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Sample records for mediterranean evergreens phillyrea

  1. Ozone slows stomatal response to light and leaf wounding in a Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf, Arbutus unedo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The effect of a 90-d ozone exposure (charcoal-filtered air or 110 nmol mol -1 O 3 ) on stomatal conductance (g s ) was investigated in the Mediterranean evergreen broadleaf Arbutus unedo L. Ozone did not significantly reduce midday steady-state g s compared to controls. However, it slowed stomatal response to abrupt reduction of light intensity and to increasing water stress, applied by severing the leaf midrib. Ozone slowed stomatal closure, rather than aperture. Nevertheless, vein-cutting did not allow ozonated leaves to reach the pre-injury g s levels, like controls did, suggesting re-opening was still, slowly in progress. The sluggish behaviour was recorded 10 days after cessation of O 3 exposure ('memory effect') and may affect stomatal control in response to sunflecks and leaf wounding. Mediterranean evergreen broadleaves are regarded as tolerant to O 3 exposure. Nevertheless, measurements of steady-state g s at midday may not account for altered stomatal responses to stressors. - In response to ozone exposure, stomata were slower in closing rather than in opening

  2. Water-use strategies in two co-occurring Mediterranean evergreen oaks: surviving the summer drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, T S; Henriques, M O; Kurz-Besson, C; Nunes, J; Valente, F; Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Siegwolf, R; Chaves, M M; Gazarini, L C; David, J S

    2007-06-01

    In the Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands of southern Portugal, the main tree species are Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia Lam. (holm oak) and Quercus suber L. (cork oak). We studied a savannah-type woodland where these species coexist, with the aim of better understanding the mechanisms of tree adaptation to seasonal drought. In both species, seasonal variations in transpiration and predawn leaf water potential showed a maximum in spring followed by a decline through the rainless summer and a recovery with autumn rainfall. Although the observed decrease in predawn leaf water potential in summer indicates soil water depletion, trees maintained transpiration rates above 0.7 mm day(-1) during the summer drought. By that time, more than 70% of the transpired water was being taken from groundwater sources. The daily fluctuations in soil water content suggest that some root uptake of groundwater was mediated through the upper soil layers by hydraulic lift. During the dry season, Q. ilex maintained higher predawn leaf water potentials, canopy conductances and transpiration rates than Q. suber. The higher water status of Q. ilex was likely associated with their deeper root systems compared with Q. suber. Whole-tree hydraulic conductance and minimum midday leaf water potential were lower in Q. ilex, indicating that Q. ilex was more tolerant to drought than Q. suber. Overall, Q. ilex seemed to have more effective drought avoidance and drought tolerance mechanisms than Q. suber.

  3. Soil Drought Anomalies in MODIS GPP of a Mediterranean Broadleaved Evergreen Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS yields global operational estimates of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP. In this study, we compared MOD17A2 GPP with tower eddy flux-based estimates of GPP from 2001 to 2010 over an evergreen broad-leaf Mediterranean forest in Southern France with a significant summer drought period. The MOD17A2 GPP shows seasonal variations that are inconsistent with the tower GPP, with close-to-accurate winter estimates and significant discrepancies for summer estimates which are the least accurate. The analysis indicated that the MOD17A2 GPP has high bias relative to tower GPP during severe summer drought which we hypothesized caused by soil water limitation. Our investigation showed that there was a significant correlation (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.0001 between the relative soil water content and the relative error of MOD17A2 GPP. Therefore, the relationship between the error and the measured relative soil water content could explain anomalies in MOD17A2 GPP. The results of this study indicate that careful consideration of the water conditions input to the MOD17A2 GPP algorithm on remote sensing is required in order to provide accurate predictions of GPP. Still, continued efforts are necessary to ascertain the most appropriate index, which characterizes soil water limitation in water-limited environments using remote sensing.

  4. Evapotranspiration from a Mediterranean evergreen oak savannah: The role of trees and pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paço, Teresa A.; David, Teresa S.; Henriques, Manuel O.; Pereira, João S.; Valente, Fernanda; Banza, João; Pereira, Fernando L.; Pinto, Clara; David, Jorge S.

    2009-05-01

    SummaryMediterranean evergreen oak woodlands of southern Portugal ( montados) are savannah-type ecosystems with a widely sparse tree cover, over extensive grassland. Therefore, ecosystem water fluxes derive from two quite differentiated sources: the trees and the pasture. Partitioning of fluxes according to these different sources is necessary to quantify overall ecosystem water losses as well as to improve knowledge on its functional behaviour. In southern Iberia, these woodlands are subjected to recurrent droughts. Therefore, reaction/resilience to water stress becomes an essential feature of vegetation on these ecosystems. Long-term tree transpiration was recorded for 6 years from a sample of holm oak ( Quercus ilex ssp. rotundifolia) trees, using the Granier sap flow method. Ecosystem transpiration was measured by the eddy covariance technique for an 11-month period (February to December 2005), partly coincident with a drought year. Pasture transpiration was estimated as the difference between ecosystem (eddy covariance) and tree (sap flow) transpiration. Pasture transpiration stopped during the summer, when the surface soil dried up. In the other seasons, pasture transpiration showed a strong dependence on rainfall occurrence and on top soil water. Conversely, trees were able to maintain transpiration throughout the summer due to the deep root access to groundwater. Q. ilex trees showed a high resilience to both seasonal and annual drought. Tree transpiration represented more than half of ecosystem transpiration, in spite of the low tree density (30 trees ha -1) and crown cover fraction (21%). Tree evapotranspiration was dominated by transpiration (76%), and interception loss represented only 24% of overall tree evaporation.

  5. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  6. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands

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    P. Pinho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds such as critical loads (deposition fluxes and levels (concentrations can be established. Few studies have assessed these thresholds for semi-natural Mediterranean ecosystems. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. We have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, one of the most sensitive comunity indicators of excessive N in the atmosphere. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done for a Mediterranean climate in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, based on the relation between lichen functional diversity and modelled N deposition for critical loads and measured annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations for critical levels, evaluated downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and annual atmospheric ammonia concentration showed the critical level to be below 1.9 μg m−3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition showed that the critical load was lower than 26 kg (N ha−1 yr−1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should aid development of policies to protect Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  7. A Tree-based Approach for Modelling Interception Loss From Evergreen Oak Mediterranean Savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fernando L.; Gash, John H. C.; David, Jorge S.; David, Teresa S.; Monteiro, Paulo R.; Valente, Fernanda

    2010-05-01

    Evaporation of rainfall intercepted by tree canopies is usually an important part of the overall water balance of forested catchments and there have been many studies dedicated to measuring and modelling rainfall interception loss. These studies have mainly been conducted in dense forests; there have been few studies on the very sparse forests which are common in dry and semi-arid areas. Water resources are scarce in these areas making sparse forests particularly important. Methods for modelling interception loss are thus required to support sustainable water management in those areas. In very sparse forests, trees occur as widely spaced individuals rather than as a continuous forest canopy. We therefore suggest that interception loss for this vegetation type can be more adequately modelled if the overall forest evaporation is derived by scaling up the evaporation from individual trees. The evaporation rate for a single tree can be estimated using a simple Dalton-type diffusion equation for water vapour as long as its surface temperature is known. From theory, this temperature is shown to be dependent upon the available energy and windspeed. However, the surface temperature of a fully saturated tree crown, under rainy conditions, should approach the wet bulb temperature as the radiative energy input to the tree reduces to zero. This was experimentally confirmed from measurements of the radiation balance and surface temperature of an isolated tree crown. Thus, evaporation of intercepted rainfall can be estimated using an equation which only requires knowledge of the air dry and wet bulb temperatures and of the bulk tree-crown aerodynamic conductance. This was taken as the basis of a new approach for modelling interception loss from savanna-type woodland, i.e. by combining the Dalton-type equation with the Gash's analytical model to estimate interception loss from isolated trees. This modelling approach was tested using data from two Mediterranean savanna-type oak

  8. Presencia de Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae sobre olivos infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina

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    María L. GASPARINI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca del hallazgo de Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, Scymninae en plantas de olivo infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. El material se recolectó en plantaciones de olivo de los departamentos Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia y Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina durante los monitoreos de identificación de enemigos naturales de la «mosca blanca del fresno», Siphoninus phillyreae.

  9. Exploring biodiversity in the bacterial community of the Mediterranean phyllosphere and its relationship with airborne bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokou, Despoina; Vareli, Katerina; Zarali, Ekaterini; Karamanoli, Katerina; Constantinidou, Helen-Isis A; Monokrousos, Nikolaos; Halley, John M; Sainis, Ioannis

    2012-10-01

    We studied the structure and diversity of the phyllosphere bacterial community of a Mediterranean ecosystem, in summer, the most stressful season in this environment. To this aim, we selected nine dominant perennial species, namely Arbutus unedo, Cistus incanus, Lavandula stoechas, Myrtus communis, Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus coccifera (woody), Calamintha nepeta, and Melissa officinalis (herbaceous). We also examined the extent to which airborne bacteria resemble the epiphytic ones. Genotype composition of the leaf and airborne bacteria was analysed by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of a 16S rDNA gene fragment; 75 bands were cloned and sequenced corresponding to 28 taxa. Of these, two were found both in the air and the phyllosphere, eight only in the air, and the remaining 18 only in the phyllosphere. Only four taxa were found on leaves of all nine plant species. Cluster analysis showed highest similarity for the five evergreen sclerophyllous species. Aromatic plants were not grouped all together: the representatives of Lamiaceae, bearing both glandular and non-glandular trichomes, formed a separate group, whereas the aromatic and evergreen sclerophyllous M. communis was grouped with the other species of the same habit. The epiphytic communities that were the richest in bacterial taxa were those of C. nepeta and M. officinalis (Lamiaceae). Our results highlight the remarkable presence of lactic acid bacteria in the phyllosphere under the harsh conditions of the Mediterranean summer, the profound dissimilarity in the structure of bacterial communities in phyllosphere and air, and the remarkable differences of leaf microbial communities on neighbouring plants subjected to similar microbial inocula; they also point to the importance of the leaf glandular trichome in determining colonization patterns.

  10. Presencia de Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae sobre olivos infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en Argentina On the presence of Clitostethus arcuatus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on olive trees infested with Siphoninus phillyreae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Gasparini

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se informa acerca del hallazgo de Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleptera: Coccinellidae, Scymninae en plantas de olivo infestados con Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae. El material se recolectó en plantaciones de olivo de los departamentos Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia y Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina durante los monitoreos de identificación de enemigos naturales de la «mosca blanca del fresno», Siphoninus phillyreae.The presence of Clitostethus arcuatus (Rossi (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae,Scymninae on olive trees infested with Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae, is reported. Specimens were collected during a survey on natural enemies of «ash whitefly», Siphoninus phillyreae, carried out in olive plantations of Junín, San Martín, Rivadavia and Maipú (Mendoza, Argentina.

  11. Complex adjustments of photosynthetic potentials and internal diffusion conductance to current and previous light availabilities and leaf age in Mediterranean evergreen species Quercus ilex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ulo; Cescatti, Alessandro; Rodeghiero, Mirco; Tosens, Tiina

    2006-06-01

    Mature non-senescent leaves of evergreen species become gradually shaded as new foliage develops and canopy expands, but the interactive effects of integrated light during leaf formation (Q(int)G), current light (Q(int)C) and leaf age on foliage photosynthetic competence are poorly understood. In Quercus ilex L., we measured the responses of leaf structural and physiological variables to Q(int)C and Q(int)G for four leaf age classes. Leaf aging resulted in increases in leaf dry mass per unit area (M(A)), and leaf dry to fresh mass ratio (D(F)) and decreases in N content per dry mass (N(M)). N content per area (N(A)) was independent of age, indicating that decreases in N(M) reflected dilution of leaf N because of accumulation of dry mass (NA = N(M) M(A)). M(A), D(F) and N(A) scaled positively with irradiance, whereas these age-specific correlations were stronger with leaf growth light than with current leaf light. Area-based maximum ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) carboxylase activity (V(cmax)A), capacity for photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)A) and the rate of non-photorespiratory respiration in light (R(d)A) were also positively associated with irradiance. Differently from leaf structural characteristics, for all data pooled, these relationships were stronger with current light with little differences among leaves of different age. Acclimation to current leaf light environment was achieved by light-dependent partitioning of N in rate-limiting proteins. Mass-based physiological activities decreased with increasing leaf age, reflecting dilution of leaf N and a larger fraction of non-photosynthetic N in older leaves. This resulted in age-dependent modification of leaf photosynthetic potentials versus N relationships. Internal diffusion conductance (g(m)) per unit area (g(m)A) increased curvilinearly with increasing irradiance for two youngest leaf age classes and was independent of light for older leaves. In contrast, g(m) per dry

  12. Chemistry is Evergreen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Chemistry is Evergreen. 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Swagata Dasgupta. Swagata Dasgupta is an. Associate Professor in the. Department of Chemistry at IIT Kharagpur. Her research interests revolve around proteins and their interactions. 1 GFP was declared the mol- ecule of the month by the Pro- tein Data Bank (PDB) ...

  13. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands...

  14. Seed germination of Phillyrea angustifolia L., a species of difficult propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The purpose was to determine the type of dormancy and the optimal germination conditions of Phillyrea angustifolia (Oleaceae seeds. Area of study: Germination requirements of P. angustifolia seeds collected from wild plants growing in the province of Ávila (Central Spain were studied. Materials and methods: Seed water uptake was measured. Seeds with and without an endocarp were germinated at different temperatures, and several treatments were tested. Main results: The lignified endocarp interferes mechanically with the emergence of the radicle, and the treatments that achieved the highest germination percentages were the total removal of the endocarp with pliers (84% or the immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min (97%. Scarification with concentrated sulphuric acid did not significantly increase germination compared to the control seeds, and treatments with dry heat or wet heat were detrimental to seed germination. The optimum temperature for germination was 15 ºC. A pre-sowing treatment of soaking in distilled water for 24 h slightly increased germination speed. Neither cold stratification at 5 ºC nor soaking in a gibberellic acid solution improved seed germination. Research highlights: Phillyrea angustifolia seeds have physiological dormancy – that is, the embryo does not have enough growth potential to overcome the mechanical restriction of the lignified endocarp. The seeds do not exhibit physical dormancy, given their water-permeable lignified endocarp. Our results suggest that the optimum germination protocol for P. angustifolia would be the total removal of the endocarp or immersion in liquid nitrogen for 1 min, followed by immersion in distilled water for 24 h and then seed incubation at 15 ºC in light or darkness.

  15. Contrasting ozone sensitivity in related evergreen and deciduous shrubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, Vicent; Marco, Francisco; Cervero, Julia; Sanchez-Pena, Gerardo; Sanz, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    Plant responses to enhanced ozone levels have been studied in two pairs of evergreen-deciduous species (Pistacia terebinthus vs. P. lentiscus; Viburnum lantana vs. V. tinus) in Open Top Chambers. Ozone induced widespread visible injury, significantly reduced CO 2 assimilation and stomatal conductance (g s ), impaired Rubisco efficiency and regeneration capacity (V c,max, J max ) and altered fluorescence parameters only in the deciduous species. Differences in stomatal conductance could not explain the observed differences in sensitivity. In control plants, deciduous species showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than their evergreen counterparts, suggesting metabolic differences that could make them more prone to redox imbalances. Ozone induced increases in SOD and/or peroxidase activities in all the species, but only evergreens were able to cope with the oxidative stress. The relevancy of these results for the effective ozone flux approach and for the current ozone Critical Levels is also discussed. - Mediterranean evergreen shrubs have a constitutively higher capacity to tolerate ozone stress than their deciduous relatives.

  16. Contrasting ozone sensitivity in related evergreen and deciduous shrubs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: vicent@ceam.e [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Marco, Francisco; Cervero, Julia [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Sanchez-Pena, Gerardo [SPCAN, Dir. Gral. de Medio Natural y Politica Forestal, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Rios Rosas 24, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Fundacion CEAM, c/ Charles R. Darwin 14, Parque Tecnologico, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    Plant responses to enhanced ozone levels have been studied in two pairs of evergreen-deciduous species (Pistacia terebinthus vs. P. lentiscus; Viburnum lantana vs. V. tinus) in Open Top Chambers. Ozone induced widespread visible injury, significantly reduced CO{sub 2} assimilation and stomatal conductance (g{sub s}), impaired Rubisco efficiency and regeneration capacity (V{sub c,max,}J{sub max}) and altered fluorescence parameters only in the deciduous species. Differences in stomatal conductance could not explain the observed differences in sensitivity. In control plants, deciduous species showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than their evergreen counterparts, suggesting metabolic differences that could make them more prone to redox imbalances. Ozone induced increases in SOD and/or peroxidase activities in all the species, but only evergreens were able to cope with the oxidative stress. The relevancy of these results for the effective ozone flux approach and for the current ozone Critical Levels is also discussed. - Mediterranean evergreen shrubs have a constitutively higher capacity to tolerate ozone stress than their deciduous relatives.

  17. Radical Scavenging Capacity of Methanolic Phillyrea latifolia L. Extract: Anthocyanin and Phenolic Acids Composition of Fruits

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    Naciye Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical scavenging capacity of a crude methanolic extract from the fruits of Phillyrea latifolia L., commonly known as green olive tree or mock privet, was investigated with reference to anthocyanin standards, as flavonoids, and phenolic acid standards, as phenylpropanoids. Characterization with high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD indicated the presence of keracyanin, kuromanin, cyanidin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid at amounts of 289.1, 90.4, 191.4, 225.2, 221.2 and 190.1 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW of fruits, respectively. Chlorogenic and p-coumaric acids were found to exist in lower amounts. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC and IC50 values of the plant extract were found to be 1.8 mM Trolox equivalents (TE/g FW of fruits and 69.4 µg/mL, respectively, indicating the close radical scavenging activity of the extract to those of keracyanin and p-coumaric acid. The crude methanolic P. latifolia L. fruit extract was seen to be fairly potent in radical scavenging. Total phenolic content (TPC of the plant extract was found to be 1652.9 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g FW of fruits.

  18. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of iridoids and triterpenoid compounds isolated from Phillyrea latifolia L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, A M; Abad, M J; Fernández, L; Recuero, C; Villaescusa, L; Silván, A M; Bermejo, P

    2000-11-01

    Two iridoids, oleuropeoside and ligustroside, and two triterpenoid compounds, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, have been isolated from the leaves of Phillyrea latifolia L. (Oleaceae). These compounds were tested for interactions with the cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathways of arachidonate metabolism in calcium ionophore-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages and human platelets, and for their effect on cell viability. Structure-activity relationships obtained for in vitro screening results were discussed. These compounds are capable of exerting inhibitory actions on enzymes of the arachidonate cascade. All compounds assayed showed a significant effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-release, with inhibition percentages similar to the reference drug indomethacin (IC50 = 0.95 microM). The IC50 values of the active compounds are: oleuropeoside 47 microM, ligustroside 48.53 microM, oleanolic acid 23.51 microM and ursolic acid 60.91 microM. In the leukotriene C4 (LTC4)-assay, only oleanolic acid showed a significant effect (IC50 = 16.79 microM). We also investigated the action of compounds on thromboxane B2 (TXB2)-release induced by calcium ionophore in human platelets. Of all the tested compounds, only ligustroside (IC50 = 122.63 microM) and ursolic acid (IC50 = 50.21 microM) showed a significant effect, although with less potency than the reference drug ibuprofen (IC50 = 1.27 microM). Thus, our compounds possess an array of potentially beneficial anti-inflammatory properties which may, alongside other constituents, contribute to the claimed therapeutic properties of the plant from which they are derived.

  19. The transitional semi-evergreen bushland in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Sebsebe, Demissew

    2016-01-01

    Question: Evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia have been inadequately studied and mapped. We address the question whether there is a transitional semi-ever-green bushland on the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian Highlands, with unique floristic characteristics that distinguish it from the evergreen ...... in Ethiopia, which we argue should be taken into account for future conservation planning....

  20. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests.

  1. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calatayud, Vicent; Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza; Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose; Reig-Arminana, Jose; Sanz, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD 1.6 ) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  2. Responses of evergreen and deciduous Quercus species to enhanced ozone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, Vicent, E-mail: calatayud_viclor@gva.e [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Cervero, Julia; Calvo, Esperanza [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Breijo, Francisco-Jose [Laboratorio de Anatomia e Histologia Vegetal ' Julio Iranzo' , Jardin Botanico, Universitat de Valencia, c/Quart 80, 46008 Valencia (Spain); Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Reig-Arminana, Jose [Departamento de Ecosistemas Agroforestales, Escuela Tecnica Superior del Medio Rural y Enologia, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibanez 21, 46010 Valencia (Spain); Sanz, Maria Jose [Instituto Universitario CEAM-UMH, Charles R. Darwin 14, Parc Tecnologic, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    Plants of one evergreen oak (Quercus ilex) and three deciduous oaks (Q. faginea, with small leaves; Q. pyrenaica and Q. robur, with large leaves) were exposed both to filtered air and to enhanced ozone levels in Open-Top Chambers. Q. faginea and Q. pyrenaica were studied for the first time. Based on visible injury, gas exchange, chlorophyll content and biomass responses, Q. pyrenaica was the most sensitive species, and Q. ilex was the most tolerant, followed by Q. faginea. Functional leaf traits of the species were related to differences in sensitivity, while accumulated ozone flux via stomata (POD{sub 1.6}) partly contributed to the observed differences. For risk assessment of Mediterranean vegetation, the diversity of responses detected in this study should be taken into account, applying appropriate critical levels. - Ozone tolerance overlapped with leaf traits in four Quercus species.

  3. Leaf gas exchange and fluorescence of Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus ilex saplings in severe drought and high temperature conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Pinol, J.; Peñuelas, J.

    1998-01-01

    Saplings of Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus ilex were withheld watering for 7 days, followed by reirrigation. Incident photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), leaf temperature, net photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency of the photosystem II (ΔF/F'm) were measured three times during the day. The watered plants had higher photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductances, ΔF/F'm and ETR than non-watered plants. However, watered plants were mildly water stressed as shown by low ratio of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and high non-photochemical fluorescence quenching (qN). Their ΔF/F′m was low in the morning and increased in the evening, following the variations in PPFD. Watered plants of Q. ilex had lower photosynthetic activity, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic radiation use efficiency than Ph. latifolia and P. lentiscus, and, conversely, reached the highest ΔF/F′m and ETR. This seems to indicate a different relationship between photosynthetic activity and electron transport rate in Q. ilex compared to the other two species. Ph. latifolia and P. lentiscus appeared to be better adapted to severe drought than Q. ilex. (author)

  4. Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests of the Southeastern United States:Preliminary Description

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Elgene O.; Fujiwara, Kazue

    1988-01-01

    Despite a warm-temperate climate similar to that of southern Japan, the coastal plain of the southeastern USA is usually described as a region of mostly deciduous "Southern mixed hardwoods" forests. Evergreen broad-leaved canopy trees and some evergreen forest patches do remain, however, Suggesting that evergreen broad-leaved forest may be the potential natural vegetation. Forests on sand and uplands would be dominated by evergreen Quercus species, While more mesomorphic "laurel forests"compa...

  5. PRELIMINARY PHOTOSYNTHESIS EXAMINATIONS OF THERMOFIL EVERGREEN ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata MARÁCZI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the climatic- ecological demand of thermofil broadleaf evergreen ornamental shrubs. On three different habitats: in field conditions, in container and on hillside was investigated the fluorescence induction experiments with PAM-2000 chlorophyll-fluorimetry, which was used to measure the photosynthesis 2 quantum yield of the plant.

  6. An evergreen, biodiversity rich forest. Amongst the better preserved ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lying adjacent to Bhimashankar WLS Sanctuary, has contributed substantially to maintenance of environmental balance. Shelters several wildlife species. If this project is sanctioned, it will lead to destruction of evergreen forests, and adversely impact biodiversity, environment and wildlife habitats. It will also lead to serious ...

  7. March Madness! A Look at Evergreen Parenting Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenting for High Potential, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Many topics in the world of gifted are evergreen. Whether it be 1964 or 2014, they're still relevant. In this issue, "Parenting for High Potential" takes a peek into the archives to look at topics that have run in various March issues of PHP through the years. No matter where you are on the gifted journey, there's something here for…

  8. PRELIMINARY PHOTOSYNTHESIS EXAMINATIONS OF THERMOFIL EVERGREEN ORNAMENTAL SHRUBS IN HUNGARY

    OpenAIRE

    Kata MARÁCZI; László GÁSPÁR; Eva BARACSI

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the climatic- ecological demand of thermofil broadleaf evergreen ornamental shrubs. On three different habitats: in field conditions, in container and on hillside was investigated the fluorescence induction experiments with PAM-2000 chlorophyll-fluorimetry, which was used to measure the photosynthesis 2 quantum yield of the plant.

  9. Effect of feeding some evergreen tropical browse plant leaves on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted with thirty (30) weaner rabbits to investigate the nutritive potentials of some evergreen tropical browse plant leaves (Ficcus thoningii, Vitex doniana, Daniela oliveri, Sarcocephalus latifolia). Mixed breed rabbits were used and randomly assigned to five (5) treatments (T1 - T5). The rabbits in ...

  10. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  11. Evergreen Brick Works: An Innovation and Sustainability Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seana Irvine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology is rapidly being deployed to advance social innovation that creates lasting change. This case study of Evergreen Brick Works explores how Evergreen is leveraging the power of its unique new campus as a showcase for advancing sustainability-related behavioural change along with new and emerging state-of-the-art technologies to advance its mission. The ultimate success of these technologies will be in their ability to engage larger numbers and greater diversity among participants, and in their ability to translate new insights into on-the-ground change in their communities. The article also identifies that the need for an organizational network mindset is as important as the technologies to achieve these changes.

  12. Humus forms in two secondary semi-evergreen tropical forests

    OpenAIRE

    Loranger, Gladys; Ponge, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The dynamics and function of humus forms in tropical forests are still poorly understood. Humus profiles in two secondary semi-evergreen woodlands in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) were analysed micromorphologically. The humus forms are described under the canopy of five dominant tree species at two sites: under Pisonia subcordata and Bursera simaruba in a secondary forest on a Leptosol (Rendzina), and under Swietenia macrophylla, Tabebuia heterophylla and B. simaruba...

  13. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia: identifying key spatial indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Lima Santos, José; Plieninger, Tobias; Seixas, Júlia

    2014-01-15

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in relation to their surrounding landscape matrix, and to characterize and quantify woodland boundaries and edges. The present study aims to fill this gap by analyzing fragmentation patterns of oak woodlands over a 50-year period (1958-2007) in three landscapes. Using archived aerial imagery from 1958, 1995 and 2007, for two consecutive periods (1958-1995 and 1995-2007), we calculated a set of landscape metrics to compare woodland fragmentation over time. Our results indicated a continuous woodland fragmentation characterized by their edge dynamics. From 1958 to 2007, the replacement of open farmland by shrubland and by new afforestation areas in the oak woodland landscape surrounding matrix, led to the highest values for edge contrast length trends of 5.0 and 12.3, respectively. Linear discriminant analysis was performed to delineate fragmented woodland structures and identify metric variables that characterize woodland spatial configuration. The edge contrast length with open farmland showed a strong correlation with F1 (correlations ranging between 0.55 and 0.98) and may be used as a proxy for oak woodland mixedness in landscape matrix. The edge dynamics of oak woodlands may result in different patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evergreening, patent challenges, and effective market life in pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, C Scott; Sampat, Bhaven N

    2012-03-01

    Observers worry that generic patent challenges are on the rise and reduce the effective market life of drugs. A related concern is that challenges disproportionately target high-sales drugs, reducing market life for these "blockbusters." To study these questions, we examine new data on generic entry over the past decade. We show that challenges are more common for higher sales drugs. We also demonstrate a slight increase in challenges over this period, and a sharper increase for early challenges. Despite this, effective market life is stable across drug sales categories, and has hardly changed over the decade. To better understand these results, we examine which patents are challenged on each drug, and show that lower quality and later expiring patents disproportionately draw challenges. Overall, this evidence suggests that challenges serve to maintain, not reduce, the historical baseline of effective market life, thereby limiting the effectiveness of "evergreening" by branded firms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evergreening by whom? A review of secondary patents for omeprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Mike

    2013-11-01

    Evergreening, or the practice of technology developers to retain legal protection over valuable drugs beyond the normal patent term, is a well known practice by originators of successful drugs. Generic competitors also attempt similar strategies for commercial reasons. In this paper we look at secondary US and European patents in relation to the 'blockbuster' drug omeprazole (e.g., Prilosec® by AstraZeneca among other brands), with these secondary patents selected because they refer to the 'omeprazole' in either the title, abstract, Derwent Title or first claim. We find that 485 patents meet this criteria, with only 29% owned by the drugs originator (or known subsidiaries or predecessors). AstraZeneca was also the leading applicant by a number of measures, including grant ratio, number of patents filed, forward citation count, family member count and claim breadth.

  16. Coexistence trend contingent to Mediterranean oaks with different leaf habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Paquette, Alain; Trabucco, Antonio; Mereu, Simone; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    In a previous work we developed a mathematical model to explain the co-occurrence of evergreen and deciduous oak groups in the Mediterranean region, regarded as one of the distinctive features of Mediterranean biodiversity. The mathematical analysis showed that a stabilizing mechanism resulting from niche difference (i.e. different water use and water stress tolerance) between groups allows their coexistence at intermediate values of suitable soil water content. A simple formal derivation of the model expresses this hypothesis in a testable form linked uniquely to the actual evapotranspiration of forests community. In the present work we ascertain whether this simplified conclusion possesses some degree of explanatory power by comparing available data on oaks distributions and remotely sensed evapotranspiration (MODIS product) in a large-scale survey embracing the western Mediterranean area. Our findings confirmed the basic assumptions of model addressed on large scale, but also revealed asymmetric responses to water use and water stress tolerance between evergreen and deciduous oaks that should be taken into account to increase the understating of species interactions and, ultimately, improve the modeling capacity to explain co-occurrence.

  17. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  18. Xylem hydraulic properties of roots and stems of nine Mediterranean woody species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Prat, Ester; Oliveras, Imma; Piñol, Josep

    2002-09-01

    We studied the hydraulic architecture and water relations of nine co-occurring woody species in a Spanish evergreen oak forest over the course of a dry season. Our main objectives were to: (1) test the existence of a trade-off between hydraulic conductivity and security in the xylem, and (2) establish the safety margins at which the species operated in relation to hydraulic failure, and compare these safety margins between species and tissues (roots vs. stems). Our results showed that the relationship between specific hydraulic conductivity (K s) and resistance to cavitation followed a power function with exponent ≈-2, consistent with the existence of a trade-off between conductivity and security in the xylem, and also consistent with a linear relationship between vessel diameter and the size of inter-vessel pores. The diameter of xylem conduits, K s and vulnerability to xylem embolism were always higher in roots than in stems of the same species. Safety margins from hydraulic failure were narrower in roots than in stems. Among species, the water potential (Ψ) at which 50% of conductivity was lost due to embolism ranged between -0.9 and Cistus albidus=Ilex aquifolium>Phillyrea latifolia>Juniperus oxycedrus. Gas exchange and seasonal Ψ minima were in general correlated with resistance to xylem embolism. Hydraulic safety margins differed markedly among species, with some of them (J. oxycedrus, I. aquifolium, P. latifolia) showing a xylem overly resistant to cavitation. We hypothesize that this overly resistant xylem may be related to the shape of the relationship between K s and security we have found.

  19. An observational study of the carbon-sink strength of East Asian subtropical evergreen forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Zhenghong; Zhang Yiping; Zhang Yongjiang; Song Qinhai; Cao Kunfang; Schaefer, D A; Liu Yuhong; Liang Naishen; Hsia, Yue-Joe; Zhou Guoyi; Li Yuelin; Yan Junhua; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Chu Housen; Yu Guirui; Sun Xiaomin

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of regional warming on the carbon cycle of subtropical evergreen forest ecosystems, which are characterized by year-round growing season and cold winters. We investigated the carbon balance in three typical East Asia subtropical evergreen forests, using eddy flux, soil respiration and leaf-level measurements. Subtropical evergreen forests maintain continuous, high rates of photosynthetic activity, even during winter cold periods. Warm summers enhance photosynthetic rates in a limited way, because overall ecosystem productivity is primarily restrained by radiation levels during the warm period. Conversely, warm climates significantly enhance the respiratory carbon efflux. The finding of lower sensitivity of photosynthesis relative to that of respiration suggests that increased temperature will weaken the carbon-sink strength of East Asia subtropical evergreen forests. (letter)

  20. Tree Diversity and Structure of Andaman Giant Evergreen Forests, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajkumar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated tree diversity in ‘giant evergreen forest’ of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which falls within the Indo-Burma hot spot of biodiversity in the world. A one hectare square plot was established in sites Kalapahad (KP and Macarthy Valley (MV of Middle Andamans, in which all trees ≥ 30 cm girth at breast height (gbh were enumerated. Tree diversity totaled 105 species that belonged to 63 genera and 49 families. Site MV harboured ~10% greater species richness than KP. Species diversity indices did not vary much between the two sites. In the two sites, there were 1311 individuals of trees (579 ha-1 in KP and 732 in MV. The stand basal area was nearly equal in both the sites (KP- 45.59 m2 ha-1; MV- 47.93 m2 ha-1. Thirteen tree species (12.38% were strict endemics to Andamans. Ten species recorded are rare to the flora of these islands. The two sites are distinctly dominated by two different plant families; Dipterocarpaceae in KP and Myristicaceae in MV. Most of the species were common to central and lower region of Myanmar and Indian mainland. The forest stand structure exhibited a typical reverse-J shape, but site MV had double the density of stems in the lower tree size class than that of KP. The voluminous dipterocarps contributed more to the total above-ground live biomass. The need to preserve these species- and endemics- rich, fragile island forests, prioritized for biodiversity conservation, is emphasized.

  1. Protected areas: mixed success in conserving East Africa's evergreen forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Pfeifer

    Full Text Available In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa between 2001 and 2009, and test for correlations with forest accessibility and environmental drivers. We investigate PA effectiveness at local, landscape and national scales, comparing rates of deforestation within park boundaries with those detected in park buffer zones and in unprotected land more generally. Background forest loss (BFL was estimated at -9.3% (17,167 km(2, but varied between countries (range: -0.9% to -85.7%; note: no BFL in South Sudan. We document high variability in PA effectiveness within and between PA categories. The most successful PAs were National Parks, although only 26 out of 48 parks increased or maintained their forest area (i.e. Effective parks. Forest Reserves (Ineffective parks, i.e. parks that lose forest from within boundaries: 204 out of 337, Nature Reserves (six out of 12 and Game Parks (24 out of 26 were more likely to lose forest cover. Forest loss in buffer zones around PAs exceeded background forest loss, in some areas indicating leakage driven by Effective National Parks. Human pressure, forest accessibility, protection status, distance to fires and long-term annual rainfall were highly significant drivers of forest loss in East Africa. Some of these factors can be addressed by adjusting park management. However, addressing close links between livelihoods, natural capital and poverty remains a fundamental challenge in East Africa's forest conservation efforts.

  2. Similar variation in carbon storage between deciduous and evergreen treeline species across elevational gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alex; Piper, Frida I; Hoch, Günter

    2013-08-01

    The most plausible explanation for treeline formation so far is provided by the growth limitation hypothesis (GLH), which proposes that carbon sinks are more restricted by low temperatures than by carbon sources. Evidence supporting the GLH has been strong in evergreen, but less and weaker in deciduous treeline species. Here a test is made of the GLH in deciduous-evergreen mixed species forests across elevational gradients, with the hypothesis that deciduous treeline species show a different carbon storage trend from that shown by evergreen species across elevations. Tree growth and concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) in foliage, branch sapwood and stem sapwood tissues were measured at four elevations in six deciduous-evergreen treeline ecotones (including treeline) in the southern Andes of Chile (40°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Nothofagus betuloides; 46°S, Nothofagus pumilio and Pinus sylvestris) and in the Swiss Alps (46°N, Larix decidua and Pinus cembra). Tree growth (basal area increment) decreased with elevation for all species. Regardless of foliar habit, NSCs did not deplete across elevations, indicating no shortage of carbon storage in any of the investigated tissues. Rather, NSCs increased significantly with elevation in leaves (P < 0·001) and branch sapwood (P = 0·012) tissues. Deciduous species showed significantly higher NSCs than evergreens for all tissues; on average, the former had 11 % (leaves), 158 % (branch) and 103 % (sapwood) significantly (P < 0·001) higher NSCs than the latter. Finally, deciduous species had higher NSC (particularly starch) increases with elevation than evergreens for stem sapwood, but the opposite was true for leaves and branch sapwood. Considering the observed decrease in tree growth and increase in NSCs with elevation, it is concluded that both deciduous and evergreen treeline species are sink limited when faced with decreasing temperatures. Despite the overall higher requirements of deciduous tree

  3. A comparison of 137Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental 137 Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil 137 Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage 137 Cs concentrations. The study's objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation 137 Cs concentrations are statistically the same

  4. A comparison of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in localized evergreen and deciduous plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    A vegetation study at the Comanche Peak Steam Electric Station (CPSES) near Glen Rose, Texas was conducted in 1991 and 1992. The CPSES is a commercial nuclear power plant owned and operated by Texas Utilities Electric of Dallas, Texas. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) requires the CPSES to routinely sample broadleaf vegetation in place of milk samples. Few commercial dairies exist in the vicinity. Broadleaf tree species are scarce because the climate and local limestone geology have produced a dry rolling hill topography. An evergreen juniper is the dominant tree species. Few broadleaves during the winter season have hindered year-round sampling. This study compares the environmental {sup 137}Cs concentrations between broadleaf and evergreen foliage at CPSES. Soil {sup 137}Cs concentrations from each vegetation location were also compared to the foliage {sup 137}Cs concentrations. The study`s objective was to determine if the deciduous and evergreen vegetation {sup 137}Cs concentrations are statistically the same.

  5. Phenology-Based Method for Mapping Tropical Evergreen Forests by Integrating of MODIS and Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Kou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Updated extent, area, and spatial distribution of tropical evergreen forests from inventory data provides valuable knowledge for research of the carbon cycle, biodiversity, and ecosystem services in tropical regions. However, acquiring these data in mountainous regions requires labor-intensive, often cost-prohibitive field protocols. Here, we report about validated methods to rapidly identify the spatial distribution of tropical forests, and obtain accurate extent estimates using phenology-based procedures that integrate the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS and Landsat imagery. Firstly, an analysis of temporal profiles of annual time-series MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI, and Land Surface Water Index (LSWI was developed to identify the key phenology phase for extraction of tropical evergreen forests in five typical lands cover types. Secondly, identification signatures of tropical evergreen forests were selected and their related thresholds were calculated based on Landsat NDVI, EVI, and LSWI extracted from ground true samples of different land cover types during the key phenology phase. Finally, a map of tropical evergreen forests was created by a pixel-based thresholding. The developed methods were tested in Xishuangbanna, China, and the results show: (1 Integration of Landsat and MODIS images performs well in extracting evergreen forests in tropical complex mountainous regions. The overall accuracy of the resulting map of the case study was 92%; (2 Annual time series of high-temporal-resolution remote sensing images (MODIS can effectively be used for identification of the key phenology phase (between Julian Date 20 and 120 to extract tropical evergreen forested areas through analysis of NDVI, EVI, and LSWI of different land cover types; (3 NDVI and LSWI are two effective metrics (NDVI ≥ 0.670 and 0.447 ≥ LSWI ≥ 0.222 to depict evergreen forests from other land cover

  6. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  7. A simple algorithm for large-scale mapping of evergreen forests in tropical America, Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangming Xiao; Chandrashekhar M. Biradar; Christina Czarnecki; Tunrayo Alabi; Michael Keller

    2009-01-01

    The areal extent and spatial distribution of evergreen forests in the tropical zones are important for the study of climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. However, frequent cloud cover in the tropical regions makes mapping evergreen forests a challenging task. In this study we developed a simple and novel mapping algorithm that is based on the temporal profile...

  8. Rainfall Controls on Land Surface Phenology over "Never-green" and "Ever-green" Lands in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; Zhang, X.; Yu, Y.; Guo, W.

    2015-12-01

    The characteristics of land surface phenology (LSP) in the "Never-green" Sahara desert and the "Ever-green" equatorial Congo Basin were rarely discussed due to the extremely low seasonal greenness variations across the Sahara desert and the prolonged cloud cover over the Congo Basin. Based on 30-minute observations acquired by the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager onboard the METEOSAT geostationary satellites, we generated a three-day angularly corrected Two-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2) time series for each year between 2006 and 2013. We further reconstructed EVI2 temporal trajectories and retrieved LSP transitions using the Hybrid Piecewise Logistic Model. We associated the LSP transitions with the rainy season transitions derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission Product 3B42. Results show that LSP within both the Sahara Desert and the Congo Basin was strongly controlled by the rainfall seasonality. Specially, although there is no vegetation growth in most part of the Sahara Desert, recurring LSP was spatially detected in irrigation agriculture and the geomorphological regions of wadis, dayas, chotts/sebkhas and rocky hills. These geomorphological features are able to store moisture in soil to keep plants growing during the long dry seasons after vegetation greenup is triggered by rainfall events. The spatial shift of phenological timing is controlled by the Mediterranean rainfall regime in the north and the rainfalls brought by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in the south. Across the equatorial Congo Basin, EVI2 time series reveals that canopy greenness cycles (CGC) of the seasonal leaf variation occur in tropical rainforests, which differs from the commonly termed "growing season" with complete leafless canopies. The seasonal EVI2 amplitude is very small and represents the gradual "leaf-exchange" processes. Two annual CGC are found and their spatial shifts closely follow the seasonal migration of ITCZ precipitation.

  9. The leaf size-twig size spectrum in evergreen broadleaved forest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compared to deciduous broad-leaved species, the evergreen broad-leaved species were smaller in total leaf area for a given cross-sectional area or stem mass. This suggests that the species would support less leaf area at a given twig cross-sectional area with increasing environmental stress. And the life form can modify ...

  10. 76 FR 69222 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Evergreen, AL, and Shalimar, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Evergreen, AL, and Shalimar, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Dismissal. ] SUMMARY: The Audio Division, at the request of Qantum of Ft...

  11. Age and distribution of an evergreen clonal shrub in the Coweeta basin: Rhododendron maximum L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine J. Elliott; James M. Vose

    2012-01-01

    Rhododendron maximum L. is an evergreen, clonal shrub that forms a dominant sub-canopy layer and is a key species in southern Appalachian forests. We investigated the age and distribution of R. maximum across the Coweeta Basin, a 1626 ha watershed in western North Carolina. We selected 16 perennial, second-order streams and used a Global Positioning System to establish...

  12. A remotely sensed pigment index reveals photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Gamon; K. Fred Huemmrich; Christopher Y. S. Wong; Ingo Ensminger; Steven Garrity; David Y. Hollinger; Asko Noormets; Josep Peñuelas

    2016-01-01

    In evergreen conifers, where the foliage amount changes little with season, accurate detection of the underlying “photosynthetic phenology” from satellite remote sensing has been difficult, presenting challenges for global models of ecosystem carbon uptake. Here, we report a close correspondence between seasonally changing foliar pigment levels, expressed as...

  13. Hyper-temporal remote sensing helps in relating epiphyllous liverworts and evergreen forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Bie, de C.A.J.M.; Wang, T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Liu, X.; Song, S.; Shao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Is there, at the macro-habitat scale, a relationship between the fraction of evergreen forests and the presence probability of epiphyllous liverworts? Can these two parameters be estimated and mapped using an NDVI-based indicator that is derived from time-series of SPOT-VGT imagery?

  14. No evidence for enemy release during range expansion of an evergreen tree in northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Anne-Marie Thonning; Markussen, Bo; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT 1. Plant distributions are dynamic but the role of plantÐinsect interactions in controlling range dynamics is not well understood. Enemy release, for example could facilitate plant range expansion under climate change. 2. We conducted a transplant experiment with the evergreen tree Ilex ...

  15. Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. of Moraceae is a large evergreen tree with milky latex. This species occurs wild and is also cultivated for its fruit, which is edible. Leaves are simple and dark green. The branchlets are covered with rust-brown hairs. Inflorescence is axillary. The female inflorescence is globose with individualjlowers ...

  16. Ozone uptake by an evergreen forest canopy - temporal variation and possible mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.; Pilegaard, K.

    2000-01-01

    Patterns of ozone concentration ([O(3)]), O(3) deposition velocity (nu(d)) and O(3) flux (F(c)) over an evergreen forest canopy are shown in relation to measuring method, physiological activity of the trees, and lime of year. The gradient and eddy correlation methods were compared and showed...

  17. The leaf size-twig size spectrum in evergreen broad- leaved forest of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... White, 1983a, b; Brouat et al., 1998; Preston and Ackerly,. 2003; Westoby and Wright, 2003; ... species including both trees and shrubs were investigated, with exception of those having fewer than ..... freezing-induced xylem cavitation in evergreen and deciduous oaks with contrasting habitats. Plant Cell ...

  18. Familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000363.htm Familial Mediterranean fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a rare disorder passed down ...

  19. The Mediterranean alternative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giaccaria, P.; Minca, C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of Italian and French Mediterranean studies from a postcolonial and geographical perspective. It claims that the relationship between contemporary Mediterranean geographies and mainstream European modernities has been overlooked by the Mediterraneanist literature, a

  20. Water uptake of Alaskan tundra evergreens during the winter-spring transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Jonathan G; Oberbauer, Steven F; Sternberg, Leonel da S L; Ellsworth, Patrick Z; Starr, Gregory; Mortazavi, Behzad; Olivas, Paulo C

    2016-02-01

    The cold season in the Arctic extends over 8 to 9 mo, yet little is known about vascular plant physiology during this period. Evergreen species photosynthesize under the snow, implying that they are exchanging water with the atmosphere. However, liquid water available for plant uptake may be limited at this time. The study objective was to determine whether evergreen plants are actively taking up water while under snow and/or immediately following snowmelt during spring thaw. In two in situ experiments, one at the plot level and another at the individual species level, (2)H-labeled water was used as a tracer injected beneath the snow, after which plant stems and leaves were tested for the presence of the label. In separate experiments, excised shoots of evergreen species were exposed to (2)H-labeled water for ∼5 s or 60 min and tested for foliar uptake of the label. In both the plot-level and the species-level experiments, some (2)H-labeled water was found in leaves and stems. Additionally, excised individual plant shoots exposed to labeled water for 60 min took up significantly more (2)H-label than shoots exposed ∼5 s. Evergreen tundra plants take up water under snow cover, some via roots, but also likely by foliar uptake. The ability to take up water in the subnivean environment allows evergreen tundra plants to take advantage of mild spring conditions under the snow and replenish carbon lost by winter respiration. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Do evergreen and deciduous trees have different effects on net N mineralization in soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kevin E; Hobbie, Sarah E; Oleksyn, Jacek; Reich, Peter B; Eissenstat, David M

    2012-06-01

    Evergreen and deciduous plants are widely expected to have different impacts on soil nitrogen (N) availability because of differences in leaf litter chemistry and ensuing effects on net N mineralization (N(min)). We evaluated this hypothesis by compiling published data on net N(min) rates beneath co-occurring stands of evergreen and deciduous trees. The compiled data included 35 sets of co-occurring stands in temperate and boreal forests. Evergreen and deciduous stands did not have consistently divergent effects on net N(min) rates; net N(min) beneath deciduous trees was higher when comparing natural stands (19 contrasts), but equivalent to evergreens in plantations (16 contrasts). We also compared net N(min) rates beneath pairs of co-occurring genera. Most pairs of genera did not differ consistently, i.e., tree species from one genus had higher net N(min) at some sites and lower net N(min) at other sites. Moreover, several common deciduous genera (Acer, Betula, Populus) and deciduous Quercus spp. did not typically have higher net N(min) rates than common evergreen genera (Pinus, Picea). There are several reasons why tree effects on net N(min) are poorly predicted by leaf habit and phylogeny. For example, the amount of N mineralized from decomposing leaves might be less than the amount of N mineralized from organic matter pools that are less affected by leaf litter traits, such as dead roots and soil organic matter. Also, effects of plant traits and plant groups on net N(min) probably depend on site-specific factors such as stand age and soil type.

  2. Forest Typification to Characterize the Structure and Composition of Old-growth Evergreen Forests on Chiloe Island, North Patagonia (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. Bannister

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Evergreen forest type develops along the Valdivian and North-Patagonian phytogeographical regions of the south-central part of Chile (38° S–46° S. These evergreen forests have been scarcely studied south of 43° S, where there is still a large area made up of old-growth forests. Silvicultural proposals for the Evergreen forest type have been based on northern Evergreen forests, so that the characterization of the structure and composition of southern Evergreen forests, e.g., their typification, would aid in the development of appropriate silvicultural proposals for these forests. Based on the tree composition of 46 sampled plots in old-growth forests in an area of >1000 ha in southern Chiloé Island (43° S, we used multivariate analyses to define forest groups and to compare these forests with other evergreen forests throughout the Archipelago of North-Patagonia. We determined that evergreen forests of southern Chiloé correspond to the North-Patagonian temperate rainforests that are characterized by few tree species of different shade tolerance growing on fragile soils. We discuss the convenience of developing continuous cover forest management for these forests, rather than selective cuts or even-aged management that is proposed in the current legislation. This study is a contribution to forest classification for both ecologically- and forestry-oriented purposes.

  3. The Next Generation Library Catalog: A Comparative Study of the OPACs of Koha, Evergreen, and Voyager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Q. Yang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Open source has been the center of attention in the library world for the past several years. Koha and Evergreen are the two major open-source integrated library systems (ILSs, and they continue to grow in maturity and popularity. The question remains as to how much we have achieved in open-source development toward the next-generation catalog compared to commercial systems. Little has been written in the library literature to answer this question. This paper intends to answer this question by comparing  the next-generation features of the OPACs of two open-source ILSs (Koha and Evergreen and one proprietary ILS (Voyager’s WebVoyage.

  4. The leaf anatomy of a broad-leaved evergreen allows an increase in leaf nitrogen content in winter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Onno; Oguchi, Riichi; Hirose, T.; Werger, M.J.A.; Hikosaka, K.

    2009-01-01

    In temperate regions, evergreen species are exposed to large seasonal changes in air temperature and irradiance. They change photosynthetic characteristics of leaves responding to such environmental changes. Recent studies have suggested that photosynthetic acclimation is strongly constrained by

  5. Species and acoustic diversity of bats in a palaeotropical wet evergreen forest in southern India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghuram, H; Jain, M; Balakrishnan, R

    2014-01-01

    The Western Ghats of India is among the top 25 biodiversity hotspots in the world. About 43% of the reported 117 bat species in India are found in this region, but few quantitative studies of bat echolocation calls and diversity have been carried out here thus far. A quantitative study of bat diversity was therefore conducted using standard techniques, including mist-netting, acoustical and roost surveys in the wet evergreen forests of Kudremukh National Park in the Western Ghats of Karnataka...

  6. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    genetically from the rest of the populations in the Mediterranean area. This result supports the hypothesis of a low incidence of the south-north genetic interchange at the western shores of the Mediterranean basin. A low genetic distance was found between populations in the Middle East and the western part...

  7. Contrasting seasonal leaf habits of canopy trees between tropical dry-deciduous and evergreen forests in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Ladpala, Phanumard; Staporn, Duriya; Panuthai, Samreong; Gamo, Minoru; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2006-05-01

    We compared differences in leaf properties, leaf gas exchange and photochemical properties between drought-deciduous and evergreen trees in tropical dry forests, where soil nutrients differed but rainfall was similar. Three canopy trees (Shorea siamensis Miq., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob. and Vitex peduncularis Wall. ex Schauer) in a drought-deciduous forest and a canopy tree (Hopea ferrea Lanessan) in an evergreen forest were selected. Soil nutrient availability is lower in the evergreen forest than in the deciduous forest. Compared with the evergreen tree, the deciduous trees had shorter leaf life spans, lower leaf masses per area, higher leaf mass-based nitrogen (N) contents, higher leaf mass-based photosynthetic rates (mass-based P(n)), higher leaf N-based P(n), higher daily maximum stomatal conductance (g(s)) and wider conduits in wood xylem. Mass-based P(n) decreased from the wet to the dry season for all species. Following onset of the dry season, daily maximum g(s) and sensitivity of g(s) to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees, whereas both properties decreased in the evergreen tree during the dry season. Photochemical capacity and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of photosystem II (PSII) also remained relatively unchanged in the deciduous trees even after the onset of the dry season. In contrast, photochemical capacity decreased and NPQ increased in the evergreen tree during the dry season, indicating that the leaves coped with prolonged drought by down-regulating PSII. Thus, the drought-avoidant deciduous species were characterized by high N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, high water use and photoinhibition avoidance, whereas the drought-tolerant evergreen was characterized by low N allocation for leaf carbon assimilation, conservative water use and photoinhibition tolerance.

  8. Potential Effects of Climate Change on the Distribution of Cold-Tolerant Evergreen Broadleaved Woody Plants in the Korean Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kyung Ah; Kong, Woo-Seok; Nibbelink, Nathan P; Hopkinson, Charles S; Lee, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has caused shifts in species' ranges and extinctions of high-latitude and altitude species. Most cold-tolerant evergreen broadleaved woody plants (shortened to cold-evergreens below) are rare species occurring in a few sites in the alpine and subalpine zones in the Korean Peninsula. The aim of this research is to 1) identify climate factors controlling the range of cold-evergreens in the Korean Peninsula; and 2) predict the climate change effects on the range of cold-evergreens. We used multimodel inference based on combinations of climate variables to develop distribution models of cold-evergreens at a physiognomic-level. Presence/absence data of 12 species at 204 sites and 6 climatic factors, selected from among 23 candidate variables, were used for modeling. Model uncertainty was estimated by mapping a total variance calculated by adding the weighted average of within-model variation to the between-model variation. The range of cold-evergreens and model performance were validated by true skill statistics, the receiver operating characteristic curve and the kappa statistic. Climate change effects on the cold-evergreens were predicted according to the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Multimodel inference approach excellently projected the spatial distribution of cold-evergreens (AUC = 0.95, kappa = 0.62 and TSS = 0.77). Temperature was a dominant factor in model-average estimates, while precipitation was minor. The climatic suitability increased from the southwest, lowland areas, to the northeast, high mountains. The range of cold-evergreens declined under climate change. Mountain-tops in the south and most of the area in the north remained suitable in 2050 and 2070 under the RCP 4.5 projection and 2050 under the RCP 8.5 projection. Only high-elevations in the northeastern Peninsula remained suitable under the RCP 8.5 projection. A northward and upper-elevational range shift indicates change in species composition at the alpine and subalpine

  9. Chloroplast thylakoid structure in evergreen leaves employing strong thermal energy dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Muller, Onno; Stewart, Jared J; Cohu, Christopher M; Adams, William W

    2015-11-01

    In nature, photosynthetic organisms cope with highly variable light environments--intensities varying over orders of magnitudes as well as rapid fluctuations over seconds-to-minutes--by alternating between (a) highly effective absorption and photochemical conversion of light levels limiting to photosynthesis and (b) powerful photoprotective thermal dissipation of potentially damaging light levels exceeding those that can be utilized in photosynthesis. Adjustments of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in light environment involve biophysical, biochemical, and structural adjustments. We used electron micrographs to assess overall thylakoid grana structure in evergreen species that exhibit much stronger maximal levels of thermal energy dissipation than the more commonly studied annual species. Our findings indicate an association between partial or complete unstacking of thylakoid grana structure and strong reversible thermal energy dissipation that, in contrast to what has been reported for annual species with much lower maximal levels of energy dissipation, is similar to what is seen under photoinhibitory conditions. For a tropical evergreen with tall grana stacks, a loosening, or vertical unstacking, of grana was seen in sun-grown plants exhibiting pronounced pH-dependent, rapidly reversible thermal energy dissipation as well as for sudden low-to-high-light transfer of shade-grown plants that responded with photoinhibition, characterized by strong dark-sustained, pH-independent thermal energy dissipation and photosystem II (PSII) inactivation. On the other hand, full-sun exposed subalpine confers with rather short grana stacks transitioned from autumn to winter via conversion of most thylakoids from granal to stromal lamellae concomitant with photoinhibitory photosynthetic inactivation and sustained thermal energy dissipation. We propose that these two types of changes (partial or complete unstacking of grana) in thylakoid arrangement are both associated with

  10. Is Patent "Evergreening" Restricting Access to Medicine/Device Combination Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed F; Nickerson, Jason W; Kaplan, Warren A; Attaran, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Not all new drug products are truly new. Some are the result of marginal innovation and incremental patenting of existing products, but in such a way that confers no major therapeutic improvement. This phenomenon, pejoratively known as "evergreening", can allow manufacturers to preserve market exclusivity, but without significantly bettering the standard of care. Other studies speculate that evergreening is especially problematic for medicine/device combination products, because patents on the device component may outlast expired patents on the medicine component, and thereby keep competing, possibly less-expensive generic products off the market. We focused on four common conditions that are often treated by medicine/device product combinations: asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), diabetes, and severe allergic reactions. The patent data for a sample of such products (n = 49) for treating these conditions was extracted from the United States Food and Drug Administration's Orange Book. Additional patent-related data (abstracts, claims, etc) were retrieved using LexisNexis TotalPatent. Comparisons were then made between each product's device patents and medicine patents. Unexpired device patents exist for 90 percent of the 49 medicine/device product combinations studied, and were the only sort of unexpired patent for 14 products. Overall, 55 percent of the 235 patents found by our study were device patents. Comparing the last-to-expire device patent to that of the last-to-expire active ingredient patent, the median additional years of patent protection afforded by device patents was 4.7 years (range: 1.3-15.2 years). Incremental, patentable innovation in devices to extend the overall patent protection of medicine/device product combinations is very common. Whether this constitutes "evergreening" depends on whether these incremental innovations and the years of extra patent protection they confer are proportionately matched by therapeutic

  11. Landscape dynamics in Mediterranean oak forests under global change: understanding the role of anthropogenic and environmental drivers across forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acácio, Vanda; Dias, Filipe S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Marta; Moreira, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean region is projected to be extremely vulnerable to global change, which will affect the distribution of typical forest types such as native oak forests. However, our understanding of Mediterranean oak forest responses to future conditions is still very limited by the lack of knowledge on oak forest dynamics and species-specific responses to multiple drivers. We compared the long-term (1966-2006) forest persistence and land cover change among evergreen (cork oak and holm oak) and deciduous oak forests and evaluated the importance of anthropogenic and environmental drivers on observed changes for Portugal. We used National Forest Inventories to quantify the changes in oak forests and explored the drivers of change using multinomial logistic regression analysis and an information theoretical approach. We found distinct trends among oak forest types, reflecting the differences in oak economic value, protection status and management schemes: cork oak forests were the most persistent (62%), changing mostly to pines and eucalypt; holm oak forests were less persistent (53.2%), changing mostly to agriculture; and deciduous oak forests were the least persistent (45.7%), changing mostly to shrublands. Drivers of change had distinct importance across oak forest types, but drivers from anthropogenic origin (wildfires, population density, and land accessibility) were always among the most important. Climatic extremes were also important predictors of oak forest changes, namely extreme temperatures for evergreen oak forests and deficit of precipitation for deciduous oak forests. Our results indicate that under increasing human pressure and forecasted climate change, evergreen oak forests will continue declining and deciduous oak forests will be replaced by forests dominated by more xeric species. In the long run, multiple disturbances may change competitive dominance from oak forests to pyrophytic shrublands. A better understanding of forest dynamics and the

  12. The seasonality of butterflies in a semi-evergreen forest: Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, northeastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study spanning 3.7 years on the butterflies of Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary GWS (21km2, a semi-evergreen forest, in Jorhat District of Assam, northeastern India revealed 211 species of butterflies belonging to 115 genera including 19 papilionids and seven ‘rare’ and ‘very rare’ species as per Evans list of the Indian sub-continent (Great Blue Mime Papilio paradoxa telearchus; Brown Forest BobScobura woolletti; Snowy Angle Darpa pteria dealbatahas; Constable Dichorragia nesimachus; Grey Baron Euthalia anosia anosia; Sylhet Oakblue Arhopala silhetensis; Branded Yamfly Yasoda tripunctata. The butterflies showed a strong seasonality pattern in this forest with only one significant peak during the post monsoon (September-October when 118 species were in flight inside the forest which slowly declined to 92 species in November-December. Another peak (102 species was visible after winter from March to April. Species composition showed least similarity between pre-monsoon (March-May and post-monsoon (October-November seasons. The number of papilionid species were greater from July to December as compared from January to June. The findings of this study suggest that the pattern of seasonality in a semi-evergreen forest in northeastern India is distinct from that of the sub-tropical lowland forest in the Himalaya. Favourable logistics and rich diversity in GWS points to its rich potential in promoting ‘butterfly inclusive ecotourism’ in this remnant forest.

  13. Photosynthesis and photosynthetic electron flow in the alpine evergreen species Quercus guyavifolia in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species must regularly cope with low night temperatures in winter. However, the effects of low night temperatures on photosynthesis in alpine evergreen broadleaf tree species are unclear. We measured the diurnal photosynthetic parameters before and after cold snap for leaves of Quercus guyavifolia growing in its native habitat at 3290 m. On 11 and 12 December 2013 (before cold snap, stomatal and mesophyll conductances (gs and gm, CO2 assimilation rate (An, and total electron flow through PSII (JPSII at daytime were maintained at high levels. The major action of alternative electron flow was to provide extra ATP for primary metabolisms. On 20 December 2013 (after cold snap, the diurnal values of gs, gm, An and JPSII at daytime largely decreased, mainly due to the large decrease in night air temperature. Meanwhile, the ratio of photorespiration and alternative electron flow to JPSII largely increased on 20 December. Furthermore, the high levels of alternative electron flow were accompanied with low rates of extra ATP production. A quantitative limitation analysis reveals that the gm limitation increased on 20 December with decreased night air temperature. Therefore, the night air temperature was an important determinant of stomatal/mesophyll conductance and photosynthesis. When photosynthesis is inhibited following freezing night temperatures, photorespiration and alternative electron flow are important electron sinks, which support the role of photorespiration and alternative electron flow in photoportection for alpine plants under low temperatures.

  14. Two types of matter economy for the wintering of evergreen shrubs in regions of heavy snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Yoshio; Maekawa, Tomoyuki; Shibayama, Tomohiro; Sakamaki, Yoshiaki

    2003-08-01

    Plant adaptation to an environment subject to heavy snowfalls was investigated in four species of evergreen shrubs growing in a Fagus crenata forest in an area of Honshu on the Sea of Japan. These shrubs stored carbohydrates in some organs before the snowy season and were covered with snow for 4-5 months. Aucuba japonica var. borealis, Camellia rusticana, and Ilex crenata var. paludosa maintained a reserve of carbohydrates during the snowy season. In Daphniphyllum macropodum var. humile, the reserve of carbohydrates decreased during winter. The respiration rates in the first three species decreased from autumn to winter, whereas the decrease in D. macropodum was slight. It was found that the first three species could use reserve carbohydrates for the growth of new shoots after the thaw, whereas in the last species the growth of new shoots depends on high photosynthetic activity in late spring. Our findings suggest some types of matter economy in evergreen shrubs for wintering in an environment of heavy snow.

  15. Deciduous and evergreen trees differ in juvenile biomass allometries because of differences in allocation to root storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Kyle W; van Langevelde, Frank; Ward, David; Bongers, Frans; da Silva, Dulce Alves; Prins, Herbert H T; de Bie, Steven; Sterck, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    Biomass partitioning for resource conservation might affect plant allometry, accounting for a substantial amount of unexplained variation in existing plant allometry models. One means of resource conservation is through direct allocation to storage in particular organs. In this study, storage allocation and biomass allometry of deciduous and evergreen tree species from seasonal environments were considered. It was expected that deciduous species would have greater allocation to storage in roots to support leaf regrowth in subsequent growing seasons, and consequently have lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning, than evergreen species. It was further expected that changes to root carbohydrate storage and biomass allometry under different soil nutrient supply conditions would be greater for deciduous species than for evergreen species. Root carbohydrate storage and organ biomass allometries were compared for juveniles of 20 savanna tree species of different leaf habit (nine evergreen, 11 deciduous) grown in two nutrient treatments for periods of 5 and 20 weeks (total dry mass of individual plants ranged from 0·003 to 258·724 g). Deciduous species had greater root non-structural carbohydrate than evergreen species, and lower scaling exponents for leaf to root and stem to root partitioning than evergreen species. Across species, leaf to stem scaling was positively related, and stem to root scaling was negatively related to root carbohydrate concentration. Under lower nutrient supply, trees displayed increased partitioning to non-structural carbohydrate, and to roots and leaves over stems with increasing plant size, but this change did not differ between leaf habits. Substantial unexplained variation in biomass allometry of woody species may be related to selection for resource conservation against environmental stresses, such as resource seasonality. Further differences in plant allometry could arise due to selection for different types

  16. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  17. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of Mediterranean origin — including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect ... attacks, you'll likely feel normal. Symptom-free periods may be as short as a few days ...

  18. A Spectral Evaluation of Models Performances in Mediterranean Oak Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, R.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Abramowitz, G.; Carrara, A.; Correia, A.; Kobayashi, H.; Papale, D.; Pearson, D.; Pereira, J.; Piao, S.; Rambal, S.; Sonnentag, O.

    2009-12-01

    Ecosystem processes are influenced by climatic trends at multiple temporal scales including diel patterns and other mid-term climatic modes, such as interannual and seasonal variability. Because interactions between biophysical components of ecosystem processes are complex, it is important to test how models perform in frequency (e.g. hours, days, weeks, months, years) and time (i.e. day of the year) domains in addition to traditional tests of annual or monthly sums. Here we present a spectral evaluation using wavelet time series analysis of model performance in seven Mediterranean Oak Woodlands that encompass three deciduous and four evergreen sites. We tested the performance of five models (CABLE, ORCHIDEE, BEPS, Biome-BGC, and JULES) on measured variables of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In general, model performance fails at intermediate periods (e.g. weeks to months) likely because these models do not represent the water pulse dynamics that influence GPP and ET at these Mediterranean systems. To improve the performance of a model it is critical to identify first where and when the model fails. Only by identifying where a model fails we can improve the model performance and use them as prognostic tools and to generate further hypotheses that can be tested by new experiments and measurements.

  19. Constructing seasonal LAI trajectory by data-model fusion for global evergreen needle-leaf forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J.; Mo, G.

    2010-12-01

    For decades, advancements in optical remote sensors made it possible to produce maps of a biophysical parameter--the Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is critically necessary in regional and global modeling of exchanges of carbon, water, energy and other substances, across large areas in a fast way. Quite a few global LAI products have been generated since 2000, e.g. GLOBCARBON (Deng et al., 2006), MODIS Collection 5 (Shabanov et al., 2007), CYCLOPES (Baret et al., 2007), etc. Albeit these progresses, the basic physics behind the technology restrains it from accurate estimation of LAI in winter, especially for northern high-latitude evergreen needle-leaf forests. Underestimation of winter LAI in these regions has been reported in literature (Yang et al., 2000; Cohen et al., 2003; Tian et al., 2004; Weiss et al., 2007; Pisek et al., 2007), and the distortion is usually attributed to the variations of canopy reflectance caused by understory change (Weiss et al., 2007) as well as by the presence of ice and snow on leaves and ground (Cohen, 2003; Tian et al., 2004). Seasonal changes in leaf pigments can also be another reason for low LAI retrieved in winter. Low conifer LAI values in winter retrieved from remote sensing make them unusable for surface energy budget calculations. To avoid these drawbacks of remote sensing approaches, we attempt to reconstruct the seasonal LAI trajectory through model-data fusion. A 1-degree LAI map of global evergreen needle-leaf forests at 10-day interval is produced based on the carbon allocation principle in trees. With net primary productivity (NPP) calculated by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) (Chen et al., 1999), carbon allocated to needles is quantitatively evaluated and then can be further transformed into LAI using the specific leaf area (SLA). A leaf-fall scheme is developed to mimic the carbon loss caused by falling needles throughout the year. The seasonally maximum LAI from remote sensing data for each pixel

  20. Influence of summer marine fog and low cloud stratus on water relations of evergreen woody shrubs (Arctostaphylos: Ericaceae) in the chaparral of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Loik, Michael E; Parker, V Thomas

    2012-10-01

    Mediterranean-type climate (MTC) regions around the world are notable for cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. A dominant vegetation type in all five MTC regions is evergreen, sclerophyllous shrubland, called chaparral in California. The extreme summer dry season in California is moderated by a persistent low-elevation layer of marine fog and cloud cover along the margin of the Pacific coast. We tested whether late dry season water potentials (Ψ(min)) of chaparral shrubs, such as Arctostaphylos species in central California, are influenced by this coast-to-interior climate gradient. Lowland coastal (maritime) shrubs were found to have significantly less negative Ψ(min) than upland interior shrubs (interior), and stable isotope (δ(13)C) values exhibited greater water use efficiency in the interior. Post-fire resprouter shrubs (resprouters) had significantly less negative Ψ(min) than co-occurring obligate seeder shrubs (seeders) in interior and transitional chaparral, possibly because resprouters have deeper root systems with better access to subsurface water than shallow-rooted seeders. Unexpectedly, maritime resprouters and seeders did not differ significantly in their Ψ(min), possibly reflecting more favorable water availability for shrubs influenced by the summer marine layer. Microclimate and soil data also suggest that maritime habitats have more favorable water availability than the interior. While maritime seeders constitute the majority of local Arctostaphylos endemics, they exhibited significantly greater vulnerability to xylem cavitation than interior seeders. Because rare seeders in maritime chaparral are more vulnerable to xylem cavitation than interior seeders, the potential breakdown of the summer marine layer along the coast is of potential conservation concern.

  1. Differential responses of carbon and water vapor fluxes to climate among evergreen needleleaf forests in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding of differences in carbon and water vapor fluxes of spatially distributed evergreen needle leaf forests (ENFs) is crucial to accurately estimating regional carbon and water budgets and when predicting the responses of ENFs to future climate. We investigated cross-site variability in car...

  2. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liujing Huang; Hongfeng Chen; Hai Ren; Jun Wang; Qinfeng Guo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of...

  3. Leaf adaptations of evergreen and deciduous trees of semi-arid and humid savannas on three continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomlinson, K.W.; Poorter, L.; Sterck, F.J.; Borghetti, M.; Ward, D.; Bie, de S.; Langevelde, van F.

    2013-01-01

    1. Drought stress selects for a suite of plant traits at root, stem and leaf level. Two strategies are proposed for trees growing in seasonally water-stressed environments: drought tolerance and drought avoidance. These are respectively associated with evergreen phenology, where plants retain their

  4. 76 FR 51367 - China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 11-12] China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company Limited; Evergreen Line A Joint Service Agreement; Hanjin Shipping Co., Ltd... Maritime Commission (Commission) by China Shipping Container Lines Co., Ltd.; COSCO Container Lines Company...

  5. Fire in Mediterranean climate ecosystems: a comparative overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2012-01-01

    Four regions of the world share a similar climate and structurally similar plant communities with the Mediterranean Basin. These five areas, known collectively as "mediterranean-type climate (MTC) regions", are dominated by evergreen sclerophyllous-leaved shrublands, semi-deciduous scrub, and woodlands, all of which are prone to widespread crown fires. Summer droughts produce an annual fire hazard that contributes to a highly predictable fire regime. Fire has been an important factor driving the convergence of these systems and is reflected in plant traits such as lignotubers in resprouting shrubs and delayed reproduction that restricts recruitment to a postfire pulse of seedlings. On fertile soils where postfire resprouting is very rapid, opportunities for postfire seedling recruitment are limited and thus these woody taxa have not opted for delaying reproduction. Such fire-independent recruitment is widespread in the floras of MTC regions of the Mediterranean Basin and California and postfire seeding tends to dominate at the more arid end of the gradient. Due to very different geological histories in South Africa and Western Australia, substrates are nutrient poor and thus postfire resprouters do not pose a similar competitive challenge to seedlings and thus postfire seeding is very widespread in these floras. Although circumstantial evidence suggests that the MTC region of Chile had fire-prone landscapes in the Tertiary, these were lost with the late Miocene completion of the Andean uplift, which now blocks summer lightning storms from moving into the region. Today these five regions pose a significant fire management challenge due to the annual fire hazard and metropolitan centers juxtaposed with highly flammable vegetation. This challenge varies across the five MTC landscapes as a function of differences in regional fuel loads and population density.

  6. Leaf development and demography explain photosynthetic seasonality in Amazon evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Albert, Lauren; Lopes, Aline; Restrepo-Coupe, Natalia; Hayek, Matthew; Wiedemann, Kenia T.; Guan, Kaiyu; Stark, Scott C.; Christoffersen, Bradley; Prohaska, Neill; Tavares, Julia V.; Marostica, Suelen; Kobayashi, Hideki; Ferreira, Maurocio L.; Campos, Kleber Silva; da Silva, Rodrigo; Brando, Paulo M.; Dye, Dennis G.; Huxman, Travis E.; Huete, Alfredo; Nelson, Bruce; Saleska, Scott

    2016-01-01

    In evergreen tropical forests, the extent, magnitude, and controls on photosynthetic seasonality are poorly resolved and inadequately represented in Earth system models. Combining camera observations with ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes at forests across rainfall gradients in Amazônia, we show that aggregate canopy phenology, not seasonality of climate drivers, is the primary cause of photosynthetic seasonality in these forests. Specifically, synchronization of new leaf growth with dry season litterfall shifts canopy composition toward younger, more light-use efficient leaves, explaining large seasonal increases (~27%) in ecosystem photosynthesis. Coordinated leaf development and demography thus reconcile seemingly disparate observations at different scales and indicate that accounting for leaf-level phenology is critical for accurately simulating ecosystem-scale responses to climate change.

  7. Interrogating the Mediterranean 'Migration Crisis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    This Forum aims to uncover the socio-politics of the ‘migration crisis’ in the Mediterranean. The contributions explore the idea of the ‘migration crisis’ or ‘refugee crisis’ in the Mediterranean from the starting point that as scholars of the Mediterranean we can do two things: one, we can look at

  8. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  9. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  10. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... Partnership (EFP) plays a central role in the EMP design and implementation, which is centered on economic and trade integration as a starting point for and an anchor of socio-economic development in the MENA region. Against this background, this paper reviews the situation in the MENA partner countries...

  11. Explore Mediterranean in classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balesevic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    I am a science teacher at a primary school and my students are very interested in science. Through this year I will work with my students, organizing several workshops and or results will be presented on poster. I will work with several groups (4-6) students 8th grade. In this poster all activities will be presented, showing how science is easy to learn even in a classroom. 1. Workshop > Chemical characteristic of sea water Using school laboratory each group of students will analyze the physical and chemical characteristic of sea water and they have to explain the results to younger student's 5th and 6th grade. The final result will be presented on poster. 2. Workshop> Meet the Mediterranean life During this workshop students will work in different groups. The aim of the workshop is to meet lots of species that we can find in Mediterranean using movies, phone applications, internet explorer, science books and school collections of invertebrates … 3. Workshop>Stop the pollution Several groups of students have to debate about causes of pollution and possibilities for prevention. At the end of workshop we will organize a quiz. Student's answers and suggestions will be shown on the poster. 4. Workshop> How we see the Mediterranean During this workshop students will make models of Mediterranean in 2d and 3d perspective, using different materials. They can show on models parts of Mediterranean area, country, sea... After making models students need to visit 5th and 6th grade classes, to show them and explain the final results. Few models will be presented on poster

  12. Growing up with stress - carbon sequestration and allocation dynamics of a broadleaf evergreen forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebel, Anne; Bennett, Lauren T.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-04-01

    Evergreen forests have the potential to sequester carbon year-round due to the presence of leaves with a multi-year lifespan. Eucalypt forests occur in warmer climates where temperature and radiation are not imposing a strong seasonality. Thus, unlike deciduous or many coniferous trees, many eucalypts grow opportunistically as conditions allow. As such, many eucalypts do not produce distinct growth rings, which present challenges to the implementation of standard methods and data interpretation approaches for monitoring and explaining carbon allocation dynamics in response to climatic stress. As a consequence, there is a lack of detailed understanding of seasonal growth dynamics of evergreen forests as a whole, and, in particular, of the influence of climatic drivers on carbon allocation to the various biomass pools. We used a multi-instrument approach in a mixed species eucalypt forest to investigate the influence of climatic drivers on the seasonal growth dynamics of a predominantly temperate and moisture-regulated environment in south-eastern Australia. Ecosystem scale observations of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from a flux tower in the Wombat forest near Melbourne indicated that the ecosystem is a year-round carbon sink, but that intra-annual variations in temperature and moisture along with prolonged heat waves and dry spells resulted in a wide range of annual sums over the past three years (NEE ranging from ~4 to 12 t C ha-1 yr-1). Dendrometers were used to monitor stem increments of the three dominant eucalypt species. Stem expansion was generally opportunistic with the greatest increments under warm but moist conditions (often in spring and autumn), and the strongest indicators of stem growth dynamics being radiation, vapour pressure deficit and a combined heat-moisture index. Differences in the seasonality of stem increments between species were largely due to differences in the canopy position of sampled individuals. The greatest stem increments were

  13. The combined effects of a long-term experimental drought and an extreme drought on the use of plant-water sources in a Mediterranean forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeta, Adrià; Mejía-Chang, Monica; Ogaya, Romà; Voltas, Jordi; Dawson, Todd E; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Vegetation in water-limited ecosystems relies strongly on access to deep water reserves to withstand dry periods. Most of these ecosystems have shallow soils over deep groundwater reserves. Understanding the functioning and functional plasticity of species-specific root systems and the patterns of or differences in the use of water sources under more frequent or intense droughts is therefore necessary to properly predict the responses of seasonally dry ecosystems to future climate. We used stable isotopes to investigate the seasonal patterns of water uptake by a sclerophyll forest on sloped terrain with shallow soils. We assessed the effect of a long-term experimental drought (12 years) and the added impact of an extreme natural drought that produced widespread tree mortality and crown defoliation. The dominant species, Quercus ilex, Arbutus unedo and Phillyrea latifolia, all have dimorphic root systems enabling them to access different water sources in space and time. The plants extracted water mainly from the soil in the cold and wet seasons but increased their use of groundwater during the summer drought. Interestingly, the plants subjected to the long-term experimental drought shifted water uptake toward deeper (10-35 cm) soil layers during the wet season and reduced groundwater uptake in summer, indicating plasticity in the functional distribution of fine roots that dampened the effect of our experimental drought over the long term. An extreme drought in 2011, however, further reduced the contribution of deep soil layers and groundwater to transpiration, which resulted in greater crown defoliation in the drought-affected plants. This study suggests that extreme droughts aggravate moderate but persistent drier conditions (simulated by our manipulation) and may lead to the depletion of water from groundwater reservoirs and weathered bedrock, threatening the preservation of these Mediterranean ecosystems in their current structures and compositions. © 2014

  14. Evergreen shrub traits and peatland carbon cycling under high nutrient load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmola, Tuula; Bui, Vi; Bubier, Jill L.; Wang, Meng; Murphy, Meaghan; Moore, Tim R.

    2016-04-01

    The reactive nitrogen (N) assimilated by plants is usually invested in chlorophyll to improve light harvesting capacity and in soluble proteins such as Rubisco to enhance carbon (C) assimilation. We studied the effects of simulated atmospheric N deposition on different traits of two evergreen shrubs Chamaedaphne calyculata and Rhododendron groenlandicum in a nutrient-poor Mer Bleue Bog, Canada that has been fertilized with N as NO3 and NH4 (2-8 times ambient annual wet deposition) with or without phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) for 7-12 years. We examined how nutrient addition influences the plant performance at leaf and canopy level and linked the trait responses with ecosystem C cycling. At the leaf level, we measured physiological and biochemical traits: CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, an indicator of plant stress in terms of light harvesting capacity; and to study changes in photosynthetic nutrient use efficiency, we also determined the foliar chlorophyll, N, and P contents. At the canopy level, we examined morphological and phenological traits: growth responses and leaf longevity during two growing seasons. Regardless of treatment, the majority of leaves showed no signs of stress in terms of light harvesting capacity. The plants were N saturated: with increasing foliar N content, the higher proportion of N was not used in photosynthesis. Foliar net CO2 assimilation rates did not differ significantly among treatments, but the additions of N, P, and K together resulted in higher respiration rates. The analysis of the leaf and canopy traits showed that the two shrubs had different strategies: C. calyculata was more responsive to nutrient additions, more deciduous-like, whereas R. groenlandicum maintained evergreen features under nutrient load, shedding its leaves even later in the season. In all, simulated atmospheric N deposition did not benefit the photosynthetic apparatus of the dominant shrubs, but resulted in higher foliar respiration

  15. Seasonal variations of gas exchange and water relations in deciduous and evergreen trees in monsoonal dry forests of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Sasrisang, Amornrat; Kaewpakasit, Kanokwan; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Gamo, Minoru; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan; Ishizuka, Moriyoshi

    2010-08-01

    This study compared leaf gas exchange, leaf hydraulic conductance, twig hydraulic conductivity and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor between two drought-deciduous trees, Vitex peduncularis Wall. and Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., and two evergreen trees, Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels, at the uppermost canopies in tropical dry forests in Thailand. The aims were to examine (i) whether leaf and twig hydraulic properties differ in relation to leaf phenology and (ii) whether xylem cavitation is a determinant of leaf shedding during the dry season. The variations in almost all hydraulic traits were more dependent on species than on leaf phenology. Evergreen Hopea exhibited the lowest leaf-area-specific twig hydraulic conductivity (leaf-area-specific K(twig)), lamina hydraulic conductance (K(lamina)) and leaf osmotic potential at full turgor (Ψ(o)) among species, whereas evergreen Syzygium exhibited the highest leaf-area-specific K(twig), K(lamina) and Ψ(o). Deciduous Xylia had the highest sapwood-area-specific K(twig), along with the lowest Huber value (sapwood area/leaf area). More negative osmotic Ψ(o) and leaf osmotic adjustment during the dry season were found in deciduous Vitex and evergreen Hopea, accompanied by low sapwood-area-specific K(twig). Regarding seasonal changes in hydraulics, no remarkable decrease in K(lamina) and K(twig) was found during the dry season in any species. Results suggest that leaf shedding during the dry season is not always associated with extensive xylem cavitation.

  16. [Dynamic Characteristics of Base Cations During Wet Deposition in Evergreen Broad-leaf Forest Ecosystem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Si-wei; Sun, Tao; Ma, Ming; Wang, Ding-yong

    2015-12-01

    Based on field tests and laboratory experiments, effects of precipitation, throughfall, litterfall, and groundwater runoff of the ever-green broad-leaf forest on the dynamic characteristics of base cations in Simian Mountain were investigated from September 2012 to August 2013. The results showed that the rainfall of Simian Mountain was apparently acidic, with average pH of 4.90 and maximum pH of 5.14. The soil and canopies could increase pH of precipitation, with soils having the maximum increment, followed by the forest canopy. Forest canopy only had the function of interception on Na⁺. And precipitation could leach out Ca2⁺, Mg2⁺ and K⁺ of the canopies. Moreover, the degradation of litter was probably the main reason for the increase of base cations concentrations in the surface litter water. The litter water leached Ca2⁺, Mg2⁺ and Na⁺ of the forest soil through downward infiltration. The total retention rates of Ca²⁺, Mg²⁺, Na⁺ and K⁺ were 33.82%, -7.06%, 74.36% and 42.87%, respectively. Ca²⁺, Na⁺, K⁺ were found to be reserved in the forest ecosystem, and the highest interception rate was found for Na⁺.

  17. Puia dinghuensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ying-Ying; Gao, Zeng-Hong; Xia, Fan; Chen, Mei-Hong; Qiu, Li-Hong

    2017-11-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, non-motile bacterial strain, 4GSH07 T , was originally isolated from the monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest soil of Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve, Guangdong Province, PR China (112° 31' E 23° 10' N). It grew optimally at 28-33 °C and pH 4.0. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 4GSH07 T had the highest sequence similarity of 94.0 % to Parasegetibacter terrae JCM 19942 T , and formed an independent lineage separable from other described genera of the family Chitinophagaceae. The main fatty acids (>5 %) were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, C16 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C16 : 1ω7c) and C15 : 0 2-OH. The organism contained MK-7 as the predominant respiratory quinone, and the total DNA G+C content was 50.3 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed consistently that strain 4GSH07 T represents a novel species of a novel genus of the family Chitinophagaceae, for which the name Puia dinghuensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed, with 4GSH07 T (=CGMCC 1.15448 T =LMG 29214 T ) as the type strain.

  18. Propagation of Native Tree Species to Restore Subtropical Evergreen Broad-Leaved Forests in SW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF is a widespread vegetation type throughout East Asia that has suffered extensive deforestation and fragmentation. Selection and successful propagation of native tree species are important for improving ecological restoration of these forests. We carried out a series of experiments to study the propagation requirements of indigenous subtropical tree species in Southwest China. Seeds of 21 tree species collected from the natural forest were materials for the experiment. This paper examines the seed germination and seedling growth performance of these species in a nursery environment. Germination percentages ranged from 41% to 96% and were ≥50% for 19 species. The median length of germination time (MLG ranged from 24 days for Padus wilsonii to 144 days for Ilex polyneura. Fifteen species can reach the transplant size (≥15 cm in height within 12 months of seed collection. Nursery-grown seedlings for each species were planted in degraded site. Two years after planting, the seedling survival rate was >50% in 18 species and >80% in 12 species. Based on these results, 17 species were recommended as appropriate species for nursery production in forest restoration projects. Our study contributes additional knowledge regarding the propagation techniques for various native subtropical tree species in nurseries for forest restoration.

  19. Composition and diversity of tree species in transects of location lowland evergreen forest of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caranqui A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 9 transects 1000m2 of lowland evergreen forest, located in two locations on the coast and one in eastern Ecuador. It was to contribute to knowledge of the diversity and composition of woody plants over 10 cm diameter at breast height (DBH plus infer the state of conservation of forests based on the composition, the number of species, indices diversity and importance value (IV, found in 9 transects of 1000 m² of forest: 156 species, 107 genera and 39 families distributed in 9 transects, in each one the Simpson diversity index is of 0.92 to 0.95, in this case are diversity because all approaches 1. Most were found species aren´t present in all transects, the index value in each transect does not exceed 40%. Grouping transects match three locations exception made to transect 5 and 8 were conducted in disturbed sites, the most transects are intermediate disturbance that their high levels of diversity.

  20. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D; Walters, David M; Lee, Cindy M

    2016-09-01

    Conifers are often used as an air passive sampler, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In the present study, the authors used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The present study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former capacitor plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010 and winter and spring 2011. Polychlorinated biphenyls were detected in the collected leaves, suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990 pg m(-3) , 2850 pg m(-3) , and 931 pg m(-3) in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former industrial source. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra-CBs and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene passive samplers deployed in the water column, suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2192-2198. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walter, W. David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  2. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Thanh Nam

    Full Text Available Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB and root biomass (RB based on 300 (of 45 species and 40 (of 25 species sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH and tree height (H, wood density (WD was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  3. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  4. Decaying Wood Preference of Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) in a Tropical Dry-Evergreen Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songvorawit, Nut; Butcher, Buntika Areekul; Chaisuekul, Chatchawan

    2017-12-08

    Larvae of many insect species, including stag beetles, have a limited mobility from their initial oviposition site. The fate of immature stages, therefore, depends on the maternal choice of oviposition site. Decaying wood preference by stag beetles was studied in a dry-evergreen forest in Chanthaburi province, Thailand. From a total of 270 examined logs, 52 contained stag beetles (255 total), which were identified to eight species from five genera. Aegus chelifer chelifer MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) was the dominant species both by occurrence and by number of individuals. The occurrence and numbers of stag beetle larvae found in logs was more frequent in those of a moderate decay class, which had moderate hardness and water content. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that logs with stag beetles had relatively high nitrogen content and fungal biomass. Thus, selection of oviposition sites by stag beetles was likely to depend on both the log decay stage (or hardness) to protect immature stages from natural enemies and its nutritional properties to enhance the larval performance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Changes to intellectual property policy in South Africa: putting a stop to evergreening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julia E

    2014-08-01

    South Africa is a middle-income country with the world's largest HIV patient cohort and a growing burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases - a prime location for pharmaceutical companies looking to expand their markets. Yet, 20 years after the country's first democratic elections, poor health indicators and an over-burdened public health system belie persistently stark levels of socioeconomic inequality. As the South African government revises national intellectual property (IP) policies, the pharmaceutical industry and global access to medicines movement are watching, aware of ramifications South Africa's actions will have on patent laws and the availability of generic medicines in other middle-income countries and across Africa. South Africa's draft IP policy is meeting fierce resistance from industry, although proposed reforms are compliant with the Agreement on trade related aspects of intellectual property (TRIPS) and in line with on-going policies and actions of both developing and developed countries. Could the establishment of a patent examination system and new patentability criteria rein in evergreening and lead to lower medicine prices? What will be the potential impact of reform on medical innovation? And why is it both necessary and urgent that the South African government seek a fairer balance between private and public interests?

  6. Effect of the degree of anthropization in the structure, at three sites fragmented evergreen piedmont forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gabriel Sánchez Villacis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ecuadorian Amazon is recognized worldwide for its extraordinary megadiversity and multiplicity of forest goods and services. However, the inadequate practices of extractive use of non-timber forest products, the clearing of extensive areas of forests for the development of oil activity and the unsustainable use of timber as economic sustenance of communities have led to structural and functional changes In ecosystems. The study was carried out in three sites of a degraded evergreen forest of the eastern Amazon (Mera, Shell and Puyo in order to evaluate the effect of the degree of intervention on the forest structure. A floristic inventory was carried out with 60 plots of 25 x 25 m2 and tree species ≥ 2.5 cm d1.30 and species in natural regeneration phase with h <2 m were measured. We found 35 families, 65 genera, 101 species and 2 298 individuals, with Arecaceae, Fabaceae and Moraceae being the most representative botanical families. The degree of anthropization was highly modified where Mera was the best state of conservation. It was evidenced a low floristic diversity with patterns of alteration in the vertical and horizontal structure, distinguished phytosociologically by two strata in the sites of Shell and Puyo and by three in Mera, indicator of structural changes.

  7. Phylogeographical patterns of a generalist acorn weevil: insight into the biogeographical history of broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae, a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae plants living in both deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan. Its genetic structure was compared to that of another host-specific seed predator, C. hilgendorfi, inhabiting only evergreen forests. Results We examined 921 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 115 individuals collected from 33 populations of C. sikkimensis from 11 plant species of three genera, Quercus, Lithocarpus, and Castanopsis. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large proportion (almost 50%, P Conclusion Our results suggest that geology and historical environment have contributed to shaping the present genetic structure of C. sikkimensis. The geographical patterns of genetic differentiation in the Chugoku-Shikoku region observed in the two types of Fagaceae-associated Curculio in this study have also been observed in several plant species growing in warm and cool temperate zones of Japan. The occurrence of this common pattern suggests that deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan survived together, or adjacent to each other, in small refugia during glacial ages, in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands, although these two types of forests are presently distributed in cool and warm temperate zones of Japan, respectively.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: familial Mediterranean fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Familial Mediterranean fever Familial Mediterranean fever Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited condition characterized by recurrent episodes ...

  9. Mediterranean Environmental Acoustic Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This fact , coupled with the continued operatir%._l interest there, makes the issuance of an up-date to the Atie .7orthwhile. (U) In order to serve the...characteristics from wind conditions has long interested wave theoreticians and forecasters. These specialists have developed various graphs, tables, and...the Mediterranean. Under the proper environmental conditions, micro- scopic and larger protozoans, crustaceans, and jellyfishes responsible for

  10. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  11. Effects of Climate Change on the Climatic Niches of Warm-Adapted Evergreen Plants: Expansion or Contraction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ah Koo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has modified the structure and functions of ecosystems, affecting human well-being. Evergreen plants in the warm-temperate ecosystems will lose climatically suitable habitats under climate change but have not drawn much scholarly interest. Therefore, the present research aimed to predict the future climatic niches of eight coastal warm-adapted evergreen trees under climate change to provide information for an effective management practice. For this purpose, we used the ensemble species distribution models (SDMs weighted by the TSS value in modelling the climatic niches of those evergreen trees and then ensembled their future distributions predicted under 20 future climate scenarios. Except for Neolitsea sericea (True Skill Statistic (TSS = 0.79, all projections for the current climatic niches of evergreens showed excellent predictive powers (TSS > 0.85. The results showed that the climatic niches of the four evergreens—Castanopsis cuspidata, Pittosporum tobira, Raphiolepis indica var. umbellate, and Eurya emarginata—would expand to the northern part of the Korean Peninsula (KP under climate change, but the ones of the remaining four—Kadsura japonica, Neolitsea sericea, Ilex integra, and Dendropanax morbiferus—would shrink. While the climatic niches of Pittosporum tobira showed the rapidest and greatest expansion under climate change, Dendropanax morbiferus was predicted to experience the greatest loss of habitat. On the other hand, regardless of whether the future distributions of climatically suitable habitats would expand or contract, the highly suitable habitats of all species were predicted to decline under climate change. This may indicate that further climate change will degrade habitat suitability for all species within the distribution boundary and restrict continuous habitat expansions of expanding species or accelerate habitat loss of shrinking species. In addition, the future distributions of most coastal

  12. SMED - Sulphur MEditerranean Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Giuseppe G.; Sellitto, Pasquale; Corradini, Stefano; Di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Merucci, Luca; Caltabiano, Tommaso; La Spina, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Emissions of volcanic gases and particles can have profound impacts on terrestrial environment, atmospheric composition, climate forcing, and then on human health at various temporal and spatial scales. Volcanic emissions have been identified as one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our understanding of recent climate change trends. In particular, a primary role is acted by sulphur dioxide emission due to its conversion to volcanic sulphate aerosol via atmospheric oxidation. Aerosols may play a key role in the radiative budget and then in photochemistry and tropospheric composition. Mt. Etna is one of the most prodigious and persistent emitters of gasses and particles on Earth, accounting for about 10% of global average volcanic emission of CO2 and SO2. Its sulphur emissions stand for 0.7 × 106 t S/yr9 and then about 10 times bigger than anthropogenic sulphur emissions in the Mediterranean area. Centrepiece of the SMED project is to advance the understanding of volcanogenic sulphur dioxide and sulphate aerosol particles dispersion and radiative impact on the downwind Mediterranean region by an integrated approach between ground- and space-based observations and modelling. Research is addressed by exploring the potential relationship between proximal SO2 flux and aerosol measured remotely in the volcanic plume of Mt. Etna between 2000 and 2014 and distal aerosol ground-based measurements in Lampedusa, Greece, and Malta from AERONET network. Ground data are combined with satellite multispectral polar and geostationary imagers able to detect and retrieve volcanic ash and SO2. The high repetition time of SEVIRI (15 minutes) will ensure the potential opportunity to follow the entire evolution of the volcanic cloud, while, the higher spatial resolution of MODIS (1x1 km2), are exploited for investigating the probability to retrieve volcanic SO2 abundances from passive degassing. Ground and space observations are complemented with atmospheric Lagrangian model

  13. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  14. [Biomass allometric equations of nine common tree species in an evergreen broadleaved forest of subtropical China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Shu-di; Ren, Yin; Weng, Xian; Ding, Hong-feng; Luo, Yun-jian

    2015-02-01

    Biomass allometric equation (BAE) considered as a simple and reliable method in the estimation of forest biomass and carbon was used widely. In China, numerous studies focused on the BAEs for coniferous forest and pure broadleaved forest, and generalized BAEs were frequently used to estimate the biomass and carbon of mixed broadleaved forest, although they could induce large uncertainty in the estimates. In this study, we developed the species-specific and generalized BAEs using biomass measurement for 9 common broadleaved trees (Castanopsis fargesii, C. lamontii, C. tibetana, Lithocarpus glaber, Sloanea sinensis, Daphniphyllum oldhami, Alniphyllum fortunei, Manglietia yuyuanensis, and Engelhardtia fenzlii) of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest, and compared differences in species-specific and generalized BAEs. The results showed that D (diameter at breast height) was a better independent variable in estimating the biomass of branch, leaf, root, aboveground section and total tree than a combined variable (D2 H) of D and H (tree height) , but D2H was better than D in estimating stem biomass. R2 (coefficient of determination) values of BAEs for 6 species decreased when adding H as the second independent variable into D- only BAEs, where R2 value for S. sinensis decreased by 5.6%. Compared with generalized D- and D2H-based BAEs, standard errors of estimate (SEE) of BAEs for 8 tree species decreased, and similar decreasing trend was observed for different components, where SEEs of the branch decreased by 13.0% and 20.3%. Therefore, the biomass carbon storage and its dynamic estimates were influenced largely by tree species and model types. In order to improve the accuracy of the estimates of biomass and carbon, we should consider the differences in tree species and model types.

  15. Reviving the Mediterranean Olive Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaferatos, Nicholas C.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a collaborative investigation by six nongovernment organisations (NGOs) from five European-Mediterranean countries to identify a framework for reversing rural marginalisation in Mediterranean communities through sustainable forms of community-based agricultural development. The project brought together…

  16. Weather seasonality and temporal pattern of live and dead fuel moisture content in Mediterranean shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzaro, G.; Ventura, A.; Arca, B.; Arca, A.; Duce, P.

    2009-04-01

    Wildland fires represent an important disturbance for ecosystems in the Mediterranean Basin. Many factors affect wildland fire occurrence and behaviour (topography, weather, fuel). At level of vegetation, as well as fuel type, the fuel status, and in particular the water fuel status, plays a crucial role in determining the wildland fire danger. Drier fuel, in fact, makes easier fire ignition and propagation. Evergreen sclerophyll shrubland is a prominent feature of Mediterranean areas; in addition, shrub species are an important component of the understorey vegetation that constitutes the surface fuels primarily responsible for the ignition and the spread of wildland fires in Mediterranean forests. In these areas, where climate is characterized by prolonged summer drought, seasonal decrease of fuel moisture can determine severe fire danger when combined with critical meteorological conditions. Therefore, a better understanding of temporal variation of live and dead fuel moisture content and of their relations to weather variables could contribute to improve our knowledge of burning characteristics of maquis species and to identify critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The main objectives of this work were i) to describe the temporal pattern of live and dead fuel moisture content (FMC) for some Mediterranean shrubs, ii) to evaluate the influence of weather conditions on the variation of these variables and on the length of fire season and iii) to evaluate the applicability of the moisture codes used in meteorological danger indices to estimate the FMC of dead fuel in Mediterranean ecosystems. The study was carried out in North Western Sardinia (Italy). FMC of live and dead fuel was determined periodically during four consecutive years on several Mediterranean shrub species. Relative to live fuel, phenological phases of each species were also observed during sampling period. During the whole period of experimentation, moisture soil

  17. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  18. Impact of evergreening on patients and health insurance: a meta analysis and reimbursement cost analysis of citalopram/escitalopram antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhafaji, Ali A; Trinquart, Ludovic; Baron, Gabriel; Desvarieux, Moïse; Ravaud, Philippe

    2012-11-20

    "Evergreening" refers to the numerous strategies whereby owners of pharmaceutical products use patent laws and minor drug modifications to extend their monopoly privileges on the drug. We aimed to evaluate the impact of evergreening through the case study of the antidepressant citalopram and its chiral switch form escitalopram by evaluating treatment efficacy and acceptability for patients, as well as health insurance costs for society. To assess efficacy and acceptability, we performed meta-analyses for efficacy and acceptability. We compared direct evidence (meta-analysis of results of head-to-head trials) and indirect evidence (adjusted indirect comparison of results of placebo-controlled trials). To assess health insurance costs, we analyzed individual reimbursement data from a representative sample of the French National Health Insurance Inter-regime Information System (SNIIR-AM) from 2003 to 2010, which allowed for projecting these results to the whole SNIIR-AM population (53 million people). In the meta-analysis of seven head-to-head trials (2,174 patients), efficacy was significantly better for escitalopram than citalopram (combined odds ratio (OR) 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.46)). However, for the adjusted indirect comparison of 10 citalopram and 12 escitalopram placebo-controlled trials, 2,984 and 3,777 patients respectively, efficacy was similar for the two drug forms (combined indirect OR 1.03 (0.82 to 1.30)). Because of the discrepancy, we could not combine direct and indirect data (test of inconsistency, P = 0.07). A similar discrepancy was found for treatment acceptability. The overall reimbursement cost burden for the citalopram, escitalopram and its generic forms was 120.6 million Euros in 2010, with 96.8 million Euros for escitalopram. The clinical benefit of escitalopram versus citalopram remains uncertain. In our case of evergreening, escitalopram represented a substantially high proportion of the overall reimbursement cost burden as

  19. Satellite chlorophyll fluorescence measurements reveal large-scale decoupling of photosynthesis and greenness dynamics in boreal evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Sophia; Voigt, Maximilian; Thum, Tea; Gonsamo, Alemu; Zhang, Yongguang; Köhler, Philipp; Jung, Martin; Varlagin, Andrej; Guanter, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Mid-to-high latitude forests play an important role in the terrestrial carbon cycle, but the representation of photosynthesis in boreal forests by current modelling and observational methods is still challenging. In particular, the applicability of existing satellite-based proxies of greenness to indicate photosynthetic activity is hindered by small annual changes in green biomass of the often evergreen tree population and by the confounding effects of background materials such as snow. As an alternative, satellite measurements of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be used as a direct proxy of photosynthetic activity. In this study, the start and end of the photosynthetically active season of the main boreal forests are analysed using spaceborne SIF measurements retrieved from the GOME-2 instrument and compared to that of green biomass, proxied by vegetation indices including the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from MODIS data. We find that photosynthesis and greenness show a similar seasonality in deciduous forests. In high-latitude evergreen needleleaf forests, however, the length of the photosynthetically active period indicated by SIF is up to 6 weeks longer than the green biomass changing period proxied by EVI, with SIF showing a start-of-season of approximately 1 month earlier than EVI. On average, the photosynthetic spring recovery as signalled by SIF occurs as soon as air temperatures exceed the freezing point (2-3 °C) and when the snow on the ground has not yet completely melted. These findings are supported by model data of gross primary production and a number of other studies which evaluated in situ observations of CO2 fluxes, meteorology and the physiological state of the needles. Our results demonstrate the sensitivity of space-based SIF measurements to light-use efficiency of boreal forests and their potential for an unbiased detection of photosynthetic activity even under the challenging conditions interposed by evergreen

  20. A cold-tolerant evergreen interspecific hybrid of Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum: analyzing trichomes and molecular variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Sunita Singh; Shukla, Preeti; Gupta, Pankhuri; Lal, R K

    2016-05-01

    Ocimum (Lamiaceae) is an important source of essential oils and aroma chemicals especially eugenol, methyl eugenol, linalool, methyl chavicol etc. An elite evergreen hybrid has been developed from Ocimum kilimandscharicum and Ocimum basilicum, which demonstrated adaptive behavior towards cold stress. A comparative molecular analysis has been done through RAPD, AFLP, and ISSR among O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum and their evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. The RAPD and AFLP analyses demonstrated similar results, i.e., the hybrid of O. basilicum and O. kilimandscharicum shares the same cluster with O. kilimandscharicum, while O. basilicum behaves as an outgroup, whereas in ISSR analysis, the hybrid genotype grouped in the same cluster with O. basilicum. Ocimum genotypes were analyzed and compared for their trichome density. There were distinct differences on morphology, distribution, and structure between the two kinds of trichomes, i.e., glandular and non-glandular. Glandular trichomes contain essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids, and acid polysaccharides. Hair-like trichomes, i.e., non-glandular trichomes, help in keeping the frost away from the living surface cells. O. basilicum showed less number of non-glandular trichomes on leaves compared to O. kilimandscharicum and the evergreen cold-tolerant hybrid. Trichomes were analyzed in O. kilimandscharicum, O. basilicum, and their hybrid. An increased proline content at the biochemical level represents a higher potential to survive in a stress condition like cold stress. In our analysis, the proline content is quite higher in tolerant variety O. kilimandscharicum, low in susceptible variety O. basilicum, and intermediate in the hybrid. Gene expression analysis was done in O. basilicum, O. kilimandscharicum and their hybrid for TTG1, GTL1, and STICHEL gene locus which regulates trichome development and its formation and transcription factors WRKY and MPS involved in the regulation of plant responses to freezing

  1. [Biogeographic regionalization of the mammals of tropical evergreen forests in Mesoamerica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguin-Monroy, Hector C; Gutiérrez-Blando, Cirene; Rios-Muñoz, César A; León-Paniagua, Livia; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2013-06-01

    Mesoamerica is a biologically complex zone that expands from Southern Mexico to extreme Northern Colombia. The biogeographical patterns and relationships of the mammalian fauna associated to the Mesoamerican Tropical Evergreen Forest (MTEF) are poorly understood, in spite of the wide distribution of this kind of habitat in the region. We compiled a complete georeferenced database of mammalian species distributed in the MTEF of specimens from museum collections and scientific literature. This database was used to create potential distribution maps through the use of environmental niche models (ENMs) by using the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production (GARP) using 22 climatic and topographic layers. Each map was used as a representation of the geographic distribution of the species and all available maps were summed to obtain general patterns of species richness in the region. Also, the maps were used to construct a presence-absence matrix in a grid of squares of 0.5 degrees of side, that was analyzed in a Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE), which resulted in a hypothesis of the biogeographic scheme in the region. We compiled a total of 41 527 records of 233 species of mammals associated to the MTEF. The maximum concentration of species richness (104-138 species) is located in the areas around the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Northeastern Chiapas-Western Guatemala, Western Honduras, Central Nicaragua to Northwestern Costa Rica and Western Panama. The proposed regionalization indicates that mammalian faunas associated to these forests are composed of two main groups that are divided by the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in Oaxaca in: a) a Northern group that includes Sierra Madre of Chiapas-Guatemala and Yucatan Peninsula; and b) an austral group, that contains the Pacific slope of Chiapas towards the South including Central America. Some individual phylogenetic studies of mammal species in the region support the relationships between the areas of endemism proposed, which

  2. Dynamics of the evergreen understory at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Marion Mcnamara

    Much attention today is directed toward vegetation dynamics and related issues of biotic diversity. Both environmental gradients and disturbance/land use history are important determinants of both the distributional pattern and the dynamics of many plant species. The southern Appalachian Mountains constitute a region of high plant and animal diversity and rapidly increasing development pressure with its consequent changes in land use. The remaining forested areas commonly include a significant evergreen understory (undergreen) composed of ericaceous shrubs, predominately Rhododendron maximum , which is believed to be expanding and exerting an inhibitory effect on the establishment of other species, thus impacting forest structure and composition. This study was an attempt to characterize this forest component, temporally and spatially, at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, North Carolina, in terms of a variety of topographic gradients as well as long-term (century) and short-term (decade) disturbance history, verify expansion, develop a surrogate soil moisture index for use in an explanatory model for undergreen pattern, and examine the feasibility of predicting the pattern of undergreen at one time based on knowledge of topographic relationships gained at an earlier time. A GIS was used for visual and areal comparisons; logistic regression was used for developing spatiotemporal explanatory models. Results indicate that aspect, stream proximity, and elevation are all important in explaining distributional pattern and dynamics of the undergreen at Coweeta, with R. maximum showing preference for moister areas and its common associate, Kalmia latifolia found more frequently in drier areas. The influence of these environmental factors differs between the larger Coweeta Basin, the site of experimental manipulations at the small watershed level since the 1930's, and the physically similar Dryman Fork Basin, relatively undisturbed since that time. There is an apparent

  3. Facilitating the recovery of natural evergreen forests in South Africa via invader plant stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coert J. Geldenhuys

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to general belief, planted and naturalized stands of introduced species facilitate the recovery of natural evergreen forests and their diversity. Forest rehabilitation actions are often performed at great cost: mature forest species are planted, while species with adaptations to recover effectively and quickly after severe disturbance are ignored; or stands are cleared of invasive alien species before native tree species are planted. By contrast, cost-effective commercial plantation forestry systems generally use fast-growing pioneer tree species introduced from other natural forest regions. Such planted tree stands often facilitate the recovery of shade-tolerant native forest species. This paper provides a brief overview of disturbance-recovery processes at landscape level, and how pioneer stands of both native and introduced tree species develop from monocultures to diverse mature forest communities. It uses one example of a study of how natural forest species from small forest patches of 3 ha in total invaded a 90-ha stand of the invasive Black wattle, Acacia mearnsii, over a distance of 3.1 ha at Swellendam near Cape Town, South Africa. The study recorded 329 forest species clusters across the wattle stand: more large clusters closer to and more smaller clusters further away from natural forest patches. The 28 recorded forest species (of potentially 40 species in the surrounding forest patches included 79% tree and 21% shrub species. Colonizing forest species had mostly larger fleshy fruit and softer small seeds, and were dispersed by mostly birds and primate species. Maturing forest trees within developing clusters in the wattle stand became a source for forest regeneration away from the clusters, showing different expansion patterns. Four sets of fenced-unfenced plots in the wattle stand showed the impact of browsing by livestock, antelope, rodents and insects on the successful establishment of regenerating forest species, and the

  4. Qibla in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius-Piniés, Mònica

    Orientation toward Mecca has been compulsory for Muslims in all time periods and in all places. In fact, mosques were built in such a way as to help believers to pray toward the right direction. Nevertheless, the alignment of the sacred buildings was not always exact, and many did not actually face the Kaaba. There are many reasons for this "mistake", the main one being that at the time of the construction of the most important mosques, the astronomical and geographical knowledge needed to make accurate calculations was lacking. In the Mediterranean area, the scholars who were most involved in this task were the fuqahā' (experts in Islamic jurisprudence) who were sometimes well versed in astronomical knowledge or, at least, were skilled in the practice of popular astronomy. The combination of astronomy and religion, mixed with the political and topographical conditions, produces a unique area of study which remains controversial today.

  5. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAJA RISHI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Kumar R, Tapwal A, Pandey S, Rishi R, Borah D. 2013. Observations on arbuscular mycorrhiza associated with important edible tuberous plants grown in wet evergreen forest in Assam, India. Biodiversitas 14: 67-72. Non-timber forest products constitute an important source of livelihood for rural households from forest fringe communities across the world. Utilization of wild edible tuber plants is an integral component of their culture. Mycorrhizal associations influence the establishment and production of tuber plants under field conditions.The aim of present study is to explore the diversity and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AMF colonization of wild edible tuber plants grown in wet evergreen forest of Assam, India. A survey was conducted in 2009-10 in Sunaikuchi, Khulahat, and Bura Mayong reserved forest of Morigaon district of Assam to determine the AMF spore population in rhizosphere soils and root colonization of 14 tuberous edible plants belonging to five families. The results revealed AMF colonization of all selected species in all seasons. The percent colonization and spore count was less in summer, moderate in winter and highest in rainy season. Seventeen species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were recorded in four genera viz. Acaulospora (7 species, Glomus (5 species, Sclerocystis (3 species and Gigaspora (2 species.

  6. Effects of Coffee Management Intensity on Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Afromontane Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundera, Kitessa; Aerts, Raf; Fontaine, Alexandre; Van Mechelen, Maarten; Gijbels, Pieter; Honnay, Olivier; Muys, Bart

    2013-03-01

    The effect of arabica coffee management intensity on composition, structure, and regeneration of moist evergreen Afromontane forests was studied in three traditional coffee-management systems of southwest Ethiopia: semiplantation coffee, semiforest coffee, and forest coffee. Vegetation and environmental data were collected in 84 plots from forests varying in intensity of coffee management. After controlling for environmental variation (altitude, aspect, slope, soil nutrient availability, and soil depth), differences in woody species composition, forest structure, and regeneration potential among management systems were compared using one way analysis of variance. The study showed that intensification of forest coffee cultivation to maximize coffee production negatively affects diversity and structure of Ethiopian moist evergreen Afromontane forests. Intensification of coffee productivity starts with the conversion of forest coffee to semiforest coffee, which has significant negative effects on tree seedling abundance. Further intensification leads to the conversion of semiforest to semiplantation coffee, causing significant diversity losses and the collapse of forest structure (decrease of stem density, basal area, crown closure, crown cover, and dominant tree height). Our study underlines the need for shade certification schemes to include variables other than canopy cover and that the loss of species diversity in intensively managed coffee systems may jeopardize the sustainability of coffee production itself through the decrease of ecosystem resilience and disruption of ecosystem services related to coffee yield, such as pollination and pest control.

  7. DNA barcode authentication of wood samples of threatened and commercial timber trees within the tropical dry evergreen forest of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithaniyal, Stalin; Newmaster, Steven G; Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Krishnamoorthy, Devanathan; Vassou, Sophie Lorraine; Parani, Madasamy

    2014-01-01

    India is rich with biodiversity, which includes a large number of endemic, rare and threatened plant species. Previous studies have used DNA barcoding to inventory species for applications in biodiversity monitoring, conservation impact assessment, monitoring of illegal trading, authentication of traded medicinal plants etc. This is the first tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) barcode study in the World and the first attempt to assemble a reference barcode library for the trees of India as part of a larger project initiated by this research group. We sampled 429 trees representing 143 tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) species, which included 16 threatened species. DNA barcoding was completed using rbcL and matK markers. The tiered approach (1st tier rbcL; 2nd tier matK) correctly identified 136 out of 143 species (95%). This high level of species resolution was largely due to the fact that the tree species were taxonomically diverse in the TDEF. Ability to resolve taxonomically diverse tree species of TDEF was comparable among the best match method, the phylogenetic method, and the characteristic attribute organization system method. We demonstrated the utility of the TDEF reference barcode library to authenticate wood samples from timber operations in the TDEF. This pilot research study will enable more comprehensive surveys of the illegal timber trade of threatened species in the TDEF. This TDEF reference barcode library also contains trees that have medicinal properties, which could be used to monitor unsustainable and indiscriminate collection of plants from the wild for their medicinal value.

  8. Insect herbivores associated with an evergreen tree Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J O; Neves, F S

    2014-08-01

    Goniorrhachis marginata Taub. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae) is a tree species found in Brazilian tropical dry forests that retain their leaves during the dry season. That being, we addressed the following question: i) How do insect diversity (sap-sucking and chewing), leaf herbivory and defensive traits (tannin and leaf sclerophylly) vary on the evergreen tree species G. marginata between seasons? The abundance of sap-sucking insects was higher in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, we did not verify any difference in the species richness and abundance of chewing insects between seasons. Leaf herbivory was higher in the rainy season, whereas leaf sclerophylly was higher in the dry season. However, herbivory was not related to sclerophylly. Insect herbivores likely decrease their folivory activity during the dry season due to life history patterns or changes in behaviour, possibly entering diapause or inactivity during this period. Therefore, G. marginata acts as a likely keystone species, serving as a moist refuge for the insect fauna during the dry season in tropical dry forest, and the presence of this evergreen species is crucial to conservation strategies of this threatened ecosystem.

  9. Mineral nutrients in mediterranean ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Day, JA

    1983-06-01

    Full Text Available ' classifications of plant forms and formations, categories implicitly based on their intuitive views of convergence. Because of the striking similarities in plant form among the small, widely-separated Mediterranean ecosystems (Figure 1), biogeographical concepts...

  10. Fauna of the Mediterranean Hydrozoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouillon

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a systematic account of the hydrozoan species collected up to now in the Mediterranean Sea. All species are described, illustrated and information on morphology and distribution is given for all of them. This work is the most complete fauna of hydrozoans made in the Mediterranean. The fauna includes planktonic hydromedusae, benthic polyps stages and the siphonophores. The Hydrozoa are taken as an example of inconspicuous taxa whose knowledge has greatly progressed in the last decades due to the scientific research of some specialists in the Mediterranean area. The number of species recorded in the Mediterranean almost doubled in the last thirty years and the number of new records is still increasing. The 457 species recorded in this study represents the 12% of the world known species. The fauna is completed with classification keys and a glossary of terms with the main purpose of facilitating the identification of all Meditrranean hydrozoan species

  11. Global security in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sánchez Mateos

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, the WEU, NATO and specially the European Union (in the framework of the Barcelona process initiated security dialogues with countries East and South of the Mediterranean Basin. Those processes are far to achieve significant progress. Some arguments help to explain the present situation: on the one hand, European countries and organizations lack clear strategic goals and consistent policies. On the other, difficulties to create a security dialogue in the Mediterranean, which is a precondition to generateboth a common language and security culture, are the result of differences between the European and the Arab security cultures. Nevertheless, the geopolitical environment, the Euro-Mediterranean process itself and the development of the European Union demanda strategic revision on how to implement the objectives of the Barcelona Declaration, reformulating the idea of Euro-Mediterranean Partnership towards a new concept of shared security that integrates Southern interests and concerns.

  12. Geographical and climatic gradients of evergreen versus deciduous broad-leaved tree species in subtropical China: Implications for the definition of the mixed forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jielin; Xie, Zongqiang

    2017-06-01

    Understanding climatic influences on the proportion of evergreen versus deciduous broad-leaved tree species in forests is of crucial importance when predicting the impact of climate change on broad-leaved forests. Here, we quantified the geographical distribution of evergreen versus deciduous broad-leaved tree species in subtropical China. The Relative Importance Value index (RIV) was used to examine regional patterns in tree species dominance and was related to three key climatic variables: mean annual temperature (MAT), minimum temperature of the coldest month (MinT), and mean annual precipitation (MAP). We found the RIV of evergreen species to decrease with latitude at a lapse rate of 10% per degree between 23.5 and 25°N, 1% per degree at 25-29.1°N, and 15% per degree at 29.1-34°N. The RIV of evergreen species increased with: MinT at a lapse rate of 10% per °C between -4.5 and 2.5°C and 2% per °C at 2.5-10.5°C; MAP at a lapse rate of 10% per 100 mm between 900 and 1,600 mm and 4% per 100 mm between 1,600 and 2,250 mm. All selected climatic variables cumulatively explained 71% of the geographical variation in dominance of evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved tree species and the climatic variables, ranked in order of decreasing effects were as follows: MinT > MAP > MAT. We further proposed that the latitudinal limit of evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forests was 29.1-32°N, corresponding with MAT of 11-18.1°C, MinT of -2.5 to 2.51°C, and MAP of 1,000-1,630 mm. This study is the first quantitative assessment of climatic correlates with the evergreenness and deciduousness of broad-leaved forests in subtropical China and underscores that extreme cold temperature is the most important climatic determinant of evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved tree species' distributions, a finding that confirms earlier qualitative studies. Our findings also offer new insight into the definition and distribution of the mixed forest and an accurate

  13. Estimation and diversity of phylloplane mycobiota on selected plants in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, J; Pereira, P; de Carvalho, M; Fonseca, A; Amaral-Collaço, M T; Spencer-Martins, I

    2002-11-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems have not been consistently investigated as natural habitats for microbes in general, and fungi in particular. Here we present the results of a survey of epiphytic mycobiota (filamentous fungi and yeasts) on the phylloplane of selected plants in the Arrábida Natural Park, an ecosystem of Mediterranean characteristics in Portugal, using conventional culture-dependent isolation methods. Leaves from the species Acer monspessulanum and Quercus faginea (deciduous trees) and Cistus albidus, Pistacia lentiscus, and Osyris quadripartita (evergreen shrubs) were collected twice a year for two consecutive years, at two distinct locations of Serra da Arrábida: the more humid northern slope and the drier southern slope. A total of 1029 strains of filamentous fungi and 540 strains of yeasts were isolated, which represented at least 36 and 46 distinct species, respectively. Total counts were higher on the plants from the northern slope and there was a general increase from spring to autumn, notably on the deciduous trees for the yeasts. Plant species that had higher numbers of leaf colonists (A. monspessulanum, C. albidus, and Q. faginea) also yielded a wider range of species. Among the filamentous fungi there was a predominance of species of ascomycetous affinity, whereas basidiomycetous species dominated among yeast isolates. Some of the taxa recovered were common to other phylloplane studies (e.g., ubiquitous molds and yeasts such as Cladosporium spp. and Cryptococcus spp., respectively), but less common species were also found, some of which appeared to represent undescribed taxa. Interestingly, a few species seemed to be associated with a particular plant, notably in the case of the evergreen shrub C. albidus. However, for a considerable number of fungi and yeasts the same taxon was recovered throughout the year from more than one plant and at both sites, suggesting that such species might be genuine phylloplane inhabitants (or at least of aerial

  14. Impact of evergreening on patients and health insurance: a meta analysis and reimbursement cost analysis of citalopram/escitalopram antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhafaji Ali A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Evergreening" refers to the numerous strategies whereby owners of pharmaceutical products use patent laws and minor drug modifications to extend their monopoly privileges on the drug. We aimed to evaluate the impact of evergreening through the case study of the antidepressant citalopram and its chiral switch form escitalopram by evaluating treatment efficacy and acceptability for patients, as well as health insurance costs for society. Methods To assess efficacy and acceptability, we performed meta-analyses for efficacy and acceptability. We compared direct evidence (meta-analysis of results of head-to-head trials and indirect evidence (adjusted indirect comparison of results of placebo-controlled trials. To assess health insurance costs, we analyzed individual reimbursement data from a representative sample of the French National Health Insurance Inter-regime Information System (SNIIR-AM from 2003 to 2010, which allowed for projecting these results to the whole SNIIR-AM population (53 million people. Results In the meta-analysis of seven head-to-head trials (2,174 patients, efficacy was significantly better for escitalopram than citalopram (combined odds ratio (OR 1.60 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 2.46. However, for the adjusted indirect comparison of 10 citalopram and 12 escitalopram placebo-controlled trials, 2,984 and 3,777 patients respectively, efficacy was similar for the two drug forms (combined indirect OR 1.03 (0.82 to 1.30. Because of the discrepancy, we could not combine direct and indirect data (test of inconsistency, P = 0.07. A similar discrepancy was found for treatment acceptability. The overall reimbursement cost burden for the citalopram, escitalopram and its generic forms was 120.6 million Euros in 2010, with 96.8 million Euros for escitalopram. Conclusions The clinical benefit of escitalopram versus citalopram remains uncertain. In our case of evergreening, escitalopram represented a substantially

  15. Within-tree variation in transpiration in isolated evergreen oak trees: evidence in support of the pipe model theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, J M; Mauchamp, A; Fernández-Alé, R; Joffre, R; Rambal, S

    2001-04-01

    Within-tree variation in sap flow density (SFD) was measured in two isolated evergreen oak (Quercus ilex L.) trees growing in an oak savannah (dehesa) in southwest Spain. Sap flow was estimated by the constant heating method. Three sensors were installed in the trunk of each tree in three orientations: northeast (NE), northwest (NW) and south (S). Sap flow density was monitored continuously from May 18 to September 27, 1993. Daily values of SFD ranged between 500 and 4500 mm3 mm-2 day-1. There were significant differences in SFD between orientations; SFD was higher in the NE and NW orientations than in the S orientation. These differences were noted on both a daily and seasonal time scale, and were less pronounced on cloudy days and at the end of the drought period, when SFD was relatively low. Our results support the idea that branches of trees can be viewed as a collection of small independent plants.

  16. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  17. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014)

    OpenAIRE

    KATSANEVAKIS, S.; ACAR, Ü.; AMMAR, I.; BALCI, B. A.; BEKAS, P.; BELMONTE, M.; CHINTIROGLOU, C. C.; CONSOLI, P.; DIMIZA, M.; FRYGANIOTIS, K.; GEROVASILEIOU, V.; GNISCI, V.; GÜLŞAHIN, N.; HOFFMAN, R.; ISSARIS, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf) (Greece); the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore); the mantis shrimp Clorid...

  18. Photosynthetic limitation and mechanisms of photoprotection under drought and recovery of Calotropis procera, an evergreen C3 from arid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Rebeca; Frosi, Gabriella; Ramos, Diego G; Pereira, Silvia; Benko-Iseppon, Ana M; Santos, Mauro G

    2017-09-01

    Calotropis procera is a C 3 plant native from arid environmental zones. It is an evergreen, shrubby, non-woody plant with intense photosynthetic metabolism during the dry season. We measured photosynthetic parameters and leaf biochemical traits, such as gas exchange, photochemical parameters, A/C i analysis, organic solutes, and antioxidant enzymes under controlled conditions in potted plants during drought stress, and following recovery conditions to obtain a better insight in the drought stress responses of C. procera. Indeed, different processes contribute to the drought stress resilience of C. procera and to the fast recovery after rehydration. The parameters analyzed showed that C. procera has a high efficiency for energy dissipation. The photosynthetic machinery is protected by a robust antioxidant system and photoprotective mechanisms such as alternative pathways for electrons (photorespiration and day respiration). Under severe drought stress, increased stomatal limitation and decreased biochemical limitation permitted C. procera to maintain maximum rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V c,max ) and photosynthetic rate (A max ). On the other hand, limitation of stomatal or mesophyll CO 2 diffusion did not impair fast recovery, maintaining V c,max , chloroplast CO 2 concentration (C c ) and mesophyll conductance (g m ) unchanged while electron flow used for RuBP carboxylation (J c ) and A max increased. The ability to tolerate drought stress and the fast recovery of this evergreen C 3 species was also due to leaf anti-oxidative stress enzyme activity, and photosynthetic pigments. Thus, these different drought tolerance mechanisms allowed high performance of photosynthetic metabolism by drought stressed plants during the re-watering period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon and water vapore balance in a primary subtropical evergreen forest in Southewest China under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q. H.; Zhang, Y. P.

    2017-12-01

    The Ailaoshan Nature Reserve in Yunnan province, southwestern China hosts about 5000 ha of primary subtropical evergreen mountain cloud forest. A widespread and severe drought occurred in southwestern China in 2009 and 2010, providing a unique opportunity to directly evaluate how water use efficiency (WUE) changes with drought stress in the primary subtropical forest. We calculated WUE using measures of gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET) from five years of continuous eddy covariance measurements (2009-2013) obtained over a primary subtropical evergreen broadleaved forest in southwestern China. Annual mean WUE exhibited a decreasing trend from 2009 to 2013, varying from 2.28 to 2.68 g C kg H2O-1. The multiyear average WUE was 2.48 ± 0.17 (mean ± standard deviation) g C kg H2O-1. WUE increased greatly in the driest year (2009), due to a larger decline in ET than in GPP. Unfortunately, the same study site experienced a particularly extreme climate anomaly during January 2015, with a heavy snow of up to 50 cm in depth, which led to severe forest damage. The forest canopy was severely damaged by the heavy snow, and the leaf area index (LAI) decreased significantly from January to July 2015. GPP, net ecosystem exchange (NEE), and Ecosystem respiration (Reco) all sharply decreased in 2015 after the heavy snow. On average, a strong decrease of 544 g C m-2 year-1 in annual NEE in 2015 was associated with a decrease of 829 g C m-2 year-1 in annual GPP and a decrease of 285 g C m-2 year-1 in annual Reco. Overall, annual net C uptake in 2015 was reduced by 76% compared to the mean C uptake of the previous four years. A sharp increase in carbon uptake was also observed in 2016, indicating that long-term, continuous measurements should be carried out to evaluate the overall response to the disturbance.

  20. Detecting Inter-Annual Variations in the Phenology of Evergreen Conifers Using Long-Term MODIS Vegetation Index Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ulsig

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term observations of vegetation phenology can be used to monitor the response of terrestrial ecosystems to climate change. Satellite remote sensing provides the most efficient means to observe phenological events through time series analysis of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI. This study investigates the potential of a Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI, which has been linked to vegetation light use efficiency, to improve the accuracy of MODIS-based estimates of phenology in an evergreen conifer forest. Timings of the start and end of the growing season (SGS and EGS were derived from a 13-year-long time series of PRI and NDVI based on a MAIAC (multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction processed MODIS dataset and standard MODIS NDVI product data. The derived dates were validated with phenology estimates from ground-based flux tower measurements of ecosystem productivity. Significant correlations were found between the MAIAC time series and ground-estimated SGS (R2 = 0.36–0.8, which is remarkable since previous studies have found it difficult to observe inter-annual phenological variations in evergreen vegetation from satellite data. The considerably noisier NDVI product could not accurately predict SGS, and EGS could not be derived successfully from any of the time series. While the strongest relationship overall was found between SGS derived from the ground data and PRI, MAIAC NDVI exhibited high correlations with SGS more consistently (R2 > 0.6 in all cases. The results suggest that PRI can serve as an effective indicator of spring seasonal transitions, however, additional work is necessary to confirm the relationships observed and to further explore the usefulness of MODIS PRI for detecting phenology.

  1. Estimation of above ground biomass by using multispectral data for Evergreen Forest in Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanprasit, C.

    2010-01-01

    Tropical forest is the most important and largest source for stocking CO 2 from the atmosphere which might be one of the main sources of carbon emission, global warming and climate change in recent decades. There are two main objectives of this study. The first one is to establish a relationship between above ground biomass and vegetation indices and the other is to evaluate above ground biomass and carbon sequestration for evergreen forest areas in Phu Hin Rong Kla National park, Thailand. Random sampling design based was applied for calculating the above ground biomass at stand level in the selected area by using Brown and Tsutsumi allometric equations. Landsat 7 ETM+ data in February 2009 was used. Support Vector Machine (SVM) was applied for identifying evergreen forest area. Forty-three of vegetation indices and image transformations were used for finding the best correlation with forest stand biomass. Regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between the biomass volume at stand level and digital data from the satellite image. TM51 which derived from Tsutsumi allometric equation was the highest correlation with stand biomass. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was not the best correlation in this study. The best biomass estimation model was from TM51 and ND71 (R2 =0.658). The totals of above ground biomass and carbon sequestration were 112,062,010 ton and 56,031,005 ton respectively. The application of this study would be quite useful for understanding the terrestrial carbon dynamics and global climate change. (author)

  2. Effect of urbanization on the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liujing; Chen, Hongfeng; Ren, Hai; Wang, Jun; Guo, Qinfeng

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the effects of major environmental drivers associated with urbanization on species diversity and plant functional traits (PFTs) in the remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests in Metropolitan Guangzhou (Guangdong, China). Twenty environmental factors including topography, light, and soil properties were used to quantify the effects of urbanization. Vegetation data and soil properties were collected from 30 400-m(2) plots at 6 study sites in urban and rural areas. The difference of plant species diversity and PFTs of remnant forests between urban and rural areas were analyzed. To discern the complex relationships, multivariate statistical analyses (e.g., canonical correspondence analysis and regression analysis) were employed. Pioneer species and stress-tolerant species can survive and vigorously establish their population dominance in the urban environment. The native herb diversity was lower in urban forests than in rural forests. Urban forests tend to prefer the species with Mesophanerophyte life form. In contrast, species in rural forests possessed Chamaephyte and Nanophanerophyte life forms and gravity/clonal growth dispersal mode. Soil pH and soil nutrients (K, Na, and TN) were positively related to herb diversity, while soil heavy metal concentrations (Cu) were negatively correlated with herb diversity. The herb plant species diversity declines and the species in the remnant forests usually have stress-tolerant functional traits in response to urbanization. The factors related to urbanization such as soil acidification, nutrient leaching, and heavy metal pollution were important in controlling the plant diversity in the forests along the urban-rural gradients. Urbanization affects the structure and functional traits of remnant subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests.

  3. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece.

  4. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  5. Land use change and management effects on soil organic carbon stock and soil quality in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Both land use and management affects to soil properties and soil quality. On the one hand, land use change from natural vegetation to agricultural land often is a key factor that influences to soil. On the other hand, under semiarid climatic conditions, intensive tillage increases soil organic matter losses, reduces soil quality, and contributes to climate change due to increased CO2 emissions. MATERIAL AND METHODS A field study was conducted to determine the land use change [Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) to olive grove (OG) and cereal (C), all of them managed under conventional tillage and under conservationist practices] effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the soil quality [through Stratification Ratios (SR)] in Los Pedroches valley, southern Spain. RESULTS Results for the present study indicate that in MEOW-dehesa management practices had little effect on SOC storage. The stratification ratio was >2 in both management systems, so, soils under MEOW-dehesa had high quality. Nevertheless, in OG and C conservationist practices increased SOC stocks. Therefore, conservationist practices contributed to a better soil quality and to increased carbon sequestration and, consequently, this management is an excellent alternative to conventional tillage. A change in land use from MEOW-dehesa to OG or C under conservationist practices appeared to increase the SOC. When calculated for the total soil profile these differences were equivalent to 20-25 Mg ha-1 of SOC. This is potentially very important for many agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area which are typically very poor in organic matter. These differences in the SOC stock were not apparent when the change in land use occurred under conventional tillage; even in the land use change from MEOW-dehesa to C the SOC stock was reduced. This suggests that management in addition to change in land use is an important consideration and particularly the degree of soil disturbance

  6. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  7. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  8. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  9. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou-Bonafonte, José M.; Gabás-Rivera, Clara; Navarro, María A.; Osada, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity. PMID:26024295

  10. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  11. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  12. Modelling global change impacts on soil carbon contents of agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral environments, different models have been applied worldwide at local or regional scales, such as as RothC (Francaviglia et al., 2012) or CENTURY (Alvaro-Fuentes et al., 2012). However, some of these models may require a high number of input parameters or can underestimate the effect of soil depth. CarboSOIL (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013) is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) under a range of climate and/or land use change scenarios. CarboSOIL has been successfully applied in different Mediterranean areas ,e.g. Southern Spain (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2014), Northern Egypt (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014) and Italy (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). In this study, CarboSOIL was applied in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park. This area covers 385 km2 and is located within Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain) and has a semiarid Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) is savanna-like open woodland ecosystem characterized by silvopastoral uses, being an ancient human modified Mediterranean landscape (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara 2013). The most representative soils in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols. These soils are characterized by low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, together with low organic matter (OM) content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). The model was applied at different soil depths: 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015) considering land use and climate changes scenarios based on available global climate models (IPPC, 2007). A

  13. Event-scale soil moisture dynamics in open evergreen woodlands of southwest Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Parra, F. J.; Schnabel, S.; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Á.

    2012-04-01

    Rangelands with a disperse tree cover occupy large areas in the southwestern part of the Iberian Pensinsula and are also found in other parts of the Mediterranean. In these grazed, savannah-like ecosystems water constitutes an important limiting factor for vegetation growth because of the strong summer dry period, being annual potential evapotranspiration nearly twice the annual rainfall amount. Previous studies by other authors have found lower values of soil water content below the tree canopy as compared to the open spaces, covered only by herbaceous vegetation. The differences of soil moisture between tree covered and open areas vary along the year, commonly being highest during autumn, low when water content is close to saturation and the inverse during summer. Our studies indicate that the spatial variation of soil moisture is more complex. The main objective of this study is to analyze soil moisture dynamics at the event scale below tree canopies (Quercus ilex) and in the open spaces. Because soils are commonly very shallow (Cambisols) and a high concentration of grass roots is found in the upper five centimetres, soil moisture measurements were carried out at 5, 10, 15 and 30 cm depth. The study area is located in Extremadura. Soil moisture is measured continuously with a time resolution of 30 minutes using capacitive sensors and rainfall is registered in 5-minute intervals. Data from the hydrological year 2010-11 are presented here. The main factors which produced variations in soil moisture in the upper 5 cm were amount and duration of the rainfall event. Rainfall intensity was also significantly related with an increase of the water content. At greater depth (30 cm) soil moisture was more related with antecedent rainfall, as for example the amount of precipitation registered 30 and 45 days prior to the event. Maximum increases produced by a rainstorm were approximately 0.20 m3m-3 in grasslands and 0.17 m3m-3 below tree canopy. However, in the uppermost

  14. Changes in structure and composition of evergreen forests on an altitudinal gradient in the Venezuelan Guayana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Hernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several ecological studies in forests of the Guayana Shield, but so far none had examined the changes in structure and composition of evergreen forests with altitude. This study describes and analyzes the structure, species composition and soil characteristics of forest stands at different altitudinal zones in Southeastern Venezuelan Guayana, in order to explain the patterns and the main factors that determine the structure and composition of evergreen forests along the altitudinal gradient. Inventories of 3 948 big (>10cm DBH and 1 328 small (5-10cm DBH woody stems were carried out in eleven plots, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0ha, along a 188km long transect with elevations between 290 and 1 395masl. It has been found that 1 hemiepihytes become more dominant and lianas reduce their dominance with increasing altitude and 2 the forest structure in the study area is size-dependent. Five families and 12 genera represented only 9% of the total number of families and genera, respectively, recorded troughout the gradient, but the two groups of taxa comprised more than 50% of the Importance Value (the sum of the relative density and the relative dominance of all measured stems. Moreover, the results suggest that low species richness seems to be associated with the dominance of one or few species. Stand-level wood density (WD of trees decreased significantly with increasing elevation. WD is an indicator of trees’life history strategy. Its decline suggests a change in the functional composition of the forest with increasing altitude. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA indicated a distinction of the studied forests on the basis of their altitudinal levels and geographic location, and revealed different ecological responses by the forests, to environmental variables along the altitudinal gradient. The variation in species composition, in terms of basal area among stands, was controlled primarily by elevation and secondarily by rainfall

  15. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC EVERGREEN in the North Atlantic Ocean in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1972-06-04 to 1972-06-21 (NODC Accession 7200921)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC EVERGREEN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  16. Temperature, salinity, and nutrients data from bottle casts in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans from R/V EVERGREEN and other platforms from 13 July 1962 to 01 October 1975 (NODC Accession 0000457)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bottle and other data were collected in the Arctic and North Atlantic Oceans from the R/V EVERGREEN and other platforms from 13 July 1962 to 01 October 1975. Data...

  17. Simulation of the Unexpected Photosynthetic Seasonality in Amazonian Evergreen Forests by Using an Improved Diffuse Fraction-Based Light Use Efficiency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hao; Wang, Shao-Qiang; da Rocha, Humberto R.; Rap, Alexandru; Bonal, Damien; Butt, Nathalie; Coupe, Natalia Restrepo; Shugart, Herman H.

    2017-11-01

    Understanding the mechanism of photosynthetic seasonality in Amazonian evergreen forests is critical for its formulation in global climate and carbon cycle models. However, the control of the unexpected photosynthetic seasonality is highly uncertain. Here we use eddy-covariance data across a network of Amazonian research sites and a novel evapotranspiration (E) and two-leaf-photosynthesis-coupled model to investigate links between photosynthetic seasonality and climate factors on monthly scales. It reproduces the GPP seasonality (R2 = 0.45-0.69) with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.67-1.25 g C m-2 d-1 and a Bias of -0.03-1.04 g C m-2 d-1 for four evergreen forest sites. We find that the proportion of diffuse and direct sunlight governs the photosynthetic seasonality via their interaction with sunlit and shaded leaves, supported by a proof that canopy light use efficiency (LUE) has a strong linear relationship with the fraction of diffuse sunlight for Amazonian evergreen forests. In the transition from dry season to rainy season, incident total radiation (Q) decreased while LUE and diffuse fraction increased, which produced the large seasonal increase ( 34%) in GPP of evergreen forests. We conclude that diffuse radiation is an important environmental driver of the photosynthetic seasonality in tropical Amazon forests yet depending on light utilization by sunlit and shaded leaves. Besides, the GPP model simulates the precipitation-dominated GPP seasonality (R2 = 0.40-0.69) at pasture and savanna sites. These findings present an improved physiological method to relate light components with GPP in tropical Amazon.

  18. Soil fauna abundance and diversity in a secondary semi-evergreen forest in Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles): influence of soil type and dominant tree species

    OpenAIRE

    Loranger-Merciris, Gladys; Imbert, Daniel; Bernhard-Reversat, France; Ponge, Jean-François; Lavelle, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The importance of secondary tropical forests regarding the maintenance of soil fauna abundance and diversity is poorly known. The aims of this study were (1) to describe soil fauna abundance and diversity and (2) to assess the determinants of soil fauna abundance and diversity in two stands of a tropical semi-evergreen secondary forest. Soil macrofauna and microarthropod abundance and soil macrofauna diversity were described at two sites developed on different soils an...

  19. Predicting vegetation type through physiological and environmental interactions with leaf traits: evergreen and deciduous forests in an earth system modeling framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Ensheng; Farrior, Caroline E; Dybzinski, Ray; Pacala, Stephen W

    2017-06-01

    Earth system models are incorporating plant trait diversity into their land components to better predict vegetation dynamics in a changing climate. However, extant plant trait distributions will not allow extrapolations to novel community assemblages in future climates, which will require a mechanistic understanding of the trade-offs that determine trait diversity. In this study, we show how physiological trade-offs involving leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf lifespan, leaf nitrogen, and leaf respiration may explain the distribution patterns of evergreen and deciduous trees in the temperate and boreal zones based on (1) an evolutionary analysis of a simple mathematical model and (2) simulation experiments of an individual-based dynamic vegetation model (i.e., LM3-PPA). The evolutionary analysis shows that these leaf traits set up a trade-off between carbon- and nitrogen-use efficiency at the scale of individual trees and therefore determine competitively dominant leaf strategies. As soil nitrogen availability increases, the dominant leaf strategy switches from one that is high in nitrogen-use efficiency to one that is high in carbon-use efficiency or, equivalently, from high-LMA/long-lived leaves (i.e., evergreen) to low-LMA/short-lived leaves (i.e., deciduous). In a region of intermediate soil nitrogen availability, the dominant leaf strategy may be either deciduous or evergreen depending on the initial conditions of plant trait abundance (i.e., founder controlled) due to feedbacks of leaf traits on soil nitrogen mineralization through litter quality. Simulated successional patterns by LM3-PPA from the leaf physiological trade-offs are consistent with observed successional dynamics of evergreen and deciduous forests at three sites spanning the temperate to boreal zones. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Scyphomedusae of the Mediterranean coast of Israel, including two Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galil, B.S.; Spanier, E.; Ferguson, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven species of Scyphomedusae are reported from the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Two of these, Rhopilema nomadica spec. nov. and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884, are Lessepsian migrants new to the Mediterranean.

  1. Study on carbon-fixing,oxygen-releasing,temperature-reducing and humidity-increasing effects of evergreen plants in south highway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Minmin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-6400 portable photosynthesis system,was used to test the diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance of evergreen plants in Southern Highway,and to calculate their ability of absorbing carbon dioxide and releasing oxygen and to calculate the transpiring water volume and absorbing heat quantity of plants.Results showed that Euonymus fortunei Hand-Mazz,Hedera helix.Aucuba eriobotryaefolia had better carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei,Radix Ophiopogonis had worse carbon-fixing and oxygen-releasing effects.Radix Ophiopogonis,Photinia glabra,Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz had higher cooling and humidification ability,while Photinia serrulata,Trachycarpus fortunei did not act as well as them.Euonymus fortunei Hand.-Mazz and Hedera helix had higher leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,values are 12.91、10.34、9.93 mg·g-1.Radix Ophiopogonis、Cinnamomum camphora(Linn. Presl and Trachycarpus fortunei had lower leaf chlorophyll in per unit mass,value is 3.55、2.67、2.06 mg·g-1.Releasing oxygen,fixing carbon,net assimilation and chlorophyll content has good correlation(P<0.05.

  2. Adsorption of Zn(II) in aqueous solution by activated carbons prepared from evergreen oak (Quercus rotundifolia L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tamayo, M del Mar; Macías-García, Antonio; Díaz Díez, M Angeles; Cuerda-Correa, Eduardo M

    2008-05-01

    In the present work activated carbons have been prepared from evergreen oak wood. Different samples have been prepared varying the concentration of the activating agent (H(3)PO(4)) and the treatment temperature. The yield of the process decreases with increasing phosphoric acid concentrations. Furthermore, high concentrations of activating agent lead to mainly mesoporous activated carbons to the detriment of the microporous texture. Treatment temperatures up to 450 degrees C lead to a progressive increase of the micro- and mesopore volumes. Values of specific surface area (S(BET)) as high as 1723 m(2) g(-1)have been obtained using appropriate phosphoric acid concentrations and treatment temperatures. The samples prepared have been successfully used in the removal of Zn(II) from aqueous solutions. From the adsorption kinetic data it may be stated that the equilibrium time is, in all cases, below 170 h. The adsorption process as a rule becomes faster as the mesopore volume and specific surface area of the samples increase. The adsorption isotherms in liquid phase point out that the adsorption capacity (n(0)(s)) and the affinity towards the solute (K(ci)) are higher for the sample showing the most developed mesoporous texture and surface area as well.

  3. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  4. New forms of evergreening in Australia: misleading advertising, enantiomers and data exclusivity: Apotex v Servier and Alphapharm v Lundbeck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas; Vines, Tim; Gibbons, Helen

    2008-10-01

    Two recent decisions of the Federal Court of Australia have provided interesting insights into the ongoing struggle between originator drug manufacturers and the public interest in Australia. In Apotex Pty Ltd (formerly GenRx Pty Ltd) v Les Laboratoires Servier (No 2) [2008] FCA 607 the court held that an advertising campaign by an originator pharmaceutical company, which sought to persuade doctors to issue prescriptions prohibiting substitution of "a-flagged" generics, constituted misleading and deceptive conduct under s 52 of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth). The decision of the court in Alphapharm Pty Ltd v H Lundbeck A/S (2008) 76 IPR 618; [2008] FCA 559 limits the ability of the manufacturer of a drug based on a purified racemate enantiomer to claim a later registration date on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods and subsequently obtain an extension of its intellectual monopoly privileges as well as an exclusivity period for the data it had submitted to safety regulators. Importantly, this case is one of the first to consider recent allegedly pro- and anti-"evergreening" changes to the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 (Cth) and Patents Act 1990 (Cth) as impacted by the intellectual property chapter (Ch 17) of the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement.

  5. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  6. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  7. Youth Unemployment in Mediterranean Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Eichhorst, Werner; Neder, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    In all Mediterranean countries youth unemployment has reached alarming record levels. This paper analyses the current situation in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. In all countries school dropout rates are high, returns to education are low and the transition from education to work is problematic and difficult. This is due to a poor working vocational training system, the dualization of the labor market and minimum wages that are set too high. The Great Recession deteriorated the s...

  8. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  9. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  11. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  12. NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue: Challenges and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cayan, Umit

    2003-01-01

    .... The new security concerns in the southern Mediterranean region terrorism, economic disparities, demographic imbalances, the potential for social and political instability, and the proliferation...

  13. Biogeography of Mediterranean Hotspot Biodiversity: Re-Evaluating the 'Tertiary Relict' Hypothesis of Macaronesian Laurel Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kondraskov

    Full Text Available The Macaronesian laurel forests (MLF are dominated by trees with a laurophyll habit comparable to evergreen humid forests which were scattered across Europe and the Mediterranean in the Paleogene and Neogene. Therefore, MLF are traditionally regarded as an old, 'Tertiary relict' vegetation type. Here we address the question if key taxa of the MLF are relictual. We evaluated the relict hypothesis consulting fossil data and analyses based on molecular phylogenies of 18 representative species. For molecular dating we used the program BEAST, for ancestral trait reconstructions BayesTraits and Lagrange to infer ancestral areas. Our molecular dating showed that the origins of four species date back to the Upper Miocene while 14 originated in the Plio-Pleistocene. This coincides with the decline of fossil laurophyllous elements in Europe since the middle Miocene. Ancestral trait and area reconstructions indicate that MLF evolved partly from pre-adapted taxa from the Mediterranean, Macaronesia and the tropics. According to the fossil record laurophyllous taxa existed in Macaronesia since the Plio- and Pleistocene. MLF are composed of species with a heterogeneous origin. The taxa dated to the Pleistocene are likely not 'Tertiary relicts'. Some species may be interpreted as relictual. In this case, the establishment of most species in the Plio-Pleistocene suggests that there was a massive species turnover before this time. Alternatively, MLF were largely newly assembled through global recruitment rather than surviving as relicts of a once more widespread vegetation. This process may have possibly been triggered by the intensification of the trade winds at the end of the Pliocene as indicated by proxy data.

  14. Biogeography of Mediterranean Hotspot Biodiversity: Re-Evaluating the 'Tertiary Relict' Hypothesis of Macaronesian Laurel Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraskov, Paulina; Schütz, Nicole; Schüßler, Christina; de Sequeira, Miguel Menezes; Guerra, Arnoldo Santos; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Marrero-Rodríguez, Águedo; Koch, Marcus A; Linder, Peter; Kovar-Eder, Johanna; Thiv, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Macaronesian laurel forests (MLF) are dominated by trees with a laurophyll habit comparable to evergreen humid forests which were scattered across Europe and the Mediterranean in the Paleogene and Neogene. Therefore, MLF are traditionally regarded as an old, 'Tertiary relict' vegetation type. Here we address the question if key taxa of the MLF are relictual. We evaluated the relict hypothesis consulting fossil data and analyses based on molecular phylogenies of 18 representative species. For molecular dating we used the program BEAST, for ancestral trait reconstructions BayesTraits and Lagrange to infer ancestral areas. Our molecular dating showed that the origins of four species date back to the Upper Miocene while 14 originated in the Plio-Pleistocene. This coincides with the decline of fossil laurophyllous elements in Europe since the middle Miocene. Ancestral trait and area reconstructions indicate that MLF evolved partly from pre-adapted taxa from the Mediterranean, Macaronesia and the tropics. According to the fossil record laurophyllous taxa existed in Macaronesia since the Plio- and Pleistocene. MLF are composed of species with a heterogeneous origin. The taxa dated to the Pleistocene are likely not 'Tertiary relicts'. Some species may be interpreted as relictual. In this case, the establishment of most species in the Plio-Pleistocene suggests that there was a massive species turnover before this time. Alternatively, MLF were largely newly assembled through global recruitment rather than surviving as relicts of a once more widespread vegetation. This process may have possibly been triggered by the intensification of the trade winds at the end of the Pliocene as indicated by proxy data.

  15. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  16. Ecophysiological responses of Pinus leucodermis at high elevation in the Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrieri MR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Pinus leucodermis Antoine (= Pinus heldreichii var. leucodermis is a species of the Balkan flora which in Italy grows in a small area between the Regions of Basilicata and Calabria, in the Pollino National Park. A relict of the oro-Mediterranean Tertiary forests, it is found from the lower vegetation belt, where it is mixed with evergreen sclerophyllous vegetation, up to the alpine vegetation belt beyond the closed formations of Fagus sylvatica, where it makes up stands with very old, isolated and big trees growing in open spaces between rocks. The ecophysiological and dendrochronolgy features of the P. leucodermis stands growing on the west slope of Serra di Crispo (Monte Pollino, between 1800 and 2000 m a.s.l., have been studied during recent years and some of the results are presented in this work. Ecophysiological measurements in situ show that reduced atmospheric vapour pressure deficit conditions, due to humid currents from the western Tyrrhenian Sea, allow the trees to escape from summer drought. When day summer weather conditions are optimal P. leucodermis exhibits a remarkable photosynthetic activity and adaptation to high irradiance. The tree ring width chronology documents a marked reduction of radial growth from 1950 to 1985, followed by a strong recovery, still continuing. In the same period differences between the annual minimum and maximum temperatures tend to increase. Anthropic and grazing pressure is reduced markedly after the institution of the National Park of Pollino.

  17. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest

  18. Effects of land use change and management on SOC and soil quality in Mediterranean rangelands areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Requejo, Ana; Zornoza, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Rangelands in the Iberian Peninsula occupy more than 90,000 km2. These rangelands were created from the former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed of holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Quercus suber), by clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and cultivating. These man-made landscapes are called 'dehesas' in Spain and 'montados' in Portugal. Between 1955 and 1981, more than 5,000 km2 of dehesas was converted from pastureland to cultivated land. This process has been accelerated since 1986 owing to subsidies from the European Common Agricultural Policy (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). The role that natural rangelands play in the global carbon cycle is extremely important, accounting for 10-30% of the world's total soil organic carbon (SOC), in addition, SOC concentration is closely related to soil quality and vegetation productivity (Brevik, 2012). Therefore, to study the land use and management changes is important, particularly in Mediterranean soils, as they are characterized by low organic carbon content, furthermore, the continuous use of ploughing for grain production is the principal cause of soil degradation. Therefore, land use decisions and management systems can increase or decrease SOC content and stock (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014, 2015a and 2015b; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García, 2014) MATERIAL AND METHODS A field study was conducted to determine the land use change (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland to olive grove and cereal, all of them managed under conventional tillage and under conservationist practices) effects on SOC stocks and the soil quality (Stratification Ratio) in Los Pedroches valley, southern Spain. RESULTS Results for the present study indicate that management practices had little effect on SOC storage in dehesas. The stratification ratio was >2 both under conventional tillage and under organic farming, so, soils under dehesa had high quality

  19. Drought-induced photosynthetic inhibition and autumn recovery in two Mediterranean oak species (Quercus ilex and Quercus suber).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, M; Pereira, J S; Gazarini, L C; David, T S; David, J S; Rodrigues, A; Maroco, J; Chaves, M M

    2010-08-01

    Responses of leaf water relations and photosynthesis to summer drought and autumn rewetting were studied in two evergreen Mediterranean oak species, Quercus ilex spp. rotundifolia and Quercus suber. The predawn leaf water potential (Ψ(lPD)), stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (A) at ambient conditions were measured seasonally over a 3-year period. We also measured the photosynthetic response to light and to intercellular CO₂ (A/PPFD and A/C(i) response curves) under water stress (summer) and after recovery due to autumn rainfall. Photosynthetic parameters, Vc(max), J(max) and triose phosphate utilization (TPU) rate, were estimated using the Farquhar model. RuBisCo activity, leaf chlorophyll, leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf carbohydrate concentration were also measured. All measurements were performed in the spring leaves of the current year. In both species, the predawn leaf water potential, stomatal conductance and photosynthetic rate peaked in spring, progressively declined throughout the summer and recovered upon autumn rainfall. During the drought period, Q. ilex maintained a higher predawn leaf water potential and stomatal conductance than Q. suber. During this period, we found that photosynthesis was not only limited by stomatal closure, but was also downregulated as a consequence of a decrease in the maximum carboxylation rate (Vc(max)) and the light-saturated rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J(max)) in both species. The Vc(max) and J(max) increased after the first autumnal rains and this increase was related to RuBisCo activity, leaf nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll concentration. In addition, an increase in the TPU rate and in soluble leaf sugar concentration was observed in this period. The results obtained indicate a high resilience of the photosynthetic apparatus to summer drought as well as good recovery in the following autumn rains of these evergreen oak species.

  20. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  1. Improving evapotranspiration estimates in Mediterranean drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillas, Laura; Leuning, Ray; Villagarcia, Luis

    2013-01-01

    measurements from eddy covariance systems located in two functionally different sparsely vegetated drylands sites: a littoral Mediterranean semiarid steppe and a dry-subhumid Mediterranean montane site. The method providing the best results in both areas was fdrying (mean absolute error of 0.17 mm day−1) which...

  2. Mediterranean Security Into the Coming Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    in the Mediterranean, Malta: Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies, University of Malta, 1998; and Eberhard Rhein, " Globalisation of the Economy...peace, more marked by internal conflicts (opposing terrorisms, urban guerrillas, social inequalities ) than by the great armoured and air battles. Iraq is

  3. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  4. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  5. Plastic debris in Mediterranean seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina-García, Marina; Militão, Teresa; Moreno, Javier; González-Solís, Jacob

    2013-12-15

    Plastic debris is often ingested by marine predators and can cause health disorders and even death. We present the first assessment of plastic ingestion in Mediterranean seabirds. We quantified and measured plastics accumulated in the stomach of 171 birds from 9 species accidentally caught by longliners in the western Mediterranean from 2003 to 2010. Cory's shearwaters (Calonectris diomedea) showed the highest occurrence (94%) and large numbers of small plastic particles per affected bird (on average N = 15.3 ± 24.4 plastics and mass = 23.4 ± 49.6 mg), followed by Yelkouan shearwaters (Puffinus yelkouan, 70%, N = 7.0 ± 7.9, 42.1 ± 100.0 mg), Balearic shearwaters (Puffinus mauretanicus, 70%, N = 3.6 ± 2.9, 5.5 ± 9.7 mg) and the rest of species (below 33%, N = 2.7, 113.6 ± 128.4 mg). Plastic characteristics did not differ between sexes and were not related to the physical condition of the birds. Our results point out the three endemic and threatened shearwater species as being particularly exposed to plastic accumulation.

  6. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  7. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  8. Decoupled leaf and root carbon economics is a key component in the ecological diversity and evolutionary divergence of deciduous and evergreen lineages of genusRhododendron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Burns, Jean H; Nicholson, Jaynell; Rogers, Louisa; Valverde-Barrantes, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    We explored trait-trait and trait-climate relationships for 27 Rhododendron species while accounting for phylogenetic relationships and within-species variation to investigate whether leaf and root traits are coordinated across environments and over evolutionary time, as part of a whole-plant economics spectrum. We examined specific leaf area (SLA) and four root traits: specific root length (SRL), specific root tip abundance (SRTA), first order diameter, and link average length, for plants growing in a cold, seasonal climate (Kirtland, Ohio) and a warmer, less seasonal climate (Federal Way, Washington) in the United States. We estimated a phylogeny and species' climate of origin, determined phylogenetic signal on mean traits and within-species variation, and used phylogenetically informed analysis to compare trait-trait and trait-climate relationships for deciduous and evergreen lineages. Mean SLA and within-species variation in SRL were more similar between close relatives than expected by chance. SLA and root traits differed according to climate of origin and across growth environments, though SLA differed within- and among-species less than roots. A negative SRL-SRTA correlation indicates investment in foraging scale vs. precision as a fundamental trade-off defining the root economic spectrum. Also, the deciduous clade exhibited a strong negative relationship between SLA and SRL, while evergreen clades showed a weaker positive or no relationship. Our work suggests that natural selection has shaped relationships between above- and belowground traits in genus Rhododendron and that leaf and root traits may evolve independently. Morphological decoupling may help explain habitat diversity among Rhododendron species, as well as the changes accompanying the divergence of deciduous and evergreen lineages. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Genetic differentiation and genetic diversity of Castanopsis (Fagaceae, the dominant tree species in Japanese broadleaved evergreen forests, revealed by analysis of EST-associated microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Aoki

    Full Text Available The broadleaved evergreen forests of the East Asian warm temperate zone are characterised by their high biodiversity and endemism, and there is therefore a need to extend our understanding of its genetic diversity and phylogeographic patterns. Castanopsis (Fagaceae is one of the dominant tree species in the broadleaved evergreen forests of Japan. In this study we investigate the genetic diversity, genetic structure and leaf epidermal morphology of 63 natural populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata, using 32 Expressed Sequence Tag associated microsatellites. The overall genetic differentiation between populations was low (GST = 0.069 in C. sieboldii and GST = 0.057 in C. cuspidata. Neighbor-joining tree and Bayesian clustering analyses revealed that the populations of C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata were genetically clearly differentiated, a result which is consistent with the morphology of their epidermal cell layers. This suggests that C. sieboldii and C. cuspidata should be treated as independent species, although intermediate morphologies are often observed, especially at sites where the two species coexist. The higher level of genetic diversity observed in the Kyushu region (for both species and the Ryukyu Islands (for C. sieboldii is consistent with the available fossil pollen data for Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen trees during the Last Glacial Maximum and suggests the existence of refugia for Castanopsis forests in southern Japan. Within the C. sieboldii populations, Bayesian clustering analyses detected three clusters, in the western and eastern parts of the main islands and in the Ryukyu Islands. The west-east genetic differentiation observed for this species in the main islands, a pattern which is also found in several plant and animal species inhabiting Castanopsis forests in Japan, suggests that they have been isolated from each other in the western and eastern populations for an extended period of time, and may

  10. Net ecosystem carbon exchange in three contrasting Mediterranean ecosystems – the effect of drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. David

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Droughts reduce gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Reco, contributing to most of the inter-annual variability in terrestrial carbon sequestration. In seasonally dry climates (Mediterranean, droughts result from reductions in annual rainfall and changes in rain seasonality. We compared carbon fluxes measured by the eddy covariance technique in three contrasting ecosystems in southern Portugal: an evergreen oak woodland (savannah-like with ca.~21% tree crown cover, a grassland dominated by herbaceous annuals and a coppiced short-rotation eucalyptus plantation. During the experimental period (2003–2006 the eucalyptus plantation was always the strongest sink for carbon: net ecosystem exchange rate (NEE between −861 and −399 g C m−2 year−1. The oak woodland and the grassland were much weaker sinks for carbon: NEE varied in the oak woodland between −140 and −28 g C m−2 year−1 and in the grassland between −190 and +49 g C m−2 year−1. The eucalyptus stand had higher GPP and a lower proportion of GPP spent in respiration than the other systems. The higher GPP resulted from high leaf area duration (LAD, as a surrogate for the photosynthetic photon flux density absorbed by the canopy. The eucalyptus had also higher rain use efficiency (GPP per unit of rain volume and light use efficiency (the daily GPP per unit incident photosynthetic photon flux density than the other two ecosystems. The effects of a severe drought could be evaluated during the hydrological-year (i.e., from October to September of 2004–2005. Between October 2004 and June 2005 the precipitation was only 40% of the long-term average. In 2004–2005 all ecosystems had GPP lower than in wetter years and carbon sequestration was strongly restricted (less negative NEE. The grassland was a net source of carbon dioxide (+49 g C m−2 year−1. In the oak woodland a large proportion of GPP resulted from carbon assimilated by its annual vegetation

  11. Chemistry is Evergreen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    C ertain basic residues stabilize the charge on the °uo- rophore and facilitate further delocalization. For exam - ple, H is148 is w ithin hydrogen bonding distance of T yr. 66 w hereas G ln 94 and A rg 96 can form hydrogen bonds w ith the im idazolidone m oiety. T his hydrogen bonding netw ork along w ith electron stacking ...

  12. Chemistry is Evergreen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 3. Chemistry is Everygreen - 2008 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Swagata Dasgupta. General Article Volume 14 Issue 3 March 2009 pp 248-258. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  14. Changes in structure and composition of evergreen forests on an altitudinal gradient in the Venezuelan Guayana Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Hernández

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been several ecological studies in forests of the Guayana Shield, but so far none had examined the changes in structure and composition of evergreen forests with altitude. This study describes and analyzes the structure, species composition and soil characteristics of forest stands at different altitudinal zones in Southeastern Venezuelan Guayana, in order to explain the patterns and the main factors that determine the structure and composition of evergreen forests along the altitudinal gradient. Inventories of 3 948 big (>10cm DBH and 1 328 small (5-10cm DBH woody stems were carried out in eleven plots, ranging from 0.1 to 1.0ha, along a 188km long transect with elevations between 290 and 1 395masl. It has been found that 1 hemiepihytes become more dominant and lianas reduce their dominance with increasing altitude and 2 the forest structure in the study area is size-dependent. Five families and 12 genera represented only 9% of the total number of families and genera, respectively, recorded troughout the gradient, but the two groups of taxa comprised more than 50% of the Importance Value (the sum of the relative density and the relative dominance of all measured stems. Moreover, the results suggest that low species richness seems to be associated with the dominance of one or few species. Stand-level wood density (WD of trees decreased significantly with increasing elevation. WD is an indicator of trees’life history strategy. Its decline suggests a change in the functional composition of the forest with increasing altitude. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA indicated a distinction of the studied forests on the basis of their altitudinal levels and geographic location, and revealed different ecological responses by the forests, to environmental variables along the altitudinal gradient. The variation in species composition, in terms of basal area among stands, was controlled primarily by elevation and secondarily by rainfall

  15. Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  16. "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean"

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On the occasion of CERN's 50th anniversary, the French Association for the Advancement of Science (AFAS) is organising a conference at CERN on 6 - 7 May on the subject of "Sharing Knowledge across the Mediterranean". The full program can be found at http://www.avancement-sciences.org. For those wishing to attend, advanced registration is mandatory. Follow the instructions at: http://lpsc.in2p3.fr/congres/CERN/index.htm The conference fee is 50 euro. It includes attendance at the official dinner on Thursday 6 May and a copy of the conference proceedings. Special conditions for CERN: registration is free, but does not include the dinner. CERN people wishing to receive the proceedings will be charged 10 euro.

  17. Carbon storage of Mediterranean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corona, Piermaria

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary grasslands are one of the most common vegetation types worldwide. In Europe, and in the Mediterranean basin, human activities have transformed many woodlands into secondary grasslands. Despite their recognized role in the global carbon cycle, very few data are available for estimating the biomass of Mediterranean grasslands. We developed linear regression models in order to predict the biomass of two native Mediterranean grasses (Ampelodesmos mauritanicus and Hyparrhenia hirta and an invasive alien grass (Pennisetum setaceum. Ampelodesmos mauritanicus is very common throughout the Mediterranean basin, mostly on north-facing slopes, H. hirta characterizes thermo-xeric grasslands, while P. setaceum is an alien species that is rapidly spreading along coastal areas. The measured morphometric attributes of individual plants as potential predictors were considered. The validation results corroborate the ability of the established models to predict above ground and total biomass of A. mauritanicus and P. setaceum. We also evaluated the total biomass per hectare for each species. The highest biomass per hectare was found for A. mauritanicus, whereas biomass was higher for H. hirta than for P. setaceum. The replacement of H. hirta by P. setaceum may reduce the total carbon storage in the ecosystem; however, P. setaceum allocates more resources to the roots, thus increasing the more stable and durable pool of carbon in grasslands.Los pastizales secundarios son uno de los tipos de vegetación más comunes en todo el mundo. En Europa y en la cuenca mediterránea, las actividades humanas han transformado muchos bosques en pastizales secundarios. A pesar de su reconocido papel en el ciclo global del carbono, hay muy pocos datos disponibles para la estimación de la biomasa de los pastizales mediterráneos. Hemos desarrollado modelos de regresión lineal con el fin de predecir la biomasa de dos gramíneas nativas del Mediterráneo (Ampelodesmos

  18. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  19. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  20. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  1. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  2. Greater diversity of soil fungal communities and distinguishable seasonal variation in temperate deciduous forests compared with subtropical evergreen forests of eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhong; Tedersoo, Leho; Hu, Ang; Han, Conghai; He, Dan; Wei, Hui; Jiao, Min; Anslan, Sten; Nie, Yanxia; Jia, Yongxia; Zhang, Gengxin; Yu, Guirui; Liu, Shirong; Shen, Weijun

    2017-07-01

    Whether and how seasonality of environmental variables impacts the spatial variability of soil fungal communities remain poorly understood. We assessed soil fungal diversity and community composition of five Chinese zonal forests along a latitudinal gradient spanning 23°N to 42°N in three seasons to address these questions. We found that soil fungal diversity increased linearly or parabolically with latitude. The seasonal variations in fungal diversity were more distinguishable in three temperate deciduous forests than in two subtropical evergreen forests. Soil fungal diversity was mainly correlated with edaphic factors such as pH and nutrient contents. Both latitude and its interactions with season also imposed significant impacts on soil fungal community composition (FCC), but the effects of latitude were stronger than those of season. Vegetational properties such as plant diversity and forest age were the dominant factors affecting FCC in the subtropical evergreen forests while edaphic properties were the dominant ones in the temperate deciduous forests. Our results indicate that latitudinal variation patterns of soil fungal diversity and FCC may differ among seasons. The stronger effect of latitude relative to that of season suggests a more important influence by the spatial than temporal heterogeneity in shaping soil fungal communities across zonal forests. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Aoki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

  4. Understanding Seasonal Dynamics of the Photo-Protective Xanthophyll Cycle Improves Remote Detection of Photosynthetic Phenology in Deciduous Trees and Evergreen Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, I.; Wong, C. Y.; Junker, L. V.; Bathena, Y.; Arain, M. A.; D'Odorico, P.

    2017-12-01

    The ability of plants to sequester carbon is highly variable over the course of the year and reflects seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency. This seasonal variation is most prominent during autumn, when leaves of deciduous tree species undergo senescence, which is associated with the downregulation of photosynthesis and a change of leaf color and leaf optical properties. Vegetation indices derived from remote sensing of leaf optical properties using e.g. spectral reflectance measurements are increasingly used to monitor and predict growing season length and seasonal variation in carbon sequestration. Here we compare leaf-level, canopy-level and drone based observations of leaf spectral reflectance measurements. We demonstrate that some of the widely used vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and photochemical reflectance index (PRI) vary in their ability to adequately track the seasonal variation in photosynthetic efficiency and chlorophyll content. We further show that monitoring seasonal variation of photosynthesis using NDVI or PRI is particularly challenging in evergreen conifers, due to little seasonal variation in foliage. However, there is remarkable seasonal variation in leaf optical properties associated with changes in pools of xanthophyll cycle pigments and carotenoids that provide a promising way of monitoring photosynthetic phenology in evergreen conifers via leaf reflectance measurements.

  5. The Historical Construction of the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenech, Dominic; Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Ideas about what the Mediterranean is, was or is imagined to be abound, and the debate over definition continues to intrigue scholars more than ever, especially as the region’s heightened newsworthiness in recent years has forced the protagonists of world affairs to turn their attention to it....... Historically the status of the Mediterranean has changed over and over again, in terms of unity and cohesion, or lack thereof, but also of the region’s shifting place in the global hierarchy of power. The post-Cold War era rekindled or exposed a host of historically-engrained problems and developments...... that brought the Mediterranean back into the limelight, as Europe first and then other world players recognized that the region’s concerns were also their own. Looking at the contemporary Mediterranean the authors see in it a scale-model of world affairs, a concentration of intense political situations...

  6. HVDC interconnection submarine link in Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, Giancarlo; Cova, Bruno; Pincella, Claudio; Rebolini, Massimo; Ricci, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The technology evolution of direct current energy transmission offer new perspectives for the exchange of energy with South side of Mediterranean Area: for Italy are new opportunity for energy import [it

  7. Report on the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) as an ambitious political initiative which aims at creating a better context for the Northern (Mediterranean) countries which are looking for a secure energy supply, and for the Southern and Eastern (Mediterranean) countries where demand is strongly increasing. It highlights the fact that the cost of this plan is indeed important but still limited regarding the regional scale. Its success therefore needs projects with sufficient profitability to attract investors and to be realised within an adapted law environment. The report also outlines that the plan needs a regional vision and a cooperative approach between North and South, that it will have a strong impact of electric interconnections all around the Mediterranean Sea, and that its governance needs to be clarified to maintain the political momentum created by its co-presidents

  8. Coupling of remote sensing, field campaign, and mechanistic and empirical modeling to monitor spatiotemporal carbon dynamics of a Mediterranean watershed in a changing regional climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, S; Donmez, C; Evrendilek, F

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate impacts of regional climate change in the 2070s on carbon (C) cycle of a Mediterranean watershed combining field measurements, Envisat MERIS and IKONOS data, and the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach model. Simulation results indicated that the present total C sink status (1.36 Mt C year(-1)) of Mediterranean evergreen needleleaf forest, grassland and cropland ecosystems is expected to weaken by 7.6% in response to the climate change in the 2070s (Mt=10(12) g). This decreasing trend was mirrored in soil respiration (R H), aboveground and belowground net primary production (NPP), NEP, and net biome production (NBP). The decrease in NEP in the 2070s was the highest (21.9%) for mixed forest where the smallest present C sink of 0.03 Mt C year(-1) was estimated. The average present net ecosystem production (NEP) values were estimated at 110±15, 75±19, and 41±25 g C m(-2) years(-1) in forest, grassland, and cropland, respectively, with a watershed-scale mean of 95±30 g C m(-2) years(-1). The largest present C sink was in grassland, with a total C pool of 0.55 Mt C year(-1), through its greater spatial extent.

  9. Can the EC Mediterranean policy be revitalised?

    OpenAIRE

    Siebeke, Roland

    1985-01-01

    The enlargement of the European community to include Portugal and Spain has focussed public attention on the EC's relations with certain other states bordering the Mediterranean; Israel, Morocco, Tunisia and Cyprus in particular fear that the competitiveness of their exports to the European market will be prejudiced. In view of this and other threats to the EC's ties to her Southern neighbours the future of the EC's external Mediterranean policy is at stake.

  10. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  11. Mediterranean Diet and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turati, Federica; Carioli, Greta; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica; Serraino, Diego; Montella, Maurizio; Giacosa, Attilio; Toffolutti, Federica; Negri, Eva; Levi, Fabio; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2018-03-08

    The Mediterranean diet has been related to a reduced risk of several common cancers but its role on breast cancer has not been quantified yet. We investigated the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and breast cancer risk by means of a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Italy and Switzerland. 3034 breast cancer cases and 3392 controls admitted to the same network of hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic and non-gynaecologic diseases were studied. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was quantitatively measured through a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), summarizing the major characteristics of the Mediterranean dietary pattern and ranging from 0 (lowest adherence) to 9 (highest adherence). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of breast cancer for the MDS using multiple logistic regression models, adjusting for several covariates. Compared to a MDS of 0-3, the ORs for breast cancer were 0.86 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-0.98) for a MDS of 4-5 and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.71-0.95) for a MDS of 6-9 ( p for trend = 0.008). The exclusion of the ethanol component from the MDS did not materially modify the ORs (e.g., OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.70-0.95, for MDS ≥ 6). Results were similar in pre- and post-menopausal women. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a reduced breast cancer risk.

  12. Mediterranean diet adherence in the Mediterranean healthy eating, aging and lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marventano, Stefano; Godos, Justyna; Platania, Alessio; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio; Grosso, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    A decline in adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern has been observed over the last years. The aim of this study was to assess the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and possible determinants in the Mediterranean healthy Eating, Aging and Lifestyle (MEAL) study cohort. Demographic and dietary data of 1937 individuals were collected in 2014-2015 from the general population of Catania, Sicily (Italy). Food frequency questionnaires and the MEDI-LITE score were used to assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The score well characterised consumption of major food groups, micro- and macro-nutrients. The cohort had a general good adherence, but only a minority was highly adherent. High adherence was directly associated with education, non-smoking and physical activity and inversely with high occupational status. In conclusions, Mediterranean diet is still followed in Sicily; however, nutrition education campaigns should promote healthy traditional dietary patterns in certain groups of individuals.

  13. The Eratosthenes Seamount - Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, A.; Schnabel, M.; Damm, V.

    2012-04-01

    The Eratosthenes Seamount forms a prominent landmark in the Eastern Mediterranean. It is located south of Cyprus with the Levantine Basin on its eastern side, the Herodotus Basin on its western side and the Nile Cone south of the seamount. The Eratosthenes Seamount rises up to 750 m below sea surface and is about 1200 m higher than the surrounding seafloor of the Levantine Basin and the Nile Cone sediments. The Eratosthenes Seamount is considered as a continental fragment of the former African-Nubian Plate that was rifted to its present position relative to Africa during the formation of the Tethyan Ocean. In 2010 a detailed geophysical survey was carried out in the area of the Eratosthenes Seamount by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources of Germany including multichannel seismic (MCS), refraction seismics, magnetic, gravity and magnetotelluric data acquisition. First results show a highly deformed seamount, with a plateau-like top that is impacted by west-east trending graben formation. The slopes of the seamount are eroded showing deep incised ripple patterns and recent submarine landslides. The Eratosthenes Seamount produces also a prominent magnetic and gravity anomaly, both supporting its uniqueness in the area of the Eastern Mediterranean. Velocity information by refraction seismic modeling, as well as the models of the magnetic and gravity data show evidence for a volcanic core of the seamount with carbonate layers on top of the volcanic core. The slopes of the seamount terminate against a conspicuous rim-like escarpment that forms in addition the northern and western termination of the Messinian Evaporites in the study area. The MCS and refraction seismic data show a very deep Levantine Basin with maximum acoustic basement depths of 12 to 14 km very close to the slope of the Eratosthenes Seamount. The deepest sediments resolved by the MCS data are of Lower Cretaceous to Jurassic age. The refraction seismic model shows a 14 km thick

  14. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  15. Climate and land use changes effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a Mediterranean semi-natural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the effects of climate and land use changes on the soil carbon pool is critical to planning effective strategies for adaptation and mitigation in future scenarios of global climate and land use change. In this study, we used CarboSOIL model to predict changes in soil organic carbon stocks in a semi-natural area of Southern Spain in three different time horizons (2040, 2070, 2100), considering two general circulation models (BCM2 and ECHAM5) and three IPCC scenarios (A1b, A2, B2). The effects of potential land use changes from natural vegetation (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland) to agricultural land (olive grove and cereal) on soil organic carbon stocks were also evaluated. Predicted values of SOC contents correlated well those measured (R2 ranging from 0.71 at 0-25cm to 0.97 at 50-75cm) showing the efficiency of the model. Results showed substantial differences among time horizons, climate and land use scenarios and soil depth with larger decreases of soil organic carbon stocks in the long term (2100 time horizon) and particularly in olive groves. The combination of climate and land use scenarios (in particular conversion from current 'dehesa' to olive groves) resulted in yet higher losses of soil organic carbon stocks, e.g. -30, -15 and -33% in the 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75cm sections respectively. This study shows the importance of soil organic carbon stocks assessment under both climate and land use scenarios at different soil sections and point towards possible directions for appropriate land use management in Mediterranean semi natural areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD, as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  17. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes. PMID:29117146

  18. Summer fire predictability in a Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Raül; Turco, Marco; Bedía, Joaquín; Llasat, Maria Carmen; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Each year approximately 500000 hectares burn in Europe. Most of them are consequence of Mediterranean summer fires that lead to damages to the natural environment causing important economic and life losses. In order to allow the preparedness of adequate prevention measures in European Mediterranean regions, a better understanding of the summer fire predictability is crucial. Climate is a primary driver of the interannual variability of fires in Mediterranean-type ecosystems, controlling fuel flammability and fuel structure [1, 2]. That is, summer fires are linked to current-year climate values (proxies for the climatic factors that affect fuel flammability) and to antecedent climate variables (proxies for the climatic factors influencing fine fuel availability and connectivity). In our contribution we explore the long-term predictability of wildfires in a Mediterranean region (NE Spain), driving a multiple linear regression model with observed antecedent climate variables and with predicted variables from the ECMWF System-4 seasonal forecast. The approaches are evaluated through a leave-one-out cross-validation over the period 1983-2010. While the ECMWF System-4 proved of limited usefulness due to its limited skill, the model driven with antecedent climate variables alone allowed for satisfactory long-term prediction of above-normal fire activity, suggesting the feasibility of successful seasonal prediction of summer fires in Mediterranean-type regions. *References [1] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a mediterranean environment (northeastern iberian peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [2] M. Turco, M. C. Llasat, J. von Hardenberg, and A. Provenzale. Climate change impacts on wildfires in a Mediterranean environment. Climatic Change, 125: 369-380, 2014.

  19. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  20. Metabolic acceleration in Mediterranean Perciformes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lika, Konstadia; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.; Papandroulakis, Nikos

    2014-11-01

    Larval stages are considered the most critical of fish development. During a very short period of time (2 to 3 months), larvae undergo major morphoanatomical and functional changes in order to transform into juveniles while remaining functioning (developing, eating, surviving). Depending on species and environmental conditions, patterns in larval development may vary. We study the patterns of larval development for nine fish species of Perciformes reared under aquaculture conditions and compare them in terms of species-specific parameters derived from DEB theory. We extended the standard DEB model to include metabolic acceleration during the larval period, where maximum specific assimilation and energy conductance increase with length between birth and metabolic metamorphosis. Metabolic acceleration has as a consequence that larvae initially grow slower than juveniles and adults. Our results indicate that the species with higher acceleration have lower growth rates at birth and they also suggest that metabolic acceleration is related to spawning season. High metabolic acceleration of demersal species is associated with summer-autumn spawning in the Mediterranean, where temperature is high and food availability is low.

  1. Atlas of Northwestern Mediterranean Coccolithophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Cros

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The present Atlas contains a detailed study, based in scanning electron microscopy (SEM observations, of living coccolithophores from NW Mediterranean waters. The study contains 103 figures with 411 micrographs, which correspond to 168 coccolithophores (including different taxonomic and morphotypic entities. The figured specimens were collected during different cruises carried out from 1995 to 1999.Classification of the organisms follows modern taxonomy of living calcareous nannoplankton. Measures of the specimens and notes on their taxonomy are given in addition to abridged descriptions of the studied taxa. The atlas contains a large number of previously undescribed forms, specially in the genera Syracosphaera, Papposphaera, Polycrater, Anthosphaera, Corisphaera and Sphaerocalyptra. Several species never illustrated in the literature are presented here for the first time. Coccospheres having coccoliths of different recognized species are presented. These combination coccospheres are nowadays considered as transitional steps between different phases in the cellular life-cycle. An introduction with a brief overview of the actual coccolithophore knowledge and an abridged glossary with figures of the basic terminology are included.

  2. Mediterranean diet, culture and heritage: challenges for a new conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier Medina, F

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present article is to discuss the role of the Mediterranean diet as a part of Human Culture and Intangible Cultural Heritage. Until the present, Mediterranean diet has been observed as a healthy model of medical behaviour. After its proposal as a Cultural Heritage of the Humanity at UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), Mediterranean diet is actually being observed as a part of Mediterranean culture and starting its concept as an equivalent of Mediterranean Cultural Food System or Mediterranean Culinary System. At the candidacy of Mediterranean diet as a World Cultural Intangible Heritage to be presented at UNESCO in 2008, this new conception is making sense. A new point of view that will be capital in the future discussions about the Mediterranean diet, their challenges and their future perspectives.

  3. Multiyear impacts of partial throughfall exclusion on Buxus sempervirens in a Mediterranean forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rodríguez-Calcerrada

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: We examined the impact of sustained partial throughfall exclusion on the functional performance of Buxus sempervirens L. in the understory of a Mediterranean evergreen forest. We further considered whether any impacts of throughfall exclusion were affected by light availability.Area of study: The study was conducted in the south of France.Material and methods: Several leaf physiological and branch structural traits were measured along a light gradient after seven years from the onset of a throughfall exclusion experiment (TEE. The results were analysed along with annual growth and survival data.Main results: Plant mortality was nil in both the throughfall exclusion and control treatments. Stem diameter growth was reduced by 39% in plants subjected to throughfall exclusion, but this difference was only significant at the p = 0.10 significance level. Leaf physiology remained unaffected by the TEE, but small changes were evident in branch structural traits in high light microsites following throughfall exclusion; branches had lower wood density in the TEE plot, and more biomass was partitioned to leaves relative to stems.Research highlights: These changes do not seem to reflect an acclimatory response that would enhance drought tolerance. Instead, we suggest that these drought effects might exacerbate vulnerability to xylem cavitation in the more open microsites. Reduced growth and increased vulnerability to drought may indicate an incipient decline in plant vitality following TEE. The extension of observations to the whole-plant level and longer periods will elucidate the consequences of these observations for plant fitness, and permit verification of the positive effect of shade on Buxus sempervirens under increased drought.Key words: common box; drought susceptibility; shade; rainfall manipulation; abiotic stress; long-term study.

  4. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  5. Presence of understory shrubs constrains carbon gain in sunflecks by advance-regeneration seedlings: evidence from Quercus Rubra seedling grouwing in understory forest patches with or without evergreen shrubs present

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.T. Nilsen; T.T. Lei; S.W. Semones

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether dynamic photosynthesis of understory Quercus rubra L. (Fagaceae) seedlings can acclimate to the altered pattern of sunflecks in forest patches with Rhododendron maximum L. (Ericaceae), an understory evergreen shrub. Maximum photosynthesis (A) and total CO2 accumulated during lightflecks was greatest for 400-s lightflecks, intermediate for 150-s...

  6. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  7. Endophytic Fungi of Various Medicinal Plants Collected From Evergreen Forest Baluran National Park and Its Potential as Laboratory Manual for Mycology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Murdiyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic fungi found on a variety of medicinal plants may express particular benefit. These fungi provide an alternative to overcome the progressive microbial resistance and as an effort to combat infectious diseases that became one of the leading causes of mortality. The main objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi from leaf samples of five medicinal plants species collected from evergreen forests Baluran National Park and its use as laboratory manual for Micology. Research findings showed there were 3 isolates of endophytic fungi isolated from 2 medicinal plants namely Kesambi (Schleicera oleosa and Ketapang (Terminalia catappa. All three isolates formed sporangiophores as asexual reproductive structures, while the structure of sexual still undiscovered therefore its classification has not been determined. The validity tests also showed that the lab manual is feasible for use with the percentage achievement 85.37% and 88.56%.

  8. The Evergreen basin and the role of the Silver Creek fault in the San Andreas fault system, San Francisco Bay region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jachens, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Graymer, Russell W.; Williams, Robert; Ponce, David A.; Mankinen, Edward A.; Stephenson, William J.; Langenheim, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    The Evergreen basin is a 40-km-long, 8-km-wide Cenozoic sedimentary basin that lies mostly concealed beneath the northeastern margin of the Santa Clara Valley near the south end of San Francisco Bay (California, USA). The basin is bounded on the northeast by the strike-slip Hayward fault and an approximately parallel subsurface fault that is structurally overlain by a set of west-verging reverse-oblique faults which form the present-day southeastward extension of the Hayward fault. It is bounded on the southwest by the Silver Creek fault, a largely dormant or abandoned fault that splays from the active southern Calaveras fault. We propose that the Evergreen basin formed as a strike-slip pull-apart basin in the right step from the Silver Creek fault to the Hayward fault during a time when the Silver Creek fault served as a segment of the main route by which slip was transferred from the central California San Andreas fault to the Hayward and other East Bay faults. The dimensions and shape of the Evergreen basin, together with palinspastic reconstructions of geologic and geophysical features surrounding it, suggest that during its lifetime, the Silver Creek fault transferred a significant portion of the ∼100 km of total offset accommodated by the Hayward fault, and of the 175 km of total San Andreas system offset thought to have been accommodated by the entire East Bay fault system. As shown previously, at ca. 1.5–2.5 Ma the Hayward-Calaveras connection changed from a right-step, releasing regime to a left-step, restraining regime, with the consequent effective abandonment of the Silver Creek fault. This reorganization was, perhaps, preceded by development of the previously proposed basin-bisecting Mount Misery fault, a fault that directly linked the southern end of the Hayward fault with the southern Calaveras fault during extinction of pull-apart activity. Historic seismicity indicates that slip below a depth of 5 km is mostly transferred from the Calaveras

  9. The effect of water and nitrogen amendments on photosynthesis, leaf demography, and resource-use efficiency in Larrea tridentata, a desert evergreen shrub.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, Kate; Whitford, Walter G

    1989-08-01

    In the Chihuahuan Desert of southern New Mexico, both water and nitrogen limit the primary productivity of Larrea tridentata, a xerophytic evergreen shrub. Net photosynthesis was positively correlated to leaf N, but only in plants that received supplemental water. Nutrient-use efficiency, defined as photosynthetic carbon gain per unit N invested in leaf tissue, declined with increasing leaf N. However, water-use efficiency, defined as the ratio of photosynthesis to transpiration, increased with increasing leaf N, and thus these two measures of resource-use efficiency were inversely correlated. Resorption efficiency was not significantly altered over the nutrient gradient, nor was it affected by irrigation treatments. Leaf longevity decreased significantly with fertilization although the absolute magnitude of this decrease was fairly small, in part due to a large background of insect-induced mortality. Age-specific gas exchange measurements support the hypothesis that leaf aging represents a redistribution of resources, rather than actual deterioration or declining resource-use efficiency.

  10. Vegetation Response and Landscape Dynamics of Indian Summer Monsoon Variations during Holocene: An Eco-Geomorphological Appraisal of Tropical Evergreen Forest Subfossil Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Navnith K. P.; Padmalal, Damodaran; Nair, Madhavan K.; Limaye, Ruta B.; Guleria, Jaswant S.; Srivastava, Rashmi; Shukla, Anumeha

    2014-01-01

    The high rainfall and low sea level during Early Holocene had a significant impact on the development and sustenance of dense forest and swamp-marsh cover along the southwest coast of India. This heavy rainfall flooded the coastal plains, forest flourishing in the abandoned river channels and other low-lying areas in midland.The coastline and other areas in lowland of southwestern India supply sufficient evidence of tree trunks of wet evergreen forests getting buried during the Holocene period under varying thickness of clay, silty-clay and even in sand sequences. This preserved subfossil log assemblage forms an excellent proxy for eco-geomorphological and palaeoclimate appraisal reported hitherto from Indian subcontinent, and complements the available palynological data. The bulk of the subfossil logs and partially carbonized wood remains have yielded age prior to the Holocene transgression of 6.5 k yrs BP, suggesting therein that flooding due to heavy rainfall drowned the forest cover, even extending to parts of the present shelf. These preserved logs represent a unique palaeoenvironmental database as they contain observable cellular structure. Some of them can even be compared to modern analogues. As these woods belong to the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, they form a valuable source of climate data that alleviates the lack of contemporaneous meteorological records. These palaeoforests along with pollen proxies depict the warmer environment in this region, which is consistent with a Mid Holocene Thermal Maximum often referred to as Holocene Climate Optimum. Thus, the subfossil logs of tropical evergreen forests constitute new indices of Asian palaeomonsoon, while their occurrence and preservation are attributed to eco-geomorphology and hydrological regimes associated with the intensified Asian Summer Monsoon, as recorded elsewhere. PMID:24727672

  11. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  12. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  13. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  14. Mediterranean seabird conservation: what can we do?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Mínguez

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities in the Mediterranean determine, to a large extent, the availability of food and breeding sites for seabirds, the two most important ecological requirements for breeding seabirds. Food availability is highly dependent on fisheries activities and the availability of breeding sites is largely related with tourism pressure. Conservation plans necessarily need to incorporate the fact that Mediterranean seabirds and human activities are forced partners. However, solutions are complex because fishing policies are not commonly designed by environmental agencies and also because seabirds are organized in metapopulations which do not coincide with administrative borders. In this monographic volume, several authors describe the main characteristics of the Mediterranean seabird community, identify its conservation problems and suggest a number of technical solutions.

  15. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason......, crop management technologies have been developed, with a special focus on the Mediterranean region, to enhance crop production by increasing land productivity and sustaining soil fertility under influence of climate changes and population increases. The main objective of this study was to analyse...... dryland Mediterranean cropping systems, and to discuss and recommend sustainable cropping technologies that could be used at the small-scale farm level. Four crop management practices were evaluated: crop rotations, reduced tillage, use of organic manure, and supplemental and deficit irrigation. Among...

  16. Acoustic thermometry of the western Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarsoulis, E. K.; Send, U.; Piperakis, G.; Testor, P.

    2004-08-01

    Ocean acoustic tomography is used to obtain heat-content estimates for the western Mediterranean basin. Travel-time data from 13 tomography sections of the Thetis-2 experiment (January-October 1994) are analyzed with a matched-peak inversion approach. The underlying analysis involves the use of peak arrivals and nonlinear model relations between travel-time and sound-speed variations. Slice inversion results are combined with temperature covariance functions for the western Mediterranean to obtain heat-content estimates for the basin. These estimates compare favorably with ECMWF data over the nine-month period of the Thetis-2 experiment. Furthermore, estimates for the basin-average temperature of the western Mediterranean deep water are obtained.

  17. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  18. Offshore wind mapping Mediterranean area using SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface, for example from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often...... with long periods of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models...

  19. Severe Weather Guide Mediterranean Ports. 40. Bizerte

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    TUNISIA 10 MALAGA, SPAIN *41 TUNIS, TUNISIA 11 NICE, FRANCE *42 SOUSSE, TUNISIA 12 CANNES, FRANCE *43 SFAX , TUNISIA 13 MONACO *44 SOUDA BAY, CRETE 14...mountains before moving over the Mediterranean Sea across the coast of Tunisia at about 35"N, roughly between Sfax and Sousse. NE’ly winds at Bizerte may...follow an E’ly track S of the Atlas mountains before moving over the Mediterranean Sea across the coast of Tunisia at about 35"N, roughly between Sfax

  20. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...... Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...

  1. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...... agronomic and environmental factors. Our objective is to determine the general principles underlying how, in Mediterranean environments, grain protein content (GPC) is affected by these factors and provide a system model with high predictive ability. We initially evaluated the capability of the Delphi...

  2. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    to 5 Gyres protocol. Microplastics (5mm) across all sites. Abundance decreased with increasing distance from the coast of Palermo to the open sea, with the highest abundance (20717 particles per Km2) observed at the Sicilian coast. Fragments were......The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh....... This is the first study to assess plastic pollution levels in SW Mediterranean Sea....

  3. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 provides insights into the energy situation today and over the next two decades in the Mediterranean region. Its detailed data and analyses are of interest to stakeholders on both the supply and demand sides of the energy equation. This is the third edition in the MEP series, which highlights the extensive work of OME (Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie). This outlook draws upon the expertise of OME and its members. MEP 2011 provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in the Mediterranean. It presents data ranging from the early days of the region's energy industry to the situation today and an outlook to 2030, based on OME's supply and demand model, the Mediterranean Energy Model. Current efforts related to renewable energy sources and energy efficiency are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Mediterranean energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the region. MEP 2011 presents: - A description of the Mediterranean countries in a global context. - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Mediterranean energy sector. - Energy demand to 2030, including two cases: the Conservative and Proactive Scenarios. - Trends in past, present and future oil and natural gas production and development. - Existing and planned oil and gas infrastructure. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments in innovative and renewable energy sources. - In-depth analysis of energy efficiency measures and policies. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. MEP 2011 has been prepared by a joint-team of OME experts supported by related companies and independent expertise. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture of the energy industry and markets in the Mediterranean, the way they operate and their long

  4. Bacterial colonization of the phyllosphere of mediterranean perennial species as influenced by leaf structural and chemical features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R K P; Karamanoli, K; Vokou, D

    2005-08-01

    In this study, we assessed various leaf structural and chemical features as possible predictors of the size of the phyllosphere bacterial population in the Mediterranean environment. We examined eight perennial species, naturally occurring and coexisting in the same area, in Halkidiki (northern Greece). They are Arbutus unedo, Quercus coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus, and Myrtus communis (evergreen sclerophyllous species), Lavandula stoechas and Cistus incanus (drought semi-deciduous species), and Calamintha nepeta and Melissa officinalis (non-woody perennial species). M. communis, L. stoechas, C. nepeta, and M. officinalis produce essential oil in substantial quantities. We sampled summer leaves from these species and (1) estimated the size of the bacterial population of their phyllosphere, (2) estimated the concentration of different leaf constituents, and (3) studied leaf morphological and anatomical features and expressed them in a quantitative way. The aromatic plants are on average more highly colonized than the other species, whereas the non-woody perennials are more highly colonized than the woody species. The population size of epiphytic bacteria is positively correlated with glandular and non-glandular trichome densities, and with water and phosphorus contents; it is negatively correlated with total phenolics content and the thickness of the leaf, of the mesophyll, and of the abaxial epidermis. No correlation was found with the density of stomata, the nitrogen, and the soluble sugar contents. By regression tree analysis, we found that the leaf-microbe system can be effectively described by three leaf attributes with leaf water content being the primary explanatory attribute. Leaves with water content >73% are the most highly colonized. For leaves with water content 1.34 mg g(-1) d.w.) are more colonized, and leaves with the adaxial epidermis thicker than 20.77 microm are the least colonized. Although these critical attributes and values hold true only within

  5. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  6. Screening of three Mediterranean phenylketonuria mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as the most frequent mutation (Dahri et al. 2010). The. E280K mutation was also reported in Mediterranean popu- lations (Guldberg et al. 1993). Since Tunisia is a Mediter- ranean country, patients with PKU are presumed to have these mutations. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of the three above mutations ...

  7. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north.

  8. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.

    2006-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming

  9. Southeast Asian history and the Mediterranean analogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutherland, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Historians of Southeast Asia have been inspired by Fernand Braudel's classic The Mediterranean because of its focus on the sea and multidisciplinary approach, and because it seems to solve two recalcitrant historiographical problems: the definition of time and space, and the reconciliation of local

  10. DIETARY HABITS OF A MEDITERRANEAN POPULATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SWEET

    in urban areas in El Jadida, a costal province of Moroccowas selected. Dietary habits were assessed using a combination of a 24-h dietary recall during 3 non consecutive days ... model, epidemiological evidence suggests that dietary patterns in the Mediterranean ..... as well as heart disease and colon cancer [37].

  11. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  12. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including
    abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia,
    and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type

  13. Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology : A Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply

  14. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the

  15. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  16. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  17. Distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, as compared with those of the eastern Chinese subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang, C. Q.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the geographic distribution patterns of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests of southwestern China, and compares with other subtropical regions in the east of China in terms of forest types, pertinent species, and spatial distribution along latitudinal, longitudinal and altitudinal gradients. In general, for both the western and the eastern subtropical regions, the evergreen broad-leaved forests are dominated by species of Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia, and Michelia, (Magnoliaceae, while in southwestern China there are more diverse forest types including semi-humid, monsoon, mid-montane moist and humid evergreen broad-leaved forests, but only monsoon and humid forests in the east. The Yunnan area has more varied species of Lithocarpus or Cyclobalanopsis or Castanopsis as dominants than does eastern China, where the chief dominant genus is Castanopsis. The upper limits of the evergreen broad-leaved forests are mainly 2400–2800 m in western Yunnan and western Sichuan, much higher than in eastern China (600–1500, but 2500 m in Taiwan. Also discussed are the environmental effects on plant diversity of the evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystems exemplified by Yunnan and Taiwan.En este trabajo se analiza los patrones de distribución geográfica de los bosques subtropicales perennifolios de hoja ancha del suroeste de china, y se comparan con los de otras regiones subtropicales del este de China en términos de tipología de bosque, especies relevantes, y distribución espacial a lo largo de un gradiente latitudinal, longitudinal y altitudinal. De manera general, los bosques perennifolios de hoja ancha de la regiones subtropicales tanto orientales como occidentales presentan dominancia de especies de Castanopsis, Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsis (Fagaceae, Machilus, Cinnamomum (Lauraceae, Schima (Theaceae, Manglietia y Michelia

  18. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  19. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  20. Mediterranean dietary pattern and chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panico, Salvatore; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Camilla; Chiodini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The study of the relationship between the Mediterranean way of eating and the occurrence of diseases typical of the economically developed countries has been considered the starting point of nutritional epidemiology. From the Seven Countries Study in the 1950s to the recent European EPIC collaboration, the evaluation of the components of diet-affecting chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer has been crucially based on the analysis of foods and nutrients characterizing the Mediterranean dietary habits. This long research history has been marked by a consistency of data over time when either single nutrients/food groups or more complex dietary patterns have been analyzed: The Mediterranean way of eating is a protective tool from cardiovascular diseases and many cancers. Italy has been a natural point of observation, starting from cardiovascular disease in the mid-1950s and continuing with major cancers. In spite of unfavorable lifestyle changes in the Italian population mostly due to globalization of unhealthy habits (richer diet and lower levels of physical activity), those individuals still close to the Mediterranean style are significantly protected. The very recent Italian data derived from the observation of about 50,000 individuals, participating in the Italian cohorts of the EPIC study, confirm these findings and are consistent with results from other European populations and in some cases also from North American populations. Moreover, several dietary trials suggest that such a way of eating improves both the metabolic risk condition for chronic disease and the occurrence of those diseases. In conclusion, a way of eating inspired by a Mediterranean dietary pattern is not only based on evidence but is also a palatable style that has contributed to protection from the epidemic of chronic diseases.

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  2. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  3. LA DEFORESTACIÓN DEL BOSQUE SIEMPRE VERDE EN SOROA CANDELARIA, ARTEMISA, CUBA THE DEFORESTATION OF THE EVERGREEN FOREST IN SOROA CANDELARIA, ARTEMISA, CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidel González Díaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La acción depredadora del hombre ha incidido en la desaparición de especies que identifican al bosque siempre verde. Este artículo demuestra el efecto de la deforestación del bosque en la comunidad de Soroa del municipio Candelaria, Artemisa, Cuba así como las potencialidades existentes en el área para revertir la actual situación, desde una perspectiva económica, social y ambiental. El objetivo es evaluar la incidencia de la proximidad a la comunidad sobre la afectación de las especies del bosque siempre verde en Soroa. Se seleccionaron al azar 20 parcelas en las cuales se contabilizó la abundancia de especies forestales, midiéndose también la distancia hasta la comunidad y el diámetro de árboles y arbustos. Se aplicó la regresión logística binaria para estimar la probabilidad de encontrar una proporción superior al 25% de las especies características de la zona, se calcularon los índices de diversidad y equidad, en los estratos arbóreos y arbustivos que fueron comparados con la aplicación de la prueba de rangos con signos de Wilcoxon. Se formaron así dos grupos, uno en que la distancia desde la comunidad es inferior a 2,5 km y el otro para una distancia mayor o igual a 2,5 km. Se realizó la prueba U de Mann Whitney para comparar los diámetros en los dos grupos, demostrándose con ello que la actividad antrópica es una de las causas que incide en la deforestación del bosque siempre verde del macizo montañoso en Candelaria.The negative man’s action on the forest has impacted in the disappearance of many species that belong to the evergreen forest. The present investigation demonstrate the grade of interference on the forest in the community of Soroa, Candelaria, Artemisa, Cuba and the existent potentialities in the area to revert this situation, from an economic, social and environmental perspective. The objective is to evaluate the influence of the proximity to community in the affectation of species to the

  4. Deepened winter snow increases stem growth and alters stem δ13C and δ15N in evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona in high-arctic Svalbard tundra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, Daan; Michelsen, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Weijers, Stef; Löffler, Jörg; Welker, Jeffrey M; Cooper, Elisabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Deeper winter snow is hypothesized to favor shrub growth and may partly explain the shrub expansion observed in many parts of the arctic during the last decades, potentially triggering biophysical feedbacks including regional warming and permafrost thawing. We experimentally tested the effects of winter snow depth on shrub growth and ecophysiology by measuring stem length and stem hydrogen (δ 2 H), carbon (δ 13 C), nitrogen (δ 15 N) and oxygen (δ 18 O) isotopic composition of the circumarctic evergreen dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona growing in high-arctic Svalbard, Norway. Measurements were carried out on C. tetragona individuals sampled from three tundra sites, each representing a distinct moisture regime (dry heath, meadow, moist meadow). Individuals were sampled along gradients of experimentally manipulated winter snow depths in a six-year old snow fence experiment: in ambient (c. 20 cm), medium (c. 100 cm), and deep snow (c. 150 cm) plots. The deep-snow treatment consistently and significantly increased C. tetragona growth during the 2008–2011 manipulation period compared to growth in ambient-snow plots. Stem δ 15 N and stem N concentration values were significantly higher in deep-snow individuals compared to individuals growing in ambient-snow plots during the course of the experiment, suggesting that soil N-availability was increased in deep-snow plots as a result of increased soil winter N mineralization. Although inter-annual growing season-precipitation δ 2 H and stem δ 2 H records closely matched, snow depth did not change stem δ 2 H or δ 18 O, suggesting that water source usage by C. tetragona was unaltered. Instead, the deep insulating snowpack may have protected C. tetragona shrubs against frost damage, potentially compensating the detrimental effects of a shortened growing season and associated phenological delay on growth. Our findings suggest that an increase in winter precipitation in the High Arctic, as predicted by climate models, has

  5. Temperature profiles from expendable bathythermograph (XBT) casts from the USCGC EVERGREEN in the East Coast - US/Canada in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project from 1978-02-16 to 1978-02-27 (NODC Accession 7800196)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected from the USCGC EVERGREEN in support of the Integrated Global Ocean Services System (IGOSS) project. Data were collected by the US Coast Guard...

  6. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-10-14

    Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine. Using a superb methodology, they followed-up 23,902 participants for 12.2 years on average and observed several thousand incident cases.The results of this cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular events. These findings support the transferability of this dietary pattern beyond the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The authors provided measures of population impact in cardiovascular prevention and estimated that 19,375 cases of cardiovascular death would be prevented each year in the UK by promoting the Mediterranean Diet.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0677-4 .

  7. Genetic diversity and evolution of Bradyrhizobium populations nodulating Erythrophleum fordii, an evergreen tree indigenous to the southern subtropical region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Wang, Rui; Lu, Jun Kun; Sui, Xin Hua; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Xin

    2014-10-01

    The nodulation of Erythrophleum fordii has been recorded recently, but its microsymbionts have never been studied. To investigate the diversity and biogeography of rhizobia associated with this leguminous evergreen tree, root nodules were collected from the southern subtropical region of China. A total of 166 bacterial isolates were obtained from the nodules and characterized. In a PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of ribosomal intergenic sequences, the isolates were classified into 22 types within the genus Bradyrhizobium. Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, ribosomal intergenic spacer (IGS), and the housekeeping genes recA and glnII classified the isolates into four groups: the Bradyrhizobium elkanii and Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi groups, comprising the dominant symbionts, Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense, and an unclassified group comprising the minor symbionts. The nodC and nifH phylogenetic trees defined five or six lineages among the isolates, which was largely consistent with the definition of genomic species. The phylogenetic results and evolutionary analysis demonstrated that mutation and vertical transmission of genes were the principal processes for the divergent evolution of Bradyrhizobium species associated with E. fordii, while lateral transfer and recombination of housekeeping and symbiotic genes were rare. The distribution of the dominant rhizobial populations was affected by soil pH and effective phosphorus. This is the first report to characterize E. fordii rhizobia. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Insights into the historical assembly of East Asian subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests revealed by the temporal history of the tea family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Qin; Gao, Lian-Ming; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Yang, Jun-Bo; Fang, Liang; Yang, Shi-Xiong; Li, De-Zhu

    2017-08-01

    Subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests (EBLFs) inhabit large areas of East Asia. Although paleovegetation reconstructions have revealed that the subtropical EBLFs existed in Southwest China during the Miocene, the historical construction of these forests remains poorly known. Here, we used the tea family (Theaceae), a characteristic component of the subtropical EBLFs, to gain new insights into the assembly of this important biome. Using a robust phylogenetic framework of Theaceae based on plastome and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence data, the temporal history of the family was reconstructed. Data from other characteristic components of subtropical EBLFs, including Fagaceae, Lauraceae and Magnoliaceae, were also integrated. Most of the essential elements of the subtropical EBLFs appear to have originated around the Oligocene-Miocene (O-M) boundary. However, small woody lineages (e.g. Camellia, Hartia) from Theaceae were dated to the late Miocene. Accelerated net diversification rates within Theaceae were also detected near the O-M transition period and the late Miocene. Our results suggest that two independent intensifications of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) around the O-M boundary and the late Miocene may have facilitated the historical assembly of the subtropical EBLFs in East Asia. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Non-structural carbohydrates regulated by season and species in the subtropical monsoon broad-leaved evergreen forest of Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wande; Su, Jianrong; Li, Shuaifeng; Lang, Xuedong; Huang, Xiaobo

    2018-01-18

    Non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) play important roles in adapting to environments in plants. Despite extensive research on the seasonal dynamics and species differences of NSC, the relative contributions of season and species to NSC is not well understood. We measured the concentration of starch, soluble sugar, NSC, and the soluble sugar:starch ratio in leaves, twigs, trunks and roots of twenty dominant species for dry and wet season in monsoon broad-leaved evergreen forest, respectively. The majority of concentration of NSC and starch in the roots, and the leaves contained the highest concentration of soluble sugar. A seasonal variation in starch and NSC concentrations higher in the dry season. Conversely, the wet season samples had higher concentration of soluble sugar and the sugar:starch ratio. Significant differences exist for starch, soluble sugar and NSC concentrations and the sugar:starch ratio across species. Most species had higher starch and NSC concentrations in the dry season and higher soluble sugar concentration and the sugar:starch ratio in wet season. Repeated variance analysis showed that starch and NSC concentrations were strongly affected by season although the effect of seasons, species, and the interaction of the two on the starch, soluble sugar, and NSC concentrations were significant.

  10. Water and tourism on Mediterranean islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igel, Wolf von; Candela, Lucila [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences Dept.

    2005-07-01

    An increased tourism development has taken place in the Mediterranean basin. This has induced some positive and negative consequences over diverse aspects of life and the natural system. One important consequence has been the increasing pressure put on natural resources, namely on fresh water resources. The patterns of water use related to tourism activity that lead to a situation of scarcity of water resources in a Mediterranean islands context are presented. Next are presented the main problems of hydrological, environmental and socio-economic nature that are a consequence of the increasing tourism development and accompanying increasing scarcity of water resources. As one of these main problems is often the insufficient water supply to meet the water demand, a discussion of the pros and cons of the diverse alternatives to increase the water supply and an explanation of some alternatives to control the water demand are presented. (orig.)

  11. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  13. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  14. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

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    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  15. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (December 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. THESSALOU-LEGAKI

    2012-12-01

    Isl., Aegean Sea and the bryozoan Electra tenella (Livorno harbour and Messina Straits area. The alien fish Siganus luridus, Siganus rivulatus, Fistularia commersonii, Sphyraena chrysotaenia and Sargocentron rubrum are also reported from the islands of Karpathos and Chalki, and Pteragogus pelycus from Heraklion Bay, Crete. In addition, new localities for four rare Mediterranean inhabitants are given: the cephalopod Thysanoteuthis rhombus (NW Sardinia and the fish: Lampris guttatus (Calabria, S Italy, Petromyzon marinus (Gokova Bay and Remora australis (Saronikos Gulf, while the opisthobranch gastropod Cerberilla bernadettae is reported for the first time from the E Mediterranean (Cyprus. Finally, three species of the Aegean ascidiofauna are recorded for the first time: Lissoclinum perforatum, Ciona roulei and Ecteinascidia turbinata. Furthermore, it was established that Phallusia nigra has extended its distributional range to the north of the Aegean Sea.

  16. Mediterranean Diet in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Meryem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bad eating habits lead to the emergence of chronic health problems such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cancer and obesity and the relationship between diet and diseases is emphasized and the relationship between them is clearly revealed in studies conducted over many years. The Mediterranean diet, which is first described by Angel Keys at the beginning of the 1960’s, is not a specific diet but a natural way of eating in olive-growing region. With the properties such as the use of vegetable oils such as olive oil in particular, and the consumption of fish instead of red meat, the diet constitutes a health-protective nutrition. So, this review conducted the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases.

  17. The mediterranean policy of the EC— The case of industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ashoff, Guido; Hummen, Wilhelm

    1983-01-01

    The European Community faces the task of reformulating its Mediterranean policy in the light of the rather disappointing experience with the “Global Mediterranean Policy” adopted in 1972, the effects of the southward enlargement of the Community and the changed world economic climate. The article that follows discusses the experiences to date, the scope for action and possible guidelines for a future Mediterranean policy in the industrial sphere.

  18. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  19. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Environmentally driven synchronies of Mediterranean cephalopod populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Stefanie; Quetglas, Antoni; Puerta, Patricia; Bitetto, Isabella; Casciaro, Loredana; Cuccu, Danila; Esteban, Antonio; Garcia, Cristina; Garofalo, Germana; Guijarro, Beatriz; Josephides, Marios; Jadaud, Angelique; Lefkaditou, Evgenia; Maiorano, Porzia; Manfredi, Chiara; Marceta, Bojan; Micallef, Reno; Peristeraki, Panagiota; Relini, Giulio; Sartor, Paolo; Spedicato, Maria Teresa; Tserpes, George; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is characterized by large scale gradients of temperature, productivity and salinity, in addition to pronounced mesoscale differences. Such a heterogeneous system is expected to shape the population dynamics of marine species. On the other hand, prevailing environmental and climatic conditions at whole basin scale may force spatially distant populations to fluctuate in synchrony. Cephalopods are excellent case studies to test these hypotheses owing to their high sensitivity to environmental conditions. Data of two cephalopod species with contrasting life histories (benthic octopus vs nectobenthic squid), obtained from scientific surveys carried out throughout the Mediterranean during the last 20 years were analyzed. The objectives of this study and the methods used to achieve them (in parentheses) were: (i) to investigate synchronies in spatially separated populations (decorrelation analysis); (ii) detect underlying common abundance trends over distant regions (dynamic factor analysis, DFA); and (iii) analyse putative influences of key environmental drivers such as productivity and sea surface temperature on the population dynamics at regional scale (general linear models, GLM). In accordance with their contrasting spatial mobility, the distance from where synchrony could no longer be detected (decorrelation scale) was higher in squid than in octopus (349 vs 217 km); for comparison, the maximum distance between locations was 2620 km. The DFA revealed a general increasing trend in the abundance of both species in most areas, which agrees with the already reported worldwide proliferation of cephalopods. DFA results also showed that population dynamics are more similar in the eastern than in the western Mediterranean basin. According to the GLM models, cephalopod populations were negatively affected by productivity, which would be explained by an increase of competition and predation by fishes. While warmer years coincided with declining octopus

  1. Projected acidification of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, J. C.; Le Vu, B.; Palmieri, J.; Dutay, J. C.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.

    2016-02-01

    The Mediterranean Sea's acidification rate is under debate. Its 10% higher alkalinity relative to that of average ocean waters, makes it chemically more capable to absorb CO2. That capacity is further enhanced by the rapid ventilation of its deep waters. Some data-based studies suggest that that extra carbon uptake causes larger changes in surface and deep pH than found in open-ocean waters. Yet simplified model simulations over the industrial era suggest otherwise. Here we offer the first projections of Mediterranean Sea acidification over the 21st century. Our projections rely on a regional climate model, which couples the ARPEGE atmospheric model to the NEMO-MED8 regional eddying ocean model under historical forcing followed by the IPCC A2 scenario over the 21st century. Those model results are used here to drive an offline configuration of the same ocean model including natural and anthropogenic carbon. Simulations were made with and without increasing CO2 and with and without climate change. With both, the level of free acidity ([H+]) doubles during 1860 to 2100 as does the seasonal amplitude of [H+]. But the seasonal amplitude of pH actually declines slightly (because of its log scale, Δ pH represents a relative change in [H+]). And although the projected change in surface pH is quite similar between average ocean waters and the Mediterranean, corresponding changes in [H+] are somewhat lower in the Med. Once again, changes on a log scale can be misleading. The pH changes are mostly due to increasing atmospheric CO2, but climate change substantially worsens the perturbation in parts of the western basin; conversely, previous studies suggest that climate change has virtually no overall effect on pH. Thus under the above scenario, the Mediterranean Sea is projected to experience a doubling of its natural level of free acidity along with similar enhancement to its seasonal extremes during the 21st century.

  2. pandemic in the eastern Mediterranean region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mediterranean region. The possibility of a new influenza A pandemic has alarmed health authorities worldwide. Guan et al. (1) summarized the actual situation of the novel reassortment A influenza H7N9 (nrH7N9) in China and presented the data of confirmed cases with nrH7N9 (1). Although until May 2013, only 60 cases ...

  3. The alarming decline of Mediterranean fish stocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakopoulos, Paraskevas; Maravelias, Christos D; Tserpes, George

    2014-07-21

    In recent years, fisheries management has succeeded in stabilizing and even improving the state of many global fisheries resources [1-5]. This is particularly evident in areas where stocks are exploited in compliance with scientific advice and strong institutional structures are in place [1, 5]. In Europe, the well-managed northeast (NE) Atlantic fish stocks have been recovering in response to decreasing fishing pressure over the past decade [3-6], albeit with a long way to go for a universal stock rebuild [3, 7]. Meanwhile, little is known about the temporal development of the European Mediterranean stocks, whose management relies on input controls that are often poorly enforced. Here, we perform a meta-analysis of 42 European Mediterranean stocks of nine species in 1990-2010, showing that exploitation rate has been steadily increasing, selectivity (proportional exploitation of juveniles) has been deteriorating, and stocks have been shrinking. We implement species-specific simulation models to quantify changes in exploitation rate and selectivity that would maximize long-term yields and halt stock depletion. We show that stocks would be more resilient to fishing and produce higher long-term yields if harvested a few years after maturation because current selectivity is far from optimal, especially for demersal stocks. The European Common Fisheries Policy that has assisted in improving the state of NE Atlantic fish stocks in the past 10 years has failed to deliver similar results for Mediterranean stocks managed under the same policy. Limiting juvenile exploitation, advancing management plans, and strengthening compliance, control, and enforcement could promote fisheries sustainability in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Mediterranean diet in a world context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandratos, Nikos

    2006-02-01

    To put the debate on the Mediterranean diet in context by highlighting historical and prospective changes in the level and composition of food consumption in the world and key Mediterranean countries. Data from FAO's food balance sheets are used to illustrate historical evolution. Projections to 2030 are presented from FAO's recent and ongoing work on exploring world food and agriculture futures. International. Many developing countries are undergoing diet transitions bringing them closer to the diets prevalent in the richer countries, i.e. with more energy-dense foods. There follows an increase in the incidence of diet-related non-communicable diseases, which are superimposed on the health problems related to undernutrition that still afflict them. In parallel, many low-income countries are making little progress towards raising food consumption levels necessary for good nutrition and food security. Wider adoption of food consumption patterns akin to those of the Mediterranean diet hold promise of contributing to mitigate adverse effects of such diet transitions. However, the evolution of food consumption in the Mediterranean countries themselves is not encouraging, as these countries have also followed the trend towards higher shares of energy-dense foods. Possible policy responses to these problems include measures to raise awareness of the benefits of healthier diets and/or to change relative food prices in favour of such diets (by taxing fattening foods) or, at the extreme, making individuals who follow 'bad' diets, and thus are prone to associated diseases, bear a higher part of the consequent costs borne by the public health systems (tax fat people).

  5. Bryozoa from the Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. SOKOLOVER

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of global warming on the composition of marine biotas is increasing, underscoring the need for better baseline information on the species currently present in given areas. Little is known about the bryozoan fauna of Israel; the most recent publication concerning species from the Mediterranean coast was based on samples collected in the 1960s and 1970s. Since that time, not only have the species present in this region changed, but so too has our understanding of bryozoan taxonomy. Here we use samples collected during the last decade to identify 47 bryozoan species, of which 15 are first records for the Levantine basin. These include one new genus and species (Crenulatella levantinensis gen. et. sp. nov., two new species (Licornia vieirai sp. nov. and Trematooecia mikeli sp. nov., and two species that may be new but for which available material is inadequate for formal description (Reteporella sp. and Thalamoporella sp.. In addition, Conopeum ponticum is recorded for the first time from the Mediterranean Sea. Non-indigenous species make up almost one-quarter of the 47 species identified. All of the non-indigenous species are native to tropical and subtropical regions, implying a change of the Levant bryozoan biota from a temperate to a more tropical state, probably related to both higher temperature and salinity and to the opening of the Suez Canal connecting the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean.

  6. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  8. The Mediterranean as a Zone of Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Balta

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding that the Mediterranean is a region whose most well-known specificity is the existence of conflicts, Paul Balta’s article revises the principal antagonisms and their respective causes, distinguishing between the conflicts that have their origin in the distant past and those which are characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century. On one side are the inherited conflicts from the past and their links to the three monotheistic denominations which weigh in the imagination of the peoples. The inheritances that mark Mediterranean societies recall the denominational fractures among Christianity, Judaism and Islam, as well as the schisms between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox camps and the Sunnis and the Shiites. Highlighting these types of clashes are the Arab-Israeli dispute, the conflicts in ex-Yugoslavia, and ethnic-religious antagonisms like the existing one between Greece and Turkey. On the other hand, among the open and potential conflicts characteristic of the second half of the twentieth century the author mentions those inherited from the colonization era (fundamentally territorial in nature, those belonging to community (for example, Lebanonand minority issues (Kosovo, Basques, Corsicans, Kurds and Berbers, and those stemming from the appropriation of Islam for political ends and the lack of respect for Human Rights and religious beliefs, economic disparities, demographic and emigration concerns, the turf struggle over control of natural resources such as petroleum, gas and fresh water, and the effects of the rivalry between Europe and the United States in the Mediterranean region.

  9. Union for the Mediterranean: projects to prevent the water crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thivet, G.; Guettier, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the Mediterranean water remains a rare, fragile and unevenly distributed resource. Global warming has implications for theses resources with an increase in extreme hydrological phenomena (drought and flooding). In this framework, at the Cairo conference in November 2006, the Euro-Mediterranean Environment Ministers broadly agreed on the need for improved coordination of the existing initiatives in order to promote real effectiveness, in particular the Mediterranean Action Plan and the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership. These actions are presented and discussed. The schedule is detailed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Euro-mediterranean partnership in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The conference for a Euro-Mediterranean partnership in the energy field took place from the seventh to ninth of June 1996 and convened the officials of 15 european countries and 10 mediterranean countries; the discussions were about five themes: the adhesion of mediterranean countries to the european chart of energy or their association to this treaty; the harmonization of legislations and regulations concerning investments; the development of gas and electric networks in this area; the positioning of a system to guarantee energy investments; the creation of an Euro-Mediterranean energy forum proposed by the commission which allowed to associate the different partners to the following of this cooperation. (N.C.)

  11. Droughts and forest fires in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; von Hardenberg, Jost; Provenzale, Antonello

    2015-04-01

    Most of the total burned area in Europe occurs in Mediterranean regions, with severe economic and environmental damage, life loss and an average of about 4500 km2 burned every year. A better understanding of the impacts on wildfires of environmental and socioeconomic changes is crucial to develop adequate measures of prevention, adaptation and mitigation in this area. Here we focus on the impact of droughts on fires in European Mediterranean regions (Portugal, Spain, the south of France, Italy, Greece). This goal will be achieved through three specific supporting objectives: (1) Understanding past changes in fires in this region (extending the study of [1]); (2) Comparing and analyzing different drought indices (e.g. SPI, SPEI and SSI; see [2, 3] for more details on those indices); (3) Modeling the interaction between drought and fires (following and extending the study of [4]). We develop relatively simple regression models that link the fire activity to the key climate drivers. These models could be used to estimate fire responses to different climate change projections and environmental and socioeconomic scenarios ([5]). *References [1] Turco M., Llasat M. C., Tudela A., Castro X., and Provenzale A. Brief communication Decreasing fires in a Mediterranean region (1970-2010, NE Spain). Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 13(3):649-652, 2013. [2] Zengchao H., AghaKouchak A., Nakhjiri N., and Farahmand A. Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System. Scientific Data, 1:1-10, 2014. [3] Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Beguería, S. and López-Moreno, J. I. A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. Journal of Climate, 23:1696-1718, 2010. [4] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von Hardenberg J., and Provenzale A. Impact of climate variability on summer fires in a Mediterranean environment (northeastern Iberian Peninsula). Climatic Change, 116:665-678, 2013. [5] Turco M., Llasat M. C., von

  12. Functional indicators of response mechanisms to nitrogen deposition, ozone, and their interaction in two Mediterranean tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Lina; Palma, Adriano; Salvatori, Elisabetta; Basile, Adriana; Maresca, Viviana; Asadi Karam, Elham; Manes, Fausto

    2017-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen (N) deposition, tropospheric ozone (O3) and their interaction were investigated in two Mediterranean tree species, Fraxinus ornus L. (deciduous) and Quercus ilex L. (evergreen), having different leaf habits and resource use strategies. An experiment was conducted under controlled condition to analyse how nitrogen deposition affects the ecophysiological and biochemical traits, and to explore how the nitrogen-induced changes influence the response to O3. For both factors we selected realistic exposures (20 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 80 ppb h for nitrogen and O3, respectively), in order to elucidate the mechanisms implemented by the plants. Nitrogen addition resulted in higher nitrogen concentration at the leaf level in F. ornus, whereas a slight increase was detected in Q. ilex. Nitrogen enhanced the maximum rate of assimilation and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration in both species, whereas it influenced the light harvesting complex only in the deciduous F. ornus that was also affected by O3 (reduced assimilation rate and accelerated senescence-related processes). Conversely, Q. ilex developed an avoidance mechanism to cope with O3, confirming a substantial O3 tolerance of this species. Nitrogen seemed to ameliorate the harmful effects of O3 in F. ornus: the hypothesized mechanism of action involved the production of nitrogen oxide as the first antioxidant barrier, followed by enzymatic antioxidant response. In Q. ilex, the interaction was not detected on gas exchange and photosystem functionality; however, in this species, nitrogen might stimulate an alternative antioxidant response such as the emission of volatile organic compounds. Antioxidant enzyme activity was lower in plants treated with both O3 and nitrogen even though reactive oxygen species production did not differ between the treatments.

  13. I. Identification and characterization of dasheen mosaic virus in Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) in California. II. New approaches for detecting plant viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositratana, W.

    1985-01-01

    Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) with symptoms of mild stunting, chlorosis, leaf distortion and mosaic, were observed in Southern California. Flexuous rods (ca. 750 nm) were detected in leaf dip and partially purified preparations. Dasheen mosac virus (DMV) was identified as the causal agent on the basis of host range, morphology and reaction with DMV antiserum in immunodouble diffusion and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) tests. Tetragonia expansa was found to be a new host of this virus. Surveys indicate that DMV is not widespread in cultivars of A. commutatum in Southern California. The virus was purified from leaves of seedling Philodendron selloum by clarification with CCl/sub 4/, CHCl/sub 3/, and Triton X-100, precipitation with PEG-8000 and centrifugation in either Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-sucrose cushion gradients or Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium density gradients. Purified virions formed a single UV-absorbing infectious band with densities of 1.31 and 1.245 g/ml in CsCl/sub 2/ and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium density gradients, respectively, and a sedimentation coefficient of 154 S as determined by a linear-log sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Dasheen mosaic virus has a plus-sense ssRNA with the M.W. of 3.2 x 10/sup 6/ under denaturing conditions. Molecular hybridization analysis using /sup 3/H-complementary DNA specific to DMV-Ca RNA showed that DMV-Ca isolate was more closely related to DMV-Fiji isolate than to DMV-Fla isolate, and was very distantly related to ZYMV, TEV. PeMoC and PVY.

  14. Structural setting and tectonic control of mud volcanous from the central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Kopf, A.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a recent marine geophysical data set, including swath bathymetry, acoustic imagery and six-channel seismics, recorded over a large area of the Mediterranean Ridge (MR) in early 1998 during the Prismed 2 survey, this paper presents a study of the various relationships observed between

  15. Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Part 2. Regional Forecasting Aids for the Mediterranean Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    D day plus 1. Metaxas, D. A., 1978: Strong cold outbreaks in the east Mediterranean. A synoptic study. Rivista di Meteorologia Aeronautics, Vol...ROOM ?35 DIRECTOR 6010 EXECUTIVE BLVD JFK INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT RIVISTA DI METEOROLOGIA AEPONATUICAROCKVILLE, MO 20852 JAMAICA, NY 1143D PALAZZO DELLA

  16. ( Hodreum murinum L.) under sub-humid Mediterranean climate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wall barley (Hodreum murinum L.) is an annual cool-season grass species that grows in areas with a Mediterranean climate. It has potential as a forage source in Jordan. The objective was to determine seasonal chemical composition of wall barley grown under sub-humid Mediterranean conditions. A field trial

  17. Frequency of mutations in Mediterranean fever gene, with gender ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common hereditary inflammatory periodic disease, characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, abdominal pain, synovitis and pleurisy. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and distri- bution of Mediterranean fever (MEFV) gene mutations and to investigate the ...

  18. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  19. Environmental Assessment for Selected Regions in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    7-23. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1972). Wide scale digital seismic exploration of the Mediterranean Sea. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 14...291-342. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1973). Geophysical exploration of the Mediterranean. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 15: 263-341

  20. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, E.; Boffetta, P.; Lagiou, P.; Ferrari, P.; Buckland, G.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V.; Trichopoulos, D.; Naska, A.; Benetou, V.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; von Ruesten, A.; Panico, S.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; May, A.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Buchner, F. L.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M-J; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Hallmans, G.; Johansson, I.; Manjer, J.; Wirfart, E.; Allen, N. E.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N.; Moskal, A.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk

  1. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  2. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  3. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Tarhini, Mohamad; Touati, Manaf; Gonzalez Garcia, David; Alario, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  4. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  6. Plant biodiversity in French Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marianne; Bilodeau, Clelia; Alexandre, Frédéric; Godron, Michel; Gresillon, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    In a context of agricultural intensification and increasing urbanization, the biodiversity of farmed plots is a key to improve the sustainability of farmed landscapes. The medium life-duration of the vineyards as well as their location in Mediterranean region are favorable to plant biodiversity. We studied 35 vineyards and if present, their edges, located in three French Mediterranean terroirs: Bandol, Pic Saint Loup and Terrasses du Larzac. We collected botanical information (floral richness et diversity, biological traits), and analyzed their relationships with different factors: social (management, heritage or professional concern), environmental (slope, exposition, geology), spatial (edges, surrounding landscape in a 500 meters radius, distance to the nearest large city). Vineyards are generally heavily disturbed by intensive practices like tilling and application of herbicides, and for this reason their floral diversity is low. This is particularly true in Bandol terroir, in accordance with the standards of the Bandol PDO wine sector. Farmed landscapes and proximity to a large town impact on functional groups, generalist species being overrepresented. If vineyards are surrounded with natural edges, it doubles the floral richness at the plot and edges scale. Species present in vineyards edges are perennial herbaceous species with Euro- Asian and Mediterranean distribution ranges characteristic of prairie and wasteland stages, increasing the functional diversity of vineyards (generalist species). Environmental factors have a lower influence: vineyards are generally located on flat lands. These results suggest that some practices should be encouraged to avoid the biological degradation of vineyards: conservation of tree-lined edges and their extensive management, reduction of chemical weeding, grass-growing using non-cosmopolitan species. These recommendations should also contribute to soil conservation.

  7. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  8. Population structure in the Mediterranean basin: a Y chromosome perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelli, C; Redhead, N; Romano, V; Calì, F; Lefranc, G; Delague, V; Megarbane, A; Felice, A E; Pascali, V L; Neophytou, P I; Poulli, Z; Novelletto, A; Malaspina, P; Terrenato, L; Berebbi, A; Fellous, M; Thomas, M G; Goldstein, D B

    2006-03-01

    The Mediterranean region has been characterised by a number of pre-historical and historical demographic events whose legacy on the current genetic landscape is still a matter of debate. In order to investigate the degree of population structure across the Mediterranean, we have investigated Y chromosome variation in a large dataset of Mediterranean populations, 11 of which are first described here. Our analyses identify four main clusters in the Mediterranean that can be labelled as North Africa, Arab, Central-East and West Mediterranean. In particular, Near Eastern samples tend to separate according to the presence of Arab Y chromosome lineages, suggesting that the Arab expansion played a major role in shaping the current genetic structuring within the Fertile Crescent.

  9. Familial Mediterranean fever: An updated review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarı, İsmail; Birlik, Merih; Kasifoğlu, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is a hereditary autoinflammatory disorder characterised by acute attacks of fever and serosal inflammation. FMF primarily affects Jewish, Armenian, Turkish, and Arab populations. The disease is accompanied by a marked decrease in quality of life due to the effects of attacks and subclinical inflammation in the attack-free periods. Untreated or inadequately treated patients run the risk of amyloidosis, which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, the current information available on FMF is summarised. PMID:27708867

  10. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  11. Phytotoxic activities of Mediterranean essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; Frei, Fernando; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-06-14

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae), Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae). The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  12. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (November, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH. MYTILINEOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present Collective Article information on 26 taxa belonging to 8 Phyla and extended from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine Sea are presented. The new records were found in 9 countries as follows: Spain: first record for the Mediterranean of the crab Cancer bellianus; Algeria: further records of the alien fish Lagocephalus sceleratus to the west Algerian waters; Italy: first report on the presence and establishment of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in Lessina and Varano Lagoons (W. Adriatic and of Penaeus aztecus in Corigliano Gulf (Italian Ionian. Moreover, the extension of the distribution range of the polychaete Branchiomma bairdi to W. Sicily as well as that of the crab Ocypode cursor and the bryozoan Catenicella paradoxa to E. Sicily are cited. Slovenia: the record of the rare saccoglossan gastropod Placida cremoniana from Piran (Gulf of Trieste is the first for the Adriatic; Greece: the native sea slug Eubranchus farrani is the first from the Eastern Mediterranean; many sightings of the bamboo corals Isididae distributed along all the E. Ionian Sea and the establishment of P. aztecus in all Greek waters are also reported for first time; the westernmost extension of the alien urchin Diadema setosum in Cretan waters is cited and new sights of the alien species Goniobranchus annulatus and Pterois miles are shown. Turkey: the alien fish Champsodon capensis is reported for first time from the Aegean Sea and the native acari Agauopsis microrhyncha from the Levantine Sea; a new observation of the alien crab Atergatis roseus in Güllük Bay-Aegean is also mentioned; Cyprus: first records of  the alien urchin D. setosum and Lobotes surinamensis in Cypriot waters; Lebanon: several sightings of Monachus monachus from the Lebanese waters indicate a potential better status of the species in the area, Egypt: first records of the alien crab Dorippe quadridens and the alien gastropods Nerita sanguinolenta and Conomurex persicus from the

  13. New Bioactive Alkyl Sulfates from Mediterranean Tunicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marialuisa Menna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical investigation of two species of marine ascidians, Aplidium elegans and Ciona edwardsii, collected in Mediterranean area, led to isolation of a series of alkyl sulfates (compounds 1–5 including three new molecules 1–3. Structures of the new metabolites have been elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Based on previously reported cytotoxic activity of these type of molecules, compounds 1–3 have been tested for their effects on the growth of two cell lines, J774A.1 (BALB/c murine macrophages and C6 (rat glioma in vitro. Compounds 1 and 2 induced selective concentration-dependent mortality on J774A.1 cells.

  14. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  15. Wind energy in the Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the main findings relative to the European Communities OPET (Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technology) June 1992 conference on the potential for small and medium size wind energy applications in the Mediterranean countries and gives a panoramic look at progress being made by these countries in the development and use of wind energy turbines. One system which appears to be promising is the Danish 100 kW 'Bonus' wind turbine (23 m rotor, 30 m tower height) which has seen successful applications at a seaside resort and at a remote radio station in terms of performance, environmental compatibility and public acceptance

  16. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents ( N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania ( N = 1863) and Serbia ( N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  17. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  18. Mediterranean breeds of cattle, sheep and goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.L.

    1988-01-01

    Breeds of cattle, sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region are considered. Cattle: original longhorned breeds in Spain, Portugal and southern France; original shorthorned breeds in North Africa, the eastern Mediterranean and Sardinia; Grey Steppe in Balkan lowlands and central and southern Italy; Brown Swiss and its crosses in parts of Spain, northern Italy, north-west Turkey and the Maghreb; Simmental in Yugoslavia and Hungary; Friesian now dominant in western Europe and spreading in North Africa, the Near East and eastern Europe. Sheep: original coarse woolled thin tailed breeds in Algeria, Morocco, parts of Spain, Portugal, Italy and the Balkans; Merino in Spain has produced new breeds in Portugal, southern France, and Italy and is now being used in the Balkans, Turkey and Egypt; fat tailed coarse woolled breeds in Africa and Asia from Tunisia to Turkey. Goats: short eared dairy breeds in Spain and Italy; black, long haired, lop eared, screw horned goats from Turkey to North Africa; Maltese (dairy) goats in several countries. (author). 3 refs, 1 tab

  19. Sexual dimorphism and age of Mediterranean salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhard, Sandy; Renner, Sandra; Kupfer, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    We analysed sexual size dimorphism (SSD) for two Mediterranean species of the "true" salamander clade possessing distinct life histories (Salamandra algira and Mertensiella caucasica) and equilibrated the morphometric approach to individual age by using skeletochronology. For species that have a short breeding season and live at high altitudes, such as Mediterranean amphibians, the fecundity advantage hypothesis predicts female-biased SSD to maximise reproductive success. Our results showed no SSD in either species; however, morphometric data indicated a male-biased dimorphism in limb (arm and leg) dimensions in both species when compared to body size. Limb dimorphisms are likely related to the particular mating system, which involves an amplexus during spermatophore transfer. Arm length appeared sexually dimorphic during ontogeny both in viviparous S. algira and oviparous M. caucasica. A review on SSD indicated monomorphy of body size as a common lineage-specific pattern among the "true" salamander clade, but also the common presence of other traits such as sexually dimorphic limb proportions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Timing calibration of the NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circella, Marco

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the timing calibration system for the NEutrino Mediterranean Observatory (NEMO) underwater neutrino telescope. The NEMO Project aims at the construction of a km3 detector, equipped with a large number of photomultipliers, in the Mediterranean Sea. We foresee a redundant system to perform the time calibration of our apparatus: (1) A two-step procedure for measuring the offsets in the time measurements of the NEMO optical sensors, so as to measure separately the time delay for the synchronization signals to reach the offshore electronics and the response time of the photomultipliers to calibration signals delivered from a pulser through an optical fibre distribution system; (2) An all-optical procedure for measuring the differences in the time offsets of the different optical modules by means of common light sources. Such a system can be extended to work for a very large apparatus, even for complex arrangements of widely spaced sensors. The NEMO prototyping activities ongoing at a test site off the coast of Sicily will allow the system described in this work to be operated and tested in situ this year.

  1. Floating debris in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Aliani, Stefano

    2014-09-15

    Results from the first large-scale survey of floating natural (NMD) and anthropogenic (AMD) debris (>2 cm) in the central and western part of the Mediterranean Sea are reported. Floating debris was found throughout the entire study area with densities ranging from 0 to 194.6 items/km(2) and mean abundances of 24.9 AMD items/km(2) and 6.9 NMD items/km(2) across all surveyed locations. On the whole, 78% of all sighted objects were of anthropogenic origin, 95.6% of which were petrochemical derivatives (i.e. plastic and styrofoam). Maximum AMD densities (>52 items/km(2)) were found in the Adriatic Sea and in the Algerian basin, while the lowest densities (<6.3 items/km(2)) were observed in the Central Tyrrhenian and in the Sicilian Sea. All the other areas had mean densities ranging from 10.9 to 30.7 items/km(2). According to our calculations, more than 62 million macro-litter items are currently floating on the surface of the whole Mediterranean basin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mediterranean Diet and Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Selmin, Ornella I.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of research data suggests that traditional dietary habits and lifestyle unique to the Mediterranean region (Mediterranean diet, MD) lower the incidence of chronic diseases and improve longevity. These data contrast with troubling statistics in the United States and other high income countries pointing to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and the projected explosion in cost of medical care associated with an aging population. In 2013, the MD was inscribed by UNESCO in the “Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.” The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans included the MD as a healthy dietary pattern. Therefore, specific objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the nutritional basis of this healthful diet, its metabolic benefits, and its role in multiple aspects of disease prevention and healthy aging. Whereas recommendations about the MD often focus on specific foods or bioactive compounds, we suggest that the eating pattern as a whole likely contributes to the health promoting effects of the MD. PMID:29051674

  4. Vegetation shift from deciduous to evergreen dwarf shrubs in response to selective herbivory offsets carbon losses: evidence from 19 years of warming and simulated herbivory in the subarctic tundra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylänne, Henni; Stark, Sari; Tolvanen, Anne

    2015-10-01

    Selective herbivory of palatable plant species provides a competitive advantage for unpalatable plant species, which often have slow growth rates and produce slowly decomposable litter. We hypothesized that through a shift in the vegetation community from palatable, deciduous dwarf shrubs to unpalatable, evergreen dwarf shrubs, selective herbivory may counteract the increased shrub abundance that is otherwise found in tundra ecosystems, in turn interacting with the responses of ecosystem carbon (C) stocks and CO2 balance to climatic warming. We tested this hypothesis in a 19-year field experiment with factorial treatments of warming and simulated herbivory on the dominant deciduous dwarf shrub Vaccinium myrtillus. Warming was associated with a significantly increased vegetation abundance, with the strongest effect on deciduous dwarf shrubs, resulting in greater rates of both gross ecosystem production (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) as well as increased C stocks. Simulated herbivory increased the abundance of evergreen dwarf shrubs, most importantly Empetrum nigrum ssp. hermaphroditum, which led to a recent shift in the dominant vegetation from deciduous to evergreen dwarf shrubs. Simulated herbivory caused no effect on GEP and ER or the total ecosystem C stocks, indicating that the vegetation shift counteracted the herbivore-induced C loss from the system. A larger proportion of the total ecosystem C stock was found aboveground, rather than belowground, in plots treated with simulated herbivory. We conclude that by providing a competitive advantage to unpalatable plant species with slow growth rates and long life spans, selective herbivory may promote aboveground C stocks in a warming tundra ecosystem and, through this mechanism, counteract C losses that result from plant biomass consumption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Ecological Value of Soil Organic Matter at Tropical Evergreen Aglaia-Streblus Forest of Meru Betiri National Park, East Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Sulistiyowati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As part of carbon pools, forest soil stores soil organic matter (SOM that contains many elements including organic C, N, P, and K. These elements contribute nutrients for biogeochemical cycles within the ecosystem. This study was done to determine the ecological value of forest soil organic matter at tropical evergreen Aglaia-Streblus forest of Meru Betiri National Park (MBNP, East Java, Indonesia. The data were sampled along gradient topography in Pringtali tropical forest of TMBNP. Direct measurements of soil moisture, temperature, and pH were taken in the field. The soil samples were extracted from 6 points of soil solum using soil auger, and then oven-dried to get value of dry-weight. The elements content of organic C, N, P, and K were analyzed and estimated at the laboratory. The ecoval of SOM was appraised using developed ecological valuation tool. The result showed that SOM contributed higher ecoval of organic C (66.03 Mg ha-1 than other elements. Compared to P and K elements, N had the highest stock of element content. However, comparing to other two tropical forest ecosystems of Asia the ecoval of SOM elements in TMBNP was relatively low because of its natural geomorphological features.The ecoval of SOM elements in TMBNP was relatively low because of its natural geomorphological features. The ecovals contributed about 2.440,64 - 6.955,50 USD or 31.271.923,73 - 89.120.837,23 IDR per hectare of ecological value (d to the ecosystem. This value was mainly contributed by organic C stock in the TMBNP forest SOM. It means the forest SOM had higher element content of organic C than N, P, and K elements. This d value is an indicator for TMBNP to protect the SOM elements meaning protecting their resources to sustain the biogeochemical cycles in the forest ecosystem. All the management and policy correlated to this protected area should consider this valuable information for their plan and actions.

  6. Factors promoting larch dominance in central Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics at the boundary of evergreen and deciduous conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relative role of fire and of climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in central and eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in performance of the observed species along the transect. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix and of soil carbon. Of lesser influence were longitude as a proxy for climate, local hydrology and active-layer thickness. We can only partially explain fire return frequency, which is not only related to climate and land cover, but also to human behavior. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yrs between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yrs since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20%. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20% at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand biomass reached about 130 t C ha-1(equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yrs. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60% of old Larix and Picea and 30% of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are

  7. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Roman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Roman1, Laura Carta2, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González3, Lluís Serra-Majem41Mediterranean Diet Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, Spain; 2Department of Biosystems and Applied Sciences, Unit of Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Cagliari, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainAbstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older. A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.Keywords: Mediterranean diet, elderly, health, review

  8. Occurrence of Diopatra marocensis (Annelida, Onuphidae in the eastern Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih ÇINAR

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the presence of Diopatra marocensis in the eastern Mediterranean. This species is small-sized and inhabited muddy bottom near the opening of rivers or lagoons [salinity range: 33−39‰] in the Aegean and Levantine Seas, and reached a maximum density of 90 ind.m-2 in Mersin Bay. This species might be an alien species that was introduced from the East Atlantic (near Gibraltar to the eastern Mediterranean via ballast water of ships, as it has never been reported from the western Mediterranean Sea.

  9. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  10. SPIRORBID POLYCHAETES AS BOREAL GUESTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN PLEISTOCENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSSANA SANFILIPPO

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available A first report of Spirorbis spirorbis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Spirorbis corallinae (de Silva & Knight-Jones, 1962 from Early and Middle Pleistocene deposits in Sicily and submerged Late Glacial sediments in the Western Mediterranean is presented. Today both species live on shores and very shallow bottoms in the North Atlantic and are unknown from the Recent Mediterranean. Such differences in their present and past biogeographic distributions suggest that these species were Boreal Guests (BGs in the Mediterranean Pleistocene. Special attention is paid to tube morphology and structure, which bear some diagnostic features for species identification. 

  11. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  12. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  13. Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Choubani, Fethi; Moussati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the first part of the proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies (MedICT 2015), which was held at Saidia, Morocco during 7–9 May, 2015. MedICT provides an excellent international forum to the researchers and practitioners from both academia as well as industry to meet and share cutting-edge development. The conference has also a special focus on enabling technologies for societal challenges, and seeks to address multidisciplinary challenges in Information & Communication Technologies such as health, demographic change, wellbeing, security and sustainability issues. The proceedings publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories, as well as emerging and practical applications of particular interest to the ICT community. This first volume provides a compact yet broad view of recent developments in devices, technologies and processing, and covers recent research areas in the field including Microwave Devices...

  14. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  15. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Sclerites in different tissues of Mediterranean Echinodermata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña Martín, Amelia; Tierno de Figueroa, J Manuel; Palomino-Morales, Rogelio J

    2006-06-01

    The presence of sclerites in different mesodermal tissues was studied in thirteen species of Mediterranean echinoderms representing the five living classes. In the species of Asteroidea and Crinoidea examined, sclerites were present only in specific tissues. In the species of Ophiuroidea and, especially, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea examined, sclerites were present in almost every tissue, but with considerable variation among species and tissues. Data on sclerite shape, size, and relative abundance (measured as tissue abundance) are presented. The data support the possible functional role of sclerites as reinforcing structures, as well as their possible use as taxonomic characters. Finally, the need of more studies to elucidate the ontogenetic and phylogenetic implications of sclerites is discussed.

  17. THE MEDITERRANEAN WEEDY VEGETATION AND ITS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S: BRULLO

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the origin and evolutionary trends in the Mediterranean weedy vegetation is presented, with reference to the phytosociological units to which they are ascribed: Stellarietea mediae, Papaveretea rhoeadis, Oryzetea sativae. It is postulated that the “Neolithic revolution” was more likely a “Neolithic evolution”, i.e. the result of a process of selection and demographic growth that lasted for at least 10000 yrs, before leading to the domestication of plants and animals. During this very long time, wild crop relatives were simply growing together with the wild weed relatives, in their original milieu. At the beginning of agriculture, fields were obtained to the detriment of oak-woods and maquis-vegetation; the deforestation had probably a patchy pattern, resulting from the burn-beating practice, and the annual plants from the vegetation around the fields were probably quite abundant also within the fields, at least those having the most prolific seed set, the most durable seeds and the most effective dispersal strategies, together with a diachronic, life-long, flowering and seed-dispersal. These features, apparently in contrast with the achievement of a within-population- organizational hierarchy, are in reality an extreme expression of the attitude of weedy plant species in “amplifying adaptation”, or, in other words, of its “adaptation to adapt”, which is the cornerstone of the opportunistic life strategy. The Mediterranean weedy vegetation is therefore a flexible system, able to cope with changes and disturbances: species frequency and composition may undergo great variations, but the functional role of any weedy community keeps.

  18. THE MEDITERRANEAN WEEDY VEGETATION AND ITS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R: GUARINO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the origin and evolutionary trends in the Mediterranean weedy vegetation is presented, with reference to the phytosociological units to which they are ascribed: Stellarietea mediae, Papaveretea rhoeadis, Oryzetea sativae. It is postulated that the “Neolithic revolution” was more likely a “Neolithic evolution”, i.e. the result of a process of selection and demographic growth that lasted for at least 10000 yrs, before leading to the domestication of plants and animals. During this very long time, wild crop relatives were simply growing together with the wild weed relatives, in their original milieu. At the beginning of agriculture, fields were obtained to the detriment of oak-woods and maquis-vegetation; the deforestation had probably a patchy pattern, resulting from the burn-beating practice, and the annual plants from the vegetation around the fields were probably quite abundant also within the fields, at least those having the most prolific seed set, the most durable seeds and the most effective dispersal strategies, together with a diachronic, life-long, flowering and seed-dispersal. These features, apparently in contrast with the achievement of a within-population- organizational hierarchy, are in reality an extreme expression of the attitude of weedy plant species in “amplifying adaptation”, or, in other words, of its “adaptation to adapt”, which is the cornerstone of the opportunistic life strategy. The Mediterranean weedy vegetation is therefore a flexible system, able to cope with changes and disturbances: species frequency and composition may undergo great variations, but the functional role of any weedy community keeps.

  19. Security and Political Stability in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The author revises with a critical eye the treatment given the issue of security during the Euro-Mediterranean process from the Declaration of Barcelona to the Conference at Malta. According to Marquina, no idea of security exists which gives backbone to theEuro-Mediterranen process and the documents themselves contain incoherencies and significant imprecisions, especially regarding the concepts of cooperative security, preventative diplomacy and ‘good neighbor’ relations. These principles appear to be rather underexplained in both their conceptual and operative aspects. On one hand, the information about matters that affect security is exchanged on both a voluntary and official basis and can be, as such, thus opaque and not always reliable; on the other hand, the issues thataffect security are so wide-ranging that the operative approach - the communications network, mechanisms for early-warning, the conciliation and peaceful resolution of controversies - seems hardly realistic. With respect to confidence-building measures, the author considers that these should be linked to arms control agreements, which are more in accord with the stated objectives of defense sufficiency and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Marquina also maintains that the role of civil society and the importance of cultural dialogue - both fundamental to conflict prevention - have not been reinforced even though the principal problems of security in the region are due to structural imbalances –military, economical, political– and, precisely the disparities amongcultures. In this sense, the EU states might consider putting forward unilateral policies that restrict such disparities, provided that a certain reciprocity of policy is put forth from the southern states in the Mediterranean.

  20. Seasonal changes in camera-based indices from an open canopy black spruce forest in Alaska, and comparison with indices from a closed canopy evergreen coniferous forest in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Shin; Nakai, Taro; Saitoh, Taku M.; Busey, Robert C.; Kobayashi, Hideki; Suzuki, Rikie; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yongwon

    2013-06-01

    Evaluation of the carbon, water, and energy balances in evergreen coniferous forests requires accurate in situ and satellite data regarding their spatio-temporal dynamics. Daily digital camera images can be used to determine the relationships among phenology, gross primary productivity (GPP), and meteorological parameters, and to ground-truth satellite observations. In this study, we examine the relationship between seasonal variations in camera-based canopy surface indices and eddy-covariance-based GPP derived from field studies in an Alaskan open canopy black spruce forest and in a Japanese closed canopy cedar forest. The ratio of the green digital number to the total digital number, hue, and GPP showed a bell-shaped seasonal profile at both sites. Canopy surface images for the black spruce forest and cedar forest mainly detected seasonal changes in vegetation on the floor of the forest and in the tree canopy, respectively. In contrast, the seasonal cycles of the ratios of the red and blue digital numbers to the total digital numbers differed between the two sites, possibly due to differences in forest structure and leaf color. These results suggest that forest structural characteristics, such as canopy openness and seasonal forest-floor changes, should be considered during continuous observations of phenology in evergreen coniferous forests.

  1. Drivers of compartmentalization in a Mediterranean pollination network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Ana M. Martin; Allesina, Stefano; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2012-01-01

    We study compartmentalization in a Mediterranean pollination network using three different analytical approaches: unipartite modularity (UM), bipartite modularity (BM) and the group model (GM). Our objectives are to compare compartments obtained with these three approaches and to explore the role...

  2. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2008-01-01

    precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean......Mediterranean mountain biomes are considered endangered due to climate change that affects directly or indirectly different key features (biodiversity, snow cover, glaciers, run-off processes, and water availability). Here, we provide an assessment of temperature, precipitation, and spring...... spring (-17% under Alfi and -4.8% under B1 for 2085). On the contrary, non-Mediterranean European mountains will not experience a reduction of annual and spring precipitation. Implications of predicted climate change for both human and physical features are coupled in an integrated framework to gain...

  3. Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current climate policy and issues of energy security mean wind farms are being built at an increasing rate to meet energy demand. As wind farm development is very likely in the Mediterranean Sea, we provide an assessment of the offshore wind potential and identify expected biological effects of such developments in the region. We break new ground here by identifying potential offshore wind farm (OWF “hotspots” in the Mediterranean. Using lessons learned in Northern Europe, and small-scale experiments in the Mediterranean, we identify sensitive species and habitats that will likely be influenced by OWFs in both these hotspot areas and at a basin level. This information will be valuable to guide policy governing OWF development and will inform the industry as and when environmental impact assessments are required for the Mediterranean Sea.

  4. The toxicology of Latrodectus tredecimguttatus: the Mediterranean Black Widow spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M S

    2004-01-01

    The symptomatology of envenomation by the Mediterranean Black Widow Spider, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, is reviewed. The results confirm the hypothesis that the homeopathic remedy, Tarentula hispanica, is derived from this spider, not from the Wolf spider, Lycosa tarentula.

  5. Oxygen consumption in Mediterranean octocorals under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Previati, M.; Scinto, A.; Cerrano, C.; Osinga, R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem resilience to climate anomalies is related to the physiological plasticity of organisms. To characterize the physiological response of some common Mediterranean gorgonians to fluctuations in temperature, four species (Paramuricea clavata, Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolinii and

  6. The Mediterranean interannual variability in MEDRYS, a Mediterranean Sea reanalysis over 1992-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuvier, Jonathan; Hamon, Mathieu; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Greiner, Eric; Alias, Antoinette; Arsouze, Thomas; Benkiran, Mounir; Béranger, Karine; Drillet, Yann; Sevault, Florence; Somot, Samuel

    2015-04-01

    The French research community on the Mediterranean Sea and the French operational ocean forecasting center Mercator Océan are gathering their skills and expertises in physical oceanography, ocean modelling, atmospheric forcings and data assimilation, to carry out a MEDiterranean Sea ReanalYsiS (MEDRYS) at high resolution for the period 1992-2013. The reanalysis is used to have a realistic description of the ocean state over the recent decades and it will help to understand the long-term water cycle over the Mediterranean basin in terms of variability and trends, contributing thus to the HyMeX international program. The ocean model used is NEMOMED12 [Lebeaupin Brossier et al., 2011, Oc. Mod., 2012, Oc. Mod.; Beuvier et al., 2012a, JGR, 2012b, Mercator Newsl.], a Mediterranean configuration of NEMO [Madec and the NEMO Team, 2008], with a 1/12° (about 7 km) horizontal resolution and 75 vertical z-levels with partial steps. It is forced by the 3-hourly atmospheric fluxes coming from an ALADIN-Climate simulation at 12 km of resolution [Herrmann et al., 2011, NHESS], driven by the ERA-Interim atmospheric reanalysis. The exchanges with the Atlantic Ocean are performed through a buffer zone, with a damping on 3D theta-S and on sea level towards the ORA-S4 oceanic reanalysis [Balmaseda et al., 2012, QJRMS]. This model configuration is used to carry a 34-year free simulation over the period 1979-2013. This free simulation is the initial state of the reanalysis in October 1992. It is also used to compute anomalies from which the data assimilation scheme derives required characteristic covariances of the ocean model. MEDRYS1 uses the current Mercator Océan operational data assimilation system [Lellouche et al., 2013, Oc.Sci.]. It uses a reduced order Kalman filter with a 3D multivariate modal decomposition of the forecast error. A 3D-Var scheme corrects biases in temperature and salinity for the slowly evolving large-scale. In addition, some modifications dedicated to the

  7. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  8. Seasonal concentration of cruise tourism in the Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros-Martínez, José David; Fernández-Morales, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This research delves into analyzing the seasonality of cruise tourism in the Mediterranean by using the decomposition of the Gini index, used in the field of cruise tourism for the first time in literature. This study specifically used the decomposition to evaluate the contribution degree of each port to the global seasonal concentration of each Mediterranean region. Moreover, a cluster analysis technique (bootstrapped bagged clustering) was applied to classify the ports into homogeneous grou...

  9. Redescritions of some rare sponge species in the western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Uriz, María Jesús; Maldonado, Manuel

    1993-01-01

    Five poorly known sponge species from the southwestern Mediterranean are described and their taxonomic status discussed. The species Raspailia agnata and Axinella egregia are recorded for the first time outside the Atlantic. The skeletal arrangement of R. agnata, currently considered an Axinella, justifies placing it in the genus Raspailia alongside other species without acanthostyles (subgenus Syringella). The spicule complement of the Mediterranean specimens of R. agnata perfectly matches t...

  10. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I, including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot.

  11. The links between openness and productivity in Mediterranean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Laurence; Lai-tong, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We examine the relation between the international trade, the foreign direct investment and the total factor productivity of the Mediterranean partner countries of Europe within the framework of a cointegrated panel model. The results, obtained from data on seven Mediterranean partner countries of Europe (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey), show that FDI and human capital are complementary in the acquisition of productivity gains. We identify the t...

  12. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  13. Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Féart, Catherine; Samieri, Cécilia; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    International audience; PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has been largely evidenced. Although nutrition constitutes an interesting approach in preventing age-related brain disorders, the association between the Mediterranean-style diet and cognitive functions has been very occasionally explored. RECENT FINDINGS: Results are provided from only two recent prospective cohorts of older Americans and Fr...

  14. The Embodiment of Color in Ancient Mediterranean Art

    OpenAIRE

    Stager, Jennifer Margaret Simmons

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe Embodiment of Color in Ancient Mediterranean ArtbyJennifer Margaret Simmons StagerDoctor of Philosophy in History of ArtUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Andrew F. Stewart, ChairThe polychromy of ancient Mediterranean art is an issue with which scholars have grappled for centuries. The fugitive nature of many pigments coupled with a classicizing taste for the stripped antique fragment have contributed to a fictional narrative that contradicts the material and textual rec...

  15. Atlas of Palliative Care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Osman, H. (Hibah); Rihan, A. (Alaa); Garralda, E. (Eduardo); Rhee, J.Y. (John Y.); Pons-Izquierdo, J.J. (Juan José); Lima, L. (Liliana) de; Tfayli, A. (Arafat); Centeno-Cortes, C. (Carlos)

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Information on the state of palliative care development in Eastern Mediterranean countries is scant. This study is the first of its kind in conducting a systematic descriptive analysis of palliative care development in the region. AIMS To describe the current status of palliative care in the Eastern Mediterranean Region according to the World Health Organization (WHO) public health strategy for integrating palliative care: policies, opioid accessibility, ...

  16. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  17. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  18. The Mediterranean and Black Sea Fisheries at Risk from Overexploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikliras, Athanassios C.; Dinouli, Anny; Tsiros, Vasileios-Zikos; Tsalkou, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W), central (C) and eastern (E) Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS), with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures. PMID:25793975

  19. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, Antoni; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Julibert, Alicia; Bouzas, Cristina; Argelich, Emma; Llompart, Isabel; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A

    2018-01-10

    The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females) of the Balearic Islands population (12-65 years) was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers.

  20. Globalisation and income growth promote the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Anita; Ballenger, Nicole; Putnam, Judy

    2004-10-01

    To examine global food demand patterns and how changing diets may stimulate demand for and trade of Mediterranean diet products. Literature review. Trends in global and US food consumption patterns are examined and trade data are reviewed to evaluate the impact of changing diets on trade of Mediterranean diet products. Market access issues are also addressed briefly to highlight the role of policy in the trade of Mediterranean diet products. Diets are shifting towards higher-value products such as meats, fruits and vegetables, and a wider array of packaged food products. Trade in these products has also grown in the past two decades, with several non-traditional importers and exporters becoming increasingly active in the global market. Income-driven demands for quality and variety are likely to increase the demand for Mediterranean diet products globally. While the middle-income countries appear to be the best growth prospects, the USA remains a potential growth market if these products can meet the growing consumer demand for variety, quality and convenience. Although consumer trends globally indicate growth in demand for Mediterranean diet products, the additional demand may not be reflected by a corresponding growth in trade. Trade in Mediterranean diet products continues to be hampered by higher than average trade barriers and high transportation costs for perishables.

  1. Transmitting Mediterranean food culture through art: a creative interdisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, Sandro

    2006-12-01

    As a qualitative problem solving method, to manage the accelerating phenomenon of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents as well as to promote the Mediterranean Diet and the diversity of the Mediterranean Food Cultures heritage, it is presented a creative interdisciplinary approach through art. Taking into account that young generations are becoming the highest majority of the consumer population in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean countries, it is reported the artist practice and the creative community-based interdisciplinary experience of Plexus International, a network of artists and scientists of various nationalities and disciplines. Mediterranean Region and International. Young Populations. Through the Ark of the Well Being project, artists and scientists have collaborate together, promoting The 2005 Rome Call for a Common Action in the Mediterranean and raising more attention on the erosion of the cognitive capacities of young generations by hunger and malnutrition. A creative interdisciplinary approach was developed to transmit through art Mediterranean food culture with the aim to achieve a broader nutritional well being.

  2. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria eMarbà

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15 oC. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003 and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50 % of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5 ºC and at summer surface temperature of 27.5 ºC. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV, the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  3. The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Hernández, Alejandra; Alda, José A; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Ferreira-García, Estrella; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and "unhealthy" diets, to date there are no studies that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. We hypothesized that a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet would be positively associated with an increase in ADHD diagnosis. A total of 120 children and adolescents (60 with newly diagnosed ADHD and 60 controls) were studied in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. ADHD diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Energy, dietary intake, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and familial background were measured. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between the adherence to a Mediterranean diet and ADHD. Lower adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with ADHD diagnosis (odds ratio: 7.07; 95% confidence interval: 2.65-18.84; relative risk: 2.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-5.25). Both remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Lower frequency of consuming fruit, vegetables, pasta, and rice and higher frequency of skipping breakfast and eating at fast-food restaurants were associated with ADHD diagnosis (P Mediterranean diet might play a role in ADHD development. Our data support the notion that not only "specific nutrients" but also the "whole diet" should be considered in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà, Núria

    2015-08-13

    The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15°C. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003, and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5°C and at summer surface temperature of 27.5°C. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV), the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  5. Mediterranean Overflow Water (MOW) Simulation Using a Coupled Multiple-Grid Mediterranean Sea/North Atlantic Ocean Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dietrich, David E; Tseng, Yu-Heng; Medina, Raul; Piacsek, Steve A; Liste, Maria; Olabarrieta, Maitane; Bowman, Malcolm J; Mehra, Avichal

    2008-01-01

    .... No instant convective adjustment or other highly diffusive process is used. The deep water in the 1/8 deg Mediterranean Sea grid is formed by the resolved flows that emulate subgrid-scale processes directly...

  6. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  7. Mediterranean detachment zones : thermicity vs heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Loic; Huet, Benjamin; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Jolivet, Laurent; Burov, Evgenii

    2017-04-01

    Even if the seminal comprehensive descriptions of Metamorphic Core Complexes (MCCs) in the American Cordillera mentionned lower plates constituted of gneiss and intruded by granites (e. g. Snake Range, Whipple Mountains), the actual definition of MCCs : « Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes appear to be bodies from the middle crust that have been dragged out from beneath fracturing and extending upper crustal rocks, and exposed beneath shallow-dipping (normal slip) faults of large areal extent » {as in Lister & Davis, 1989, Journal of Structural Geology, v. 11, pp. 65-94} refers to rocks exhumed from the middle crust whatever their thermal history. The fundamental property of this middle crust resides in its ability fo flow lateraly toward the forming dome, to accommodate stretching of the upper plate and preserve a relatively flat moho. Even though thermal reequilibration can induce weakening of the lower crust, a similar strength profile can also be inherited from pre-extension evolution of the continental crust and promote development of the original structure of MCCs : their detachment. In order to unravel the rheological meaning of detachments, we propose here a review of extensional shear zones described as detachments in the Mediterranean realm, and establish a three end-members typology with « hot MCCs » as one end-member, and two cold MCC end-members with a weak middle crust due to stacking of high pressure metapelitic nappes or a strong upper crust responsible for the strength contrast exaggeration between the upper and lower crust. New fully coupled thermo-mechanical modeling experiments together with a review of comparable published results allow to test this three end-member typology and determine the critical strength constrast for the perennial development of a detachment zone. A 1000 ratio between the strength at the brittle-ductile transition and the strength at the base of the crust seems a boundary value between localized extensional modes

  8. Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Charles; Frontera, Biel; Sebastián, Kristian; Pau Beltran, Joan; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Gómara, Sonia; Gomila, Mikel; Escudier, Romain; Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Garau, Angels; Cañellas, Tomeu; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-04-01

    "Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click" is a research and dissemination project focused on the scientific, technological and societal approaches of the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System ({SOCIB}{www.socib.es}) in a collaboration with "la Caixa" Foundation. SOCIB aims at research excellence and the development of technology which enables progress toward the sustainable management of coastal and marine environments, providing solutions to meet the needs of society. Medclic goes one step forward and has two main goals: at the scientific level, to advance in establishing and understanding the mesoscale variability at the regional scale and its interaction, and thus improving the characterisation of the "oceanic weather" in the Mediterranean; at the outreach level: to bring SOCIB and the new paradigm of multi-platform observation in real time closer to society, through scientific outreach. SOCIB Data Centre is the core of the new multi-platform and real time oceanography and is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions and provides data in line with international standards and conventions (INSPIRE, netCDF Climate and Forecast, ldots). In addition, the Data Centre has implemented a REST web service, called Data Discovery. This service allows data generated by SOCIB to be integrated into applications developed by the Data Centre itself or by third parties, as it is the case with Medclic. Relying on this data distribution, the new web Medclic, www.medclic.es, constitutes an interactive scientific and educational area of communication that contributes to the rapprochement of the general public with the new marine and coastal observing technologies. Thanks to the Medclic web, data coming from new observing technologies in oceanography are available in real time and in one clic

  9. Mediterranean diet and Alzheimer disease mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Mayeux, Richard; Stern, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Background We previously reported that the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) is related to lower risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). Whether MeDi is associated with subsequent AD course and outcomes has not been investigated. Objectives To examine the association between MeDi and mortality in patients with AD. Methods A total of 192 community-based individuals in New York who were diagnosed with AD were prospectively followed every 1.5 years. Adherence to the MeDi (0- to 9-point scale with higher scores indicating higher adherence) was the main predictor of mortality in Cox models that were adjusted for period of recruitment, age, gender, ethnicity, education, APOE genotype, caloric intake, smoking, and body mass index. Results Eighty-five patients with AD (44%) died during the course of 4.4 (±3.6, 0.2 to 13.6) years of follow-up. In unadjusted models, higher adherence to MeDi was associated with lower mortality risk (for each additional MeDi point hazard ratio 0.79; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.91; p = 0.001). This result remained significant after controlling for all covariates (0.76; 0.65 to 0.89; p = 0.001). In adjusted models, as compared with AD patients at the lowest MeDi adherence fertile, those at the middle fertile had lower mortality risk (0.65; 0.38 to 1.09; 1.33 years’ longer survival), whereas subjects at the highest fertile had an even lower risk (0.27; 0.10 to 0.69; 3.91 years’ longer survival; p for trend = 0.003). Conclusion Adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) may affect not only risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) but also subsequent disease course: Higher adherence to the MeDi is associated with lower mortality in AD. The gradual reduction in mortality risk for higher MeDi adherence tertiles suggests a possible dose–response effect. PMID:17846408

  10. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  11. Setting Priorities for Regional Conservation Planning in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheli, Fiorenza; Levin, Noam; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Abdulla, Ameer; Coll, Marta; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Kark, Salit; Koutsoubas, Drosos; Mackelworth, Peter; Maiorano, Luigi; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial prioritization in conservation is required to direct limited resources to where actions are most urgently needed and most likely to produce effective conservation outcomes. In an effort to advance the protection of a highly threatened hotspot of marine biodiversity, the Mediterranean Sea, multiple spatial conservation plans have been developed in recent years. Here, we review and integrate these different plans with the goal of identifying priority conservation areas that represent the current consensus among the different initiatives. A review of six existing and twelve proposed conservation initiatives highlights gaps in conservation and management planning, particularly within the southern and eastern regions of the Mediterranean and for offshore and deep sea habitats. The eighteen initiatives vary substantially in their extent (covering 0.1–58.5% of the Mediterranean Sea) and in the location of additional proposed conservation and management areas. Differences in the criteria, approaches and data used explain such variation. Despite the diversity among proposals, our analyses identified ten areas, encompassing 10% of the Mediterranean Sea, that are consistently identified among the existing proposals, with an additional 10% selected by at least five proposals. These areas represent top priorities for immediate conservation action. Despite the plethora of initiatives, major challenges face Mediterranean biodiversity and conservation. These include the need for spatial prioritization within a comprehensive framework for regional conservation planning, the acquisition of additional information from data-poor areas, species or habitats, and addressing the challenges of establishing transboundary governance and collaboration in socially, culturally and politically complex conditions. Collective prioritised action, not new conservation plans, is needed for the north, western, and high seas of the Mediterranean, while developing initial information

  12. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease with a Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, Ramón; Ros, Emilio; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Arós, Fernando; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Lapetra, José; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa Maria; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Sorlí, José V; Martínez, José Alfredo; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel

    2013-04-04

    Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. We conducted a randomized trial of this diet pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. In a multicenter trial in Spain, we randomly assigned participants who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly individual and group educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was the rate of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). On the basis of the results of an interim analysis, the trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. A total of 7447 persons were enrolled (age range, 55 to 80 years); 57% were women. The two Mediterranean-diet groups had good adherence to the intervention, according to self-reported intake and biomarker analyses. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.92) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96) for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group (109 events). No diet-related adverse effects were reported. Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. (Funded by the Spanish government's Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN35739639.).

  13. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia - does it still exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-10-31

    To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. The median MDSS score was 11 out of maximum 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle.

  14. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a sample of Tuscan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Lorini, Chiara; Tanini, Tommaso; Indiani, Laura; Lastrucci, Vieri; Comodo, Nicola; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a group of Italian high school students, in relation to their lifestyles and social and family contexts, and to compare the nutrition habits of the sample with other similar groups. The KIDMED index and an ad hoc questionnaire were administered to 1127 students (mean age 16.8 ± 1.6 y) in the province of Florence. Any significant associations between the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the aforementioned variables were assessed by the χ(2) test and by logistic regression analysis. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was good in 16.5%, average in 60.5%, and poor in 23% of the students. The students attending technical high schools, those who played sports less than "almost every day", those who spent >3 h/d in sedentary activities, those who defined their school performance as worse than "more than sufficient," and those who referred to use of a car/moped as the most frequent mode of transportation, had significantly higher odds of poor rather than average or good adherence to Mediterranean diet. Moreover, being normal weight or overweight/obese, and referring to health workers as source of information on diet, seem to be protective factors against poor adherence to Mediterranean diet. Our sample presents a departure from the Mediterranean dietary pattern. It is certainly necessary to implement public health policies targeting teenagers to promote healthier lifestyle choices; the nutritional patterns of the Mediterranean diet should be among these choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  16. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  17. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  18. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  19. Mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitigoi, Daniela; Olaru, Ioana D; Badescu, Daniela; Rafila, Alexandru; Arama, Victoria; Hristea, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6%) patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4%) and rash (98.2%), and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7%) of them had a titer IgG ≥1:160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  20. Mediterranean Spotted Fever in Southeastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pitigoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although cases of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF have been reported for decades in southeastern Romania, there are few published data. We retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with MSF at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases “Prof. Dr. Matei Bals” between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about MSF in certain regions of Romania. According to the Raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4% had a score >25 points. Mean age was 52.5 years. One hundred and fifty-five (90.6% patients were from Bucharest and the surrounding region. Almost all patients presented with fever (99.4% and rash (98.2%, and 57.9% had evidence of a tick bite. There were no recorded deaths. Serologic diagnosis was made by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Of the 171 patients, serology results for R. conorii were available in 147. One hundred and twenty-three (83.7% of them had a titer IgG ≥1 : 160 or a fourfold increase in titer in paired samples. MSF is endemic in southeastern Romania and should be considered in patients with fever and rash even in the absence of recognized tick exposure. Since the disease is prevalent in areas highly frequented by tourists, travel-associated MSF should be suspected in patients with characteristic symptoms returning from the endemic area.

  1. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena García-Fernández

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS and cardiovascular disease (CVD. The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care.

  2. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  3. Origin and consequences of western Mediterranean subduction, rollback, and slab segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hinsbergen, D.J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269263624; Vissers, R.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068789203; Spakman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074103164

    2014-01-01

    The western Mediterranean recorded subduction rollback, slab segmentation and separation. Here we address the questions of what caused Oligocene rollback initiation, and how its subsequent evolution split up an originally coherent fore arc into circum-southwest Mediterranean segments. We

  4. The Mediterranean and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diets and colorectal cancer123

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Teresa T; Hu, Frank B; Wu, Kana; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Fuchs, Charles S; Giovannucci, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although the Mediterranean diet has been studied for cancer mortality and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet shares similarities with the Mediterranean diet, few studies have specifically examined these 2 diets and incident colorectal cancer.

  5. Study of the impact of cyclogenesis at the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribo, M.; Llasat, C.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Basin is usually affected by high impact weather events, generating high impacts in all Mediterranean countries and causing important damages. This basin is surrounded by mountains and arid regions, and the interaction of the air flow with the orography barriers produces many effects, the most important is the formation of low pressure centers. This is one of the reasons why the Mediterranean Sea is considered to be the most cyclogenetic area in the world (Jansà, 1997). Floods are also one of the most important natural hazards in the Mediterranean Basin. Flood events occur when soil absorption, runoff or drainage cannot adequately disperse intense rainfall from quasi-stationary or stationary weather systems in short time periods. In some occasions these floods produce high social impact in the affected areas. Our work presents the study of the relationship between the flood episodes and the presence of cyclones in the Mediterranean Basin during those episodes, between 1990 and 2004. Information about social impact of each event has also been considered. To do these analyses the MEDEX database (MEDiterranean EXperiment on cyclones that produce high impact weather in the Mediterranean) has been improved in the frame work of the European FLASH project, and information about cyclones and rainfall has been extracted from the MEDEX cyclones database. A total of 217 flood events had been identified. Once the presence of one or more cyclones during each flood episode has been identified, temporal and regional analyses were made to determine the distribution of the cyclonic centers and to study the evolution of the events. Mediterranean cyclogenesis is leaded by influence of external systems (along the African coast, from the Atlantic Ocean, and from the west of Europe), although the majority of the cyclones (87% of the studied cases) are generated in the Mediterranean Basin, under influence of preexistent systems. There are different Mediterranean

  6. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  7. Evergreen Valley College Matriculation Aide Intervention Evaluation: Success Rates of Fall 1992 Sections Using a Matriculation Aide Compared to Non-Intervention Sections for the Same Semester and Two Previous Semesters, English 321, 322, 330, and Math 12. Research Report #408.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Jon

    In fall 1992, a study was performed at Evergreen Valley College, in San Jose, California, to determine whether the presence of full-time instructional aides and part-time matriculation aides in four specific courses (English 321, 322, 330, and Math 12) led to increases in student success. Success was defined as receipt of a grade of…

  8. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS FOR MEDITERRANEAN SUBCATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  9. Mediterranean diet and inflammaging within the hormesis paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Morena; Ostan, Rita; Biondi, Fiammetta; Bellavista, Elena; Fabbri, Cristina; Bertarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio; Santoro, Aurelia

    2017-06-01

    A coherent set of epidemiological data shows that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects capable of preventing a variety of age-related diseases in which low-grade, chronic inflammation/inflammaging plays a major role, but the underpinning mechanism(s) is/are still unclear. It is suggested here that the Mediterranean diet can be conceptualized as a form of chronic hormetic stress, similar to what has been proposed regarding calorie restriction, the most thoroughly studied nutritional intervention. Data on the presence in key Mediterranean foods of a variety of compounds capable of exerting hormetic effects are summarized, and the mechanistic role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 pathway is highlighted. Within this conceptual framework, particular attention has been devoted to the neurohormetic and neuroprotective properties of the Mediterranean diet, as well as to its ability to maintain an optimal balance between pro- and anti-inflammaging. Finally, the European Commission-funded project NU-AGE is discussed because it addresses a number of variables not commonly taken into consideration, such as age, sex, and ethnicity/genetics, that can modulate the hormetic effect of the Mediterranean diet. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  10. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and Mediterranean diet: Impact on depression outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Toro, M; Vicens-Pons, E; Gili, M; Roca, M; Serrano-Ripoll, M J; Vives, M; Leiva, A; Yáñez, A M; Bennasar-Veny, M; Oliván-Blázquez, B

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and low adherence to Mediterranean diet are frequent in major depression patients and have been separately related with prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyse their predictive power on major depression outcome, at 6 and 12 months. 273 Major depressive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory for depressive symptoms and the 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence score. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). At the baseline Mediterranean diet adherence was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (p=0.007). Depression response was more likely in those patients with normal weight (p=0.006) and not MetS (p=0.013) but it was not associated with Mediterranean diet adherence (p=0.625). Those patients with MetS and obesity were less likely to improve symptoms of depression than patients with obesity but not MetS. Obesity and MetS, but not low adherence to the Mediterranean diet at baseline, predicted a poor outcome of depression at 12 months. Our study suggests that MetS is the key factor that impacts negatively in depression prognosis, rather than obesity or diet. If this finding is confirmed, clinicians should be aware about MetS diagnosis and treatment in overweight depressed patients, especially if outcome is not being satisfactory enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Compositional variability in Mediterranean archaeofaunas from Upper Paleolithic Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily Lena

    2018-03-01

    Recent meta-analyses of Upper Paleolithic Southwestern European archaeofaunas (Jones, 2015, 2016) have identified a consistent "Mediterranean" cluster from the Last Glacial Maximum through the early Holocene, suggesting similarities in environment and/or consistency in hunting strategy across this region through time despite radical changes in climate. However, while these archaeofaunas from this cluster all derive from sites located within today's Mediterranean bioclimatic region, many of them are from locations far from the Mediterranean Sea - Atlantic Portugal, the Spanish Meseta - which today differ significantly from each other in biotic composition. In this paper, I explore clustering (through cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling) within the Mediterranean archaeofaunal group. I test for the influence of sample size as well as the geographic variables of site elevation, latitude, and longitude on variability in the large mammal portions of archaeofaunal assemblages. ANOVA shows no relationship between cluster-defined groups and site elevation or longitude; instead, site latitude appears to be a primary contributor to patterning. However, the overall compositional similarity of the Mediterranean archaeofaunas in this dataset suggests more consistency than variability in Upper Paleolithic hunting strategy in this region.

  12. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  13. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137 Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr -1 ) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr -1 ) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  14. Mediterranean limnology: current status, gaps and the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel ALVAREZ COBELAS

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The current ecosystem paradigm in limnology is represented by the cold temperate, stratifying lake and the single-channelled river. However, the variety of inland water ecosystems is much higher, and so is the ecological complexity of many of them. Most Mediterranean limnosystems are quite distinct from the contemporary limnological paradigm. This overview will deal with the striking and exciting differences between Mediterranean and other temperate limnosystems. For example, most are very small, their catchment area is much larger than their size, and they experience both a longer vegetation period and a strong seasonality in water supply which occurs outside the hot season, often from groundwater sources. In addition, we encourage research on the often poorly known limnological processes taking place in Mediterranean regions by pointing at insufficiently covered research fields. Furthermore, competition for water among different users, arising from population increase in fertile and/or tourist areas, is certainly limiting the ability of many Mediterranean limnosystems to survive at present and in the near future, particularly in the face of the harsher environmental conditions that climatic change is triggering. A new paradigm on Mediterranean limnology is thus necessary. This will enable us to predict and mitigate more accurately the unstoppable effects of man-made change in these beautiful and still largely ignored ecosystems.

  15. Zeaxanthin-independent energy quenching and alternative electron sinks cause a decoupling of the relationship between the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and photosynthesis in an evergreen conifer during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette, Emmanuelle; Wong, Christopher Y S; Junker, Laura Verena; Chang, Christine Yao-Yun; Ensminger, Ingo

    2015-12-01

    In evergreen conifers, the winter down-regulation of photosynthesis and its recovery during spring are the result of a reorganization of the chloroplast and adjustments of energy-quenching mechanisms. These phenological changes may remain undetected by remote sensing, as conifers retain green foliage during periods of photosynthetic down-regulation. The aim was to assess if the timing of the spring recovery of photosynthesis and energy-quenching characteristics are accurately monitored by the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) in the evergreen conifer Pinus strobus. The recovery of photosynthesis was studied using chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf gas exchange, leaf spectral reflectance, and photosynthetic pigment measurements. To assess if climate change might affect the recovery of photosynthesis, seedlings were exposed to cold spring conditions or warm spring conditions with elevated temperature. An early spring decoupling of the relationship between photosynthesis and PRI in both treatments was observed. This was caused by differences between the timing of the recovery of photosynthesis and the timing of carotenoid and chlorophyll pool size adjustments which are the main factors controlling PRI during spring. It was also demonstrated that zeaxanthin-independent NPQ mechanisms undetected by PRI further contributed to the early spring decoupling of the PRI-LUE relationship. An important mechanism undetected by PRI seems to involve increased electron transport around photosystem I, which was a significant energy sink during the entire spring transition, particularly in needles exposed to a combination of high light and cold temperatures. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  16. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral

  17. Association between polyphenol intake and adherence to the Mediterranean diet in Sicily, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Godos

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions: Mean polyphenol intake was higher in individuals more adherent to the Mediterranean diet compared to less adherent. However, dietary sources of polyphenols not included in the traditional foods comprised in the Mediterranean diet may contribute to total and specific classes of polyphenols irrespectively of their inclusion within the context of the Mediterranean diet.

  18. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer risk: results from a European cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bamia, C.; Lagiou, P.; Buckland, G.; Grioni, S.; Agnoli, C.; Duijnhoven, van F.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the association of adherence to Mediterranean diet with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition study. Adherence to Mediterranean diet was expressed through two 10-unit scales, the Modified Mediterranean diet score

  19. Mediterranean climate modelling: variability and climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)

  20. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  1. Marine Renewable Energy in the Mediterranean Sea: Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takvor H. Soukissian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an extended overview of the marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean Sea is provided as regards current status, potential problems, challenges, and perspectives of development. An integrated and holistic approach is necessary for the economic viability and sustainability of marine renewable energy projects; this approach comprises three different frameworks, not always aligned, i.e., geotechnical/engineering, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological frameworks. In this context, the geomorphological, climatological, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological particularities of the Mediterranean basin are discussed, as they constitute key issues of the spatial context in which marine renewable energy projects are to be implemented. General guidelines for the sustainable development of marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean are also provided.

  2. Association of Familial Mediterranean Fever and Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Tümgör

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive,short, acute, self-limiting disease characterized by attacksof fever and polyserositis, which is common in countriesaround the Mediterranean. Inflammatory bowel diseaseis a term used to describe Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’sdisease that associated with chronic idiopathic inflammatory.The patient had FMF but she had been well untilapproximately 20 days before admission, when malaise,fever, abdominal pain, right knee and ankle edema developed.She was taking colchicine. The patient diagnosedas Crohn Disease by endoscopy and histopathology. Thiscase report is presented to emphasize the association oftwo diseases.Key words: Familial Mediterranean Fever, inflammatorybowel disease, Crohn’s disease, childhood

  3. [Role of Mediterranean diet on the prevention of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Arnoldo; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina; Mennickent, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Cardiovascular protection is related to the actions of polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids on the vascular endothelium. The Mediterranean diet also can improve cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. These beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet should have a role in Alzheimer’s disease prevention.

  4. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  5. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  6. Slagging and fouling risk of Mediterranean biomasses for combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Nieva, Daniel J.; Dopazo, Raquel; Ortiz, Luis (Univ. of Vigo (Spain), Forestry School, A Xunqueira Campus, Pontevedra)

    2010-07-15

    The interest in biomass combustion has grown exponentially in the last years, as a means for renewable heat and energy promoting local development and mitigating climate change. Various Mediterranean agricultural and forest resources such as olive stone, almond shell or pinecone chips remain large unutilized, despite their potential for being utilized in biomass combustion. New energy crops such as Cardoon, Brassica or Sorghum, are being introduced in Mediterranean countries for Bioenergy production; however, the slagging and fouling risk of many of these potential feedstocks are currently limiting their application in combustion processes given their high alkali, silica or chlorine contents. In this publication, various methods for biomass slagging and fouling hazard monitoring and prediction are presented based on recent studies with Mediterranean biomasses combustion in Spain

  7. Global and Mediterranean climate change: a short summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardini, Virginia; Contessa, Gian Marco; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Gómez-Amo, José Luis; Meloni, Daniela; Monteleone, Francesco; Pace, Giandomenico; Piacentino, Salvatore; Sferlazzo, Damiano; di Sarra, Alcide

    2016-01-01

    Observed changes at the global scale. An increase of the annual mean global temperature and changes of other climate parameters have been observed in the last century. The global temperature and the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases are changing at a very fast pace compared to those found in palaeoclimate records. Changes in the Mediterranean. Variations of some climate change indicators can be much larger at the local than at the global scale, and the Mediterranean has been indicated among the regions most sensitive to climate change, also due to the increasing anthropogenic pressure. Model projections for the Mediterranean foresee further warming, droughts, and long-lasting modifications. Regional climate changes impact health and ecosystems, creating new risks, determined not only by weather events, but also by changing exposures and vulnerabilities. These issues, and in particular those regarding occupational safety, have not been sufficiently addressed to date.

  8. The anticancer and antiobesity effects of Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Hiu Yee; Chao, Xiaojuan; Su, Tao; Fu, Xiuqiong; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Fong, Wang Fun; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2017-01-02

    Cancers have been the leading cause of death worldwide and the prevalence of obesity is also increasing in these few decades. Interestingly, there is a direct association between cancer and obesity. Each year, more than 90,000 cancer deaths are caused by obesity or overweight. The dietary pattern in Crete, referred as the traditional Mediterranean diet, is believed to confer Crete people the low mortality rates from cancers. Nevertheless, the antiobesity effect of the Mediterranean diet is less studied. Given the causal relationship between obesity and cancer, the antiobesity effect of traditional Mediterranean diet might contribute to its anticancer effects. In this regard, we will critically review the anticancer and antiobesity effects of this diet and its dietary factors. The possible mechanisms underlying these effects will also be discussed.

  9. Avoidance within a changing assessment paradigm for Mediterranean Hake stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.

  10. Fish assemblages of Mediterranean marine caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussotti, Simona; Di Franco, Antonio; Francour, Patrice; Guidetti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Fish assemblages associated with 14 marine caves and adjacent external rocky reefs were investigated at four Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) along the coasts of Italy. Within the caves sampling was carried out in different sub-habitats: walls, ceilings, bottoms and ends of caves. On the whole, 38 species were recorded inside the 14 caves investigated. Eighteen species were exclusively found inside the caves: they were mainly represented by speleophilic (i.e. species preferentially or exclusively inhabiting caves) gobids (e.g. Didogobius splechtnai) and nocturnal species (e.g. Conger conger). Forty-one species were censused outside, 20 of which were shared with cave habitats. Apogon imberbis was the most common fish found in all 14 caves investigated, followed by Thorogobius ephippiatus (recorded in 13 caves), and Diplodus vulgaris and Scorpaena notata (both censused in 12 caves). Distinct fish assemblages were found between external rocky reefs and the different cave sub-habitats. New data on the distribution of some speleophilic gobids were collected, showing the existence of a pool of species shared by marine caves on a large scale (i.e. hundreds of km). Considering the uniqueness of cave fishes (18 exclusive species and different assemblage structures), the inclusion of marine caves among the habitats routinely investigated for fish biodiversity monitoring could facilitate the achievement of more comprehensive inventories. Due to their contribution to local species diversity and the shelter they provide to species valuable for conservation, marine caves should be prioritized for their inclusion not only within future MPAs through the Mediterranean Sea, but also into larger management spatial planning.

  11. Siracusa, EuroMediterranean Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Minozzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available About three years ago, the City of Siracusa has started a serious reflection about the crisis, about its model of development and its problems related to its territorial marginality. In this context, it lodged a service "Complex Programs and EU Policies" internal the Department of Public Works as the first embryo of the future Urban Center in Siracusa. The Smarter Cities Challenge program, sponsored by IBM, provides, for the years 2011-2012-2013 a selection through a call, a hundred cities around the world that offer a program of counseling on territorial issues, urban, social, exposed by the city in challenge. The program for 2012, selected Siracusa, the only Italian city in a hundred choices, with a theme that emphasizes the need to find methods (smart to integrate the two systems, the industrial and the historical, cultural, into the overall Siracusa system territorial. The advent of smart policies also confirms the trend that characterized the most evolved from the most marginal realities in Europe. For the realities of the Euro-Mediterranean area, such as Siracusa, the winners model’s urban policies originate from the most evolved and developed, where the economy is more structured and able to assume the active role of actors development and urban transformations. So, a universal language of transformations really exist? The same model development produces the same results everywhere, regardless the places and the people tribe? To promote smart Siracusa means, not only, economic innovation promotion, social inclusion and environmental sustainability, but also: Siracusa intends to strengthen its image as innovation land and to evolve into a center of excellence for smart policies.

  12. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  13. Sicily in its Mediterranean geological frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, P.

    2016-10-01

    The Island of Sicily is generally considered to be the geological link between the North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, in Italy. This comes from a cylindristic meaning and is only partly exact. As a matter of fact, Sicily is essentially Greek; Ionian. Up to Middle Cretaceous time, the Sicilian area was a submerged shoal in the sea or the Panormide area, bordering the Ionian Ocean. This shoal lay between the future North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, forming an intermediate link between the Appenninic, Apulian, Panormian and Tunisian platforms. It was only during the Middle to Upper Cretaceous that the Atlantic and Ligure Oceans merged, making a continuous relationship between the Appenninic, Sicilian and North African sedimentary series. The key time periods are the Permian, Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene periods leading to the formation of the actual Calabro-Sicilian arc. From the Permian to the present, the Sicilian geological history pertains to three oceanic domains: Ionian, Ligurian and Atlantic, of which the Ionian and Ligurian were under the influence of Tethys (Neo and Paleo-Tethys). The Tethysian identity of Sicily constitutes the major aspect of its geological history. However, the European and African plate tectonic movements complicated its structure. During the Middle Miocene subduction, southern Sicily became African, meanwhile its north-eastern part became, in Pliocene time, Maghrebian by accretion. Sicily is thus a truly geological patchwork, but its main section remains Ionian and now constitutes a link between North Africa and the Appennines. With older data, but also by means of recent results, we will replace Sicily in its Mediterranean frame, giving the mean stages of its paleogeographical and then its tectonic evolution. We will review the calabro-sicilian arc evolution from the Oligocene, developing the actual context and recalling the main fundamental play of the Numidian flysch. (Author)

  14. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  15. Dementia in Eastern Mediterranean countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Sara Mahmoud; Bartlett, Ruth; Brannelly, Tula

    2018-01-01

    Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent. Firstly, prevalence, comorbidity and gender: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, many studies identify that the prevalence of dementia is high. As is the case elsewhere, many older adults in Eastern Mediterranean countries have at least one coexisting long-term condition, and some experience low life-satisfaction. Secondly, culture: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, the older adult is highly respected, and placement outside of the family home is considered an abandonment of family duty. The term dementia carries stigma, and it is widely believed that dementia is caused by 'fate'. Thirdly, recognition and tools: There is a lack of verified assessment instruments to assess for dementia. Despite concerns about the cultural appropriateness of the Mini-Mental State Exam, particularly for people who have low literacy levels, and low literacy being the norm in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Mini-Mental State Examination is the main assessment instrument. Translation and transition of non-Arabic assessment instruments and tools with psychometric properties presents a challenge for clinicians. Finally, workforce issues: health care workers lack knowledge about dementia, as dementia care is a relatively recent addition to the nursing and medical syllabi. While there were some inconsistencies in the papers published, many of the articles call for increasing educational programmes

  16. Mediterranean diet adherence and body composition among Southern Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Antoci, Mariagrazia; Cagnetti, Antonella; Giogianni, Gabriele; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Pecora, Giulia; Marranzano, Marina

    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been associated with health benefits in young populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardio-metabolic parameters in adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted during two school years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) on 1643 adolescents of 11-16 years attending 15 secondary schools. Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected. The KIDMED score was used to evaluate the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test the association between the variable of interest and the outcomes. A higher percentage of boys compared with girls was overweight (30.8% vs. 25.4%) and obese (28.7% vs. 18.5%) and only 9.1% had high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable intake was negatively associated with being overweight/obese whereas higher intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast foods was associated with overweight and obesity. A good adherence to the Mediterranean diet resulted in 30% decreased odds of being overweight or obese (odd ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.87) in both boys and girls. An inverse correlation was found between KIDMED score and BMI, waist circumference and fat mass. No relation with blood pressure was found. Mediterranean dietary pattern resulted significantly associated with weight status in adolescents. These results underline the importance of providing lifestyle and dietary habits education to prevent overweight and obesity in adolescent. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  19. Wind mapping offshore in coastal Mediterranean area using SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...... of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models and space borne...

  20. Assessing the sampling strategy in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, Félix; Testor, Pierre; Bosse, Anthony; Heslop, Emma; L'Hévéder, Blandine; Arsouze, Thomas; Houpert, Loic; Mortier, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The deployment of numerous autonomous platforms (gliders, argo floats, moorings) added to the repeated ship cruises in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea account for a considerable data coverage of the area through the past 10 years. In this study, we analyse the in-situ observations' ability to assess for the changes in the Northwester Mediterranean basin water masses properties over time. Comparing the observed time series for the different regions and different water masses to that of a glider simulator in the NEMO-Med12 model, we estimate both the quality of the model and the skill of the in-situ observations in reproducing the evolution of the basin properties.

  1. Climate changes over the past millennium: Relationships with Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed for climate change and its causes over the interval spanning roughly the past millennium. Particular emphasis is placed on patterns of climate change influencing Mediterranean climates of the Northern Hemisphere. The evidence is taken from studies using high-resolution climate proxy data sources, and climate modeling simulations. The available evidence suggests that forced changes in dynamical modes of variability including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have played a key role in the patterns of climate variability in Mediterranean regions over the past millennium

  2. Diversity and localization of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaljac, M; Zanić, K; Hrnčić, S; Radonjić, S; Perović, T; Ghanim, M

    2013-02-01

    Several whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are cosmopolitan phloem-feeders that cause serious damage in numerous agricultural crops. All whitefly species harbor a primary bacterial symbiont and a diverse array of secondary symbionts which may influence several aspects of the insect's biology. We surveyed infections by secondary symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) from areas in the east cost of the Adriatic Sea. Both the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci genetic groups were detected in Montenegro, whereas only the MED was confirmed in Croatia. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and S. phillyreae were found in all areas surveyed. MEAM1 and MED exhibited similarity to previously reported infections, while populations of T. vaporariorum from Montenegro harbored Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium in addition to previously reported Hamiltonella and Arsenopnohus. Siphoninus phillyreae harbored Hamiltonella, Wolbachia, Cardinium and Arsenophonus, with the latter appearing in two alleles. Multiple infections of all symbionts were common in the three insect species tested, with some reaching near fixation. Florescent in situ hybridization showed new localization patterns for Hamiltonella in S. phillyreae, and the morphology of the bacteriosome differed from that observed in other whitefly species. Our results show new infections with bacterial symbionts in the whitefly species studied. Infections with the same symbionts in reproductively isolated whitefly species confirm complex relationships between whiteflies and bacterial symbionts, and suggest possible horizontal transfer of some of these bacteria.

  3. On the occurrence of the fireworm Eurythoe complanata complex (Annelida, Amphinomidae in the Mediterranean Sea with an updated revision of the alien Mediterranean amphinomids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of two species within the Eurythoe complanata complex in the Mediterranean Sea is reported, as well as their geographical distributions. One species, Eurythoe laevisetis, occurs in the eastern and central Mediterranean, likely constituting the first historical introduction to the Mediterranean Sea and the other, Eurythoe complanata, in both eastern and Levantine basins. Brief notes on their taxonomy are also provided and their potential pathways for introduction to the Mediterranean are discussed. A simplified key to the Mediterranean amphinomid genera and species of Eurythoe and Linopherus is presented plus an updated revision of the alien amphinomid species reported previously from the Mediterranean Sea. A total of five exotic species have been included; information on their location, habitat, date of introduction and other relevant features is also provided.

  4. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Mediterranean Diet: its definition and evaluation of a priori dietary indexes in primary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2018-01-18

    We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease. These different effects might depend on the definition of Mediterranean Diet and the indexes of the adhesion to the same one used. To compare the effects of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke a univocal model of Mediterranean Diet should be established as a reference, and it might be represented by the Modern Mediterranean Diet Pyramid. The a priori index to evaluate the adhesion to Mediterranean Diet might be the Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score that has some advantages in comparison to the others a priori indexes.

  6. The Middle Eastern and biblical origins of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elliot M; Arnoni, Yardena; Aviram, Michael

    2011-12-01

    To place the Mediterranean diet (MedDi) in the context of the cultural history of the Middle East and emphasise the health effects of some of the biblical seven species - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and date honey. Review of the literature concerning the benefits of these foods. Middle East and Mediterranean Basin. Mediterranean populations and clinical studies utilising the MedDi. The MedDi has been associated with lower rates of CVD, and epidemiological evidence promotes the benefits of consuming fruit and vegetables. Recommended foods for optimal health include whole grain, fish, wine, pomegranates, figs, walnuts and extra virgin olive oil. The biblical traditional diet, including the seven species and additional Mediterranean fruits, has great health advantages, especially for CVD. In addition to the diet, lifestyle adaptation that involves increasing physical activity and organised meals, together with healthy food choices, is consistent with the traditional MedDi. The MedDi is a manageable, lifestyle-friendly diet that, when fortified with its biblical antecedent attributes, may prove to be even more enjoyable and considerably healthier in combating the obesogenic environment and in decreasing the risks of the non-communicable diseases of modern life than conventional, modern dietary recommendations. The biblical seven species, together with other indigenous foods from the Middle East, are now scientifically recognised as healthy foods, and further improve the many beneficial effects of the MedDi.

  7. Anthropogenic metal contamination and sapropel imprints in deep Mediterranean sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelidis, M.O.; Radakovitch, O.; Veron, A.; Aloupi, M.; Heussner, S.; Price, B.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Metal pollution was recorded in deep Mediterranean sediments. → Atmospheric imprint was characterized with radioactive and stable Pb isotopes. → 210 Pb data suggests metal pollution from atmospheric deposition. → Pollutant Pb input to the western basin is 20-25% of coastal atmospheric inventories. → Trace element redistribution is associated with sapropel and turbidite events. - Abstract: Sediment cores from the deep Balearic basin and the Cretan Sea provide evidence for the accumulation of Cd, Pd and Zn in the top few centimeters of the abyssal Mediterranean sea-bottom. In both cores, 206Pb/207Pb profiles confirm this anthropogenic impact with less radiogenic imprints toward surface sediments. The similarity between excess 210Pb accumulated in the top core and the 210Pb flux suggests that top core metal inventories reasonably reflect long-term atmospheric deposition to the open Mediterranean. Pb inventory in the western core for the past 100 years represents 20-30% of sediment coastal inventories, suggesting that long-term atmospheric deposition determined from coastal areas has to be used cautiously for mass balance calculations in the open Mediterranean. In the deeper section of both cores, Al normalized trace metal profiles suggest diagenetic remobilization of Fe, Mn, Cu and, to a lesser extent, Pb that likely corresponds to sapropel event S1.

  8. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  9. Benthic contributions to Adriatic and Mediterranean biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capet, Arthur; Lazzari, Paolo; Spagnoli, Federico; Bolzon, Giorgio; Solidoro, Cosimo

    2017-04-01

    The 3D biogeochemical BFM-OGSTM implementation currently exploited operationally in the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Services Mediterranean Sea Monitoring and Forecasting Centre (CMEMS-Med-MFC; Lazzari et al., 2010) has been complemented with a benthic component. The approach followed that of (Capet et al 2016) and involved a vertically integrated benthic module accounting for the effect of environmental bottom conditions on diagenetic rates (aerobic mineralization, denitrification, nitrification) through transfer functions as well as the effect of waves and bottom currents on sediment deposition and resuspension. A balanced climatological year is simulated for various values of the resuspension parameters, using specifically calibrated transfer functions for the Adriatic Sea and generic formulations for the rest of the Mediterranean basin. The results serves the mapping of distinct provinces of the Adriatic Sea based on the benthic contributions biogeochemical budgets and the seasonal variability of benthic-pelagic fluxes. The differences with the non-benthic reference simulation are highlighted in details regarding the Adriatic, and more generally for the entire Mediterranean Sea. Lazzari, P., Teruzzi, A., Salon, S., Campagna, S., Calonaci, C., Colella, S., Tonani, M., Crise, A. (2010). Pre-operational short-term forecasts for Mediterranean Sea biogeochemistry. Ocean Science, 6(1), 25-39. Capet, A., Meysman, F. J., Akoumianaki, I., Soetaert, K., & Grégoire, M. (2016). Integrating sediment biogeochemistry into 3D oceanic models: A study of benthic-pelagic coupling in the Black Sea. Ocean Modelling, 101, 83-100.

  10. The chemical composition of silages produced in a Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Introduction. Feed cost is a major cost item in all dairying systems. The feed costs of dairies in the Swartland region of the Western Cape varies from 70 to 80% of total costs (Van der Spuy, 1998). This area has a Mediterranean climate and winter-growing crops such as oats, barley, wheat and lupins are cultivated for feed ...

  11. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Salvat, Noelia; Pascual-Geler, Manrique; Lopez-Guarnido, Olga; Rodrigo, Lourdes; Martinez-Burgos, Alba; Cozar, Jose Manuel; Ocaña-Peinado, Francisco Manuel; Álvarez-Cubero, Maria Jesus; Rivas, Ana

    2018-03-15

    In Europe, countries following the traditional Mediterranean Diet (MeDi), particularly Southern European countries, have lower prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality compared to other European regions. In the present study, we investigated the association between the MeDi and the relative risk of PCa and tumor aggressiveness in a Spanish population. Among individual score components, it has been found that subjects with PCa were less likely to consume olive oil as the main culinary fat, vegetables, fruits and fish than those without. However, these differences were not statistically significative. A high intake of fruit, vegetables and cooked tomato sauce Mediterranean style (sofrito) was related to less PCa aggressiveness. Results showed that there are no differences in the score of adherence to the Mediterranean dietary patterns between cases and controls, with mean values of 8.37 ± 1.80 and 8.25 ± 2.48, respectively. However, MeDi was associated with lower PCa agressiveness according to Gleason score. Hence, relations between Mediterranean dietary patterns and PCa are still inconclusive and merit further investigations. Further large-scale studies are required to clarify the effect of MeDi on prostate health, in order to establish the role of this diet in the prevention of PCa.

  12. Management of Solanum elaeagnifolium in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (silverleaf nightshade, SOLEL) is a prominent invasive alien weed in many countries of the Mediterranean Basin since its introduction in the mid-20th century, originating from the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. It reproduces vegetatively and by seeds that...

  13. Large-eddy simulation of an offshore Mediterranean area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizza, Umberto; Miglietta, Mario M.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2014-01-01

    in order to optimize the structural design of offshore large wind turbines that today reach heights up to 200 m. Large-eddy simulations (LESs) have been performed and compared with offshore experimental data collected during the LASIE campaign performed in the Mediterranean during summer 2007. Two...

  14. Oxygen dynamics and transport in the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, F.; Røy, Hans; Bayer, K.

    2008-01-01

    The Mediterranean sponge Aplysina aerophoba kept in aquaria or cultivation tanks can stop pumping for several hours or even days. To investigate changes in the chemical microenvironments, we measured oxygen profiles over the surface and into the tissue of pumping and non-pumping A. aerophoba...

  15. Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, E.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone impact on Mediterranean forests remains largely under-investigated, despite strong photochemical activity and harmful effects on crops. As representative of O 3 impacts on Mediterranean vegetation, this paper reviews the current knowledge about O 3 and forests in Italy. The intermediate position between Africa and European mid-latitudes creates a complex patchwork of climate and vegetation. Available data from air quality monitoring stations and passive samplers suggest O 3 levels regularly exceed the critical level (CL) for forests. In contrast, relationships between O 3 exposure and effects (crown transparency, radial growth and foliar visible symptoms) often fail. Despite limitations in the study design or underestimation of the CL can also affect this discrepancy, the effects of site factors and plant ecology suggest Mediterranean forest vegetation is adapted to face oxidative stress, including O 3 . Implications for risk assessment (flux-based CL, level III, non-stomatal deposition) are discussed. - Why Mediterranean forests are more ozone tolerant than mesophilic vegetation is explored

  16. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  17. Offshore Wind Resource Estimation in Mediterranean Area Using SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...

  18. Moult in the Mediterranean monk seal from Cap Blanc, western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is different to that of the Hawaiian monk seal and elephant seals, as Mediterranean monk seals partly moult in the water. The intermoult period was close to one year except in females nursing a pup. Such females have longer intermoult periods and can even moult whilst still lactating. In males, the process of developing ...

  19. Shallow bias in Mediterranean paleomagnetic directions caused by inclination error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Tauxe, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    A variety of paleomagnetic data from the Mediterranean region show a strong bias toward shallow inclinations. This pattern of shallow inclinations has been interpreted to be the result of (1) major northward terrane displacement, (2) large nondipole components in the Earth’s magnetic field, and

  20. Evaluating the Water Footprint of the Mediterranean and American Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global food demand is increasing rapidly as a result of multiple drivers including population growth, dietary shifts and economic development. Meeting the rising global food demand will require expanding agricultural production and promoting healthier and more sustainable diets. The goal of this paper is to assess and compare the water footprint (WF of two recommended diets (Mediterranean and American, and evaluate the water savings of possible dietary shifts in two countries: Spain and the United States (US. Our results show that the American diet has a 29% higher WF in comparison with the Mediterranean, regardless of products’ origin. In the US, a shift to a Mediterranean diet would decrease the WF by 1629 L/person/day. Meanwhile, a shift towards an American diet in Spain will increase the WF by 1504 L/person/day. The largest share of the WF of both diets is always linked to green water (62%–75%. Grey water in the US is 67% higher in comparison with Spain. Only five products account for 36%–46% of the total WF of the two dietary options in both countries, being meat, oil and dairy products the food items with the largest WFs. Our study demonstrates that adopting diets based on a greater consumption of vegetables, fruits and fish, like the Mediterranean one, leads to major water savings.

  1. Invasive bark and ambrosia beetles in California Mediterranean forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Seybold; Richard Penrose; Andrew Graves

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses the native ranges, histories of introduction, recent research efforts, and the potential impacts of some of 22 species of invasive scolytids in California’s Mediterranean forest ecosystems. The diversity of native and ornamental tree species, the varied climatic zones, and the widespread importation of nursery stock and packaged cargo have made...

  2. Frequency of mutations in Mediterranean fever gene, with gender ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Frequency of mutations in Mediterranean fever gene, with gender and genotype–phenotype correlations in a Turkish population. Salih Coskun, Serkan Kurtgöz, Ece Keskin, Ferah Sönmez and Gökay Bozkurt. J. Genet. 94, 629–635. Table 1. Whole data of genotype–phenotype correlations of M694V ...

  3. Strategies of Mediterranean Oaks to Survive Summer Drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegwolf, R.T.W.; Besson, C. [Inst. Sup. de Agronomia, ISA Lisboa (Portugal); Chaves, M.M. [ISA Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, J. [ISA Lisboa (Portugal)

    2004-03-01

    In arid, Mediterranean regions the scarce water supply during summer limits plant growth. Yet trees and shrubs often grow in areas where no water supply is apparent. By means of the deuterium isotope ratio it could be shown that various plants can access different water sources, allowing them to endure long periods of severe drought. (author)

  4. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison between Sardinia and Malta: the Mediterranean diet revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Sophie; Gerber, Mariette

    2005-10-01

    The Mediterranean diet is often characterized in terms of food items only. In this paper, the comparison of meals, in-between meals snack consumption and total daily food intake is presented between Sardinia and Malta in terms of structure, social environment and hours, together with their changes. Data were collected in 2001 in Sardinia and 2002 in Malta. A structured qualitative questionnaire, articulated around four main themes: food supply, transformation, preparation and consumption habits, was administered by face-to-face interviews with the help of a local person. Inquiries were carried out over two generations with 30 'mother-daughter' couples in each island. We highlighted some Mediterranean characteristics in Sardinia by showing striking contrasts between Sardinian and Maltese food habits such as meal preparation times, both breakfast and main meal structures, total daily food intake profiles, mealtimes and commensality in the mothers' generation. Some of these characteristics were also maintained in the daughters' generation. This investigation has presented evidence that beyond foods, meal pattern, structure and commensal rituals appeared as fundamental aspects of Sardo-Mediterranean food habits, which are important to consider when trying to maintain or implement the Mediterranean dietary model.

  6. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups.

  7. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  8. Effects of wildfire on soil nutrients in Mediterranean ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caon, L.; Vallejo, V.R.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and fast-spreading wildfires are natural in the Mediterranean basin. However, since 1960, wildfire occurrence has increased because of changes in land use, which resulted in extensive land abandonment, increases in the fuel load and continuity in the landscape. The level of soil

  9. Macronutrient content and food exchanges for 48 Greek Mediterranean dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detopoulou, Paraskevi; Aggeli, Maria; Andrioti, Elena; Detopoulou, Maria

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to facilitate the translation of traditional Greek Mediterranean recipes into food exchanges for diabetes. Moreover, it provides a useful food list for meal planning, which can be used by health professionals and nutritionists, as well as researchers and the public. A total of 48 traditional Greek Mediterranean dishes were selected in order to include appetisers, sauces, salads, pies, dishes with vegetables and legumes as well as egg, pasta, rice, meat, fish and poultry-based dishes. The macronutrient content of each recipe (carbohydrate, fat, protein and dietary fibre) was estimated with the use of the USDA database and Greek food composition tables. Then, in order to calculate the food exchanges per serve, an approximation method was followed as suggested in the literature. The Mediterranean Greek dishes contain a considerable amount of vegetables and dietary fibre, and their energy content mainly derives from olive oil. For each serve, carbohydrate, non-starchy vegetable, protein (lean, medium or high fat), milk and fat exchanges are provided. Moreover, the type of fat that each recipe contains is reported. The presented data offer a chance for health professionals to efficiently plan Mediterranean-type meals, ensuring more sophisticated dietetic advice, higher standards of medical nutrition therapy and greater patient self-efficacy. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  10. Spatial diversity of recent trends in Mediterranean tree growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galván, J. D.; Camarero, J. J.; Ginzler, C.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, 084001 (2014) ISSN 1748-9326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * dendroecology * drought climatology * Mediterranean Basin * tree-ring research Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.906, year: 2014

  11. Mediterranean diet pyramid today. Science and cultural updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach-Faig, Anna; Berry, Elliot M; Lairon, Denis; Reguant, Joan; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Dernini, Sandro; Medina, F Xavier; Battino, Maurizio; Belahsen, Rekia; Miranda, Gemma; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2011-12-01

    To present the Mediterranean diet (MD) pyramid: a lifestyle for today. A new graphic representation has been conceived as a simplified main frame to be adapted to the different nutritional and socio-economic contexts of the Mediterranean region. This review gathers updated recommendations considering the lifestyle, dietary, sociocultural, environmental and health challenges that the current Mediterranean populations are facing. Mediterranean region and its populations. Many innovations have arisen since previous graphical representations of the MD. First, the concept of composition of the 'main meals' is introduced to reinforce the plant-based core of the dietary pattern. Second, frugality and moderation is emphasised because of the major public health challenge of obesity. Third, qualitative cultural and lifestyle elements are taken into account, such as conviviality, culinary activities, physical activity and adequate rest, along with proportion and frequency recommendations of food consumption. These innovations are made without omitting other items associated with the production, selection, processing and consumption of foods, such as seasonality, biodiversity, and traditional, local and eco-friendly products. Adopting a healthy lifestyle and preserving cultural elements should be considered in order to acquire all the benefits from the MD and preserve this cultural heritage. Considering the acknowledgment of the MD as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity by UNESCO (2010), and taking into account its contribution to health and general well-being, we hope to contribute to a much better adherence to this healthy dietary pattern and its way of life with this new graphic representation.

  12. Sulphidic Mediterranean surface waters during Pliocene sapropel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Passier, H.F.; Bosch, Hendrik-Johannes (paleontoloog); Nijenhuis, I.A.; Lourens, L.J.; Böttcher, M.E.; Leenders, A.; Lange, G.J. de; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1999-01-01

    Sapropels -organic-matter rich layers- are common in Neogene sediments of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. The formation of these layers has been attributed to climate-related increases in organic-matter production and increased organic-matter preservation due to oxygen depletion in more stagnant

  13. Deep Sea Pockmark Environments in the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrov, L.; Woodside, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    A great number of circular to isometric depressions have been observed on the deep water seafloor in the eastern Mediterranean by MAK-1 and ORETech deep-tow side-scan sonar during several TTR cruises of the UNESCO Floating University Program since 1993, and also by visual observations made during

  14. Water consumption related to different diets in Mediterranean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Del Pozo, S; Pekcan, A G; Keinan-Boker, L; Trichopoulou, A; Gawlik, B M

    2016-12-15

    Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. Here we quantify the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept. These WFs amount from 3277l per capita per day (l/cap/d) to 5789l/cap/d. These amounts are about thirty times higher than their direct urban water use. We additionally analyse the WF of three diet scenarios, based upon a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Many authors identify the Mediterranean diet as cultural heritage, being beneficial for human health and a model for a sustainable food system. The first diet scenario, a healthy Mediterranean diet including meat, leads to WF reductions of -19% to -43%. The second diet scenario (pesco-vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -28% to -52%. The third diet scenario (vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -30% to -53%. In other words, if urban citizens want to save water, they need to look at their diets. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary habits of a Mediterranean population of women in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary habits of a Mediterranean population of women in an agricultural region of Morocco. ... Furthermore a significantly high intake of saturated and monounsaturated fat is observed in the youngest women and women with a higher education level. Except for the intakes of phosphorus and sodium, all minerals and ...

  16. Clasts from mud volcanoes from the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Benkhelil, J.; Giresse, P.; Mascle, J.; Muller, C.L.C.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    In the eastern Mediterranean, numerous argilo-kinetic manifestations, commonly named 'mud volcanoes', have been identified and studied in some detail during the last twenty years using several techniques. The Medinaut survey (December 1998) has provided new insights into this phenomenon through

  17. Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis) | Saglam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of fire behavior in fire prone ecosystems is of vital importance in all phases of fire management including fire prevention, presuppression, suppression and fire use. This paper deals with an experimental burning exercise conducted in the Mediterranean region in Turkey. A series of 18 experimental fires were ...

  18. Primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health

  19. Mobility Partnerships and Security Subcomplexes in the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    issues, the article analyses the MPs by looking at the strategic significance of migration in the context of EU’s foreign and security policy cooperation with the five Arab Mediterranean states. The MPs are seen as an important element in the EU’s overall migration strategy, but have been met...

  20. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and…

  1. Early age onset familial Mediterranean fever associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Touitou I (1998). Phenotype-genotype correlation in Jewish patients suffering from familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Eur. J. Hum. Genet. 6: 95-7. Kogan A, Shinar Y, Lidar M, Revivo A, Langevitz P, Padeh S, Pras M,. Livneh A. (2001). Common MEFV mutations among Jewish ethnic groups in Israel: High ...

  2. Sediment grain size and hydrodynamics in Mediterranean coastal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Integrated classification maps were produced by combining sediment grain-size and hydrological data (water renewal time, WRT) from two Mediterranean lagoons, Lesina (LL) and Varano (LV), Italy. The geophysical characteristics of the two basins, derived from detailed bathymetric charts, are quite distinct: ∼30% of LL ...

  3. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  4. CITRUS AS A COMPONENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are native to southeastern Asia, but are present in the Mediterranean basin for centuries. This group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries and, in the case of orange, mandarin and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allows them to achieve a high level of fruit quality, even better than in the regions where they came from. Citrus fruits are present in the diet of the peoples living on the Mediterranean basin, at least since the time of the Roman Empire. In the 20th century they became the main crop in various agricultural areas of the Mediterranean, playing an important role in the landscape, in the diet of the overall population, and also in international trade. They are present in the gardens of palaces and monasteries, but also in the courtyards and orchards of the poorest families. Their fruits are not only a refreshing dessert, but also a condiment, or even a major component of many dishes. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits. They can actually help prevent and cure some diseases and, above all, they are essential in a balanced and tasty diet.

  5. Prokaryotic abundance and heterotrophic metabolism in the deep Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosabruna La Ferla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of field data carried out in the Mediterranean Sea are presented, aimed at contributing to the knowledge of three prokaryotic-mediated processes and their implications on the Carbon cycle. The distribution of exoenzymatic activities, secondary production and respiration rates was studied together with the prokaryotic abundances. Particular attention was paid to the meso- and bathypelagic layers which play an important role in the Mediterranean carbon cycle. The study is noteworthy because of its large spatial scale spanning the entire Mediterranean Sea over 4 years. In addition, two Atlantic stations in front of the Gibraltar Strait were investigated. The longitudinal distribution of prokaryotic activities and abundance along the MED showed different trends along the depthlayers. In particular, higher exoenzymatic rates were detected in the Eastern basin compared to the Western one; carbon respiration rate showed patterns variable with the sampling periods in the epipelagic and bathypelagic layers, while a consistent Westwards decreasing trend at the mesopelagic layers occurred. Specific enzyme activities per cell showed high values in the deepest layers for leucine aminopeptidase. Comparison with Carbon respiration rate data collected before the 2000s showed changing patterns of microbial heterotrophic processes in the Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Brucella ceti infection in dolphins from the Western Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Ruiz-Villalobos, Nazareth; Pérez, Lola; Guzmán-Verri, Caterina; Muñoz, Pilar M; Alegre, Fernando; Barberán, Montserrat; Chacón-Díaz, Carlos; Chaves-Olarte, Esteban; González-Barrientos, Rocio; Moreno, Edgardo; Blasco, José María; Domingo, Mariano

    2014-09-17

    Brucella ceti infections have been increasingly reported in cetaceans. Brucellosis in these animals is associated with meningoencephalitis, abortion, discospondylitis', subcutaneous abscesses, endometritis and other pathological conditions B. ceti infections have been frequently described in dolphins from both, the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In the Mediterranean Sea, only two reports have been made: one from the Italian Tyrrhenian Sea and the other from the Adriatic Sea. We describe the clinical and pathological features of three cases of B. ceti infections in three dolphins stranded in the Mediterranean Catalonian coast. One striped dolphin had neurobrucellosis, showing lethargy, incoordination and lateral swimming due to meningoencephalitis, A B. ceti infected bottlenose dolphin had discospondylitis, and another striped dolphin did not show clinical signs or lesions related to Brucella infection. A detailed characterization of the three B. ceti isolates was performed by bacteriological, molecular, protein and fatty acid analyses. All the B. ceti strains originating from Mediterranean dolphins cluster together in a distinct phylogenetic clade, close to that formed by B. ceti isolates from dolphins inhabiting the Atlantic Ocean. Our study confirms the severity of pathological signs in stranded dolphins and the relevance of B. ceti as a pathogen in the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  8. Climate Change Threatens Coexistence within Communities of Mediterranean Forested Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the hot spots of climate change. This study aims at understanding what are the conditions sustaining tree diversity in Mediterranean wet forests under future scenarios of altered hydrological regimes. The core of the work is a quantitative, dynamic model describing the coexistence of different Mediterranean tree species, typical of arid or semi-arid wetlands. Two kind of species, i.e. Hygrophilous (drought sensitive, flood resistant) and Non-hygrophilous (drought resistant, flood sensitive), are broadly defined according to the distinct adaptive strategies of trees against water stress of summer drought and winter flooding. We argue that at intermediate levels of water supply the dual role of water (resource and stress) results in the coexistence of the two kind of species. A bifurcation analysis allows us to assess the effects of climate change on the coexistence of the two species in order to highlight the impacts of predicted climate scenarios on tree diversity. Specifically, the model has been applied to Mediterranean coastal swamp forests of Central Italy located at Castelporziano Estate and Circeo National Park. Our results show that there are distinct rainfall thresholds beyond which stable coexistence becomes impossible. Regional climatic projections show that the lower rainfall threshold may be approached or crossed during the XXI century, calling for an urgent adaptation and mitigation response to prevent biodiversity losses. PMID:23077484

  9. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  10. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Román-Viñas, Blanca; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups. PMID:24394536

  11. Drought-induced decline in Mediterranean truffle harvest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Egli, S.; Camarero, J. J.; Fischer, E. M.; Stobbe, U.; Kauserud, H.; Tegel, W.; Sproll, L.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 12 (2012), s. 827-829 ISSN 1758-678X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mediterranean truffle * melanosporum * satisfying explanations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 14.472, year: 2012

  12. Mediterranean Agricultural Soil Conservation under global Change: The MASCC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclot, Damien; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2017-04-01

    The MASCC project (2016-2019, http://mascc-project.org) aims to address mitigation and adaptation strategies to global change by assessing current and future development of Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability to erosion in relation to projected land use, agricultural practices and climate change. It targets to i) assess the similarities/dissimilarities in dominant factors affecting the current Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability by exploring a wide range of Mediterranean contexts; ii) improve the ability to evaluate the impact of extreme events on both the current and projected agricultural soil vulnerability and the sediment delivery at catchment outlet; iii) evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of agricultural production to a combination of potential changes in a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, iv) and provide guidelines on sustainable agricultural conservation strategies adapted to each specific agro-ecosystem and taking into consideration both on- and off-site erosion effects and socio-economics issues. To achieve these objectives, the MASCC project consortium gather researchers from six Mediterranean countries (France, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Spain and Portugal) which monitor mid- to long-term environmental catchments and benefit from mutual knowledge created from previous projects and network. The major assets for MASCC are: i) the availability of an unrivalled database on catchment soil erosion and innovative agricultural practices comprising a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, ii) the capacity to better evaluate the impact of extreme events on soil erosion, iii) the expert knowledge of the LANDSOIL model, a catchment-scale integrated approach of the soil-landscape system that enables to simulate both the sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet and the intra-catchment soil evolving properties and iv) the multi-disciplinarity of the involved researchers with an international reputation in the fields of soil science

  13. The Mediterranean diet: the reasons for a success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Moli-Sani Investigators

    2012-03-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence linking Mediterranean Diet to cardiovascular risk reduction and prevention of the major chronic diseases. Nevertheless Mediterranean societies are rapidly withdrawing from this eating pattern orienting their food choices toward products typical of the Western diet pattern, which is rich in refined grains, animal fats, sugars, processed meat but are quite poor in legumes, cereals, fruits and vegetables. The reasons people keep on shifting from healthy to unhealthy dietary habits remain open to several interpretations. Social changes appear to have consistently contributed to radical reversal in dietary habits in European Mediterranean societies even though developing Countries are somewhat turning into westernized diets as well. Among possible causes, increasing prices of some of the major food items of Mediterranean pyramid seem to have led people to give up this eating pattern in favor of less expensive products which allow to save money but are definitively unhealthy. Many studies suggest that diet quality follows a socio-economic gradient highlighting how disadvantaged people present higher rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. Recent studies have shown a linear relationship between food cost and adherence to eating patterns and obesity. In addition to financial crisis, during the last decades the Mediterranean Diet has been put on the spot because of its alcohol -in- moderation component. Does it make any sense to blame a whole philosophy, which turned out to have beneficial effects on human health, just because, in some Countries, there is a misuse of alcoholic beverages? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Palatal rugae morphology in an adult mediterranean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, M; Ghafari, J G; Haddad, R V; Ayoub, F

    2017-07-01

    The use of the palatal rugae in forensic odontology is based on their unique and individual characteristics. Few studies have assessed the palatal rugae in Mediterranean populations and none in the Lebanese population. Assess the shape and other morphological features of the palatal rugae in a Lebanese adult population, and compare them with reported similar features in other populations. Rugae characteristics were assessed on the maxillary dental casts of 217 non-growing subjects (95 males, 122 females, age 25.5 ± 7.6 years) according to guidelines established by Thomas and Kotze (1983) and Lysell (1955). The overall number of rugae and numbers of primary rugae (> 5mm in length), secondary rugae (3-5mm) and fragmentary rugae (2-3mm) on either side were recorded. Rugae were classified according to shape, direction and presence of unification. Z-tests were used to compare the proportions between right and left sides and between genders. The mean numbers of rugae in each category were compared with independent samples t-tests between males and females; paired samples t-tests were employed to compare mean numbers of rugae in each category between right and left sides. The data were compared with published reports on other Mediterranean cohorts. The average number of rugae was 7.7 per individual, 3.81 on the right and 3.89 on the left. Curved, wavy and straight rugae patterns were equally common (one third each). The spatial direction of most rugae (49.3%) was backward. Circular, non-specific and convergent rugae were rare (Rugae numbers (total, primary, secondary, fragmentary) were symmetrical but shape, direction and the occurrence of convergence were asymmetrical (p rugae patterns as major differences with findings from other Mediterranean studies. The palatal rugae in the Lebanese population display shape distinct from other reported Mediterranean and non-Caucasian populations. Studies in large samples and primary comparisons with other Mediterranean populations

  15. Discovering the plates boundaries in the Mediterranean sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    During the 8th class the students learn geology. We analyze the earth's layers, the earthquakes, the volcanoes and other natural phenomena like subduction and orogeny. We start with a global study but our goal is to focus on the crust to discover the plates boundaries, particularly the boundary between Eurasian and African Plate in the Mediterranean sea. It's very simple for the students to discover all the information using the Internet or the science book, but I want to make with them an exploration of earth science with the help of the natural phenomena we studied during the year. We connect with Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia ( http://www.ingv.it/en/ ) where we can find a map with the earthquakes happened in the last years in Italy and in the Mediterranean sea and the list of the main volcanoes. In this way we can draw a map of the mediterranean plates and we can talk about the past and the future of the Mediterranean sea, Europe and Africa based on our maps and on the Alps orogeny. Using youtube we can have a confirm of our hypothesis about the future of the Mediterranean sea (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uGcDed4xVD4 ). A good observation for the students is given by the fact that we live in Europe but actually we stay on the African plate. The boundary is 5 km north of our school and we can go and visit the place where it is possible to see the different height of the two plates.

  16. Mediterranean diet for type 2 diabetes: cardiometabolic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Katherine; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Giugliano, Dario

    2017-04-01

    Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals. The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials show that Mediterranean diet reduces glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 0.30-0.47 %, and is also associated with a 28-30 % reduced risk for cardiovascular events. The mechanisms by which Mediterranean diet produces its cardiometabolic benefits in type 2 diabetes are, for the most, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative: increased consumption of high-quality foods may cool down the activation of the innate immune system, by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may favor the generation of an anti-inflammatory milieu, which in turn may improve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and endothelial function at the vascular level and ultimately act as a barrier to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and development of atherosclerosis.

  17. Association between Mediterranean diet adherence and dyslipidaemia in a cohort of adults living in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platania, Armando; Zappala, Gaetano; Mirabella, Maria Ugo; Gullo, Carmelo; Mellini, Giulio; Beneventano, Guglielmo; Maugeri, Giuseppe; Marranzano, Marina

    2017-10-24

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between Mediterranean diet adherence and dyslipidaemia in a cohort of adults living in the Mediterranean area. The cross-sectional study comprised a total sample of 2044 men and women, aged >18 years old from southern Italy. The Mediterranean diet adherence was assessed using a validated score (MEDI-LITE score). Clinical data were investigated and anthropometric examinations were collected using standardised methods. Among included individuals, 18.4% had dyslipidaemia. The percentage of females with dyslipidaemia was higher than males (21.2% vs. 14.6%). Higher adherence to Mediterranean diet was inversely associated with dyslipidaemia (OR: 0.56, 95% Cl: 0.36, 0.86). Similar association was observed in men, but not in women. On the contrary, a positive association was found between dyslipidaemia and current smoking and higher occupational status. Our results support the potential effectiveness of this diet in the prevention of dyslipidaemia and justify future intervention studies.

  18. Degradation of terraced slopes in Mediterranean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsermegas, I.; DłuŻewski, M.; Biejat, K.; Szynkiewicz, A.

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural terraces with dry-stone walls take the largest area of all man-made landforms in Mediterranean mountain regions. Despite on that their contemporary morphodynamics have not been the subject of many studies. It is a significant problem both from a scientific and a practical point of view. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of relief, lithology, climatic conditions, methods of wall construction and actual agricultural practice on the degradation of agricultural terraces. A field study was conducted in Greece on 7 plots with the overall area of over 42 000 m2 - on the east Crete and on two Aegean islands - Ikaria and Thera. The analysis was conducted on terraced slopes with gradient of 8-23o, built of granitoids, gneisses, crystalline schists, limestones, crystalline dolomites and volcanic tuffs. There was identified the types of terrace walls. Metrical features of terrace systems were ascertained on the basis of GPS RTK measurement. Terrace material petrography and grain size distribution was identified for regolith an soil samples taken from the selected outcrops which were recognized as being representative for 239 georadar profiles of the joint length of over 2500 m. On that basis the volume of each terrace material was defined. The rills cutting the fields and the walls were measured. The infiltration rate was also taken in 130 points. Reasearch showed that regardless of metrical features of terraces, soil grain size distribution and thickness of the terrace material, the most important reason for the destruction of terrace walls is the abandonment of cultivated areas. Changes in cultivation methods and the introduction of pasturage visibly accelerate the degradation processes. On areas unused for 30 years terrace walls are destroyed on over 25% of their length. It concerns both the areas on which filtration coefficient (k) reaches about 10-5m•s-1 as well as the ones where it is a 100 times lower. The least varied values (10-6-10-5m

  19. The Mediterranean: the cradle of Anthoxanthum (Poaceae) diploid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumová, Zuzana; Záveská, Eliška; Mandáková, Terezie; Krak, Karol; Trávnícek, Pavel

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of diploid phylogeny and ecogeography provide a foundation for understanding plant evolutionary history, diversification patterns and taxonomy. The genus Anthoxanthum (vernal grasses, Poaceae) represents a taxonomically intricate polyploid complex with large phenotypic variation and poorly resolved evolutionary relationships. The aims of the study were to reveal: (1) evolutionary lineages of the diploid taxa and their genetic differentiation; (2) the past distribution of the rediscovered 'Mediterranean diploid'; and (3) possible migration routes of diploids in the Mediterranean. A combined approach involving sequencing of two plastid regions ( trnL-trnF and rpl32-trnL ), nrDNA ITS, rDNA FISH analyses, climatic niche characterization and spatio-temporal modelling was used. Among the examined diploid species, only two well-differentiated evolutionary lineages were recognized: Anthoxanthum gracile and A. alpinum . The other taxa - A. aristatum, A. ovatum, A. maderense and the 'Mediterranean diploid' - form a rather intermixed group based on the examined molecular data. In situ rDNA localization enabled identification of the ancestral Anthoxanthum karyotype, shared by A. gracile and two taxa from the crown group. For the studied taxa, ancestral location probabilities for six discrete geographical regions in the Mediterranean were proposed and likely scenarios of gradual expansion from them were suggested. Modelling past and present distributions shows that the 'Mediterranean diploid' has already been occurring in the same localities for 120 000 years. Highly congruent results were obtained and dated the origin and first diversification of Anthoxanthum to the Miocene. The later divergence probably took place in the Pleistocene and started polyploid evolution within the genus. The most recent diversification event is still occurring, and incomplete lineage sorting prevents full diversification of taxa at the molecular level, despite clear separation based on

  20. Erosion in Mediterranean landscapes: Changes and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Beguería, Santiago

    2013-09-01

    Intense erosion processes are widespread in the Mediterranean region, and include sheet wash erosion, rilling, gullying, shallow landsliding, and the development of large and active badlands in both subhumid and semi-arid areas. This review analyses the main environmental and human features related to soil erosion processes, and the main factors that explain the extreme variability of factors influencing soil erosion, particularly recent land use changes. The importance of erosion in the Mediterranean is related to the long history of human activity in a region characterized by low levels of annual precipitation, the occurrence of intense rainstorms and long-lasting droughts, high evapotranspiration, the presence of steep slopes and the occurrence of recent tectonic activity, together with the recurrent use of fire, overgrazing and farming. These factors have resulted in a complex landscape in which intensification and abandonment, wealth and poverty can co-exist. The changing conditions of national and international markets and the evolution of population pressure are now the main drivers explaining land use changes, including farmland abandonment in mountain areas, the expansion of some subsidized crops to marginal lands, and the development of new terraces affected by landslides and intense soil erosion during extreme rainstorm events. The occurrence of human-related forest fires affecting thousands of hectares each year is a significant problem in both the northern and southern areas of the Mediterranean basin. Here, we highlight the rise of new scientific challenges in controlling the negative consequences of soil erosion in the Mediterranean region: 1) to reduce the effects and extent of forest fires, and restructure the spatial organization of abandoned landscapes; 2) to provide guidance for making the EU agricultural policy more adapted to the complexity and fragility of Mediterranean environments; 3) to develop field methods and models to improve the

  1. Excess of {sup 236}U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); López-Lora, M., E-mail: mlopezlora@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Bressac, M., E-mail: matthieu.bressac@utas.edu.au [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Levy, I., E-mail: I.N.Levy@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Pham, M.K., E-mail: M.Pham@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first {sup 236}U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. {sup 236}U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25′N, 07°52′E). The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2 × 10{sup −9} at 100 m depth to about 1.5 × 10{sup −9} at 2350 m depth, indicate that anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6 ng/m{sup 2} or 32.1 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5 ng/m{sup 2} or 13 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}), evidencing the influence of local or regional {sup 236}U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of {sup 236}U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional {sup 236}U annual deposition of about 0.2 pg/m{sup 2} based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that {sup 236}U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the {sup 236}U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. - Highlights: • First {sup 236}U results in the northwest Mediterranean Sea are reported. • Anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column at DYFAMED station. • {sup 236}U deep-water column inventory exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the global fallout one. • Saharan dust intrusions are responsible for an annual

  2. Long term precipitation trends and variability within the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Philandras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the trends and variability of annual precipitation totals and annual rain days over land within the Mediterranean region are analyzed. Long term ground-based observations concerning, on one hand, monthly precipitation totals (1900–2010 and rain days (1965–2010 from 40 meteorological stations within the Mediterranean region were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (WCDMP of the World Meteorological Organization. On the other hand, high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.5° gridded monthly data CRU TS 3.1 were acquired from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, for the period 1901–2009. The two datasets were compared by means of trends and variability, while the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO in the Mediterranean precipitation was examined. In the process, the climatic changes in the precipitation regime between the period 1961–1990 (reference period and the period 2071–2100 (future climate were presented using climate model simulations (RACMO2.1/KNMI. The future climate projections were based on SRES A1B.

    The findings of the analysis showed that statistically significant (95% confidence level negative trends of the annual precipitation totals exist in the majority of Mediterranean regions during the period 1901–2009, with an exception of northern Africa, southern Italy and western Iberian peninsula, where slight positive trends (not statistically significant at 95% CL appear. Concerning the annual number of rain days, a pronounced decrease of 20 %, statistically significant (95% confidence level, appears in representative meteorological stations of east Mediterranean, while the trends are insignificant for west and central Mediterranean. Additionally, NAO index was found to be anticorrelated with the precipitation totals and the number of rain days mainly in Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece. These

  3. Mediterranean food consumption patterns: low environmental impacts and significant health-nutrition benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussaleh, Y; Capone, R; Bilali, H El

    2017-11-01

    The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species. This review paper aims at highlighting the nutrition-health benefits of the MD and analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that the MD has significant health-nutrition benefits and low environmental footprints, so there is urgent need to reverse the ongoing erosion of the MD heritage and to promote it as a sustainable diets model.

  4. Floating plastic debris in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Orejón, Luis F; Sardá, Rafael; Ramis-Pujol, Juan

    2016-09-01

    In two sea voyages throughout the Mediterranean (2011 and 2013) that repeated the historical travels of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (1847-1915), 71 samples of floating plastic debris were obtained with a Manta trawl. Floating plastic was observed in all the sampled sites, with an average weight concentration of 579.3 g dw km(-2) (maximum value of 9298.2 g dw km(-2)) and an average particle concentration of 147,500 items km(-2) (the maximum concentration was 1,164,403 items km(-2)). The plastic size distribution showed microplastics (plastic in the entire Mediterranean region, with various potential spatial accumulation areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mediterranean biomes: Evolution of their vegetation, floras and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Arroyo, Mary T.K.; Cowling, R.M.; Keeley, J. E.; Lamont, B.B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) possess the highest levels of plant species richness in the world outside of the wet tropics. Sclerophyll vegetation similar to today’s mediterranean-type shrublands was already present on oligotrophic soils in the wet and humid climate of the Cretaceous, with fire-adapted Paleogene lineages in southwestern Australia and the Cape Region. The novel MTC seasonality present since the mid-Miocene has allowed colonization of MTEs from a regional species pool with associated diversification. Fire persistence has been a primary driving factor for speciation in four of the five regions. Understanding the regional patterns of plant species diversity among the MTEs involves complex interactions of geologic and climatic histories for each region as well as ecological factors that have promoted diversification in the Neogene and Quaternary. A critical element of species richness for many MTE lineages has been their ability to speciate and persist at fine spatial scales, with low rates of extinction.

  7. Local Sustainability and Cooperation Actions in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Daddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Middle East and Africa are increasing rapidly, contributing to rapid urban growth. This paper describes a two-year action research process involving diverse public, private, and community stakeholders. The actions aimed to develop and strengthen the capabilities of three Mediterranean cities (Marrakech, Morocco; Sin el Fil, Lebanon; and Bodrum, Turkey in managing and promoting local sustainable development. The needs and priorities of each Mediterranean partner were identified and pilot actions were elaborated to promote urban sustainability, the exploitation of local resources, and the enhancement of local tangible and intangible assets. The paper describes the outputs of pilot actions carried out in these cities, highlighting how these experiences contribute to the current debate on urban sustainability. Broad implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  8. Trends in energy efficiency in countries of the Mediterranean Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    This report describes trends in energy efficiency in four countries of the southern side of the Mediterranean Sea (Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia) and five Mediterranean European countries (France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal). This study is based on energy efficiency indicators per sector of energy consumption as they are developed within the frame of the MEDENER project for the four southern countries and of the ODYSSEE-MURE project for the European countries. The report presents the context of energy efficiency (challenges and objectives, trends in energy consumption, primary and final intensities), discusses trends of energy efficiency in the transformation sector, in the housing sector, in the transport sector (trends in consumption, road and air transport), in the industry (sector intensities), in the tertiary sector (global trends, sector indicators), and in agriculture and fishing (global trends and sector indicators)

  9. [Status of the taxonomy of Leishmania from the Mediterranean basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradoni, L; Gramiccia, M; Pozio, E

    1984-12-01

    Isoenzyme analysis, carried out on some hundreds of Leishmania isolates from the Mediterranean basin by specialized identification Centres, has provided new data on the taxonomy of this parasite in the area. Three complexes of zymodemes have been identified: L. infantum s.l., L. tropica s.l. and L. major s.l. L. infantum is the agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis and it is distributed throughout the Mediterranean area. Furthermore, this parasite is the only responsible for human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Central-Western Europe, including Italy. The distribution of L. tropica, agent of urban, or anthroponotic, cutaneous leishmaniasis, appears to be very limited, being restricted to Middle East, Tunisia and Greece. On the other hand, L. major, which causes rural, or zoonotic, cutaneous leishmaniasis, is widespread throughout North Africa and Middle East. In some countries, such as Tunisia and Israel, leishmaniases are caused by all the three complexes.

  10. Mediterranean diet pyramid: a proposal for Italian people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2014-10-16

    Bread was a staple in the traditional Mediterranean diet of the early 1960s, as well as nowadays; however, it was a stone ground sourdough bread in Nicotera and probably in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. In the present review, the nutritional characteristics of this food are analyzed in relation to its protective effects on coronary heart disease, metabolic diseases and cancer. According to our traditions, cultural heritage and scientific evidence, we propose that only cereal foods with low glycemic index (GI) and rich in fiber have to be placed at the base of the Mediterranean diet pyramid, whereas refined grains and high GI starchy foods have to be sited at the top.

  11. Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: A Proposal for Italian People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annunziata D'Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bread was a staple in the traditional Mediterranean diet of the early 1960s, as well as nowadays; however, it was a stone ground sourdough bread in Nicotera and probably in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. In the present review, the nutritional characteristics of this food are analyzed in relation to its protective effects on coronary heart disease, metabolic diseases and cancer. According to our traditions, cultural heritage and scientific evidence, we propose that only cereal foods with low glycemic index (GI and rich in fiber have to be placed at the base of the Mediterranean diet pyramid, whereas refined grains and high GI starchy foods have to be sited at the top.

  12. A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sousa Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications.

  13. Energy in the Mediterranean: status, perspectives, constraints, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    In its first part, this report comments the differences between the north and the south of the Mediterranean Sea in terms of energy consumption, highlights the fact that energy resources are mainly located in the South and that energy flows are corresponding to a stronger demand by the North, and shows the high potential of renewable energies for this region. Then, it analyses the various concerns and constraints which can be noticed: uncertain supplies on a fluctuating market, a strong dependence on diesel and petrol, an unequal access to electricity, a high sensitivity to climatic change. The third part aims at demonstrating that energy could play a major role in the project of Mediterranean Union. Several potential themes are identified: development of North-South partnerships, status of hydrocarbon supply platform, potential development of the petrochemical industry, development of local markets, promotion of sustainable development, diversification of energy supply with the nuclear energy

  14. Influence of the NAO on the northwestern Mediterranean wave climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartomeu Cañellas

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines teleconnections between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and the wave climate of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (NWM, defined by the monthly mean significant wave height (SWH and the 95th percentile significant wave height (95th percentile SWH, in the period ranging from 1958 to 2001. The data analyzed comes from the multidecadal hindcast over Europe carried out during the HIPOCAS project. In order to avoid fictitious cross-correlations, data were prewhitened by fitting a p-order autoregressive model. To split the temporal and spatial variability, an EOF encoding technique was applied to residuals before searching for teleconnections. We found the northwestern Mediterranean wave climate to be influenced by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with an instantaneous response. When the NAO is in its positive phase, positive anomalies in the SWH and the 95th percentile SWH appear in the area between the Balearic Islands, the Gulf of Lions and the Catalonian coast.

  15. Phytochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Sideritis species from the Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Braulio M

    2012-04-01

    The phytochemical content of the Mediterranean species of the Sideritis genus has been reviewed. The components included in this review are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, triterpenes, sterols, flavones, coumarins and phenylpropanoids. From the chemotaxonomic point of view, we have divided the species from this region into four groups. The first of this is formed by taxa containing triterpenes, but not diterpenes. A second group is constituted by species having bicyclic diterpenes of the labdane type and not diterpenes. The third group is characterized by its content in tetracyclic diterpenes of the ent-kaurene type. A fourth group is composed of plants with tetracyclic diterpenes of the ent-beyer-15-ene and/or ent-atis-13-ene class. In addition, the relations of these Mediterranean species with those of the Macaronesian region have been examined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but als...

  17. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Pedel, Laura; Beuck, L.; Galgani, Francois; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in...

  18. Cruise Summary Report - MEDWAVES survey (MEDiterranean out flow WAter and Vulnerable EcosystemS)

    OpenAIRE

    Orejas, Covadonga; Addamo, Anna; Alvarez, Marta; Aparicio, Alberto; Alcoverro, Daniel; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bilan, Meri; Boavida, Joana; Cainzos, Veronica; Calderon, Ruben; Cambeiro, Peregrino; Castano, Monica; Fox, Alan; Gallardo, Marina; Gori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The MEDWAVES (MEDiterranean out flow WAter and Vulnerable EcosystemS) cruise targeted areas under the potential influence of the MOW within the Mediterranean and Atlantic realms. These include seamounts where Cold-water corals (CWCs) have been reported but that are still poorly known, and which may act as essential “stepping stones” connecting fauna of seamounts in the Mediterranean with those of the continental shelf of Portugal, the Azores and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. During MEDWAVES samplin...

  19. The Mediterranean of the refugees: For a reading of colonial implications in spatial imagination

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Gaia

    2017-01-01

    In my paper I am interested in both a semiotic analysis that captures the contemporary discourse on the Mediterranean and a study that connects it to the analysis of the meanings attached to the transit and presence of migrants and refugees in Europe and the Mediterranean, and to the historical reasons, power relations, colonial archives and memories that constitute what Sandro Mezzadra calls the “postcolonial condition” (Mezzadra, 2008). I title it the Mediterranean of the refugees with the ...

  20. The Presence of the invasive Lionfish Pterois miles in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BARICHE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the occurrence of Pterois miles in the Mediterranean Sea, based on the capture of two specimens along the coast of Lebanon. Previously, only one record of the species from the Mediterranean Sea had been documented. The new records highlight the arrival of new propagules of P. miles, more than two decades later, hinting to a future potential invasion of the Mediterranean Sea.