement, we developed a preferred plan, currently under formal consideration by the Belizean government. Our results suggest that the preferred plan will lead to greater returns from coastal protection and tourism than outcomes from scenarios oriented toward achieving either conservation or development goals. The plan will also reduce impacts to coastal habitat and increase revenues from lobster fishing relative to current management. By accounting for spatial variation in the impacts of coastal and ocean activities on benefits that ecosystems provide to people, our models allowed stakeholders and policymakers to refine zones of human use. The final version of the preferred plan improved expected coastal protection by >25% and more than doubled the revenue from fishing, compared with earlier versions based on stakeholder preferences alone. Including outcomes in terms of ecosystem-service supply and value allowed for explicit consideration of multiple benefits from oceans and coasts that typically are evaluated separately in management decisions.

  6. Investigation of the factors influencing radiocesium concentrations of fish inhabiting natural aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinks, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Distributions of radioactive and stable cesium were determined in water, sediment, and biota from eight different aquatic ecosystems between 1971 and 1973. The ecosystems included four lakes, fresh and brackish water regions of the Hudson River estuary, and two coastal marine sites. In the Hudson River estuary, the distribution of radiocesium between suspended and dissolved phases in water was found to be a function of salinity. Mean rates of deposition of suspended radiocesium into bottom sediment are calculated from the temporal changes in concentrations of the media, and observed depth distributions in sediment are semi-quantitatively described. Desorption by salt water is identified as the major mechanism for transport of radiocesium from bottom sediment in the lower estuary, and half-times for removal by this mechanism are estimated to be 1.5 to 2.0 years. Suspended-dissolved distributions of radiocesium in water, and depth distributions in sediment are also presented for lake and marine systems. Accumulation of radiocesium by fish is examined in relation to radiocesium distributions in water, sediment, and other biota, and to the chemical characteristics of each ecosystem. Radiocesium dissolved in water was the primary source to the fish in all ecosystems. Sediment inventories of 137 Cs constituted a secondary source which provided as much as 50 percent of the radiocesium in benthic feeding fish in the Hudson River. Dietary intake of 137 Cs is shown to be inversely related to the potassium concentration in the ambient water, and results in an inverse proportionality between the concentration factor in fish and the potassium concentrations in the different freshwater and estuarine ecosystems

  7. Towards Integrating Soil Quality Monitoring Targets as Measures of Soil Natural Capital Stocks with the Provision of Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. D.; Mackay, A. D.; Dominati, E.; Hill, R. B.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents the process used to review soil quality monitoring in New Zealand to better align indicators and indicator target ranges with critical values of change in soil function. Since its inception in New Zealand 15 year ago, soil quality monitoring has become an important state of the environment reporting tool for Regional Councils. This tool assists councils to track the condition of soils resources, assess the impact of different land management practices, and provide timely warning of emerging issues to allow early intervention and avoid irreversible loss of natural capital stocks. Critical to the effectiveness of soil quality monitoring is setting relevant, validated thresholds or target ranges. Provisional Target Ranges were set in 2003 using expert knowledge available and data on production responses. Little information was available at that time for setting targets for soil natural capital stocks other than those for food production. The intention was to revise these provisional ranges as further information became available and extend target ranges to cover the regulating and cultural services provided by soils. A recently developed ecosystems service framework was used to explore the feasibility of linking soil natural capital stocks measured by the current suite of soil quality indicators to the provision of ecosystem services by soils. Importantly the new approach builds on and utilises the time series data sets collected by current suite of soil quality indicators, adding value to the current effort, and has the potential to set targets ranges based on the economic and environmental outcomes required for a given farm, catchment or region. It is now timely to develop a further group of environmental indicators for measuring specific soil issues. As with the soil quality indicators, these environmental indicators would be aligned with the provision of ecosystem services. The toolbox envisaged is a set of indicators for specific soil issues

  8. Are all intertidal wetlands naturally created equal? Bottlenecks, thresholds and knowledge gaps to mangrove and saltmarsh ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, Daniel A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Horstman, Erik M.; Balke, Thorsten; Bouma, Tjeerd J.; Galli, Demis; Webb, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Intertidal wetlands such as saltmarshes and mangroves provide numerous important ecological functions, though they are in rapid and global decline. To better conserve and restore these wetland ecosystems, we need an understanding of the fundamental natural bottlenecks and thresholds to their establishment and long-term ecological maintenance. Despite inhabiting similar intertidal positions, the biological traits of these systems differ markedly in structure, phenology, life history, phylogeny and dispersal, suggesting large differences in biophysical interactions. By providing the first systematic comparison between saltmarshes and mangroves, we unravel how the interplay between species-specific life-history traits, biophysical interactions and biogeomorphological feedback processes determine where, when and what wetland can establish, the thresholds to long-term ecosystem stability, and constraints to genetic connectivity between intertidal wetland populations at the landscape level. To understand these process interactions, research into the constraints to wetland development, and biological adaptations to overcome these critical bottlenecks and thresholds requires a truly interdisciplinary approach.

  9. A Global-Scale Estimate of Ecosystem Services from Urban Agriculture: Understanding Incentives for Natural Capital in Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, N.; Stuhlmacher, M.; Miles, A.; Uludere, N.; Wagner, M.; Georgescu, M.; Herwig, C.; Gong, P.

    2017-12-01

    Despite substantial interest in urban agriculture, little is known about the aggregate benefits conferred by natural capital for growing food in cities. Here we perform a scenario-based analysis to quantify ecosystem services from adoption of urban agriculture at varying intensity. To drive the scenarios, we created global-scale estimates of vacant land, rooftop and building surface area, at one kilometer resolution, from remotely sensed and modeled geospatial data. We used national scale agricultural reports, climate and other geospatial data at global scale to estimate agricultural production and economic returns, storm-water avoidance, energy savings from avoided heating and cooling costs, and ecosystem services provided by nitrogen sequestration, pollination and biocontrol of pests. The results indicate that vacant lands, followed by rooftops, represent the largest opportunities for natural capital put to agricultural use in urban areas. Ecosystem services from putting such spaces to productive use are dominated by agricultural returns, but energy savings conferred by insulative characteristics of growth substrate also provide economic incentives. Storm water avoidance was estimated to be substantial, but no economic value was estimated. Relatively low economic returns were estimated from the other ecosystem services examined. In aggregate, approximately $10-100 billion in economic incentives, before costs, were estimated. The results showed that relatively developed, high-income countries stand the most to gain from urban agricultural adoption due to the unique combination of climate, crop mixture and crop prices. While the results indicate that urban agriculture is not a panacea for urban food security issues, there is potential to simultaneously ameliorate multiple issues around food, energy and water in urbanized areas.

  10. Changes in Nature's Balance Sheet: Model-based Estimates of Future Worldwide Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Alcamo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four quantitative scenarios are presented that describe changes in worldwide ecosystem services up to 2050-2100. A set of soft-linked global models of human demography, economic development, climate, and biospheric processes are used to quantify these scenarios. The global demand for ecosystem services substantially increases up to 2050: cereal consumption by a factor of 1.5 to 1.7, fish consumption (up to the 2020s by a factor of 1.3 to 1.4, water withdrawals by a factor of 1.3 to 2.0, and biofuel production by a factor of 5.1 to 11.3. The ranges for these estimates reflect differences between the socio-economic assumptions of the scenarios. In all simulations, Sub-Saharan Africa continues to lag behind other parts of the world. Although the demand side of these scenarios presents an overall optimistic view of the future, the supply side is less optimistic: the risk of higher soil erosion (especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and lower water availability (especially in the Middle East could slow down an increase in food production. Meanwhile, increasing wastewater discharges during the same period, especially in Latin America (factor of 2 to 4 and Sub-Saharan Africa (factor of 3.6 to 5.6 could interfere with the delivery of freshwater services. Marine fisheries (despite the growth of aquaculture may not have the ecological capacity to provide for the increased global demand for fish. Our simulations also show an intensification of present tradeoffs between ecosystem services, e.g., expansion of agricultural land (between 2000 and 2050 may be one of the main causes of a 10%-20% loss of total current grassland and forest land and the ecosystem services associated with this land (e.g., genetic resources, wood production, habitat for terrestrial biota and fauna. The scenarios also show that certain hot-spot regions may experience especially rapid changes in ecosystem services: the central part of Africa, southern Asia, and the Middle East. In general

  11. Fine-scale mapping of High Nature Value farmlands: novel approaches to improve the management of rural biodiversity and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho-Santos, C.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Alonso, J.; Honrado, J.

    2010-01-01

    High Nature Value farmlands (HNVf) are defined as rural lands characterized by high levels of biodiversity and extensive farming practices. These farmlands are also known to provide important ecosystems services, such as food production, pollination, water purification and landscape recreation.

  12. Microbes in the Anthropocene: spillover of agriculturally selected bacteria and their impact on natural ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2016-12-14

    Soil microbial communities are enormously diverse, with at least millions of species and trillions of genes unknown to science or poorly described. Soil microbial communities are key components of agriculture, for example, in provisioning nitrogen and protecting crops from pathogens, providing overall ecosystem services in excess of $1000bn per year. It is important to know how humans are affecting this hidden diversity. Much is known about the negative consequences of agricultural intensification on higher organisms, but almost nothing is known about how alterations to landscapes affect microbial diversity, distributions and processes. We review what is known about spatial flows of microbes and their response to land-use change, and outline nine hypotheses to advance research of microbiomes across landscapes. We hypothesize that intensified agriculture selects for certain taxa and genes, which then 'spill over' into adjacent unmodified areas and generate a halo of genetic differentiation around agricultural fields. Consequently, the spatial configuration and management intensity of different habitats combines with the dispersal ability of individual taxa to determine the extent of spillover, which can impact the functioning of adjacent unmodified habitats. When landscapes are heterogeneous and dispersal rates are high, this will select for large genomes that allow exploitation of multiple habitats, a process that may be accelerated through horizontal gene transfer. Continued expansion of agriculture will increase genotypic similarity, making microbial community functioning increasingly variable in human-dominated landscapes, potentially also impacting the consistent provisioning of ecosystem services. While the resulting economic costs have not been calculated, it is clear that dispersal dynamics of microbes should be taken into consideration to ensure that ecosystem functioning and services are maintained in agri-ecosystem mosaics. © 2016 The Authors.

  13. Atmospheric Emissions, Depositions, and Transformations of Arsenic in Natural Ecosystem in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun B. Mukherjee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For the last 2 decades, special attention has been paid to arsenic due to its high concentration in groundwater in many regions of the globe. There are not very many reports on arsenic concentration in the Finnish ecosystem, although the metal has been known to be highly toxic since ancient times. For the majority of people in Finland, the leading exposure route to arsenic is through food consumption.

  14. Management of the natural ecosystems of the Cape Peninsula: current status and the future prospects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available of these include scenic drives, visits to special sites of interest (such as Cape Point, by road, or the top of Table Mountain, by cablecar), picnicking and hiking. These activities are catered Management of ecosystems 673 for through... the provision of hiking trails and picnic sites, and are regulated through the prohibition of barbecue fires at certain times of the year. Small indigenous forest patches occur in areas such as Orange Kloof and Newlands...

  15. Microbes in the Anthropocene: spillover of agriculturally selected bacteria and their impact on natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are enormously diverse, with at least millions of species and trillions of genes unknown to science or poorly described. Soil microbial communities are key components of agriculture, for example, in provisioning nitrogen and protecting crops from pathogens, providing overall ecosystem services in excess of $1000bn per year. It is important to know how humans are affecting this hidden diversity. Much is known about the negative consequences of agricultural intensification on higher organisms, but almost nothing is known about how alterations to landscapes affect microbial diversity, distributions and processes. We review what is known about spatial flows of microbes and their response to land-use change, and outline nine hypotheses to advance research of microbiomes across landscapes. We hypothesize that intensified agriculture selects for certain taxa and genes, which then ‘spill over’ into adjacent unmodified areas and generate a halo of genetic differentiation around agricultural fields. Consequently, the spatial configuration and management intensity of different habitats combines with the dispersal ability of individual taxa to determine the extent of spillover, which can impact the functioning of adjacent unmodified habitats. When landscapes are heterogeneous and dispersal rates are high, this will select for large genomes that allow exploitation of multiple habitats, a process that may be accelerated through horizontal gene transfer. Continued expansion of agriculture will increase genotypic similarity, making microbial community functioning increasingly variable in human-dominated landscapes, potentially also impacting the consistent provisioning of ecosystem services. While the resulting economic costs have not been calculated, it is clear that dispersal dynamics of microbes should be taken into consideration to ensure that ecosystem functioning and services are maintained in agri-ecosystem mosaics. PMID:27928044

  16. A study on distribution of natural radionuclide polonium-210 in a pond ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahul Hameed, P.; Shaheed, K.; Somasundaram, S.S.N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation on the distribution of 210 Po in Mutharasanallur pond ecosystem. It has been demonstrated that 210 Po is non-uniformly distributed within the ecosystem. The results of the study show a dissolved 210 Po concentration in pond water of 1.4mBql -1 . The sediment sample recorded a 210 Po activity of 59.9 Bqkg -1 . The aquatic organism showed differential accumulation of the radionuclide with enhanced bioaccumulation in soft tissues and muscle. The 210 Po activity in the biota fell within the range of 1.2-53.3 Bqkg -1 (wet weight). The bivalve mussel, Lamellidens marginalis was identified to accumulate higher concentration of 210 Po in soft tissues, suggesting that these organisms could serve as a bio-monitor of 210 Po radionuclide in a freshwater system. The concentration factors of 210 Po for the biotic components ranged from ∼ 10 2 - ∼ 10 4 . Analyses of the results indicate that prawn and fish represent an important source of supply of 210 Po to humans via dietary intake. Results of 210 Po activity in the abiotic and biotic components of the pond ecosystem were higher when compared with those of Cauvery river system, the primary water source of the pond. (author)

  17. Persistent natural acidification drives major distribution shifts in marine benthic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, C.; Vidal, M.; Canals, M.; Kersting, D. K.; Amblas, D.; Aspillaga, E.; Cebrián, E.; Delgado-Huertas, A.; Díaz, D.; Garrabou, J.; Hereu, B.; Navarro, L.; Teixidó, N.; Ballesteros, E.

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification is receiving increasing attention because of its potential to affect marine ecosystems. Rare CO2 vents offer a unique opportunity to investigate the response of benthic ecosystems to acidification. However, the benthic habitats investigated so far are mainly found at very shallow water (less than or equal to 5 m depth) and therefore are not representative of the broad range of continental shelf habitats. Here, we show that a decrease from pH 8.1 to 7.9 observed in a CO2 vent system at 40 m depth leads to a dramatic shift in highly diverse and structurally complex habitats. Forests of the kelp Laminaria rodriguezii usually found at larger depths (greater than 65 m) replace the otherwise dominant habitats (i.e. coralligenous outcrops and rhodolith beds), which are mainly characterized by calcifying organisms. Only the aragonite-calcifying algae are able to survive in acidified waters, while high-magnesium-calcite organisms are almost completely absent. Although a long-term survey of the venting area would be necessary to fully understand the effects of the variability of pH and other carbonate parameters over the structure and functioning of the investigated mesophotic habitats, our results suggest that in addition of significant changes at species level, moderate ocean acidification may entail major shifts in the distribution and dominance of key benthic ecosystems at regional scale, which could have broad ecological and socio-economic implications. PMID:26511045

  18. Mediterranean-type diet and brain structural change from 73 to 76 years in a Scottish cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Janie; Cox, Simon R.; Valdés Hernández, Maria C.; Craig, Leone C.A.; Dickie, David Alexander; Karama, Sherif; McNeill, Geraldine M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association between Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) and change in brain MRI volumetric measures and mean cortical thickness across a 3-year period in older age (73–76 years). Methods: We focused on 2 longitudinal brain volumes (total and gray matter; n = 401 and 398, respectively) plus a longitudinal measurement of cortical thickness (n = 323), for which the previous cross-sectional evidence of an association with the MeDi was strongest. Adherence to the MeDi was calculated from data gathered from a food frequency questionnaire at age 70, 3 years prior to the baseline imaging data collection. Results: In regression models adjusting for relevant demographic and physical health indicators, we found that lower adherence to the MeDi was associated with greater 3-year reduction in total brain volume (explaining 0.5% of variance, p Scottish cohort is predictive of total brain atrophy over a 3-year interval. Fish and meat consumption does not drive this change, suggesting that other components of the MeDi or, possibly, all of its components in combination are responsible for the association. PMID:28053008

  19. Nature of radioactive contamination of components of ecosystems of streamflows from tunnels of Degelen massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panitskiy, A.V.; Lukashenko, S.N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper provides data on environmental contamination due to radionuclides' migration with water. As a result of investigations there was obtained data on character of contamination of soil cover, surface water and underflow from tunnels of Degelen massif. Character of radionuclides' spatial distribution in environment was also shown. Mobility ranges of radionuclides' vertical and horizontal movements have been established in soils both across and along the stream flow. There was also shown a possibility to forecast radionuclides' concentration in soil by specific activity of these radionuclides in water. Different concentrations of radionuclides in associated components of the ecosystem (surface waters – ground waters – soils) have shown disequilibrium of their condition in this system. Generalization of investigation results for tunnel water streams' with water inflows, chosen as investigation objects in this work, allows to forecast radionuclides' behavior in meadow soils and other ecosystems of water streams from tunnels of Degelen test site. Based on analysis of curves, describing radionuclides' behavior in horizontal direction, we can forecast, that at this stage 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu would not be distributed more than 1.5 km from the access to the daylight surface, 90 Sr – not more than 2 km. - Highlights: • Contamination of soil cover, surface water and groundwater from tunnels of Degelen nuclear test area. • Radionuclides in associated components of the ecosystem showed disequilibrium. • Forecast that 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu will not be distributed more than 1.5 km from tunnel exits. • Forecast that 90 Sr will not be distributed more than 2 km

  20. The organic nature and atmosphere-climate dependency of nitrogen loss from forest watershed ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Brookshire, E. N. J.

    2006-01-01

    In this dissertation I describe how coupled internal cycling and external forcing from the atmosphere and climate can regulate the dynamics of nitrogen (N) loss from forest watersheds. I address three major gaps in our understanding of the global N cycle: 1) the role of dissolved organic N (DON) in internal N cycling in low-N ecosystems; 2) The influence of atmospheric pollution on DON production and loss from forests; and 3) the inherent climate sensitivity of forest N cycling and loss. In...

  1. Understanding the nature of methane emission from rice ecosystems as basis of mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buendia, L.V.; Neue, H.U.; Wassmann, R. [International Rice Research Institute, Laguna (Philippines)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Methane is considered as an important Greenhouse gas and rice fields are one of the major atmospheric methane sources. The paper aims to develop sampling strategies and formulate mitigation options based on diel (day and night) and seasonal pattern of methane emission. The study was conducted in 4 countries to measure methane flux using an automatic closed chamber system. A 24-hour bihourly methane emissions were continuously obtained during the whole growing season. Daily and seasonal pattern of methane fluxes from different rice ecosystems were evaluated. Diel pattern of methane emission from irrigated rice fields, in all sites, displayed similar pattern from planting to flowering. Fluxes at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h were important components of the total diel flux. A proposed sampling frequency to accurately estimate methane emission within the growing season was designed based on the magnitude of daily flux variation. Total methane emission from different ecosystems follow the order: deepwater rice > irrigated rice > rainfed rice. Application of pig manure increased total emission by 10 times of that without manure. Green manure application increased emission by 49% of that applied only with inorganic fertilizer. Removal of floodwater at 10 DAP and 35 DAP, within a period of 4 days, inhibited production and emission of methane. The level of variation in daily methane emission and seasonal emission pattern provides useful information for accurate determination of methane fluxes. Characterization of seasonal emission pattern as to ecologies, fertilizer amendments, and water management gives an idea of where to focus mitigation strategies for sustainable rice production.

  2. Structural Complexity and Ecosystem Functions in a Natural Mixed Forest under a Single-Tree Selection Silviculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiya Yoshida

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of forest management has become broader, and it is essential to harmonize timber production with conservation of the forest ecosystem. Selection cutting is recognized as a major alternative of clear-cutting, because it can maintain the complexity and heterogeneity of a natural forest; however, its long-term evaluations are limited. This study compared various attributes of stand structures, which are indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem carbon stock between managed and unmanaged blocks (12.6 ha area in total in a natural mixed forest in Hokkaido, the northernmost island of Japan. We found that 30 years’ implementation of single-tree selection did not affect the volume, size structure, species diversity nor spatial distribution of overstory trees in the managed stands. Also, the total carbon stock in the managed stands was almost equal to that of the unmanaged stands. In contrast, several structural attributes and indicator elements that are significant for biodiversity (such as large-diameter live trees, dead trees, cavities, epiphytic bryophytes, and some avian guilds showed marked decrease in the managed stands. We conclude that it is required to leave these structures and elements to some extent for deriving the merit of the management as an alternative silvicultural regime in the region.

  3. Fire Process Research Natural Areas: Managing research and restoration of dynamic ecosystem processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee

    2001-01-01

    Since 1992 a collaborative group of fire scientists, forest conservationists, and Federal resource specialists have been developing proposals for a Research Natural Area (RNA) in the Warner Creek Fire area on the Willamette National Forest in Oregon. Inspired by these proposals, the Oregon Natural Heritage Plan created the new category of "Fire Process RNAs"...

  4. Biomass yielding potential of naturally regenerated Prosopis juliflora tree stands at three varied ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraswathi, K; Chandrasekaran, S

    2016-05-01

    Fuel energy demand is of great concern in recent times due to the depletion of fossil fuel resources. Biomass serves as widely available primary renewable energy source. Hence, a study was performed to assess the above-ground biomass yielding capability of fuel wood tree Prosopis juliflora in three varied ecosystems viz., coastal, fallow land and riparian ecosystems in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The results showed that the biomass production potential and above-ground net primary productivity of P. juliflora depend on the age of the tree stands and the nature of ecosystem. A higher biomass yield was observed for P. juliflora trees with 5 to 10 years old when compared to less than 5 years of their age. Among the three ecosystems, the maximum biomass production was recorded in riparian ecosystem. The stands with less than 5-year-old P. juliflora trees gave 1.40 t/ha, and 5- to 10-year-old tree stands produced 27.69 t/ha in riparian ecosystem. Above-ground net primary productivity of both the age groups was high in fallow land ecosystem. In riparian ecosystem, the wood showed high density and low sulphur content than the other two ecosystems. Hence, P. juliflora biomass can serve as an environmentally and economically feasible fuel as well as their utilization proffers an effective means to control its invasiveness.

  5. Implementing an EU system of accounting for ecosystems and their services. Initial proposals for the implementation of ecosystem services accounts (Report under phase 2 of the knowledge innovation project on an integrated system of natural capital and ecosystem services accounting in the EU)

    OpenAIRE

    LA NOTTE ALESSANDRA; VALLECILLO RODRIGUEZ SARA; POLCE CHIARA; ZULIAN GRAZIA; MAES JOACHIM

    2017-01-01

    The Knowledge Innovation Project on an Integrated system of Natural Capital and ecosystem services Accounting (KIP INCA) aims to work in line with the UN System of Environmental-Economic Accounting- Experimental Ecosystem Accounts (SEEA EEA) and also to propose how the approaches to accounting can be further developed based on experience in the EU. The Technical Recommendations of SEEA EEA make proposals on how to develop accounting tables of ecosystem extent, asset, condition and service sup...

  6. A Mediterranean-type diet is associated with better metabolic profile in urban Polish adults: Results from the HAPIEE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Stepaniak, Urszula; Micek, Agnieszka; Topor-Mądry, Roman; Stefler, Denes; Szafraniec, Krystyna; Bobak, Martin; Pająk, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in the Polish arm of the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) cohort study. Materials/methods A cross-sectional survey including 8821 adults was conducted in Krakow, Poland. Food intake was evaluated through a validated food frequency questionnaire and adherence to the dietary pattern was assessed using a score specifically developed for non-Mediterranean countries (MedTypeDiet score). Linear and logistic regression models were performed to estimate beta and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), respectively. Results Significant associations between the MedTypeDiet score and waist circumference (β = − 0.307 ± 0.239 cm), systolic blood pressure (β = − 0.440 ± 0.428 mmHg), and triglycerides (β = − 0.021 ± 0.016 mmol/L) were observed. After multivariable adjustment, individuals in the highest quartile of the score were less likely to have MetS, central obesity, high triglycerides, and hypertension. Increase of one standard deviation of the score was associated with 7% less odds of having MetS (OR 0.93, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97). When analyzing the relation of single components of the MedTypeDiet score, wine, dairy products, and the total unsaturated:saturated fatty acids ratio were associated with MetS. Conclusions Adherence to a Mediterranean-like diet may decrease the risk of MetS also among non-Mediterranean populations. PMID:25752843

  7. Determination of the natural Uranium in the ecosystems around the site of INR-Pitesti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horhoianu, V.; Todoran, A.; Valeca, M.; Hirica, O.

    2002-01-01

    Natural radioactivity, a basic component of the environment, is determined by the presence in soil, atmosphere, water, vegetation, live elements and humans of radioactive matter of terrestrial origin, naturally existing from the very beginning. To all these, extra-terrestrial cosmic radiation must be added. Human exposure to terrestrial radiation is due to radionuclides present in the earth crust or to those transferred from atmosphere or hydrosphere. An abundance of radionuclides present in the crust are radioactive. Their lifetime is shorter or equal to the estimated age of the earth crust and, consequently, they are presumed to represent a primordial inventory. Uranium and thorium in natural state decay in three different series, the first ones being the radionuclides 2 38U , 2 35U and 2 32T h. The population exposure to radiation must take into account both natural and artificial radiation

  8. Sustaining Economic Exploitation of Complex Ecosystems in Computational Models of Coupled Human-Natural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Neo D.; Tonin, Perrine; Bauer, Barbara; Rael, Rosalyn C.; Singh, Rahul; Yoon, Sangyuk; Yoon, Ilmi; Dunne, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding ecological complexity has stymied scientists for decades. Recent elucidation of the famously coined "devious strategies for stability in enduring natural systems" has opened up a new field of computational analyses of complex ecological networks where the nonlinear dynamics of many interacting species can be more realistically mod-eled and understood. Here, we describe the first extension of this field to include coupled human-natural systems. This extension elucidates new strat...

  9. The relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem services and the effects of grazing cessation in semi-natural grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wehn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use change can affect biodiversity, and this has an impact on ecosystem services (ESs, but the relationships between biodiversity and ESs are complex and poorly understood. Biodiversity is declining due to the abandonment of extensively grazed semi-natural grasslands.We therefore aim to explore relationships between biodiversity and ESs provided by extensively managed semi-natural grasslands. Focusing on vascular plant species richness, as well as the ESs fodder quantity, quality, and stability, allergy control, climate regulation, nutrient cycling, pollination, and aesthetic appreciation, we carried out botanical field surveys of 28 paired extensively grazed and abandoned semi-natural grassland plots, with four subplots of 4 m2 in each plot. The management of the semi-natural grasslands is and has been at low intensity. We calculated the influence of abandonment on the ES indicators, measured the correlation between the biodiversity measure of vascular plant species richness and ES indicators, and finally determined how the relationships between plant species richness and the ES indicators were affected by the cessation of the extensive management.ES indicators are often, but not always, positively correlated with species richness. Cessation of extensive grazing has both negative and positive effects on ES indicators but the relationships between species richness and ES indicators are often different in extensively managed and abandoned semi-natural grasslands. The relationships between species richness and ES indicators are less pronounced in the extensively managed semi-natural grassland than for the abandoned. One possible reason for this outcome is high functional redundancy in the extensively managed semi-natural grasslands.

  10. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Freshwater ecosystems and resilience of Pacific salmon: Habitat Management based on natural variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, P.A.; Dunham, J.B.; Reeves, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability. ?? 2009 by the author(s).

  12. Freshwater Ecosystems and Resilience of Pacific Salmon: Habitat Management Based on Natural Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Bisson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In spite of numerous habitat restoration programs in fresh waters with an aggregate annual funding of millions of dollars, many populations of Pacific salmon remain significantly imperiled. Habitat restoration strategies that address limited environmental attributes and partial salmon life-history requirements or approaches that attempt to force aquatic habitat to conform to idealized but ecologically unsustainable conditions may partly explain this lack of response. Natural watershed processes generate highly variable environmental conditions and population responses, i.e., multiple life histories, that are often not considered in restoration. Examples from several locations underscore the importance of natural variability to the resilience of Pacific salmon. The implication is that habitat restoration efforts will be more likely to foster salmon resilience if they consider processes that generate and maintain natural variability in fresh water. We identify three specific criteria for management based on natural variability: the capacity of aquatic habitat to recover from disturbance, a range of habitats distributed across stream networks through time sufficient to fulfill the requirements of diverse salmon life histories, and ecological connectivity. In light of these considerations, we discuss current threats to habitat resilience and describe how regulatory and restoration approaches can be modified to better incorporate natural variability.

  13. Perspectives for the information approach application to natural and artificial ecosystems investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankin, Yuliy

    As a methodological matter, all modern conceptions of life development can be subdivided into the substrate (S), the energetic (E) and the informational (I). The S-conception is based on biochemical, genetic and morphological ideas. The E-conception deals with an idea of development of complicated open systems (COS) which are characterized by energy getting constantly from the outside, by improvement of substance cycles and as speeding-up and increasing of "power" of them as well, and by increasing of energy intensity transformation by the each structure of COS. The I-conception has been developing so far in the main within the frameworks of the traditional both cybernetic ideas and information theory that are convenient for many technical applications but are deficient for investigation of ecoand bio-systems. Situation was changed when the conception of adaptive systems (CAS) based on the ideas of ecology, biology and neurocybernetic (neuroinforamtic) had offered. As a consequence of this, the I-conception based on the CAS well accords with the S- and the E-conceptions and allows to hope to their combine into one the S + E + I conception that will include all virtues of the S-, the E-, and the I-conceptions and eliminate of their limitations. Thanks to relative easiness of hierarchic adaptive nonlinear models making using of the CAS, it is possible overcome effectively both of the problems as the "dimensionality problem" and the "loss of stability" as well for complicated models of ecosystems (CME). Optimization of energy and substance consumption process and adaptation of the CME to changes of current conditions are well realized in ranges given by goal function. A use adaptive networks (including neural nets) in frames of the CAS allows to realize any continuous function in control loops and at information processing. The considered features of the S + E + I proposed approach based on the CAS make it perspective for construction as biosphere models and

  14. Laurel Wilt in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems: Understanding the Drivers and Scales of Complex Pathosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy C. Ploetz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Laurel wilt kills members of the Lauraceae plant family in the southeastern United States. It is caused by Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich and Aghayeva, a nutritional fungal symbiont of an invasive Asian ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, which was detected in Port Wentworth, Georgia, in 2002. The beetle is the primary vector of R. lauricola in forests along the southeastern coastal plain of the United States, but other ambrosia beetle species that obtained the pathogen after the initial introduction may play a role in the avocado (Persea americana Miller pathosystem. Susceptible taxa are naïve (new-encounter hosts that originated outside Asia. In the southeastern United States, over 300 million trees of redbay (P. borbonia (L. Spreng. have been lost, and other North American endemics, non-Asian ornamentals and avocado—an important crop that originated in MesoAmerica—are also affected. However, there are no reports of laurel wilt on the significant number of lauraceous endemics that occur in the Asian homeland of R. lauricola and X. glabratus; coevolved resistance to the disease in the region has been hypothesized. The rapid spread of laurel wilt in the United States is due to an efficient vector, X. glabratus, and the movement of wood infested with the insect and pathogen. These factors, the absence of fully resistant genotypes, and the paucity of effective control measures severely constrain the disease’s management in forest ecosystems and avocado production areas.

  15. On Man and Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Harold

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between natural ecosystems and human ecosystems are misleading. Natural and social sciences can be integrated through the concept of a "human-use ecosystem," in which social scientists analyze the community, household, and individual, and natural scientists analyze the land. Includes a case study of St. Kitts. (KC)

  16. Impact of rainfall interception on hydrologic partitioning and soil erosion in natural and managed seasonally dry ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A. E.; Montenegro, S. M.; Silva, B. B.; Bartlett, M. S.; Porporato, A. M.; Antonino, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the effects of land use change and rainfall variability in seasonal, dry ecosystems is crucial to sustainable management of soil and water resources. In particular, changes in rainfall interception effects on hydrologic partitioning and soil erosion due to land use change are among the least known processes, despite their importance for water resource managements, in terms of water availability for ecosystem and society and water quality and erosion problems. In this work we quantify the interception losses in different types of vegetation (coffee, lemon and vegetation of natural forest) found in the Tapacurá basin in the Pernambuco state of NE Brazil, coupling field experiments and analytical models. The interception losses were measured with rain gauges installed in three types of vegetation along with stemflow collectors. Close to the coffee plantation, a meteorological station was also installed for measurement of the necessary variables for the model calibrations. As expected, the results show that rainfall events of smaller magnitude proportionally have larger relative interception losses, with larger differences in the wet season. The model results also allow us to quantify the nonlinear behavior of the interception process, at the same time providing a valuable tool to estimate the interception loss due to changes in vegetation and rainfall regime and thus to improve water resource management in seasonally dry tropics .

  17. Law for Country: the Structure of Warlpiri Ecological Knowledge and Its Application to Natural Resource Management and Ecosystem Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles C. C. Holmes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Ecological Knowledge (IEK is deeply encoded in social processes. Our research shows that from an Indigenous perspective, IEK is a way of living whose core aim is to sustain the healthy functioning of people and country through relationships of reciprocity. However, IEK is often portrayed more prosaically as a body of knowledge about the environment. We introduce a framework, called ngurra-kurlu, that enables appreciation of indigenous perspectives on IEK. The framework was identified from the collaborative work of the authors with Warlpiri aboriginal elders in the Tanami Desert region of central Australia. Ngurra-kurlu facilitates cross-cultural understanding by distilling, from a complex cultural system, the five distinct conceptual categories that comprise IEK: law, skin, ceremony, language, and country. The framework enables engagement with nuanced environmental knowledge because it synthesizes, for cross-cultural audiences, all the key areas of knowledge and practice in which IEK is located. In particular, the framework highlights how social systems mediate the transmission, deployment, and regulation of environmental knowledge in on-ground situations, including collaborative natural resource management. Although the framework was generated in relation to one indigenous group, the epistemological structure of Warlpiri IEK is relevant throughout Australia, and the framework can be applied internationally to the emerging interest in fostering ecosystem stewardship in which the cultural connections between people and place are an integral part of ecosystems management.

  18. The perils and promises of microbial abundance: novel natures and model ecosystems, from artisanal cheese to alien seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxson, Heather; Helmreich, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    Microbial life has been much in the news. From outbreaks of Escherichia coli to discussions of the benefits of raw and fermented foods to recent reports of life forms capable of living in extreme environments, the modest microbe has become a figure for thinking through the presents and possible futures of nature, writ large as well as small. Noting that dominant representations of microbial life have shifted from an idiom of peril to one of promise, we argue that microbes--especially when thriving as microbial communities--are being upheld as model ecosystems in a prescriptive sense, as tokens of how organisms and human ecological relations with them could, should, or might be. We do so in reference to two case studies: the regulatory politics of artisanal cheese and the speculative research of astrobiology. To think of and with microbial communities as model ecosystems offers a corrective to the scientific determinisms we detect in some recent calls to attend to the materiality of scientific objects.

  19. Natural hazards in a changing world: a case for ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne L Nel

    Full Text Available Communities worldwide are increasingly affected by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves. However, the causes of these increases remain underexplored, often attributed to climate changes or changes in the patterns of human exposure. This paper aims to quantify the effect of climate change, as well as land cover change, on a suite of natural hazards. Changes to four natural hazards (floods, droughts, wildfires and storm-waves were investigated through scenario-based models using land cover and climate change drivers as inputs. Findings showed that human-induced land cover changes are likely to increase natural hazards, in some cases quite substantially. Of the drivers explored, the uncontrolled spread of invasive alien trees was estimated to halve the monthly flows experienced during extremely dry periods, and also to double fire intensities. Changes to plantation forestry management shifted the 1:100 year flood event to a 1:80 year return period in the most extreme scenario. Severe 1:100 year storm-waves were estimated to occur on an annual basis with only modest human-induced coastal hardening, predominantly from removal of coastal foredunes and infrastructure development. This study suggests that through appropriate land use management (e.g. clearing invasive alien trees, re-vegetating clear-felled forests, and restoring coastal foredunes, it would be possible to reduce the impacts of natural hazards to a large degree. It also highlights the value of intact and well-managed landscapes and their role in reducing the probabilities and impacts of extreme climate events.

  20. Mapping Ecosystem Services

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiev,Teodor; Burkhard,Benjamin; Maes,Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the contributions of ecosystem structure and function (in combination with other inputs) to human well-being. That means, humankind is strongly dependent on well-functioning ecosystems and natural capital that are the base for a constant flow of ecosystem services from nature to society. Therefore ecosystem services have the potential to become a major tool for policy and decision making on global, national, regional and local scales. Possible applications are manifold:...

  1. Effects of ionizing radiation upon natural populations and ecosystems. Final report. [Ecological perspectives in land use planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    Accomplishments throughout a 10-year period summarized include: a study of the effects of radiation from a ..gamma.. source on the ecology of the El Verde rain forest in Puerto Rico, with emphasis on the role of secondary succession in the recovery of forest ecosystems following irradiation; the effects of light and temperature on gaseous exchange in trees using /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ as a tracer in Palcourea; the nature of the sensitivity of pine trees to ionizing radiation and the possible synergistic effects of elevated ozone levels on radiosensitivity; the combined effects of radioactive and thermal effluents on plant communities of a swamp hardwood forest; and the development of a new conceptual approach to the evaluation of environmental quality, with emphasis on ecological perspectives in land use planning. (CH)

  2. SAFRR tsunami scenario: Impacts on California ecosystems, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick; Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of ecosystems and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on California’s ecosystems and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on California’s commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research.Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact ecosystems, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, ecosystems do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of ecosystem services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of ecosystems, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive

  3. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Jolly, Ian; Sophocleous, Marios; Zhang, Lu

    2007-03-01

    Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ˜90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (≤1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs.

  4. MalariaSphere: A greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae ecosystem in western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukabana Wolfgang R

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development and implementation of innovative vector control strategies for malaria control in Africa requires in-depth ecological studies in contained semi-field environments. This particularly applies to the development and release of genetically-engineered vectors that are refractory to Plasmodium infection. Here we describe a modified greenhouse, designed to simulate a natural Anopheles gambiae Giles ecosystem, and the first successful trials to complete the life-cycle of this mosquito vector therein. Methods We constructed a local house, planted crops and created breeding sites to simulate the natural ecosystem of this vector in a screen-walled greenhouse, exposed to ambient climate conditions, in western Kenya. Using three different starting points for release (blood-fed females, virgin females and males, or eggs, we allowed subsequent stages of the life-cycle to proceed under close observation until one cycle was completed. Results Completion of the life-cycle was observed in all three trials, indicating that the major life-history behaviours (mating, sugar feeding, oviposition and host seeking occurred successfully. Conclusion The system described can be used to study the behavioural ecology of laboratory-reared and wild mosquitoes, and lends itself to contained studies on the stability of transgenes, fitness effects and phenotypic characteristics of genetically-engineered disease vectors. The extension of this approach, to enable continuous maintenance of successive and overlapping insect generations, should be prioritised. Semi-field systems represent a promising means to significantly enhance our understanding of the behavioural and evolutionary ecology of African malaria vectors and our ability to develop and evaluate innovative control strategies. With regard to genetically-modified mosquitoes, development of such systems is an essential prerequisite to full field releases.

  5. Defra Soil Protection Research in the Context of the Soil Natural Capital / Ecosystem Services Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, David A.; Cooper, David; Emmett, Bridget A.; Evans, Chris D.; Keith, Aidan; Lebron, Inma; Lofts, Stephen; Norton, Lisa; Reynolds, Brian; Tipping, Edward; Rawlins, Barry G.; Tye, Andrew M.; Watts, Chris W.; Whalley, W. Richard; Black, Helaina I.J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: "A Nation that destroys its soil destroys itself." This quote from, F.D. Roosevelt, 1937, from a letter written to all state Governors in the USA following the dust bowl, encapsulates the importance of soil protection. The dust bowl brought about legislation to protect and conserve soils as a fundamental natural resource in the USA between 1930 and 1936. In current times we are facing unprecedented pressure on land resources from multiple uses here in the UK and across Euro...

  6. Preservation of natural aquatic ecosystems by application of bottom coal ash based bioreactor for in situ treatment of anthropogenic effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Y.; Nisnevitch, M.; Tal, M.; Cahan, R.; Michael, E.

    2012-12-01

    One consequence of global climate change is recharge decrease at sub tropical and Mediterranean regions to both the surface and the ground fresh water resources. As a general rule, when water source quantity is reduced, the level of salination, as well as chemical and biological pollutants, tends to increase. The situation is more severe whenever the drainage basin is (a) heavily populated from urban, industrial and agricultural areas, (b) has wide areas of thin or non soil cover and (c) has a karstic structure and morphology. These latter conditions are typical to many regions around the Middle East; whereas pollution hazard to Mid Eastern streams is greater than to those in more humid regions owing to their relative small size and poor dilution capacity. The consequence of this ongoing and increasing anthropogenic pollution is endangerment of natural aquatic habitats and due to decrease in fresh water supply availability also to human sustainability. The ecological impact may involve transition of ephemeral (Wadi) streams into intermittent ones with the accompanied biodiversity change or extinction once the pollution is extreme. The impact on indigenous human communities might be as severe owing to drinking water quality decrease and the consequent decrease id quantity as well as damage to dryland farming. In setting of operations applied to the Yarkon Taninim watershed (central Israel) management, a pilot biofilter facility for sustainable preservation and rehabilitation of natural fluvial ecosystems was tested. This biofilter is planned to operate through low impact concept assimilating natural treatment processes occurring during runoff recharge through a porous flow media. The facility is constructed out of several grain sizes of bottom coal ash aggregate, which was found to be a better microbial mats growing stratum, compared to common natural aggregates such as tuff and lime pebbles (and also has an EPA directive for wastewater treatment). The biofilter is

  7. Modern parameters of caesium-137 root uptake in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems of contaminated post-Chernobyl landscape, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paramonova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of modern parameters of 137Cs root uptake was conducted in natural meadow and agricultural ecosystems of post-Chernobyl landscapes of Tula region. The agrosystems with main crops of field rotation (barley, potatoes, rape, maize occupying watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems are contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (4.7-6.0 Ci/km2; natural meadow ecosystems occupying lower parts of slopes and floodplains are contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (5.8-7.6 Ci/km2. In the arable soils 137Cs uniformly distributed to a depth of Ap horizon (20-30 cm of thickness, while in meadow soils 70-80% of the radionuclide is concentrated within the top Ad horizon (9-13 cm of thickness. These topsoil layer accords with rhizosphere zone, where >80-90% of plant roots are concentrated, and from which 137Cs is mostly consumed by vegetation. Total amount of 137Cs root uptake depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.61. So 137Cs activity in meadow vegetation (103-160 Bq/kg is generally more than one in agricultural vegetation (9-92 Bq/kg. The values of 137Cs transfer factor in the studied ecosystems vary from 0.01 (rape to 0.20 (wet meadow, that confirms the discrimination of the radionuclide’s root uptake. The larger are the volume of roots and their absorbing surface, the higher are the values of transfer factor from soil to plant (correlation coefficients 0.71 and 0.64 respectively. 137Cs translocation from roots to shoots is also determined by biological features of plants. At the same level of soil contamination above-ground parts of meadow herbs accumulate more 137Cs than Gramineae species, and in agrosystems above-ground parts of weeds concentrate more 137Cs than cultivated cereals. Thus, the level of soil radioactive pollution and biological features of plants are determinants in the process of 137Cs root uptake and translocation and should be considered in land use policy.

  8. Soil depth profiles and radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manigandan, P.K.; Chandar Shekar, B.

    2017-01-01

    We measured the distribution of three naturally occurring radionuclides, "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th, and "4"0K, in soil samples collected from a rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. For each surface sample, we calculated average activity concentration, outdoor terrestrial γ dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), and radiation hazard index. The activity concentrations of surface samples were randomly distributed over space, but differed slightly with different soil depths. The concentration of "2"3"2Th and the average terrestrial γ dose rates were slightly higher than the world averages, so slightly high γ radiation appears to be a general characteristic of the Western Ghats. However, all radiological hazard indices were within the limits proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The results reported here indicate that, except for "2"3"2Th, the naturally occurring radionuclides in the forest soils of the Western Ghats were within the ranges specified by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for undisturbed virgin soils.

  9. Determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in 3 earner ecosystems (Alcocebre; Vinaroz and Vandellos)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, E.; Roldan, C.; Sanchez, E.

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge of the environmental radioactivity level represents one of the main objectives at the moment for the environmental investigation. To check the existence of possible polluting sources and their impact in the population is of high-priority interest. We have intended to check the existence or not of radioactive pollutants in bio-indicators (algae, limpets and mussels) of the marine environment of three towns located in the Mediterranean coast: Alcocebre and Vinaroz in the county of Castellon and Vandellos in the county of Tarragona where a nuclear group is located for electric power production. The specific activity measurement carried out during the biennium 1996-97 of the natural gamma emitters ''228 Ac (''232Th series), ''226Ra (''238U series), ''235U, ''40K and ''7Be, and of the artificial radionuclides ''60Co, and ''137 Cs, it corroborates the character bio-accumulator of these organisms. Natural and artificial radionuclides have been detected in quantities without radiological significance. (Author) 3 Refs

  10. Soil depth profiles and radiological assessment of natural radionuclides in forest ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manigandan, P.K. [Al Musanna College of Technology, Muscat (Oman); Chandar Shekar, B. [Bharathiar Univ., Coimbatore (India). Kongunadu Arts and Science College

    2017-08-01

    We measured the distribution of three naturally occurring radionuclides, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, and {sup 40}K, in soil samples collected from a rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. For each surface sample, we calculated average activity concentration, outdoor terrestrial γ dose rate, annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE), and radiation hazard index. The activity concentrations of surface samples were randomly distributed over space, but differed slightly with different soil depths. The concentration of {sup 232}Th and the average terrestrial γ dose rates were slightly higher than the world averages, so slightly high γ radiation appears to be a general characteristic of the Western Ghats. However, all radiological hazard indices were within the limits proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. The results reported here indicate that, except for {sup 232}Th, the naturally occurring radionuclides in the forest soils of the Western Ghats were within the ranges specified by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for undisturbed virgin soils.

  11. Assessing the natural and anthropogenic charges of radioactivity in complex ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Daoushy, F.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale and long-term assessment of nuclear disasters depends on transport and chemistry processes. Chernobyl dominated by tropospheric and local surface water processes. Assessment strategies for the Nile Basin , and other African rivers, would be different. European surface water are primarily forced by atmospheric and local catchment interactions. Surface water are multi-scale systems with local, regional & global interactions. Natural and artificial radioactivity were assessed in European inland waters. Scales and interactions were detailed using Lake-catchment systems. Surface water interactions in the Nile Basin has much more large scale dynamics as compared by the European ones. The spatio-temporal scales of this complex river system are much more comprehensive due to its complex boundaries and intensive coupling with climate and environment. Lakes and rivers are space-time indicators of atmospheric and land-based human activities

  12. Biological transport of radiocaesium in a semi-natural grassland ecosystem: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, S.A.; Johnson, M.S.; Leah, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    An unused area of the British Nuclear Fuels plc low level disposal site at Drigg in Cumbria, together with a control site in Cheshire, have been used to investigate the behaviour of 137 Cs in semi-natural grasslands over the period 1985-1988. Both sites showed significant inputs of 137 Cs and 134 Cs from the Chernobyl incident in 1986, estimated at up to 7330 Bq/m 2 at Drigg and less than 230 Bq/m 2 in Cheshire. Surface soil horizons showed the highest levels of 137 Cs and 134 Cs. During the study period, the dominant contribution to radiocaesium in soil and vegetation was from Chernobyl. Significant inter-specific variation in caesium concentrations of grasses was observed with an exponential decrease from June 1986 through to the summer of 1987, followed by secondary peak in autumn 1987. Samples collected in the spring of 1988 showed 137 Cs concentrations approaching pre-Chernobyl levels. Marked inter-specific and temporal differences in concentrations of radio-caesium were recorded for invertebrate populations. Radioactivity levels in herbivorous invertebrates were approximately proportional to levels in their diets with concentration decreasing form the 1986 summer peak recorded after the input of Chernobyl radioactivity to the low levels observed during the summer of 1987. Herbivorous and predatory invertebrates showed similar concentrations of 137 Cs but both groups were lower in radiocaesium than detritivorous species. (Author)

  13. Estimation of Net Groundwater Recharge Using Natural Drawdown Events in Subtropical Isolated Wetland Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, D. B.; Min, J.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Restoration of ditched and drained wetlands in the Lake Okeechobee basin, Florida, USA is currently under study for possible amelioration of anthropogenic phosphorus enrichment of the lake. To date most research in this area has focused on the biogeochemical role of these wetlands. Here we focus on the dynamic hydrology of these systems and the resulting control on biogeochemical cycling. Four depressional wetlands in the basin were monitored for approximately three years to understand the interaction between wetland surface water and adjacent upland groundwater system. A coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical model was created to evaluate restoration scenarios. Determining wetland-scale hydraulic conductivity was an important aspect of the hydrologic model. Based on natural drawdown events observed at wetland-upland well pairs, hydraulic conductivities of top sandy soil layers surrounding the isolated wetlands were calculated using the Dupuit equation under a constrained water budget framework. The drawdown-based hydraulic conductivity estimates of 1.1 to 18.7 m/d (geometric mean of 4.8 m/d) were about three times greater than slug test- based values (1.5 ± 1.1 m/d), which is consistent with scale-dependent expectations. Model-based net groundwater recharge rate at each depressional wetland was predicted based on the estimated hydraulic conductivities, which corresponded to 50 to 72% of rainfall in the same period. These variances appeared to be due to the relative difference of ditch bottom elevation controlling the surface runoff as well as the spatial heterogeneity of the sandy aquifer. Results from this study have implications for nutrient loads to Lake Okeechobee via groundwater as well as water quality monitoring and management strategies aimed to reduce solute export (especially P) from the upstream catchment area to Lake Okeechobee.

  14. Peeking at ecosystem stability: making use of a natural disturbance experiment to analyze resistance and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruelheide, Helge; Luginbühl, Ute

    2009-05-01

    To determine which factors contribute most to the stability of species composition in a beech forest after profound disturbance, we made use of a natural experiment caused by a severe windthrow that occurred at a permanent monitoring site in an old beech forest in Lower Saxony (Germany). The floristic composition was recorded for the succeeding five years after the disturbance and used to derive measures of resistance and resilience for plots as well as for individual species. Due to the existence of previously established randomly distributed permanent plots, we had precise information of the pre-disturbance state, including initial cover of the herb layer, species richness, and species composition. Variables describing the floristic change, resistance, and resilience were derived from correspondence analysis allowing for partitioning the effects of variation among plots from those of temporal change. We asked to which degree these variables could be predicted by pre-disturbance state and disturbance intensity. We found that both the pre-disturbance state and the disturbance intensity were good predictors for floristic change and resistance, while they failed to predict resilience. Among the descriptors of the pre-disturbance state the initial cover of the herb layer turned out to be a useful predictor, which is explained by a high vegetation cover buffering against losses and preventing establishment of newcomers. In contrast, species number neither showed a relationship to floristic change nor to resistance. Putative positive effects of species number on stability according to the insurance hypothesis might have been counterbalanced by a disruption of niche complementarity in species-rich communities. Among the descriptors of disturbance intensity, the loss in canopy cover and the change in photosynthetically active radiation after the storm were equally good predictors for the change in floristic composition and resistance. The analysis of the responses of

  15. Natural Length Scales of Ecological Systems: Applications at Community and Ecosystem Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Johnson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic, or natural, length scales of a spatially dynamic ecological landscape are the spatial scales at which the deterministic trends in the dynamic are most sharply in focus. Given recent development of techniques to determine the characteristic length scales (CLSs of real ecological systems, I explore the potential for using CLSs to address three important and vexing issues in applied ecology, viz. (i determining the optimum scales to monitor ecological systems, (ii interpreting change in ecological communities, and (iii ascertaining connectivity between species in complex ecologies. In summarizing the concept of characteristic length scales as system-level scaling thresholds, I emphasize that the primary CLS is, by definition, the optimum scale at which to monitor a system if the objective is to observe its deterministic dynamics at a system level. Using several different spatially explicit individual-based models, I then explore predictions of the underlying theory of CLSs in the context of interpreting change and ascertaining connectivity among species in ecological systems. Analysis of these models support predictions that systems with strongly fluctuating community structure, but an otherwise stable long-term dynamic defined by a stationary attractor, indicate an invariant length scale irrespective of community structure at the time of analysis, and irrespective of the species analyzed. In contrast, if changes in the underlying dynamic are forcibly induced, the shift in dynamics is reflected by a change in the primary length scale. Thus, consideration of the magnitude of the CLS through time enables distinguishing between circumstances where there are temporal changes in community structure but not in the long-term dynamic, from that where changes in community structure reflect some kind of fundamental shift in dynamics. In this context, CLSs emerge as a diagnostic tool to identify phase shifts to alternative stable states

  16. Virological evaluation of avian influenza virus persistence in natural and anthropic ecosystems of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Region, summer 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A De Marco

    Full Text Available Wild aquatic birds, reservoir of low-pathogenicity (LP avian influenza viruses (AIVs, congregate in huge numbers in Western Siberia wetlands, where major intra- and inter-continental bird flyways overlap. In 2005 and 2006, highly pathogenic (HP AIV H5N1 epizootics affected wild and domestic birds in the Novosibirsk Region. In 2012, we evaluated AIV persistence in Siberian natural and anthropic ecosystems.In Novosibirsk Region, 166 wild birds ecologically linked to aquatic environments and 152 domestic waterfowl were examined for AIV isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Biological samples were obtained by integrating the conventional cloacal swab collection with the harvesting of samples from birds' plumage. Haemagglutinating allantoic fluids were further characterized by serological and molecular methods. In August-September 2012, 17 AIVs, including three H3N8, eight H4N6, two H4N?, one H2N?, one H?N2, and two unsubtyped LPAIVs, were isolated from 15 wild ducks. Whereas comparable proportions of wild Anseriformes (n.118 tested virus isolation (VI-positive from cloaca and feathers (5.9% vs 8.5% were detected, the overall prevalence of virus isolation, obtained from both sampling methods, was 2.4 times higher than that calculated on results from cloacal swab examination only (14.4% vs 5.9%. Unlike previously described in this area, the H4N6 antigenic subtype was found to be the prevalent one in 2012. Both cloacal and feather samples collected from domestic waterfowl tested VI-negative.We found lack of evidence for the H5N1 HPAIV circulation, explainable by the poor environmental fitness of HPAIVs in natural ecosystems. Our LPAIV isolation data emphasise the importance of Siberia wetlands in influenza A virus ecology, providing evidence of changes in circulation dynamics of HN antigenic subtypes harboured in wild bird reservoirs. Further studies of isolates, based on bioinformatic approaches to virus molecular evolution and phylogenesis, will be

  17. An ecohydrological sketch of climate change impacts on water and natural ecosystems for the Netherlands: bridging the gap between science and society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witte, J.P.M.; Runhaar, J.; van Ek, R.; van der Hoek, D.C.J.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Batelaan, O.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Wassen, M.J.; van der Zee, S.E.A.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    For policy making and spatial planning, information is needed about the impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems. To provide this information, commonly hydrological and ecological models are used. We give arguments for our assessment that modelling only is insufficient for determining the

  18. Coral reefs - Specialized ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.

    This paper discusses briefly some aspects that characterize and differentiate coral reef ecosystems from other tropical marine ecosystems. A brief account on the resources that are extractable from coral reefs, their susceptibility to natural...

  19. Understanding human impacts to tropical coastal ecosystems through integrated hillslope erosion measurements, optical coastal waters characterization, watershed modeling, marine ecosystem assessments, and natural resource valuations in two constrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zayas, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Santiago, L.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Figueroa, Y.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal ecosystems are an asset to many tropical island economies. In Puerto Rico, however, many invaluable coastal ecosystems are at risk due to multiple social and natural environmental stressors. To quantify the role of anthropogenic versus natural stressors, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was applied in two contrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico. The Rio Loco (RL) watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico is hydrologically modified with interbasin water transfers, hydroelectric generation, and with water extraction for irrigation and water supply. Intensive agricultural production dominates both the lower and upper portions of the basin. In contrast, the Rio Grande de Manatí (RGM) shows a natural flow regime with minor flow regulation and limited agriculture. The Surface Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to each watershed to assess the effects of land use changes on water and sediment fluxes to coastal areas. From 1977 to 2016, forest areas increased in both watersheds due to the abandonment of farms in the mountains. However, in upper and lower RL, agricultural lands have remained active. Coffee plantations in the upper watershed contribute with high sediment loads, particularly in unpaved service roads. We hypothesize that water fluxes will be higher in the larger RGM than in RL. However, suspended sediment fluxes will be higher in the agriculturally active RL basin. A willingness-to-pay approach was applied to assess how residents from each watershed value water and coastal ecosystems revealing a general higher natural resources valuation in the RGM than in RL. Coastal ecosystems at each site revealed structural differences in benthic coral communities due to local currents influenced largely by coastal morphology. The optical properties of coastal waters are also being determined and linked to fluvial sediment fluxes. Stakeholder meetings are being held in each watershed to promote transfer of scientific insights into a sustainable coastal and

  20. The importance of conserving biodiversity outside of protected areas in mediterranean ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L Cox

    Full Text Available Mediterranean-type ecosystems constitute one of the rarest terrestrial biomes and yet they are extraordinarily biodiverse. Home to over 250 million people, the five regions where these ecosystems are found have climate and coastal conditions that make them highly desirable human habitats. The current conservation landscape does not reflect the mediterranean biome's rarity and its importance for plant endemism. Habitat conversion will clearly outpace expansion of formal protected-area networks, and conservationists must augment this traditional strategy with new approaches to sustain the mediterranean biota. Using regional scale datasets, we determine the area of land in each of the five regions that is protected, converted (e.g., to urban or industrial, impacted (e.g., intensive, cultivated agriculture, or lands that we consider to have conservation potential. The latter are natural and semi-natural lands that are unprotected (e.g., private range lands but sustain numerous native species and associated habitats. Chile has the greatest proportion of its land (75% in this category and California-Mexico the least (48%. To illustrate the potential for achieving mediterranean biodiversity conservation on these lands, we use species-area curves generated from ecoregion scale data on native plant species richness and vertebrate species richness. For example, if biodiversity could be sustained on even 25% of existing unprotected, natural and semi-natural lands, we estimate that the habitat of more than 6,000 species could be represented. This analysis suggests that if unprotected natural and semi-natural lands are managed in a manner that allows for persistence of native species, we can realize significant additional biodiversity gains. Lasting biodiversity protection at the scale needed requires unprecedented collaboration among stakeholders to promote conservation both inside and outside of traditional protected areas, including on lands where people

  1. Transfer factor of caesium-137 in natural and agricultural grass ecosystems in the area of Plavsk radioactive spot, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramonova, Tatiana A.; Machaeva, Ekaterina N. [Radioecology and Ecotoxicology Department of Soil Science Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyaev, Vladimir R. [Laboratory of soil erosion and fluvial processes of Geography Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Root uptake and translocation of ¹³⁷Cs from soil to plant is the key for estimation of general ecological situation and land use on radioactive contaminated territories. There are numerous researches concerning the relationship between the level of the radionuclide presence in soils and its accumulation in vegetation that usually describes as transfer factor (TF) for ¹³⁷Cs (the ratio of the specific ¹³⁷Cs activity in the plant tissue and the soil). But in most cases only edible organs or above-ground parts of plants are taken into account in evaluating TF. It is reasonable from the standpoint of practical use, but does not provide accurate information in the study of ¹³⁷Cs biogeochemical cycle features. The study of the ¹³⁷Cs root uptake from the radioactive contaminated chernozem soil and its distribution between above-ground and below-ground fractions of grass vegetation was conducted in the natural conditions on the territory of Plavsk radioactive spot (Tula region, Russia)~25 years after Chernobyl accident. The main crops of field rotation in this landscape (wheat, barley, potatoes, rape, maize) which occupy watersheds and slopes with arable chernozems contaminated at a level 460-670 Bq/kg (170-220 kBq/m²) and natural grassland ecosystems which occupy lower parts of slopes and flood plains with dry and wet meadows contaminated at a level 620-710 Bq/kg (210-250 kBq/m²) were examined. Total accumulation of ¹³⁷Cs in vegetation strongly depends on the level of soil radioactive contamination (correlation coefficient 0.87). So specific ¹³⁷Cs activity in vegetation of meadows (103-160 Bq/kg) in general more than one in agricultural crops (9-92 Bq/kg). Other reason may be the predominance of perennial herbs in natural meadows whereas agricultural systems contain annual crops. The values of ¹³⁷Cs TF in the studied ecosystems vary within a relatively narrow range: from 0.01 (rape) to 0.20 (wet meadow), that confirms the discrimination of

  2. Designer ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awasthi, Ashutosh; Singh, Kripal; O'Grady, Audrey; Courtney, Ronan; Kalra, Alok; Singh, Rana Pratap; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio; Steinberger, Yosef; Patra, D.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in human population is accelerating the rate of land use change, biodiversity loss and habitat degradation, triggering a serious threat to life supporting ecosystem services. Existing strategies for biological conservation remain insufficient to achieve a sustainable human-nature

  3. Vegetation index-based crop coefficients to estimate evapotranspiration by remote sensing in agricultural and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.P.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Nagler, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Crop coefficients were developed to determine crop water needs based on the evapotranspiration (ET) of a reference crop under a given set of meteorological conditions. Starting in the 1980s, crop coefficients developed through lysimeter studies or set by expert opinion began to be supplemented by remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) that measured the actual status of the crop on a field-by-field basis. VIs measure the density of green foliage based on the reflectance of visible and near infrared (NIR) light from the canopy, and are highly correlated with plant physiological processes that depend on light absorption by a canopy such as ET and photosynthesis. Reflectance-based crop coefficients have now been developed for numerous individual crops, including corn, wheat, alfalfa, cotton, potato, sugar beet, vegetables, grapes and orchard crops. Other research has shown that VIs can be used to predict ET over fields of mixed crops, allowing them to be used to monitor ET over entire irrigation districts. VI-based crop coefficients can help reduce agricultural water use by matching irrigation rates to the actual water needs of a crop as it grows instead of to a modeled crop growing under optimal conditions. Recently, the concept has been applied to natural ecosystems at the local, regional and continental scales of measurement, using time-series satellite data from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. VIs or other visible-NIR band algorithms are combined with meteorological data to predict ET in numerous biome types, from deserts, to arctic tundra, to tropical rainforests. These methods often closely match ET measured on the ground at the global FluxNet array of eddy covariance moisture and carbon flux towers. The primary advantage of VI methods for estimating ET is that transpiration is closely related to radiation absorbed by the plant canopy, which is closely related to VIs. The primary disadvantage is that they cannot capture stress effects or soil

  4. Do we have to choose between feeding the human population and conserving nature? Modelling the global dependence of people on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazalis, Victor; Loreau, Michel; Henderson, Kirsten

    2018-09-01

    The ability of the human population to continue growing depends strongly on the ecosystem services provided by nature. Nature, however, is becoming more and more degraded as the number of individuals increases, which could potentially threaten the future well-being of the human population. We use a dynamic model to conceptualise links between the global proportion of natural habitats and human demography, through four categories of ecosystem services (provisioning, regulating, cultural recreational and informational) to investigate the common future of nature and humanity in terms of size and well-being. Our model shows that there is generally a trade-off between the quality of life and human population size and identifies four short-term scenarios, corresponding to three long-term steady states of the model. First, human population could experience declines if nature becomes too degraded and regulating services diminish; second the majority of the population could be in a famine state, where the population continues to grow with minimal food provision. Between these scenarios, a desirable future scenario emerges from the model. It occurs if humans convert enough land to feed all the population, while maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. Finally, we find a fourth scenario, which combines famine and a decline in the population because of an overexploitation of land leading to a decrease in food production. Human demography is embedded in natural dynamics; the two factors should be considered together if we are to identify a desirable future for both nature and humans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency of natural self-purification of ecosystems vs. countermeasures applied at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, I.; Pozolotina, V.; Mikhailovskaya, L.; Antonova, E.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of the radiation accident in 1957 at the Production Association "Mayak" (Russia, the Urals) a fast area (23000 km^2), later named the East-Ural radioactive trace, was contaminated. Accidental emission presented by the long-living radionuclides was found to be dominated by Sr-90. In 1967 the EURT area was subjected to a secondary contamination resulting from radioactive sediments transport by wind from "Mayak" technological reservoir, Karachay Lake. Currently, the stock of Sr-90, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the EURT's soil cover consist of 640•10^12 Bq. This study is aimed to compare an efficiency of the countermeasures adopted at the EURT and natural processes responsible for self-purification of contaminated ecosystems. With concern to the principle of ranging the contaminated areas two zones were established: impact and buffer ones. The impact zone is situated near the accident epicenter, i.e. within 2-30 km from of the Trace central axis. After accident this zone was removed from agricultural utilization. The buffer zone has permanent anthropogenic pressure. The native, undisturbed during the reclamation operations, flow adjacent of landscape sites were chosen within the impact and buffer zones. They included of a watershed area and bank area of the lakes. The impact zone demonstrated the lowest concentration of the radionuclides around the frequently flooded lake shore. Absence of anthropogenic pressure, the high density of the plant cover and deficit of the soil moisture in summer time are the main reasons for decreasing the intensity of the water runoff from watershed. As a result the self-purification processes are dominated around the shoreline soils. The buffer zone is characterized by an opposite regularity appeared in increasing of the Sr-90 content in the soils of the lake shore. In this case, the intensive agricultural utilization of the flat watersheds leads to increase of erosion and degradation processes and, as consequently, to the

  6. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management.

  7. Rapid assessment of ecosystem services provided by two mineral extraction sites restored for nature conservation in an agricultural landscape in eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaen, Phillip J; Jia, Li; Peh, Kelvin S-H; Field, Rob H; Balmford, Andrew; MacDonald, Michael A; Bradbury, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing recognition that mineral sites restored for nature conservation can enhance local biodiversity, the wider societal benefits provided by this type of restoration relative to alternative options are not well understood. This study addresses this research gap by quantifying differences in ecosystem services provision under two common mineral site after-uses: nature conservation and agriculture. Using a combination of site-specific primary field data, benefits transfer and modelling, we show that for our sites restoration for nature conservation provides a more diverse array of ecosystem services than would be delivered under an agricultural restoration scenario. We also explore the effects of addressing different conservation targets, which we find alter the provision of ecosystem services on a service-specific basis. Highly species-focused intervention areas are associated with increased carbon storage and livestock grazing provision, whereas non-intervention areas are important for carbon sequestration, fishing, recreation and flood risk mitigation. The results of this study highlight the wider societal importance of restored mineral sites and may help conservation managers and planners to develop future restoration strategies that provide benefits for both biodiversity and human well-being.

  8. Influence of land use on bacterial and archaeal diversity and community structures in three natural ecosystems and one agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Tin Mar; Liu, Qiong; Hu, Yajun; Yuan, Hongzhao; Wu, Xiaohong; Khai, Aye Aye; Wu, Jinshui; Ge, Tida

    2017-07-01

    Studying shifts in microbial communities under different land use can help in determining the impact of land use on microbial diversity. In this study, we analyzed four different land-use types to determine their bacterial and archaeal diversity and abundance. Three natural ecosystems, that is, wetland (WL), grassland (GL), and forest (FR) soils, and one agricultural soil, that is, tea plantation (TP) soil, were investigated to determine how land use shapes bacterial and archaeal diversity. For this purpose, molecular analyses, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), were used. Soil physicochemical properties were determined, and statistical analyses were performed to identify the key factors affecting microbial diversity in these soils. Phylogenetic affiliations determined using the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) database and T-RFLP revealed that the soils had differing bacterial diversity. WL soil was rich in only Proteobacteria, whereas GR soil was rich in Proteobacteria, followed by Actinobacteria. FR soil had higher abundance of Chloroflexi species than these soils. TP soil was rich in Actinobacteria, followed by Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. The archaeal diversity of GL and FR soils was similar in that most of their sequences were closely related to Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota phylum). In contrast, WL soil, followed by TP soil, had greater archaeal diversity than other soils. Eight different archaeal classes were found in WL soil, and Pacearchaeota class was the richest one. The abundance of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene copies in WL and GL soils was significantly higher than that in FR and TP soils. Redundancy analysis showed that bacterial diversity was influenced by abiotic factors, e.g., total organic carbon and pH, whereas total nitrogen, pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) significantly affected

  9. Untangling human development and natural gradients: implications of underlying correlation structure for linking landscapes and riverine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin Lucero; E. Ashley Steel; Kelly M. Burnett; Kelly. Christiansen

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, ecologists seek to identify and quantify relationships between landscape gradients and aquatic ecosystems. Considerable statistical challenges emerge in this effort, some of which are attributable to multicollinearity between human development and landscape gradients. In this paper, we measure the covariation between human development—such as agriculture...

  10. Biodiversity and ecosystem processes: lessons from nature to improve management of planted forests for REDD-plus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ian D. Thompson; Kimiko Okabe; John A. Parrotta; David I. Forrester; Eckehard Brockerhoff; Hervé Jactel; Hisatomo Taki

    2014-01-01

    Planted forests are increasingly contributing wood products and other ecosystem services at a global scale. These forests will be even more important as carbon markets develop and REDD-plus forest programs (forests used specifically to reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2 through deforestation and forest degradation) become common. Restoring degraded and deforested...

  11. An ecohydrological sketch of climate change impacts on water and natural ecosystems for the Netherlands: bridging the gap between science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. M. Witte

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For policy making and spatial planning, information is needed about the impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems. To provide this information, commonly hydrological and ecological models are used. We give arguments for our assessment that modelling only is insufficient for determining the impacts of climate changes on natural ecosystems at regional scales. Instead, we proposed a combination of hydrological simulations, a literature review and process-knowledge on climate-hydrology-vegetation interactions, to compile a sketch map that indicates climate change effects on a number of ecosystems in the Netherlands. Soon after a first version of our sketch map was published by a Dutch professional journal, copies appeared in policy documents, and also in a commercial and popular atlas of the Netherlands. Moreover, the map led to a question in the Dutch parliament about the sustainability of bog reserves under the future climate. Apparently, there was an urgent need for the information provided by the map.

    The map shows that climate change will presumably have the largest influence on ecosystems in the Netherlands that depend on precipitation as the major water source, like heathlands, dry grasslands, rain-fed moorland pools and raised bogs. Also highly susceptible are fens in reserves surrounded by deeply drained polders, because such fens depend on the inlet of surface water, of which quality is likely to deteriorate upon climate change. While the map is indicative for directions of change, in view of the uncertainties of our study, no conclusions should be drawn that may have far-reaching consequences, such as giving up certain nature targets that might no longer be feasible in the future climate. Instead, we advise to anticipate the potential threats from climate change by taking a number of adaptation measures that enhance the robustness of nature reserves.

    To improve climate change projections on hydrology and ecosystems

  12. An ecohydrological sketch of climate change impacts on water and natural ecosystems for the Netherlands: bridging the gap between science and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J. P. M.; Runhaar, J.; van Ek, R.; van der Hoek, D. C. J.; Bartholomeus, R. P.; Batelaan, O.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Wassen, M. J.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.

    2012-11-01

    For policy making and spatial planning, information is needed about the impacts of climate change on natural ecosystems. To provide this information, commonly hydrological and ecological models are used. We give arguments for our assessment that modelling only is insufficient for determining the impacts of climate changes on natural ecosystems at regional scales. Instead, we proposed a combination of hydrological simulations, a literature review and process-knowledge on climate-hydrology-vegetation interactions, to compile a sketch map that indicates climate change effects on a number of ecosystems in the Netherlands. Soon after a first version of our sketch map was published by a Dutch professional journal, copies appeared in policy documents, and also in a commercial and popular atlas of the Netherlands. Moreover, the map led to a question in the Dutch parliament about the sustainability of bog reserves under the future climate. Apparently, there was an urgent need for the information provided by the map. The map shows that climate change will presumably have the largest influence on ecosystems in the Netherlands that depend on precipitation as the major water source, like heathlands, dry grasslands, rain-fed moorland pools and raised bogs. Also highly susceptible are fens in reserves surrounded by deeply drained polders, because such fens depend on the inlet of surface water, of which quality is likely to deteriorate upon climate change. While the map is indicative for directions of change, in view of the uncertainties of our study, no conclusions should be drawn that may have far-reaching consequences, such as giving up certain nature targets that might no longer be feasible in the future climate. Instead, we advise to anticipate the potential threats from climate change by taking a number of adaptation measures that enhance the robustness of nature reserves. To improve climate change projections on hydrology and ecosystems, future research should especially

  13. ASSESSMENT OF POSSIBLE INDIRECT RISK OF NATURALLY OCCURING MERCURY AND CADMIUM THROUGH Mugil Sp. AND Geloina sp. CONSUMPTION IN SEGARA ANAKAN ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Noegrohati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine ecosystem of Segara Anakan is located in south coast of Central Java, shielded from Indian Ocean by Nusakambangan island. The ecosystem of Segara Anakan estuary, Central Java, Indonesia, is influenced by fresh water inflow from Citanduy river basin and Indian sea water mostly by tidal actions through the western opening. The runoff materials continuously entering Segara Anakan from Citanduy catchment area, which geologically consist of weathering products of quarternary volcanic rocks from Galunggung mountain, West Java. Therefore various natural heavy metal contaminants are bound to the estuarine sediments, redistributed and accumulated within the ecosystem. In the present work, the effects of environmental stresses to mercury and cadmium abiotic distribution, and their availability to biotic ecosystems were studied, and consumers indirect risk assesment was carried out. In the laboratory scale studies on the distribution of mercury and cadmium in an estuarine simulation of water-field sediment, it was observed that the metal distribution coefficient decreases as the salinity and the acidity of the medium increases. Monitoring results confirmed that the highest levels of Hg and Cd in water and sediment samples were obtained in dry season. Consequently, the highest levels of Hg and Cd in biotic ecosystem, represented by Mugil sp. and Geloina sp., also obtained in dry season. The body burden of Hg in people of Segara Anakan villages, as indicated by the levels in hair and mother milk samples, taken at the end of the study (dry season 2004, were relatively low, but the levels of Cd in mother milk samples were significantly higher than that of control samples of Jogyakarta (P = 0.05. Consequently, the risk quotient for babies were exceeding the FAO/WHO PTWI. Based on the risk assessment carried out for babies and adults, at the present time it is advisable to consume Mugil sp. and Geloina sp., taken in wet season only and not in dry

  14. A pest is a pest is a pest? The dilemma of neotropical leaf-cutting ants: Keystone taxa of natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Harold G.; Pagani, Maria Inez; da Silva, Osvaldo Aulino; Forti, Luis Carlos; da Silva, Virgilio Pereira; de Vasconcelos, Heraldo Luis

    1989-11-01

    Leaf-cutting ants of the genera Acromyrmex and Atta are considered the principal polyphagous pests of the Neotropics Although some members of these genera are of economic importance, have a broad geographic distribution, and are extremely good colonizers, others are endemic and closely interact with native ecosystems. Control is generally practiced against any colony, irrespective of its taxonomic status. Indiscriminate control coupled with habitat destruction threatens endemic species with extinction, and, through habitat simplification, favors other pest species. As nests of Atta are large, having several square meters of nest surface, the endemic taxa can be easily used as environmental indicators for natural ecosystems Likewise, the pest species can be used to detect environmental disturbance As these ants are keystone species and easily identified by nonspecialists, efforts should be made to integrate these into viable conservation programs

  15. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Ecosystems provides data and information on the extent and classification of ecosystems circa 2000, including coastal,...

  16. Evaluation of CH4 and N2O Budget of Natural Ecosystems and Croplands in Asia with a Process-based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, A.

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are important sink of carbon dioxide (CO2) but significant sources of other greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). To resolve the role of terrestrial biosphere in the climate system, we need to quantify total greenhouse gas budget with an adequate accuracy. In addition to top-down evaluation on the basis of atmospheric measurements, model-based approach is required for integration and up-scaling of filed data and for prediction under changing environment and different management practices. Since the early 2000s, we have developed a process-based model of terrestrial biogeochemical cycles focusing on atmosphere-ecosystem exchange of trace gases: Vegetation Integrated SImulator for Trace gases (VISIT). The model includes simple and comprehensive schemes of carbon and nitrogen cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, allowing us to capture dynamic nature of greenhouse gas budget. Beginning from natural ecosystems such as temperate and tropical forests, the models is now applicable to croplands by including agricultural practices such as planting, harvest, and fertilizer input. Global simulation results have been published from several papers, but model validation and benchmarking using up-to-date observations are remained for works. The model is now applied to several practical issues such as evaluation of N2O emission from bio-fuel croplands, which are expected to accomplish the mitigation target of the Paris Agreement. We also show several topics about basic model development such as revised CH4 emission affected by dynamic water-table and refined N2O emission from nitrification.

  17. Natural resource management in a protected area of the Indian Himalayas: a modeling approach for anthropogenic interactions on ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautiyal, Sunil; Kaechele, Harald

    2009-06-01

    The concept of ecosystem conservation as a broad theme came into existence during the 1970s under the Man and Biosphere Programme (MAB) of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Indian Government followed this approach and chose the method to segregate the landscape for conservation of the ecosystem as well as for the development of the local economy and its people. We have examined the effect of this policy and concurrently developed a theoretical modeling approach to understand how human behavior is changing under shifting political, socioeconomic and environmental conditions. A specific focus has been on how the landscape is changing in the mountains of the Indian Himalayan region where about 10% of the total geographical area is converted into protected landscape for conservation of biodiversity. For local people living in the Himalayan mountains in India, agriculture is the main land use activity and is strongly linked to the forests in providing sustainability. There are several branches in the rural ecosystems where the local people's economy was centered. These include agriculture, animal husbandry, medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation, forest resource collection, tourism and other occupations. The greatest proportion of the population was engaged in the agriculture sector, whose contribution is high in the rural economy (61%); followed by animal husbandry (19%), forest resource collection for economic gain (18%), and medicinal and aromatic plants cultivation (1.5%). However, three decades ago the animal husbandry branch of the rural ecosystem was contributing the maximum share towards rural household income (40%) followed by tourism (35.2%), and lastly agriculture (14%). The desire of farmers to secure the optimum output from agricultural land use has resulted in an increase for resource collection from the forests. The people's perception (n = 1,648) regarding overall changes occurring in the region was

  18. Ecosystem experiment reveals benefits of natural and simulated beaver dams to a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwes, Nicolaas; Weber, Nicholas; Jordan, Chris E.; Saunders, W. Carl; Tattam, Ian A.; Volk, Carol; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Pollock, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have been referred to as ecosystem engineers because of the large impacts their dam building activities have on the landscape; however, the benefits they may provide to fluvial fish species has been debated. We conducted a watershed-scale experiment to test how increasing beaver dam and colony persistence in a highly degraded incised stream affects the freshwater production of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following the installation of beaver dam analogs (BDAs), we observed significant increases in the density, survival, and production of juvenile steelhead without impacting upstream and downstream migrations. The steelhead response occurred as the quantity and complexity of their habitat increased. This study is the first large-scale experiment to quantify the benefits of beavers and BDAs to a fish population and its habitat. Beaver mediated restoration may be a viable and efficient strategy to recover ecosystem function of previously incised streams and to increase the production of imperiled fish populations. PMID:27373190

  19. TNT Degradation by Natural Microbial Assemblages at Frontal Boundaries Between Water Masses in Coastal Ecosystems (ER-2124)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-20

    receptor protein) and reduce substrate mineralization depending on how long it would take to disassociate the humic from the substrate upon dilution...geochemical samples . Anal. Chem. 72:3116-3121. Han, L., Sun, K., Jin, J., and B. Xing. 2016. Some concepts of soil organic carbon characteristics and...capacity for energetics released into hydrodynamically similar, UXO-impacted ecosystems where access to site samples may be limited. During samplings in

  20. Forest ecosystem services affected by natural disturbances, climate and land-use changes in the Tatra Mountains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fleischer, P.; Pichler, V.; Holko, L.; Fleischer Jr., P.; Máliš, F.; Gömöryová, E.; Cudlín, Pavel; Holeksa, J.; Michalová, Z.; Homolová, Z.; Škvarenina, J.; Střelcová, K.; Hlaváč, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, 1-2 (2017), s. 57-71 ISSN 0936-577X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Forest ecosystem state * Bark beetle outbreak * Long-term research Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.578, year: 2016

  1. Indirect effects of conservation policies on the coupled human-natural ecosystem of the upper Gulf of California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hem Nalini Morzaria-Luna

    Full Text Available High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis ecosystem model of the Northern Gulf of California to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of ecosystem function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of California, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038, directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008 levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and ecosystem function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased ecosystem function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider

  2. Land use pattern, socio-economic development, and assessment of their impacts on ecosystem service value: study on natural wetlands distribution area (NWDA) in Fuzhou city, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-Bin; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Wen-Bin; Chen, Yan-Hong; Wang, Xiang-Rong

    2013-06-01

    This paper quantifies the allocation of ecosystem services value (ESV) associated with land use pattern and qualitatively examined impacts of land use changes and socio-economic factors on spatiotemporal variation of ESV in the Natural Wetland Distribution Area (NWDA), Fuzhou city, China. The results showed that total ESV of the study area decreased from 4,332.16 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 1989 to 3,697.42 × 10(6) RMB Yuan in 2009, mainly due to the remarkable decreases in cropland (decreased by 55.3 %) and wetland (decreased by 74.2 %). Forest, water, and wetland played major roles in providing ecosystem services, accounting for over 90 % of the total ESV. Based on time series Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery, geographic information system, and historical data, analysis of the spatiotemporal variation of ESV from 1989 to 2009 was performed. It indicated that rapid expansion of urban areas along the Minjiang River resulted in significant changes in land use types, leading to a dramatic decline in ecosystem services. Meanwhile, because of land scarcity and unique ecosystem functions, the emergency of wetland and cropland protection in built-up area has become an urgent task of local authorities to the local government. Furthermore, there was still a significant negative correlation between ESV of cropland and wetland and the GDP. The results suggest that future planning of land use pattern should control encroachment of urban areas into cropland and wetland in addition to scientific and rational policies towards minimizing the adverse effects of urbanization.

  3. Water and vegetation indices by using MODIS products for eucalyptus, pasture, and natural ecosystems in the eastern São Paulo state, Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Leivas, Janice F.; Ronquim, Carlos C.; Garçon, Edlene A. M.; Bayma-Silva, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    Eucalyptus (Ec) and pasture (Pt) are expanding while natural vegetation (Nv) are losing space in the Paraíba Valley, eastern side of the São Paulo state, Southeast Brazil. For quantification of water and vegetation conditions, the MODIS product MOD13Q1 was used together with a net of weather stations and vegetation land masks during the year 2015. The SAFER algorithm was applied to retrieve the actual evapotranspiration (ET), which was combined with the Monteith's radiation use efficiency (RUE) model to estimate the biomass production (BIO). Three moisture indices were applied, the climatic water balance ratio (WBr), the ratio of precipitation (P) to ET, the water balance deficit (WBd), the difference between P and ET, and the evapotranspiration ratio (ETr), the ratio of ET to the reference evapotranspiration (ET0). On the one hand, the highest ET rates for the Ec ecosystem should be a negative aspect under water scarcity conditions; however, it presented the best water productivity. Although the Ec ecosystem presenting the lowest WBr and WBd values, it had the highest ETr, averaging 0.92, when comparing to those for Nv (0.88) and Pt (0.79). These results indicated that eucalyptus plants have greater ability of conserving soil moisture in their root zones, increasing WP, when comparing with Pt and Nv ecosystems. These water relationships are relevant issues under the land-use change conditions in the Paraiba Valley, confirming the suitability of using the MODIS products together with weather stations to study the ecosystem dynamics.

  4. Payment schemes for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument for the sustainable management of natural resources and poverty reduction - a case study from Belén, Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, J.

    2010-08-01

    The importance of intact ecosystems for human-wellbeing as well as the dependence on functions and services they provide is undoubted. But still neither the costs of ecosystem degradation nor the benefits from ecosystem functions and services appear on socio-economic balance sheets when development takes place. Consequently overuse of natural resources is socio-economically promoted by conventional resource management policies and external effects (externalities), equally positives and negatives, remain unregarded. In this context the potential of payments for hydrological ecosystem services as a political instrument to foster sustainable natural resource use, and rural development shall be investigated. This paper introduces the principle concept of such payments, presents a case study from Nicaragua and highlights preliminary effects of the application of this instrument on natural resource use and development.

  5. Parameterization of aquatic ecosystem functioning and its natural variation: Hierarchical Bayesian modelling of plankton food web dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norros, Veera; Laine, Marko; Lignell, Risto; Thingstad, Frede

    2017-10-01

    Methods for extracting empirically and theoretically sound parameter values are urgently needed in aquatic ecosystem modelling to describe key flows and their variation in the system. Here, we compare three Bayesian formulations for mechanistic model parameterization that differ in their assumptions about the variation in parameter values between various datasets: 1) global analysis - no variation, 2) separate analysis - independent variation and 3) hierarchical analysis - variation arising from a shared distribution defined by hyperparameters. We tested these methods, using computer-generated and empirical data, coupled with simplified and reasonably realistic plankton food web models, respectively. While all methods were adequate, the simulated example demonstrated that a well-designed hierarchical analysis can result in the most accurate and precise parameter estimates and predictions, due to its ability to combine information across datasets. However, our results also highlighted sensitivity to hyperparameter prior distributions as an important caveat of hierarchical analysis. In the more complex empirical example, hierarchical analysis was able to combine precise identification of parameter values with reasonably good predictive performance, although the ranking of the methods was less straightforward. We conclude that hierarchical Bayesian analysis is a promising tool for identifying key ecosystem-functioning parameters and their variation from empirical datasets.

  6. Interregional flows of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröter, Matthias; Koellner, Thomas; Alkemade, Rob; Arnhold, Sebastian; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Erb, Karl Heinz; Frank, Karin; Kastner, Thomas; Kissinger, Meidad; Liu, Jianguo; López-Hoffman, Laura; Maes, Joachim; Marques, Alexandra; Martín-López, Berta; Meyer, Carsten; Schulp, Catharina J.E.; Thober, Jule; Wolff, Sarah; Bonn, Aletta

    2018-01-01

    Conserving and managing global natural capital requires an understanding of the complexity of flows of ecosystem services across geographic boundaries. Failing to understand and to incorporate these flows into national and international ecosystem assessments leads to incomplete and potentially

  7. Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to sustain biodiversity in the longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem : balancing complexity and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Palik; Robert J. Mitchell; J. Kevin Hiers

    2002-01-01

    Modeling silviculture after natural disturbance to maintain biodiversity is a popular concept, yet its application remains elusive. We discuss difficulties inherent to this idea, and suggest approaches to facilitate implementation, using longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) as an example. Natural disturbance regimes are spatially and temporally variable. Variability...

  8. Disturbances and structural development of natural forest ecosystems with silvicultural implications, using Douglas-fir forests as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.F. Franklin; T.A. Spies; R.V. Pelt; A.B. Carey; D.A. Thornburgh; D.R. Berg; D.B. Lindenmayer; M.E. Harmon; W.S. Keeton; D.C. Shaw; K. Bible; J. Chen

    2002-01-01

    Forest managers need a comprehensive scientific understanding of natural stand development processes when designing silvicultural systems that integrate ecological and economic objectives, including a better appreciation of the nature of disturbance regimes and the biological legacies, such as live trees, snags, and logs, that they leave behind. Most conceptual forest...

  9. The effects of the 8.2 ka event on the natural environment of Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria : Implications for ecosystem resilience studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horn, Sarah A.; van Kolfschoten, Thijs; van der Plicht, Johannes; Hoek, Wim Z.

    2015-01-01

    Research on ecosystem resilience and climate-ecosystem interactions is extremely complex due to the large variety of factors that play a role in ecosystem functioning. This study aimes at determining which factors are involved in ecosystem resilience, which methods are needed to investigate this,

  10. Bioavailability of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in aquatic ecosystems : influence of natural and anthropic organic matter; Biodisponibilite des hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les ecosystemes aquatiques: influence de la matiere organique naturelle et anthropique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourlay, C

    2004-11-01

    Aquatic ecosystems receive micro-pollutants. They also contain organic matter (OM) of natural and anthropogenic origins. The contaminant bioavailability in aquatic media is determined by the interactions between contaminants and OM. This work deals with the influence of organic matter from anthropogenic media on the bioavailability of hydrophobic organic pollutants. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been used as model contaminants, since they are widely spread in urban media. In anthropogenic media, some OM may be bio-degraded. Up to now, most researches focused on the interactions between contaminants and humic OM that are mostly non-degradable, using physico-chemical characterizations of OM. On the contrary, in this work, the biodegradability of OM was deliberately taken into account. Indeed, we assume that the contaminant affinity for OM evolves during OM biodegradation, so that pollutants may be released in a bio-available form and then may be bond again by biodegradation sub-products. In laboratory evaluation, PAH bioavailability was assessed through the measurements of the bioaccumulation in Daphnia magna. The influence of organic matter on the bioavailability of PAHs and the evolution of this influence along OM bacterial mineralization were proved, as well as the strong binding efficiency of degradation by-products. A model of observed phenomena was elaborated. These observations about urban and natural OM effect were compared to in situ PAH bioavailability measurements in the river Seine basin. In this case, the bioavailability was estimated using Semi-Permeable Membrane Device (SPMD) sampling technique. (author)

  11. Does the diet of the Balearic population, a Mediterranean-type diet, ensure compliance with nutritional objectives for the Spanish population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur, Josep A; Romaguera, Dora; Pons, Antoni

    2005-05-01

    To assess the dietary habits of Balearic Islands' consumers who are successful in meeting current nutritional recommendations, to find clues for the development of future food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) that would be relevant to this population. Cross-sectional nutritional survey carried out in the Balearic Islands between 1999 and 2000. Dietary habits were assessed by means of 24-hour recall (two non-consecutive days: warm and cold season) and a food-frequency questionnaire in a random sample (n=1200, aged 16-65 years) living in private households. Differences in percentage of compliers with the intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population and differences in food consumption patterns between genders and between high (above the upper quartile of intake) and low (below the lower quartile of intake) consumers of fat, saturated fatty acids (SFA), fibre, and fruit and vegetables were analysed. Gender differences were observed in nutrient and energy intakes, as well as in attainment of the recommendations. Less than 25% of the population reached the intermediate nutritional recommendations for iodine, fruit, carbohydrates, SFA, fibre and vegetables. Low fat/SFA and high fruit and vegetables/fibre consumers kept a diet in line with the traditional Balearic diet and prevailing dietary pyramids, which ensured better compliance with the nutritional goals. The intermediate nutritional objectives for the Spanish population could be achieved through maintenance of the traditional Balearic diet, a Mediterranean-type diet in the Balearic population. Therefore, this dietary model could be used to develop FBDG relevant to this population.

  12. Fishing for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem services. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem services. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem services, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem services could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem services. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Payments for Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Kai M.A; Anderson, Emily K.; Chapman, Mollie

    2017-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services (PES) programs are one prominent strategy to address economic externalities of resource extraction and commodity production, improving both social and ecological outcomes. But do PES and related incentive programs achieve that lofty goal? Along with considerable en...... sustainable relationships with nature, conserving and restoring ecosystems and their benefits for people now and in the future....

  14. Radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocock, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the distribution and movement of radionuclides in semi-natural terrestrial ecosystems in north-west England with particular emphasis on inputs to, and outputs from ecosystems; on plant and soil aspects; and on radionuclides in fallout and in discharges by the nuclear industry. (author)

  15. Modeling the effects of urban expansion on natural capital stocks and ecosystem service flows: A case study in the Puget Sound, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zank, Ben; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Voigt, Brian; Villa, Ferdinando

    2016-01-01

    Urban expansion and its associated landscape modifications are important drivers of changes in ecosystem service (ES). This study examined the effects of two alternative land use-change development scenarios in the Puget Sound region of Washington State on natural capital stocks and ES flows. Land-use change model outputs served as inputs to five ES models developed using the Artificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) platform. While natural capital stocks declined under managed (1.3–5.8%) and unmanaged (2.8–11.8%) development scenarios, ES flows increased by 18.5–56% and 23.2–55.7%, respectively. Human development of natural landscapes reduced their capacity for service provision, while simultaneously adding beneficiaries, particularly along the urban fringe. Using global and local Moran’s I, we identified three distinct patterns of change in ES due to projected landuse change. For services with location-dependent beneficiaries – open space proximity, viewsheds, and flood regulation – urbanization led to increased clustering and hot-spot intensities. ES flows were greatest in the managed land-use change scenario for open space proximity and flood regulation, and in the unmanaged land-use change scenario for viewsheds—a consequence of the differing ES flow mechanisms underpinning these services. We observed a third pattern – general declines in service provision – for carbon storage and sediment retention, where beneficiaries in our analysis were not location dependent. Contrary to past authors’ finding of ES declines under urbanization, a more nuanced analysis that maps and quantifies ES provision, beneficiaries, and flows better identifies gains and losses for specific ES beneficiaries as urban areas expand.

  16. The role of agricultural and natural ecosystems in the internal dose formation in the inhabitants of a controlled area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Travnikova, I.G.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics of caesium radionuclide transfer to agricultural and natural food products produced in western areas of the Bryansk region during 3 years after the Chernobyl accident and its change due to the protective measures adopted have been determined. It has been shown that the role of agricultural and natural (mushrooms, fish, berries) food products in the people's internal irradiation may be equally important both with routine diet and with the food restrictions imposed. The substitution of local food products for radiation-free ones reduced the internal irradiation dose in the adult rural inhabitants of the controlled area by 70-86% during 1.5 years. (author)

  17. Safeguarding production agriculture and natural ecosystems against biological terrorism. A U.S. Department of Agriculture emergency response framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, R

    1999-01-01

    Foreign pest introductions and outbreaks represent threats to agricultural productivity and ecosystems, and, thus, to the health and national security of the United States. It is advisable to identify relevant techniques and bring all appropriate strategies to bear on the problem of controlling accidentally and intentionally introduced pest outbreaks. Recent political shifts indicate that the U.S. may be at increased risk for biological terrorism. The existing emergency-response strategies of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services (APHIS) will evolve to expand activities in coordination with other emergency management agencies. APHIS will evolve its information superstructure to include extensive application of simulation models for forecasting, meteorological databases and analysis, systems analysis, geographic information systems, satellite image analysis, remote sensing, and the training of specialized cadres within the emergency-response framework capable of managing the necessary information processing and analysis. Finally, the threat of key pests ranked according to perceived risk will be assessed with mathematical models and "what-if" scenarios analyzed to determine impact and mitigation practices. An infrastructure will be maintained that periodically surveys ports and inland regions for the presence of exotic pest threats and will identify trend abnormalities. This survey and monitoring effort will include cooperation from industry groups, federal and state organizations, and academic institutions.

  18. Assessing Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction on Microbial Communities in Headwater Stream Ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eTrexler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale play. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity (MSA+. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity (MSA-. For example, OTUs within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA- sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Assessing impacts of unconventional natural gas extraction on microbial communities in headwater stream ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Ryan; Solomon, Caroline; Brislawn, Colin J.; Wright, Justin R.; Rosenberger, Abigail; McClure, Erin E.; Grube, Alyssa M.; Peterson, Mark P.; Keddache, Mehdi; Mason, Olivia U.; Hazen, Terry C.; Grant, Christopher J.; Lamendella, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale formations. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity. For example, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA− sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25408683

  20. Habitat functionality for the ecosystem service of pest control: reproduction and feeding sites of pests and natural enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Schellhorn, N.A.; Cunningham, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    1 Landscape management for enhanced natural pest control requires knowledge of the ecological function of the habitats present in the landscape mosaic. However, little is known about which habitat types in agricultural landscapes function as reproduction habitats for arthropod pests and predators

  1. The ecosystem of the Yahudia Nature Reserve with emphasis on dynamics of germination and development of Quercus ithaburensis decne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Y.

    1984-01-01

    6 main subjects connected with the ecology of the Yahudia Forest Reserve are discussed in this paper, following a general survey of the history of nature conservation in Israel against the background of the neighbouring countries. We have described the physical and historical background of the

  2. Natural bog pine ecosystem in southern Germany is a steady and robust sink of CO2 but a minor source of CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeltenberg, Janina; Schmid, Hans Peter; Droesler, Matthias; Werle, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Natural peatland ecosystems sequester carbon dioxide. They do this slowly but steadily, but also emit methane in small rates. Thus peatlands have both positive and negative greenhouse gas balance impacts on the climate system due to their influence on atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentration. We present data of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of almost three years (July 2010 to March 2013) and of methane fluxes over a period of nine months (July 2012 to March 2013), measured by eddy covariance technique in the bog forest "Schechenfilz". The site (47°48' N; 11°19' E, 590 m a.s.l.) is an ICOS-ecosystems associate site, located in the pre-alpine region of southern Germany, where a natural Pinus mugo rotundata forest grows on an undisturbed, almost 6 m thick peat layer. The slow growing bog pines and their low rates of carbon sequestration, in combination with high water table and thus low availability of oxygen, lead to low carbon dioxide fluxes. Photosynthesis as well as soil respiration are considerably attenuated compared to upland sites. Additionally, the high soil water content is damping the impact of dry and hot periods on CO2 exchange. Thus the CO2 balance is very robust to changing environmental parameters. While the CO2 exchange is clearly related to soil temperature and photosynthetic active radiation, we have not yet identified a parameter that governs variations in methane exchange. Various environmental parameters appear to be related to methane emissions (including soil moisture, soil and air temperature and wind direction), but the scatter with respect to half hourly methane fluxes is too large to be useful for gap modeling. Analysis of daily averages reduces the scatter, but since methane exchange exhibits considerable daily variation, daily averages are not useful to fill data gaps of half hourly fluxes. In consequence, as the daily course is the summary result of all environmental parameters having influence on the methane exchange at the half

  3. Small Boreal Lake Ecosystem Evolution under the Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors: Results of Multidisciplinary Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Shirokova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Small aquatic ecosystems of the boreal zone are known to be most sensitive indicators of on-going environmental change as well as local anthropogenic pressure, while being highly vulnerable to external impacts. Compared to rather detailed knowledge of the evolution of large and small lakes in Scandinavia and Canada, and large lakes in Eurasia, highly abundant small boreal lakes of northwest Russia have received very little attention, although they may become important centers of attraction of growing rural population in the near future. Here we present the results of a multidisciplinary, multi-annual study of a small boreal humic lake of NW Russia. A shallow (3 m and a deep (16 m site of this lake were regularly sampled for a range of chemical and biological parameters. Average multi-daily, summer-time values of the epilimnion (upper oxygenated layer of the lake provided indications of possible trends in temperature, nutrients, and bacterio-plankton concentration that revealed the local pollution impact in the shallow zone and overall environmental trend in the deep sampling point of the lake. Organic phosphorus, nitrate, and lead were found to be most efficient tracers of local anthropogenic pollution, especially visible in the surface layer of the shallow site of the lake. Cycling of trace elements between the epilimnion and hypolimnion is tightly linked to dissolved organic matter speciation and size fractionation due to the dominance of organic and organo-ferric colloids. The capacity of lake self-purification depends on the ratio of primary productivity to mineralization of organic matter. This ratio remained >1 both during winter and summer periods, which suggests a high potential of lake recovery from the input of allochthonous dissolved organic matter and local anthropogenic pollution.

  4. Effects of extreme natural events on the provision of ecosystem services in a mountain environment: The importance of trail design in delivering system resilience and ecosystem service co-benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra M; White, Piran C L; Ewertowski, Marek W

    2016-01-15

    A continued supply of ecosystem services (ES) from a system depends on the resilience of that system to withstand shocks and perturbations. In many parts of the world, climate change is leading to an increased frequency of extreme weather events, potentially influencing ES provision. Our study of the effects of an intense rainfall event in Gorce National Park, Poland, shows: (1) the intense rainfall event impacted heavily on the supply of ES by limiting potential recreation opportunities and reducing erosion prevention; (2) these negative impacts were not only restricted to the period of the extreme event but persisted for up to several years, depending on the pre-event trail conditions and post-event management activities; (3) to restore the pre-event supply of ES, economic investments were required in the form of active repairs to trails, which, in Gorce National Park, were an order of magnitude higher than the costs of normal trail maintenance; and (4) when recreational trails were left to natural restoration, loss of biodiversity was observed, and recovery rates of ES (recreation opportunities and soil erosion prevention) were reduced in comparison to their pre-event state. We conclude that proper trail design and construction provides a good solution to avoid some of the negative impacts of extreme events on recreation, as well as offering co-benefits in terms of protecting biodiversity and enhancing the supply of regulating services such as erosion prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping monetary values of ecosystem services in support of developing ecosystem accounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars; Edens, Bram; Suwarno, Aritta

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting has been proposed as a comprehensive, innovative approach to natural capital accounting, and basically involves the biophysical and monetary analysis of ecosystem services in a national accounting framework. Characteristic for ecosystem accounting is the spatial approach

  6. Evaluating small mammal response to natural disturbance and restoration in oak ecosystems in the Mississippi alluvial valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith Carl G; Hamel Paul B; Fuzaro Gullo, Manoelle

    2010-01-01

    Oak species form a conspicuous and often dominant component of bottom land forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The extent of these forests has been drastically reduced as a result of clearing for agriculture in the past two centuries. Patterns of clearing have reduced the distribution of remaining forest patches to a much more flood-prone subset of the landscape than was historically the case, reducing the diversity of oak species currently present on the landscape. Intensive harvesting has further changed the composition of the remaining stands. Small remnant patches of primary forest continue to exist as Research Natural Areas on the Delta National Forest in Sharkey County, Mississippi. In particular, the Over cup Oak (Quercus lyrata) and Redgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) Research Natural Areas pres ent substantial components of the trees for which the areas were named, as well as Quercus nuttallii and smaller components of other species. Recent interest in afforestation has produced a resurgence of interest in restoration of oak forest to abandoned farmland in the region. We have studied small mammal response to restoration on an extensive experiment near the Delta National Forest since 1995. We have also examined small mammal response to a tornado that disturbed approximately half of the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area in 2008. We use these studies to demonstrate how population estimates of small mammals can be obtained from capture-recapture studies, employing different designs, and utilizing Program Capture for population estimation. Small mammal communities in these stands are more species-rich in early succession than in primary forest. The study of response to tornado damage to the Over cup Oak Research Natural Area is complicated by the fact that this particular forest type is very flood-prone, creating obstacles to colonization by small mammals. Analysis of capture-recapture data with robust methods illustrated in this study permits extraction

  7. Migration and transfer of transuranium elements (Pu, Am) and longliving fission products (Sr, Ru, Sb, Cs, Ce, Eu) in natural forest ecosystems of the 30-km-zone around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lux, D.; Kammerer, L.; Simko, M.; Hiersche, L.; Wirth, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the framework of the C.E.C. research project ECP-5 entitled ''The behaviour of radionuclides in natural and semi-natural ecosystems'' our institute carried out investigations on selected sites of forest ecosystems in the 30-km-zone of Chernobyl in cooperation with research instituts of the C.I.S. states Russia and Ukraine. Our research is concentrated on the transfer of radionuclides from soil to plants of the understorey, especially species of farns and berries, as this plants take up their nutrients mainly from the upper organic horizons. (orig.) [de

  8. Environmental and economic consequences of the overexploitation of natural capital and ecosystem services in Xilinguole League, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, X.B.; Yu, B.H.; Brown, M.T.; Zhang, Y.S.; Kang, M.Y.; Jin, Y.; Zhang, X.S.; Ulgiati, S.

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of natural capital and environmental services has always been an important step in the implementation of sustainable development concepts and policies. The results presented in this study address the demand for environmental support of the economy of Xilinguole League in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region as well as the value of its natural and human-made capital. The results show that the reliance of the economy of Xilinguole League on local and imported non-renewable resources (coal and minerals) decreases both the environmental and economic sustainability of the area. Emergy-based performance indicators of the Xilinguole League economy show a low sustainability index (ESI=0.79), though it is higher than for the Chinese economy as a whole (ESI=0.47), as well as a low percentage of renewable resources being used (%REN=0.16, though this is higher than for all of China, 0.09). In contrast, the grassland-based livestock sector shows a higher renewability index (%REN=0.67) and sustainability (ESI=9.61). The emergy exchange ratios (exported emergy/imported emergy) are calculated to be 4.38 for the livestock system and 4.28 for the Xilinguole economy, which is much higher than the value of 1.74 for the overall Chinese economy, indicating uncompensated overexploitation of local systems (meat and coal, respectively). Intensified coal exploitation and intensive cattle grazing are discussed to support the decision-making process for setting local energy policy and ecological compensation. It is proposed that conservation of coal resources (avoiding misuse and moderating excess extraction and trade) and protection of natural grassland capital are more advantageous in emergy terms than the “blind” pursuit of accelerated, economic growth. - Highlights: • The sustainability of theXilinguole League, Inner Mongolia, China, is assessed. • The study deals with the impact of local coal and grassland overexploitation. • Policies for impact reduction by more

  9. Analysis of energy fluxes and vegetation-atmosphere parameters in irrigated and natural ecosystems of semi-arid Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A. H. de Castro; Bastiaanssen, W. G. M.; Ahmad, M. D.; Moura, M. S. B.; Bos, M. G.

    2008-11-01

    SummaryKnowledge on evapotranspiration is essential in quantifying water use depletion and to allocate scarce water resources to competing uses. Despite that an extensive literature describes the theoretical mechanisms of turbulent water vapour transport above and within crop canopies fewer studies have examined land surface parameters within composite landscapes of irrigated crops and semi-arid natural vegetation. Aiming to improve parameterizations of the radiation and energy balance in irrigated crops and natural vegetation, micro-climatic measurements were carried out on irrigated land (vineyards and mango orchard) and natural vegetation (caatinga) in the semi-arid zone of the São Francisco River basin (Brazil) from 2002 to 2005. The fractions of 24 h incident solar radiation available for net radiation were 46%, 55%, 51% and 53%, for wine grape, table grape, mango orchard and caatinga, respectively. Daily evaporative fractions of the net available energy used as latent heat flux ( λE) were 0.80, 0.88, 0.75 and 0.33 respectively. The daylight values of bulk surface resistances ( rs) averaged 128 s m -1, 73 s m -1, 133 s m -1 and 1940 s m -1 for wine grape, table grape, mango orchard and caatinga, respectively. Simplified parameterizations on roughness and evaporation resistances were performed. It could be concluded that net radiation can be estimated by means of a linear expression with incident global solar radiation depending on the type of vegetation. The variability of aerodynamic resistance ( ra) could be mainly explained by the friction velocity ( u ∗) which on turn depends on the surface roughness length for momentum transport ( z 0m). The experimental data showed that for sparse canopies z 0m being 9% of the mean vegetation height is a doable operational rule for the semi-arid region of São Francisco River basin. The seasonal values of rs for irrigated crops were highly correlated with water vapour pressure deficit. The availability of analytical

  10. How does conversion of natural tropical rainforest ecosystems affect soil bacterial and fungal communities in the Nile river watershed of Uganda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O Alele

    Full Text Available Uganda's forests are globally important for their conservation values but are under pressure from increasing human population and consumption. In this study, we examine how conversion of natural forest affects soil bacterial and fungal communities. Comparisons in paired natural forest and human-converted sites among four locations indicated that natural forest soils consistently had higher pH, organic carbon, nitrogen, and calcium, although variation among sites was large. Despite these differences, no effect on the diversity of dominant taxa for either bacterial or fungal communities was detected, using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE. Composition of fungal communities did generally appear different in converted sites, but surprisingly, we did not observe a consistent pattern among sites. The spatial distribution of some taxa and community composition was associated with soil pH, organic carbon, phosphorus and sodium, suggesting that changes in soil communities were nuanced and require more robust metagenomic methods to understand the various components of the community. Given the close geographic proximity of the paired sampling sites, the similarity between natural and converted sites might be due to continued dispersal between treatments. Fungal communities showed greater environmental differentiation than bacterial communities, particularly according to soil pH. We detected biotic homogenization in converted ecosystems and substantial contribution of β-diversity to total diversity, indicating considerable geographic structure in soil biota in these forest communities. Overall, our results suggest that soil microbial communities are relatively resilient to forest conversion and despite a substantial and consistent change in the soil environment, the effects of conversion differed widely among sites. The substantial difference in soil chemistry, with generally lower nutrient quantity in converted

  11. Modelling global nitrogen export to ground and surface water from natural ecosystems: impact of N deposition, climate, and CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, Maarten; Rebel, Karin; Dekker, Stefan; van Beek, Rens; Bierkens, Marc; Smith, Ben; Wassen, Martin

    2015-04-01

    For large regions in the world strong increases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition are predicted as a result of emissions from fossil fuel combustion and food production. This will cause many previously N limited ecosystems to become N saturated, leading to increased export to ground and surface water and negative impacts on the environment and human health. However, precise N export fluxes are difficult to predict. Due to its strong link to carbon, N in vegetation and soil is also determined by productivity, as affected by rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature, and denitrification. Furthermore, the N concentration of water delivered to streams depends strongly on local hydrological conditions. We aim to study how N delivery to ground and surface water is affected by changes in environmental factors. To this end we are developing a global dynamic modelling system that integrates representations of N cycling in vegetation and soil, and N delivery to ground and surface water. This will be achieved by coupling the dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, which includes representations of N cycling, as well as croplands and pasture, to the global water balance model PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface runoff, interflow, groundwater recharge, and baseflow. This coupling will allow us to trace N across different systems and estimate the input of N into the riverine system which can be used as input for river biogeochemical models. We will present large scale estimates of N leaching and transport to ground and surface water for natural ecosystems in different biomes, based on a loose coupling of the two models. Furthermore, by means of a factorial model experiment we will explore how these fluxes are influenced by N deposition, temperature, and CO2 concentration.

  12. Characteristic of pollution with groundwater inflow (90)Sr natural waters and terrestrial ecosystems near a radioactive waste storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyeva, G V

    2014-09-01

    The studies were conducted in the territory contaminated by (90)Sr with groundwater inflow as a result of leakage from the near-surface trench-type radioactive waste storage. The vertical soil (90)Sr distribution up to the depth of 2-3 m is analyzed. The area of radioactive contamination to be calculated with a value which exceeds the minimum significant activity 1 kBq/kg for the tested soil layers: the contaminated area for the 0-5 cm soil layer amounted to 1800 ± 85 m(2), for the 5-10 cm soil layer amounted to 300 ± 12 m(2), for the 10-15 cm soil layer amounted to 180 ± 10 m(2). It is found that (90)Sr accumulation proceeds in a natural sorption geochemical barrier of the marshy terrace near flood plain. The exposure doses for terrestrial mollusks Bradybaena fruticum are presented. The excess (90)Sr interference level was registered both in the ground and surface water during winter and summer low-water periods and autumn heavy rains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Changes in forest landscape due to agricultural activities and their influence on natural ecosystems: the eastern Galician mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Maroto I.J.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest and agricultural landscapes are vital in relation to biodiversity. Protection policies in such areas should include incentives to enable the common landuse practices. Conservation cannot be addressed in the short term because these landscapes have evolved as socio-ecological systems and provide optimal conditions for biodiversity maintenance. They occur in areas where agriculture has not changed significantly as in the eastern Galician mountains. The landscape dynamics has been shaped by human involvement during centuries. We analyzed how the landscape has evolved according to environmental, socioeconomic and historical changes with the aim of proposing actions for its conservation. The study focused on the recovery of natural hardwood forests which have been intensively exploited since ancient times. Over the past few centuries, these forests have been transformed to agricultural land, felled for use in the naval, metallurgical and railway industries, expropriated from the Church, and affected by wildfire; more recently, have been replaced by fast growing species. Today, broadleaved forests cover small areas of rugged land where the topography often precludes other land uses. In conclusion, although the landscape in the study area has undergone a major transformation, now this land is a priority for biodiversity conservation.

  14. Large-scale sequestration of atmospheric carbon via plant roots in natural and agricultural ecosystems: why and how.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B

    2012-06-05

    The soil holds twice as much carbon as does the atmosphere, and most soil carbon is derived from recent photosynthesis that takes carbon into root structures and further into below-ground storage via exudates therefrom. Nonetheless, many natural and most agricultural crops have roots that extend only to about 1 m below ground. What determines the lifetime of below-ground C in various forms is not well understood, and understanding these processes is therefore key to optimising them for enhanced C sequestration. Most soils (and especially subsoils) are very far from being saturated with organic carbon, and calculations show that the amounts of C that might further be sequestered (http://dbkgroup.org/carbonsequestration/rootsystem.html) are actually very great. Breeding crops with desirable below-ground C sequestration traits, and exploiting attendant agronomic practices optimised for individual species in their relevant environments, are therefore important goals. These bring additional benefits related to improvements in soil structure and in the usage of other nutrients and water.

  15. Large-scale sequestration of atmospheric carbon via plant roots in natural and agricultural ecosystems: why and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    The soil holds twice as much carbon as does the atmosphere, and most soil carbon is derived from recent photosynthesis that takes carbon into root structures and further into below-ground storage via exudates therefrom. Nonetheless, many natural and most agricultural crops have roots that extend only to about 1 m below ground. What determines the lifetime of below-ground C in various forms is not well understood, and understanding these processes is therefore key to optimising them for enhanced C sequestration. Most soils (and especially subsoils) are very far from being saturated with organic carbon, and calculations show that the amounts of C that might further be sequestered (http://dbkgroup.org/carbonsequestration/rootsystem.html) are actually very great. Breeding crops with desirable below-ground C sequestration traits, and exploiting attendant agronomic practices optimised for individual species in their relevant environments, are therefore important goals. These bring additional benefits related to improvements in soil structure and in the usage of other nutrients and water. PMID:22527402

  16. Alpine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.W. Rundel; C.I. Millar

    2016-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are typically defined as those areas occurring above treeline, while recognizing that alpine ecosystems at a local scale may be found below this boundary for reasons including geology, geomorphology, and microclimate. The lower limit of the alpine ecosystems, the climatic treeline, varies with latitude across California, ranging from about 3500 m in...

  17. Ecosystem Jenga!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.

    2009-01-01

    To give students a tangible model of an ecosystem and have them experience what could happen if a component of that ecosystem were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced ecosystem through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…

  18. Forest Ecosystem services: Water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; James Vose; Travis Warziniack; Bill Holman

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005), awareness has steadily grown regarding the importance of maintaining natural capital. Forest vegetation is a valuable source of natural capital, and the regulation of water quantity and quality is among the most important forest ecosystem services in many regions around the world. Changes in...

  19. Model calculation of radiocaesium transfer into food products in semi-natural forest ecosystems in the Czech Republic after a nuclear reactor accident and an estimate of the population dose burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svadlenkova, M.; Konecny, J.; Smutny, V.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactivity of food products from semi-natural forest ecosystems can contribute appreciably to the radiological burden of the human population following a nuclear accident, as found after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986. In the Czech Republic, radiocaesium radioactivity has been measured, such as soil, mushrooms, bilberries, deer and boar. In this work, the data are employed to predict how a model accident of the Temelin nuclear power plant in southern Bohemia (which is under construction) would affect selected forest ecosystems in its surroundings. The dose commitment to the critical population group is also estimated. (author)

  20. Differences in chemical composition of soil organic matter in natural ecosystems from different climatic regions: a pyrolysis-GC/MS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vancampenhout, K.; Wouters, K.; Vos, de B.; Buurman, P.; Swennen, R.; Deckers, J.

    2009-01-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is a key factor in ecosystem dynamics. A better understanding of the global relationship between environmental characteristics, ecosystems and SOM chemistry is vital in order to assess its specific influence on carbon cycles. This study compared the composition of extracted

  1. Ecosystem approach in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabiullin, Iskander

    2017-04-01

    Environmental education is a base for sustainable development. Therefore, in our school we pay great attention to environmental education. Environmental education in our school is based on ecosystem approach. What is an ecosystem approach? Ecosystem is a fundamental concept of ecology. Living organisms and their non-living environments interact with each other as a system, and the biosphere planet functions as a global ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary for children to understand relationships in ecosystems, and we have to develop systems thinking in our students. Ecosystem approach and systems thinking should help us to solve global environmental problems. How do we implement the ecosystem approach? Students must understand that our biosphere functions as a single ecosystem and even small changes can lead to environmental disasters. Even the disappearance of one plant or animal species can lead to irreversible consequences. So in the classroom we learn the importance of each living organism for the nature. We pay special attention to endangered species, which are listed in the Red Data List. Kids are doing projects about these organisms, make videos, print brochures and newspapers. Fieldwork also plays an important role for ecosystem approach. Every summer, we go out for expeditions to study species of plants and animals listed in the Red Data List of Tatarstan. In class, students often write essays on behalf of any endangered species of plants or animals, this also helps them to understand the importance of each living organism in nature. Each spring we organise a festival of environmental projects among students. Groups of 4-5 students work on a solution of environmental problems, such as water, air or soil pollution, waste recycling, the loss of biodiversity, etc. Participants shoot a clip about their project, print brochures. Furthermore, some of the students participate in national and international scientific Olympiads with their projects. In addition to

  2. Past Holocene soil erosion modeling as a new way to decipher human-climate-environment interactions on natural geo-ecosystem over long time-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Anaëlle; Di Giovanni, Christian; Chapron, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    Soil erosion is a global phenomenon dealing with both environmental, societal and economic issues. Soil erosion is also one of the key processes when it is a matter of Human-climate-environment interactions [1, 2] since if mechanical erosion of continental surfaces initially results from climatic forcing, it can be largely amplified by anthropogenic activities. Using multi-scalar datasets to model long-term (Holocene) erosion fluxes in contrasted areas, where human pressure is well documented by geoarchaeology, we address how landscape evolution, geomorphological processes, ecosystem response and human impacts have been connected over time. Beyond that, such interdisciplinary and integrative approach allow (1) to locally date, qualify, and in particular quantify, both climate variability (rainfall) and impacts of human activities on soils, and (2) to discuss of potential feedback mechanisms and the legacy of past socio-cultural systems on actual geo-ecosystems. Lacustrine sediment represents one of the more relevant natural archives in order to reconstruct environmental or climatic variability and human activities over the past thousand years. Over the last 50 years, the edges of lakes Paladru (low altitude site, 640 m a.s.l.) and Blanc Huez (high-altitude site, 2250 m a.s.l.), both located in Western French Alps and therefore sensitive to the same climatic influences, have been deeply studied by archaeologists who documented and dated periods of enhanced human pressures (agriculture, mining [3, 4]). In these two case-studies, we were therefore able to confront the specific calendars of local human activities with past landscape evolution (vegetation cover, 5) and soil erosion fluxes reconstituted from specific organic tracers quantified into the lacustrine sediments [3, 6]. Results demonstrated that, over the Holocene, climatic forcing, and more particularly glacial fluctuations, influenced human accessibility to high-altitude sites (lake Blanc Huez) and therefore

  3. Inclusion of the Public in the Natural Capital, Ecosystem Services and Green Infrastructure Assessments (Results of Structured Interviews with Stakeholders of Commune Liptovská Teplička

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moyzeová Milena

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, topics like natural capital assessment, ecosystem services and green infrastructure have become frequent subjects of a number of national and international projects accomplished on local, regional, national and cross-frontier levels. These projects respond to the deterioration of biotopes due to their fragmentation and degradation as a result of constructions and tourism/recreation. This situation requires an economic assessment of ecosystems from the view point of their capacities to satisfy human necessities with simultaneous conservation of the environmental quality, and the optimal status of landscape diversity both in rural and urban areas. The aim of the Green Infrastructure initiative is to stop the loss of land as an irreplaceable natural resource and to contribute to the inclusion of ecological and sustainability aspects into the spatial planning and regional development in rural and urban areas. Green Infrastructure is the tool that may reduce the loss of ecosystem services connected with future occupation of land and improve functions of land. It may support ecological measures aimed at conservation of agricultural landscape and adoption of measures in the sphere of forest and water economies. Important role in the assessment of ecosystems is played not only by the scientists but also by experts and the public at large. This is the reason why ever more stakeholders possessing knowledge of local territory and personal life experience participate in these projects. Their judgments and views, often bearing information important for the above-mentioned assessment, are applied to proposed measures aimed at the improvement of environmental quality and quality of life in terms of sustainability. This article brings the possible example of how to include a selected sample of stakeholders into the assessment of natural capital and ecosystem services on local level in the frame of Green Infrastructure. The aim of this paper is to

  4. Ecosystem services science, practice, and policy: Perspectives from ACES, A Community on Ecosystem Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carl D.; Arthaud, Greg; Casey, Frank; Hogan, Dianna M.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem services are at a crossroad. The natural capital needed to produce them is diminishing (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). At the same time, the science relating to their identification, production, and valuation is advancing. Examples of ecosystem services applications are abundant in the literature. In addition, the concept of ecosystem services and its applications are attracting attention and are becoming more visible. The concept of ecosystem services, however, is still not routinely applied to many natural resource management decisions.

  5. Astronomical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Just as quetzals and jaguars require specific ecological habitats to survive, so too must planets occupy a tightly constrained astronomical habitat to support life as we know it. With this theme in mind we relate the transferable features of our elementary astronomy course, "The Astronomical Basis of Life on Earth." Over the last five years, in a team-taught course that features a spring break field trip to Costa Rica, we have introduced astronomy through "astronomical ecosystems," emphasizing astronomical constraints on the prospects for life on Earth. Life requires energy, chemical elements, and long timescales, and we emphasize how cosmological, astrophysical, and geological realities, through stabilities and catastrophes, create and eliminate niches for biological life. The linkage between astronomy and biology gets immediate and personal: for example, studies in solar energy production are followed by hikes in the forest to examine the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; a lesson on tides is conducted while standing up to our necks in one on a Pacific beach. Further linkages between astronomy and the human timescale concerns of biological diversity, cultural diversity, and environmental sustainability are natural and direct. Our experience of teaching "astronomy as habitat" strongly influences our "Astronomy 101" course in Oklahoma as well. This "inverted astrobiology" seems to transform our student's outlook, from the universe being something "out there" into something "we're in!" We thank the SNU Science Alumni support group "The Catalysts," and the SNU Quetzal Education and Research Center, San Gerardo de Dota, Costa Rica, for their support.

  6. The Millennium Drought in southeast Australia (2001-2009): Natural and human causes and implications for water resources, ecosystems, economy, and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Albert I. J. M.; Beck, Hylke E.; Crosbie, Russell S.; de Jeu, Richard A. M.; Liu, Yi Y.; Podger, Geoff M.; Timbal, Bertrand; Viney, Neil R.

    2013-02-01

    The "Millennium Drought" (2001-2009) can be described as the worst drought on record for southeast Australia. Adaptation to future severe droughts requires insight into the drivers of the drought and its impacts. These were analyzed using climate, water, economic, and remote sensing data combined with biophysical modeling. Prevailing El Niño conditions explained about two thirds of rainfall deficit in east Australia. Results for south Australia were inconclusive; a contribution from global climate change remains plausible but unproven. Natural processes changed the timing and magnitude of soil moisture, streamflow, and groundwater deficits by up to several years, and caused the amplification of rainfall declines in streamflow to be greater than in normal dry years. By design, river management avoided impacts on some categories of water users, but did so by exacerbating the impacts on annual irrigation agriculture and, in particular, river ecosystems. Relative rainfall reductions were amplified 1.5-1.7 times in dryland wheat yields, but the impact was offset by steady increases in cropping area and crop water use efficiency (perhaps partly due to CO2 fertilization). Impacts beyond the agricultural sector occurred (e.g., forestry, tourism, utilities) but were often diffuse and not well quantified. Key causative pathways from physical drought to the degradation of ecological, economic, and social health remain poorly understood and quantified. Combined with the multiple dimensions of multiyear droughts and the specter of climate change, this means future droughts may well break records in ever new ways and not necessarily be managed better than past ones.

  7. List identifies threatened ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-09-01

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of Ecosystems that will identify which ecosystems are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean ecosystems at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's Ecosystems Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”

  8. Long-term, Ecosystem-Scale Changes in the Southern Benguela Marine Pelagic Social-Ecological System: Interaction of Natural and Human Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Jarre

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa's small pelagics fishery is currently the largest in volume and second largest in value in the southern Benguela. It exploits short-lived, small pelagic fishes such as anchovy (for reduction into fish meal and oil and sardine (for reduction as well as human consumption through canned products, and to a lesser extent redeye round herring and mesopelagics, largely for reduction. We explore the recent history (1940s to present of the social-ecological system around this fishery. The natural subsystem, at the scales of the ocean environment and the ecosystem, is characterized by high interannual and documented decadal-scale variability. We characterize the human social subsystem at the scales of the fishing industry, legislation, and west coast fishing towns, and demonstrate interdependencies between the natural and social subsystems by following system-scale changes. The pelagic fishing industry has evolved to deal with variability through consolidation, diversification, and range expansion. Legislation has increasingly looked for conservation of the resource while ensuring economic viability of the industry, and hence factory- and vessel-related jobs. Fishing communities under apartheid stayed largely dependent on company-generated infrastructure, combining seasonal employment in the fishing factories with inshore fishing, targeting rock lobster and line fish. While the pelagic industry persisted and communities survived, the resource base for both offshore and inshore fisheries gradually eroded. The advent of democracy in the mid-1990s brought allocation of long-term fishing rights to individuals or companies under conditions of depleted inshore resources aggravated by a shift in the distribution of pelagic fish away from the west coast towards the Cape south coast in the second half of the 1990s. The resultant loss of employment and fishing rights in the inshore has generated community coping strategies that include poaching and

  9. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio’s performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth. PMID:28588145

  10. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K; Fenichel, Eli P

    2017-06-20

    We merge inclusive wealth theory with ecosystem-based management (EBM) to address two challenges in the science of sustainable management of ecosystems. First, we generalize natural capital theory to approximate realized shadow prices for multiple interacting natural capital stocks (species) making up an ecosystem. These prices enable ecosystem components to be better included in wealth-based sustainability measures. We show that ecosystems are best envisioned as portfolios of assets, where the portfolio's performance depends on the performance of the underlying assets influenced by their interactions. Second, changes in ecosystem wealth provide an attractive headline index for EBM, regardless of whether ecosystem wealth is ultimately included in a broader wealth index. We apply our approach to the Baltic Sea ecosystem, focusing on the interacting community of three commercially important fish species: cod, herring, and sprat. Our results incorporate supporting services embodied in the shadow price of a species through its trophic interactions. Prey fish have greater shadow prices than expected based on market value, and predatory fish have lower shadow prices than expected based on market value. These results are because correctly measured shadow prices reflect interdependence and limits to substitution. We project that ecosystem wealth in the Baltic Sea fishery ecosystem generally increases conditional on the EBM-inspired multispecies maximum sustainable yield management beginning in 2017, whereas continuing the current single-species management generally results in declining wealth.

  11. Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.; Spigel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the emergent entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. Entrepreneurial ecosystems are defined as a set of interdependent actors and factors coordinated in such a way that they enable productive entrepreneurship within a particular territory. The purpose of this paper is to

  12. Assessing, mapping and quantifying cultural ecosystem services at community level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plieninger, T.; Dijks, S.; Oteros Rozas, E.; Bieling, C.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies underline the importance of immaterial benefits provided by ecosystems and especially by cultural landscapes, which are shaped by intimate human–nature interactions. However, due to methodological challenges, cultural ecosystem services are rarely fully considered in ecosystem

  13. Fire as a natural and human factor shaping the Mediterranean Ecosystems. The Montgó forest fire and the teaching for the Geograns (older than 55) students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    Cerdà and Civera (2012); Fernández Raga et al., (2013) and Cerdà et al., (2014) show that teaching Earth Sciences to students older than 55 is a new challenge for the universities of developed countries due to the higher life expectancy and the arrival of new students and teaching programs to the academy. Fire, due to the background of many of our students, is one of those topics that need more attention when teaching to students older than 55. Most of them see the fire as the enemy and not as a part of the natural and human ecosystems. The view of the scientists is based in the scientific method, and they see the fire as part of the ecosystems and the human societies (Roebroeks and Villa, 2011; Archibald et al., 2012; Berna et al, 2012; Romme et al., 2012; Zumbrunnen et al., 2012). Moreover, the studies developed on the soils, vegetation and hydrological response of fire affected land, show that the fire disturbance use to be short and the ecosystems return to the pre-fire period after a window of disturbance (Cerdà and Lasanta, 2005; Doerr and Cerdà, 2005; Lasanta and Cerdà, 2005; Granjed et al., 2011; Pérez Cabello et al., 2012; Bodí et al., 2013; Guenon et al., 2013; León et al., 2013: Pereira et al., 2013; Pereira et al., 2015; Prats et al., 2015), and this is related to the policies applied in different countries (Carreiras et al., 2014). More recent advances in the impact of fire on soils can be found in Bento-Gonçalves et al. (2012) This research show the different strategies that we apply to explain the students older than 55 to understand the natural processes that are involved in nature due to the fire. The lectures are developed at the lectures room as an introduction about the fire in the Earth System and how the fire modify the soils, the water resources and change the vegetation cover, and 10 hours of field work in an recently fire affected land. The second part of the course, 10 hours in the field, will be done in February during a visit

  14. Past Holocene detritism quantification and modeling from lacustrine archives in order to deconvoluate human-climate interactions on natural ecosystem over long time-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonneau, Anaëlle; Chapron, Emmanuel; Di Giovanni, Christian; Galop, Didier; Darboux, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    Water budget is one of the main challenges to paleoclimate researchers in relation to present-day global warming and its consequences for human societies. Associated soil degradation and erosion are thereby becoming a major concern in many parts of the world and more particularly in the Alps. Moreover, humans are considered as geomorphologic agents since few thousand years and it is now recognized that such an impact on natural ecosystem profoundly modified soils properties as well as aquatic ecosystems dynamics over long-term periods. The quantification of such inference over long time-scale is therefore essential to establish new policies to reduce mechanic soil erosion, which is one of the dominant processes in Europe, and anticipate the potential consequences of future climate change on hydric erosion. The mechanical erosion of continental surfaces results from climatic forcing, but can be amplified by the anthropogenic one. We therefore suggest that quantifying and modelling soil erosion processes within comparable Holocene lacustrine archives, allows to estimate and date which and when past human activities have had an impact on soil fluxes over the last 10000 years. Based on the present-day geomorphology of the surrounding watershed and the evolution of the vegetation cover during the Holocene, we develop an interdisciplinary approach combining quantitative organic petrography (i.e. optical characterization and quantification of soil particles within lake sediments) with high-resolution seismic profiling, age-depth models on lacustrine sediment cores and soil erosional susceptibility modeling, in order to estimate the annual volume of soil eroded over the last 10000 years, and in fine to quantify the volume of human-induced soil erosion during the Holocene period. This method is applied to close but contrasted mountainous lacustrine environments from the western French Alps: lakes Blanc Huez and Paladru, sensitive to same climatic influences but where past

  15. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  16. Cambios en las propiedades del suelo, posteriores a un incendio en el Parque Nacional Natural de Los Nevados, Colombia Soil changes after a fire event in a páramo ecosystem: Los Nevados Natural National Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Camargo-García

    2012-04-01

    incluso superan el empleado en esta investigación. De esta manera, determinar el efecto de las estrategias de restauración y definir cuáles pueden ser las más apropiadas es de hecho un proceso que toma tiempo. Por tal razón, es imperativo evitar cualquier actividad o evento que genere deterioro sobre este ecosistema.A fire event occurred in 2006, affected about 2400 ha of Páramo ecosystems located on the surroundings areas of Otún lagoon (4 ° 46' 58.4" N y 75° 24' 26.8" W in the Nevados Natural National Park, Colombia. Because of the worth of this area associated with the supplies of ecosystems services and the need for finding variables as indicators of soil conditions, in areas affected and non-affected by fire physical and chemical properties of soils were evaluated. The soil assessment was conducted out in areas where restoration strategies had been implemented and on two geomorphologic positions (Valleys and hills. Samples for monitoring soils were done at once of the fire, two years (2008 and three years (2009 later. To identify differences in soil characteristics evaluated between sites affected and non-affected, topographic positions and restoration treatments, a nonparametric test Kruskal-Wallis was applied. Subsequently, using the correlation coefficient of Spearman the relationships between variables were analyzed. Soils of valley positions were drastically affected and more than 50% organic matter was lost. Consequently, physical properties of soils such as bulk density and structural stability were also deteriorated. Three years after the implementation of restoration activities, there are not evidences of the improvement of soils conditions; in fact, some properties tend to be more deteriorated. Results obtained in this study permit to elucidate some variables which could be used as indicators for monitoring programs with emphasis on this resource. Also, the fragility of Páramo ecosystems is showed by means of soils deterioration. The restoration

  17. Ecosystem thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Palacio, German Rau

    1998-01-01

    Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems

  18. natural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Gómez Macías

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de óxido de magnesio comercial se preparó una suspensión acuosa, la cual se secó y calcinó para conferirle estabilidad térmica. El material, tanto fresco como usado, se caracterizó mediante DRX, área superficial BET y SEM-EPMA. El catalizador mostró una matriz de MgO tipo periclasa con CaO en la superficie. Las pruebas de actividad catalítica se efectuaron en lecho fijo empacado con partículas obtenidas mediante prensado, trituración y clasificación del material. El flujo de reactivos consistió en mezclas gas natural-aire por debajo del límite inferior de inflamabilidad. Para diferentes flujos y temperaturas de entrada de la mezcla reactiva, se midieron las concentraciones de CH4, CO2 y CO en los gases de combustión con un analizador de gases tipo infrarrojo no dispersivo (NDIR. Para alcanzar conversión total de metano se requirió aumentar la temperatura de entrada al lecho a medida que se incrementó el flujo de gases reaccionantes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten desarrollar un sistema de combustión catalítica de bajo costo con un material térmicamente estable, que promueva la alta eficiencia en la combustión de gas natural y elimine los problemas de estabilidad, seguridad y de impacto ambiental negativo inherentes a los procesos de combustión térmica convencional.

  19. Urban ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvigneaud, P

    1974-01-01

    The author considers the town as an ecosystem. He examines its various subdivisions (climate, soil, structure, human and non-human communities, etc.) for which he chooses examples with particular reference to the city of Brussels.

  20. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  1. Strategic ecosystems of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez Calle German

    2002-01-01

    The author relates the ecosystems in Colombia, he makes a relationship between ecosystems and population, utility of the ecosystems, transformation of the ecosystems and poverty and he shows a methodology of identification of strategic ecosystems

  2. Ecosystems science: Genes to landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2018-05-09

    Bountiful fisheries, healthy and resilient wildlife, flourishing forests and vibrant grasslands are coveted resources that benefit all Americans. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) science supports the conservation and management of the Nation’s fish and wildlife, and the landscapes they inhabit. Our biological resources—ecosystems and the wild things that live in them—are the foundation of our conservation heritage and an economic asset to current and future generations of Americans.The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area, the biological research arm of the Department of the Interior (DOI), provides science to help America achieve sustainable management and conservation of its biological resources. This work is done within the broader mission of the USGS—to serve the Nation with science that advances understanding of our natural resources, informs land and water stewardship, and helps safeguard communities from natural and environmental hazards. The Ecosystems Mission Area provides research, technical assistance, and education conducted by Cooperative Research Units and Science Centers located in nearly every State.The quality of life and economic strength in America hinges on healthy ecosystems that support living things and natural processes. Ecosystem science better enables society to understand how and why ecosystems change and to guide actions that can prevent damage to, and restore and sustain ecosystems. It is through this knowledge that informed decisions are made about natural resources that can enhance our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being.

  3. Towards a network ecology of software ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    of the "network ecology'' approach to the analysis of natural ecosystems. In doing so, we mine the Maven central Java repository and analyze two OSGi ecosystems: Apache Felix and Eclipse Equinox. In particular, we define the concept of an ecosystem ``neighborhood'', apply network ecology metrics...

  4. Indicators for mapping ecosystem services: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egoh, Benis N; Drakou, Evangelia; Dunbar, Martha B.; Maes, Joachim; Willemen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems, such as food provisioning, water regulating and provisioning, soil productivity, and use of natural areas for recreation. The current challenge is to mainstream ecosystem services into policies and practices in order to ensure

  5. Biotic elements of NPP techno-ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protasov, A.A.; Silaeva, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Specific features of biotic elements in the NPP techno-ecosystems were considered and compared with natural ecosystems. Relationships between biotic communities and environmental factors that are specific to the techno-ecosystems were discussed, and the problems of limitation of biological hindrances in operation of equipment, principles of hydrobiological and environmental monitoring were considered.

  6. Working group 7: Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheyen, R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the environmental impact of nuclear power plants. The effects of ionizing radiations, of the thermal and chemical pollution on aquatic ecosystems as well as on terrestrial ecosystems have been estimated. After a general survey of such effects and their interaction, practical conclusions in regard to determined areas such as Meuse-Escaut marine and the coast have been drawn. The contamination effects of food chains have been evaluted under deliberately pessimistic conditions with regard to the choice of the radionuclide as well as of concentration factors. Following the biodegradation conditions of the surface waters, criteria for the quality of the aquatic ecosystems have been established. Finally, attention has been paid on certain factors affecting the site selection especially within the frame of the nature conservation. The effects of cooling towers have been also considered. (G.C.)

  7. Man-Made Closed Ecological Systems as Model of Natural Ecosystems and as Means to Provide High Quality of Human Life in Adverse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitelson, I. I.; Harper, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    For its more than thirty year long history, the experimental creation of closed ecological systems has from its very sources been distinctly and strongly motivated by the development of human life-support systems for space. As the trend developed its fundamental significance and broad opportunities of terrestrial applications of the technologies under development were coming to the foreground. Nowadays, it can be argued that development of closed ecosystems is experimental foundation of a new branch of ecology biospherics, the goal of which is to comprehend the regularities of existence of the biosphere as a unique in the Universe (in that part of it that we know, at least) closed ecosystem. Closed technologies can be implemented in life-support systems under adverse conditions of life on the Earth - in Arctic and Antarctic latitudes, deserts, high mountains or deep in the ocean, as well as under the conditions of polluted water and air. In space where the environment is hostile for life all around the cell of life should be sealed and the life-support system as close to the ideally closed cyclic turnover of the matter as possible. Under terrestrial conditions designers should strive for maximum closure of the limiting factor: water - in deserts, oxygen - in high mountains, energy - in polar latitudes, etc. Essential closure of a life-support systems withstands also pollution of the environment by the wastes of human vital activity. This is of particular importance for the quarantine of visited planets, and on the Earth under the conditions of deficient heat in high latitudes and water in and areas. The report describes experimental ecosystem 'BIOS' and exohabitats being designed on its basis, which are adapted to various conditions, described capacities of the Center for Closed Ecosystems in Drasnoyarsk for international collaboration in research and education in this field.

  8. Intensive agriculture to semi-natural grassland: evaluating changes in ecosystem service provision to help determine costs and benefits of agri-environment schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Horrocks, Claire Alice

    2013-01-01

    Intensive agriculture has led to an increase in production; however this has often coincided with a decline in the provision of other Ecosystem Services (ES). ES affected include those regulated by soil chemical, physical and biological properties such as biodiversity provision and the regulation of nutrient cycling, water quality and rates of greenhouse gas emissions. A growing awareness of the value of nonproduction ES to human health and wellbeing has encouraged the funding ...

  9. Comparing the Influence of Wildfire and Prescribed Burns on Watershed Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Using 15N Natural Abundance in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystem Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L.; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and δ15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of δ15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar δ15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the δ15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss δ15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that δ15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post

  10. Indicators for mapping ecosystem services: a review

    OpenAIRE

    EGOH BENIS NCHINE; DRAKOU EVANGELIA; DUNBAR MARTHA BONNET; MAES JOACHIM; WILLEMEN LOUISE

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits that humans derive from ecosystems, such as food provisioning, water regulating and provisioning, soil productivity, and use of natural areas for recreation. The current challenge is to mainstream ecosystem services into policies and practices in order to ensure the continuous provision of these benefits to humans. The European Union has adopted an EU Biodiversity Strategy for 2020 in which the target of safeguarding ecosystem services is explicitly include...

  11. A tiered approach for ecosystem services mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Weibel, Bettina; Rabe, Sven-Erik; Burkhard, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Mapping ecosystem services delivers essential insights into the spatial characteristics of various goods’ and services’ flows from nature to human society. It has become a central topic of science, policy, business and society – all belonging on functioning ecosystems. This textbook summarises the current state-of-the-art of ecosystem services mapping, related theory and methods, different ecosystem service quantification and modelling approaches as well as practical applications. The book...

  12. The Multifaceted Aspects of Ecosystem Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio A. De Leo; Simon A. Levin

    1997-01-01

    The need to reduce human impacts on ecosystems creates pressure for adequate response, but the rush to solutions fosters the oversimplification of such notions as sustainable development and ecosystem health. Hence, it favors the tendency to ignore the complexity of natural systems. In this paper, after a brief analysis of the use and abuse of the notion of ecosystem health, we address the problem of a sound definition of ecosystem integrity, critically review the different methodological and...

  13. Fort Collins Science Center: Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Zack

    2004-01-01

    Many challenging natural resource management issues require consideration of a web of interactions among ecosystem components. The spatial and temporal complexity of these ecosystem problems demands an interdisciplinary approach integrating biotic and abiotic processes. The goals of the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch are to provide sound science to aid federal resource managers and use long-term, place-focused research and monitoring on federal lands to advance ecosystem science.

  14. How does conversion of natural tropical rainforest ecosystems affect soil bacterial and fungal communities in the Nile river watershed of Uganda?

    OpenAIRE

    Alele, Peter O; Sheil, Douglas; Surget-Groba, Yann; Lingling, Shi; Cannon, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Uganda's forests are globally important for their conservation values but are under pressure from increasing human population and consumption. In this study, we examine how conversion of natural forest affects soil bacterial and fungal communities. Comparisons in paired natural forest and human-converted sites among four locations indicated that natural forest soils consistently had higher pH, organic carbon, nitrogen, and calcium, although variation among sites was large. Despite these diffe...

  15. Human and climate impact on ¹⁵N natural abundance of plants and soils in high-mountain ecosystems: a short review and two examples from the Eastern Pamirs and Mt. Kilimanjaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Michael; Bimüller, Carolin; Hemp, Andreas; Samimi, Cyrus; Broesike, Christina; Hörold, Claudia; Zech, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    Population pressure increasingly endangers high-mountain ecosystems such as the pastures in the Eastern Pamirs and the mountain forests on Mt. Kilimanjaro. At the same time, these ecosystems constitute the economic basis for millions of people living there. In our study, we, therefore, aimed at characterising the land-use effects on soil degradation and N-cycling by determining the natural abundance of (15)N. A short review displays that δ(15)N of plant-soil systems may often serve as an integrated indicator of N-cycles with more positive δ(15)N values pointing towards N-losses. Results for the high-mountain pastures in the Eastern Pamirs show that intensively grazed pastures are significantly enriched in (15)N compared to the less-exploited pastures by 3.5 ‰, on average. This can be attributed to soil organic matter degradation, volatile nitrogen losses, nitrogen leaching and a general opening of the N-cycle. Similarly, the intensively degraded savanna soils, the cultivated soils and the soils under disturbed forests on the foothill of Mt. Kilimanjaro reveal very positive δ(15)N values around 6.5 ‰. In contrast, the undisturbed forest soils in the montane zone are more depleted in (15)N, indicating that here the N-cycle is relatively closed. However, significantly higher δ(15)N values characterise the upper montane forest zone at the transition to the subalpine zone. We suggest that this reflects N-losses by the recently monitored and climate change and antropogenically induced increasing fire frequency pushing the upper montane rainforest boundary rapidly downhill. Overall, we conclude that the analysis of the (15)N natural abundance in high-mountain ecosystems is a purposeful tool for detecting land-use- or climate change-induced soil degradation and N-cycle opening.

  16. The biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Forest; Tilman, David; Polasky, Stephen; Loreau, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Habitat destruction is driving biodiversity loss in remaining ecosystems, and ecosystem functioning and services often directly depend on biodiversity. Thus, biodiversity loss is likely creating an ecosystem service debt: a gradual loss of biodiversity-dependent benefits that people obtain from remaining fragments of natural ecosystems. Here, we develop an approach for quantifying ecosystem service debts, and illustrate its use to estimate how one anthropogenic driver, habitat destruction, could indirectly diminish one ecosystem service, carbon storage, by creating an extinction debt. We estimate that c. 2-21 Pg C could be gradually emitted globally in remaining ecosystem fragments because of plant species loss caused by nearby habitat destruction. The wide range for this estimate reflects substantial uncertainties in how many plant species will be lost, how much species loss will impact ecosystem functioning and whether plant species loss will decrease soil carbon. Our exploratory analysis suggests that biodiversity-dependent ecosystem service debts can be globally substantial, even when locally small, if they occur diffusely across vast areas of remaining ecosystems. There is substantial value in conserving not only the quantity (area), but also the quality (biodiversity) of natural ecosystems for the sustainable provision of ecosystem services. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L.; Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C.; Mayes, B.; Iason, G.; Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V.; Bergman, R.; Nylen, T.; Palo, T.; White, N.; Guillitte, O.

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, 134 Cs, 137 Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work

  18. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, L; Hubbard, L; Avila, R; Wallberg, L [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Feoli, E; Scimone, M; Milesi, C [Trieste Univ. (Italy); Mayes, B; Iason, G [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Rantavaara, A; Vetikko, V [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R; Nylen, T [National Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Palo, T; White, N [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Faculty of Forestry; Raitio, H; Aro, L; Kaunisto, S [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland); Guillitte, O [Faculte Univ. des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work.

  19. Radioecology of natural systems in Colordao. Fourteenth annual progress report, May 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Pu diffusion in terrestrial ecosystems at Rocky Flats Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1976-08-01

    This report summarizes project activities during the period May 1, 1975 through July 31, 1976. The major study on the distribution and levels of Pu in major components of the terrestrial ecosystem at Rocky Flats was completed. Supportive studies on the ecology and pathology of small mammals and their role in Pu transport were essentially completed as well. Detailed studies on mule deer food habits, population dynamics, and movements at Rocky Flats are progressing. These studies are designed to measure the potential of mule deer in transporting Pu to uncontrolled areas. Alpha autoradiographic studies designed to measure Pu particle size and distribution and spatial patterns in soil were initiated. Field and greenhouse transport pathways from soil to vegetation are in progress and some early results reported. The status of studies on seasonal kinetics of Cs in a montane lake and stable lead geochemistry in an alpine lake watershed are also reported.

  20. Synergy of extreme drought and shrub invasion reduce ecosystem functioning and resilience in water-limited climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Maria C.; Lecomte, Xavier; David, Teresa S.; Pinto, Joaquim G.; Bugalho, Miguel N.; Werner, Christiane

    2015-10-01

    Extreme drought events and plant invasions are major drivers of global change that can critically affect ecosystem functioning and alter ecosystem-atmosphere exchange. Invaders are expanding worldwide and extreme drought events are projected to increase in frequency and intensity. However, very little is known on how these drivers may interact to affect the functioning and resilience of ecosystems to extreme events. Using a manipulative shrub removal experiment and the co-occurrence of an extreme drought event (2011/2012) in a Mediterranean woodland, we show that native shrub invasion and extreme drought synergistically reduced ecosystem transpiration and the resilience of key-stone oak tree species. Ecosystem transpiration was dominated by the water use of the invasive shrub Cistus ladanifer, which further increased after the extreme drought event. Meanwhile, the transpiration of key-stone tree species decreased, indicating a competitive advantage in favour of the invader. Our results suggest that in Mediterranean-type climates the invasion of water spending species and projected recurrent extreme drought events may synergistically cause critical drought tolerance thresholds of key-stone tree species to be surpassed, corroborating observed higher tree mortality in the invaded ecosystems. Ultimately, this may shift seasonally water limited ecosystems into less desirable alternative states dominated by water spending invasive shrubs.

  1. FEGS at the inflection point: How linking Ecosystem Services to Human Benefit improves management of coastal ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Final ecosystem goods and services (FEGS) are the connection between the ecosystem resources and human stakeholders that benefit from natural capital. The FEGS concept is an extension of the ecosystem services (ES) concept (e.g., Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) and results from...

  2. Assessing wildlife benefits and carbon storage from restored and natural coastal marshes in the Nisqually River Delta: Determining marsh net ecosystem carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Frank; Bergamaschi, Brian; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Woo, Isa; De La Cruz, Susan; Drexler, Judith; Byrd, Kristin; Thorne, Karen M.

    2016-06-24

    Working in partnership since 1996, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the Nisqually Indian Tribe have restored 902 acres of tidally influenced coastal marsh in the Nisqually River Delta (NRD), making it the largest estuary-restoration project in the Pacific Northwest to date. Marsh restoration increases the capacity of the estuary to support a diversity of wildlife species. Restoration also increases carbon (C) production of marsh plant communities that support food webs for wildlife and can help mitigate climate change through long-term C storage in marsh soils.In 2015, an interdisciplinary team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) researchers began to study the benefits of carbon for wetland wildlife and storage in the NRD. Our primary goals are (1) to identify the relative importance of the different carbon sources that support juvenile chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) food webs and contribute to current and historic peat formation, (2) to determine the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) in a reference marsh and a restoration marsh site, and (3) to model the sustainability of the reference and restoration marshes under projected sea-level rise conditions along with historical vegetation change. In this fact sheet, we focus on the main C sources and exchanges to determine NECB, including carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake through plant photosynthesis, the loss of CO2 through plant and soil respiration, emissions of methane (CH4), and the lateral movement or leaching loss of C in tidal waters.

  3. Plans to Develop a Gas Field in the Kansu on the Border of the Usturt State Nature Reserve is a Real Threat for the Ecosystem of the Reserve and Largest Population of the Saker Falcon in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pestov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plans of JSC “KazMunayGaz” National Company” on developing the Kansu gas field, which is situated right next to current southern borders of Usturt natural reserve on Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone (Mangystau Province of the Republic of Kazakhstan are a direct danger for the largest population of the Saker Falcon Falco cherrug korelovi in Kazakhstan and for Kenderli-Kayasan conservation zone’s ecosystem as a whole. On the contrary, the realization of plans to expand the Usturt State Reserve within the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan/GEF/UNDP project “Rising of stability of systems in conservation territories in desert ecosystems through promoting life sustaining sources compatible with biodiversity in and around conservation areas” and international expert group’s initiative of Mangystau Protected Area System to be nominated for UNESCO World Heritage status could create favorable environment for Usturt population of the Saker Falcon. It’s evident that all possible outcomes should be taken into account in the long-term planning of future development of Mangystau region, and options of development with less negative effect on environment should be chosen. In their letter to President of Kazakhstan the experts described their opinion on the necessity of imposing a moratorium on exploration and development of the Kansu gas field and concentrating on alternative fields.

  4. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Markovina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems.

  5. Disturbance in boreal forest ecosystems: human impacts and natural processes. Proceedings of the International Boreal Forest Research Association 1997 annual meeting; 1997 August 4-7; Duluth, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The papers in these proceedings cover a wide range of topics related to human and natural disturbance processes in forests of the boreal zone in North America and Eurasia. Topics include historic and predicted landscape change; forest management; disturbance by insects, fire, air pollution, severe weather, and global climate change; and carbon cycling.

  6. Effects of spatial scale on the perception and assessment of risk of natural disturbance in forested ecosystems: examples from northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Barbour; Miles Hemstrom; Alan Ager; Jane L. Hayes

    2005-01-01

    The perception and measurement of the risk of natural disturbances often varies depending on the spatial and temporal scales over which information is collected or analyzed. This can lead to conflicting conclusions about severity of current or past disturbances or the risk of future ones. Failure to look across scales also complicates local implementation of policies...

  7. Turning Subsistence Peasants into Ecosystem Servants: Inequality and the Produc-tion of Natural Resources in Lao P.D.R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kleinod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nexus of nature conservation, productivity and domination in inclusive conservation approaches. It argues that the turning of subsistence peasants into “stewards and custodians of biodiversity” (CBD represents a soft form of domination according to the false alternatives of ecological instrumentality in that local development is subordinated to supposed “natural” constraints. The argument draws from critical theories of societal nature relations (Horkheimer & Adorno, 2002; Görg. 2003; Moore, 2015 as well as from extensive research on ecotourism as an instrument to reconcile conservation and development in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. From this angle, conservation is seen as a way to produce “natural” resources building on, perpetuating and creating various social inequities, based on the fiction that “nature” is essentially non-human. This case is made with regard to National Protected Areas in Laos, which are designed explicitly to accommodate local people’s needs. Among other things, ecotourism is employed to create a source of income alternative to practices seen as “unsustainable”. Thereby, economic and also moral stakes in untouched resources are to be implanted. In such way, a compromise between (rather than a reconciliation of conservation and development is imposed which is largely alien to the lived realities of local people, and only accounting partly for their needs and aspirations – an imposition which tends to produce its own countercurrents, again tying into productivity and inequality. This paper thus analyzes the workings of the nature/society dualism underlying ecological instrumentality as experienced in ecotourism as a tool for nature conservation in Laos.

  8. Allelopathy in the natural and agricultural ecosystems and isolation of potent allelochemicals from Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) and Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2003-06-01

    We have studied on allelopathy of plants and developed methods to identify the effective substances in root exudates, leaf leacheate, and volatile chemicals emitted from plants. We found traditional cover plants that show allelopathic activity are useful for weed control. It could eliminate the use of synthetic chemicals for this purpose. Allelopathy is a natural power of plants to protect themselves by producing natural organic chemicals. Some endemic plants in Asia, already known by farmers in the region, as either cover crops used in intercropping, hedgerow, or agroforestry, were found to possess strong allelopathic abilities. Our group identified several allelochemicals from these plants. These allelopathic cover crops, mostly leguminous plants, provide protein rich food, and grow easily without artificial fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. In this regards, these allelopathic cover crops could save food shortage in rural area, and are useful for environmental conservation. Screenings of allelopathic plants by specific bioassays and field tests have been conducted. Hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) and Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) are two promising species for the practical application of allelopathy. An amino acid, L-DOPA, unusual in plants, plays an important role as allelochemical in Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens). Hairy vetch is the most promising cover plant for the weed control in orchard, vegetable and rice production and even for landscape amendment in abandoned field in Japan. We have isolated "cyanamide", a well known nitrogen fertilizer, from Hairy vetch. This is the first finding of naturally produced cyanamide in the world.

  9. Modeling and assessing the function and sustainability of natural patches in salt-affected agro-ecosystems: Application to tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) in Hetao, upper Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Ramos, Tiago B.; Huang, Quanzhong; Huo, Zailin; Huang, Guanhua

    2017-09-01

    Relatively low-lying zones of natural vegetation within irrigated areas are not only carriers of biodiversity but also dry drainage areas of excess water and salts applied to nearby croplands. It is thus useful to have a correct understanding of the soil water-salt dynamics and plant water use for keeping the sustainability of those natural areas. The HYDRUS-dualKc model that couples the HYDRUS-1D model with the FAO-56 dualKc approach was extended to simulate the eco-hydrological processes in natural patches of Hetao Irrigation District (Hetao), upper Yellow River basin. Field experiments were conducted in a tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) dominated area during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated using the two-year experimental data, and applied to analyze the water and salt dynamics and the tamarisk water consumption for the present situation. Then, various groundwater depth (i.e. the depth from groundwater surface to water table, GWD) scenarios were simulated while considering the fluctuating and constant regimes of GWD changes, as well as variations of the rooting depth. Results indicated that this natural land functioned efficiently as a drainage area for subsurface flow and excess salt from surrounding croplands. However, the present GWDs were too shallow leading to high soil evaporation and severe salt stress. The soil evaporation accounted for 50% of the total evapotranspiration (ETa) while root zone salt storage increased about 50% during growing seasons. On the basis of scenario analysis, an optimum groundwater depth of 140-200 cm with smaller fluctuation was suggested for the growing seasons of natural patches. In addition, tamarisk growth could be largely improved if the roots can grow deeper with water table decline in the future. We demonstrated that monitoring and modeling could be used to support the development of water management strategies in Hetao aimed at conserving water while sustaining local

  10. Ecosystem services provided by bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Thomas H; Braun de Torrez, Elizabeth; Bauer, Dana; Lobova, Tatyana; Fleming, Theodore H

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits obtained from the environment that increase human well-being. Economic valuation is conducted by measuring the human welfare gains or losses that result from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Bats have long been postulated to play important roles in arthropod suppression, seed dispersal, and pollination; however, only recently have these ecosystem services begun to be thoroughly evaluated. Here, we review the available literature on the ecological and economic impact of ecosystem services provided by bats. We describe dietary preferences, foraging behaviors, adaptations, and phylogenetic histories of insectivorous, frugivorous, and nectarivorous bats worldwide in the context of their respective ecosystem services. For each trophic ensemble, we discuss the consequences of these ecological interactions on both natural and agricultural systems. Throughout this review, we highlight the research needed to fully determine the ecosystem services in question. Finally, we provide a comprehensive overview of economic valuation of ecosystem services. Unfortunately, few studies estimating the economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats have been conducted to date; however, we outline a framework that could be used in future studies to more fully address this question. Consumptive goods provided by bats, such as food and guano, are often exchanged in markets where the market price indicates an economic value. Nonmarket valuation methods can be used to estimate the economic value of nonconsumptive services, including inputs to agricultural production and recreational activities. Information on the ecological and economic value of ecosystem services provided by bats can be used to inform decisions regarding where and when to protect or restore bat populations and associated habitats, as well as to improve public perception of bats. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Reviewing the health of software ecosystems – a conceptual framework proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    The health of a software ecosystem is an indication of how well the ecosystem is functioning. The measurement of health can point to issues that need to be addressed in the ecosystem and areas for the ecosystem to improve. However, the software ecosystem field lacks an applicable way to measure a...... influenced by theories from natural ecosystems and open source, (ii) identify two areas where software ecosystems differ from business and natural ecosystems, and (iii) propose a conceptual framework for defining and measuring the health of software ecosystems....

  12. Implications of agricultural transitions and urbanization for ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Buerkert, Andreas; Hoffmann, Ellen M; Schlecht, Eva; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-11-06

    Historically, farmers and hunter-gatherers relied directly on ecosystem services, which they both exploited and enjoyed. Urban populations still rely on ecosystems, but prioritize non-ecosystem services (socioeconomic). Population growth and densification increase the scale and change the nature of both ecosystem- and non-ecosystem-service supply and demand, weakening direct feedbacks between ecosystems and societies and potentially pushing social-ecological systems into traps that can lead to collapse. The interacting and mutually reinforcing processes of technological change, population growth and urbanization contribute to over-exploitation of ecosystems through complex feedbacks that have important implications for sustainable resource use.

  13. Evidence for mass-independent and mass-dependent fractionation of the stable isotopes of mercury by natural processes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Togwell A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Evans, Marlene S.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical analyses were performed on crustaceans, forage fish, top predator fish, and sediment cores from Lake Ontario and two boreal forest lakes to investigate fractionation of the stable isotopes of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. Multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to determine Hg isotope abundances. The Hg isotope data for all three lakes showed mass-independent variation in the organisms but only mass-dependent variation in the sediments. The mass-independent isotope effect was characterised by (1) selective enrichment in isotopes of odd mass number ( 199 Hg and 201 Hg), (2) enrichment in 201 Hg relative to 199 Hg, (3) an inverse relationship between isotopes of odd and even mass number in fish, and (4) a positive correlation with methylHg (CH 3 Hg + ) concentration, and hence with trophic level (although lake whitefish were consistently anomalous, possibly owing to biochemical demethylation). Isotope signatures of species at the same trophic level varied with habitat and diet, differentiating between planktonic and benthic crustaceans and their predators, and between fish that frequent deep, cold water and fish of similar diet that prefer warmer, shallower water, because of corresponding differences in CH 3 Hg + and inorganic Hg content. Isotopic analysis of CH 3 Hg + and inorganic Hg extracted from lake trout proved that the mass-independent isotope effect was due to anomalously high abundances of 199 Hg and 201 Hg in CH 3 Hg + , as implied by the data for whole organisms, suggesting mass-independent fractionation during microbial methylation of Hg. The purely mass-dependent variation in the sediments is attributable to the fact that Hg in sediments is mostly inorganic. The mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes can be explained by effects of nuclear spin or nuclear field shift, or both, and penetration of the inner electron shells of Hg by valence electrons of Hg-binding ligands. The results of the research

  14. Explaining global increases in water use efficiency: why have we overestimated responses to rising atmospheric CO(2 in natural forest ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas C R Silva

    Full Text Available The analysis of tree-ring carbon isotope composition (δ(13C has been widely used to estimate spatio-temporal variations in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE of tree species. Numerous studies have reported widespread increases in iWUE coinciding with rising atmospheric CO(2 over the past century. While this could represent a coherent global response, the fact that increases of similar magnitude were observed across biomes with no apparent effect on tree growth raises the question of whether iWUE calculations reflect actual physiological responses to elevated CO(2 levels.Here we use Monte Carlo simulations to test if an artifact of calculation could explain observed increases in iWUE. We show that highly significant positive relationships between iWUE and CO(2 occur even when simulated data (randomized δ(13C values spanning the observed range are used in place of actual tree-ring δ(13C measurements. From simulated data sets we calculated non-physiological changes in iWUE from 1900 to present and across a 4000 m altitudinal range. This generated results strikingly similar to those reported in recent studies encompassing 22 species from tropical, subtropical, temperate, boreal and mediterranean ecosystems. Only 6 of 49 surveyed case studies showed increases in iWUE significantly higher than predicted from random values.Our results reveal that increases in iWUE estimated from tree-ring δ(13C occur independently of changes in (13C discrimination that characterize physiological responses to elevated CO(2. Due to a correlation with CO(2 concentration, which is used as an independent factor in the iWUE calculation, any tree-ring δ(13C data set would inevitably generate increasing iWUE over time. Therefore, although consistent, previously reported trends in iWUE do not necessarily reflect a coherent global response to rising atmospheric CO(2. We discuss the significance of these findings and suggest ways to distinguish real from artificial

  15. Nitrogen cycling process rates across urban ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Alexander J; Groffman, Peter M; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J

    2016-09-21

    Nitrogen (N) pollution of freshwater, estuarine, and marine ecosystems is widespread and has numerous environmental and economic impacts. A portion of this excess N comes from urban watersheds comprised of natural and engineered ecosystems which can alter downstream N export. Studies of urban N cycling have focused on either specific ecosystems or on watershed-scale mass balances. Comparisons of specific N transformations across ecosystems are required to contextualize rates from individual studies. Here we reviewed urban N cycling in terrestrial, aquatic, and engineered ecosystems, and compared N processing in these urban ecosystem types to native reference ecosystems. We found that net N mineralization and net nitrification rates were enhanced in urban forests and riparian zones relative to reference ecosystems. Denitrification was highly variable across urban ecosystem types, but no significant differences were found between urban and reference denitrification rates. When focusing on urban streams, ammonium uptake was more rapid than nitrate uptake in urban streams. Additionally, reduction of stormwater runoff coupled with potential decreases in N concentration suggests that green infrastructure may reduce downstream N export. Despite multiple environmental stressors in urban environments, ecosystems within urban watersheds can process and transform N at rates similar to or higher than reference ecosystems. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Forests planted for ecosystem restoration or conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington

    1999-01-01

    Although the phrase, "planting for ecosystem restoration," is of recent origin, many of the earliest large-scale tree plantings were made for what we now refer to as "'restoration" or "conservation" goals. Forest restoration activities may be needed when ecosystems are disturbed by either natural or anthropogenic forces. Disturbances...

  17. Ecosystem services: Just another catch phrase?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Weidner

    2011-01-01

    The "ecosystem services" concept has emerged as a popular area of discussion among policy makers and conservation advocates. Ecosystem services are the benefits people derive from nature and include the provision of water, food, wood, and fiber; regulation of climate, flood, drought, and disease; maintenance of biodiversity; and recreational, aesthetic,...

  18. Carbon storage potential in size–density fractions from semi-natural grassland ecosystems with different productivities over varying soil depths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breulmann, Marc; Boettger, Tatjana; Buscot, François; Gruendling, Ralf; Schulz, Elke

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 30–50 50–80 and 80 + cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm"−"3 (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, < 1 μm; and CF2, 1–2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, < 1.8 g cm"−"3; and LF2, 1.8–2.0 g cm"−"3) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (C_H_W_E) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ"1"3C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ"1"3C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown. - Highlights: • OC stocks over varying soil depths in extensively

  19. Carbon storage potential in size–density fractions from semi-natural grassland ecosystems with different productivities over varying soil depths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breulmann, Marc [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Environmental and Biotechnology Centre (UBZ), Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Boettger, Tatjana [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Isotope Hydrology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Buscot, François [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5e, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Gruendling, Ralf [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department, Department of Soil Physics, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, D-06120 Halle (Germany); Schulz, Elke [Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Soil Ecology, Theodor-Lieser-Str. 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2016-03-01

    Researchers have increasingly recognised a profound need for more information on SOC stocks in the soil and the factors governing their stability and dynamics. Many questions still remain unanswered about the interplay between changes in plant communities and the extent to which changes in aboveground productivity affect the carbon dynamics in soils through changes in its quantity and quality. Therefore, the main aim of this research was to examine the SOC accumulation potential of semi-natural grasslands of different productivities and determine the distribution of SOM fractions over varying soil depth intervals (0–10, 10–20, 20–30 30–50 50–80 and 80 + cm). SOM fractionation was considered as a relative measure of stability to separate SOM associated with clay minerals from SOM of specific light densities less than 2 g cm{sup −3} (size-density fractionation). Two clay-associated fractions (CF1, < 1 μm; and CF2, 1–2 μm) and two light fractions (LF1, < 1.8 g cm{sup −3}; and LF2, 1.8–2.0 g cm{sup −3}) were separated. The stability of these fractions was characterised by their carbon hot water extractability (C{sub HWE}) and stable carbon isotope composition. In the semi-natural grasslands studied, most OC was stored in the top 30 cm, where turnover is rapid. Effects of low productivity grasslands became only significantly apparent when fractional OC contributions of total SOM was considered (CF1 and LF1). In deeper soil depths OC was largely attributed to the CF1 fraction of low productivity grasslands. We suggest that the majority of OM in deeper soil depth intervals is microbially-derived, as evidenced by decreasing C/N ratios and decreasing δ{sup 13}C values. The hot water extraction and natural δ{sup 13}C abundance, employed here allowed the characterisation of SOM stabilisation properties, however how climatic changes affect the fate of OM within different soil depth intervals is still unknown. - Highlights: • OC stocks over varying

  20. Ecosystem Restoration: Fact or Fancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Stephen H. Schoenholtz; James P. Barnett; Charles K. McMahon; Donald J. Tomszak

    1998-01-01

    Ecological restoration is generally accepted as the reestablishment of natural ecological processes that produce certain dynamic ecosystem properties of structure, function, and processes. But restore to what? The most frequently used conceptual model for the restoration process is the shift of conditions from some current (degraded) dynamic state to some past dynamic...

  1. 1 Ecosystem-based.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The ecosystem approach is a widely accepted framework for natural resource ... Here, we present a set of indicators, and a toolkit to aid their application, that are intended to support the ... Ability to adapt to different spatial scales ... growth of plants and algae, which may increase to create .... taxonomic resources).

  2. Lake Naivasha Sustainability : Ecosystem Improvement for Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lake Naivasha Sustainability : Ecosystem Improvement for Health and ... The overall goal is to make recommendations for the sustainable management of natural ... to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers ...

  3. Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Gulf of Mexico is one of the most ecologically and economically valuable marine ecosystems in the world and is affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic...

  4. Uncovering ecosystem service bundles through social preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Martín-López

    Full Text Available Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem's capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem's capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs.

  5. Human-Nature Interaction in the Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan - Ecosystem services against the background of pasture use and energy consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, K. A.; Samimi, C.; Kraudzun, T.; Kreutzmann, H.

    2012-04-01

    results can help to advise stakeholders (e.g. local administration, herders, NGOs) about sustainable management of the natural resources.

  6. Biological availability of 238U, 234U and 226Ra for wild berries and meadow grasses in natural ecosystems of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokolik, G.A.; Ovsiannikova, S.V.; Voinikava, K.V.; Ivanova, T.G.; Papenia, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to investigation of behavior of 234 U, 238 U and 226 Ra by determining the soil to plant transfer under different natural conditions such as forest or swamped areas and meadow lands with different soil types. The paper summarizes the data on investigation of uranium and radium uptake by wild berries and natural meadow grasses in the typical conditions of Belarus. Parameters characterizing the biological availability of 234 U, 238 U and 226 Ra for bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), lingonberry (Vaccinium viti-idaea), blueberry (Vaccinium iliginosum) and cranberry (Vaccinium oxycoccus palustris) as well as for widely occurring mixed meadow vegetation, which belongs to the sedge-grass or grass-sedge associations and forbs, have been established. In the sites under investigation, the deposition levels of 238+239+240 Pu were less than 0.37 kBq m −2 and 137 Cs deposition ranged between less than 0.37 and 37 kBq m −2 . It was found that activity concentrations of radionuclides in berries varied in the ranges of 0.037–0.11 for 234 U, 0.036–0.10 for 238 U and 0.11–0.43 Bq kg −1 for 226 Ra, but in the mixed meadow grasses they were 0.32–4.4, 0.24–3.9 and 0.14–6.9 Bq kg −1 accordingly. The 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios were 1.02 ± 0.01 for wild berries, 1.20 ± 0.09 for underground meadow grasses and 1.02 ± 0.02 for proper soils. The concentration ratios (CRs, dry weight basis) of 234 U and 238 U for mixed meadow grasses were 0.036–0.42 and 0.041–0.46 respectively. The correspondent geometric means (GM) were 0.13 and 0.15 with geometric standard deviations (GSD) of 2.4. The CRs of 226 Ra for meadow grasses were 0.031–1.0 with GM 0.20 and GSD 2.6. The CRs of 234 U, 238 U and 226 Ra for wild berries ranged within 0.0018–0.008 (GM is 0.0034, GSD is 1.8), 0.0018–0.008 (GM is 0.0035, GSD is 1.8) and 0.005–0.033 (GM is 0.016, GSD is 2.1) accordingly. The highest CR values of uranium for mixed meadow grasses were found in the sites

  7. Radionuclide transport processes in terrestrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whicker, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    Some major principles and the status of knowledge concerning the transport of radionuclides through terrestrial ecosystems are reviewed. Fundamental processes which control the flow of radionuclides between ecosystem components such as air, soil, plants, and animals are described, with emphasis on deposition, resuspension, plant uptake, ingestion, and assimilation. Properties of radionuclides, organisms, and ecosystems are examined in relation to their influence on the accumulation of radioactive materials by plants and animals. The effects of the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide; morphology, physiology, and behavior of the organism; and soil, nutrient, and trophic characteristics of the ecosystem are highlighted. Observations in natural ecosystems on radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 131 I, 3 H, and 239 Pu are used to illustrate current concepts. An assessment of the degree to which the processes controlling radionuclide behavior are understood and of our ability to simulate and predict such behavior with computerized models is offered. Finally, brief comments are made on research needs

  8. The Multifaceted Aspects of Ecosystem Integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio A. De Leo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to reduce human impacts on ecosystems creates pressure for adequate response, but the rush to solutions fosters the oversimplification of such notions as sustainable development and ecosystem health. Hence, it favors the tendency to ignore the complexity of natural systems. In this paper, after a brief analysis of the use and abuse of the notion of ecosystem health, we address the problem of a sound definition of ecosystem integrity, critically review the different methodological and conceptual approaches to the management of natural resources, and sketch the practical implications stemming from their implementation. We show thatthere are merits and limitations in different definitions of ecosystem integrity, for each acknowledges different aspects of ecosystem structure and functioning and reflects the subjective perspectives of humans on the value, importance, and role of biological diversity. This evaluation is based on a brief sketch of the links among biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and resilience, and a description of the problems that arise in distinguishing between natural and anthropogenic disturbance. We also emphasize the difficulty of assessing the economic value of species and habitats and the need to use adaptive management policies to deal with uncertainty and ecosystem complexity. In conclusion, while acknowledging that environmental legislation requires objective statements on ecosystem status and trends, we stress that the notion of ecological integrity is so complex that its measure cannot be expressed through a single indicator, but rather requires a set of indicators at different spatial, temporal, and hierarchical levels of ecosystem organization. Ecosystem integrity is not an absolute, monolithic concept. The existence of different sets of values regarding biological diversity and environmental risks must be explicitly accounted for and incorporated in the decision process, rather than ignored or averaged out.

  9. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  10. Counting all that matters: recognizing the value of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussane. Maleki

    2008-01-01

    Broadly defined, ecosystem services are the benefits healthy ecosystems provide to humans. Clean air, clean water, and flood control are just a few examples. Although the term is relatively new, the ecosystem services concept has long been a focus of natural resource and environmental economists. As the U.S. population increases and the forests and grasslands that...

  11. The Bitterroot Ecosystem Management Research Project: What we have learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen Y. Smith

    2000-01-01

    The varied topics presented in these symposium proceedings represent the diverse nature of the Bitterroot Ecosystem Management Research Project (BEMRP). Separated into six sections, the papers cover the different themes researched by BEMRP collaborators as well as brief overviews of five other ecosystem management projects. The sections are: Understanding the Ecosystem...

  12. Ecological and resource economics as ecosystem management tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Farber; Dennis. Bradley

    1999-01-01

    Economic pressures on ecosystems will only intensify in the future. Increased population levels, settlement patterns, and increased incomes will raise the demands for ecosystem resources and their services. The pressure to transform ecosystem natural assets into marketable commodities, whether by harvesting and mining resources or altering landscapes through...

  13. Effects of ice storm on forest ecosystem of southern China in 2008 Shaoqiang Wang1, Lei Zhou1, Weimin Ju2, Kun Huang1 1Key Lab of Ecosystem Network Observation and Modeling, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Beijing, 10010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaoqiang

    2014-05-01

    Evidence is mounting that an increase in extreme climate events has begun to occur worldwide during the recent decades, which affect biosphere function and biodiversity. Ecosystems returned to its original structures and functions to maintain its sustainability, which was closely dependent on ecosystem resilience. Understanding the resilience and recovery capacity of ecosystem to extreme climate events is essential to predicting future ecosystem responses to climate change. Given the overwhelming importance of this region in the overall carbon cycle of forest ecosystems in China, south China suffered a destructive ice storm in 2008. In this study, we used the number of freezing day and a process-based model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator, BEPS) to characterize the spatial distribution of ice storm region in southeastern China and explore the impacts on carbon cycle of forest ecosystem over the past decade. The ecosystem variables, i.e. Net primary productivity (NPP), Evapotranspiration (ET), and Water use efficiency (WUE, the ratio of NPP to ET) from the outputs of BEPS models were used to detect the resistance and resilience of forest ecosystem in southern China. The pattern of ice storm-induced forest productivity widespread decline was closely related to the number of freezing day during the ice storm period. The NPP of forest area suffered heavy ice storm returned to normal status after five months with high temperature and ample moisture, indicated a high resilience of subtropical forest in China. The long-term changes of forest WUE remain stable, behaving an inherent sensitivity of ecosystem to extreme climate events. In addition, ground visits suggested that the recovery of forest productivity was attributed to rapid growth of understory. Understanding the variability and recovery threshold of ecosystem following extreme climate events help us to better simulate and predict the variability of ecosystem structure and function under current and

  14. Fort Collins Science Center Ecosystem Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jim; Melcher, C.; Bowen, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Complex natural resource issues require understanding a web of interactions among ecosystem components that are (1) interdisciplinary, encompassing physical, chemical, and biological processes; (2) spatially complex, involving movements of animals, water, and airborne materials across a range of landscapes and jurisdictions; and (3) temporally complex, occurring over days, weeks, or years, sometimes involving response lags to alteration or exhibiting large natural variation. Scientists in the Ecosystem Dynamics Branch of the U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, investigate a diversity of these complex natural resource questions at the landscape and systems levels. This Fact Sheet describes the work of the Ecosystems Dynamics Branch, which is focused on energy and land use, climate change and long-term integrated assessments, herbivore-ecosystem interactions, fire and post-fire restoration, and environmental flows and river restoration.

  15. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem...

  16. Ecosystem degradation in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.N.

    1990-01-01

    Environmental and ecosystem studies have assumed greater relevance in the last decade of the twentieth century than even before. The urban settlements are becoming over-crowded and industries are increasingly polluting the air, water and sound in our larger metropolises. Degradation of different types of ecosystem are discussed in this book, Ecosystem Degradation in India. The book has been divided into seven chapters: Introduction, Coastal and Delta Ecosystem, River Basin Ecosystem, Mountain Ecosystem, Forest Ecosystem, Urban Ecosystem and the last chapter deals with the Environmental Problems and Planning. In the introduction the environmental and ecosystem degradation problems in India is highlighted as a whole while in other chapters mostly case studies by experts who know their respective terrain very intimately are included. The case study papers cover most part of India and deal with local problems, stretching from east coast to west coast and from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. (author)

  17. Valuation of rangeland ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, W.R.

    2011-01-01

    Economic valuation lends itself well to the anthropocentric orientation of ecosystem services. An economic perspective on ecosystems portrays them as natural assets providing a flow of goods and services valuable to individuals and society collectively. A few examples include the purification of drinking water, reduced risk from flooding and other extreme events, pollination of agricultural crops, climate regulation, and recreation opportunities from plant and animal habitat maintenance, among many others. Once these goods and services are identified and quantified, they can be monetized to complete the valuation process. The monetization of ecosystem goods and services (in the form of dollars) provides a common metric that allows for cross-comparison of attributes and evaluation of differing ecological scenarios. Complicating the monetization process is the fact that most of these goods and services are public and non-market in nature; meaning they are non-rival and non-exclusive and are typically not sold in a traditional market setting where monetary values are revealed. Instead, one must employ non-market valuation techniques, with primary valuation methods typically being very time and resource consuming, intimidating to non-economists, and often impractical. For these reasons, benefit transfer methods have gained popularity. This methodology harnesses the primary collection results of existing studies to make inferences about the economic values of non-market goods and services at an alternative policy site (in place and/or in time). For instance, if a primary valuation study on oak reestablishment on rangelands in southern California yielded a value of $30 per-acre associated with water regulation, this result can be transferred, with some adjustments, to say something about the value of an acre of oaks on rangelands in northern portions of the state. The economic valuation of rangeland ecosystem services has many roles. Economic values may be used as input

  18. Nature: the many benefits of ecosystem services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reid, WV

    2006-10-19

    Full Text Available Historically, conservation has largely relied on the considerations of intrinsic value that McCauley sees as the only solution. This has been manifestly insufficient as a response to the increasing threats to biodiversity, particularly in the world...

  19. Natural Capital, Ecosystem Services and Soil Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, D A; Hockley, N; Dominati, E

    2012-01-01

    . No significant temporal trends were observed at any of the sites. There were, however, strong spatial trends with elevation and season. Two linked explanations for the lack of temporal trends emerge from the data. First, these semiarid systems are relatively insensitive to the effects of temperature increase...

  20. Uncovering Ecosystem Service Bundles through Social Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-López, Berta; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; García-Llorente, Marina; Palomo, Ignacio; Casado-Arzuaga, Izaskun; Amo, David García Del; Gómez-Baggethun, Erik; Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Palacios-Agundez, Igone; Willaarts, Bárbara; González, José A.; Santos-Martín, Fernando; Onaindia, Miren; López-Santiago, Cesar; Montes, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ecosystem service assessments have increasingly been used to support environmental management policies, mainly based on biophysical and economic indicators. However, few studies have coped with the social-cultural dimension of ecosystem services, despite being considered a research priority. We examined how ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs emerge from diverging social preferences toward ecosystem services delivered by various types of ecosystems in Spain. We conducted 3,379 direct face-to-face questionnaires in eight different case study sites from 2007 to 2011. Overall, 90.5% of the sampled population recognized the ecosystem’s capacity to deliver services. Formal studies, environmental behavior, and gender variables influenced the probability of people recognizing the ecosystem’s capacity to provide services. The ecosystem services most frequently perceived by people were regulating services; of those, air purification held the greatest importance. However, statistical analysis showed that socio-cultural factors and the conservation management strategy of ecosystems (i.e., National Park, Natural Park, or a non-protected area) have an effect on social preferences toward ecosystem services. Ecosystem service trade-offs and bundles were identified by analyzing social preferences through multivariate analysis (redundancy analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis). We found a clear trade-off among provisioning services (and recreational hunting) versus regulating services and almost all cultural services. We identified three ecosystem service bundles associated with the conservation management strategy and the rural-urban gradient. We conclude that socio-cultural preferences toward ecosystem services can serve as a tool to identify relevant services for people, the factors underlying these social preferences, and emerging ecosystem service bundles and trade-offs. PMID:22720006

  1. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  2. Ecosystem classification, Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Robin-Abbott; L.H. Pardo

    2011-01-01

    The ecosystem classification in this report is based on the ecoregions developed through the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) for North America (CEC 1997). Only ecosystems that occur in the United States are included. CEC ecoregions are described, with slight modifications, below (CEC 1997) and shown in Figures 2.1 and 2.2. We chose this ecosystem...

  3. Global Ecosystem Restoration Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Miguel; Garcia, Monica; Fernandez, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    The Global ecosystem restoration index (GERI) is a composite index that integrates structural and functional aspects of the ecosystem restoration process. These elements are evaluated through a window that looks into a baseline for degraded ecosystems with the objective to assess restoration...

  4. Towards ecosystem accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duku, C.; Rathjens, H.; Zwart, S.J.; Hein, L.

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting is an emerging field that aims to provide a consistent approach to analysing environment-economy interactions. One of the specific features of ecosystem accounting is the distinction between the capacity and the flow of ecosystem services. Ecohydrological modelling to support

  5. Rights to ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems. Many of these services are provided outside the borders of the land where they are produced; this article investigates who is entitled to these non-excludable ecosystem services from two libertarian perspectives. Taking a

  6. Fire management in some California ecosystems: a cautionary note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmut S. Walter; Teresa Brennan; Christian Albrecht

    2005-01-01

    Fire has been recognized as a natural and important physical factor in many ecoregions of North America. We wish to point out that our understanding of the biocomplexity of our natural ecosystems is far from complete; in particular, the role of fire in vegetation succession and ecosystem health deserves more scrutiny where biodiversity conservation is a primary or...

  7. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  8. Going beyond the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: an index system of human dependence on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Dietz, Thomas; Liu, Wei; Luo, Junyan; Liu, Jianguo

    2013-01-01

    The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) estimated that two thirds of ecosystem services on the earth have degraded or are in decline due to the unprecedented scale of human activities during recent decades. These changes will have tremendous consequences for human well-being, and offer both risks and opportunities for a wide range of stakeholders. Yet these risks and opportunities have not been well managed due in part to the lack of quantitative understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. Here, we propose an index of dependence on ecosystem services (IDES) system to quantify human dependence on ecosystem services. We demonstrate the construction of the IDES system using household survey data. We show that the overall index and sub-indices can reflect the general pattern of households' dependences on ecosystem services, and their variations across time, space, and different forms of capital (i.e., natural, human, financial, manufactured, and social capitals). We support the proposition that the poor are more dependent on ecosystem services and further generalize this proposition by arguing that those disadvantaged groups who possess low levels of any form of capital except for natural capital are more dependent on ecosystem services than those with greater control of capital. The higher value of the overall IDES or sub-index represents the higher dependence on the corresponding ecosystem services, and thus the higher vulnerability to the degradation or decline of corresponding ecosystem services. The IDES system improves our understanding of human dependence on ecosystem services. It also provides insights into strategies for alleviating poverty, for targeting priority groups of conservation programs, and for managing risks and opportunities due to changes of ecosystem services at multiple scales.

  9. Ecosystem services in ECOCLIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Boegh, Eva; Bendtsen, J

    that actions initiated to reduce anthropogenic GHG emissions are sustainable and not destructive to existing ecosystem services. Therefore it is important to address i.e. land use change in relation to the regulating services of the ecosystems, such as carbon sequestration and climate regulation. At present...... a thorough understanding of the ecosystem processes controlling the uptake or emissions of GHG is fundamental. Here we present ECOCLIM in the context of ecosystem services and the experimental studies within ECOCLIM which will lead to an enhanced understanding of Danish ecosystems....

  10. Experimental assessment of ecosystem services in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Porter, John Roy; Wratten, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Ecosystem services are the resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems which benefit humankind (for example, pollination of crops by insects, or water filtration by wetlands). They underpin life on earth, provide major inputs to many economic sectors and support our lifestyles. Agricul......Ecosystem services are the resources and processes supplied by natural ecosystems which benefit humankind (for example, pollination of crops by insects, or water filtration by wetlands). They underpin life on earth, provide major inputs to many economic sectors and support our lifestyles....... Agricultural and urban areas are by far the largest users of ecosystems and their services and (for the first time) this book explores the role that ecosystem services play in these managed environments. The book also explores methods of evaluating ecosystem services, and discusses how these services can...... be maintained and enhanced in our farmlands and cities. This book will be useful to students and researchers from a variety of fields, including applied ecology, environmental economics, agriculture and forestry, and also to local and regional planners and policy makers....

  11. Biogeochemistry of radionuclides in ecosystems (historical aspect)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.I.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the most important results of the study on the radionuclides' behaviour in natural and model biogeocenoses(ecosystems) obtained by N.W.Timofeev-Ressovskij and co-workers during the period 1947-1968. As early as at that period, radionuclides were classified according to the types of distribution, accumulation and migration within the surface and freshwater ecosystems, and the methods of biological purification of radioactive sewage were proposed

  12. Stability measures in arid ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosshi, M. I.; Brunsell, N. A.; Koerner, S.

    2015-12-01

    Stability, the capacity of ecosystems to persist in the face of change, has proven its relevance as a fundamental component of ecological theory. Here, we would like to explore meaningful and quantifiable metrics to define stability, with a focus on highly variable arid and semi-arid savanna ecosystems. Recognizing the importance of a characteristic timescale to any definition of stability, our metrics will be focused scales from annual to multi-annual, capturing different aspects of stability. Our three measures of stability, in increasing order of temporal scale, are: (1) Ecosystem resistance, quantified as the degree to which the system maintains its mean state in response to a perturbation (drought), based on inter-annual variability in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). (2) An optimization approach, relevant to arid systems with pulse dynamics, that models vegetation structure and function based on a trade off between the ability to respond to resource availability and avoid stress. (3) Community resilience, measured as species turnover rate (β diversity). Understanding the nature of stability in structurally-diverse arid ecosystems, which are highly variable, yields theoretical insight which has practical implications.

  13. Strategies for conservation of endangered ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Hussain, M.; Ahmad, M.S.A.

    2012-01-01

    The planet Earth is known to host a rich biodiversity owing to its suitable environmental conditions for life and at a larger scale it is regarded as a major ecosystem. Healthy existence of living organisms in this ecosystem depends on proper functioning of all the associated environmental factors. Since millennia, living organisms have adapted to thrive under a limited range of environmental conditions. Nevertheless previous history of the earth and fossil records indicates that the biodiversity housed by the planet earth has experienced five major catastrophic extinctions due to change in physical environment. Even currently, it is undergoing sixth major extinction event mainly due to anthropogenic activities. The human activities are proving a dual menace for biodiversity. On the one hand, it is causing habitat loss through intensive deforestation, conversion of different natural plant communities for agriculture, and urbanization and industrialization. Moreover, it is resulting in habitat degradation by polluting both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, emitting air pollutants resulting in acid rains, ozone layer depletion, global warming, heavy metal contamination and eutrophication of water bodies. As a result, healthy existence of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and their associated biodiversity is altogether threatened. Worldwide efforts are underway to conserve the threatened ecosystems and their related biodiversity. A number of international conventions have been held to conserve natural ecosystems. Pakistan being a signatory of these conventions has its obligation to join hands with international community to conserve the endangered ecosystems within as well as outside its bounds. Under the existing scenario the objective of organizing this symposium was to pinpoint the threats to endangered ecosystems of the world in general and those in Pakistan in particular, and to develop suitable strategies for conservation of such paralyzed ecosystems

  14. Ecosystem-based management and the wealth of ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Seong Do; Hutniczak, Barbara; Abbott, Joshua K.; Fenichel, Eli P.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystems store vast quantities of wealth, but difficulties measuring wealth held in ecosystems prevent its inclusion in accounting systems. Ecosystem-based management endeavors to manage ecosystems holistically. However, ecosystem-based management lacks headline indicators to evaluate performance. We unify the inclusive wealth and ecosystem-based management paradigms, allowing apples-to-apples comparisons between the wealth of the ecosystem and other forms of wealth, while providing a headl...

  15. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-07-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  16. Ecosystemic approaches to land degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigdefabregas, J.; Barrio, G. del; Hill, J.

    2009-01-01

    Land degradation is recognized as the main outcome of desertification. However available procedures for its assessment are still unsatisfactory because are often too costly for surveying large areas and rely on specific components of the degradation process without being able to integrate them in a unique process. One of the objectives of De Survey project is designing and implementing operational procedures for desertification surveillance, including land degradation. A strategic report was compiled and reproduced here for selecting the most appropriate approaches to the project conditions. The report focuses on using attributes of ecosystem maturity as a natural way to integrate the different drivers of land degradation in simple indices. The review surveys different families of attributes concerned with water and energy fluxes through the ecosystem, its capacity to sustain biomass and net primary productivity, and its capacity to structure the space. Finally, some conclusions are presented about the choice criteria of the different approaches in the framne of operational applications. (Author) 20 refs.

  17. Neighbourhood-scale urban forest ecosystem classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, James W N; Millward, Andrew A; Duinker, Peter N; Nowak, David J; Robinson, Pamela J

    2015-11-01

    Urban forests are now recognized as essential components of sustainable cities, but there remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. Ecosystem classification is an approach that entails quantifying the social and ecological processes that shape ecosystem conditions into logical and relatively homogeneous management units, making the potential for ecosystem-based decision support available to urban planners. The purpose of this study is to develop and propose a framework for urban forest ecosystem classification (UFEC). The multifactor framework integrates 12 ecosystem components that characterize the biophysical landscape, built environment, and human population. This framework is then applied at the neighbourhood scale in Toronto, Canada, using hierarchical cluster analysis. The analysis used 27 spatially-explicit variables to quantify the ecosystem components in Toronto. Twelve ecosystem classes were identified in this UFEC application. Across the ecosystem classes, tree canopy cover was positively related to economic wealth, especially income. However, education levels and homeownership were occasionally inconsistent with the expected positive relationship with canopy cover. Open green space and stocking had variable relationships with economic wealth and were more closely related to population density, building intensity, and land use. The UFEC can provide ecosystem-based information for greening initiatives, tree planting, and the maintenance of the existing canopy. Moreover, its use has the potential to inform the prioritization of limited municipal resources according to ecological conditions and to concerns of social equity in the access to nature and distribution of ecosystem service supply. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen Deposition Effects on Ecosystem Services and Interactions with other Pollutants and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Leach, A.; Adams, M.; Vries, de W.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem services are defined as the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. Ecosystem services are being impacted by many human induced stresses, one of them being nitrogen (N) deposition and its interactions with other pollutants

  19. Broader perspective on ecosystem sustainability: consequences for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Roy C; Benson, William H; Carriger, John F; Kamai, Toshitaka

    2013-06-04

    Although the concept of ecosystem sustainability has a long-term focus, it is often viewed from a static system perspective. Because most ecosystems are dynamic, we explore sustainability assessments from three additional perspectives: resilient systems; systems where tipping points occur; and systems subject to episodic resetting. Whereas foundations of ecosystem resilience originated in ecology, recent discussions have focused on geophysical attributes, and it is recognized that dynamic system components may not return to their former state following perturbations. Tipping points emerge when chronic changes (typically anthropogenic, but sometimes natural) push ecosystems to thresholds that cause collapse of process and function and may become permanent. Ecosystem resetting occurs when episodic natural disasters breach thresholds with little or no warning, resulting in long-term changes to environmental attributes or ecosystem function. An example of sustainability assessment of ecosystem goods and services along the Gulf Coast (USA) demonstrates the need to include both the resilient and dynamic nature of biogeomorphic components. Mountain road development in northwest Yunnan, China, makes rivers and related habitat vulnerable to tipping points. Ecosystems reset by natural disasters are also presented, emphasizing the need to understand the magnitude frequency and interrelationships among major disturbances, as shown by (i) the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and resulting tsunami, including how unsustainable urban development exacerbates geodisaster propagation, and (ii) repeated major earthquakes and associated geomorphic and vegetation disturbances in Papua New Guinea. Although all of these ecosystem perturbations and shifts are individually recognized, they are not embraced in contemporary sustainable decision making.

  20. BUSINESS ECOSYSTEMS VS BUSINESS DIGITAL ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela Lazarica

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available E-business is often described as the small organisations’ gateway to global business and markets. The adoption of Internet-based technologies for e-business is a continuous process, with sequential steps of evolution. The latter step in the adoption of Internet-based technologies for business, where the business services and the software components are supported by a pervasive software environment, which shows an evolutionary and self-organising behaviour are named digital business ecosystems. The digital business ecosystems are characterized by intelligent software components and services, knowledge transfer, interactive training frameworks and integration of business processes and e-government models.

  1. Review on the Progress of Marine Ecosystem Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Xuefen; Zhang Luoping

    2007-01-01

    Along with the industrial development, adverse impacts on the natural environment become more serious, and ecosystem health and ecological security have also been deteriorated.The traditional environment management focused on the shortterm and economic benefits. Such managing pattern is not accommodating to the new situation of increasingly global environment problems and large scale marine environment problems.This paper introduces the advance and definition of a new managing pattern-ecosystem management. Meanwhile, the connotation of ecosystem management was summarized as seven points: Sustainability; Human is an important aspect of ecosystem management; Cooperation is the foundation of ecosystem management; Maintain health and security of ecosystem; Ecological diversity protection characters ecosystem management; Maintain the integrity of ecosystem; Ecosystem management must be founded on scientific theories and precise information. Somebody said Ecosystem Management is "a new label of old ideas". However, there is an essential difference between ecosystem management and traditional environmental management. In the last part of this paper, the differences of the approaches between ecosystem management and traditional environmental management are compared.

  2. Terrestrial ecosystems in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canadell, J.G. [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Global Carbon Project; Pataki, D.E. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science]|[California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; Pitelka, L.F. (eds.) [Maryland Univ., Frostburg, MD (United States). Appalachian Lab.

    2007-07-01

    Over 100 authors present 25 contributions on the impacts of global change on terrestrial ecosystems including: * key processes of the earth system such as the CO2 fertilization effect, shifts in disturbances and biome distribution, the saturation of the terrestrial carbon sink, and changes in functional biodiversity, * ecosystem services such the production of wheat, pest control, and carbon storage in croplands, and * sensitive regions in the world threaten by rapid changes in climate and land use such as high latitudes ecosystems, tropical forest in Southeast Asia, and ecosystems dominated by Monsoon climate. The book also explores new research developments on spatial thresholds and nonlinearities, the key role of urban development in global biogeochemical processes, and the integration of natural and social sciences to address complex problems of the human-environment system. (orig.)

  3. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo, Francisco J.; Kroeger, Timm; Wagner, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to integrate the concepts of ecosystem services and disservices when assessing the efficacy of using urban forests for mitigating pollution. A brief review of the literature identifies some pollution mitigation ecosystem services provided by urban forests. Existing ecosystem services definitions and typologies from the economics and ecological literature are adapted and applied to urban forest management and the concepts of ecosystem disservices from natural and semi-natural systems are discussed. Examples of the urban forest ecosystem services of air quality and carbon dioxide sequestration are used to illustrate issues associated with assessing their efficacy in mitigating urban pollution. Development of urban forest management alternatives that mitigate pollution should consider scale, contexts, heterogeneity, management intensities and other social and economic co-benefits, tradeoffs, and costs affecting stakeholders and urban sustainability goals. - Environmental managers should analyze ecosystem services and disservices when developing urban forest management alternatives for mitigating urban pollution.

  4. The Role of Overpopulation and Agricultural Methods in the Destruction of Tropical Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croat, Thomas B.

    1972-01-01

    The conflict between increasing population and decreasing agricultural land results in the destruction of tropical forest ecosystems. Research on the utilization and natural conditions of such ecosystems is needed now. (AL)

  5. Local loss and spatial homogenization of plant diversity reduce ecosystem multifunctionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental studies show that local plant species loss decreases ecosystem functioning and services, but it remains unclear how other changes in biodiversity, such as spatial homogenization, alter multiple processes (multifunctionality) in natural ecosystems. We present a global analysis of eight ...

  6. A National Approach to Quantify and Map Biodiversity Conservation Metrics within an Ecosystem Services Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services, i.e., "services provided to humans from natural systems," have become a key issue of this century in resource management, conservation planning, human well-being, and environmental decision analysis. Mapping and quantifying ecosystem services have be...

  7. Will ecosystem management supply woodland caribou habitat in northwestern Ontario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Euler

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is emerging as an important concept in managing forests. Although the basic conceptual idea is not new, important defining principles are developing that elucidate some of the specific attributes of ecosystem management. These principles include: the maintenance of all ecosystems in the managed forest, rhe emulation of natural disturbance patterns on rhe landscape and the insurance that structure and function of forested ecosystems are conserved. Forest management has an impact on woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou, although the presence of wolves (Canis lupus and moose (Alces alces in the same northern ecosystems also affects the caribou-forestry interacrion. Specific management for caribou as a featured species has been proposed, based on managing large landscape blocks. Ecosystem management would also produce habitat in a manner that might accomplish the goal of conserving woodland caribou as well as maintaining other important ecosystem functions.

  8. Belowground ecosystems [chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carole Coe Klopatek

    1995-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service defined ecosystem management as "an ecological approach to achieve multiple-use management of national forests and grasslands by blending the needs of people and environmental values in such a way that national forests and grasslands represent diverse, healthy, productive, and sustainable ecosystems" (June 4, 1992, letter from Chief FS...

  9. Ecosystem Management and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Peine; B.L. Jacobs; K.E. Franzreb; M.R. Stevens

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystem management (EM) promotes an integrated approach to environmental issues; its central goal is the protection of entire ecosystems. By focusing on an interdisciplinary solution to environmental challenges, EM can help to synthesize societal, economic scientific, and governmental goals. Furthermore, as EM becomes part of the foundation of environmental...

  10. Mapping cultural ecosystem services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paracchini, Maria Luisa; Zulian, Grazia; Kopperoinen, Leena

    2014-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services mapping and valuing has increased significantly in recent years. However, compared to provisioning and regulating services, cultural ecosystem services have not yet been fully integrated into operational frameworks. One reason for this is that transdisciplinarity...... surveys are a main source of information. Among cultural ecosystem services, assessment of outdoor recreation can be based on a large pool of literature developed mostly in social and medical science, and landscape and ecology studies. This paper presents a methodology to include recreation...... in the conceptual framework for EU wide ecosystem assessments (Maes et al., 2013), which couples existing approaches for recreation management at country level with behavioural data derived from surveys, and population distribution data. The proposed framework is based on three components: the ecosystem function...

  11. Elasticity in ecosystem services: exploring the variable relationship between ecosystems and human well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Daw

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although ecosystem services are increasingly recognized as benefits people obtain from nature, we still have a poor understanding of how they actually enhance multidimensional human well-being, and how well-being is affected by ecosystem change. We develop a concept of "ecosystem service elasticity" (ES elasticity that describes the sensitivity of human well-being to changes in ecosystems. ES Elasticity is a result of complex social and ecological dynamics and is context dependent, individually variable, and likely to demonstrate nonlinear dynamics such as thresholds and hysteresis. We present a conceptual framework that unpacks the chain of causality from ecosystem stocks through flows, goods, value, and shares to contribute to the well-being of different people. This framework builds on previous conceptualizations, but places multidimensional well-being of different people as the final element. This ultimately disaggregated approach emphasizes how different people access benefits and how benefits match their needs or aspirations. Applying this framework to case studies of individual coastal ecosystem services in East Africa illustrates a wide range of social and ecological factors that can affect ES elasticity. For example, food web and habitat dynamics affect the sensitivity of different fisheries ecosystem services to ecological change. Meanwhile high cultural significance, or lack of alternatives enhance ES elasticity, while social mechanisms that prevent access can reduce elasticity. Mapping out how chains are interlinked illustrates how different types of value and the well-being of different people are linked to each other and to common ecological stocks. We suggest that examining chains for individual ecosystem services can suggest potential interventions aimed at poverty alleviation and sustainable ecosystems while mapping out of interlinkages between chains can help to identify possible ecosystem service trade-offs and winners and

  12. Proving the ecosystem value through hydrological modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, W; Spachinger, K; Metzka, R; Porter, M

    2008-01-01

    Ecosystems provide valuable functions. Also natural floodplains and river structures offer different types of ecosystem functions such as habitat function, recreational area and natural detention. From an economic stand point the loss (or rehabilitation) of these natural systems and their provided natural services can be valued as a damage (or benefit). Consequently these natural goods and services must be economically valued in project assessments e.g. cost-benefit-analysis or cost comparison. Especially in smaller catchments and river systems exists significant evidence that natural flood detention reduces flood risk and contributes to flood protection. Several research projects evaluated the mitigating effect of land use, river training and the loss of natural flood plains on development, peak and volume of floods. The presented project analysis the hypothesis that ignoring natural detention and hydrological ecosystem services could result in economically inefficient solutions for flood protection and mitigation. In test areas, subcatchments of the Danube in Germany, a combination of hydrological and hydrodynamic models with economic evaluation techniques was applied. Different forms of land use, river structure and flood protection measures were assed and compared from a hydrological and economic point of view. A hydrodynamic model was used to simulate flows to assess the extent of flood affected areas and damages to buildings and infrastructure as well as to investigate the impacts of levees and river structure on a local scale. These model results provided the basis for an economic assessment. Different economic valuation techniques, such as flood damage functions, cost comparison method and substation-approach were used to compare the outcomes of different hydrological scenarios from an economic point of view and value the ecosystem service. The results give significant evidence that natural detention must be evaluated as part of flood mitigation projects

  13. β-Diversity, Community Assembly, and Ecosystem Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akira S; Isbell, Forest; Seidl, Rupert

    2018-05-25

    Evidence is increasing for positive effects of α-diversity on ecosystem functioning. We highlight here the crucial role of β-diversity - a hitherto underexplored facet of biodiversity - for a better process-level understanding of biodiversity change and its consequences for ecosystems. A focus on β-diversity has the potential to improve predictions of natural and anthropogenic influences on diversity and ecosystem functioning. However, linking the causes and consequences of biodiversity change is complex because species assemblages in nature are shaped by many factors simultaneously, including disturbance, environmental heterogeneity, deterministic niche factors, and stochasticity. Because variability and change are ubiquitous in ecosystems, acknowledging these inherent properties of nature is an essential step for further advancing scientific knowledge of biodiversity-ecosystem functioning in theory and practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemicals: Assessment of Risks to Ecosystem Services (CARES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Brink, van den P.J.; Faber, J.H.; Marshall, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Chemicals may have positive or negative effects on human well-being. The long-term survival and well-being of human populations depend on the sustainable use of ecosystems. The biophysical components of ecosystems (i.e., land, water, air, minerals, species, genes) provide the stocks of natural

  15. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks in self-organized ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, M.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial patterns in natural systems may appear amazingly complex. Yet, they can often be explained by a few simple rules. In self-organized ecosystems, complex spatial patterns at the ecosystem scale arise as the consequence of actions of and interactions between organisms at a local scale.

  16. A blueprint for mapping and modelling ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossman, N.; Burkhard, B.; Nedkov, S.; Willemen, L.L.J.; Petz, K.; Palomo, I.; Drakou, E.G.; Martín-Lopez, B.; McPhearson, T.; Boyanova, K.; Alkemade, R.; Egoh, B.; Dunbar, M.D.; Maes, J.

    2013-01-01

    The inconsistency in methods to quantify and map ecosystem services challenges the development of robust values of ecosystem services in national accounts and broader policy and natural resource management decision-making. In this paper we develop and test a blueprint to give guidance on modelling

  17. Networking Our Way to Better Ecosystem Service Provision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services (EcoS) concept is being used increasingly to attach values to natural systems and the multiple benefits they provide to human societies. Ecosystem processes or functions only become EcoS if they are shown to have social and/or economic value. This should assure an explicit

  18. Ecosystem Services Valuation as an Opportunity for Inquiry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary P.; Bennett, Drew E.

    2016-01-01

    Teaching ecosystem services provides an ideal opportunity to use inquiry-based learning to help students make connections between ecological, geological, and social systems. The idea of ecosystem services, or the benefits nature provides to society, has emerged as a key concept in a host of environmental fields and is just beginning to gain…

  19. Institutional barriers and incentives for ecosystem management: a problem analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.J. Cortner; M.A. Shannon; M.G. Wallace; S. Burke; M.A. Moote

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem management is currently being proposed as a new resource management philosophy. This approach to resource management will require changes in how society approaches nature, science, and politics. Further, if efforts to implement ecosystem management are to succeed, institutional issues must be examined. This report identifies five problem areas where social...

  20. Detecting forest cover and ecosystem service change using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural forests in Uganda have experienced both spatial and temporal modifications from different drivers which need to be monitored to assess the impacts of such changes on ecosystems and prevent related risks of reduction in ecosystem service benefits. Ground investigations may be complex because of dual ...

  1. Towards Business Process Management in networked ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan Versendaal; dr. Martijn Zoet; Jeroen Grondelle

    2014-01-01

    Managing and supporting the collaboration between different actors is key in any organizational context, whether of a hierarchical or a networked nature. In the networked context of ecosystems of service providers and other stakeholders, BPM is faced with different challenges than in a conventional

  2. Transformational restoration: novel ecosystems in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Palle Madsen; Khosro Sagheb-Talebi; Ole K. Hansen

    2018-01-01

    Restoring the estimated 1 billion hectares of degraded forests must consider future climate accompanied by novel ecosystems. Transformational restoration can play a key role in adaptation to climate change but it is conceptually the most divergent from contemporary approaches favoring native species and natural disturbance regimes. Here...

  3. Agencies within communities, communities within ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith; Kerry McMenus

    2000-01-01

    Can scientific information and intensive, extensive public involvement through facilitated meetings be expected to lead to agreement on natural resource issues? Communications and research in the Bitterroot Ecosystem Management Research Project indicate that, where people’s values differ greatly, consensus is not a realistic goal for short term planning processes....

  4. Program on ecosystem change and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpenter, Stephen R.; Folke, Carl; Norström, Albert

    2012-01-01

    The Program on Ecosystem Change and Society (PECS), a new initiative within the ICSU global change programs, aims to integrate research on the stewardship of social-ecological systems, the services they generate, and the relationships among natural capital, human wellbeing, livelihoods, inequality...

  5. Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Seth M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Peñuelas, Josep; McDowell, Nathan G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2018-01-01

    Abrupt shifts in ecosystems are cause for concern and will likelyintensify under global change (Scheffer et al., 2001). The terms‘thresho lds’, ‘tipping points’, and ‘critical transitions’ have beenused interchangeably to refer to sudden changes in the integrityor state of an ecosystem caused by environmental drivers(Holling, 1973; May, 1977). Threshold-based concepts havesignific antly aided our capacity to predict the controls overecosystem structure and functioning (Schwinning et al., 2004;Peters et al., 2007) and have become a framework to guide themanagement of natural resources (Glick et al., 2010; Allen et al.,2011). However, our unders tanding of how biotic and abioticdrivers interact to regulate ecosystem responses and of ways toforecast th e impending responses remain limited. Terrestrialecosystems, in particular, are already responding to globalchange in ways that are both transformati onal and difficult topredict due to strong heterogeneity across temporal and spatialscales (Pe~nuelas & Filella, 2001; McDowell et al., 2011;Munson, 2013; Reed et al., 2016). Comparing approaches formeasuring ecosystem performance in response to changingenvironme ntal conditions and for detecting stress and thresholdresponses can improve tradition al tests of resilience and provideearly warning signs of ecosystem transitions. Similarly, com-paring responses across ecosystems can offer insight into themechanisms that underlie variation in threshold responses.

  6. Trade and the governance of ecosystem services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling

    2008-01-01

    We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)

  7. Trade and the governance of ecosystem services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norgaard, Richard B.; Jin, Ling [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2008-07-15

    We work with a basic general equilibrium model of an economy with an industrial good and a rural good. Industrial good production results in pollution that affects the provision of ecosystem services and thereby the production of the rural good. The assignment of ecosystem rights to the industrial polluters or to the rural pollutees results in differential transaction costs that affect production possibilities between the two goods. Ecosystem rights are assigned to maximize social welfare. Over time, technological change and differences in income superiority affect the choice of the assignment of rights. Opening to trade affects the choice of the assignment of ecosystem rights depending on the nature of technological change, but the relative income superiority of goods no longer affects the assignment of ecosystem rights in a small economy. Thus, among other findings, we demonstrate that the phenomena known as the environmental Kuznets curve does not hold for the protection of ecosystem services in production, or production externalities generally, because trade separates consumption from production. (author)

  8. Placing ecosystem sustainability within the context of dynamic earth systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Because the concept of ecosystem sustainability and the practice of sustainable land management both have long-term foci, it is necessary to view these from the perspective of dynamic rather than static systems. In addition to the typical static system approach for assessing ecosystem sustainability, three additional perspectives are presented. These are resilient systems, systems where tipping points occur, and systems subject to episodic geophysical resetting. Ecosystem resilience accommodates both natural and anthropogenic stressors and should be considered to properly frame many ecosystem assessments. A more complex problem emerges when stressors push systems to tipping points, causing a regime shift. Both chronic anthropogenic activities (e.g., over-grazing, forest conversion, poor irrigation practices) and natural changes (e.g., climate anomalies, geochemical weathering, tectonic uplift, vegetative succession) can exhaust ecosystem resilience leading to a rapid change in state. Anthropogenic perturbations can also lower the initiation threshold and increase the magnitude and frequency of certain natural disasters, increasing the likelihood of ecosystem change. Furthermore, when major episodic geophysical events (e.g., large earthquakes, tsunami, and floods; widespread volcanic activity and landslides) exceed thresholds of ecosystem resilience they may reset the attributes of entire systems or landscapes. Large disasters can initiate a cascade of linked events, as in the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, where tsunami, fires, landslides, artificial fillslope collapses, radioactive releases, and associated health effects occurred. Understanding the potential for natural change (both chronic and episodic) in ecosystems is essential not only to the environmental aspect of sustainability but also to economic and social aspects. Examples are presented for: (1) ecosystems vulnerable to tipping points (Yunnan, China) and (2) ecosystems reset by earthquakes and

  9. Ecosystem quality in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, John S.; Damiani, Mattia; Fantke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) results are used to assess potential environmental impacts of different products and services. As part of the UNEP-SETAC life cycle initiative flagship project that aims to harmonize indicators of potential environmental impacts, we provide a consensus...... viewpoint and recommendations for future developments in LCIA related to the ecosystem quality area of protection (AoP). Through our recommendations, we aim to encourage LCIA developments that improve the usefulness and global acceptability of LCIA results. Methods: We analyze current ecosystem quality...... metrics and provide recommendations to the LCIA research community for achieving further developments towards comparable and more ecologically relevant metrics addressing ecosystem quality. Results and discussion: We recommend that LCIA development for ecosystem quality should tend towards species...

  10. Formation of Service Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonas, Julia M.; Sörhammar, David; Satzger, Gerhard

    – i.e. the “birth phase” (Moore, 2009) of a service ecosystem. This paper, therefore, aims to explore how the somewhat “magic” processes of service ecosystem formation that are being taken for granted actually occur. Methodology/Approach: Building on a review of core elements in the definitions...... for Harvard students) or value proposition (share messages, photos, videos, etc. with friends). Processes of configuring actors, resources, and value propositions are influenced by the structural embeddedness of the service ecosystem (e.g., regional infrastructure, existing networks of actors, or resource...... availability) as well as guided by the actors’ own and shared institutions (e.g., rules, norms,and beliefs).We contextualize each starting point with illustrative cases and analyze the service ecosystem configuration process: “Axoon/Trumpf” (initiated by resources), “JOSEPHS – the service manufactory...

  11. Revisiting software ecosystems research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos

    2016-01-01

    ‘Software ecosystems’ is argued to first appear as a concept more than 10 years ago and software ecosystem research started to take off in 2010. We conduct a systematic literature study, based on the most extensive literature review in the field up to date, with two primarily aims: (a) to provide...... an updated overview of the field and (b) to document evolution in the field. In total, we analyze 231 papers from 2007 until 2014 and provide an overview of the research in software ecosystems. Our analysis reveals a field that is rapidly growing both in volume and empirical focus while becoming more mature...... from evolving. We propose means for future research and the community to address them. Finally, our analysis shapes the view of the field having evolved outside the existing definitions of software ecosystems and thus propose the update of the definition of software ecosystems....

  12. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  13. Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Sveinsdottir, Thordis; Wessels, Bridgette; Smallwood, Rod; Linde, Peter; Kalla, Vasso; Tsoukala, Victoria; Sondervan, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This report is the deliverable for Work Package 1 (WP1), Stakeholder Values and Ecosystems, of the EU FP7 funded project RECODE (Grant Agreement No: 321463), which focuses on developing Policy Recommendations for Open Access to Research Data in Europe. WP1 focuses on understanding stakeholder values and ecosystems in Open Access, dissemination and preservation in the area of scientific and scholarly data (thus not government data). The objectives of this WP are as follows: • Identify and map ...

  14. Terrestrial ecosystems and biodiversity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis-Reddy, Claire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecoregions Terrestrial Biomes Protected Areas Climate Risk and Vulnerability: A Handbook for Southern Africa | 75 7.2. Non-climatic drivers of ecosystem change 7.2.1. Land-use change, habitat loss and fragmentation Land-use change and landscape... concentrations of endemic plant and animal species, but these mainly occur in areas that are most threatened by human activity. Diverse terrestrial ecosystems in the region include tropical and sub-tropical forests, deserts, savannas, grasslands, mangroves...

  15. Privacy driven internet ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Tuan Anh; Gyarmati, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    The dominant business model of today's Internet is built upon advertisements; users can access Internet services while the providers show ads to them. Although significant efforts have been made to model and analyze the economic aspects of this ecosystem, the heart of the current status quo, namely privacy, has not received the attention of the research community yet. Accordingly, we propose an economic model of the privacy driven Internet ecosystem where privacy is handled as an asset that c...

  16. Inferring differential evolutionary processes of plant persistence traits in Northern Hemisphere Mediterranean fire-prone ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausas, J.G.; Keeley, J.E.; Verdu, M.

    2006-01-01

    1 Resprouting capacity (R) and propagule-persistence (P) are traits that are often considered to have evolved where there are predictable crown fires. Because several indicators suggest a stronger selective pressure for such traits in California than in the Mediterranean Basin, we hypothesize that plant species should have evolved to become R+ and P+ more frequently in California than in the Mediterranean Basin. 2 To test this hypothesis we studied the phylogenetic association between R and P states in both California and the Mediterranean Basin using published molecular phylogenies. 3 The results suggest that R and P evolved differently in the two regions. The occurrence of the states differs significantly between regions for trait P, but not for trait R. The different patterns (towards R+ and P+ in California and towards R+ and P- in the Mediterranean Basin) are reflected in the higher abundance and the wider taxonomic distribution of species with both persistence traits (R+P+ species) in California. 4 The differential acquisition of fire persistence mechanisms at the propagule level (P+) supports the idea that fire selective pressures has been higher in California than in the Mediterranean Basin. 5 Our comparative phylogenetic-informed analysis contributes to an understanding of the differential role of the Quaternary climate in determining fire persistence traits in different Mediterranean-type ecosystems and, thus, to the debate on the evolutionary convergence of traits. ?? 2006 British Ecological Society.

  17. Radiation exposure of aquatic ecosystem compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna-Cesari-Florent, L.; Bontoux, J.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a normal operation, a nuclear site releases gaseous as well liquid effluents in environment. Limits are defined but if they are acceptable for man, do they allow to preserve species of ecosystem? Two points stand out of this study: the natural radioactivity is dominating in exposure but can one neglect an addition of artificial radioactivity? The species of Rhone river ecosystem are potentially submitted to a thermal and/or chemical stress, only a combined study, taking into account every situation of stress, could lead to a long term preservation of our environmental inheritance. (N.C.)

  18. Assessing and managing freshwater ecosystems vulnerable to global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Birge, Hannah E.; Drakare, Stina; McKie, Brendan G.; Johnson, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are important for global biodiversity and provide essential ecosystem services. There is consensus in the scientific literature that freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to the impacts of environmental change, which may trigger irreversible regime shifts upon which biodiversity and ecosystem services may be lost. There are profound uncertainties regarding the management and assessment of the vulnerability of freshwater ecosystems to environmental change. Quantitative approaches are needed to reduce this uncertainty. We describe available statistical and modeling approaches along with case studies that demonstrate how resilience theory can be applied to aid decision-making in natural resources management. We highlight especially how long-term monitoring efforts combined with ecological theory can provide a novel nexus between ecological impact assessment and management, and the quantification of systemic vulnerability and thus the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change.

  19. Monetary accounting of ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, R.P.; Edens, Bram; Schröter, Matthias; Hein, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Ecosystem accounting aims to provide a better understanding of ecosystem contributions to the economy in a spatially explicit way. Ecosystem accounting monitors ecosystem services and measures their monetary value using exchange values consistent with the System of National Accounts (SNA). We

  20. Impacts of land-use change to ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Tom; Holcombe, Tracy R.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing human populations on the landscape and globe coincide with increasing demands for food, energy, and other natural resources, with generally negative impacts to wildlife habitat, air and water quality, and natural scenery. Here we define and describe the impacts of land-use change on ecosystem services – the services that ecosystems provide humans such as filtering air and water, providing food, resources, recreation, and esthetics. We show how the human footprint is rapidly expanding due to population growth, demand for resources, and globalization. Increased trade and transportation has brought all the continents back together, creating new challenges for conserving native species and ecosystems.

  1. Dimensions of ecosystem theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, R.V.; Reichle, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Various dimensions of ecosystem structure and behavior that seem to develop from the ubiquitous phenomena of system growth and persistence were studied. While growth and persistence attributes of ecosystems may appear to be simplistic phenomena upon which to base a comprehensive ecosystem theory, these same attributes have been fundamental to the theoretical development of other biological disciplines. These attributes were explored at a hierarchical level in a self-organizing system, and adaptive system strategies that result were analyzed. Previously developed causative relations (Reichle et al., 1975c) were examined, their theoretical implications expounded upon, and the assumptions tested with data from a variety of forest types. The conclusions are not a theory in themselves, but a state of organization of concepts contributing towards a unifying theory, along the lines promulgated by Bray (1958). The inferences drawn rely heavily upon data from forested ecosystems of the world, and have yet to be validated against data from a much more diverse range of ecosystem types. Not all of the interpretations are logically tight - there is room for other explanations, which it is hoped will provide fruitful grounds for further speculation

  2. Secondary School Students' Environmental Concerns and Attitudes toward Forest Ecosystem Services: Implications for Biodiversity Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkar, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    Alarming declines in biodiversity have encouraged scientists to begin promoting the idea of the services ecosystems offer to humans in order to gain support for conservation. The concept of ecosystem services is designed to communicate societal dependence on various natural ecosystems. Schools play an important role in educating students to be…

  3. Coso geothermal environmental overview study ecosystem quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, P.

    1981-09-01

    The Coso Known Geothermal Resource Area is located just east of the Sierra Nevada, in the broad transition zone between the Mohave and Great Basin desert ecosystems. The prospect of large-scale geothermal energy development here in the near future has led to concern for the protection of biological resources. Objectives here are the identification of ecosystem issues, evaluation of the existing data base, and recommendation of additional studies needed to resolve key issues. High-priority issues include the need for (1) site-specific data on the occurrence of plant and animal species of special concern, (2) accurate and detailed information on the nature and extent of the geothermal resource, and (3) implementation of a comprehensive plan for ecosystem protection.

  4. Ecosystem Vulnerability Review: Proposal of an Interdisciplinary Ecosystem Assessment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißhuhn, Peter; Müller, Felix; Wiggering, Hubert

    2018-06-01

    To safeguard the sustainable use of ecosystems and their services, early detection of potentially damaging changes in functional capabilities is needed. To support a proper ecosystem management, the analysis of an ecosystem's vulnerability provide information on its weaknesses as well as on its capacity to recover after suffering an impact. However, the application of the vulnerability concept to ecosystems is still an emerging topic. After providing background on the vulnerability concept, we summarize existing ecosystem vulnerability research on the basis of a systematic literature review with a special focus on ecosystem type, disciplinary background, and more detailed definition of the ecosystem vulnerability components. Using the Web of ScienceTM Core Collection, we overviewed the literature from 1991 onwards but used the 5 years from 2011 to 2015 for an in-depth analysis, including 129 articles. We found that ecosystem vulnerability analysis has been applied most notably in conservation biology, climate change research, and ecological risk assessments, pinpointing a limited spreading across the environmental sciences. It occurred primarily within marine and freshwater ecosystems. To avoid confusion, we recommend using the unambiguous term ecosystem vulnerability rather than ecological, environmental, population, or community vulnerability. Further, common ground has been identified, on which to define the ecosystem vulnerability components exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. We propose a framework for ecosystem assessments that coherently connects the concepts of vulnerability, resilience, and adaptability as different ecosystem responses. A short outlook on the possible operationalization of the concept by ecosystem vulnerabilty indices, and a conclusion section complete the review.

  5. Ecosystem Services Flows: Why Stakeholders' Power Relationships Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Lucia, María R; Martín-López, Berta; Lavorel, Sandra; Berraquero-Díaz, Luis; Escalera-Reyes, Javier; Comín, Francisco A

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem services framework has enabled the broader public to acknowledge the benefits nature provides to different stakeholders. However, not all stakeholders benefit equally from these services. Rather, power relationships are a key factor influencing the access of individuals or groups to ecosystem services. In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the "cascade" framework for ecosystem services to integrate the analysis of ecological interactions among ecosystem services and stakeholders' interactions, reflecting power relationships that mediate ecosystem services flows. We illustrate its application using the floodplain of the River Piedra (Spain) as a case study. First, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) to model the dependence relationships among ecosystem services. Second, we performed semi-structured interviews to identify formal power relationships among stakeholders. Third, we depicted ecosystem services according to stakeholders' ability to use, manage or impair ecosystem services in order to expose how power relationships mediate access to ecosystem services. Our results revealed that the strongest power was held by those stakeholders who managed (although did not use) those keystone ecosystem properties and services that determine the provision of other services (i.e., intermediate regulating and final services). In contrast, non-empowered stakeholders were only able to access the remaining non-excludable and non-rival ecosystem services (i.e., some of the cultural services, freshwater supply, water quality, and biological control). In addition, land stewardship, access rights, and governance appeared as critical factors determining the status of ecosystem services. Finally, we stress the need to analyse the role of stakeholders and their relationships to foster equal access to ecosystem services.

  6. Ecosystem Services Flows: Why Stakeholders’ Power Relationships Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Lucia, María R.; Martín-López, Berta; Lavorel, Sandra; Berraquero-Díaz, Luis; Escalera-Reyes, Javier; Comín, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem services framework has enabled the broader public to acknowledge the benefits nature provides to different stakeholders. However, not all stakeholders benefit equally from these services. Rather, power relationships are a key factor influencing the access of individuals or groups to ecosystem services. In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the “cascade” framework for ecosystem services to integrate the analysis of ecological interactions among ecosystem services and stakeholders’ interactions, reflecting power relationships that mediate ecosystem services flows. We illustrate its application using the floodplain of the River Piedra (Spain) as a case study. First, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) to model the dependence relationships among ecosystem services. Second, we performed semi-structured interviews to identify formal power relationships among stakeholders. Third, we depicted ecosystem services according to stakeholders’ ability to use, manage or impair ecosystem services in order to expose how power relationships mediate access to ecosystem services. Our results revealed that the strongest power was held by those stakeholders who managed (although did not use) those keystone ecosystem properties and services that determine the provision of other services (i.e., intermediate regulating and final services). In contrast, non-empowered stakeholders were only able to access the remaining non-excludable and non-rival ecosystem services (i.e., some of the cultural services, freshwater supply, water quality, and biological control). In addition, land stewardship, access rights, and governance appeared as critical factors determining the status of ecosystem services. Finally, we stress the need to analyse the role of stakeholders and their relationships to foster equal access to ecosystem services. PMID:26201000

  7. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  8. Benefits of investing in ecosystem restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Groot, Rudolf S; Blignaut, James; VAN DER Ploeg, Sander; Aronson, James; Elmqvist, Thomas; Farley, Joshua

    2013-12-01

    Measures aimed at conservation or restoration of ecosystems are often seen as net-cost projects by governments and businesses because they are based on incomplete and often faulty cost-benefit analyses. After screening over 200 studies, we examined the costs (94 studies) and benefits (225 studies) of ecosystem restoration projects that had sufficient reliable data in 9 different biomes ranging from coral reefs to tropical forests. Costs included capital investment and maintenance of the restoration project, and benefits were based on the monetary value of the total bundle of ecosystem services provided by the restored ecosystem. Assuming restoration is always imperfect and benefits attain only 75% of the maximum value of the reference systems over 20 years, we calculated the net present value at the social discount rates of 2% and 8%. We also conducted 2 threshold cum sensitivity analyses. Benefit-cost ratios ranged from about 0.05:1 (coral reefs and coastal systems, worst-case scenario) to as much as 35:1 (grasslands, best-case scenario). Our results provide only partial estimates of benefits at one point in time and reflect the lower limit of the welfare benefits of ecosystem restoration because both scarcity of and demand for ecosystem services is increasing and new benefits of natural ecosystems and biological diversity are being discovered. Nonetheless, when accounting for even the incomplete range of known benefits through the use of static estimates that fail to capture rising values, the majority of the restoration projects we analyzed provided net benefits and should be considered not only as profitable but also as high-yielding investments. Beneficios de Invertir en la Restauración de Ecosistemas. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. An ecosystem carbon database for Canadian forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, C.H.; Bhatti, J.S.; Sabourin, K.J.

    2005-07-01

    The forest ecosystem carbon database (FECD) is a compilation of data from more than 700 plots from different forest ecosystems in Canada. It includes more than 60 variables for site, stand and soil characteristics. It is intended for large-scale modelers and analysts working with the carbon budget and dynamics of forest ecosystems, particularly those interested in the response of forest carbon stocks and fluxes to changes in climate and site characteristics. The database includes totals for organic and mineral soil horizons for each plot along with total soil carbon content, tree biomass carbon content by component and total ecosystem carbon content. It is complete for site description information, soil chemistry, stand-level estimates of live tree biomass and carbon components and their totals. Soil carbon content by horizon was also included. The compilation targeted data collected at single points in space, where above ground and below ground carbon levels were measured simultaneously. It was noted that one of the important information gaps lies in the fact that no data was available for the natural disturbance or management histories of the stands where the plots were located. Estimates did not include detrital carbon or root biomass, which can influence the estimates for total ecosystem carbon in some forest types. The preliminary analysis reveals that ecozones can be grouped according to low and high average total biomass carbon content. The groups correlate to ecozones with low and high average total ecosystem carbon. Mineral soil carbon within each group contributes the highest proportion of carbon to the average total ecosystem carbon. It is correlated with a gradient in ecozone climate from cold and dry to warm and wet. 42 refs., 13 tabs., 16 figs.

  10. Health, biodiversity, and natural resource use on the Amazon frontier: an ecosystem approach Saúde, biodiversidade e uso de recursos naturais na fronteira da Amazônia: uma abordagem ecossistêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamsyn P. Murray

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to improve the health of rural Amazonian communities through the development and application of a participatory ecosystem approach to human health assessment. In the study area marked seasonal fluctuations dictate food availability, water quality and disease outbreak. Determining the causal linkages between ecosystem variables, resource use and health required a variety of forms of inquiry at multiple scales with local participation. Landscape spatial mapping of resource use demonstrated the diversity of the ecological resources upon which communities depend. Household surveys detailed family and individual consumption and production patterns. Anthropometric measurements, parasite loading, water quality and anemia levels were used as indicators of health status. This was complemented with an ethnographic and participatory health assessment that provided the foundation for developing community action plans addressing health issues. Discussion is focused on three attributes of an ecosystem approach; (a methodological pluralism, (b cross-scale interactions and (c participatory action research.O estudo visa melhorar a saúde das comunidades rurais amazônicas mediante o desenvolvimento e a aplicação de abordagem ecossistêmica participante na avaliação da saúde humana. Na área estudada, oscilações sazonais definem a disponibilidade de alimentos, a qualidade da água e a incidência de doenças. A determinação dos elos causais entre variáveis ecossistêmicas, uso de recursos e saúde exigiu uma gama de formas de investigação, em múltiplas escalas, com participação local. O mapeamento espacial da paisagem quanto ao uso de recursos mostrou a diversidade dos recursos ecológicos de que as comunidades dependem. Inquéritos domiciliares detalharam padrões de consumo e produção familiares e individuais. Medidas antropométricas, carga parasitária, qualidade da água e níveis de anemia foram empregados como indicadores

  11. Environmental Impacts of the Use of Ecosystem Services: Case Study of Birdwatching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Jakub

    2014-09-01

    The main reason for promoting the concept of ecosystem services lies in its potential to contribute to environmental conservation. Highlighting the benefits derived from ecosystems fosters an understanding of humans' dependence on nature, as users of ecosystem services. However, the act of using ecosystem services may not be environmentally neutral. As with the use of products and services generated within an economy, the use of ecosystem services may lead to unintended environmental consequences throughout the `ecosystem services supply chain.' This article puts forward a framework for analyzing environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services, indicating five categories of impact: (1) direct impacts (directly limiting the service's future availability); and four categories of indirect impacts, i.e., on broader ecosystem structures and processes, which can ultimately also affect the initial service: (2) impacts related to managing ecosystems to maximize the delivery of selected services (affecting ecosystems' capacity to provide other services); (3) impacts associated with accessing ecosystems to use their services (affecting other ecosystem components); (4) additional consumption of products, infrastructure or services required to use a selected ecosystem service, and their life-cycle environmental impacts; and (5) broader impacts on the society as a whole (environmental awareness of ecosystem service users and other stakeholders). To test the usefulness of this framework, the article uses the case study of birdwatching, which demonstrates all of the above categories of impacts. The article justifies the need for a broader consideration of environmental impacts related to the use of ecosystem services.

  12. [Ecological regulation services of Hainan Island ecosystem and their valuation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Zhiyun; Zhao, Tongqian; Zhao, Jingzhu; Xiao, Han; Wang, Xiaoke

    2004-08-01

    Ecosystem services imply the natural environmental conditions on which human life relies for existence, and their effectiveness formed and sustained by ecosystem and its ecological processes. In newly research reports, they were divided into four groups, i. e., provisioning services, regulation services, cultural services, and supporting services. To assess and valuate ecosystem services is the foundation of regional environmental reserve and development. Taking Hainan Island as an example and based on the structure and processes of natural ecosystem, this paper discussed the proper methods for regulation services assessment. The ecosystems were classified into 13 types including valley rain forest, mountainous rain forest, tropical monsoon forest, mountainous coppice forest, mountainous evergreen forest, tropical coniferous forest, shrubs, plantation, timber forest, windbreak forest, mangrove, savanna, and cropland, and then, the regulation services and their economic values of Hainan Island ecosystem were assessed and evaluated by terms of water-holding, soil conservancy, nutrient cycle, C fixation, and windbreak function. The economic value of the regulation services of Hainan Island ecosystem was estimated as 2035.88 x 10(8)-2153.39 x 10(8) RMB yuan, 8 times higher to its provisioning services (wood and agricultural products) which were estimated as only 254.06 x 10(8) RMB yuan. The result implied that ecosystem regulation services played an even more important role in the sustainable development of society and economy in Hainan Island.

  13. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  14. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarik, Ingo, E-mail: kowarik@tu-berlin.de [Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, D 12165 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: > This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. > Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. > Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. > However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. > Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  15. Environmental contamination in Antarctic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R

    2008-08-01

    Although the remote continent of Antarctica is perceived as the symbol of the last great wilderness, the human presence in the Southern Ocean and the continent began in the early 1900s for hunting, fishing and exploration, and many invasive plant and animal species have been deliberately introduced in several sub-Antarctic islands. Over the last 50 years, the development of research and tourism have locally affected terrestrial and marine coastal ecosystems through fuel combustion (for transportation and energy production), accidental oil spills, waste incineration and sewage. Although natural "barriers" such as oceanic and atmospheric circulation protect Antarctica from lower latitude water and air masses, available data on concentrations of metals, pesticides and other persistent pollutants in air, snow, mosses, lichens and marine organisms show that most persistent contaminants in the Antarctic environment are transported from other continents in the Southern Hemisphere. At present, levels of most contaminants in Antarctic organisms are lower than those in related species from other remote regions, except for the natural accumulation of Cd and Hg in several marine organisms and especially in albatrosses and petrels. The concentrations of organic pollutants in the eggs of an opportunistic top predator such as the south polar skua are close to those that may cause adverse health effects. Population growth and industrial development in several countries of the Southern Hemisphere are changing the global pattern of persistent anthropogenic contaminants and new classes of chemicals have already been detected in the Antarctic environment. Although the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty provides strict guidelines for the protection of the Antarctic environment and establishes obligations for all human activity in the continent and the Southern Ocean, global warming, population growth and industrial development in countries of the Southern

  16. Governance of Ecosystem Services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primmer, Eeva; Jokinen, Pekka; Blicharska, Malgorzata; Barton, David N.; Bugter, Rob; Potschin, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation policies justified with science and intrinsic value arguments have produced disappointing outcomes, and the need for conservation is now being additionally justified with the concept of ecosystem services. However, little, if any empirical attention is paid to ways in

  17. Shelf-sea ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, J J

    1980-01-01

    An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these ecosystems. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.

  18. Payment for ecosystem services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Oddershede, Jakob Stoktoft; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    Research question: Northern Europe experiences an increasingly wet climate, leading to more frequent and severe fluvial flood events. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is becoming recognised as a valuable yet under-utilised means to alleviating negative effects of a changing climate. This however,...

  19. Biocomplexity in Mangrove Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, I. C.; Lovelock, C. E.; Berger, U.; McKee, K. L.; Joye, S. B.; Ball, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove ecosystems. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence ecosystem processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove ecosystems.

  20. Practical Strategies for Integrating Final Ecosystem Goods and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The concept of Final Ecosystem Goods and Services (FEGS) explicitly connects ecosystem services to the people that benefit from them. This report presents a number of practical strategies for incorporating FEGS, and more broadly ecosystem services, into the decision-making process. Whether a decision process is in early or late stages, or whether a process includes informal or formal decision analysis, there are multiple points where ecosystem services concepts can be integrated. This report uses Structured Decision Making (SDM) as an organizing framework to illustrate the role ecosystem services can play in a values-focused decision-process, including: • Clarifying the decision context: Ecosystem services can help clarify the potential impacts of an issue on natural resources together with their spatial and temporal extent based on supply and delivery of those services, and help identify beneficiaries for inclusion as stakeholders in the deliberative process. • Defining objectives and performance measures: Ecosystem services may directly represent stakeholder objectives, or may be means toward achieving other objectives. • Creating alternatives: Ecosystem services can bring to light creative alternatives for achieving other social, economic, health, or general well-being objectives. • Estimating consequences: Ecosystem services assessments can implement ecological production functions (EPFs) and ecological benefits functions (EBFs) to link decision alt

  1. Facing uncertainty in ecosystem services-based resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grêt-Regamey, Adrienne; Brunner, Sibyl H; Altwegg, Jürg; Bebi, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The concept of ecosystem services is increasingly used as a support for natural resource management decisions. While the science for assessing ecosystem services is improving, appropriate methods to address uncertainties in a quantitative manner are missing. Ignoring parameter uncertainties, modeling uncertainties and uncertainties related to human-environment interactions can modify decisions and lead to overlooking important management possibilities. In this contribution, we present a new approach for mapping the uncertainties in the assessment of multiple ecosystem services. The spatially explicit risk approach links Bayesian networks to a Geographic Information System for forecasting the value of a bundle of ecosystem services and quantifies the uncertainties related to the outcomes in a spatially explicit manner. We demonstrate that mapping uncertainties in ecosystem services assessments provides key information for decision-makers seeking critical areas in the delivery of ecosystem services in a case study in the Swiss Alps. The results suggest that not only the total value of the bundle of ecosystem services is highly dependent on uncertainties, but the spatial pattern of the ecosystem services values changes substantially when considering uncertainties. This is particularly important for the long-term management of mountain forest ecosystems, which have long rotation stands and are highly sensitive to pressing climate and socio-economic changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Urban ecosystem services: A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qi-zheng; Huang, Gan-lin; Wu, Jian-guo

    2015-04-01

    Maintaining and improving ecosystem services in urban areas and human well-being are essential for sustainable development and therefore constitute an important topic in urban ecology. Here we reviewed studies on ecosystem services in urban areas. Based on the concept and classification of urban ecosystem services, we summarized characteristics of urban ecosystem services, including the human domination, high demand of ecosystem services in urban areas, spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of ecosystem services supply and demand in urban areas, multi-services of urban green infrastructures, the socio-economic dimension of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem disservices in urban areas. Among different urban ecosystem services, the regulating service and cultural service are particularly indispensable to benefit human health. We pointed out that tradeoffs among different types of ecosystem services mostly occur between supportive service and cultural service, as well as regulating service and cultural service. In particular, we emphasized the relationship between landscape design (i.e. green infrastructure) and ecosystem services supply. Finally, we discussed current gaps to link urban ecosystem services studies to landscape design and management and pointed out several directions for future research in urban ecosystem services.

  3. Aquatic biodiversity in forests: A weak link in ecosystem services resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Olson, Deanna H.; Flitcroft, Rebecca L; Weber, Matthew A.; Bellmore, J. Ryan; Wondzell, Steven M.; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.; Reeves, Gordon H.

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of aquatic ecosystems is being quickly reduced on many continents, warranting a closer examination of the consequences for ecological integrity and ecosystem services. Here we describe intermediate and final ecosystem services derived from aquatic biodiversity in forests. We include a summary of the factors framing the assembly of aquatic biodiversity in forests in natural systems and how they change with a variety of natural disturbances and human-derived stressors. We consider forested aquatic ecosystems as a multi-state portfolio, with diverse assemblages and life-history strategies occurring at local scales as a consequence of a mosaic of habitat conditions and past disturbances and stressors. Maintaining this multi-state portfolio of assemblages requires a broad perspective of ecosystem structure, various functions, services, and management implications relative to contemporary stressors. Because aquatic biodiversity provides multiple ecosystem services to forests, activities that compromise aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity could be an issue for maintaining forest ecosystem integrity. We illustrate these concepts with examples of aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in forests of northwestern North America, also known as Northeast Pacific Rim. Encouraging management planning at broad as well as local spatial scales to recognize multi-state ecosystem management goals has promise for maintaining valuable ecosystem services. Ultimately, integration of information from socio-ecological ecosystems will be needed to maintain ecosystem services derived directly and indirectly from forest aquatic biota.

  4. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first legislative concerns for the protection and exploitation of forests are occurring since the eighteenth century. Forest of the country has always been a priority for environmental policy. The institutional framework for forestry organization in Romania is represented mainly by the Ministry of Environment and National Administration of Forests – Romsilva. First Romanian Forest Code was adopted on 19 June 1881. In present, the main law governing the forest is given by Law No. 46 of March 19, 2008 (Forest Code. Forests are resources of interest economic, social, recreational, ecological and biological. Biodiversity conservation of forest ecosystems involves the sustainable management by applying intensive treatments that promote natural regeneration of species of fundamental natural forest type and forest conservation and quasi virgin. The main way to conserve forest ecosystems is represented by the establishment of protected areas of national interest.

  5. Radiation stability of animate nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, G.N.; Spirin, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The main principles of radiation safety for animate nature including provisions for biological species protection and main requirement for animate nature radiation protection, which is the guarantee of any ecosystem integrity, are discussed. Ecosystem should be taken as the objective unit for animate nature radiation protection. The maximum dose of biot irradiation may amount to 0.5 Gy/year, which is 20-fold lower than the main dose limit for animate nature and 40-fold lower than ecological dose limits for conifers as the weakest radiostable member in ecosystem, at environment radioactive contamination determined by radiation safety standards. The radiation protection of animate nature is guaranteed at such levels of environment radioactive contamination

  6. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Population data sets provide baseline population information as one of the drivers of ecosystem change. The data helped in...

  7. Economic viewpoints on ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvis, H.J.; Heide, van der C.M.

    2013-01-01

    to help determine the different values of ecosystems. Ecosystem services are usually divided into four categories: provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and habitat services (previously denoted as supporting services). This overview highlights economic theories about

  8. On the usefulness of ecosystem services evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Belmontes, J. A.; López Pintor, A.; Rodríguez, M. A.; Gómez-Sal, A.

    1997-01-01

    A ground breaking paper by COSTANZA et al. published in Nature this year has led to an intense debate about the potential, and convenience of making economical valuations of the services provided by ecosystems. This debate has been encouraged by the journal, by giving Internet free access to the paper, as well as by the International Society for Ecological Economics (ISEE) and the Communications for a Sustainable Future (CSF) who had co-exponsored an Online Forum offering the possibility to s...

  9. Key insights for the future of urban ecosystem services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Kremer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dynamics of urban ecosystem services is a necessary requirement for adequate planning, management, and governance of urban green infrastructure. Through the three-year Urban Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (URBES research project, we conducted case study and comparative research on urban biodiversity and ecosystem services across seven cities in Europe and the United States. Reviewing > 50 peer-reviewed publications from the project, we present and discuss seven key insights that reflect cumulative findings from the project as well as the state-of-the-art knowledge in urban ecosystem services research. The insights from our review indicate that cross-sectoral, multiscale, interdisciplinary research is beginning to provide a solid scientific foundation for applying the ecosystem services framework in urban areas and land management. Our review offers a foundation for seeking novel, nature-based solutions to emerging urban challenges such as wicked environmental change issues.

  10. Interregional flows of ecosystem services: Concepts, typology and four cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Matthias; Koellner, Thomas; Alkemade, Rob; Arnhold, Sebastian; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Frank, Karin; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Kastner, Thomas; Kissinger, Meidad; Liu, Jianguo; López-Hoffman, Laura; Maes, Joachim; Marques, Alexandra; Martín-López, Berta; Meyer, Carsten; Schulp, Catharina J. E.; Thober, Jule; Wolff, Sarah; Bonn, Aletta

    2018-01-01

    Conserving and managing global natural capital requires an understanding of the complexity of flows of ecosystem services across geographic boundaries. Failing to understand and to incorporate these flows into national and international ecosystem assessments leads to incomplete and potentially skewed conclusions, impairing society’s ability to identify sustainable management and policy choices. In this paper, we synthesise existing knowledge and develop a conceptual framework for analysing interregional ecosystem service flows. We synthesise the types of such flows, the characteristics of sending and receiving socio-ecological systems, and the impacts of ecosystem service flows on interregional sustainability. Using four cases (trade of certified coffee, migration of northern pintails, flood protection in the Danube watershed, and information on giant pandas), we test the conceptual framework and show how an enhanced understanding of interregional telecouplings in socio-ecological systems can inform ecosystem service-based decision making and governance with respect to sustainability goals.

  11. Achieving Sustainability: Insights from Biogas Ecosystems in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Surie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how the use of renewable energy technologies such as biogas can help to achieve environmental and socio-economic sustainability. It combines research on sustainable consumption and production, natural and industrial ecosystems and renewable energy adoption to develop a framework for an industrial ecosystem for biogas for bottom-of-the-pyramid and rural populations. The framework suggests that three dimensions of industrial ecosystems and a meta-dimension can be embedded in the design of a new industrial ecosystem for biogas to facilitate environmental and socio-economic sustainability. Case studies of an organization engaged in using biogas to create a sustainable bioenergy ecosystem for rural populations and two organizations producing biogas in urban India provide support for the framework.

  12. Balancing conservation needs with uses of river ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabater, Sergi; Elosegui, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Rivers are among the most diverse and threatened ecosystems on the earth, but their conservation are a requisite for sustainable development. Conservation must consider both the structure and the functioning of the elements (usually species), as well as of their ecosystem. Therefore, successful river conservation must go beyond protecting species to protecting entire ecosystems and the processes that give each ecosystem its special characteristics. River conservation has to meet the legitimate aspirations of human populations for clean, readily available supply of water, without compromising the water needs of ecosystems and nature. Therefore, it is essential to take a landscape perspective that incorporates processes occurring in the riverine riparian areas as well as on connectivity with the land and across the river network.

  13. Preface: Ecosystem services, ecosystem health and human communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plag, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    This special issue contains a collection of manuscripts that were originally intended to be included in the special issue on "Physics and Economics of Ecosystem Services Flows" (Volume 101, guest editors H. Su, J. Dong and S. Nagarajan) and "Biogeochemical Processes in the Changing Wetland Environment" (Volume 103, guest editors J. Bai, L. Huang and H. Gao). All of them are addressing issues related to ecosystem services in different settings. Ecosystem services are of high value for both the ecosystems and human communities, and understanding the impacts of environmental processes and human activities on ecosystems is of fundamental importance for the preservation of these services.

  14. Ecosystems Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. H.; Frame, M. T.; Ferriter, O.; Recker, J.

    2014-12-01

    Stimulating innovation and private sector entrepreneurship is an important way to advance the preparedness of communities, businesses and individuals for the impacts of climate change on certain aspects of ecosystems, such as: fire regimes; water availability; carbon sequestration; biodiversity conservation; weather-related hazards, and the spread of invasive species. The creation of tools is critical to help communities and natural resource managers better understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems and the potential resulting implications for ecosystem services and conservation efforts. The Department of the Interior is leading an interagency effort to develop the Ecosystems Vulnerability theme as part of the President's Climate Action Plan. This effort will provide seamless access to relevant datasets that can help address such issues as: risk of wildfires to local communities and federal lands; water sensitivity to climate change; and understanding the role of ecosystems in a changing climate. This session will provide an overview of the proposed Ecosystem Vulnerability Challenge and Prize Competition, outlining the intended audience, scope, goals, and overall timeline. The session will provide an opportunity for participants to offer new ideas. Through the Challenge, access will be made available to critical datasets for software developers, engineers, scientists, students, and researchers to develop and submit applications addressing critical science issues facing our Nation today. Application submission criteria and guidelines will also be discussed. The Challenge will be open to all sectors and organizations (i.e. federal, non-federal, private sector, non-profits, and universities) within the United States. It is anticipated the Challenge will run from early January 2015 until spring of 2015.

  15. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  16. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  17. Promoting Transfer of Ecosystems Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yawen; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.; Jordan, Rebecca; Eberbach, Catherine; Sinha, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    This study examines to what extent students transferred their knowledge from a familiar aquatic ecosystem to an unfamiliar rainforest ecosystem after participating in a technology-rich inquiry curriculum. We coded students' drawings for components of important ecosystems concepts at pre- and posttest. Our analysis examined the extent to which each…

  18. The Coevolution of Digital Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    SungYong, Um

    2016-01-01

    Digital ecosystems are one of the most important strategic issues in the current digital economy. Digital ecosystems are dynamic and generative. They evolve as new firms join and as heterogeneous systems are integrated into other systems. These features digital ecosystems determine economic and technological success in the competition among…

  19. An applied hydropedological perspective on the rendering of ecosystem services from urban soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem services are benefits to human populations derived from natural capitals like soil. When a soil is urbanized during infrastructure and superstructure development, the related processes modulate the state and quality of natural resources, along with the form and function...

  20. Marine Ecosystem Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Ahtiainen, Heini; Hasselström, Linus

    MARECOS (Marine Ecosystem Services) er et tværfagligt studie, der har haft til formål at tilvejebringe information vedrørende kortlægning og værdisætning af økosystemtjenester, som kan anvendes i forbindelse med udformning af regulering på det marine område såvel nationalt, som regionalt og inter...

  1. Human dimensions in ecosystem management: a USDA Forest Service perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah S. Carr

    1995-01-01

    For many decades, the natural resource profession has approached the management of public lands as exclusively a natural science endeavor requiring purely technical solutions. With the adoption of an ecosystem management philosophy, the USDA Forest Service has acknowledged the centrality of people in land management policy and decision-making. This paper explores the...

  2. Water-use strategies of six co-existing Mediterranean woody species during a summer drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero, J.L.; Sterck, F.J.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Villar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is known to limit plant performance in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We have investigated the dynamics of the hydraulics, gas exchange and morphology of six co-existing Mediterranean woody species growing under natural field conditions during a drought that continued during the

  3. The river ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descy, J.P.; Lambinon, J.

    1984-01-01

    From the standpoint of the ecologist, a river is an ecosystem characterized by its biocoenosis, in dynamic equilibrium with the abiotic environment. This ecosystem can be envisaged at the structural level by examining its physical, chemical and biological properties, together with the relationships existing between these compartments. The biocoenotic structure of a river is relatively complex: it manifests, among other specific features, the presence of plankton communities which show marked space-time variations. The function of the river ecosystem can be approximated by a study of the relationships between the biotic and abiotic components: primary production, secondary production, recycling of organic matter, etc. Lotic environments are subject to frequent disturbance from various forms of man-made pollution: organic pollution, eutrophization, thermal pollution, mineral pollution, contamination by organic and mineral micropollutants, as well as by radionuclides, mechanical pollution and physical degradation. The biocoenotic effects of these forms of pollution may be evaluated, in particular, using biological indicators (bioindicators): these are either able to show the overall impact of the pollution on the biocoenosis or else they permit the detection and evaluation of certain pollutant forms. (author)

  4. Characterizing the Danish telemedicine ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manikas, Konstantinos; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    and interoperability issues, silo solutions, and lack of guidelines and standards. In this paper, we characterise the ecosystem evolved around the telemedicine services in Denmark and study the actors involved in this ecosystem. We establish a method for this study, where we define two actor roles and ways...... of characterizing actor contributions, and apply the method to the largest healthcare region of Denmark. Our findings reveal an ecosystem that is relatively closed to new actors, where the actors tend to be related to single telemedicine applications, the applications have low connectivity, and the most influential...... actors of the ecosystem can be characterised as both being beneficial and inhibitory to the ecosystem prosperity....

  5. Adaptive management for ecosystem services (j/a) | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of natural resources for the production of ecosystem services, which are vital for human well-being, is necessary even when there is uncertainty regarding system response to management action. This uncertainty is the result of incomplete controllability, complex internal feedbacks, and non-linearity that often interferes with desired management outcomes, and insufficient understanding of nature and people. Adaptive management was developed to reduce such uncertainty. We present a framework for the application of adaptive management for ecosystem services that explicitly accounts for cross-scale tradeoffs in the production of ecosystem services. Our framework focuses on identifying key spatiotemporal scales (plot, patch, ecosystem, landscape, and region) that encompass dominant structures and processes in the system, and includes within- and cross-scale dynamics, ecosystem service tradeoffs, and management controllability within and across scales. Resilience theory recognizes that a limited set of ecological processes in a given system regulate ecosystem services, yet our understanding of these processes is poorly understood. If management actions erode or remove these processes, the system may shift into an alternative state unlikely to support the production of desired services. Adaptive management provides a process to assess the underlying within and cross-scale tradeoffs associated with production of ecosystem services while proceeding with manage

  6. Methane Production by Seagrass Ecosystems in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus

    2017-11-07

    Atmospheric methane (CH) is the second strongest greenhouse gas and it is emitted to the atmosphere naturally by different sources. It is crucial to define the dimension of these natural emissions in order to forecast changes in atmospheric CH mixing ratio in future scenarios. However, CH emissions by seagrass ecosystems in shallow marine coastal systems have been neglected although their global extension. Here we quantify the CH production rates of seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. We measured changes in CH concentration and its isotopic signature by cavity ring-down spectroscopy on chambers containing sediment and plants. We detected CH production in all the seagrass stations with an average rate of 85.09 ± 27.80 μmol CH m d. Our results show that there is no seasonal or daily pattern in the CH production rates by seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. Taking in account the range of global estimates for seagrass coverage and the average seagrass CH production, the global CH production and emission by seagrass ecosystems could range from 0.09 to 2.7 Tg yr. Because CH emission by seagrass ecosystems had not been included in previous global CH budgets, our estimate would increase the contribution of marine global emissions, hitherto estimated at 9.1 Tg yr, by about 30%. Thus, the potential contribution of seagrass ecosystems to marine CH emissions provides sufficient evidence of the relevance of these fluxes as to include seagrass ecosystems in future assessments of the global CH budgets.

  7. Methane Production by Seagrass Ecosystems in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Garcias Bonet, Neus; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH) is the second strongest greenhouse gas and it is emitted to the atmosphere naturally by different sources. It is crucial to define the dimension of these natural emissions in order to forecast changes in atmospheric CH mixing ratio in future scenarios. However, CH emissions by seagrass ecosystems in shallow marine coastal systems have been neglected although their global extension. Here we quantify the CH production rates of seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. We measured changes in CH concentration and its isotopic signature by cavity ring-down spectroscopy on chambers containing sediment and plants. We detected CH production in all the seagrass stations with an average rate of 85.09 ± 27.80 μmol CH m d. Our results show that there is no seasonal or daily pattern in the CH production rates by seagrass ecosystems in the Red Sea. Taking in account the range of global estimates for seagrass coverage and the average seagrass CH production, the global CH production and emission by seagrass ecosystems could range from 0.09 to 2.7 Tg yr. Because CH emission by seagrass ecosystems had not been included in previous global CH budgets, our estimate would increase the contribution of marine global emissions, hitherto estimated at 9.1 Tg yr, by about 30%. Thus, the potential contribution of seagrass ecosystems to marine CH emissions provides sufficient evidence of the relevance of these fluxes as to include seagrass ecosystems in future assessments of the global CH budgets.

  8. Agroecology: the key role of arbuscular mycorrhizas in ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinazzi, Silvio; Gollotte, Armelle; Binet, Marie-Noëlle; van Tuinen, Diederik; Redecker, Dirk; Wipf, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    The beneficial effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant performance and soil health are essential for the sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems. Nevertheless, since the 'first green revolution', less attention has been given to beneficial soil microorganisms in general and to AM fungi in particular. Human society benefits from a multitude of resources and processes from natural and managed ecosystems, to which AM make a crucial contribution. These resources and processes, which are called ecosystem services, include products like food and processes like nutrient transfer. Many people have been under the illusion that these ecosystem services are free, invulnerable and infinitely available; taken for granted as public benefits, they lack a formal market and are traditionally absent from society's balance sheet. In 1997, a team of researchers from the USA, Argentina and the Netherlands put an average price tag of US $33 trillion a year on these fundamental ecosystem services. The present review highlights the key role that the AM symbiosis can play as an ecosystem service provider to guarantee plant productivity and quality in emerging systems of sustainable agriculture. The appropriate management of ecosystem services rendered by AM will impact on natural resource conservation and utilisation with an obvious net gain for human society.

  9. The provision of ecosystem services in response to global change: Evidences and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortezza, Raffaele; Chen, Jiquan

    2016-05-01

    As a consequence of the global increase in economic and societal prosperity, ecosystems and natural resources have been substantially exploited, degraded, or even destroyed in the last century. To prevent further deprivation of the quality of ecosystems, the ecosystem services concept has become a central issue in environmental studies. A growing number of environmental agencies and organizations worldwide are now embracing integrated approaches to plan and manage ecosystems, sharing a goal to maintain the long-term provision of ecosystem services for sustainability. A daunting challenge in this process is to move from general pronouncements about the tremendous benefits that ecosystems provide to society to defensible assessments of their services. In other words, we must move beyond the scientific evidences of the ecosystem services concept to its practical applications. In this work, we discuss the theoretical foundations and applications of ecosystem services with a focus on the assessment of ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies at various spatial and temporal scales. Here, we offer examples of the main factors related to land use management that may affect the provision of ecosystem services and provide direction for future research on ecosystem services and related nature-based solutions. We also provide a briefing on the major topics covered in this Special Issue, which focuses on the provision of ecosystem services in the context of global change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mapping Cumulative Impacts of Human Activities on Marine Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    , Seaplan

    2018-01-01

    Given the diversity of human uses and natural resources that converge in coastal waters, the potential independent and cumulative impacts of those uses on marine ecosystems are important to consider during ocean planning. This study was designed to support the development and implementation of the 2009 Massachusetts Ocean Management Plan. Its goal was to estimate and visualize the cumulative impacts of human activities on coastal and marine ecosystems in the state and federal waters off of Ma...

  11. Ecosystem Management. A Management View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn-Jonsen, Lars

    The need for management of the marine ecosystem using a broad perspective has been recommended under a variety of names. This paper uses the term Ecosystem Management, which is seen as a convergence between the ecological idea of an organisational hierarchy and the idea of strategic planning...... with a planning hierarchy---with the ecosystem being the strategic planning level. Management planning requires, in order to establish a quantifiable means and ends chain, that the goals at the ecosystem level can be linked to operational levels; ecosystem properties must therefore be reducible to lower...... organisational levels. Emergence caused by constraints at both the component and system levels gives rise to phenomena that can create links between the ecosystem and operational levels. To create these links, the ecosystem's functional elements must be grouped according to their functionality, ignoring any...

  12. Conceptual Framework of Ecosystem Services in Landscape Planning, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Bak Yeo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of ecosystem services and its trend, scale and gradient, through reviewing articles, books and internet sources. Result shows that evaluation of ecosystem services in small towns within urban-rural gradient in developing countries still not being scrutinized explicitly, especially trade-offs’ concern. Environmental damages in the developing countries are burgeoning. As land conversion from natural capital to built capital is also keep on rising for temporal economic interests. Therefore, it has induced changes in ecological functions and affected the ecosystem services supply. In the context of Peninsular Malaysia, ungoverned built capitals and flaw of policy further contribute to fallacious decision making. And yet, there is still no specific framework or initiatives directly deals with ecosystem and biodiversity. A conceptual framework has been proposed to assess and value ecosystem services through integration of InVEST model (Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs and bundle of ecosystem services. The framework allows stakeholders to have an insight of the pros and cons about the landscape changes, be it in ecological, economic or social-cultural perspectives. Therefore, it may help to ameliorate the trade-offs and enhance the synergies of ecosystem services that eventually can contribute to attaining human well-being, and to promote sustainable growth.

  13. Reconnecting Social and Ecological Resilience in Salmon Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Bottom

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishery management programs designed to control Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. for optimum production have failed to prevent widespread fish population decline and have caused greater uncertainty for salmon, their ecosystems, and the people who depend upon them. In this special feature introduction, we explore several key attributes of ecosystem resilience that have been overlooked by traditional salmon management approaches. The dynamics of salmon ecosystems involve social-ecological interactions across multiple scales that create difficult mismatches with the many jurisdictions that manage fisheries and other natural resources. Of particular importance to ecosystem resilience are large-scale shifts in oceanic and climatic regimes or in global economic conditions that unpredictably alter social and ecological systems. Past management actions that did not account for such changes have undermined salmon population resilience and increased the risk of irreversible regime shifts in salmon ecosystems. Because salmon convey important provisioning, cultural, and supporting services to their local watersheds, widespread population decline has undermined both human well-being and ecosystem resilience. Strengthening resilience will require expanding habitat opportunities for salmon populations to express their maximum life-history variation. Such actions also may benefit the "response diversity" of local communities by expanding the opportunities for people to express diverse social and economic values. Reestablishing social-ecological connections in salmon ecosystems will provide important ecosystem services, including those that depend on clean water, ample stream flows, functional wetlands and floodplains, intact riparian systems, and abundant fish populations.

  14. Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Kamble

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 70-82 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9209

  15. The Collapse of Ecosystem Engineer Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Fontanari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans are the ultimate ecosystem engineers who have profoundly transformed the world’s landscapes in order to enhance their survival. Somewhat paradoxically, however, sometimes the unforeseen effect of this ecosystem engineering is the very collapse of the population it intended to protect. Here we use a spatial version of a standard population dynamics model of ecosystem engineers to study the colonization of unexplored virgin territories by a small settlement of engineers. We find that during the expansion phase the population density reaches values much higher than those the environment can support in the equilibrium situation. When the colonization front reaches the boundary of the available space, the population density plunges sharply and attains its equilibrium value. The collapse takes place without warning and happens just after the population reaches its peak number. We conclude that overpopulation and the consequent collapse of an expanding population of ecosystem engineers is a natural consequence of the nonlinear feedback between the population and environment variables.

  16. [Assessment of shallow groundwater nitrate concentrations in typical terrestrial ecosystems of Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) during 2004-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Min; Yuan, Guo-Fu; Wang, Sheng-Zhong; Liu, Wen-Hua

    2011-10-01

    The nitrate-N (NO3(-) -N) concentrations of 38 shallow groundwater wells from 31 of the typical terrestrial ecosystems on Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) were assessed using the monitoring data from 2004 to 2009. The results showed that the average values of NO3(-) -N concentrations were significantly higher in the agricultural (4.85 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)), desert (oasis) (3.72 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.42 mg x L(-1)) and urban ecosystems (3.77 mg x L(-1) 0.51 mg x L(-1)) than in the grass (1.59 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.35 mg L(-1)) and forest ecosystems (0.39 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.03 mg x L(-1)). Nitrate was the major form of nitrogen, with between 56% to 88% of nitrogen in the nitrate-N form in the shallow groundwater of desert (oasis), urban and agricultural ecosystems. Nitrate-N concentrations for some agricultural ecosystems (Ansai, Yanting, Yucheng) and desert (oasis) ecosystems (Cele, Linze, Akesu) analysis exceeded the 10 mg x L(-1) World Health Organization drinking water standards between 14.3% and 84.6%. Significant seasonality was found in Ansai, Fengqiu, Yanting agricultural ecosystems and the Beijing urban ecosystem using the relatively high frequency monitoring data, with the higher nitrate concentrations usually found during summer and winter months. The monitoring results indicated that the shallow groundwater of agricultural ecosystems was contaminated by agricultural management practices, i.e. fertilization, while the shallow groundwater of forest ecosystems was under natural condition with no contamination from human activities.

  17. Climate change impacts on ecosystems and ecosystem services in the United States: Process and prospects for sustained assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Nancy B.; Groffman, Peter M; Staudinger, Michelle D.; Tallis, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The third United States National Climate Assessment emphasized an evaluation of not just the impacts of climate change on species and ecosystems, but also the impacts of climate change on the benefits that people derive from nature, known as ecosystem services. The ecosystems, biodiversity, and ecosystem services component of the assessment largely drew upon the findings of a transdisciplinary workshop aimed at developing technical input for the assessment, involving participants from diverse sectors. A small author team distilled and synthesized this and hundreds of other technical input to develop the key findings of the assessment. The process of developing and ranking key findings hinged on identifying impacts that had particular, demonstrable effects on the U.S. public via changes in national ecosystem services. Findings showed that ecosystem services are threatened by the impacts of climate change on water supplies, species distributions and phenology, as well as multiple assaults on ecosystem integrity that, when compounded by climate change, reduce the capacity of ecosystems to buffer against extreme events. As ecosystems change, such benefits as water sustainability and protection from storms that are afforded by intact ecosystems are projected to decline across the continent due to climate change. An ongoing, sustained assessment that focuses on the co-production of actionable climate science will allow scientists from a range of disciplines to ascertain the capability of their forecasting models to project environmental and ecological change and link it to ecosystem services; additionally, an iterative process of evaluation, development of management strategies, monitoring, and reevaluation will increase the applicability and usability of the science by the U.S. public.

  18. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  19. Evaluating ecosystem services provided by non-native species: an experimental test in California grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M; Harpole, W Stanley; Suding, Katharine N

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services--the benefits that nature provides to human's society--has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem.

  20. ESTIMAP: A GIS-BASED MODEL TO MAP ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Zulian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Policies of the European Union which affect the use or protection of natural resources increasingly need spatial data on the supply, the flow and the demand of ecosystem services. The model ESTIMAP was developed to this purpose. ESTIMAP departs from land cover and land use maps to which it adds other spatial information with the objective to map various ecosystem services. This study introduces the ESTIMAP map as tool to support the mapping and modelling of ecosystem services at European scale. Examples are provided for three regulating ecosystem services, air quality regulation, coastal protection, and pollination and one cultural ecosystem services, recreation. 

  1. Mapping and assessment of ecosystem services to improve resource management and human wellbeing in data-scarce peri-urban ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Wangai, Peter Waweru

    2017-01-01

    The ecosystem service (ES) approach acknowledges the fundamental interactions between biodiversity, ecosystems, natural resources and human wellbeing, while substantiating both tangible and intangible benefits of ecosystems to humans. Reflecting on the challenges of rapid population growth and land use changes in Africa’s urban areas on the one hand, and the opportunities provided by the ES approach on the other hand, the thesis adopts suitable ES mapping and assessment methodologies, framewo...

  2. Sustainable web ecosystem design

    CERN Document Server

    O'Toole, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This book is about the process of creating web-based systems (i.e., websites, content, etc.) that consider each of the parts, the modules, the organisms - binary or otherwise - that make up a balanced, sustainable web ecosystem. In the current media-rich environment, a website is more than a collection of relative html documents of text and images on a static desktop computer monitor. There is now an unlimited combination of screens, devices, platforms, browsers, locations, versions, users, and exabytes of data with which to interact. Written in a highly approachable, practical style, this boo

  3. Global change impacts on mangrove ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.

    2004-01-01

    Mangroves are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal forests are important coastal ecosystems that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services. Major local threats to mangrove ecosystems worldwide include clearcutting and trimming of forests for urban, agricultural, or industrial expansion; hydrological alterations; toxic chemical spills; and eutrophication. In many countries with mangroves, much of the human population resides in the coastal zone, and their activities often negatively impact the integrity of mangrove forests. In addition, eutrophication, which is the process whereby nutrients build up to higher than normal levels in a natural system, is possibly one of the most serious threats to mangroves and associated ecosystems such as coral reefs. Scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand global impacts on these significant ecosystems.Changes in climate and other factors may also affect mangroves, but in complex ways. Global warming may promote expansion of mangrove forests to higher latitudes and accelerate sea-level rise through melting of polar ice or steric expansion of oceans. Changes in sea level would alter flooding patterns and the structure and areal extent of mangroves. Climate change may also alter rainfall patterns, which would in turn change local salinity regimes and competitive interactions of mangroves with other wetland species. Increases in frequency or intensity of tropical storms and hurricanes in combination with sea-level rise may alter erosion and sedimentation rates in mangrove forests. Another global change factor that may directly affect mangrove growth is increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), caused by burning of fossil fuels and other factors. Elevated CO2 concentration may increase mangrove growth by stimulating photosynthesis or improving water use

  4. Network Skewness Measures Resilience in Lake Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, P. G.; Wang, R.; Dearing, J.; Zhang, E.; Doncaster, P.; Yang, X.; Yang, H.; Dong, X.; Hu, Z.; Xu, M.; Yanjie, Z.; Shen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ecosystem resilience defy straightforward quantification from biodiversity metrics, which ignore influences of community structure. Naturally self-organized network structures show positive skewness in the distribution of node connections. Here we test for skewness reduction in lake diatom communities facing anthropogenic stressors, across a network of 273 lakes in China containing 452 diatom species. Species connections show positively skewed distributions in little-impacted lakes, switching to negative skewness in lakes associated with human settlement, surrounding land-use change, and higher phosphorus concentration. Dated sediment cores reveal a down-shifting of network skewness as human impacts intensify, and reversal with recovery from disturbance. The appearance and degree of negative skew presents a new diagnostic for quantifying system resilience and impacts from exogenous forcing on ecosystem communities.

  5. Effect of Groundwater Abstraction on Fen Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Ole; Pedersen, Morten Lauge; Jensen, Jacob Birk

    2011-01-01

    within a distance of 1.5 km to a planned well field. In the river valley the interaction between groundwater and surface water is strongly affected by low permeable sediments. These sediments reduce the direct discharge to the river and have a large impact on the functioning and presence of the rich fen......Quantifying the effects of groundwater abstraction on fen ecosystems located in discharge areas can be complicated. The water level in fens is close to the terrain surface most of the year and it is controlled by a relatively constant groundwater exfiltration. It is difficult to measure...... the exfiltration fluxes and thus water level data is typically used to evaluate if the ecosystem is affected. The paper presents collected data and analysis from a case study, where the hydrological effect of groundwater abstraction on rich fens and springs in a Danish river valley has been studied. The natural...

  6. Radio-capacity of ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kultakhmedov, Yu.; Kultakhmedova-Vyshnyakova, V.

    1997-01-01

    This paper consider a universal approach to ecosystems of different types, based on representation of their radio-capacity. The concept of ecosystem includes reproduction of components (bio-productivity) and conditions such as maintaining of environment quality. Radio-capacity in the case of radionuclide pollution appears in accumulation and redistribution of radionuclides in the ecosystem. As a result the radionuclides are redistributed and buried in soil or lake bottom sediments. Estimation models for the radio-capacity of water and terrestrial ecosystems are represented. The calculations of the radio-capacity factor of water ecosystems are performed, and the high radio-capacity of a freshwater reservoir (F=0.6-0.8) and extremely high radio-capacity of a reservoir cascade (F c =0.99) is shown material from the Dnieper's cascade reservoirs. The methods of radio-capacity estimation of agroecosystems, wood and marine ecosystems are developed. (authors)

  7. Devil's in the details: Using archaeological and historical data to refine ecosystem models at the local level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Hann

    2006-01-01

    The United States Forest Service is charged with managing extensive and varied ecosystems throughout the country. Under the rubric of “ecosystem management” the goal has been to provide goods and services from Forest Service lands while maintaining ecological integrity. Recognizing that ecosystems are dynamic in nature, the concept of Historical Range of Variability (...

  8. Modeling Surface Energy Fluxes over a Dehesa (Oak Savanna Ecosystem Using a Thermal Based Two Source Energy Balance Model (TSEB II—Integration of Remote Sensing Medium and Low Spatial Resolution Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Andreu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dehesas are highly valuable agro-forestry ecosystems, widely distributed over Mediterranean-type climate areas, which play a key role in rural development, basing their productivity on a sustainable use of multiple resources (crops, livestock, wildlife, etc.. The information derived from remote sensing based models addressing ecosystem water consumption, at different scales, can be used by institutions and private landowners to support management decisions. In this study, the Two-Source Energy Balance (TSEB model is analyzed over two Spanish dehesa areas integrating multiple satellites (MODIS and Landsat for estimating water use (ET, vegetation ground cover, leaf area and phenology. Instantaneous latent heat (LE values are derived on a regional scale and compared with eddy covariance tower (ECT measurements, yielding accurate results (RMSDMODIS Las Majadas 44 Wm−2, Santa Clotilde RMSDMODIS 47 Wm−2 and RMSDLandsat 64 Wm−2. Daily ET(mm is estimated using daily return interval of MODIS for both study sites and compared with the flux measurements of the ECTs, with RMSD of 1 mm day−1 over Las Majadas and 0.99 mm day−1 over Santa Clotilde. Distributed ET over Andalusian dehesa (15% of the region is successfully mapped using MODIS images, as an approach to monitor the ecosystem status and the vegetation water stress on a regular basis.

  9. Ecosystem services for energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanas, Andrea; McCormick, Nadine

    2010-09-15

    The world is at an energy crossroads. The changes underway will have implications for ecosystems and livelihoods. Energy security is the reliable supply of affordable energy, of which there are two dimensions; reliability and resilience. Changes in ecosystem services linked to degradation and climate change have the potential to impact both on the reliabiity of energy systems and on their resiliance. Investing in ecosystems can help safeguard energy systems, and mitigate unforeseen risks to energy security. The energy and conservation community should come together to build reliable and resilliant energy systems in ways which recognise and value supporting ecosystems.

  10. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Biodiversity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: MA Biodiversity provides data and information on amphibians, disease agents (extent and distribution of infectious and parasitic...

  11. Applied ecosystem analysis - a primer; the ecosystem diagnosis and treatment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestelle, L.C.; Mobrand, L.E.; Lichatowich, J.A.; Vogel, T.S.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual

  12. Applied Ecosystem Analysis - - a Primer : EDT the Ecosystem Diagnosis and Treatment Method.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestelle, Lawrence C.; Mobrand, Lars E.

    1996-05-01

    The aim of this document is to inform and instruct the reader about an approach to ecosystem management that is based upon salmon as an indicator species. It is intended to provide natural resource management professionals with the background information needed to answer questions about why and how to apply the approach. The methods and tools the authors describe are continually updated and refined, so this primer should be treated as a first iteration of a sequentially revised manual.

  13. Mercury in Nordic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, John; Waengberg, Ingvar (IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (SE)); Rognerud, Sigurd; Fjeld, Eirik (Norwegian Inst. for Water Research (NIVA), Oslo (Norway)); Verta, Matti; Porvari, Petri (Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Helsinki (Finland)); Meili, Markus (Inst. of Applied Environmental Research (ITM), Stockholm (Sweden))

    2007-12-15

    This report provides a first comprehensive compilation and assessment of available data on mercury in air, precipitation, sediments and fish in the Nordic countries. The main conclusion is that mercury levels in Nordic ecosystems continue to be affected by long-range atmospheric transport. The geographical patterns of mercury concentrations in both sediments and fish are also strongly affected by ecosystem characteristics and in some regions possibly by historical pollution. An evaluation of geographical variations in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicates that the influence from anthropogenic sources from Central European areas is still significant. The annual variability of deposition is large and dependant of precipitation amounts. An evaluation of data from stations around the North Sea has indicated a significant decrease in mercury concentrations in precipitation indicating a continuous decrease of emissions in Europe (Waengberg et al., 2007). For mercury in air (TGM), the geographical pattern is less pronounced indicating the influence of mercury emissions and distribution over a larger geographical area (i.e. hemispherical transport). Comparison of recent (surficial) and historical lake sediments show significantly elevated concentrations of mercury most likely caused by anthropogenic atmospheric deposition over the past century. The highest pollution impact was observed in the coastal areas of southern Norway, in south western Finland and in Sweden from the coastal areas in the southwest across the central parts to the north-east. The general increase in recent versus old sediments was 2-5 fold. Data on mercury in Nordic freshwater fish was assembled and evaluated with respect to geographical variations. The fish data were further compared with temporal and spatial trends in mercury deposition and mercury contamination of lake sediments in order to investigate the coupling between atmospheric transport and deposition of mercury and local mercury

  14. The relationship between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Alexander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration and the mainstreaming of the concept of ecosystem services will be critical if global society is to move toward sustainability. Conference of the Parties 21 (COP21 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and COP12 of the Convention on Biological Diversity should help foster support for vastly increased investment in the better management and restoration of natural capital. Large-scale restoration demonstrably improves ecological functioning to sustain both biodiversity and human well-being. However, much progress is needed to improve the effectiveness and cost efficiency of any restoration. The ecosystem services concept provides a framework for identifying the types of restorative interventions needed to target different forms and degrees of degradation, and achieve goals related to both ecosystem health and delivery of services to people. Moreover, it can strengthen the argument for, and planning of, large-scale restoration and conservation of natural capital. We use case studies from four continents to help demonstrate how the interconnection between ecological restoration and the ecosystem services concept is being utilized in land-use planning and enlightened ecosystem management. We offer ways in which this relationship can be better understood and communicated to support the scaling up of restoration activities to the landscape and regional scales across the full spectrum of land uses and ecosystem types.

  15. Appropriate experimental ecosystem warming methods by ecosystem, objective, and practicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.L. Aronson; S.G. McNulty

    2009-01-01

    The temperature of the Earth is rising, and is highly likely to continue to do so for the foreseeable future. The study of the effects of sustained heating on the ecosystems of the world is necessary so that wemight predict and respond to coming changes on both large and small spatial scales. To this end, ecosystem warming studies have...

  16. [Forest ecosystem service and its evaluation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jin; Lu, Shaowei; Yu, Xinxiao; Rao, Liangyi; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhag, Zhenming

    2005-08-01

    Facing the relative lag of forest ecosystem service and estimation in China, this paper proposed to quickly carry out the research on the evaluation of forest ecosystem service. On the basis of the classification of forest ecosystem types in China, the service of artificial and semi-artificial forest ecosystems was investigated, which was divided into eight types, i.e., timber and other products, recreation and eco-tourism, water storage, C fixation and O2 release, nutrient cycling, air quality purifying, erosion control, and habitat provision. According to the assessment index system for global ecosystem service proposed by Costanza et al., a series of assessment index system suitable for Chinese forest ecosystem service was set up, by which, the total value of forest ecosystem service in China was estimated to be 30 601.20 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), including direct and indirect economic value about 1 920.23 x 10(8) and 28 680.97 x 10(8) yuan x yr(-1), respectively. The indirect value was as 14.94 times as the direct one. The research aimed to bring natural resources and environment factors into the account system of national economy quickly, and to realize the green GDP at last, which would be helpful to realize sustainable development and environment protection.

  17. Radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Bossew, P.; Kienzl, K.; Hiesel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Some regions within Austria were highly contaminated (> 50 kBq m -2 ) with radiocaesium by the deposition event following the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. Monitoring carried out by several Austrian institutions showed that in contrast to agricultural products radiocaesium levels in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat from forest ecosystems remained considerably higher over the years. To find reasons for this contrasting radioecological behavior and for the derivation of model input parameters, an extended study about the distribution of 137 Cs within three Austrian forest stands was carried out between 1987 and 1997. Results of this and subsequent studies are summarized and include the following ecosystem compartments: forest soils, litter, trees, bilberry, mushrooms, mosses, ferns, lichen, other vegetation, insects, small mammals, game animals and surface water. Besides the investigation of radioecological behavior an estimation of pool sizes and transfer rates as well as radioecological residence half times for 137 Cs in different forest species was used to compile a radiocaesium balance for the years 1988 and 1996. Soil proved to be an effective sink for radiocaesium contamination, but in long-term perspective it can act as a source for the contamination of vegetation and higher levels of the food-chain as well. Due to the high standing biomass trees represent the largest 'living' radiocaesium pool within the investigated forest stand. Dose estimations based on average consume habits gave no significant increase (less than 0.4 %) of the annual average population radiation dose due to the ingestion of forest products from the investigated forest stands. (author)

  18. Coastal ecosystems: Attempts to manage a threatened resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.G.; Linden, O.

    1993-01-01

    Tropical coastal zones are productive ecosystems that currently face severe environmental threats, particularly from organic pollution. The role of the coastal ecosystems is analyzed and the relationship between coastal ecosystem health and fisheries productivity is explained. Ecological disturbances from organic sources like sewage and siltation is highlighted. The issues of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) are discussed, particularly in the context of conserving natural ecosystems or transforming them to managed systems. Issues of population density, management capacity, and socioeconomic conditions are discussed. The possibilities for closing carbon cycles currently leaking organic materials to the coastal waters are pursued. Finally, examples of ICZM initiatives in the ASEAN countries and East Africa are presented. 42 refs

  19. Model of plutonium dynamics in a deciduous forest ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Gardner, R.H.; Dahlman, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A linear compartment model with donor-controlled flows between compartments was designed to describe and simulate the behavior of plutonium ( 239 240 Pu) in a contaminated forest ecosystem at Oak Ridge, TN. At steady states predicted by the model, less than 0.25% of the plutonium in the ecosystem resides in biota. Soil is the major repository of plutonium in the forest, and exchanges of plutonium between soil and litter or soil and tree roots were dominant transfers affecting the ecosystem distribution of plutonium. Variation in predicted steady-state amounts of plutonium in the forest, given variability in the model parameters, indicates that our ability to develop models of plutonium transport in ecosystems should improve with greater precision in data from natural environments and a better understanding of sources of variation in plutonium data

  20. Ecosystem approach to inland fisheries: research needs and implementation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, T. Douglas; Arlinghaus, Robert; Cooke, Steven J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; De Silva, Sena; Bartley, Devin M.; Cowx, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    Inland fisheries are a vital component in the livelihoods and food security of people throughout the world, as well as contributing huge recreational and economic benefits. These valuable assets are jeopardized by lack of research-based understanding of the impacts of fisheries on inland ecosystems, and similarly the impact of human activities associated with inland waters on fisheries and aquatic biodiversity. To explore this topic, an international workshop was organized in order to examine strategies to incorporate fisheries into ecosystem approaches for management of inland waters. To achieve this goal, a new research agenda is needed that focuses on: quantifying the ecosystem services provided by fresh waters; quantifying the economic, social and nutritional benefits of inland fisheries; improving assessments designed to evaluate fisheries exploitation potential; and examining feedbacks between fisheries, ecosystem productivity and aquatic biodiversity. Accomplishing these objectives will require merging natural and social science approaches to address coupled social–ecological system dynamics.