WorldWideScience

Sample records for mediterranean ascidian ciona

  1. Construction of a cDNA microarray derived from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azumi, Kaoru; Takahashi, Hiroki; Miki, Yasufumi; Fujie, Manabu; Usami, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Hisayoshi; Kitayama, Atsusi; Satou, Yutaka; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori

    2003-10-01

    A cDNA microarray was constructed from a basal chordate, the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. The draft genome of Ciona has been read and inferred to contain approximately 16,000 protein-coding genes, and cDNAs for transcripts of 13,464 genes have been characterized and compiled as the "Ciona intestinalis Gene Collection Release I". In the present study, we constructed a cDNA microarray of these 13,464 Ciona genes. A preliminary experiment with Cy3- and Cy5-labeled probes showed extensive differential gene expression between fertilized eggs and larvae. In addition, there was a good correlation between results obtained by the present microarray analysis and those from previous EST analyses. This first microarray of a large collection of Ciona intestinalis cDNA clones should facilitate the analysis of global gene expression and gene networks during the embryogenesis of basal chordates.

  2. Time course for tail regression during metamorphosis of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunobu, Shohei; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2015-09-01

    In most ascidians, the tadpole-like swimming larvae dramatically change their body-plans during metamorphosis and develop into sessile adults. The mechanisms of ascidian metamorphosis have been researched and debated for many years. Until now information on the detailed time course of the initiation and completion of each metamorphic event has not been described. One dramatic and important event in ascidian metamorphosis is tail regression, in which ascidian larvae lose their tails to adjust themselves to sessile life. In the present study, we measured the time associated with tail regression in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Larvae are thought to acquire competency for each metamorphic event in certain developmental periods. We show that the timing with which the competence for tail regression is acquired is determined by the time since hatching, and this timing is not affected by the timing of post-hatching events such as adhesion. Because larvae need to adhere to substrates with their papillae to induce tail regression, we measured the duration for which larvae need to remain adhered in order to initiate tail regression and the time needed for the tail to regress. Larvae acquire the ability to adhere to substrates before they acquire tail regression competence. We found that when larvae adhered before they acquired tail regression competence, they were able to remember the experience of adhesion until they acquired the ability to undergo tail regression. The time course of the events associated with tail regression provides a valuable reference, upon which the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ascidian metamorphosis can be elucidated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse effect of antifouling compounds on the reproductive mechanisms of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2013-09-20

    Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT) and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na⁺) currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i) the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii) the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed.

  4. Adverse Effect of Antifouling Compounds on the Reproductive Mechanisms of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na+ currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed.

  5. Adverse Effect of Antifouling Compounds on the Reproductive Mechanisms of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT) and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na+) currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i) the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii) the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed. PMID:24065165

  6. A one-dimensional model of PCP signaling: polarized cell behavior in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourakis, Matthew J; Reeves, Wendy; Newman-Smith, Erin; Maury, Benoit; Abdul-Wajid, Sarah; Smith, William C

    2014-11-01

    Despite its importance in development and physiology the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway remains one of the most enigmatic signaling mechanisms. The notochord of the ascidian Ciona provides a unique model for investigating the PCP pathway. Interestingly, the notochord appears to be the only embryonic structure in Ciona activating the PCP pathway. Moreover, the Ciona notochord as a single-file array of forty polarized cells is a uniquely tractable system for the study of polarization dynamics and the transmission of the PCP pathway. Here, we test models for propagation of a polarizing signal, interrogating temporal, spatial and signaling requirements. A simple cell-cell relay cascading through the entire length of the notochord is not supported; instead a more complex mechanism is revealed, with interactions influencing polarity between neighboring cells, but not distant ones. Mechanisms coordinating notochord-wide polarity remain elusive, but appear to entrain general (i.e., global) polarity even while local interactions remain important. However, this global polarizer does not appear to act as a localized, spatially-restricted determinant. Coordination of polarity along the long axis of the notochord requires the PCP pathway, a role we demonstrate is temporally distinct from this pathway's earlier role in convergent extension and intercalation. We also reveal polarity in the notochord to be dynamic: a cell's polarity state can be changed and then restored, underscoring the Ciona notochord's amenability for in vivo studies of PCP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Large-scale infection of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis by the gregarine Lankesteria ascidiae in an inland culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mita, Kaoru; Kawai, Narudo; Rueckert, Sonja; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2012-11-19

    An important way to keep transgenic and mutant lines of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a model system for e.g. genetic functions, in laboratories is via culturing systems. Here we report a disease of C. intestinalis observed in an inland culturing system. The disease, called 'long feces syndrome,' is expressed in affected animals by the following characteristic symptoms of the digestive system: (1) excretion of long and thin feces, (2) pale color of the stomach, and (3) congestion of the digestive tube by digested material. Severely diseased animals usually die within a week after the first symptoms occur, implying a high risk of this disease for ascidian culturing systems. The digestive tubes of the diseased animals are occupied by the gregarine apicomplexan parasite Lankesteria ascidiae, suggesting that large-scale infection by this parasite is the cause of long feces syndrome.

  8. Direct activation of a notochord cis-regulatory module by Brachyury and FoxA in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamaneck, Yale J; Katikala, Lavanya; Perrone, Lorena; Dunn, Matthew P; Oda-Ishii, Izumi; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2009-11-01

    The notochord is a defining feature of the chordate body plan. Experiments in ascidian, frog and mouse embryos have shown that co-expression of Brachyury and FoxA class transcription factors is required for notochord development. However, studies on the cis-regulatory sequences mediating the synergistic effects of these transcription factors are complicated by the limited knowledge of notochord genes and cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) that are directly targeted by both. We have identified an easily testable model for such investigations in a 155-bp notochord-specific CRM from the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. This CRM contains functional binding sites for both Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra) and FoxA (Ci-FoxA-a). By combining point mutation analysis and misexpression experiments, we demonstrate that binding of both transcription factors to this CRM is necessary and sufficient to activate transcription. To gain insights into the cis-regulatory criteria controlling its activity, we investigated the organization of the transcription factor binding sites within the 155-bp CRM. The 155-bp sequence contains two Ci-Bra binding sites with identical core sequences but opposite orientations, only one of which is required for enhancer activity. Changes in both orientation and spacing of these sites substantially affect the activity of the CRM, as clusters of identical sites found in the Ciona genome with different arrangements are unable to activate transcription in notochord cells. This work presents the first evidence of a synergistic interaction between Brachyury and FoxA in the activation of an individual notochord CRM, and highlights the importance of transcription factor binding site arrangement for its function.

  9. Distal Regeneration Involves the Age Dependent Activity of Branchial Sac Stem Cells in the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, William R

    2015-02-01

    Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis . Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal-distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age-related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration.

  10. Distal regeneration involves the age dependent activity of branchial sac stem cells in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tunicates have high capacities for regeneration but the underlying mechanisms and their relationship to life cycle progression are not well understood. Here we investigate the regeneration of distal structures in the ascidian tunicate Ciona intestinalis. Analysis of regenerative potential along the proximal−distal body axis indicated that distal organs, such as the siphons, their pigmented sensory organs, and the neural complex, could only be replaced from body fragments containing the branchial sac. Distal regeneration involves the formation of a blastema composed of cells that undergo cell proliferation prior to differentiation and cells that differentiate without cell proliferation. Both cell types originate in the branchial sac and appear in the blastema at different times after distal injury. Whereas the branchial sac stem cells are present in young animals, they are depleted in old animals that have lost their regeneration capacity. Thus Ciona adults contain a population of age‐related stem cells located in the branchial sac that are a source of precursors for distal body regeneration. PMID:25893097

  11. Evolutionary conservation of vertebrate notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Jamie E; Passamaneck, Yale J; Feldman, Taya G; Beh, Jeni; Regnier, Todd W; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2008-11-01

    To reconstruct a minimum complement of notochord genes evolutionarily conserved across chordates, we scanned the Ciona intestinalis genome using the sequences of 182 genes reported to be expressed in the notochord of different vertebrates and identified 139 candidate notochord genes. For 66 of these Ciona genes expression data were already available, hence we analyzed the expression of the remaining 73 genes and found notochord expression for 20. The predicted products of the newly identified notochord genes range from the transcription factors Ci-XBPa and Ci-miER1 to extracellular matrix proteins. We examined the expression of the newly identified notochord genes in embryos ectopically expressing Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra) and in embryos expressing a repressor form of this transcription factor in the notochord, and we found that while a subset of the genes examined are clearly responsive to Ci-Bra, other genes are not affected by alterations in its levels. We provide a first description of notochord genes that are not evidently influenced by the ectopic expression of Ci-Bra and we propose alternative regulatory mechanisms that might control their transcription. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Germ cell regeneration-mediated, enhanced mutagenesis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis reveals flexible germ cell formation from different somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Keita; Hozumi, Akiko; Treen, Nicholas; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Shirae-Kurabayashi, Maki; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2017-03-15

    The ascidian Ciona intestinalis has a high regeneration capacity that enables the regeneration of artificially removed primordial germ cells (PGCs) from somatic cells. We utilized PGC regeneration to establish efficient methods of germ line mutagenesis with transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). When PGCs were artificially removed from animals in which a TALEN pair was expressed, somatic cells harboring mutations in the target gene were converted into germ cells, this germ cell population exhibited higher mutation rates than animals not subjected to PGC removal. PGC regeneration enables us to use TALEN expression vectors of specific somatic tissues for germ cell mutagenesis. Unexpectedly, cis elements for epidermis, neural tissue and muscle could be used for germ cell mutagenesis, indicating there are multiple sources of regenerated PGCs, suggesting a flexibility of differentiated Ciona somatic cells to regain totipotency. Sperm and eggs of a single hermaphroditic, PGC regenerated animal typically have different mutations, suggesting they arise from different cells. PGCs can be generated from somatic cells even though the maternal PGCs are not removed, suggesting that the PGC regeneration is not solely an artificial event but could have an endogenous function in Ciona. This study provides a technical innovation in the genome-editing methods, including easy establishment of mutant lines. Moreover, this study suggests cellular mechanisms and the potential evolutionary significance of PGC regeneration in Ciona. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Proteomic responses to elevated ocean temperature in ovaries of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea E. Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciona intestinalis, a common sea squirt, exhibits lower reproductive success at the upper extreme of the water temperatures it experiences in coastal New England. In order to understand the changes in protein expression associated with elevated temperatures, and possible response to global temperature change, we reared C. intestinalis from embryos to adults at 18°C (a temperature at which they reproduce normally at our collection site in Rhode Island and 22°C (the upper end of the local temperature range. We then dissected ovaries from animals at each temperature, extracted protein, and measured proteomic levels using shotgun mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. 1532 proteins were detected at a 1% false discovery rate present in both temperature groups by our LC-MS/MS method. 62 of those proteins are considered up- or down-regulated according to our statistical criteria. Principal component analysis shows a clear distinction in protein expression pattern between the control (18°C group and high temperature (22°C group. Similar to previous studies, cytoskeletal and chaperone proteins are upregulated in the high temperature group. Unexpectedly, we find evidence that proteolysis is downregulated at the higher temperature. We propose a working model for the high temperature response in C. intestinalis ovaries whereby increased temperature induces upregulation of signal transduction pathways involving PTPN11 and CrkL, and activating coordinated changes in the proteome especially in large lipid transport proteins, cellular stress responses, cytoskeleton, and downregulation of energy metabolism.

  14. Monitoring the magnitude of marine vessel infestation by non-indigenous ascidians in the Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewing, Mey-Tal; Shenkar, Noa

    2017-08-15

    Invasive ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata) are dominant nuisance organisms. The current study investigated the role of marine vessels in their dispersal and introduction. An examination of 45 dry-docked marine vessels, comprising recreational, commercial, and military craft, in five Israeli shipyards along the Mediterranean coast, revealed non-indigenous ascidians (NIA) on every second vessel investigated. Military vessels featured the highest ascidian abundance and richness, potentially related to their maintenance routine. Niche areas on the vessels such as sea chests and the propeller exhibited the highest occurrence of ascidians. Overall, these findings provide strong evidence that marine vessels play an acute role in NIA introduction and dispersal, with military vessels and niche areas on all the vessels being more susceptible to serving as vectors. A discovery of a new introduced species during the surveys suggests that the monitoring of marine vessels can serve as an effective tool for the early detection of NIA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Diana; Franchi, Nicola; Mangano, Valentina; Bakiu, Rigers; Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò; Santovito, Gianfranco; Ballarin, Loriano

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  16. Characterization and metal-induced gene transcription of two new copper zinc superoxide dismutases in the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Diana [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster (Germany); Franchi, Nicola [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Mangano, Valentina [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Bakiu, Rigers [Department of Crop Production, Agricultural University of Tirana, Tirana (Albania); Cammarata, Matteo; Parrinello, Nicolò [Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Santovito, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.santovito@unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ballarin, Loriano [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Ciona intestinalis express two copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (Cu,Zn SODs), one extracellular (Ci-SODa) and one intracellular isoform (Ci-SODb). •Promoters contain consensus sequences similar to mammalian MRE. •Metal exposure results in a significant increase of gene transcription: ci-soda is induced especially by copper and zinc, the increase of ci-sodb transcription is more evident after cadmium exposure. •Genes are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells. -- Abstract: Antioxidant enzymes are known to protect living organisms against the oxidative stress risk, also induced by metals. In the present study, we describe the purification and molecular characterization of two Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases (SODs), referred to as Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb, from Ciona intestinalis, a basal chordate widely distributed in temperate shallow seawater. The putative amino acid sequences were compared with Cu,Zn SODs from other metazoans and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the two putative Ci-SODs are more related to invertebrate SODs than vertebrate ones. Both phylogenetic and preliminary homology modeling analyses suggest that Ci-SODa and Ci-SODb are extracellular and intracellular isoform, respectively. The mRNA of the two Cu,Zn SODs was localized in hemocytes and in ovarian follicular cells, as revealed by in situ hybridization. The time course of SOD mRNA levels in the presence of three different metals showed upregulation of ci-soda and inhibition of ci-sodb. Spectrophotometric analysis confirms the presence of SOD activity in Ciona tissues. Our in silico analyses of the ci-soda promoter region revealed putative consensus sequences similar to mammalian metal-responsive elements (MRE), suggesting that the transcription of these genes directly depends on metals. These data emphasize the importance of complex metal regulation of ci-soda and ci-sodb transcription, as components of an efficient detoxification pathway

  17. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evolutionary changes in the notochord genetic toolkit: a comparative analysis of notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona and the larvacean Oikopleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Jamie E; Kerner, Pierre; Bouquet, Jean-Marie; Jiang, Di; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2011-01-20

    The notochord is a defining feature of the chordate clade, and invertebrate chordates, such as tunicates, are uniquely suited for studies of this structure. Here we used a well-characterized set of 50 notochord genes known to be targets of the notochord-specific Brachyury transcription factor in one tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Class Ascidiacea), to begin determining whether the same genetic toolkit is employed to build the notochord in another tunicate, Oikopleura dioica (Class Larvacea). We identified Oikopleura orthologs of the Ciona notochord genes, as well as lineage-specific duplicates for which we determined the phylogenetic relationships with related genes from other chordates, and we analyzed their expression patterns in Oikopleura embryos. Of the 50 Ciona notochord genes that were used as a reference, only 26 had clearly identifiable orthologs in Oikopleura. Two of these conserved genes appeared to have undergone Oikopleura- and/or tunicate-specific duplications, and one was present in three copies in Oikopleura, thus bringing the number of genes to test to 30. We were able to clone and test 28 of these genes. Thirteen of the 28 Oikopleura orthologs of Ciona notochord genes showed clear expression in all or in part of the Oikopleura notochord, seven were diffusely expressed throughout the tail, six were expressed in tissues other than the notochord, while two probes did not provide a detectable signal at any of the stages analyzed. One of the notochord genes identified, Oikopleura netrin, was found to be unevenly expressed in notochord cells, in a pattern reminiscent of that previously observed for one of the Oikopleura Hox genes. A surprisingly high number of Ciona notochord genes do not have apparent counterparts in Oikopleura, and only a fraction of the evolutionarily conserved genes show clear notochord expression. This suggests that Ciona and Oikopleura, despite the morphological similarities of their notochords, have developed rather divergent sets

  19. Evolutionary changes in the notochord genetic toolkit: a comparative analysis of notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona and the larvacean Oikopleura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Di

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The notochord is a defining feature of the chordate clade, and invertebrate chordates, such as tunicates, are uniquely suited for studies of this structure. Here we used a well-characterized set of 50 notochord genes known to be targets of the notochord-specific Brachyury transcription factor in one tunicate, Ciona intestinalis (Class Ascidiacea, to begin determining whether the same genetic toolkit is employed to build the notochord in another tunicate, Oikopleura dioica (Class Larvacea. We identified Oikopleura orthologs of the Ciona notochord genes, as well as lineage-specific duplicates for which we determined the phylogenetic relationships with related genes from other chordates, and we analyzed their expression patterns in Oikopleura embryos. Results Of the 50 Ciona notochord genes that were used as a reference, only 26 had clearly identifiable orthologs in Oikopleura. Two of these conserved genes appeared to have undergone Oikopleura- and/or tunicate-specific duplications, and one was present in three copies in Oikopleura, thus bringing the number of genes to test to 30. We were able to clone and test 28 of these genes. Thirteen of the 28 Oikopleura orthologs of Ciona notochord genes showed clear expression in all or in part of the Oikopleura notochord, seven were diffusely expressed throughout the tail, six were expressed in tissues other than the notochord, while two probes did not provide a detectable signal at any of the stages analyzed. One of the notochord genes identified, Oikopleura netrin, was found to be unevenly expressed in notochord cells, in a pattern reminiscent of that previously observed for one of the Oikopleura Hox genes. Conclusions A surprisingly high number of Ciona notochord genes do not have apparent counterparts in Oikopleura, and only a fraction of the evolutionarily conserved genes show clear notochord expression. This suggests that Ciona and Oikopleura, despite the morphological similarities

  20. Focusing on Ciona intestinalis (Tunicata) innate immune system. Evolutionary implications

    OpenAIRE

    N Parrinello

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data provide compelling evidence that ascidians are of critical importance for studying chordate immune system evolution. The Ciona intestinalis draft genome sequence allows searches for phylogenetic relationships, gene cloning and expression of immunorelevant molecules. Acidians lack of the pivotal components of the vertebrate recombinatory adaptive immunity, i.e., MHC, TCRs and dimeric immunoglobulins. However, bioinformatic sequence analyses recogni...

  1. Functional and evolutionary insights from the Ciona notochord transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Wendy M; Wu, Yuye; Harder, Matthew J; Veeman, Michael T

    2017-09-15

    The notochord of the ascidian Ciona consists of only 40 cells, and is a longstanding model for studying organogenesis in a small, simple embryo. Here, we perform RNAseq on flow-sorted notochord cells from multiple stages to define a comprehensive Ciona notochord transcriptome. We identify 1364 genes with enriched expression and extensively validate the results by in situ hybridization. These genes are highly enriched for Gene Ontology terms related to the extracellular matrix, cell adhesion and cytoskeleton. Orthologs of 112 of the Ciona notochord genes have known notochord expression in vertebrates, more than twice as many as predicted by chance alone. This set of putative effector genes with notochord expression conserved from tunicates to vertebrates will be invaluable for testing hypotheses about notochord evolution. The full set of Ciona notochord genes provides a foundation for systems-level studies of notochord gene regulation and morphogenesis. We find only modest overlap between this set of notochord-enriched transcripts and the genes upregulated by ectopic expression of the key notochord transcription factor Brachyury, indicating that Brachyury is not a notochord master regulator gene as strictly defined. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Brachyury expression in tailless Molgulid ascidian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Norio; York, Jonathan; Davis, J Muse; Schumpert, Brenda; Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; Satoh, Nori; Swalla, Billie J

    2002-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor gene Brachyury is important for the differentiation of notochord in all chordates, including the ascidians Halocynthia roretzi and Ciona intestinalis. We isolated Brachyury from molgulid ascidians, which have evolved tailless larvae multiple times independently, and found the genes appear functional by cDNA sequence analyses. We then compared the expression of Mocu-Bra in tailed Molgula oculata embryos to two tailless species, Molgula occulta (Mocc-Bra) and Molgula tectiformis (Mt-Bra). Here we show that both tailless species express Brachyury in the notochord lineage during embryogenesis. Initial expression of Mocu-Bra is normal in tailed M. oculata embryos; 10 precursor notochord cells divide twice to result in 40 notochord cells that converge and extend to make a notochord down the center of the tail. In contrast, in tailless Molgula occulta, Mocc-Bra expression disappears prematurely, and there is only one round of division, resulting in 20 cells in the final notochord lineage that never converge or extend. In M. occulta x M. oculata hybrid embryos, expression of Mocu-Bra is prolonged, and the embryos form a tail with 20 notochord cells that converge and extend normally. However, in Molgula tectiformis, a different tailless ascidian, Mt-Bra was expressed only in the 10 notochord precursor cells, which never divide, converge, or extend. In summary, neither Brachyury function nor the early establishment of the notochord lineage appears to be impaired in tailless embryos. In light of these results, we are continuing to investigate how and why notochord development is lost in tailless molgulid ascidian embryos.

  3. Ascidian notochord morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Di; Smith, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the notochord involves a complex set of cellular behaviors. While these morphogenic behaviors are common to all chordates, the ascidian provides a particularly attractive experimental model because of its relative simplicity. In particular, all notochord morphogenesis in ascidians takes place with only 40 cells, as opposed to the hundreds of cells in vertebrate models systems. Initial steps in ascidian notochord development convert a monolayer of epithelial-like cells in th...

  4. Tube formation by complex cellular processes in Ciona intestinalis notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Horie, Takeo; Denker, Elsa; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Tsuda, Motoyuki; Smith, William C; Jiang, Di

    2009-06-15

    In the course of embryogenesis multicellular structures and organs are assembled from constituent cells. One structural component common to many organs is the tube, which consists most simply of a luminal space surrounded by a single layer of epithelial cells. The notochord of ascidian Ciona forms a tube consisting of only 40 cells, and serves as a hydrostatic "skeleton" essential for swimming. While the early processes of convergent extension in ascidian notochord development have been extensively studied, the later phases of development, which include lumen formation, have not been well characterized. Here we used molecular markers and confocal imaging to describe tubulogenesis in the developing Ciona notochord. We found that during tubulogenesis each notochord cell established de novo apical domains, and underwent a mesenchymal-epithelial transition to become an unusual epithelial cell with two opposing apical domains. Concomitantly, extracellular luminal matrix was produced and deposited between notochord cells. Subsequently, each notochord cell simultaneously executed two types of crawling movements bi-directionally along the anterior/posterior axis on the inner surface of notochordal sheath. Lamellipodia-like protrusions resulted in cell lengthening along the anterior/posterior axis, while the retraction of trailing edges of the same cell led to the merging of the two apical domains. As a result, the notochord cells acquired endothelial-like shape and formed the wall of the central lumen. Inhibition of actin polymerization prevented the cell movement and tube formation. Ciona notochord tube formation utilized an assortment of common and fundamental cellular processes including cell shape change, apical membrane biogenesis, cell/cell adhesion remodeling, dynamic cell crawling, and lumen matrix secretion.

  5. Whole-organ cell shape analysis reveals the developmental basis of ascidian notochord taper

    OpenAIRE

    Veeman, Michael T.; Smith, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Here we use in toto imaging together with computational segmentation and analysis methods to quantify the shape of every cell at multiple stages in the development of a simple organ: the notochord of the ascidian Ciona savignyi. We find that cell shape in the intercalated notochord depends strongly on anterior-posterior (AP) position, with cells in the middle of the notochord consistently wider than cells at the anterior or posterior. This morphological feature of having a tapered notochord i...

  6. Hox gene cluster of the ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi, reveals multiple ancient steps of cluster disintegration during ascidian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekigami, Yuka; Kobayashi, Takuya; Omi, Ai; Nishitsuji, Koki; Ikuta, Tetsuro; Fujiyama, Asao; Satoh, Noriyuki; Saiga, Hidetoshi

    2017-01-01

    Hox gene clusters with at least 13 paralog group (PG) members are common in vertebrate genomes and in that of amphioxus. Ascidians, which belong to the subphylum Tunicata (Urochordata), are phylogenetically positioned between vertebrates and amphioxus, and traditionally divided into two groups: the Pleurogona and the Enterogona. An enterogonan ascidian, Ciona intestinalis ( Ci ), possesses nine Hox genes localized on two chromosomes; thus, the Hox gene cluster is disintegrated. We investigated the Hox gene cluster of a pleurogonan ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi ( Hr ) to investigate whether Hox gene cluster disintegration is common among ascidians, and if so, how such disintegration occurred during ascidian or tunicate evolution. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that the Hr Hox gene complement comprises nine members, including one with a relatively divergent Hox homeodomain sequence. Eight of nine Hr Hox genes were orthologous to Ci-Hox1 , 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 12 and 13. Following the phylogenetic classification into 13 PGs, we designated Hr Hox genes as Hox1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11/12/13.a , 11/12/13.b and HoxX . To address the chromosomal arrangement of the nine Hox genes, we performed two-color chromosomal fluorescent in situ hybridization, which revealed that the nine Hox genes are localized on a single chromosome in Hr , distinct from their arrangement in Ci . We further examined the order of the nine Hox genes on the chromosome by chromosome/scaffold walking. This analysis suggested a gene order of Hox1 , 11/12/13.b, 11/12/13.a, 10, 5, X, followed by either Hox4, 3, 2 or Hox2, 3, 4 on the chromosome. Based on the present results and those previously reported in Ci , we discuss the establishment of the Hox gene complement and disintegration of Hox gene clusters during the course of ascidian or tunicate evolution. The Hox gene cluster and the genome must have experienced extensive reorganization during the course of evolution from the ancestral tunicate to Hr and Ci

  7. Metamorphosis in solitary ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskou, Anthi; Swalla, Billie J; Sasakura, Yasunori; Chambon, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic and postembryonic development in ascidians have been studied for over a century, but it is only in the last 10 years that the complex molecular network involved in coordinating postlarval development and metamorphosis has started to emerge. In most ascidians, the transition from the larval to the sessile juvenile/adult stage, or metamorphosis, requires a combination of environmental and endogenous signals and is characterized by coordinated global morphogenetic changes that are initiated by the adhesion of the larvae. Cloney was the first to describe cellular events of ascidians' metamorphosis in 1978 and only recently elements of the molecular regulation of this crucial developmental step have been revealed. This review aims to present a thorough view of this crucial developmental step by combining recent molecular data to the already established cellular events. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Anterior-posterior regionalized gene expression in the Ciona notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Wendy; Thayer, Rachel; Veeman, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In the simple ascidian chordate Ciona, the signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks giving rise to initial notochord induction are largely understood and the mechanisms of notochord morphogenesis are being systematically elucidated. The notochord has generally been thought of as a non-compartmentalized or regionalized organ that is not finely patterned at the level of gene expression. Quantitative imaging methods have recently shown, however, that notochord cell size, shape, and behavior vary consistently along the anterior-posterior (AP) axis. Here we screen candidate genes by whole mount in situ hybridization for potential AP asymmetry. We identify 4 genes that show non-uniform expression in the notochord. Ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) is expressed more strongly in the secondary notochord lineage than the primary. CTGF is expressed stochastically in a subset of notochord cells. A novel calmodulin-like gene (BCamL) is expressed more strongly at both the anterior and posterior tips of the notochord. A TGF-β ortholog is expressed in a gradient from posterior to anterior. The asymmetries in ERM, BCamL, and TGF-β expression are evident even before the notochord cells have intercalated into a single-file column. We conclude that the Ciona notochord is not a homogeneous tissue but instead shows distinct patterns of regionalized gene expression. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Natural variation of model mutant phenotypes in Ciona intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sordino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The study of ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of the origin and evolution of basal chordates. To provide further information to support forward genetics in Ciona intestinalis, we used a combination of natural variation and neutral population genetics as an approach for the systematic identification of new mutations. In addition to the significance of developmental variation for phenotype-driven studies, this approach can encompass important implications in evolutionary and population biology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report a preliminary survey for naturally occurring mutations in three geographically interconnected populations of C. intestinalis. The influence of historical, geographical and environmental factors on the distribution of abnormal phenotypes was assessed by means of 12 microsatellites. We identified 37 possible mutant loci with stereotyped defects in embryonic development that segregate in a way typical of recessive alleles. Local populations were found to differ in genetic organization and frequency distribution of phenotypic classes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Natural genetic polymorphism of C. intestinalis constitutes a valuable source of phenotypes for studying embryonic development in ascidians. Correlating genetic structure and the occurrence of abnormal phenotypes is a crucial focus for understanding the selective forces that shape natural finite populations, and may provide insights of great importance into the evolutionary mechanisms that generate animal diversity.

  10. Natural Variation of Model Mutant Phenotypes in Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Euan R.; Leccia, Nicola I.; Squarzoni, Paola; Tarallo, Raffaella; Alfano, Christian; Caputi, Luigi; D'Ambrosio, Palmira; Daniele, Paola; D'Aniello, Enrico; D'Aniello, Salvatore; Maiella, Sylvie; Miraglia, Valentina; Russo, Monia Teresa; Sorrenti, Gerarda; Branno, Margherita; Cariello, Lucio; Cirino, Paola; Locascio, Annamaria; Spagnuolo, Antonietta; Zanetti, Laura; Ristoratore, Filomena

    2008-01-01

    Background The study of ascidians (Chordata, Tunicata) has made a considerable contribution to our understanding of the origin and evolution of basal chordates. To provide further information to support forward genetics in Ciona intestinalis, we used a combination of natural variation and neutral population genetics as an approach for the systematic identification of new mutations. In addition to the significance of developmental variation for phenotype-driven studies, this approach can encompass important implications in evolutionary and population biology. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report a preliminary survey for naturally occurring mutations in three geographically interconnected populations of C. intestinalis. The influence of historical, geographical and environmental factors on the distribution of abnormal phenotypes was assessed by means of 12 microsatellites. We identified 37 possible mutant loci with stereotyped defects in embryonic development that segregate in a way typical of recessive alleles. Local populations were found to differ in genetic organization and frequency distribution of phenotypic classes. Conclusions/Significance Natural genetic polymorphism of C. intestinalis constitutes a valuable source of phenotypes for studying embryonic development in ascidians. Correlating genetic structure and the occurrence of abnormal phenotypes is a crucial focus for understanding the selective forces that shape natural finite populations, and may provide insights of great importance into the evolutionary mechanisms that generate animal diversity. PMID:18523552

  11. Nonreproductive role of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the control of ascidian metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Chisato; Ohta, Naoyuki; Ogura, Yosuke; Yoshida, Keita; Horie, Takeo; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Satake, Honoo; Sasakura, Yasunori

    2014-12-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) are neuropeptides that play central roles in the reproduction of vertebrates. In the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, GnRHs and their receptors are expressed in the nervous systems at the larval stage, when animals are not yet capable of reproduction, suggesting that the hormones have non-reproductive roles. We showed that GnRHs in Ciona are involved in the animal's metamorphosis by regulating tail absorption and adult organ growth. Absorption of the larval tail and growth of the adult organs are two major events in the metamorphosis of ascidians. When larvae were treated with GnRHs, they completed tail absorption more frequently than control larvae. cAMP was suggested to be a second messenger for the induction of tail absorption by GnRHs. tGnRH-3 and tGnRH-5 (the "t" indicates "tunicate") inhibited the growth of adult organs by arresting cell cycle progression in parallel with the promotion of tail absorption. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms of ascidian metamorphosis conducted by non-reproductive GnRHs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferases are required for morphogenesis of the notochord in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Yoshida, Keita; Sasakura, Yasunori; Fujiwara, Shigeki

    2014-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) is a sulfated polysaccharide chain that binds to various core proteins to form proteoglycans. The amount and position of sulfate groups in CS are variable among different tissues, and are determined by specific sulfotransferases. Although the ascidians are the closest relatives of vertebrates, the functions of their sulfotransferases have not been studied. The genome of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis contains eight genes encoding proteins similar to chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferases (C6STs), which appear to have independently diverged in the ascidian lineage during evolution. Among them, Ci-C6ST-like1 and Ci-C6ST-like7 were predominantly expressed in the developing notochord. In addition, they were weakly expressed in the neural tube. The disruption of either one of them affected the convergent extension movement of notochordal cells. Presumptive notochord cells coming from both sides of the embryo did not intercalate. The results suggest that both of them are necessary. In some cases, the anterior neural tube failed to close. Forced expression of Ci-C6ST-like1 or Ci-C6ST-like7 in the notochord restored the normal intercalation of notochordal cells, indicating that the effects of morpholino oligos are specific. Ci-C6ST-like1 and Ci-C6ST-like7 are required for the morphogenesis of the notochord in the ascidian embryo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The influence of substrate material on ascidian larval settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anna L; Dijkstra, Jennifer A; Harris, Larry G

    2016-05-15

    Submerged man-made structures present novel habitat for marine organisms and often host communities that differ from those on natural substrates. Although many factors are known to contribute to these differences, few studies have directly examined the influence of substrate material on organism settlement. We quantified larval substrate preferences of two species of ascidians, Ciona intestinalis (cryptogenic, formerly C. intestinalis type B) and Botrylloides violaceus (non-native), on commonly occurring natural (granite) and man-made (concrete, high-density polyethylene, PVC) marine materials in laboratory trials. Larvae exhibited species-specific settlement preferences, but generally settled more often than expected by chance on concrete and HDPE. Variation in settlement between materials may reflect preferences for rougher substrates, or may result from the influence of leached chemicals on ascidian settlement. These findings indicate that an experimental plate material can influence larval behavior and may help us understand how substrate features may contribute to differences in settlement in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distinct cytoskeleton populations and extensive crosstalk control Ciona notochord tubulogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bo; Deng, Wei; Jiang, Di

    2011-04-01

    Cell elongation is a fundamental process that allows cells and tissues to adopt new shapes and functions. During notochord tubulogenesis in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, a dramatic elongation of individual cells takes place that lengthens the notochord and, consequently, the entire embryo. We find a novel dynamic actin- and non-muscle myosin II-containing constriction midway along the anteroposterior aspect of each notochord cell during this process. Both actin polymerization and myosin II activity are required for the constriction and cell elongation. Discontinuous localization of myosin II in the constriction indicates that the actomyosin network produces local contractions along the circumference. This reveals basal constriction by the actomyosin network as a novel mechanism for cell elongation. Following elongation, the notochord cells undergo a mesenchymal-epithelial transition and form two apical domains at opposite ends. Extracellular lumens then form at the apical surfaces. We show that cortical actin and Ciona ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) are essential for lumen formation and that a polarized network of microtubules, which contributes to lumen development, forms in an actin-dependent manner at the apical cortex. Later in notochord tubulogenesis, when notochord cells initiate a bi-directional crawling movement on the notochordal sheath, the microtubule network rotates 90° and becomes organized as parallel bundles extending towards the leading edges of tractive lamellipodia. This process is required for the correct organization of actin-based protrusions and subsequent lumen coalescence. In summary, we establish the contribution of the actomyosin and microtubule networks to notochord tubulogenesis and reveal extensive crosstalk and regulation between these two cytoskeleton components.

  15. Screening of ovarian steroidogenic pathway in Ciona intestinalis and its modulation after tributyltin exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cangialosi, Maria Vittoria; Puccia, Egidio; Mazzola, Antonio; Mansueto, Valentina; Arukwe, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we have identified several ovarian steroids in Ciona with high similarity to vertebrate steroids and showed that cholesterol, corticosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone, estrone, estradiol-17β, testosterone, pregnenolone, progesterone, have identical molecular spectra with vertebrate steroids. In addition, we have studied the effects of an endocrine disruptor (tributyltin: TBT) on these sex hormones and their precursors, ovarian morphology, and gene expression of some key enzymes in steroidogenic pathway in the ovary of Ciona. Ovarian specimens were cultured in vitro using different concentrations of TBT (10 -5 , 10 -4 and 10 -3 M). Ethanol was used as solvent control. Gene expression analysis was performed for adrenodoxin (ADREN) and adrenodoxin reductase (ADOX) (mediators of acute steroidogenesis) and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD). These transcripts were detected and measured by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Sex steroids and their precursors were identified and quantified by a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method. Exposure of Ciona ovaries to TBT produced modulations (either increased or decreased) of sterols and sex steroid levels, whereas no significant differences in ADREN, ADOX or 17β-HSD mRNA expression patterns were observed. Histological analysis shows that TBT produced several modifications on Ciona ovarian morphology that includes irregular outline of nuclear membrane, less compacted cytoplasm, in addition to test and granulosa cells that were detached from the oocyte membrane. Given that the ascidians represent very simple experimental models for the study of endocrine disruption by environmental contaminants, our findings provide excellent models for multiple identification and quantification of sex steroid and their precursors in biological samples exposed to endocrine-disrupting chemicals and for direct extrapolation of such effects across taxonomic groups and phyla. In addition

  16. Inverse correlation of population similarity and introduction date for invasive ascidians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The genomes of many marine invertebrates, including the purple sea urchin and the solitary ascidians Ciona intestinalis and Ciona savignyi, show exceptionally high levels of heterozygosity, implying that these populations are highly polymorphic. Analysis of the C. savignyi genome found little evidence to support an elevated mutation rate, but rather points to a large population size contributing to the polymorphism level. In the present study, the relative genetic polymorphism levels in sampled populations of ten different ascidian species were determined using a similarity index generated by AFLP analysis. The goal was to determine the range of polymorphism within the populations of different species, and to uncover factors that may contribute to the high level of polymorphism. We observe that, surprisingly, the levels of polymorphism within these species show a negative correlation with the reported age of invasive populations, and that closely related species show substantially different levels of genetic polymorphism. These findings show exceptions to the assumptions that invasive species start with a low level of genetic polymorphism that increases over time and that closely related species have similar levels of genetic polymorphism.

  17. Habitat niche breadth predicts invasiveness in solitary ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Itai; Shenkar, Noa; Belmaker, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    A major focus of invasion biology is understanding the traits associated with introduction success. Most studies assess these traits in the invaded region, while only few compare nonindigenous species to the pool of potential invaders in their native region. We focused on the niche breadth hypothesis , commonly evoked but seldom tested, which states that generalist species are more likely to become introduced as they are capable of thriving under a wide set of conditions. Based on the massive introduction of tropical species into the Mediterranean via the Suez Canal (Lessepsian migration), we defined ascidians in the Red Sea as the pool of potential invaders. We constructed unique settlement plates, each representing six different niches, to assess ascidian niche breadth, and deployed them in similar habitats in the native and invaded regions. For each species found on plates, we evaluated its abundance, relative abundance across successional stages, and niche breadth, and then compared (1) species in the Red Sea known to have been introduced into the Mediterranean (Lessepsian species) and those not known from the Mediterranean (non-Lessepsian); and (2) nonindigenous and indigenous species in the Mediterranean. Lessepsian species identified on plates in the Red Sea demonstrated wider niche breadth than non-Lessepsian species, supporting the niche breadth hypothesis within the native region. No differences were found between Lessepsian and non-Lessepsian species in species abundance and successional stages. In the Mediterranean, nonindigenous species numerically dominated the settlement plates. This precluded robust comparisons of niche breadth between nonindigenous and indigenous species in the invaded region. In conclusion, using Red Sea ascidians as the pool of potential invaders, we found clear evidence supporting the niche breadth hypothesis in the native region. We suggest that such patterns may often be obscured when conducting trait-based studies in the

  18. Diversity of pufM genes, involved in aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, in the bacterial communities associated with colonial ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Manuel; Díaz-Valdés, Marta; Antón, Josefa

    2010-03-01

    Ascidians are invertebrate filter feeders widely distributed in benthic marine environments. A total of 14 different ascidian species were collected from the Western Mediterranean and their bacterial communities were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene. Results showed that ascidian tissues harbored Bacteria belonging to Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria classes, some of them phylogenetically related to known aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs), such as Roseobacter sp. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis of DGGE patterns showed a large variability in the bacterial diversity among the different ascidians analyzed, which indicates that they would harbor different bacterial communities. Furthermore, pufM genes, involved in aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis in marine and freshwater systems, were widely detected within the ascidians analyzed, because nine out of 14 species had pufM genes inside their tissues. The pufM gene was only detected in those specimens that inhabited shallow waters (<77 m of depth). Most pufM gene sequences were very closely related to that of uncultured marine bacteria. Thus, our results suggest that the association of ascidians with bacteria related to AAPs could be a general phenomenon and that ascidian-associated microbiota could use the light that penetrates through the tunic tissue as an energy source.

  19. 3D-printed microwell arrays for Ciona microinjection and timelapse imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Gregory

    Full Text Available Ascidians such as Ciona are close chordate relatives of the vertebrates with small, simple embryonic body plans and small, simple genomes. The tractable size of the embryo offers considerable advantages for in toto imaging and quantitative analysis of morphogenesis. For functional studies, Ciona eggs are considerably more challenging to microinject than the much larger eggs of other model organisms such as zebrafish and Xenopus. One of the key difficulties is in restraining the eggs so that the microinjection needle can be easily introduced and withdrawn. Here we develop and test a device to cast wells in agarose that are each sized to hold a single egg. This injection mold is fabricated by micro-resolution stereolithography with a grid of egg-sized posts that cast corresponding wells in agarose. This 3D printing technology allows the rapid and inexpensive testing of iteratively refined prototypes. In addition to their utility in microinjection, these grids of embryo-sized wells are also valuable for timelapse imaging of multiple embryos.

  20. ANISEED 2017: extending the integrated ascidian database to the exploration and evolutionary comparison of genome-scale datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozovic, Matija; Dantec, Christelle; Dardaillon, Justine; Dauga, Delphine; Faure, Emmanuel; Gineste, Mathieu; Louis, Alexandra; Naville, Magali; Nitta, Kazuhiro R; Piette, Jacques; Reeves, Wendy; Scornavacca, Céline; Simion, Paul; Vincentelli, Renaud; Bellec, Maelle; Aicha, Sameh Ben; Fagotto, Marie; Guéroult-Bellone, Marion; Haeussler, Maximilian; Jacox, Edwin; Lowe, Elijah K; Mendez, Mickael; Roberge, Alexis; Stolfi, Alberto; Yokomori, Rui; Brown, C Titus; Cambillau, Christian; Christiaen, Lionel; Delsuc, Frédéric; Douzery, Emmanuel; Dumollard, Rémi; Kusakabe, Takehiro; Nakai, Kenta; Nishida, Hiroki; Satou, Yutaka; Swalla, Billie; Veeman, Michael; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Lemaire, Patrick

    2018-01-04

    ANISEED (www.aniseed.cnrs.fr) is the main model organism database for tunicates, the sister-group of vertebrates. This release gives access to annotated genomes, gene expression patterns, and anatomical descriptions for nine ascidian species. It provides increased integration with external molecular and taxonomy databases, better support for epigenomics datasets, in particular RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and SELEX-seq, and features novel interactive interfaces for existing and novel datatypes. In particular, the cross-species navigation and comparison is enhanced through a novel taxonomy section describing each represented species and through the implementation of interactive phylogenetic gene trees for 60% of tunicate genes. The gene expression section displays the results of RNA-seq experiments for the three major model species of solitary ascidians. Gene expression is controlled by the binding of transcription factors to cis-regulatory sequences. A high-resolution description of the DNA-binding specificity for 131 Ciona robusta (formerly C. intestinalis type A) transcription factors by SELEX-seq is provided and used to map candidate binding sites across the Ciona robusta and Phallusia mammillata genomes. Finally, use of a WashU Epigenome browser enhances genome navigation, while a Genomicus server was set up to explore microsynteny relationships within tunicates and with vertebrates, Amphioxus, echinoderms and hemichordates. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. The CNS connectome of a tadpole larva of Ciona intestinalis (L.) highlights sidedness in the brain of a chordate sibling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kerrianne; Lu, Zhiyuan; Meinertzhagen, Ian A

    2016-12-06

    Left-right asymmetries in brains are usually minor or cryptic. We report brain asymmetries in the tiny, dorsal tubular nervous system of the ascidian tadpole larva, Ciona intestinalis . Chordate in body plan and development, the larva provides an outstanding example of brain asymmetry. Although early neural development is well studied, detailed cellular organization of the swimming larva's CNS remains unreported. Using serial-section EM we document the synaptic connectome of the larva's 177 CNS neurons. These formed 6618 synapses including 1772 neuromuscular junctions, augmented by 1206 gap junctions. Neurons are unipolar with at most a single dendrite, and few synapses. Some synapses are unpolarised, others form reciprocal or serial motifs; 922 were polyadic. Axo-axonal synapses predominate. Most neurons have ciliary organelles, and many features lack structural specialization. Despite equal cell numbers on both sides, neuron identities and pathways differ left/right. Brain vesicle asymmetries include a right ocellus and left coronet cells.

  2. Whole-organ cell shape analysis reveals the developmental basis of ascidian notochord taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeman, Michael T; Smith, William C

    2013-01-15

    Here we use in toto imaging together with computational segmentation and analysis methods to quantify the shape of every cell at multiple stages in the development of a simple organ: the notochord of the ascidian Ciona savignyi. We find that cell shape in the intercalated notochord depends strongly on anterior-posterior (AP) position, with cells in the middle of the notochord consistently wider than cells at the anterior or posterior. This morphological feature of having a tapered notochord is present in many chordates. We find that ascidian notochord taper involves three main mechanisms: Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway-independent sibling cell volume asymmetries that precede notochord cell intercalation; the developmental timing of intercalation, which proceeds from the anterior and posterior towards the middle; and the differential rates of notochord cell narrowing after intercalation. A quantitative model shows how the morphology of an entire developing organ can be controlled by this small set of cellular mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Toxicity of marine pollutants on the ascidian oocyte physiology: an electrophysiological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra

    2018-02-01

    In marine animals with external fertilization, gametes are released into seawater where fertilization and embryo development occur. Consequently, pollutants introduced into the marine environment by human activities may affect gametes and embryos. These xenobiotics can alter cell physiology with consequent reduction of fertilization success. Here the adverse effects on the reproductive processes of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis (ascidian) of different xenobiotics: lead, zinc, an organic tin compound and a phenylurea herbicide were evaluated. By using the electrophysiological technique of whole-cell voltage clamping, the effects of these compounds on the mature oocyte plasma membrane electrical properties and the electrical events of fertilization were tested by calculating the concentration that induced 50% normal larval formation (EC50). The results demonstrated that sodium currents in mature oocytes were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by all tested xenobiotics, with the lowest EC50 value for lead. In contrast, fertilization current frequencies were differently affected by zinc and organic tin compound. Toxicity tests on gametes demonstrated that sperm fertilizing capability and fertilization oocyte competence were not altered by xenobiotics, whereas fertilization was inhibited in zinc solution and underwent a reduction in organic tin compound solution (EC50 value of 1.7 µM). Furthermore, fertilized oocytes resulted in a low percentage of normal larvae with an EC50 value of 0.90 µM. This study shows that reproductive processes of ascidians are highly sensitive to xenobiotics suggesting that they may be considered a reliable biomarker and that ascidians are suitable model organisms to assess marine environmental quality.

  4. The identification of transcription factors expressed in the notochord of Ciona intestinalis adds new potential players to the brachyury gene regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-Edwards, Diana S; Kerner, Pierre; Kugler, Jamie E; Deng, Wei; Jiang, Di; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2011-07-01

    The notochord is the distinctive characteristic of chordates; however, the knowledge of the complement of transcription factors governing the development of this structure is still incomplete. Here we present the expression patterns of seven transcription factor genes detected in the notochord of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis at various stages of embryonic development. Four of these transcription factors, Fos-a, NFAT5, AFF and Klf15, have not been directly associated with the notochord in previous studies, while the others, including Spalt-like-a, Lmx-like, and STAT5/6-b, display evolutionarily conserved expression in this structure as well as in other domains. We examined the hierarchical relationships between these genes and the transcription factor Brachyury, which is necessary for notochord development in all chordates. We found that Ciona Brachyury regulates the expression of most, although not all, of these genes. These results shed light on the genetic regulatory program underlying notochord formation in Ciona and possibly other chordates. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Functional Brachyury binding sites establish a temporal read-out of gene expression in the Ciona notochord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya Katikala

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of the notochord represented a milestone in Deuterostome evolution. The notochord is necessary for the development of the chordate body plan and for the formation of the vertebral column and numerous organs. It is known that the transcription factor Brachyury is required for notochord formation in all chordates, and that it controls transcription of a large number of target genes. However, studies of the structure of the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs through which this control is exerted are complicated in vertebrates by the genomic complexity and the pan-mesodermal expression territory of Brachyury. We used the ascidian Ciona, in which the single-copy Brachyury is notochord-specific and CRMs are easily identifiable, to carry out a systematic characterization of Brachyury-downstream notochord CRMs. We found that Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra controls most of its targets directly, through non-palindromic binding sites that function either synergistically or individually to activate early- and middle-onset genes, respectively, while late-onset target CRMs are controlled indirectly, via transcriptional intermediaries. These results illustrate how a transcriptional regulator can efficiently shape a shallow gene regulatory network into a multi-tiered transcriptional output, and provide insights into the mechanisms that establish temporal read-outs of gene expression in a fast-developing chordate embryo.

  6. Functional Brachyury binding sites establish a temporal read-out of gene expression in the Ciona notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikala, Lavanya; Aihara, Hitoshi; Passamaneck, Yale J; Gazdoiu, Stefan; José-Edwards, Diana S; Kugler, Jamie E; Oda-Ishii, Izumi; Imai, Janice H; Nibu, Yutaka; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2013-10-01

    The appearance of the notochord represented a milestone in Deuterostome evolution. The notochord is necessary for the development of the chordate body plan and for the formation of the vertebral column and numerous organs. It is known that the transcription factor Brachyury is required for notochord formation in all chordates, and that it controls transcription of a large number of target genes. However, studies of the structure of the cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) through which this control is exerted are complicated in vertebrates by the genomic complexity and the pan-mesodermal expression territory of Brachyury. We used the ascidian Ciona, in which the single-copy Brachyury is notochord-specific and CRMs are easily identifiable, to carry out a systematic characterization of Brachyury-downstream notochord CRMs. We found that Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra) controls most of its targets directly, through non-palindromic binding sites that function either synergistically or individually to activate early- and middle-onset genes, respectively, while late-onset target CRMs are controlled indirectly, via transcriptional intermediaries. These results illustrate how a transcriptional regulator can efficiently shape a shallow gene regulatory network into a multi-tiered transcriptional output, and provide insights into the mechanisms that establish temporal read-outs of gene expression in a fast-developing chordate embryo.

  7. Tbx2/3 is an essential mediator within the Brachyury gene network during Ciona notochord development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-Edwards, Diana S; Oda-Ishii, Izumi; Nibu, Yutaka; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2013-06-01

    T-box genes are potent regulators of mesoderm development in many metazoans. In chordate embryos, the T-box transcription factor Brachyury (Bra) is required for specification and differentiation of the notochord. In some chordates, including the ascidian Ciona, members of the Tbx2 subfamily of T-box genes are also expressed in this tissue; however, their regulatory relationships with Bra and their contributions to the development of the notochord remain uncharacterized. We determined that the notochord expression of Ciona Tbx2/3 (Ci-Tbx2/3) requires Ci-Bra, and identified a Ci-Tbx2/3 notochord CRM that necessitates multiple Ci-Bra binding sites for its activity. Expression of mutant forms of Ci-Tbx2/3 in the developing notochord revealed a role for this transcription factor primarily in convergent extension. Through microarray screens, we uncovered numerous Ci-Tbx2/3 targets, some of which overlap with known Ci-Bra-downstream notochord genes. Among the Ci-Tbx2/3 notochord targets are evolutionarily conserved genes, including caspases, lineage-specific genes, such as Noto4, and newly identified genes, such as MLKL. This work sheds light on a large section of the notochord regulatory circuitry controlled by T-box factors, and reveals new components of the complement of genes required for the proper formation of this structure.

  8. Regulation of notochord-specific expression of Ci-Bra downstream genes in Ciona intestinalis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroki; Hotta, Kohji; Takagi, Chiyo; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori; Shoguchi, Eiichi

    2010-02-01

    Brachyury, a T-box transcription factor, is expressed in ascidian embryos exclusively in primordial notochord cells and plays a pivotal role in differentiation of notochord cells. Previously, we identified approximately 450 genes downstream of Ciona intestinalis Brachyury (Ci-Bra), and characterized the expression profiles of 45 of these in differentiating notochord cells. In this study, we looked for cisregulatory sequences in minimal enhancers of 20 Ci-Bra downstream genes by electroporating region within approximately 3 kb upstream of each gene fused with lacZ. Eight of the 20 reporters were expressed in notochord cells. The minimal enchancer for each of these eight genes was narrowed to a region approximately 0.5-1.0-kb long. We also explored the genome-wide and coordinate regulation of 43 Ci-Bra-downstream genes. When we determined their chromosomal localization, it became evident that they are not clustered in a given region of the genome, but rather distributed evenly over 13 of the 14 pairs of chromosomes, suggesting that gene clustering does not contribute to coordinate control of the Ci-Bra downstream gene expression. Our results might provide Insights Into the molecular mechanisms underlying notochord formation in chordates.

  9. Stochasticity and stereotypy in the Ciona notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Maia; Reeves, Wendy; Veeman, Michael

    2015-01-15

    Fate mapping with single cell resolution has typically been confined to embryos with completely stereotyped development. The lineages giving rise to the 40 cells of the Ciona notochord are invariant, but the intercalation of those cells into a single-file column is not. Here we use genetic labeling methods to fate map the Ciona notochord with both high resolution and large sample sizes. We find that the ordering of notochord cells into a single column is not random, but instead shows a distinctive signature characteristic of mediolaterally-biased intercalation. We find that patterns of cell intercalation in the notochord are somewhat stochastic but far more stereotyped than previously believed. Cell behaviors vary by lineage, with the secondary notochord lineage being much more constrained than the primary lineage. Within the primary lineage, patterns of intercalation reflect the geometry of the intercalating tissue. We identify the latest point at which notochord morphogenesis is largely stereotyped, which is shortly before the onset of mediolateral intercalation and immediately after the final cell divisions in the primary lineage. These divisions are consistently oriented along the AP axis. Our results indicate that the interplay between stereotyped and stochastic cell behaviors in morphogenesis can only be assessed by fate mapping experiments that have both cellular resolution and large sample sizes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecology of ascidians in the macrofouling community of New Mangalore Port

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.; Khandeparker, D.C.; Mokashe, S.S.

    Ascidians constitute a major component of macrofouling community at the New Mangalore Port during the premonsoon season (February-May). The presence of ascidians in these waters is being reported for the first time. Ascidian recruitment...

  11. The evolutionarily conserved leprecan gene: its regulation by Brachyury and its role in the developing Ciona notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Matthew P; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2009-04-15

    In Ciona intestinalis, leprecan was identified as a target of the notochord-specific transcription factor Ciona Brachyury (Ci-Bra) (Takahashi, H., Hotta, K., Erives, A., Di Gregorio, A., Zeller, R.W., Levine, M., Satoh, N., 1999. Brachyury downstream notochord differentiation in the ascidian embryo. Genes Dev. 13, 1519-1523). By screening approximately 14 kb of the Ci-leprecan locus for cis-regulatory activity, we have identified a 581-bp minimal notochord-specific cis-regulatory module (CRM) whose activity depends upon T-box binding sites located at the 3'-end of its sequence. These sites are specifically bound in vitro by a GST-Ci-Bra fusion protein, and mutations that abolish binding in vitro result in loss or decrease of regulatory activity in vivo. Serial deletions of the 581-bp notochord CRM revealed that this sequence is also able to direct expression in muscle cells through the same T-box sites that are utilized by Ci-Bra in the notochord, which are also bound in vitro by the muscle-specific T-box activators Ci-Tbx6b and Ci-Tbx6c. Additionally, we created plasmids aimed to interfere with the function of Ci-leprecan and categorized the resulting phenotypes, which consist of variable dislocations of notochord cells along the anterior-posterior axis. Together, these observations provide mechanistic insights generally applicable to T-box transcription factors and their target sequences, as well as a first set of clues on the function of Leprecan in early chordate development.

  12. The Ciona intestinalis immune-related galectin genes (CiLgals-a and CiLgals-b) are expressed by the gastric epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Vizzini, Aiti; Testasecca, Lelia; Parrinello, Nicolò; Cammarata, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The transcription of two Ciona intestinalis galectin genes (CiLgals-a and CiLgals-b) is uparegulated by LPS in the pharynxis (hemocytes, vessel epithelium, endostilar zones) which is retained the main organ of the immunity. In this ascidian, for the first time we show, by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods, that these two immune-related genes are expressed in the gastric epithelium of naïve ascidians, whereas the galectins appear to be only contained in the intestine columnar epithelium. In addition, according to previous results on the pharynx, the genes are also expressed and galectins produced by hemocytes scattered in the connective tissue surrounding the gut. The genes expression and galectin localization in several tissues, including the previous findings on the transcription upregulation, the constitutive expression of these genes by endostylar zones and by the gastric epithelium suggest a potential multifunctional role of these galectins. In this respect, it is of interest to define where the CiLgals are normally found as related to the tissue functions. Such an approach should be a starting point for further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Practical Guide for Ascidian Microinjection: Phallusia mammillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Hitoyoshi; McDougall, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Phallusia mammillata has recently emerged as a new ascidian model. Its unique characteristics, including the optical transparency of eggs and embryos and efficient translation of exogenously introduced mRNA in eggs, make the Phallusia system suitable for fluorescent protein (FP)-based imaging approaches. In addition, genomic and transcriptomic resources are readily available for this ascidian species, facilitating functional gene studies. Microinjection is probably the most versatile technique for introducing exogenous molecules such as plasmids, mRNAs, and proteins into ascidian eggs/embryos. However, it is not practiced widely within the community; presumably, because the system is rather laborious to set up and it requires practice. Here, we describe in as much detail as possible two microinjection methods that we use daily in the laboratory: one based on an inverted microscope and the other on a stereomicroscope. Along the stepwise description of system setup and injection procedure, we provide practical tips in the hope that this chapter might be a useful guide for introducing or improving a microinjection setup.

  14. Ascidian introductions through the Suez Canal: The case study of an Indo-Pacific species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, Marc; Shenkar, Noa

    2012-10-01

    Although marine biological invasions via the Suez Canal have been extensively documented, little is known about the introduction of non-indigenous ascidians (Chordata, Ascidiacea), a group containing particularly aggressive invasive species. Here, we used a multidisciplinary approach to study the introduction of the ascidian Herdmania momus into the Mediterranean Sea. We reviewed its taxonomy and global distribution, and analyzed how genetic variation is partitioned between sides of the Suez Canal. The taxonomic revision showed that H. momus currently has a wide Indo-Pacific distribution. Genetic data indicated two well-differentiated colonization histories across the eastern Mediterranean. Our findings suggest that the range expansion of H. momus has been greatly facilitated by the combined effect of human-mediated transport and the species' ability to adapt to different environments. The integrative approach presented here is critical to attain a holistic understanding of marine biological invasions, especially when studying groups with a poorly resolved taxonomy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transforming growth factor β (CiTGF-β) gene expression is induced in the inflammatory reaction of Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Aiti; Di Falco, Felicia; Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Cammarata, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a well-known component of a regulatory cytokines superfamily that has pleiotropic functions in a broad range of cell types and is involved, in vertebrates, in numerous physiological and pathological processes. In the current study, we report on Ciona intestinalis molecular characterisation and expression of a transforming growth factor β homologue (CiTGF-β). The gene organisation, phylogenetic tree and modelling supported the close relationship with the mammalian TGF suggesting that the C. intestinalis TGF-β gene shares a common ancestor in the chordate lineages. Functionally, real-time PCR analysis showed that CiTGF-β was transcriptionally upregulated in the inflammatory process induced by LPS inoculation, suggesting that is involved in the first phase and significant in the secondary phase of the inflammatory response in which cell differentiation occurs. In situ hybridisation assays revealed that the genes transcription was upregulated in the pharynx, the main organ of the ascidian immune system, and expressed by cluster of hemocytes inside the pharynx vessels. These data supported the view that CiTGF-β is a potential molecule in immune defence systems against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 contains a phosphotyrosine interaction domain and is involved in the midline intercalation of notochord cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigehiro; Ueno, Naoto; Satoh, Nori; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Brachyury plays a pivotal role in the notochord formation in ascidian embryos. Ciona intestinalis Noto4 (Ci-Noto4) was isolated as a gene downstream of Ci-Bra. This gene encodes a 307 amino-acid protein with a C-terminal phosphotyrosine interaction domain (PTB/PID). Expression of Ci-Noto4 commences at the neural plate stage and is specific to notochord cells. Suppression of Ci-Noto4 levels with specific antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in the formation of two rows of notochord cells owing to a lack of midline intercalation between the bilateral populations of progenitor cells. In contrast, overexpression of Ci-Noto4 by injection of a Ci-Bra(promoter):Ci-Noto4-EGFP construct into fertilized eggs disrupted the localization of notochord cells. Ci-Noto4 overexpression did not affect cellular differentiation in the notochord, muscle, mesenchyme, or nervous system. Analysis of Ci-Noto4 regions that are responsible for its function suggested significant roles for the PTB/PID and a central region, an area with no obvious sequence similarity to other known proteins. These results suggested that PTB/PID-containing Ci-Noto4 is essential for midline intercalation of notochord cells in chordate embryos.

  17. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  18. The Role of Forkhead Genes in Ascidian Development

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Catherine L.

    1998-01-01

    Two modes of development have been observed in ascidians: tailed species produce a larva featuring a tail with notochord, spinal cord, and rows of muscle cells, as well as a pigmented otolith sensory organ in the brain, while tailless species produce a larva lacking the tail and otolith. Investigation of the closely related ascidian species Molgula oculata (tailed) and Molgula occulta (tailless), as well as hybrids produced by their cross-fertilization and exhibiting a tail and otolith, has p...

  19. LPS injection reprograms the expression and the 3' UTR of a CAP gene by alternative polyadenylation and the formation of a GAIT element in Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Aiti; Bonura, Angela; Longo, Valeria; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Parrinello, Daniela; Cammarata, Matteo; Colombo, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    The diversification of cellular functions is one of the major characteristics of multicellular organisms which allow cells to modulate their gene expression, leading to the formation of transcripts and proteins with different functions and concentrations in response to different stimuli. CAP genes represent a widespread family of proteins belonging to the cysteine-rich secretory protein, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 superfamily which, it has been proposed, play key roles in the infection process and the modulation of immune responses in host animals. The ascidian Ciona intestinalis represents a group of proto-chordates with an exclusively innate immune system that has been widely studied in the field of comparative and developmental immunology. Using this biological system, we describe the identification of a novel APA mechanism by which an intronic polyadenylation signal is activated by LPS injection, leading to the formation of a shorter CAP mRNA capable of expressing the first CAP exon plus 19 amino acid residues whose sequence is contained within the first intron of the annotated gene. Furthermore, such an APA event causes the expression of a translational controlling cis-acting GAIT element which is not present in the previously isolated CAP isoform and identified in the 3'-UTR of other immune-related genes, suggesting an intriguing scenario in which both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms are involved in the activation of the CAP gene during inflammatory response in C. intestinalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence of a Native Northwest Atlantic COI Haplotype Clade in the Cryptogenic Colonial Ascidian Botryllus schlosseri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yund, Philip O; Collins, Catherine; Johnson, Sheri L

    2015-06-01

    The colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri should be considered cryptogenic (i.e., not definitively classified as either native or introduced) in the Northwest Atlantic. Although all the evidence is quite circumstantial, over the last 15 years most research groups have accepted the scenario of human-mediated dispersal and classified B. schlosseri as introduced; others have continued to consider it native or cryptogenic. We address the invasion status of this species by adding 174 sequences to the growing worldwide database for the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and analyzing 1077 sequences to compare genetic diversity of one clade of haplotypes in the Northwest Atlantic with two hypothesized source regions (the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean). Our results lead us to reject the prevailing view of the directionality of transport across the Atlantic. We argue that the genetic diversity patterns at COI are far more consistent with the existence of at least one haplotype clade in the Northwest Atlantic (and possibly a second) that substantially pre-dates human colonization from Europe, with this native North American clade subsequently introduced to three sites in Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean waters. However, we agree with past researchers that some sites in the Northwest Atlantic have more recently been invaded by alien haplotypes, so that some populations are currently composed of a mixture of native and invader haplotypes. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  1. Mini-review: impact and dynamics of surface fouling by solitary and compound ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S

    2014-01-01

    Globally, ascidians are a significant contributor to benthic marine fouling communities, but have remained poorly studied in this context. In some cases, such as in shellfish and finfish aquaculture, ascidians are the most problematic of all fouling organisms. The disproportionate impact of ascidian fouling in some specific geographic locations has been related directly to anthropogenic translocation of these organisms around the globe. In the case of ascidians, therefore, the economic issue of biofouling and the ecological ramifications of invasion are inextricably linked. This mini-review briefly discusses the introduction of non-native ascidians to areas where they have subsequently proven to be a significant fouling pest. The elements of ascidian reproductive ecology that support their aggressive fouling character are discussed and the scant information pertaining to their adhesion and adhesives is presented. Finally, strategies for mitigating ascidian fouling are examined. It is suggested that sufficient working knowledge currently exists to support the inclusion of one or more common ascidian species as 'standard' test organisms used for evaluation of novel fouling-resistant surfaces.

  2. In the ovary of Ciona intestinalis (Type A), immune-related galectin and phenoloxidase genes are differentially expressed by the follicle accessory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Parisi, Maria Giovanna; Vizzini, Aiti; Cammarata, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Riboprobes (in situ hybridization) and antibodies (immunohistochemistry), previously used to show the upregulation of Ciona intestinalis (Type A) galectins (CiLgals-a, CiLgals-b) and phenoloxidase (CinPO2) immune-related genes, were tested on histological sections of the ovary. The ovarian follicles are composed of oocytes encased by follicular cells (FCs) and test cells (TCs). Results show the transcription upregulation of both CiLgals and CinPO2 genes in the vitellogenic FCs, conversely distinct cytolocalization of the proteins are shown. At vitellogenic stage, the CiLgals are localized in the FCs, in the oocyte cytoplasm, and close to the germinal vesicle (GV), whereas the CinPO2 was never identified in the FCs. In a presumptive advanced phase and at the post-vitellogenic stage the TCs appear to be labelled by the CinPO2 riboprobe, and the protein identified by the antibody suggesting an mRNA transcytosis process from FCs. At post-vitellogenic stage the CiLgals mainly enrich the GV nucleoplasm, whereas the CinPO2 is contained in TCs and in the ooplasm but never found in the GV. This finding sheds new light on a former paper in which TCs were reported to be the only CinPO2-producing cells in the ovarian follicle. Finally, CiLgals and CinPO2 genes transcription and proteins production seem to be associated with accessory cells during their differentiation from vitellogenic to post-vitellogenic stage. The present findings promote further research on the early upregulation of immune-related genes, and the potential multifunctional role of the produced proteins. In addition further insight on the accessory cells involvement in ascidian oogenesis are reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensing charges of the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Frezza, Ludivine; Sandtner, Walter; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Voltage control over enzymatic activity in voltage-sensitive phosphatases (VSPs) is conferred by a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) located in the N terminus. These VSDs are constituted by four putative transmembrane segments (S1 to S4) resembling those found in voltage-gated ion channels. The putative fourth segment (S4) of the VSD contains positive residues that likely function as voltage-sensing elements. To study in detail how these residues sense the plasma membrane potential, we have focused on five arginines in the S4 segment of the Ciona intestinalis VSP (Ci-VSP). After implementing a histidine scan, here we show that four arginine-to-histidine mutants, namely R223H to R232H, mediate voltage-dependent proton translocation across the membrane, indicating that these residues transit through the hydrophobic core of Ci-VSP as a function of the membrane potential. These observations indicate that the charges carried by these residues are sensing charges. Furthermore, our results also show that the electrical field in VSPs is focused in a narrow hydrophobic region that separates the extracellular and intracellular space and constitutes the energy barrier for charge crossing.

  4. ANP (Atrial Natriuretic Peptide presence in the heart of a tunicate, Ciona intestinalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Gerbino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Atrial natriuretic peptide was found in the heart of vertebrates, we studied the ANP presence in the heart of Ciona intestinalis. This is animal is very important because of the its evolutionary position between invertebrates and vertebrates. ANP presence was only revealed in myoepithelial cells of the myocardium. Results suggest the hypothesis that ANP is present not only in the vertebrates but also in the invertebrates and in Ciona heart ANP might play a similar role like in the heart of vertebrates.

  5. Introduced ascidians harbor highly diverse and host-specific symbiotic microbial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James S; Erwin, Patrick M; Shenkar, Noa; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2017-09-08

    Many ascidian species have experienced worldwide introductions, exhibiting remarkable success in crossing geographic borders and adapting to local environmental conditions. To investigate the potential role of microbial symbionts in these introductions, we examined the microbial communities of three ascidian species common in North Carolina harbors. Replicate samples of the globally introduced species Distaplia bermudensis, Polyandrocarpa anguinea, and P. zorritensis (n = 5), and ambient seawater (n = 4), were collected in Wrightsville Beach, NC. Microbial communities were characterized by next-generation (Illumina) sequencing of partial (V4) 16S rRNA gene sequences. Ascidians hosted diverse symbiont communities, consisting of 5,696 unique microbial OTUs (at 97% sequenced identity) from 47 bacterial and three archaeal phyla. Permutational multivariate analyses of variance revealed clear differentiation of ascidian symbionts compared to seawater bacterioplankton, and distinct microbial communities inhabiting each ascidian species. 103 universal core OTUs (present in all ascidian replicates) were identified, including taxa previously described in marine invertebrate microbiomes with possible links to ammonia-oxidization, denitrification, pathogenesis, and heavy-metal processing. These results suggest ascidian microbial symbionts exhibit a high degree of host-specificity, forming intimate associations that may contribute to host adaptation to new environments via expanded tolerance thresholds and enhanced holobiont function.

  6. Computational prediction and experimental validation of Ciona intestinalis microRNA genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquinelli Amy E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study reports the first collection of validated microRNA genes in the sea squirt, Ciona intestinalis. MicroRNAs are processed from hairpin precursors to ~22 nucleotide RNAs that base pair to target mRNAs and inhibit expression. As a member of the subphylum Urochordata (Tunicata whose larval form has a notochord, the sea squirt is situated at the emergence of vertebrates, and therefore may provide information about the evolution of molecular regulators of early development. Results In this study, computational methods were used to predict 14 microRNA gene families in Ciona intestinalis. The microRNA prediction algorithm utilizes configurable microRNA sequence conservation and stem-loop specificity parameters, grouping by miRNA family, and phylogenetic conservation to the related species, Ciona savignyi. The expression for 8, out of 9 attempted, of the putative microRNAs in the adult tissue of Ciona intestinalis was validated by Northern blot analyses. Additionally, a target prediction algorithm was implemented, which identified a high confidence list of 240 potential target genes. Over half of the predicted targets can be grouped into the gene ontology categories of metabolism, transport, regulation of transcription, and cell signaling. Conclusion The computational techniques implemented in this study can be applied to other organisms and serve to increase the understanding of the origins of non-coding RNAs, embryological and cellular developmental pathways, and the mechanisms for microRNA-controlled gene regulatory networks.

  7. Phallusiasterol C, A New Disulfated Steroid from the Mediterranean Tunicate Phallusia fumigata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Imperatore

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new sulfated sterol, phallusiasterol C (1, has been isolated from the Mediterranean ascidian Phallusia fumigata and its structure has been determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic (mainly 2D NMR analysis. The possible role in regulating the pregnane X receptor (PXR activity of phallusiasterol C has been investigated; although the new sterol resulted inactive, this study adds more items to the knowledge of the structure-PXR regulating activity relationships in the case of sulfated steroids.

  8. Stochastic model of cell rearrangements in convergent extension of ascidian notochord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkin, Sharon; Backes, Tracy; Latterman, Russell; Small, Stephen

    2007-03-01

    We present a discrete stochastic cell based model of convergent extension of the ascidian notochord. Our work derives from research that clarifies the coupling of invagination and convergent extension in ascidian notochord morphogenesis (Odell and Munro, 2002). We have tested the roles of cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, random motion, and extension of individual cells, as well as the presence or absence of various tissue types, and determined which factors are necessary and/or sufficient for convergent extension.

  9. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Rimondino, Clara; Torre, Luciana; Sahade, Ricardo Jose; Tatian, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo), South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verr...

  10. Antibacterial modified diketopiperazines from two ascidians of the genus Didemnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P.; McHugh, Shayna; Torres, Yohandra R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Lima, Bruna A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Diagnostico Oral; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rocha, Rosana M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico. Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2009-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the crude extract of an ascidian of the genus Didemnum led to the isolation of the modified diketopiperazine rodriguesines A (1) and (2) as a mixture of homologues, which could be identified by analysis of spectroscopic data including MS/MS experiments. The investigation of a second Didemnum sp. led to the isolation of N-acetyl-rodriguesine A (3) and N-acetyl-rodriguesine B (4). The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 could be established by hydrolysis and Marfey's analysis and comparison with literature data reported for compound 3, previously obtained as a synthetic product. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed moderate antibiotic activity against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans and against S. mutans UA159 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. (author)

  11. Antibacterial modified diketopiperazines from two ascidians of the genus Didemnum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P.; McHugh, Shayna; Torres, Yohandra R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Lima, Bruna A.; Goncalves, Reginaldo; Veloso, Katyuscya; Ferreira, Antonio G.; Rocha, Rosana M.

    2009-01-01

    The chemical investigation of the crude extract of an ascidian of the genus Didemnum led to the isolation of the modified diketopiperazine rodriguesines A (1) and (2) as a mixture of homologues, which could be identified by analysis of spectroscopic data including MS/MS experiments. The investigation of a second Didemnum sp. led to the isolation of N-acetyl-rodriguesine A (3) and N-acetyl-rodriguesine B (4). The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 could be established by hydrolysis and Marfey's analysis and comparison with literature data reported for compound 3, previously obtained as a synthetic product. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed moderate antibiotic activity against a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mutans and against S. mutans UA159 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. (author)

  12. The Simple Chordate Ciona intestinalis Has a Reduced Complement of Genes Associated with Fanconi Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley, Edward C.; Azzinaro, Paul A.; Vierra, David A.; Howlett, Niall G.; Irvine, Steven Q.

    2016-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human genetic disease characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow failure, and increased cancer risk. FA is associated with mutation in one of 24 genes. The protein products of these genes function cooperatively in the FA pathway to orchestrate the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links. Few model organisms exist for the study of FA. Seeking a model organism with a simpler version of the FA pathway, we searched the genome of the simple chordate Ciona intestinalis ...

  13. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  14. Evaluation and rational design of guide RNAs for efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in Ciona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Shashank; Haeussler, Maximilian; Razy-Krajka, Florian; Christiaen, Lionel; Stolfi, Alberto

    2017-05-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system has emerged as an important tool for various genome engineering applications. A current obstacle to high throughput applications of CRISPR/Cas9 is the imprecise prediction of highly active single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). We previously implemented the CRISPR/Cas9 system to induce tissue-specific mutations in the tunicate Ciona. In the present study, we designed and tested 83 single guide RNA (sgRNA) vectors targeting 23 genes expressed in the cardiopharyngeal progenitors and surrounding tissues of Ciona embryo. Using high-throughput sequencing of mutagenized alleles, we identified guide sequences that correlate with sgRNA mutagenesis activity and used this information for the rational design of all possible sgRNAs targeting the Ciona transcriptome. We also describe a one-step cloning-free protocol for the assembly of sgRNA expression cassettes. These cassettes can be directly electroporated as unpurified PCR products into Ciona embryos for sgRNA expression in vivo, resulting in high frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis in somatic cells of electroporated embryos. We found a strong correlation between the frequency of an Ebf loss-of-function phenotype and the mutagenesis efficacies of individual Ebf-targeting sgRNAs tested using this method. We anticipate that our approach can be scaled up to systematically design and deliver highly efficient sgRNAs for the tissue-specific investigation of gene functions in Ciona. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Down under the tunic: bacterial biodiversity hotspots and widespread ammonia-oxidizing archaea in coral reef ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Patrick M; Pineda, Mari Carmen; Webster, Nicole; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2014-03-01

    Ascidians are ecologically important components of marine ecosystems yet the ascidian microbiota remains largely unexplored beyond a few model species. We used 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive characterization of microbial symbionts in the tunic of 42 Great Barrier Reef ascidian samples representing 25 species. Results revealed high bacterial biodiversity (3 217 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU0.03) from 19 described and 14 candidate phyla) and the widespread occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in coral reef ascidians (24 of 25 host species). The ascidian microbiota was clearly differentiated from seawater microbial communities and included symbiont lineages shared with other invertebrate hosts as well as unique, ascidian-specific phylotypes. Several rare seawater microbes were markedly enriched (200-700 fold) in the ascidian tunic, suggesting that the rare biosphere of seawater may act as a conduit for horizontal symbiont transfer. However, most OTUs (71%) were rare and specific to single hosts and a significant correlation between host relatedness and symbiont community similarity was detected, indicating a high degree of host-specificity and potential role of vertical transmission in structuring these communities. We hypothesize that the complex ascidian microbiota revealed herein is maintained by the dynamic microenvironments within the ascidian tunic, offering optimal conditions for different metabolic pathways such as ample chemical substrate (ammonia-rich host waste) and physical habitat (high oxygen, low irradiance) for nitrification. Thus, ascidian hosts provide unique and fertile niches for diverse microorganisms and may represent an important and previously unrecognized habitat for nitrite/nitrate regeneration in coral reef ecosystems.

  16. Genetic pathways for differentiation of the peripheral nervous system in ascidians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waki, Kana; Imai, Kaoru S.; Satou, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Ascidians belong to tunicates, the sister group of vertebrates. Peripheral nervous systems (PNSs) including epidermal sensory neurons (ESNs) in the trunk and dorsal tail regions of ascidian larvae are derived from cells adjacent to the neural plate, as in vertebrates. On the other hand, peripheral ESNs in the ventral tail region are derived from the ventral ectoderm under the control of BMP signalling, reminiscent of sensory neurons of amphioxus and protostomes. In this study, we show that two distinct mechanisms activate a common gene circuit consisting of Msx, Ascl.b, Tox, Delta.b and Pou4 in the dorsal and ventral regions to differentiate ESNs. Our results suggest that ventral ESNs of the ascidian larva are not directly homologous to vertebrate PNSs. The dorsal ESNs might have arisen via co-option of the original PNS gene circuit to the neural plate border in an ancestral chordate. PMID:26515371

  17. Blood circulation in the ascidian tunicate Corella inflata (Corellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The body of the ascidian tunicate Corella inflata is relatively transparent. Thus, the circulatory system can be visualized by injecting high molecular weight fluorescein labeled dextran into the heart or the large vessels at the ends of the heart without surgery to remove the body wall. In addition, after staining with neutral red, the movement of blood cells can be easily followed to further characterize the circulatory system. The heart is two gently curved concentric tubes extending across the width of the animal. The inner myocardial tube has a partial constriction approximately in the middle. As in other tunicates, the heart is peristaltic and periodically reverses direction. During the branchial phase blood leaves the anterior end of the heart by two asymmetric vessels that connect to the two sides of the branchial basket. Blood then flows in both transverse directions through a complex system of ducts in the basket into large ventral and dorsal vessels which carry blood back to the visceral organs in the posterior of the animal. During the visceral phase blood leaves the posterior end of the heart in two vessels that repeatedly bifurcate and fan into the stomach and gonads. Blood velocity, determined by following individual cells in video frames, is high and pulsatory near the heart. A double peak in velocity at the maximum may be due to the constriction in the middle of the heart tube. Blood velocity progressively decreases with distance from the heart. In peripheral regions with vessels of small diameter blood cells frequently collide with vessel walls and cell motion is erratic. The estimated volume of blood flow during each directional phase is greater than the total volume of the animal. Circulating blood cells are confined to vessels or ducts in the visible parts of the animal and retention of high molecular weight dextran in the vessels is comparable to that seen in vertebrates. These are characteristics of a closed circulatory system. PMID:27994977

  18. Modiolarca lateralis (Pteryomorphia: Mytilidae: bivalve associated to six species of ascidians from Bocas del Toro, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan I Cañete

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of the bivalve Modiolarca lateralis (Say, 1822 in six tropical ascidians Ascidia curvata, A. sydneiensis, A. panamensis, A. interrupta, Herdmania pallida and Polycarpa spongiabilis collected at depths of 1-3 m on coral reefs, mangrove roots and dock supports in Almirante Bay, Bocas del Toro, Panama (9°18'N, 82°13'W during June-July 2011. Bivalve prevalence varied between 9-30% across species, but was mainly associated with A. panamensis, P. spongiabilis and A. interrupta. Prevalence seems to be influenced by tunic thickness rather than by the ascidian size. Bivalves varied in size (0.6-11 mm shell length, with the smallest individual found in A. sydneiensis. There were only one or two bivalves per ascidians, although a maximum of 18 was found in one A. panamensis. M. lateralis seems to behave similarly to its temperate counterparts: it has a variety of hosts, occurs mainly in the anterior region of the ascidians, and has a variable abundance per host.

  19. Microenvironment and phylogenetic diversity of Prochloron inhabiting the surface of crustose didemnid ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Daniel A; Pernice, Mathieu; Schliep, Martin; Sablok, Gaurav; Jeffries, Thomas C; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Ralph, Peter J; Larkum, Anthony W D

    2015-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Prochloron didemni is primarily found in symbiotic relationships with various marine hosts such as ascidians and sponges. Prochloron remains to be successfully cultivated outside of its host, which reflects a lack of knowledge of its unique ecophysiological requirements. We investigated the microenvironment and diversity of Prochloron inhabiting the upper, exposed surface of didemnid ascidians, providing the first insights into this microhabitat. The pH and O2 concentration in this Prochloron biofilm changes dynamically with irradiance, where photosynthetic activity measurements showed low light adaptation (Ek ∼ 80 ± 7 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) but high light tolerance. Surface Prochloron cells exhibited a different fine structure to Prochloron cells from cloacal cavities in other ascidians, the principle difference being a central area of many vacuoles dissected by single thylakoids in the surface Prochloron. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA pyro-sequencing of the biofilm community on four ascidians resulted in 433 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) where on average -85% (65-99%) of all sequence reads, represented by 136 OTUs, were identified as Prochloron via blast search. All of the major Prochloron-OTUs clustered into independent, highly supported phylotypes separate from sequences reported for internal Prochloron, suggesting a hitherto unexplored genetic variability among Prochloron colonizing the outer surface of didemnids. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Muscle differentiation in a colonial ascidian: organisation, gene expression and evolutionary considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burighel Paolo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascidians are tunicates, the taxon recently proposed as sister group to the vertebrates. They possess a chordate-like swimming larva, which metamorphoses into a sessile adult. Several ascidian species form colonies of clonal individuals by asexual reproduction. During their life cycle, ascidians present three muscle types: striated in larval tail, striated in the heart, and unstriated in the adult body-wall. Results In the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri, we investigated organisation, differentiation and gene expression of muscle beginning from early buds to adults and during zooid regression. We characterised transcripts for troponin T (BsTnT-c, adult muscle-type (BsMA2 and cytoplasmic-type (BsCA1 actins, followed by in situ hybridisation (ISH on sections to establish the spatio-temporal expression of BsTnT-c and BsMA2 during asexual reproduction and in the larva. Moreover, we characterised actin genomic sequences, which by comparison with other metazoans revealed conserved intron patterns. Conclusion Integration of data from ISH, phalloidin staining and TEM allowed us to follow the phases of differentiation of the three muscle kinds, which differ in expression pattern of the two transcripts. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the close relationship between tunicate and vertebrate muscle genes. The characteristics and plasticity of muscles in tunicates are discussed.

  1. Description of Endozoicomonas ascidiicola sp. nov., isolated from Scandinavian ascidians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreiber, Lars; Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Obst, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Two gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, chemoorganoheterotrophic, motile and rod-shaped bacteria, strains AVMART05T and KASP37, were isolated from ascidians (Tunicata, Ascidiaceae) of the genus Ascidiella collected at Gullmarsfjord, Sweden. The strains are the first cultured representatives...

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  3. Fibronectin contributes to notochord intercalation in the invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Segade

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic analysis has upended chordate phylogeny, placing the tunicates as the sister group to the vertebrates. This taxonomic rearrangement raises questions about the emergence of a tunicate/vertebrate ancestor. Results Characterization of developmental genes uniquely shared by tunicates and vertebrates is one promising approach for deciphering developmental shifts underlying acquisition of novel, ancestral traits. The matrix glycoprotein Fibronectin (FN has long been considered a vertebrate-specific gene, playing a major instructive role in vertebrate embryonic development. However, the recent computational prediction of an orthologous “vertebrate-like” Fn gene in the genome of a tunicate, Ciona savignyi, challenges this viewpoint suggesting that Fn may have arisen in the shared tunicate/vertebrate ancestor. Here we verify the presence of a tunicate Fn ortholog. Transgenic reporter analysis was used to characterize a Ciona Fn enhancer driving expression in the notochord. Targeted knockdown in the notochord lineage indicates that FN is required for proper convergent extension. Conclusions These findings suggest that acquisition of Fn was associated with altered notochord morphogenesis in the vertebrate/tunicate ancestor.

  4. Sessile macro-epibiotic community of solitary ascidians, ecosystem engineers in soft substrates of Potter Cove, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rimondino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The muddy bottoms of inner Potter Cove, King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetlands, Antarctica, show a high density and richness of macrobenthic species, particularly ascidians. In other areas, ascidians have been reported to play the role of ecosystem engineers, as they support a significant number of epibionts, increasing benthic diversity. In this study, a total of 21 sessile macro-epibiotic taxa present on the ascidian species Corella antarctica Sluiter, 1905, Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Lesson, 1830 and Molgula pedunculata Herdman, 1881 were identified, with Bryozoa being the most diverse. There were differences between the three ascidian species in terms of richness, percent cover and diversity of sessile macro-epibionts. The morphological characteristics of the tunic surface, the available area for colonization (and its relation with the age of the basibiont individuals and the pH of the ascidian tunic seem to explain the observed differences. Recent environmental changes in the study area (increase of suspended particulate matter caused by glaciers retreat have been related to observed shifts in the benthic community structure, negatively affecting the abundance and distribution of the studied ascidian species. Considering the diversity of sessile macro-epibionts found on these species, the impact of environmental shifts may be greater than that estimated so far.

  5. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  6. When shape matters: strategies of different Antarctic ascidians morphotypes to deal with sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Luciana; Abele, Doris; Lagger, Cristian; Momo, Fernando; Sahade, Ricardo

    2014-08-01

    Climate change leads to increased melting of tidewater glaciers in the Western Antarctic Peninsula region and sediment bearing glacial melt waters negatively affects filter feeding species as solitary ascidians. In previous work the erect-forms Molgula pedunculata and Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Order Stolidobranchiata) appeared more sensitive than the flat form Ascidia challengeri (Order Phlebobranchiata). Sedimentation exposure is expected to induce up-regulation of anaerobic metabolism by obstructing the organs of gas exchange (environmental hypoxia) or causes enhanced squirting activity (functional hypoxia). In this study we evaluated the possible relationship between ascidian morphotype and their physiological response to sedimentation. Together with some behavioural observations, we analysed the response of anaerobic metabolic parameters (lactate formation and glycogen consumption) in different tissues of three Antarctic ascidians, exposed to high sediment concentrations (200 mgL(-1)). The results were compared to experimental hypoxia (10% pO2) and exercise (induced muscular contraction) effects, in order to discriminate the effect of sediment on each species and morpho-type (erect vs. flat forms). Our results suggest that the styled (erect) C. verrucosa increases muscular squirting activity in order to expulse excessive material, while the flat-form A. challengeri reacts more passively by down-regulating its aerobic metabolism under sediment exposure. Contrary, the erect ascidian M. pedunculata did not show any measurable response to the treatments, indicating that filtration and ingestion activities were not reduced or altered even under high sedimentation (low energetic material) which could be disadvantageous on the long-term and could explain why M. pedunculata densities decline in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. When shape matters: strategies of different Antarctic ascidians morphotypes to deal with sedimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Torre, Luciana; Abele, Doris; Lagger, Cristian; Momo, Fernando; Sahade, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Climate change leads to increased melting of tidewater glaciers in theWestern Antarctic Peninsula region and sediment bearing glacial melt waters negatively affects filter feeding species as solitary ascidians. In previous work the erect-forms Molgula pedunculata and Cnemidocarpa verrucosa (Order Stolidobranchiata) appeared more sensitive than the flat form Ascidia challengeri (Order Phlebobranchiata). Sedimentation exposure is expected to induce up-regulation of anaerobic metabol...

  8. Polarity and reorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum during fertilization and ooplasmic segregation in the ascidian egg

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    During the first cell cycle of the ascidian egg, two phases of ooplasmic segregation create distinct cytoplasmic domains that are crucial for later development. We recently defined a domain enriched in ER in the vegetal region of Phallusia mammillata eggs. To explore the possible physiological and developmental function of this ER domain, we here investigate its organization and fate by labeling the ER network in vivo with DiIC16(3), and observing its distribution before and after fertilizati...

  9. Ciona intestinalis notochord as a new model to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tubulogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Elsa; Jiang, Di

    2012-05-01

    Biological tubes are a prevalent structural design across living organisms. They provide essential functions during the development and adult life of an organism. Increasing progress has been made recently in delineating the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tubulogenesis. This review aims to introduce ascidian notochord morphogenesis as an interesting model system to study the cell biology of tube formation, to a wider cell and developmental biology community. We present fundamental morphological and cellular events involved in notochord morphogenesis, compare and contrast them with other more established tubulogenesis model systems, and point out some unique features, including bipolarity of the notochord cells, and using cell shape changes and cell rearrangement to connect lumens. We highlight some initial findings in the molecular mechanisms of notochord morphogenesis. Based on these findings, we present intriguing problems and put forth hypotheses that can be addressed in future studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An endocrine disruptor, bisphenol A, affects development in the protochordate Ciona intestinalis: Hatching rates and swimming behavior alter in a dose-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushima, Ayami; Ryan, Kerrianne; Shimohigashi, Yasuyuki; Meinertzhagen, Ian A.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used industrially to produce polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Numerous studies document the harmful effects caused by low-dose BPA exposure especially on nervous systems and behavior in experimental animals such as mice and rats. Here, we exposed embryos of a model chordate, Ciona intestinalis, to seawater containing BPA to evaluate adverse effects on embryonic development and on the swimming behavior of subsequent larvae. Ciona is ideal because its larva develops rapidly and has few cells. The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner with exposures to BPA above 3 μM; swimming behavior was also affected in larvae emerging from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. Adverse effects were most severe on fertilized eggs exposed to BPA within 7 h post-fertilization. Ciona shares twelve nuclear receptors with mammals, and BPA is proposed to disturb the physiological functions of one or more of these. - Highlights: ► Embryos of Ciona intestinalis were exposed to BPA to evaluate its developmental effects. ► The rate of larval hatching decreased in a dose-dependent manner. ► Swimming behavior was affected in larvae that emerge from embryos exposed to 1 μM BPA. ► Our findings will support a new strategy to analyze the developmental effects induced by BPA. - Exposure of fertilized Ciona embryos to BPA decreased their hatch rate in a dose-dependent manner and led to abnormal larval swimming behavior.

  11. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  12. Effects of Vanadium Ions in Different Oxidation States on Myosin ATPase Extracted from the Solitary Ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche) : Biochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    HITOSHI, MICHIBATA; YUTAKA, ZENKO; KENJI, YAMADA; MASATO, HASEGAWA; TATSURO, TERADA; TAKAHARU, NUMAKUANI; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Biological Institute, Faculty of Science, Toyama University; Department of Chemistry, Toyama College of Technology; Marine Biological Station, Tohoku University

    1989-01-01

    Some ascidians are known to accumulate vanadium ion within their tissues by 10^6-fold as that in sea water and store the metal ion in its reduced tetravalent and/or trivalent states. It is also well known that phosphoenzymes are inhibited by pentavalent vanadium ion over a range of 10nM to 1mM. In the present experiment we have therefore examined the effects of vanadium ions in different oxidation states on the activity of myosin ATPase extracted from the mantle of the ascidian, Halocynthia r...

  13. Isolation of a novel LPS-induced component of the ML superfamily in Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Aiti; Bonura, Angela; Longo, Valeria; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Parrinello, Daniela; Cammarata, Matteo; Colombo, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    ML superfamily represents a group of proteins playing important roles in lipid metabolism and innate immune response. In this study, we report the identification of the first component of the ML superfamily in the invertebrate Ciona intestinalis by means of a subtractive hybridization strategy. Sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis showed that this protein forms a specific clade with vertebrate components of the Niemann-Pick type C2 protein and, for this reason, it has been named Ci-NPC2. The putative Ci-NPC2 is a 150 amino acids long protein with a short signal peptide, seven cysteine residues, three putative lipid binding site and a three-dimensional model showing a characteristic β-strand structure. Gene expression analysis demonstrated that the Ci-NPC2 protein is positively upregulated after LPS inoculum with a peak of expression 1 h after challenge. Finally, in-situ hybridization demonstrated that the Ci-NPC2 protein is preferentially expressed in hemocytes inside the vessel lumen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Raman Spectroscopic Imaging of the Whole Ciona intestinalis Embryo during Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Mitsuru J.; Hotta, Kohji; Oka, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular composition and the distribution of bio-molecules play central roles in the specification of cell fates and morphogenesis during embryogenesis. Consequently, investigation of changes in the expression and distribution of bio-molecules, especially mRNAs and proteins, is an important challenge in developmental biology. Raman spectroscopic imaging, a non-invasive and label-free technique, allows simultaneous imaging of the intracellular composition and distribution of multiple bio-molecules. In this study, we explored the application of Raman spectroscopic imaging in the whole Ciona intestinalis embryo during development. Analysis of Raman spectra scattered from C. intestinalis embryos revealed a number of localized patterns of high Raman intensity within the embryo. Based on the observed distribution of bio-molecules, we succeeded in identifying the location and structure of differentiated muscle and endoderm within the whole embryo, up to the tailbud stage, in a label-free manner. Furthermore, during cell differentiation, we detected significant differences in cell state between muscle/endoderm daughter cells and daughter cells with other fates that had divided from the same mother cells; this was achieved by focusing on the Raman intensity of single Raman bands at 1002 or 1526 cm−1, respectively. This study reports the first application of Raman spectroscopic imaging to the study of identifying and characterizing differentiating tissues in a whole chordate embryo. Our results suggest that Raman spectroscopic imaging is a feasible label-free technique for investigating the developmental process of the whole embryo of C. intestinalis. PMID:23977129

  15. A genomic overview of short genetic variations in a basal chordate, Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satou Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the Ciona intestinalis genome contains many allelic polymorphisms, there is only limited data analyzed systematically. Establishing a dense map of genetic variations in C. intestinalis is necessary not only for linkage analysis, but also for other experimental biology including molecular developmental and evolutionary studies, because animals from natural populations are typically used for experiments. Results Here, we identified over three million candidate short genomic variations within a 110 Mb euchromatin region among five C. intestinalis individuals. The average nucleotide diversity was approximately 1.1%. Genetic variations were found at a similar density in intergenic and gene regions. Non-synonymous and nonsense nucleotide substitutions were found in 12,493 and 1,214 genes accounting for 81.9% and 8.0% of the entire gene set, respectively, and over 60% of genes in the single animal encode non-identical proteins between maternal and paternal alleles. Conclusions Our results provide a framework for studying evolution of the animal genome, as well as a useful resource for a wide range of C. intestinalis researchers.

  16. Differential gene expression in notochord and nerve cord fate segregation in the Ciona intestinalis embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamada, Lixy; Satou, Yutaka; Satoh, Nori

    2013-09-01

    During early embryogenesis, embryonic cells gradually restrict their developmental potential and are eventually destined to give rise to one type of cells. Molecular mechanisms underlying developmental fate restriction are one of the major research subjects within developmental biology. In this article, this subject was addressed by combining blastomere isolation with microarray analysis. During the 6th cleavage of the Ciona intestinalis embryo, from the 32-cell to the 64-cell stage, four mother cells divide into daughter cells with two distinct fates, one giving rise to notochord precursor cells and the other to nerve cord precursors. Approximately 2,200 each of notochord and nerve cord precursor cells were isolated, and their mRNA expression profiles were compared by microarray. This analysis identified 106 and 68 genes, respectively, that are differentially expressed in notochord and nerve cord precursor cells. These included not only genes for transcription factors and signaling molecules but also those with generalized functions observed in many types of cells. In addition, whole-mount in situ hybridization showed dynamic spatial expression profiles of these genes during segregation of the two fates: partitioning of transcripts present in the mother cells into either type of daughter cells, and initiation of preferential gene expression in either type of cells. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cytoskeletal actin genes function downstream of HNF-3beta in ascidian notochord development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, W R; Ewing, N; Machula, J; Olsen, C L; Swalla, B J

    1998-11-01

    We have examined the expression and regulation of cytoskeletal actin genes in ascidians with tailed (Molgula oculata) and tailless larvae (Molgula occulta). Four cDNA clones were isolated representing two pairs of orthologous cytoskeletal actin genes (CA1 and CA2), which encode proteins differing by five amino acids in the tailed and tailless species. The CA1 and CA2 genes are present in one or two copies, although several related genes may also be present in both species. Maternal CA1 and CA2 mRNA is present in small oocytes but transcript levels later decline, suggesting a role in early oogenesis. In the tailed species, embryonic CA1 and CA2 mRNAs first appear in the presumptive mesenchyme and muscle cells during gastrulation, subsequently accumulate in the presumptive notochord cells, and can be detected in these tissues through the tadpole stage. CA1 mRNAs accumulate initially in the same tissues in the tailless species but subsequently disappear, in concert with the arrest of notochord and tail development. In contrast, CA2 mRNAs were not detected in embryos of the tailless species. Fertilization of eggs of the tailless species with sperm of the tailed species, which restores the notochord and the tail, also results in the upregulation of CA1 and CA2 gene expression in hybrid embryos. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide experiments suggest that CA1 and CA2 expression in the notochord, but not in the muscle cells, is dependent on prior expression of Mocc FHI, an ascidian HNF-3beta-like gene. The expression of the CA1 and CA2 genes in the notochord in the tailed species, downregulation in the tailless species, upregulation in interspecific hybrids, and dependence on HNF-3beta activity is consistent with a role of these genes in development of the ascidian notochord.

  18. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian

  19. Characterization and transcription studies of a phytochelatin synthase gene from the solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis exposed to cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Nicola; Piccinni, Ester; Ferro, Diana; Basso, Giuseppe; Spolaore, Barbara; Santovito, Gianfranco; Ballarin, Loriano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ciona intestinalis have a functional phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene (cipcs). • CiPCS amino acid sequence is phylogentically related to other metazoan PCSs. • CiPCS catalyze the synthesis of PC2. • cipcs are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes, in both tunic and blood lacunae. • Cadmium exposure results in a significant increase of cipcs and cipcna transcription. - Abstract: The major thiol-containing molecules involved in controlling the level of intracellular ROS in eukaryotes, acting as a nonenzymatic detoxification system, are metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Both MTs and GSH are well-known in the animal kingdom. PC was considered a prerogative of the plant kingdom but, in 2001, a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene was described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; additional genes encoding this enzyme were later described in the earthworm Eisenia fetida and in the parasitic nematode Schistosoma mansoni but scanty data are available, up to now, for Deuterostomes. Here, we describe the molecular characteristics and transcription pattern, in the presence of Cd, of a PCS gene from the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis, a ubiquitous solitary tunicate and demonstrate the presence of PCs in tissue extracts. We also studied mRNA localization by in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed the behavior of hemocytes and tunic cells consequent to Cd exposure as well as the transcription pattern of the Ciona orthologous for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), usually considered a proliferation marker, and observed that cell proliferation occurs after 96 h of Cd treatment. This matches the hypothesis of Cd-induced cell proliferation, as already suggested by previous data on the expression of a metallothionein gene in the same animal

  20. Characterization and transcription studies of a phytochelatin synthase gene from the solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis exposed to cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franchi, Nicola [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Biological, Chemical, Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, University of Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Piccinni, Ester [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ferro, Diana [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster (Germany); Basso, Giuseppe [Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Spolaore, Barbara [CRIBI Biotechnology Centre, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Santovito, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.santovito@unipd.it [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Ballarin, Loriano [Department of Biology, University of Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Ciona intestinalis have a functional phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene (cipcs). • CiPCS amino acid sequence is phylogentically related to other metazoan PCSs. • CiPCS catalyze the synthesis of PC2. • cipcs are mostly transcribed in circulating hemocytes, in both tunic and blood lacunae. • Cadmium exposure results in a significant increase of cipcs and cipcna transcription. - Abstract: The major thiol-containing molecules involved in controlling the level of intracellular ROS in eukaryotes, acting as a nonenzymatic detoxification system, are metallothioneins (MTs), glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins (PCs). Both MTs and GSH are well-known in the animal kingdom. PC was considered a prerogative of the plant kingdom but, in 2001, a phytochelatin synthase (PCS) gene was described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans; additional genes encoding this enzyme were later described in the earthworm Eisenia fetida and in the parasitic nematode Schistosoma mansoni but scanty data are available, up to now, for Deuterostomes. Here, we describe the molecular characteristics and transcription pattern, in the presence of Cd, of a PCS gene from the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis, a ubiquitous solitary tunicate and demonstrate the presence of PCs in tissue extracts. We also studied mRNA localization by in situ hybridization. In addition, we analyzed the behavior of hemocytes and tunic cells consequent to Cd exposure as well as the transcription pattern of the Ciona orthologous for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), usually considered a proliferation marker, and observed that cell proliferation occurs after 96 h of Cd treatment. This matches the hypothesis of Cd-induced cell proliferation, as already suggested by previous data on the expression of a metallothionein gene in the same animal.

  1. The pharmaceutical exploration of cold water ascidians from the Netherlands : a possible source of new cytotoxic natural products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koulman, A; Pruijn, L.M C; Sandstra, T.C A; Woerdenbag, H.J.; Pras, N.

    1999-01-01

    Six ascidian species from the Dutch North Sea coast were screened for cytotoxic activity, Freeze-dried biological material was extracted with solvents of different polarity followed by determination of the cytotoxicity. The most active extracts were further separated using different chromatographic

  2. Ciona intestinalis as a Marine Model System to Study Some Key Developmental Genes Targeted by the Diatom-Derived Aldehyde Decadienal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lettieri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The anti-proliferative effects of diatoms, described for the first time in copepods, have also been demonstrated in benthic invertebrates such as polychaetes, sea urchins and tunicates. In these organisms PUAs (polyunsaturated aldehydes induce the disruption of gametogenesis, gamete functionality, fertilization, embryonic mitosis, and larval fitness and competence. These inhibitory effects are due to the PUAs, produced by diatoms in response to physical damage as occurs during copepod grazing. The cell targets of these compounds remain largely unknown. Here we identify some of the genes targeted by the diatom PUA 2-trans-4-trans-decadienal (DD using the tunicate Ciona intestinalis. The tools, techniques and genomic resources available for Ciona, as well as the suitability of Ciona embryos for medium-to high-throughput strategies, are key to their employment as model organisms in different fields, including the investigation of toxic agents that could interfere with developmental processes. We demonstrate that DD can induce developmental aberrations in Ciona larvae in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, through a preliminary analysis, DD is shown to affect the expression level of genes involved in stress response and developmental processes.

  3. Urochordate ascidians possess a single isoform of Aurora kinase that localizes to the midbody via TPX2 in eggs and cleavage stage embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Hebras

    Full Text Available Aurora kinases are key proteins found throughout the eukaryotes that control mitotic progression. Vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases are thought to have evolved from a single Aurora-kinase isoform closest to that found in present day urochordates. In urochordate ascidians Aurora binds both TPX2 (a vertebrate AURKA partner and INCENP (a vertebrate AURKB partner and localizes to centrosomes and spindle microtubules as well as chromosomes and midbody during both meiosis and mitosis. Ascidian Aurora also displays this localization pattern during mitosis in echinoderms, strengthening the idea that non-vertebrate deuterostomes such as the urochordates and echinoderms possess a single form of Aurora kinase that has properties of vertebrate Aurora-kinase A and B. In the ascidian, TPX2 localizes to the centrosome and the spindle poles also as in vertebrates. However, we were surprised to find that TPX2 also localized strongly to the midbody in ascidian eggs and embryos. We thus examined more closely Aurora localization to the midbody by creating two separate point mutations of ascidian Aurora predicted to perturb binding to TPX2. Both forms of mutated Aurora behaved as predicted: neither localized to spindle poles where TPX2 is enriched. Interestingly, neither form of mutated Aurora localized to the midbody where TPX2 is also enriched, suggesting that ascidian Aurora midbody localization required TPX2 binding in ascidians. Functional analysis revealed that inhibition of Aurora kinase with a pharmacological inhibitor or with a dominant negative kinase dead form of Aurora caused cytokinesis failure and perturbed midbody formation during polar body extrusion. Our data support the view that vertebrate Aurora-A and B kinases evolved from a single non-vertebrate deuterostome ancestor. Moreover, since TPX2 localizes to the midbody in ascidian eggs and cleavage stage embryos it may be worthwhile re-assessing whether Aurora A kinase or TPX2 localize to the midbody

  4. Expression of an Msx homeobox gene in ascidians: insights into the archetypal chordate expression pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, L; Swalla, B J; Zhou, J; Dobias, S L; Bell, J R; Chen, J; Maxson, R E; Jeffery, W R

    1996-03-01

    The Msx homeobox genes are expressed in complex patterns during vertebrate development in conjunction with inductive tissue interactions. As a means of understanding the archetypal role of Msx genes in chordates, we have isolated and characterized an Msx gene in ascidians, protochordates with a relatively simple body plan. The Mocu Msx-a and McMsx-a genes, isolated from the ascidians Molgula oculata and Molgula citrina, respectively, have homeodomains that place them in the msh-like subclass of Msx genes. Therefore, the Molgula Msx-a genes are most closely related to the msh genes previously identified in a number of invertebrates. Southern blot analysis suggests that there are one or two copies of the Msx-a gene in the Molgula genome. Northern blot and RNase protection analysis indicate that Msx-a transcripts are restricted to the developmental stages of the life cycle. In situ hybridization showed that Msx-a mRNA first appears just before gastrulation in the mesoderm (presumptive notochord and muscle) and ectoderm (neural plate) cells. Transcript levels decline in mesoderm cells after the completion of gastrulation, but are enhanced in the folding neural plate during neurulation. Later, Msx-a mRNA is also expressed in the posterior ectoderm and in a subset of the tail muscle cells. The ectoderm and mesoderm cells that express Msx-a are undergoing morphogenetic movements during gastrulation, neurulation, and tail formation. Msx-a expression ceases after these cells stop migrating. The ascidian M. citrina, in which adult tissues and organs begin to develop precociously in the larva, was used to study Msx-a expression during adult development. Msx-a transcripts are expressed in the heart primordium and the rudiments of the ampullae, epidermal protrusions with diverse functions in the juvenile. The heart and ampullae develop in regions where mesenchyme cells interact with endodermal or epidermal epithelia. A comparison of the expression patterns of the Molgula genes

  5. Wnt5 is required for notochord cell intercalation in the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwano, Tomoko; Takatori, Naohito; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2009-08-25

    In the embryos of various animals, the body elongates after gastrulation by morphogenetic movements involving convergent extension. The Wnt/PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway plays roles in this process, particularly mediolateral polarization and intercalation of the embryonic cells. In ascidians, several factors in this pathway, including Wnt5, have been identified and found to be involved in the intercalation process of notochord cells. In the present study, the role of the Wnt5 genes, Hr-Wnt5alpha (Halocynthia roretzi Wnt5alpha) and Hr-Wnt5beta, in convergent extension was investigated in the ascidian H. roretzi by injecting antisense oligonucleotides and mRNAs into single precursor blastomeres of various tissues, including notochord, at the 64-cell stage. Hr-Wnt5alpha is expressed in developing notochord and was essential for notochord morphogenesis. Precise quantitative control of its expression level was crucial for proper cell intercalation. Overexpression of Wnt5 proteins in notochord and other tissues that surround the notochord indicated that Wnt5alpha plays a role within the notochord, and is unlikely to be the source of polarizing cues arising outside the notochord. Detailed mosaic analysis of the behaviour of individual notochord cells overexpressing Wnt5alpha indicated that a Wnt5alpha-manipulated cell does not affect the behaviour of neighbouring notochord cells, suggesting that Wnt5alpha works in a cell-autonomous manner. This is further supported by comparison of the results of Wnt5alpha and Dsh (Dishevelled) knockdown experiments. In addition, our results suggest that the Wnt/PCP pathway is also involved in mediolateral intercalation of cells of the ventral row of the nerve cord (floor plate) and the endodermal strand. The present study highlights the role of the Wnt5alpha signal in notochord convergent extension movements in ascidian embryos. Our results raise the novel possibility that Wnt5alpha functions in a cell-autonomous manner in

  6. Two New Tryptamine Derivatives, Leptoclinidamide and (--Leptoclinidamine B, from an Indonesian Ascidian Leptoclinides dubius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Namikoshi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Two new tryptamine-derived alkaloids, named as leptoclinidamide (1 and (--leptoclinidamine B (2, were isolated from an Indonesian ascidian Leptoclinides dubius together with C2-α-D-mannosylpyranosyl-L-tryptophan (3. The structure of 1 was assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data for 1 and its N-acetyl derivative (4. Compound 1 was an amide of tryptamine with two β-alanine units. Although the planar structure of 2 is identical to that of the known compound (+-leptoclinidamine B (5, compound 2 was determined to be the enantiomer of 5 based on amino acid analysis using HPLC methods. Compounds 1 to 4 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, HCT-15 (colon and Jurkat (T-cell lymphoma cells, but none of the compounds showed activity.

  7. Antimalarial β-carbolines from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma opacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Susanna T S; Pearce, A Norrie; Page, Michael J; Kaiser, Marcel; Copp, Brent R

    2011-09-23

    One tetrahydro-β-carboline, (-)-7-bromohomotrypargine (1), and three alkylguanidine-substituted β-carbolines, opacalines A, B, and C (2-4), have been isolated from the New Zealand ascidian Pseudodistoma opacum. The structures of the metabolites were determined by analysis of mass spectrometric and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. Natural products 2 and 3, synthetic debromo analogues 8 and 9, and intermediate 16 exhibited moderate antimalarial activity toward a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum, with an IC50 range of 2.5-14 μM. The biosynthesis of 1-4 is proposed to proceed via a Pictet-Spengler condensation of 6-bromotryptamine and the α-keto acid transamination product of either arginine or homoarginine. Cell separation and 1H NMR analysis of P. opacum identified tetrahydro-β-carboline 1 to be principally located in the zooids, while fully aromatized analogues 2-4 were localized to the test.

  8. Potential speciation of morphotypes in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, M.; Yokobori, S.; Hirose, E.

    2009-03-01

    Four morphotypes are recognized in the photosymbiotic ascidian Didemnum molle in the Ryukyu Archipelago: three color morphs (white, dark gray, and brown) of small-type colonies and one large-type colony (white with gray patches). The genetic variation among these four morphotypes was investigated by constructing phylogenetic trees based on a 401-bp fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of 29 specimens collected from five islands (Okinawajima, Sesokojima, Ikeijima, Kumejima, and Ishigakijima). The results support the monophyly of the genus Didemnum and that of the four morphotypes of D. molle. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees discriminated four clades corresponding to each morphotype. The geographic differences of the sequences were much smaller than the differences among the morphotypes, suggesting that the four morphotypes in D. molle are discrete sibling species.

  9. Dual mechanism controls asymmetric spindle position in ascidian germ cell precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodon, François; Chenevert, Janet; Hébras, Céline; Dumollard, Rémi; Faure, Emmanuel; Gonzalez-Garcia, Jose; Nishida, Hiroki; Sardet, Christian; McDougall, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Mitotic spindle orientation with respect to cortical polarity cues generates molecularly distinct daughter cells during asymmetric cell division (ACD). However, during ACD it remains unknown how the orientation of the mitotic spindle is regulated by cortical polarity cues until furrowing begins. In ascidians, the cortical centrosome-attracting body (CAB) generates three successive unequal cleavages and the asymmetric segregation of 40 localized postplasmic/PEM RNAs in germ cell precursors from the 8-64 cell stage. By combining fast 4D confocal fluorescence imaging with gene-silencing and classical blastomere isolation experiments, we show that spindle repositioning mechanisms are active from prometaphase until anaphase, when furrowing is initiated in B5.2 cells. We show that the vegetal-most spindle pole/centrosome is attracted towards the CAB during prometaphase, causing the spindle to position asymmetrically near the cortex. Next, during anaphase, the opposite spindle pole/centrosome is attracted towards the border with neighbouring B5.1 blastomeres, causing the spindle to rotate (10 degrees /minute) and migrate (3 microm/minute). Dynamic 4D fluorescence imaging of filamentous actin and plasma membrane shows that precise orientation of the cleavage furrow is determined by this second phase of rotational spindle displacement. Furthermore, in pairs of isolated B5.2 blastomeres, the second phase of rotational spindle displacement was lost. Finally, knockdown of PEM1, a protein localized in the CAB and required for unequal cleavage in B5.2 cells, completely randomizes spindle orientation. Together these data show that two separate mechanisms active during mitosis are responsible for spindle positioning, leading to precise orientation of the cleavage furrow during ACD in the cells that give rise to the germ lineage in ascidians.

  10. Comparative study on bioremediation of heavy metals by solitary ascidian, Phallusia nigra, between Thoothukudi and Vizhinjam ports of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Jaffar Ali, H; Tamilselvi, M; Akram, A Soban; Kaleem Arshan, M L; Sivakumar, V

    2015-11-01

    Ascidians belonging to the sub-phylum Uro-chordata are used as potential model organisms in various parts of the world for biosorption of metals. The sedentary nature, filter feeding habits, presence of vanadocytes and the absence of kidneys cause them to accumulate metals. The present study was aimed to compare biosorption of metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and vanadium in test and mantle body of solitary ascidian Phallusia nigra between two ecologically significant stations such as Thoothukudi (Station 1) and Vizhinjam (Station 2) ports of India. Monthly samplings of water and P. nigra were done for a period of one year from September 2010 to August 2011 and subjected to analysis of metal accumulation. The average metal concentrations except mercury in the Thoothukudi water were found to be higher of comparable magnitudes than the Vizhinjam water. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences between the stations. A comparison of average metal concentrations in the test and mantle body of P. nigra between two stations showed that the enrichment of V, Cd, Pb, Cu and Hg in the Thoothukudi samples may be due to high bioaccumulation factors of these elements as compared to other species of ascidians. The bioaccumulation factors were in the order of V>Pb>Cd>Cu> Hg for the test and mantle body in stations 1 and 2. Application of one-way ANOVA for the concentration of these metals between test and mantle body showed significant differences in both stations. Similarly, ANOVA for biosorption of these trace metals by P. nigra showed significant difference between stations. Metal concentrations recorded in this ascidian could effectively be used as good reference material for monitoring metal contamination in Indian sea waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening for negative effects of candidate ascidian antifoulant compounds on a target aquaculture species, Perna canaliculus Gmelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick Louis; Heasman, Kevin; Hickey, Anthony; Mountfort, Douglas; Jeffs, Andrew; Kuhajek, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    The natural chemical compounds radicicol, polygodial and ubiquinone-10 (Q10) have previously been identified as inhibitors of metamorphosis in ascidian larvae. Accordingly, they have potential as a specific remedy for the costly problem of fouling ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. In this study, these compounds were screened for their effects on the physiological health of an aquaculture species, the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus Gmelin, at or above the 99% effective dose (IC(99)) in ascidians. Three physiological biomarkers of mussel health were screened: growth (increases in shell height and wet weight), condition (condition index) and mitochondrial respirational function (Complex I-mediated respiration, Complex II-mediated respiration, maximum uncoupled respiration, leak respiration, respiratory control ratios and phosphorylation system control ratios). While polygodial and Q10 had no effect on mussel growth or the condition index, radicicol retarded growth and decreased the condition index. Mitochondrial respirational function was unaffected by radicicol and polygodial. Conversely, Q10 enhanced Complex I-mediated respiration, highlighting the fundamental role of this compound in the electron transport system. The present study suggests that polygodial and Q10 do not negatively affect the physiological health of P. canaliculus at the IC(99) in ascidians, while radicicol is toxic. Moreover, Q10 is of benefit in biomedical settings as a cellular antioxidant and therefore may also benefit P. canaliculus. Accordingly, polygodial and Q10 should be progressed to the next stage of testing where possible negative effects on bivalves will be further explored, followed by development of application techniques and testing in a laboratory and aquaculture setting.

  12. Microenvironmental Ecology of the Chlorophyll b-containing Symbiotic Cyanobacterium Prochloron in the Didemnid Ascidian Lissoclinum patella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eKühl

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the cyanobacterium Prochloron was the first finding of a bacterial oxyphototroph with chlorophyll (Chl b, in addition to Chl a. It was first described as Prochloron didemni but a number of clades have since been described. Prochloron is a conspicuously large (7-25 µm unicellular cyanobacterium living in a symbiotic relationship, primarily with (sub- tropical didemnid ascidians; it has resisted numerous cultivation attempts and appears truly obligatory symbiotic. Recently, a Prochloron draft genome was published, revealing no lack of metabolic genes that could explain the apparent inability to reproduce and sustain photosynthesis in a free-living stage. Possibly, the unsuccessful cultivation is partly due to a lack of knowledge about the microenvironmental conditions and ecophysiology of Prochloron in its natural habitat. We used microsensors, variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and imaging of O2 and pH to obtain a detailed insight to the microenvironmental ecology and photobiology of Prochloron in hospite in the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum patella. The microenvironment within ascidians is characterized by steep gradients of light and chemical parameters that change rapidly with varying irradiances. The interior zone of the ascidians harboring Prochloron thus became anoxic and acidic within a few min of darkness, while the same zone exhibited O2 super-saturation and strongly alkaline pH after a few min of illumination. Photosynthesis showed lack of photoinhibition even at high irradiances equivalent to full sunlight, and photosynthesis recovered rapidly after periods of anoxia. We discuss these new insights on the ecological niche of Prochloron and possible interactions with its host and other microbes in light of its recently published genome and a recent study of the overall microbial diversity and metagenome of L. patella.

  13. Dynamics of cell polarity in tissue morphogenesis: a comparative view from Drosophila and Ciona [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Veeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tissues in developing embryos exhibit complex and dynamic rearrangements that shape forming organs, limbs, and body axes. Directed migration, mediolateral intercalation, lumen formation, and other rearrangements influence the topology and topography of developing tissues. These collective cell behaviors are distinct phenomena but all involve the fine-grained control of cell polarity. Here we review recent findings in the dynamics of polarized cell behavior in both the Drosophila ovarian border cells and the Ciona notochord. These studies reveal the remarkable reorganization of cell polarity during organ formation and underscore conserved mechanisms of developmental cell polarity including the Par/atypical protein kinase C (aPKC and planar cell polarity pathways. These two very different model systems demonstrate important commonalities but also key differences in how cell polarity is controlled in tissue morphogenesis. Together, these systems raise important, broader questions on how the developmental control of cell polarity contributes to morphogenesis of diverse tissues across the metazoa.

  14. Isolation and Characterization of a Shewanella Phage–Host System from the Gut of the Tunicate, Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Leigh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Outnumbering all other biological entities on earth, bacteriophages (phages play critical roles in structuring microbial communities through bacterial infection and subsequent lysis, as well as through horizontal gene transfer. While numerous studies have examined the effects of phages on free-living bacterial cells, much less is known regarding the role of phage infection in host-associated biofilms, which help to stabilize adherent microbial communities. Here we report the cultivation and characterization of a novel strain of Shewanella fidelis from the gut of the marine tunicate Ciona intestinalis, inducible prophages from the S. fidelis genome, and a strain-specific lytic phage recovered from surrounding seawater. In vitro biofilm assays demonstrated that lytic phage infection affects biofilm formation in a process likely influenced by the accumulation and integration of the extracellular DNA released during cell lysis, similar to the mechanism that has been previously shown for prophage induction.

  15. Exploring the mechanism of action of the sperm-triggered calcium-wave pacemaker in ascidian zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Michael; Levasseur, Mark; Wood, Chris; Whitaker, Michael; Jones, Keith T; McDougall, Alex

    2003-12-15

    In ascidians, as in mammals, sperm trigger repetitive Ca2+-waves that originate from cortical pacemakers situated in the vegetal hemisphere of the zygotes. In ascidians, a vegetal protrusion termed the contraction pole (CP) acts as the Ca2+-wave pacemaker, but the mechanism that underlies the generation of a Ca2+-wave pacemaker is not known. Here, we tested four hypotheses to determine which factors at the CP are involved in setting the pace of the ascidian Ca2+-wave pacemaker: (1) localized Ca2+ influx; (2) accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]; (3) accumulation of cortical endoplasmic reticulum (cER); and (4) enrichment of the sperm activating factor. We developed a method of dynamically monitoring the location of the CP during fertilization using a plekstrin homology (PH) domain from phospholipase Cdelta1 coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) that binds PtdIns(4,5)P2. We found that eggs in Ca2+-free sea water displayed Ca2+ waves that originated from the CP, showing that enhanced CP Ca2+ influx does not determine the origin of the pacemaker. Also, disruption of the PH::GFP-labelled CP once it had formed did not dislodge the Ca2+-wave pacemaker from that site. Next, when we prevented the accumulation of cER at the CP, all of the Ca2+ waves came from the site of sperm-egg fusion and the frequency of Ca2+ oscillations was unaltered. These data show that local Ca2+ influx, the accumulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 and cER at the CP are not required for Ca2+-wave pacemaker function and instead suggest that a factor associated with the sperm determines the site of the Ca2+-wave pacemaker. Finally, when we injected ascidian sperm extract into the centre of unfertilized ascidian eggs that had been treated with microfilament- and microtubule-disrupting drugs, all the Ca2+ waves still originated from near the plasma membrane, showing that the sperm factor does not require an intact cortex if it is enriched near the plasma membrane (PM). We

  16. Vascular budding in Symplegma brakenhielmi and the evolution of coloniality in styelid ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Stefania; Brown, Federico D

    2017-03-15

    Individuals of colonial animals (e.g. zooids) are in continuous turnover. In ascidians colonial or solitary species have evolved by convergence multiple times. Colonial Botryllus and Botrylloides are well-studied genera that exhibit colony-wide developmental mechanisms that regulate synchronous and orchestrated cycles of budding and turnover of zooids. The origins of modular developmental mechanisms that facilitated the evolution of coloniality in this group remain unclear. To reconstruct ancestral states of coloniality we studied Symplegma brakenhielmi, a sister taxon of the botryllids. S. brakenhielmi zooids are embedded in a common tunic and present a similar vascular system as the botrylloides, however development and turnover of zooids occurs asynchronously and in a more independent manner. We generated a table of common stages of budding in Symplegma and Botryllus for comparative studies of asexual development. We tested dependent processes of budding among individuals of the colony by systemic bud or zooid removals. Although our results showed a higher degree of independence in bud development in S. brakenhielmi, we found a subtle colony-wide regulatory mechanism of modular development, i.e. new buds expedited development after the removal of all buds in the colony. Next, we characterized external morphology, ultrastructure, and abundance of circulatory blood cells in the vascular system of S. brakenhielmi. Macrophage-like cells (MLCs) are involved in zooid resorption and turnover. Proportions of MLCs in the blood of S. brakenhielmi corresponded to the peak of occurrence of this cell type during the budding cycle of B. schlosseri. We found several new blood cell types in S. brakenhielmi, including two cell types that resemble circulatory progenitor stem cells of other botryllid colonial ascidians. These cells showed features of undifferentiated cells and expressed mitotic marker Phospho-histone H3. Comparative studies of S. brakenhielmi and B. schlosseri

  17. Global phylogeography of the widely introduced North West Pacific ascidian Styela clava.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstien, Sharyn J; Dupont, Lise; Viard, Frédérique; Hallas, Paul J; Nishikawa, Teruaki; Schiel, David R; Gemmell, Neil J; Bishop, John D D

    2011-02-22

    The solitary ascidian Styela clava Herdman, 1882 is considered to be native to Japan, Korea, northern China and the Russian Federation in the NW Pacific, but it has spread globally over the last 80 years and is now established as an introduced species on the east and west coasts of North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. In eastern Canada it reaches sufficient density to be a serious pest to aquaculture concerns. We sequenced a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I mitochondrial gene (COI) from a total of 554 individuals to examine the genetic relationships of 20 S. clava populations sampled throughout the introduced and native ranges, in order to investigate invasive population characteristics. The data presented here show a moderate level of genetic diversity throughout the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere (particularly New Zealand) displays a greater amount of haplotype and nucleotide diversity in comparison. This species, like many other invasive species, shows a range of genetic diversities among introduced populations independent of the age of incursion. The successful establishment of this species appears to be associated with multiple incursions in many locations, while other locations appear to have experienced rapid expansion from a potentially small population with reduced genetic diversity. These contrasting patterns create difficulties when attempting to manage and mitigate a species that continues to spread among ports and marinas around the world.

  18. Cytotoxicity of the Ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei Against Tumor Cells and Study of the Involvement of Associated Microbiota in the Production of Cytotoxic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Antón

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Many cytotoxic compounds of therapeutic interest have been isolated from marine invertebrates, and some of them have been reported to be of microbial origin. Pyridoacridine alkaloids are the main compounds extracted from the ascidian Cystodytes dellechiajei. Here we describe the in vitro antiproliferative activity against different tumor cell lines of the ascidian extracts and provide some insights on the role of the microbial community associated with the tunicate in the production of these compounds. C. dellechiajei extracts showed remarkably high antiproliferative activity (IC50 ≤5 μg/mL in human lung carcinoma A-549, colon adenocarcinoma H-116, pancreatic adenocarcinoma PSN-1 and breast carcinoma SKBR3 cell lines. Moreover, we found that the maximum activity was located in the tunic tissue of the colony, which harbours a microbial community. In order to ascertain the involvement of this community in the synthesis of the bioactive compounds different approachs that included culture and culture independent methods were carried out. We undertook a screening for antiproliferative activities of the bacterial isolates from the ascidian, as well as a comprative analysis of the cytotoxic activities and the microbial communities from two color morphs of the ascidian, green and blue. In addition, the changes of the antiproliferative activities and the composition of the microbial communities were studied from ascidians kept in aquaria and treated with antibiotics for one month. Our data obtained from the different experiments did not point out to bacteria as the source of the cytotoxic compounds, suggesting thus an ascidian origin.

  19. Origin of the Henze solution/precipitate from morula cells of the blood of the ascidian Phallusia mammillata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nette, Geoffrey; Scippa, S.; de Vincentiis, Mario

    The "Henze solution", derived originally from the aqueous extraction of pelleted whole blood from the ascidian Phallusia mammillata, was examined using spectral studies. The aqueous extraction of fractionated blood cells including compartment cells, signet ring cells, and morula cells obtained using cell separation techniques were also examined. It was found that this Henze solution, and the Henze precipitate itself derived from this solution, emanated solely from the morula cells. Furthermore, it was found that this solution is formed independently of the vanadium metal ions otherwise associated with the vanadocytes. Observation of the Henze precipitate by light microscopy shows that this material partially forms crystallites or microglasses.

  20. LPS challenge regulates gene expression and tissue localization of a Ciona intestinalis gene through an alternative polyadenylation mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiti Vizzini

    Full Text Available A subtractive hybridization strategy for the identification of differentially expressed genes was performed between LPS-challenged and naive Ciona intestinalis. This strategy allowed the characterization of two transcripts (Ci8short and Ci8long generated by the use of two Alternative Polyadenylation sites. The Ci8long transcript contains a protein domain with relevant homology to several components of the Receptor Transporting Protein (RTP family not present in the Ci8short mRNA. By means of Real Time PCR and Northern Blot, the Ci8short and Ci8long transcripts showed a different pattern of gene expression with the Ci8short mRNA being strongly activated after LPS injection in the pharynx. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that the activation of the APA site also influenced the tissue localization of the Ci8short transcript. This analysis showed that the Ci8long mRNA was expressed in hemocytes meanwhile the Ci8short mRNA was highly transcribed also in vessel endothelial cells and in the epithelium of pharynx. These findings demonstrated that regulation of gene expression based on different polyadenylation sites is an ancestral powerful strategy influencing both the level of expression and tissue distribution of alternative transcripts.

  1. Perforation with and without vinegar injection as a mitigation strategy against two invasive tunicates, Ciona intestinalis and Styela clava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne PARENT

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciona intestinalis and Styela clava, two nuisance species for Prince Edward Island’s blue mussel industry, were treated with individual perforations using nails or hypodermic needles. Other treatments using the same species included simultaneous perforations using perforation devices with low, medium and high needle density, either with or without vinegar injections. Mortality levels estimated for all ranges of individual perforations were significantly higher than mortality levels estimated in control groups during treatments conducted at laboratory facilities. Mortality of C. intestinalis reached 100% for 60 individual perforations or injection of 0.05 mL of vinegar. In S. clava, 100 individual perforations resulted in 100% mortality. Two applications of the high-density perforation device resulted in 80% mortality of C. intestinalis. During field testing, two applications of the same high-density needle device did not significantly decrease C. intestinalis wet weight, regardless of the addition of vinegar. The field applicability of perforation upon tunicates fouling mussel socks was at least in part limited by the uneven surface created by the mussels and the possible inhibition of bacterial growth caused by low water temperatures. Perforation and vinegar injection showed to be successful in laboratory trials and should be further studied with different perforation devices under field conditions.

  2. Hematological Analysis of the Ascidian Botrylloides leachii (Savigny, 1816) During Whole-Body Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoud, Simon; Zondag, Lisa; Lamare, Miles D; Wilson, Megan J

    2017-06-01

    Whole-body regeneration (WBR)-the formation of an entire adult from only a small fragment of its own tissue-is extremely rare among chordates. Exceptionally, in the colonial ascidian Botrylloides leachii (Savigny, 1816) a fully functional adult is formed from their common vascular system after ablation of all adults from the colony in just 10 d, thanks to their high blastogenetic potential. While previous studies have identified key genetic markers and morphological changes, no study has yet focused on the hematological aspects of regeneration despite the major involvement of the remaining vascular system and the contained hemocytes in this process. To dissect this process, we analyzed colony blood flow patterns using time-lapse microscopy to obtain a quantitative description of the velocity, reversal pattern, and average distance traveled by hemocytes. We also observed that flows present during regeneration are powered by temporally and spatially synchronized contractions of the terminal ampullae. In addition, we revised previous studies of B. leachii hematology as well as asexual development using histological sectioning and compared the role played by hemocytes during WBR. We found that regeneration starts with a rapid healing response characterized by hemocyte aggregation and infiltration of immunocytes, followed by increased activity of hemoblasts, recruitment of macrophage-like cells for clearing the tissues of debris, and their subsequent disappearance from the circulation concomitant with the maturation of a single regenerated adult. Overall, we provide a detailed account of the hematological properties of regenerating B. leachii colonies, providing novel lines of inquiry toward the decipherment of regeneration in chordates.

  3. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  4. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. (Annelida, Syllidae, Autolytinae, the first known polychaete miner tunneling into the tunic of an ascidian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available While studying organisms living in association with the solitary tunicate Phallusia nigra (Ascidiacea, Ascidiidae from a shallow fringing reef at Zeytouna Beach (Egyptian Red Sea, one of the collected ascidians showed peculiar perforations on its tunic. Once dissected, the perforations revealed to be the openings of a network of galleries excavated in the inner tunic (atrium by at least six individuals of a polychaetous annelid. The worms belonged to the Autolytinae (Syllidae, a subfamily that is well known to include specialized predators and/or symbionts, mostly associated with cnidarians. The Red Sea worms are here described as Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov., which are anatomically distinguished by the combination of simple chaetae only in anterior chaetigers, and a unique trepan with 33 teeth in one outer ring where one large tooth alternates with one medium-sized tricuspid tooth, and one inner ring with small teeth located just behind the large teeth. Male and female epitokes were found together with atokous individuals within galleries. Proceraea exoryxae sp. nov. constitutes the first known miner in the Autolytinae and the second species in this taxon known to live symbiotically with ascidians. The implications of finding this specialized parasite are discussed considering that Phallusia nigra has been introduced worldwide, in tropical and sub-tropical ecosystems, where it has the potential of becoming invasive.

  5. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of Mediterranean origin — including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect ... attacks, you'll likely feel normal. Symptom-free periods may be as short as a few days ...

  6. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  8. HSQC-TOCSY Fingerprinting-Directed Discovery of Antiplasmodial Polyketides from the Marine Ascidian-Derived Streptomyces sp. (USC-16018).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buedenbender, Larissa; Robertson, Luke P; Lucantoni, Leonardo; Avery, Vicky M; Kurtböke, D İpek; Carroll, Anthony R

    2018-05-30

    Chemical investigations on the fermentation extract obtained from an ascidian-derived Streptomyces sp. (USC-16018) yielded a new ansamycin polyketide, herbimycin G ( 1 ), as well as a known macrocyclic polyketide, elaiophylin ( 2 ), and four known diketopiperazines ( 3 ⁻ 6 ). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was established by comparison of experimental and predicted electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. Antiplasmodial activities were tested for the natural products against chloroquine sensitive (3D7) and chloroquine resistant (Dd2) Plasmodium falciparum strains; the two polyketides ( 1 ⁻ 2 ) demonstrated an inhibition of >75% against both parasite strains and while 2 was highly cytotoxic, herbimycin G ( 1 ) showed no cytotoxicity and good predicted water solubility.

  9. Protection from Oxidative Stress in Immunocytes of the Colonial Ascidian Botryllus schlosseri: Transcript Characterization and Expression Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Nicola; Ballin, Francesca; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-02-01

    Botryllus schlosseri is a cosmopolitan colonial ascidian that undergoes cyclical generation changes, or take-overs, during which adult zooids are resorbed and replaced by their buds. At take-over, adult tissues undergo diffuse apoptosis and effete cells are massively ingested by circulating phagocytes, with a consequent increase in oxygen consumption and in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The latter are responsible for the death of phagocytes involved in the clearance of apoptotic cells and corpses by phagocytosis-induced apoptosis. However, the majority of phagocytes and hemocytes do not die, even if they experience oxidative stress. This fact suggests the presence of detoxification mechanisms assuring their protection. To test this assumption, we searched for transcripts of genes involved in detoxification in the transcriptome of B. schlosseri. We identified and characterized transcripts for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase modulatory subunit (GCLM), glutathione synthase (GS), and two glutathione peroxidases (i.e., GPx3 and GPx5), all involved in protection from ROS. We also carried out a phylogenetic analysis of the putative amino acid sequences, confirming their similarity to their vertebrate counterparts, and studied the location of their mRNAs by in situ hybridization on hemocyte monolayers. We also analyzed gene transcription during the colonial blastogenetic cycle, which is the interval of time between one take-over and the next, by qRT-PCR. In addition, we investigated the effects of cadmium (Cd), an inducer of oxidative stress, on gene transcription. Our results indicated that i) antioxidant gene expression is modulated in the course of the blastogenetic cycle and upon exposure to Cd, and ii) hemocytes synthesize both enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, in line with the idea that they represent a major detoxification system for ascidians.

  10. Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera Aplidium and Synoicum: Variability and Defensive Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conxita Avila

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians have developed multiple defensive strategies mostly related to physical, nutritional or chemical properties of the tunic. One of such is chemical defense based on secondary metabolites. We analyzed a series of colonial Antarctic ascidians from deep-water collections belonging to the genera Aplidium and Synoicum to evaluate the incidence of organic deterrents and their variability. The ether fractions from 15 samples including specimens of the species A. falklandicum, A. fuegiense, A. meridianum, A. millari and S. adareanum were subjected to feeding assays towards two relevant sympatric predators: the starfish Odontaster validus, and the amphipod Cheirimedon femoratus. All samples revealed repellency. Nonetheless, some colonies concentrated defensive chemicals in internal body-regions rather than in the tunic. Four ascidian-derived meroterpenoids, rossinones B and the three derivatives 2,3-epoxy-rossinone B, 3-epi-rossinone B, 5,6-epoxy-rossinone B, and the indole alkaloids meridianins A–G, along with other minoritary meridianin compounds were isolated from several samples. Some purified metabolites were tested in feeding assays exhibiting potent unpalatabilities, thus revealing their role in predation avoidance. Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. Only the meridianins showed inhibition activity, demonstrating a multifunctional defensive role. According to their occurrence in nature and within our colonial specimens, the possible origin of both types of metabolites is discussed.

  11. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  12. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  13. Identification of Eusynstyelamide B as a Potent Cell Cycle Inhibitor Following the Generation and Screening of an Ascidian-Derived Extract Library Using a Real Time Cell Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Liberio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascidians are marine invertebrates that have been a source of numerous cytotoxic compounds. Of the first six marine-derived drugs that made anticancer clinical trials, three originated from ascidian specimens. In order to identify new anti-neoplastic compounds, an ascidian extract library (143 samples was generated and screened in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using a real-time cell analyzer (RTCA. This resulted in 143 time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRP, which are read-outs of changes to the growth rate, morphology, and adhesive characteristics of the cell culture. Twenty-one extracts affected the TCRP of MDA-MB-231 cells and were further investigated regarding toxicity and specificity, as well as their effects on cell morphology and cell cycle. The results of these studies were used to prioritize extracts for bioassay-guided fractionation, which led to the isolation of the previously identified marine natural product, eusynstyelamide B (1. This bis-indole alkaloid was shown to display an IC50 of 5 µM in MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, 1 caused a strong cell cycle arrest in G2/M and induced apoptosis after 72 h treatment, making this molecule an attractive candidate for further mechanism of action studies.

  14. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of drugs against the protozoan parasite Azumiobodo hoyamushi that causes soft tunic syndrome in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K H; Zeon, S-R; Lee, J-G; Choi, S-H; Shin, Y K; Park, K-I

    2014-04-01

    It was discovered recently that infection by a protozoan parasite, Azumiobodo hoyamushi, is the most probable cause for soft tunic syndrome in an edible ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi (Drasche). In an attempt to develop measures to eradicate the causative parasite, various drugs were tested for efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Of the 20 antiprotozoal drugs having different action mechanisms, five were found potent (24-h EC50  chloramine-T and benzalkonium chloride. Seven compounds, metronidazole, albendazole, paromomycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamonomethoxine, KMnO4 , potassium monopersulphate and citric acid, exhibited EC50  > 100 mg L(-1) . When ascidians were artificially infected with A. hoyamushi, treated using 40 mg L(-1) formalin, bronopol, ClO2 , or H2 O2 for 1 h and then monitored for 24 h, very low mortality was observed. However, the number of surviving parasite cells in the ascidian tunic tissues was significantly reduced by treating with 40 mg L(-1) formalin or ClO2 for 1 h. The data suggest that we might be able to develop a disinfection measure using a treatment regimen involving commonly available drugs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    The X-chromosome has valuable characteristics for population genetic studies. In order to investigate the genetics of the human Mediterranean populations further, we developed a 25 X-chromosome SNP-multiplex typing system. The system was based on PCR multiplex amplification and subsequent multipl...

  16. Anticancer effects of brominated indole alkaloid Eudistomin H from marine ascidian Eudistoma viride against cervical cancer cells (HeLa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Rajaian Pushpabai; Annappan, Murugan

    2015-01-01

    Marine invertebrates called ascidians are prolific producers of bioactive substances. The ascidian Eudistoma viride, distributed along the Southeast coast of India, was investigated for its in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells by the MTT assay. The crude methanolic extract of E. viride, with an IC50 of 53 μg/ml, was dose-dependently cytotoxic. It was more potent at 100 μg/ml than cyclohexamide (1 μg/ml), reducing cell viability to 9.2%. Among nine fractions separated by chromatography, ECF-8 exhibited prominent cytoxic activity at 10 μg/ml. The HPLC fraction EHF-21 of ECF-8 was remarkably dose- and time-dependently cytotoxic, with 39.8% viable cells at 1 μg/ml compared to 51% in cyclohexamide-treated cells at the same concentration; the IC50 was 0.49 μg/ml. Hoechst staining of HeLa cells treated with EHF-21 at 0.5 μg/ml revealed apoptotic events such an cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies. Cell size and granularity study showed changes in light scatter, indicating the characteristic feature of cells dying by apoptosis. The cell-cycle analysis of HeLa cells treated with fraction EHF-21 at 1 μg/ml showed the marked arrest of cells in G0/G1, S and G2/M phases and an increase in the sub G0/G1 population indicated an increase in the apoptotic cell population. The statistical analysis of the sub-G1 region showed a dose-dependent induction of apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was also observed in HeLa cells treated with EHF-21. The active EHF-21 fraction, a brominated indole alkaloid Eudistomin H, led to apoptotic death of HeLa cells. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Two mannose-binding lectin homologues and an MBL-associated serine protease are expressed in the gut epithelia of the urochordate species Ciona intestinalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mikkel-Ole; Palarasah, Yaseelan; Rasmussen, Karina Juhl

    2010-01-01

    The lectin complement pathway has important functions in vertebrate host defence and accumulating evidence of primordial complement components trace its emergence to invertebrate phyla. We introduce two putative mannose-binding lectin homologues (CioMBLs) from the urochordate species Ciona intest...... protease in the epithelia cells lining the stomach and intestine. In conclusion we present two urochordate MBLs and identify an associated serine protease, which support the concept of an evolutionary ancient origin of the lectin complement pathway....

  18. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Jimenez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

  19. Enzyme domain affects the movement of the voltage sensor in ascidian and zebrafish voltage-sensing phosphatases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Israil; Iwasaki, Hirohide; Okochi, Yoshifumi; Chahine, Mohamed; Higashijima, Shinichi; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Okamura, Yasushi

    2008-06-27

    The ascidian voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP) consists of the voltage sensor domain (VSD) and a cytoplasmic phosphatase region that has significant homology to the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome TEN (PTEN). The phosphatase activity of Ci-VSP is modified by the conformational change of the VSD. In many proteins, two protein modules are bidirectionally coupled, but it is unknown whether the phosphatase domain could affect the movement of the VSD in VSP. We addressed this issue by whole-cell patch recording of gating currents from a teleost VSP (Dr-VSP) cloned from Danio rerio expressed in tsA201 cells. Replacement of a critical cysteine residue, in the phosphatase active center of Dr-VSP, by serine sharpened both ON- and OFF-gating currents. Similar changes were produced by treatment with phosphatase inhibitors, pervanadate and orthovanadate, that constitutively bind to cysteine in the active catalytic center of phosphatases. The distinct kinetics of gating currents dependent on enzyme activity were not because of altered phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate levels, because the kinetics of gating current did not change by depletion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, as reported by coexpressed KCNQ2/3 channels. These results indicate that the movement of the VSD is influenced by the enzymatic state of the cytoplasmic domain, providing an important clue for understanding mechanisms of coupling between the VSD and its effector.

  20. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  1. Biochemical changes and drug residues in ascidian Halocynthia roretzi after formalin–hydrogen peroxide treatment regimen designed against soft tunic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soft tunic syndrome (STS is a protozoal disease caused by Azumiobodo hoyamushi in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Previous studies have proven that combined formalin–hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 bath is effective in reducing STS progress and mortality. To secure target animal safety for field applications, toxicity of the treatment needs to be evaluated. Healthy ascidians were bathed for 1 week, 1 h a day at various bathing concentrations. Bathing with 5- and 10-fold optimum concentration caused 100% mortality of ascidians, whereas mortality by 0.5- to 2.0-fold solutions was not different from that of control. Of the oxidative damage parameters, MDA levels did not change after 0.5- and 1.0-fold bathing. However, free radical scavenging ability and reducing power were significantly decreased even with the lower-than-optimal 0.5-fold concentration. Glycogen content tended to increase with 1-fold bathing without statistical significance. All changes induced by the 2-fold bathing were completely or partially restored to control levels 48 h post-bathing. Free amino acid analysis revealed a concentration-dependent decline in aspartic acid and cysteine levels. In contrast, alanine and valine levels increased after the 2-fold bath treatment. These data indicate that the currently established effective disinfectant regimen against the parasitic pathogen is generally safe, and the biochemical changes observed are transient, lasting approximately 48 h at most. Low levels of formalin and H2O2 were detectable 1 h post-bathing; however, the compounds were completely undetectable after 48 h of bathing. Formalin–H2O2 bathing is effective against STS; however, reasonable care is required in the treatment to avoid unwanted toxicity. Drug residues do not present a concern for consumer safety.

  2. Mediterranean Environmental Acoustic Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Salinity Diagrams for Adriatic Basin 441 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED SOL V4LOITY -MI-OWITE a*0 Z= a3 80 8540 850 WO OoW am6 KM40TE - - TECC3ATWK M* I a...wo ...~....... .. . no0 372 374 376 -70 380 382 364 386 383 ൦ SSAZAW M.). 7360 364 !30 La !. O A- CC# .7 .L,sTAut (t...±,-= ~20 - 0= Sol 153. AEEA...Vol. 14, art. 3 5. Jesperson, P. 1923. On the quantity of macroplankton in the2 h-. Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic. Report on the Danish Oceano

  3. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  4. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  5. Expression of genes involved in oxidative stress response in colonies of the ascidian Botryllus schlosseri exposed to various environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano; Ballin, Francesca; Franchi, Nicola; Fabbri, Elena; Ballarin, Loriano

    2017-03-01

    Environmental stress conditions are ultimately related to the induction of oxidative stress in organisms, as a consequence of an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This could be exploited to study sub-lethal effects induced by the environment in the organisms. In the present work, we evaluate the possibility to use the colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri as a bioindicator, to assess the environmental quality in the Lagoon of Venice. Three colony batches were immersed, for 22 days, at two sites (1 and 2) with different grades of hydrodynamics and anthropogenic impact and physico-chemical features of seawater; a control batch was kept in a large tank with continuous seawater flow at the Marine Station of the Department of Biology, University of Padova, in Chioggia (site 3). Seawater at site 2 had higher pH and temperature than site 1. Colonies were then retrieved, their mRNA was extracted and the level of transcription of genes involved in oxidative stress response (glutathione synthase, γ-glutamyl-cysteine ligase, modulatory subunit, two isoforms of glutathione peroxidases and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase) was evaluated. In colonies from sites 1 and 2, most genes showed significantly increased transcriptional levels with respect to control values. Spectrophotometric analyses of colony homogenates revealed that the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was higher in colonies from site 2 as compared to site 1, allowing us to speculate that colonies in site 2 were under higher stress level than those in site 1. Overall, we can conclude that B. schlosseri seems a good indicator of the ecological status of the Lagoon environment, within a range of pH and temperature in which colonies are used to live.

  6. The transcription factor FoxB mediates temporal loss of cellular competence for notochord induction in ascidian embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hidehiko; Enomoto, Takashi; Enomoto, Atsushi; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2011-06-01

    In embryos of the ascidian Halocynthia roretzi, the competence of isolated presumptive notochord blastomeres to respond to fibroblast growth factor (FGF) for induction of the primary notochord decays by 1 hour after cleavage from the 32- to 64-cell stage. This study analyzes the molecular mechanisms responsible for this loss of competence and provides evidence for a novel mechanism. A forkhead family transcription factor, FoxB, plays a role in competence decay by preventing the induction of notochord-specific Brachyury (Bra) gene expression by the FGF/MAPK signaling pathway. Unlike the mechanisms reported previously in other animals, no component in the FGF signal transduction cascade appeared to be lost or inactivated at the time of competence loss. Knockdown of FoxB functions allowed the isolated cells to retain their competence for a longer period, and to respond to FGF with expression of Bra beyond the stage at which competence was normally lost. FoxB acts as a transcription repressor by directly binding to the cis-regulatory element of the Bra gene. Our results suggest that FoxB prevents ectopic induction of the notochord fate within the cells that assume a default nerve cord fate, after the stage when notochord induction has been completed. The merit of this system is that embryos can use the same FGF signaling cascade again for another purpose in the same cell lineage at later stages by keeping the signaling cascade itself available. Temporally and spatially regulated FoxB expression in nerve cord cells was promoted by the ZicN transcription factor and absence of FGF/MAPK signaling.

  7. Regulation of the number of cell division rounds by tissue-specific transcription factors and Cdk inhibitor during ascidian embryogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Kuwajima

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that regulate the number of cell division rounds during embryogenesis have remained largely elusive. To investigate this issue, we used the ascidian, which develops into a tadpole larva with a small number of cells. The embryonic cells divide 11.45 times on average from fertilization to hatching. The number of cell division rounds varies depending on embryonic lineages. Notochord and muscle consist of large postmitotic cells and stop dividing early in developing embryos. Here we show that conversion of mesenchyme to muscle cell fates by inhibition of inductive FGF signaling or mis-expression of a muscle-specific key transcription factor for muscle differentiation, Tbx6, changed the number of cell divisions in accordance with the altered fate. Tbx6 likely activates a putative mechanism to halt cell division at a specific stage. However, precocious expression of Tbx6 has no effect on progression of the developmental clock itself. Zygotic expression of a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, CKI-b, is initiated in muscle and then in notochord precursors. CKI-b is possibly downstream of tissue-specific key transcription factors of notochord and muscle. In the two distinct muscle lineages, postmitotic muscle cells are generated after 9 and 8 rounds of cell division depending on lineage, but the final cell divisions occur at a similar developmental stage. CKI-b gene expression starts simultaneously in both muscle lineages at the 110-cell stage, suggesting that CKI-b protein accumulation halts cell division at a similar stage. The difference in the number of cell divisions would be due to the cumulative difference in cell cycle length. These results suggest that muscle cells do not count the number of cell division rounds, and that accumulation of CKI-b protein triggered by tissue-specific key transcription factors after cell fate determination might act as a kind of timer that measures elapsed time before cell division termination.

  8. Redundant mechanisms are involved in suppression of default cell fates during embryonic mesenchyme and notochord induction in ascidians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Hitoshi; Miyata, Yoshimasa; Kuwajima, Mami; Izuchi, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Gyoja, Fuki; Onuma, Takeshi A; Kumano, Gaku; Nishida, Hiroki

    2016-08-01

    During embryonic induction, the responding cells invoke an induced developmental program, whereas in the absence of an inducing signal, they assume a default uninduced cell fate. Suppression of the default fate during the inductive event is crucial for choice of the binary cell fate. In contrast to the mechanisms that promote an induced cell fate, those that suppress the default fate have been overlooked. Upon induction, intracellular signal transduction results in activation of genes encoding key transcription factors for induced tissue differentiation. It is elusive whether an induced key transcription factor has dual functions involving suppression of the default fates and promotion of the induced fate, or whether suppression of the default fate is independently regulated by other factors that are also downstream of the signaling cascade. We show that during ascidian embryonic induction, default fates were suppressed by multifold redundant mechanisms. The key transcription factor, Twist-related.a, which is required for mesenchyme differentiation, and another independent transcription factor, Lhx3, which is dispensable for mesenchyme differentiation, sequentially and redundantly suppress the default muscle fate in induced mesenchyme cells. Similarly in notochord induction, Brachyury, which is required for notochord differentiation, and other factors, Lhx3 and Mnx, are likely to suppress the default nerve cord fate redundantly. Lhx3 commonly suppresses the default fates in two kinds of induction. Mis-activation of the autonomously executed default program in induced cells is detrimental to choice of the binary cell fate. Multifold redundant mechanisms would be required for suppression of the default fate to be secure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  10. Quantitative assessment of Azumiobodo hoyamushi distribution in the tunic of soft tunic syndrome-affected ascidian Halocynthia roretzi using real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Kyung; Nam, Ki-Woong; Park, Kwan Ha; Yoon, Jong-Man; Park, Kyung-Il

    2014-11-26

    The kinetoplastid parasite, Azumiobodo hoyamushi, is the causative agent of soft tunic syndrome (STS) in ascidians and leads to their mass mortality in Korean waters. This study was conducted to quantify A. hoyamushi density during the development of STS in the tunics of ascidians (Halocynthia roretzi) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The infection intensity of A. hoyamushi, as measured by qPCR, varied depending on the part of the tunic analyzed, as well as the stage of STS development. The highest infection intensity was recorded in the tunics of the siphons. The infection intensity of A. hoyamushi in the siphons was only 2.9 cell/tunic (area, 0.25 cm(2)) or 106.0 cell/gram tunic (GT) in the early phase of STS, but this value increased dramatically to 16,066 cells/tunic (0.25 cm(2)) or 617,004 cell/GT at the time of death. The number of A. hoyamushi parasites increased gradually and their distribution spread from the siphons to the other parts of the tunics. qPCR enabled the quantitation of A. hoyamushi and the results revealed that parasite density increased as STS progressed. In addition, our results suggested that the siphons might function as the portal of entry for A. hoyamushi during infection.

  11. Epimerization of D-glucose to L-galactose during the biosynthesis of a sulfated L-galactan in the ascidian tunic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, P.A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sulfated polysaccharides occurring in the tunic of ascidians are unique among known sulfated polysaccharides in that their major constituent sugar is galactose, which occurs exclusively in the L-enantiomeric form. In vitro incorporation experiments using tunic slices incubated with 14 C-labeled sugars revealed that cells from this tissue epimerize D-isomers of hexose into L-galactose during the biosynthesis of their constituent polysaccharides. Compared with other hexoses, the precursor D-[ 14 C]glucose has the highest rate of incorporation and produces the highest proportion of L-galactose units. This metabolic pathway is distinct from the epimerization of D-mannose to L-galactose through its guanosine 5'-diphosphate nucleotide, described previously in an alga and in a snail. Therefore, the epimerization of D-glucose to L-galactose in the ascidian tunic occurs through a novel metabolic route, which involves inversion of the configuration of carbon atoms 2, 3, and 5 of the hexosyl moieties

  12. CS5931, a Novel Polypeptide in Ciona savignyi, Represses Angiogenesis via Inhibiting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF and Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CS5931 is a novel polypeptide from Ciona savignyi with anticancer activities. Previous study in our laboratory has shown that CS5931 can induce cell death via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In the present study, we found that the polypeptide could inhibit angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. CS5931 inhibited the proliferation, migration and formation of capillary-like structures of HUVECs (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, CS5931 repressed spontaneous angiogenesis of the zebrafish vessels. Further studies showed that CS5931 also blocked vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF production but without any effect on its mRNA expression. Moreover, CS5931 reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 both on protein and mRNA levels in HUVEC cells. We demonstrated that CS5931 possessed strong anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo, possible via VEGF and MMPs. This study indicates that CS5931 has the potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent as an inhibitor of angiogenesis for the treatment of cancer.

  13. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  14. Cyclic Hexapeptide Dimers, Antatollamides A and B, from the Ascidian Didemnum molle. A Tryptophan-Derived Auxiliary for l- and d-Amino Acid Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salib, Mariam N; Molinski, Tadeusz F

    2017-10-06

    Two dimerized cyclic hexapeptides, antatollamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the colonial ascidian Didemnum molle collected in Pohnpei. The amino acid compositions and sequences were determined by interpretation of MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. Raney Ni reduction of antatollamide A cleaved the dimer to the corresponding monomeric cyclic hexapeptide with replacement of Cys by Ala. The amino acid configuration of 1 was established, after total hydrolysis, by derivatization with a new chiral reagent, (5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)-N α -l-tryptophanamide (FDTA), prepared from l-Trp, followed by LCMS analysis; all amino acids were found to be l-configured except for d-Ala.

  15. Redescription of the deep-sea colonial ascidian Synoicum molle (Herdman, 1886: first record since its original finding during the Challenger Expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Maggioni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The colonial ascidian Synoicum molle (Herdman, 1886 was recorded for the first time after its original description. The slope area where S. molle was discovered during the Challenger Expedition (1872-1876, located at the mouth off Río de La Plata (Argentine Sea, still remains highly underexplored. During a series of deep-sea prospections along the SW Atlantic (A.R.A. Puerto Deseado, August 2012, 7 colonies of S. molle were collected few km from the type locality. The finding permitted to perform, for the first time, a complete morphological description of this species. The proper identification of marine species, especially deep-sea organisms, has implications for the general knowledge of biodiversity, a necessary tool for the conservation and study of ecosystem benefits that marine environments provide.

  16. An ultraviolet-sensitive maternal mRNA encoding a cytoskeletal protein may be involved in axis formation in the ascidian embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffery, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Ultraviolet (uv) irradiation of the vegetal hemisphere of fertilized eggs during ooplasmic segregation inhibits subsequent gastrulation and axis formation in ascidian embryos. The molecular basis of this phenomenon was investigated in by comparing in vivo protein synthesis and in vitro mRNA translation in normal and uv-irradiated embryos of the ascidian Styela clava. Analysis of protein synthesis by [35S]methionine incorporation, two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis, and autoradiography showed that only 21 of 433 labeled polypeptides were missing or decreased in labeling intensity in uv-irradiated embryos. The most prominent of these was a 30,000 molecular weight (pI 6.0) polypeptide (p30). Extraction of gastrulae with the nonionic detergent Triton X-100 showed that p30 is retained in the detergent insoluble residue, suggesting that it is associated with the cytoskeleton. Several lines of evidence suggest that p30 may be involved in axis formation. First, p30 labeling peaks during gastrulation, when the embryonic axis is being established. Second, axis formation and p30 labeling are abolished by the same threshold uv dose, which is distinct from that required to inactivate muscle cell development. Third, the uv sensitivity period for abolishing p30 labeling and axis formation are both restricted to ooplasmic segregation. In vitro translation of egg RNA followed by 2D gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of the protein products showed that p30 is encoded by a maternal mRNA. The translation of p30 mRNA was abolished by uv irradiation of fertilized eggs during ooplasmic segregation suggesting that this message is a uv-sensitive target. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that uv irradiation blocks gastrulation and axis formation by inhibiting the translation of maternal mRNA localized in the vegetal hemisphere of the fertilized egg

  17. Simulated overfishing and natural eutrophication promote the relative success of a non-indigenous ascidian in coral reefs at the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian; Stuhldreier, Ines; Sá nchez-Noguera, Celeste; Carvalho, Susana; Wild, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Colonial ascidians of the genus Didemnum are common fouling organisms and are typically associated with degraded ecosystems and anthropogenic structures installed in the sea. In this study, however, the non-indigenous ascidian Didemnum cf. perlucidum Monniot F., 1983 was discovered in coral reef environments on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Its role in the succession of a benthic community and the impact on biogeochemical features (i.e. reef cementation) was assessed by deploying terracotta settlement tiles on the reef for 24 weeks. Predator exclusion in experimental plots and naturally elevated nutrient concentrations during seasonal coastal upwelling gave insights on how settlers of D. cf. perlucidum succeed under projected environmental change. Exclusion of larger predators and grazers caused an increase of D. cf. perlucidum coverage on tiles from 7 to > 80%. Due to its rapid proliferation, D. cf. perlucidum grew over calcifying reef organisms, such as barnacles, polychaetes, and crustose algae, and significantly decreased the accumulation of inorganic carbon on the settlement tiles by one order of magnitude (4.6 to 0.4 mg C cm). The combination of reduced predation and eutrophication revealed negative synergistic effects on the accumulation of inorganic carbon. The opportunistic reaction of D. cf. perlucidum to environmental changes was further evident by 2-fold increased growth rates that were positively correlated (r = 0.89) to seawater particulate organic matter (POM) concentration during coastal upwelling. These results suggest that D. cf. perlucidum is a strong spatial competitor in Eastern Tropical Pacific coral reefs that face changing environmental conditions, e.g. overfishing and eutrophication. The effects of this species on disturbed benthic communities, but also its potential role as a habitat modifier, is likely significant. Thus, a continuous monitoring of D. cf. perlucidum is recommended to better understand their effects on post

  18. Maternal mRNAs of PEM and macho 1, the ascidian muscle determinant, associate and move with a rough endoplasmic reticulum network in the egg cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardet, Christian; Nishida, Hiroki; Prodon, Francois; Sawada, Kaichiro

    2003-12-01

    Localization of maternal mRNAs in the egg cortex is an essential feature of polarity in embryos of Drosophila, Xenopus and ascidians. In ascidians, maternal mRNAs such as macho 1, a determinant of primary muscle-cell fate, belong to a class of postplasmic RNAs that are located along the animal-vegetal gradient in the egg cortex. Between fertilization and cleavage, these postplasmic RNAs relocate in two main phases. They further concentrate and segregate in small posterior blastomeres into a cortical structure, the centrosome-attracting body (CAB), which is responsible for unequal cleavages. By using high-resolution, fluorescent, in situ hybridization in eggs, zygotes and embryos of Halocynthia roretzi, we showed that macho 1 and HrPEM are localized on a reticulated structure situated within 2 mum of the surface of the unfertilized egg, and within 8 mum of the surface the vegetal region and then posterior region of the zygote. By isolating cortices from eggs and zygotes we demonstrated that this reticulated structure is a network of cortical rough endoplasmic reticulum (cER) that is tethered to the plasma membrane. The postplasmic RNAs macho 1 and HrPEM were located on the cER network and could be detached from it. We also show that macho 1 and HrPEM accumulated in the CAB and the cER network. We propose that these postplasmic RNAs relocalized after fertilization by following the microfilament- and microtubule-driven translocations of the cER network to the poles of the zygote. We also suggest that the RNAs segregate and concentrate in posterior blastomeres through compaction of the cER to form the CAB. A multimedia BioClip 'Polarity inside the egg cortex' tells the story and can be downloaded at www.bioclips.com/bioclip.html

  19. Measurement of refractive indices of tunicates' tunics: light reflection of the transparent integuments in an ascidian Rhopalaea sp. and a salp Thetys vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchida, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishikawa, Jun; Hirose, Euichi

    2017-01-01

    Tunic is a cellulosic, integumentary matrix found in tunicates (Subphylum Tunicata or Urochordata). The tunics of some ascidian species and pelagic tunicates, such as salps, are nearly transparent, which is useful in predator avoidance. Transparent materials can be detected visually using light reflected from their surfaces, with the different refractive indices between two media, i.e., tunic and seawater, being the measure of reflectance. A larger difference in refractive indices thus provides a larger measure of reflectance. We measured the refractive indices of the transparent tunic of Thetys vagina (salp: Thaliacea) and Rhopalae a sp. (ascidian: Ascidiacea) using an Abbe refractometer and an ellipsometer to estimate the light reflection at the tunic surface and evaluate the anti-reflection effect of the nipple array structure on the tunic surface of T. vagina . At D-line light (λ = 589 nm), the refractive indices of the tunics were 0.002-0.004 greater than seawater in the measurements by Abbe refractometer, and 0.02-0.03 greater than seawater in the measurements by ellipsometer. The refractive indices of tunics were slightly higher than that of seawater. According to the simulation of light reflection based on rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA), light at a large angle of incidence will be completely reflected from a surface when its refractive indices are smaller than seawater. Therefore, the refractive index of integument is important for enabling transparent organisms to remain invisible in the water column. In order to minimize reflectance, the refractive index should be similar to, but never smaller than, that of the surrounding seawater. The simulation also indicated that the presence or absence of a nipple array does not cause significant difference in reflectance on the surface. The nipple array on the tunic of the diurnal salp may have another function, such as bubble repellence, other than anti-reflection.

  20. Simulated overfishing and natural eutrophication promote the relative success of a non-indigenous ascidian in coral reefs at the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2017-11-20

    Colonial ascidians of the genus Didemnum are common fouling organisms and are typically associated with degraded ecosystems and anthropogenic structures installed in the sea. In this study, however, the non-indigenous ascidian Didemnum cf. perlucidum Monniot F., 1983 was discovered in coral reef environments on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Its role in the succession of a benthic community and the impact on biogeochemical features (i.e. reef cementation) was assessed by deploying terracotta settlement tiles on the reef for 24 weeks. Predator exclusion in experimental plots and naturally elevated nutrient concentrations during seasonal coastal upwelling gave insights on how settlers of D. cf. perlucidum succeed under projected environmental change. Exclusion of larger predators and grazers caused an increase of D. cf. perlucidum coverage on tiles from 7 to > 80%. Due to its rapid proliferation, D. cf. perlucidum grew over calcifying reef organisms, such as barnacles, polychaetes, and crustose algae, and significantly decreased the accumulation of inorganic carbon on the settlement tiles by one order of magnitude (4.6 to 0.4 mg C cm). The combination of reduced predation and eutrophication revealed negative synergistic effects on the accumulation of inorganic carbon. The opportunistic reaction of D. cf. perlucidum to environmental changes was further evident by 2-fold increased growth rates that were positively correlated (r = 0.89) to seawater particulate organic matter (POM) concentration during coastal upwelling. These results suggest that D. cf. perlucidum is a strong spatial competitor in Eastern Tropical Pacific coral reefs that face changing environmental conditions, e.g. overfishing and eutrophication. The effects of this species on disturbed benthic communities, but also its potential role as a habitat modifier, is likely significant. Thus, a continuous monitoring of D. cf. perlucidum is recommended to better understand their effects on post

  1. The Sexual and Mating System of the Shrimp Odontonia katoi (Palaemonidae, Pontoniinae), a Symbiotic Guest of the Ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Hemphill, Carrie A.; Ritson-Williams, Raphael

    2015-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in the shrimp Odontonia katoi, which inhabits the atrial chamber of the ascidian Polycarpa aurata in the Coral Triangle. Preliminary observations in O. katoi indicated that males were smaller than females, which is suggestive of sex change (protandry) in some symbiotic organisms. Thus, we first investigated the sexual system of O. katoi to determine if this shrimp was sequentially hermaphroditic. Morphological identification and size frequency distributions indicated that the population comprised males that, on average, were smaller than females. Gonad dissections demonstrated the absence of transitional individuals. Thus, O. katoi is a gonochoric species with reverse sexual dimorphism. The population distribution of O. katoi in its ascidian host did not differ significantly from a random distribution and shrimps inhabiting the same host individual as pairs were found with a frequency similar to that expected by chance alone. This is in contrast to that reported for other socially monogamous crustaceans in which pairs of heterosexual conspecifics are found in host individuals more frequently than expected by chance alone. Thus, the available information argues against monogamy in O. katoi. Furthermore, that a high frequency of solitary females were found brooding embryos and that the sex ratio was skewed toward females suggests that males might be roaming among hosts in search of receptive females in O. katoi. Symbiotic crustaceans can be used as a model system to understand the adaptive value of sexual and mating systems in marine invertebrates. PMID:25799577

  2. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  3. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  4. Ascidian Sperm Lysin System

    OpenAIRE

    Hitoshi, Sawada; Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University

    2002-01-01

    Fertilization is a precisely controlled process involving many gamete molecules in sperm binding to and penetration through the extracellular matrix of the egg. After sperm bind to the extracellular matrix (vitelline coat), they undergo the acrosome reaction which exposes and partially releases a lytic agent called "lysin" to digest the vitelline coat for the sperm penetration. The vitelline coat sperm lysin is generally a protease in deuterostomes. The molecular mechanism of the actual degra...

  5. Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parletta, Natalie

    2018-05-04

    Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity. The PREDIMED study confirmed reductions in CVD-related mortality with a MedDiet; a meta-analysis in over 4.7 million people showed reduced mortality, CVD-related mortality, and reduced risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Continually emerging research supports the MedDiet's benefits for chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, cancers, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, and anxiety. We summarize components of studies outside the Mediterranean that achieved high compliance to a Med-style diet: dietitian led, dietary education, goal setting, mindfulness; recipe books, meal plans, and food checklists; food hampers; regular contact between volunteers and staff through regular cooking classes; clinic visits; and recipes that are simple, palatable, and affordable. The next step is testing the MedDiet's feasibility in the community. Potential obstacles include access to dietetic/health care professionals, high meat intake, pervasive processed foods, and fast food outlets. For Western countries to promote a Med-style diet, collective support from government, key stakeholders and policy makers, food industry, retailers, and health professionals is needed to ensure the healthiest choice is the easiest choice.

  6. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  7. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  8. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  9. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  10. Differential temporal control of Foxa.a and Zic-r.b specifies brain versus notochord fate in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tatsuro; Satou, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    In embryos of an invertebrate chordate, Ciona intestinalis, two transcription factors, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b, are required for specification of the brain and the notochord, which are derived from distinct cell lineages. In the brain lineage, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b are expressed with no temporal overlap. In the notochord lineage, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b are expressed simultaneously. In the present study, we found that the temporally non-overlapping expression of Foxa.a and Zic-r.b in the brain lineage was regulated by three repressors: Prdm1-r.a (formerly called BZ1), Prdm1-r.b (BZ2) and Hes.a. In morphant embryos of these three repressor genes, Foxa.a expression was not terminated at the normal time, and Zic-r.b was precociously expressed. Consequently, Foxa.a and Zic-r.b were expressed simultaneously, which led to ectopic activation of Brachyury and its downstream pathways for notochord differentiation. Thus, temporal controls by transcriptional repressors are essential for specification of the two distinct fates of brain and notochord by Foxa.a and Zic-r.b Such a mechanism might enable the repeated use of a limited repertoire of transcription factors in developmental gene regulatory networks. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  12. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  13. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean

  14. The maternal genes Ci-p53/p73-a and Ci-p53/p73-b regulate zygotic ZicL expression and notochord differentiation in Ciona intestinalis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    I isolated a Ciona intestinalis homolog of p53, Ci-p53/p73-a, in a microarray screen of rapidly degraded maternal mRNA by comparing the transcriptomes of unfertilized eggs and 32-cell stage embryos. Higher expression of the gene in eggs and lower expression in later embryonic stages were confirmed by whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR); expression was ubiquitous in eggs and early embryos. Knockdown of Ci-p53/p73-a by injection of antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) severely perturbed gastrulation cell movements and expression of notochord marker genes. A key regulator of notochord differentiation in Ciona embryos is Brachyury (Ci-Bra), which is directly activated by a zic-like gene (Ci-ZicL). The expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors was downregulated in Ci-p53/p73-a knockdown embryos. Maternal expression of Ci-p53/p73-b, a homolog of Ci-p53/p73-a, was also detected. In Ci-p53/p73-b knockdown embryos, gastrulation cell movements, expression of Ci-ZicL and Ci-Bra in A-line notochord precursors, and expression of notochord marker gene at later stages were perturbed. The upstream region of Ci-ZicL contains putative p53-binding sites. Cis-regulatory analysis of Ci-ZicL showed that these sites are involved in expression of Ci-ZicL in A-line notochord precursors at the 32-cell and early gastrula stages. These results suggest that p53 genes are maternal factors that play a crucial role in A-line notochord differentiation in C. intestinalis embryos by regulating Ci-ZicL expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  17. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Dailianis, T.; Akyol, O.; Babali, N.; Bariche, M.; Crocetta, F.; Gerovasileiou, V.; Chanem, R.; Gökoğlu, M.; Hasiotis, T.; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Julian, D.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lipez, L.; Mancini, E.; Mytilineou, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the A...

  18. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  19. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  20. NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue: Challenges and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cayan, Umit

    2003-01-01

    .... The new security concerns in the southern Mediterranean region terrorism, economic disparities, demographic imbalances, the potential for social and political instability, and the proliferation...

  1. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  2. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  3. Natural products from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum, from the sponges Verongula gigantea, Ircinia felix, Cliona delitrix and from the nudibranch Tambja eliora, from the Brazilian coastline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granato, Ana Claudia; Oliveira, Jaine H.H.L. de; Seleghim, Mirna H.R.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Macedo, Mario L.; Ferreira, Antonio G.; Rocha, Rosana M. da; Hajdu, Eduardo; Peixinho, Solange; Pessoa, Claudia O.; Moraes, Manoel O.; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.

    2005-01-01

    Two new marine metabolites, 3Z, 6Z, 9Z-dodecatrien-1-ol (1) from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum and 4H-pyran-2ol acetate from the sponge Ircinia felix (4) are herein reported. The known bromotyrosine compounds, 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)-N,N,Ndimethylethanammonium (2) and 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl)phenol (3), have been isolated from the sponge Verongula gigantea. Serotonin (5) is reported for the first time from the sponge Cliona delitrix, and tambjamines A (15) and D (16) isolated as their respective salts from the nudibranch Tambja eliora. Only tambjamine D presented cytotoxicity against CEM (IC 5 )0 12.2 μg/mL) and HL60 (IC 50 13.2 μg/mL) human leukemia cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC 50 13.2 μg/mL), colon HCT-8 cancer cells (IC 50 10.1 μg/mL) and murine melanoma B16 cancer cells (IC 50 6.7 μg/mL). (author)

  4. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  5. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  6. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  7. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  8. Bi-polarized translation of ascidian maternal mRNA determinant pem-1 associated with regulators of the translation machinery on cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum (cER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paix, Alexandre; Le Nguyen, Phuong Ngan; Sardet, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Polarized cortical mRNA determinants such as maternal macho-1 and pem-1 in ascidians, like budding yeast mating factor ASH1 reside on the cER-mRNA domain a subdomain of cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER) and are translated in its vicinity. Using high resolution imaging and isolated cortical fragments prepared from eggs and embryos we now find that macho-1 and pem-1 RNAs co-localize with phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation (MnK/4EBP/S6K). Translation of cortical pem-1 RNA follows its bi-polarized relocalization. About 10 min after fertilization or artificial activation with a calcium ionophore, PEM1 protein is detected in the vegetal cortex in the vicinity of pem-1 RNA. About 40 min after fertilization-when pem-1 RNA and P-MnK move to the posterior pole-PEM1 protein remains in place forming a network of cortical patches anchored at the level of the zygote plasma membrane before disappearing. Cortical PEM1 protein is detected again at the 4 cell stage in the posterior centrosome attracting body (CAB) region where the cER-mRNA domain harboring pem-1/P-MnK/P-4EBP/P-S6K is concentrated. Bi-polarized PEM1 protein signals are not detected when pem-1 morpholinos are injected into eggs or zygotes or when MnK is inhibited. We propose that localized translation of the pem-1 RNA determinant is triggered by the fertilization/calcium wave and that the process is controlled by phospho-protein regulators of translation initiation co-localized with the RNA determinant on a sub-domain of the cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  10. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  11. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  12. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  13. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  14. Ozone climatology over western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibiri, G.; Randaccio, P.; Serra, A.; Sollai, A.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary climatology of atmospheric ozone over Western Mediterranean Sea is given by analysis of the upper observations of O 3 carried out at Cagliari-Elmas station from 1968 to 1976. Some peculiarities are here illustrated and discussed

  15. Report on the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) as an ambitious political initiative which aims at creating a better context for the Northern (Mediterranean) countries which are looking for a secure energy supply, and for the Southern and Eastern (Mediterranean) countries where demand is strongly increasing. It highlights the fact that the cost of this plan is indeed important but still limited regarding the regional scale. Its success therefore needs projects with sufficient profitability to attract investors and to be realised within an adapted law environment. The report also outlines that the plan needs a regional vision and a cooperative approach between North and South, that it will have a strong impact of electric interconnections all around the Mediterranean Sea, and that its governance needs to be clarified to maintain the political momentum created by its co-presidents

  16. HVDC interconnection submarine link in Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, Giancarlo; Cova, Bruno; Pincella, Claudio; Rebolini, Massimo; Ricci, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The technology evolution of direct current energy transmission offer new perspectives for the exchange of energy with South side of Mediterranean Area: for Italy are new opportunity for energy import [it

  17. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  18. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  19. Crystal structure of the cytoplasmic phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)-like region of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase provides insight into substrate specificity and redox regulation of the phosphoinositide phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Makoto; Takeshita, Kohei; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Sakata, Souhei; Suzuki, Mamoru; Yamashita, Eiki; Okamura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2011-07-01

    Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensing phosphatase (Ci-VSP) has a transmembrane voltage sensor domain and a cytoplasmic region sharing similarity to the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN). It dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate upon membrane depolarization. The cytoplasmic region is composed of a phosphatase domain and a putative membrane interaction domain, C2. Here we determined the crystal structures of the Ci-VSP cytoplasmic region in three distinct constructs, wild-type (248-576), wild-type (236-576), and G365A mutant (248-576). The crystal structure of WT-236 and G365A-248 had the disulfide bond between the catalytic residue Cys-363 and the adjacent residue Cys-310. On the other hand, the disulfide bond was not present in the crystal structure of WT-248. These suggest the possibility that Ci-VSP is regulated by reactive oxygen species as found in PTEN. These structures also revealed that the conformation of the TI loop in the active site of the Ci-VSP cytoplasmic region was distinct from the corresponding region of PTEN; Ci-VSP has glutamic acid (Glu-411) in the TI loop, orienting toward the center of active site pocket. Mutation of Glu-411 led to acquirement of increased activity toward phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, suggesting that this site is required for determining substrate specificity. Our results provide the basic information of the enzymatic mechanism of Ci-VSP.

  20. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  1. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes. PMID:29117146

  2. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD, as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  3. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  4. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  5. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  6. Taking the pulse of the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.

    1977-01-01

    The staff at the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco realized that they were favourably located to ?take the pulse of the Mediterranean? and begin an enquiry into its health. Practically all of the radioactivity in the water and sediments could be attributed to world-wide fallout from the nuclear tests of the 1960's. Unable to find enough radioactivity in the Mediterranean to work with in a meaningful way, the laboratory imported sediments from the Bikini-Eniwetok sites of the American thermonuclear tests, and sediments from the Irish Sea near the Windscale effluent pipe to do their experiments. Other experiments were carried out with relatively innocuous, short half-lived 237 Pu, made especially for the laboratory in Japan and in the USA. A proposal was made to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to monitor the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy elements in the Mediterranean. This report briefly discusses that work. Three sets of studies were carried out by the Monaco group to assess the current levels of pollutants in the Mediterranean: 1) Radioactivity; 2) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT's and polychlorinated biphenyls); 3) Heavy elements. As stated earlier, measurements showed that radioactivity in the ocean off Monaco is quite low, indicating that there are no major sources of radionuclides reaching the open ocean other than fallout. Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured by gas-chromatography. The results of this study were being published (Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1977) but it can be said that the data are not much different than that for the Atlantic Ocean and Saragasso Sea. The western Mediterranean is clearly higher in PCB's than the eastern Mediterranean, but not unduly so. Less can be said about the trace or heavy elements because the patterns are so variable. Atomic absorption spectrometry is used to detect and measure most trace elements. For the lower levels that appear in seawater, chemical

  7. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  8. Preliminary study on the occurrence of brominated organic compounds in Dutch marine organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotterman, M.J.J.; Veen, van der I.; Hesselingen, van J.M.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Osinga, R.; Boer, de J.

    2003-01-01

    The extracts of three marine organisms; the ascidian Ciona intestinalis, the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum and the sponge Halichondria panicea, all elicited a number of brominated compounds, some of which were tentatively identified. Tribromophenol was observed in all species. This compound, also

  9. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way.

  10. Isolation and biological activities of secondary metabolites from the sponges monanchora aff. arbuscula, aplysina sp. petromica ciocalyptoides and topsentia ophiraphidies, from the ascidian didemnum ligulum and from the octocoral carijoa riisei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P. de; Nascimento, Andrea M.; Gambardella, Maria Teresa P.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S.; Torres, Yohandra R.; Nascimento, Gislene G.F.; Pimenta, Eli F.; Silva, Marcio; Thiemann, Otavio H.; Oliva, Glaucius; Tempone, Andre G.; Melhem, Marcia S.C.; Souza, Ana O. de; Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L.; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Pessoa, Claudia O.; Moraes, Manoel O.; Hajdu, Eduardo; Peixinho, Solange; Rocha, Rosana M.

    2007-01-01

    The investigation of extracts from six species of marine invertebrates yielded one new and several known natural products. Isoptilocaulin from the sponge Monanchora aff. arbuscula displayed antimicrobial activity at 1.3 mg/mL against an oxacillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Five inactive known dibromotyrosine derivatives, 2 6, were isolated from a new species of marine sponge, Aplysina sp. The sponges Petromica ciocalyptoides and Topsentia ophiraphidites yielded the known halistanol sulfate A (7) as an inhibitor of the antileishmanial target adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase. The ascidian Didemnum ligulum yielded asterubin (10) and the new N,N-dimethyl-O-methylethanolamine (11). The octocoral Carijoa riisei yielded the known 18-acetoxypregna-1,4,20-trien-3-one (12), which displayed cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines SF295, MDA-MB435, HCT8 and HL60. (author)

  11. Variation in the composition of corals, fishes, sponges, echinoderms, ascidians, molluscs, foraminifera and macroalgae across a pronounced in-to-offshore environmental gradient in the Jakarta Bay-Thousand Islands coral reef complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, D F R; Polónia, A R M; Renema, W; Hoeksema, B W; Rachello-Dolmen, P G; Moolenbeek, R G; Budiyanto, A; Yahmantoro; Tuti, Y; Giyanto; Draisma, S G A; Prud'homme van Reine, W F; Hariyanto, R; Gittenberger, A; Rikoh, M S; de Voogd, N J

    2016-09-30

    Substrate cover, water quality parameters and assemblages of corals, fishes, sponges, echinoderms, ascidians, molluscs, benthic foraminifera and macroalgae were sampled across a pronounced environmental gradient in the Jakarta Bay-Thousand Islands reef complex. Inshore sites mainly consisted of sand, rubble and turf algae with elevated temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and chlorophyll concentrations and depauperate assemblages of all taxa. Live coral cover was very low inshore and mainly consisted of sparse massive coral heads and a few encrusting species. Faunal assemblages were more speciose and compositionally distinct mid- and offshore compared to inshore. There were, however, small-scale differences among taxa. Certain midshore sites, for example, housed assemblages resembling those typical of the inshore environment but this differed depending on the taxon. Substrate, water quality and spatial variables together explained from 31% (molluscs) to 72% (foraminifera) of the variation in composition. In general, satellite-derived parameters outperformed locally measured parameters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  13. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  14. Electricity, development and cooperation in mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Energy consumption along the southern rim of the Mediterranean basin is increasing much more quickly than on the northern side, in accordance with the different industrialization and urbanization rates. Over the last two decades, electric power consumption has been increasing throughout the basin at a rate exceeding not only that of total energy consumption but even that of the economy itself. The various electric power development strategies the countries of the Mediterranean have developed differ widely depending on the available energy resources they have. Power distribution systems are a strategic element of co-operation in the Mediterranean basin. Though all of these strategies involve cost trade-offs between diversification of energy sources, domestic supply and environmental protection, difficulties exist that may curtail the development of these programs. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Measurements of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to supplement the baseline data on the distribution of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, which have already been reported, further measurements were carried out on sea water samples collected during 1974-75 cruises. In 1974 profile collections were conducted at a station approximately 50 km south of Monaco in addition to surface sampling at a few stations, while surface waters were taken from several stations covering wider regions of the western Mediterranean during the 1975 cruises. The measurement of 238 Pu as well as 241 Am were for the first time successful on the 1975 samples. These data are considered valuable as the basis for understanding transuranic biogeochemistry in the Mediterranean environment

  16. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  17. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  18. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  19. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  20. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 provides insights into the energy situation today and over the next two decades in the Mediterranean region. Its detailed data and analyses are of interest to stakeholders on both the supply and demand sides of the energy equation. This is the third edition in the MEP series, which highlights the extensive work of OME (Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie). This outlook draws upon the expertise of OME and its members. MEP 2011 provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in the Mediterranean. It presents data ranging from the early days of the region's energy industry to the situation today and an outlook to 2030, based on OME's supply and demand model, the Mediterranean Energy Model. Current efforts related to renewable energy sources and energy efficiency are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Mediterranean energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the region. MEP 2011 presents: - A description of the Mediterranean countries in a global context. - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Mediterranean energy sector. - Energy demand to 2030, including two cases: the Conservative and Proactive Scenarios. - Trends in past, present and future oil and natural gas production and development. - Existing and planned oil and gas infrastructure. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments in innovative and renewable energy sources. - In-depth analysis of energy efficiency measures and policies. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. MEP 2011 has been prepared by a joint-team of OME experts supported by related companies and independent expertise. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture of the energy industry and markets in the Mediterranean, the way they operate and their long

  1. THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET: A HISTORY OF HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Altomare, R.; Cacciabaudo, F.; Damiano, G.; Palumbo, V.; Gioviale, M.; Bellavia, M.; Tomasello, G.; Lo Monte, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean tradition offers a cousine rich in colors, aromas and memories, which support the taste and the spirit of those who live in harmony with nature. Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few are those who do it properly, thus generating a lot of confusion in the reader. And so for some it coincides with the pizza, others identified it with the noodles with meat sauce, in a mixture of pseudo historical traditions and folklore that do not help to solve the question...

  2. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including
    abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia,
    and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type

  3. The Historical Construction of the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenech, Dominic; Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Ideas about what the Mediterranean is, was or is imagined to be abound, and the debate over definition continues to intrigue scholars more than ever, especially as the region’s heightened newsworthiness in recent years has forced the protagonists of world affairs to turn their attention to it...

  4. [Familial Mediterranean fever: not to be missed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Bemelman, F.J.; Potter van Loon, B.J.; Simon, A.

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is common among Turkish and Moroccan migrants. We describe three patients with FMF. A 3-year-old girl with recurrent fever and abdominal pain who was diagnosed early with FMF and treated effectively with colchicine. An adolescent girl who required interleukin

  5. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  6. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason...... the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability....

  7. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the

  8. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  9. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...

  10. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north.

  11. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.

    2006-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming

  12. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns records of species that have extended their distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of the rare brackish angiosperm Althenia filiformis in the island of Cyprus is interesting since its insertion in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus is suggested. The following species enriched the flora or fauna lists of the relevant countries: the red alga Sebdenia dichotoma (Greece, the hydrachnid mite Pontarachna adriatica (Slovenia, and the thalassinid Gebiacantha talismani (Turkey. Several alien species were recorded in new Mediterranean localities. The record of the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina in the North Levantine Sea (Turkish coast, suggests the start of spreading of this Lessepsian immigrant in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of the following species indicate the extension of their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea: the foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera (island of Zakynthos, Greece, the medusa Cassiopea andromeda (Syria, the copepod Centropages furcatus (Aegean Sea, the decapod shrimp Melicertus hathor (island of Kastellorizo, Greece, the crab Menoethius monoceros (Gulf of Tunis, the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Megabalanus coccopoma and the bivalves Chama asperella, Cucurbitula cymbium (Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

  13. Screening of three Mediterranean phenylketonuria mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as the most frequent mutation (Dahri et al. 2010). The. E280K mutation was also reported in Mediterranean popu- lations (Guldberg et al. 1993). Since Tunisia is a Mediter- ranean country, patients with PKU are presumed to have these mutations. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of the three above mutations ...

  14. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  15. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  16. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  17. Offshore wind mapping Mediterranean area using SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface, for example from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with...

  18. Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology : A Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply

  19. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  1. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  2. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-10-14

    Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine. Using a superb methodology, they followed-up 23,902 participants for 12.2 years on average and observed several thousand incident cases.The results of this cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular events. These findings support the transferability of this dietary pattern beyond the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The authors provided measures of population impact in cardiovascular prevention and estimated that 19,375 cases of cardiovascular death would be prevented each year in the UK by promoting the Mediterranean Diet.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0677-4 .

  3. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  4. [Familial Mediterranean fever - first experiences in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Tomáš; Gálová, Lucia Lukáčiková; Macejková, Eva; Sedlačko, Jozef; Toplak, Nataša; Debeljak, Maruša; Sargsyan, Hasmik; Ilenčíková, Denisa; Kovács, László

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most prevalent genetically determined autoinflammatory disease. FMF significantly decreases the quality of life and limits life expectancy due to the development of amyloidosis in affected individuals. Prevalence of FMF is highest in the south-eastern Mediterraneans. In other parts of the world, its occurance is often restricted to high-risk ethnic groups. In Central Europe, experience with FMF is scarse to none, as in the case of Slovakia, where no cases have been reported, so far. Herein we report the first five patients (3 adults and 2 children, 4 native Slovaks) in whom the diagnosis of FMF could be confirmed in Slovakia. Our experience demonstrates that FMF does occur in low-risk populations in Central Europe. Due to low prevalence and lack of experience, FMF diagnosis may be significantly delayed (4.5-30 years) and undiagnosed cases are to be expected in our population.

  5. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...... allowed the plant to be able to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation. Stress during seed filling recorded the lowest yields. The influence of organic matter on yield was more important under deficit irrigation than under full irrigation. The interaction between relative water content......The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...

  6. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-09-17

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  7. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  8. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. PMID:26393643

  9. Water and tourism on Mediterranean islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igel, Wolf von; Candela, Lucila [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences Dept.

    2005-07-01

    An increased tourism development has taken place in the Mediterranean basin. This has induced some positive and negative consequences over diverse aspects of life and the natural system. One important consequence has been the increasing pressure put on natural resources, namely on fresh water resources. The patterns of water use related to tourism activity that lead to a situation of scarcity of water resources in a Mediterranean islands context are presented. Next are presented the main problems of hydrological, environmental and socio-economic nature that are a consequence of the increasing tourism development and accompanying increasing scarcity of water resources. As one of these main problems is often the insufficient water supply to meet the water demand, a discussion of the pros and cons of the diverse alternatives to increase the water supply and an explanation of some alternatives to control the water demand are presented. (orig.)

  10. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  11. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  12. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  13. Mediterranean Diet in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Meryem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bad eating habits lead to the emergence of chronic health problems such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cancer and obesity and the relationship between diet and diseases is emphasized and the relationship between them is clearly revealed in studies conducted over many years. The Mediterranean diet, which is first described by Angel Keys at the beginning of the 1960’s, is not a specific diet but a natural way of eating in olive-growing region. With the properties such as the use of vegetable oils such as olive oil in particular, and the consumption of fish instead of red meat, the diet constitutes a health-protective nutrition. So, this review conducted the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases.

  14. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  15. The refinery industry within the Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the period 1997-1998 Ome (Observatorie Mediterraneen de l'Energie) within a working group which was formed by the experts among the associated companies, has carried on an analysis on the prospects of refinery industry in the Mediterranean area in view of 2010. The aim of this study was to make clear, to the different operators, the consequences of the political choices in investments on refinery industry in the context of the progressive liberalization of the sector [it

  16. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hydrological response characteristics of Mediterranean catchments: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Merheb , M.; Moussa , R.; Abdallah , C.; Colin , F.; Perrin , C.; Baghdadi , N.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This work examines 140 hydrological studies conducted in the Mediterranean region. It identifies key characteristics of the hydrological responses of Mediterranean catchments at various time scales and compares different methods and modelling approaches used for individualcatchmentstudies. The study area is divided into the northwestern (NWM), eastern (EM) and southern (SM) Mediterranean. The analysis indicates regional discrepancies in which the NWM shows the most ext...

  18. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    P. Spinella; F. Oliviero; C. Sales

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective pr...

  19. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  1. Oil spill preparedness in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorigne, E.M.; Wong, K.V.

    1993-01-01

    Over 15% of the world's consumption of crude oil and refined products is shipped through the Mediterranean Sea each year. The sea is one of the most polluted areas in the world and has areas of high risk for oil spills, notably those places where there is a very narrow passage between coasts or islands. The region also needs to modernize its ports by developing more deballasting facilities, since a large percentage of spill accidents happens during terminal operations. Release of oily wastes from ships is also significant. The World Bank Global Environment Facility trust fund is working on a project to help the southwest Mediterranean countries modernize reception facilities for ballast water, bilge water, and oily waste water. The Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Center (REMPEC) in Malta acts as the coordinating center for regional contingency planning for oil spill response. The cost of the port facilities modernization program and oil spill contingency plan implementation for the Mediterranean is estimated at US$444 million. An allocation of costs is suggested which will help those countries needing more financial aid to implement the proposed programs. In the long run, the cost of these programs will be much lower than that of a massive oil spill cleanup. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  2. The mediterranean diet: a history of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Roberta; Cacciabaudo, Francesco; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Bellavia, Maurizio; Tomasello, Giovanni; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean tradition offers a cousine rich in colors, aromas and memories, which support the taste and the spirit of those who live in harmony with nature. Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few are those who do it properly, thus generating a lot of confusion in the reader. And so for some it coincides with the pizza, others identified it with the noodles with meat sauce, in a mixture of pseudo historical traditions and folklore that do not help to solve the question that is at the basis of any diet: combine and balance the food so as to satisfy the qualitative and quantitative needs of an individual and in a sense, preserves his health through the use of substances that help the body to perform normal vital functions. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate that the combination of taste and health is a goal that can be absolutely carried out by everybody, despite those who believe that only a generous caloric intake can guarantee the goodness of a dish and the satisfaction of the consumers. That should not be an absolute novelty, since the sound traditions of the Mediterranean cuisine we have used for some time in a wide variety of tasty gastronomic choices, from inviting colors and strong scents and absolutely in line with health.

  3. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  4. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  5. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATTI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  6. Euro-mediterranean partnership in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The conference for a Euro-Mediterranean partnership in the energy field took place from the seventh to ninth of June 1996 and convened the officials of 15 european countries and 10 mediterranean countries; the discussions were about five themes: the adhesion of mediterranean countries to the european chart of energy or their association to this treaty; the harmonization of legislations and regulations concerning investments; the development of gas and electric networks in this area; the positioning of a system to guarantee energy investments; the creation of an Euro-Mediterranean energy forum proposed by the commission which allowed to associate the different partners to the following of this cooperation. (N.C.)

  7. Structural setting and tectonic control of mud volcanous from the central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Kopf, A.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a recent marine geophysical data set, including swath bathymetry, acoustic imagery and six-channel seismics, recorded over a large area of the Mediterranean Ridge (MR) in early 1998 during the Prismed 2 survey, this paper presents a study of the various relationships observed between

  8. New records of Decapod Crustacea from the Mediterranean coast of Israel and the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1964-01-01

    Since the publication by Holthuis & Gottlieb (1958) of a list of the Decapod Crustacea known at that time to inhabit the Mediterranean waters of Israel, several additional species, 18 in number, have been found in the area, while just prior to the issue of the paper by Holthuis & Gottlieb a

  9. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  10. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  11. Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, Maria L.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Adams, Dean C.; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego; Barton, Louise; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Pappa, Valentini A.; Bouwman, Lex; Lassaletta, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Many recent reviews and meta-analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta-analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for

  12. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  13. Climate Variability and Change in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Piero; Özsoy, Emin; Planton, Serge; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    This special issue collects new research results on the climate of the Mediterranean region. It covers traditional topics of the MedCLIVAR programme (www.medclivar.eu, Lionello et al. 2006, Lionello et al. 2012b) being devoted to papers addressing on-going and future climate changes in the Mediterranean region and their impacts on its environment.

  14. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  15. Environmental Assessment for Selected Regions in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    7-23. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1972). Wide scale digital seismic exploration of the Mediterranean Sea. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 14...291-342. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1973). Geophysical exploration of the Mediterranean. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 15: 263-341

  16. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2008-01-01

    precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean...

  17. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Tarhini, Mohamad; Touati, Manaf; Gonzalez Garcia, David; Alario, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  19. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  20. Plant biodiversity in French Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marianne; Bilodeau, Clelia; Alexandre, Frédéric; Godron, Michel; Gresillon, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    In a context of agricultural intensification and increasing urbanization, the biodiversity of farmed plots is a key to improve the sustainability of farmed landscapes. The medium life-duration of the vineyards as well as their location in Mediterranean region are favorable to plant biodiversity. We studied 35 vineyards and if present, their edges, located in three French Mediterranean terroirs: Bandol, Pic Saint Loup and Terrasses du Larzac. We collected botanical information (floral richness et diversity, biological traits), and analyzed their relationships with different factors: social (management, heritage or professional concern), environmental (slope, exposition, geology), spatial (edges, surrounding landscape in a 500 meters radius, distance to the nearest large city). Vineyards are generally heavily disturbed by intensive practices like tilling and application of herbicides, and for this reason their floral diversity is low. This is particularly true in Bandol terroir, in accordance with the standards of the Bandol PDO wine sector. Farmed landscapes and proximity to a large town impact on functional groups, generalist species being overrepresented. If vineyards are surrounded with natural edges, it doubles the floral richness at the plot and edges scale. Species present in vineyards edges are perennial herbaceous species with Euro- Asian and Mediterranean distribution ranges characteristic of prairie and wasteland stages, increasing the functional diversity of vineyards (generalist species). Environmental factors have a lower influence: vineyards are generally located on flat lands. These results suggest that some practices should be encouraged to avoid the biological degradation of vineyards: conservation of tree-lined edges and their extensive management, reduction of chemical weeding, grass-growing using non-cosmopolitan species. These recommendations should also contribute to soil conservation.

  1. The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maramai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified catalogue containing 290 tsunamis generated in the European and Mediterranean seas since 6150 B.C. to current days is presented. It is the result of a systematic and detailed review of all the regional catalogues available in literature covering the study area, each of them having their own format and level of accuracy. The realization of a single catalogue covering a so wide area and involving several countries was a complex task that posed a series of challenges, being the standardization and the quality of the data the most demanding. A “reliability” value was used to rate equally the quality of the data for each event and this parameter was assigned based on the trustworthiness of the information related to the generating cause, the tsunami description accuracy and also on the availability of coeval bibliographical sources. Following these criteria we included in the catalogue events whose reliability ranges from 0 (“very improbable tsunami” to 4 (“definite tsunami”. About 900 documentary sources, including historical documents, books, scientific reports, newspapers and previous catalogues, support the tsunami data and descriptions gathered in this catalogue. As a result, in the present paper a list of the 290 tsunamis with their main parameters is reported. The online version of the catalogue, available at http://roma2.rm.ingv.it/en/facilities/data_bases/52/catalogue_of_the_euro-mediterranean_tsunamis, provides additional information such as detailed descriptions, pictures, etc. and the complete list of bibliographical sources. Most of the included events have a high reliability value (3= “probable” and 4= “definite” which makes the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue an essential tool for the implementation of tsunami hazard and risk assessment.

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  3. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  4. Thermodynamic Forecasts of the Mediterranean Sea Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GOYET

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic CO2 is a major driver of the present ocean acidification. This latter is threatening the marine ecosystems and has been identified as a major environmental and economic menace. This study aims to forecast from the thermodynamic equations, the acidification variation (ΔpH of the Mediterranean waters over the next few decades and beyond this century. In order to do so, we calculated and fitted the theoretical values based upon the initial conditions from data of the 2013 MedSeA cruise. These estimates have been performed both for the Western and for the Eastern basins based upon their respective physical (temperature and salinity and chemical (total alkalinity and total inorganic carbon properties. The results allow us to point out four tipping points, including one when the Mediterranean Sea waters would become acid (pH<7. In order to provide an associated time scale to the theoretical results, we used two of the IPCC (2007 atmospheric CO2 scenarios. Under the most optimistic scenario of the “Special Report: Emissions Scenarios” (SRES of the IPCC (2007, the results indicate that in 2100, pH may decrease down to 0.245 in the Western basin and down to 0.242 in the Eastern basin (compared to the pre-industrial pH. Whereas for the most pessimistic SRES scenario of the IPCC (2007, the results for the year 2100, forecast a pH decrease down to 0.462 and 0.457, for the Western and for the Eastern basins, respectively. Acidification, which increased unprecedentedly in recent years, will rise almost similarly in both Mediterranean basins only well after the end of this century. These results further confirm that both basins may become undersaturated (< 1 with respect to calcite and aragonite (at the base of the mixed layer depth, only in the far future (in a few centuries.

  5. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  6. Wind energy in the Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the main findings relative to the European Communities OPET (Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technology) June 1992 conference on the potential for small and medium size wind energy applications in the Mediterranean countries and gives a panoramic look at progress being made by these countries in the development and use of wind energy turbines. One system which appears to be promising is the Danish 100 kW 'Bonus' wind turbine (23 m rotor, 30 m tower height) which has seen successful applications at a seaside resort and at a remote radio station in terms of performance, environmental compatibility and public acceptance

  7. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  8. Mediterranean lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Mellor, Duane D; Naumovski, Nenad; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Sidossis, Labros; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. During 2005-2015, 2,749 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study. Dietary habits, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleep, smoking habits, social life and educational status) and clinical profile aspects were derived through standard procedures. The overall prevalence of the traditional CVD risk factors were 62.3% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes mellitus (type 2) and 47.7% for hypercholesterolemia. The presence of diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) [odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.25] and by an urban residential environment (OR =2.57, 95% CI: 1.10-6.06) after adjusting for several confounders. Presence of hypertension was predicted by increasing age (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12), increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR =1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21), the habit of midday sleep (OR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.07-4.02) and inversely predicted by the frequency of socializing with friends (OR =0.767, 95% CI: 0.616-0.955). The estimated score in the GDS was the only independent positive predictor for the presence of hypercholesterolemia (OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21). Lifestyle parameters such as social life, midday sleep (siesta) and residential environment are strongly associated with the presence of CVD risk factors in elderly and should be part of broader CVD prevention strategies to

  9. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh...... manta trawl was used for surface water sampling. Physical and chemical characterization of plastic particles was performed with regard to size (1-5mm), shape (fragment, line, thin film, foam and pellets), color (transparent, white, black and colored), density and chemical composition according...

  10. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents ( N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania ( N = 1863) and Serbia ( N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  11. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Á lvarez, Elena; Balau, Ana C.; Marbà , Nú rià N.; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrã o, Ester Á lvares

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  12. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  13. Mediterranean Diet and Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Selmin, Ornella I.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of research data suggests that traditional dietary habits and lifestyle unique to the Mediterranean region (Mediterranean diet, MD) lower the incidence of chronic diseases and improve longevity. These data contrast with troubling statistics in the United States and other high income countries pointing to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and the projected explosion in cost of medical care associated with an aging population. In 2013, the MD was inscribed by UNESCO in the “Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.” The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans included the MD as a healthy dietary pattern. Therefore, specific objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the nutritional basis of this healthful diet, its metabolic benefits, and its role in multiple aspects of disease prevention and healthy aging. Whereas recommendations about the MD often focus on specific foods or bioactive compounds, we suggest that the eating pattern as a whole likely contributes to the health promoting effects of the MD. PMID:29051674

  14. Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking," that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer.

  15. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  17. Evolution of Mediterranean diets and cuisine: concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd-Vagenas, Sue; Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Flood, Victoria M

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been demonstrated to provide a range of health benefits in observational and clinical trials and adopted by various dietary guidelines. However, a broad range of definitions exist impeding synthesis across trials. This review aims to provide a historical description of Mediterranean diets, from the ancient to the modern, to inform future educational and diet index tool development representing the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet. Nine databases were searched from inception to July 2015 to identify papers defining the Mediterranean diet. The definition accepted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was also reviewed. The 'traditional' Mediterranean diet is described as high in unprocessed plant foods (grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts/seeds and extra virgin olive oil), moderate in fish/shellfish and wine and low in meat, dairy, eggs, animal fats and discretionary foods. Additional elements relating to cuisine and eating habits identified in this review include frequent intake of home cooked meals; use of moist, lower temperature, cooking methods; eating main meals in company; reduced snacking occasions; fasting practice; ownership of a vegetable garden; use of traditional foods and combinations; and napping after the midday meal. Scope exists for future tools to incorporate additional elements of the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet to improve the quality, consistency, and synthesis of ongoing research on the Mediterranean diet.

  18. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Roman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Roman1, Laura Carta2, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González3, Lluís Serra-Majem41Mediterranean Diet Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, Spain; 2Department of Biosystems and Applied Sciences, Unit of Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Cagliari, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainAbstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older. A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.Keywords: Mediterranean diet, elderly, health, review

  19. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  20. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  1. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  2. Exogenous and endogenous landforms in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Julia

    2017-04-01

    11th graders have already learned about endogenous forces and now we are having a closer look at the exogenous forces which act on the Earth's surface. The Po River-system, for example, is responsible for the formation of the alpine region. Students are asked to find out how this works with the help of the rock-cycle scheme, several suitable maps and information on weathering and the texture of rocks, erosion, etc. We will form groups that will look at different types of rock formations (including an example in the Mediterranean region each). Depending on the number of lessons available we will add the exogenous effect of flowing water and ice (glacial over forming) to the topic. At the end every group will present their findings explaining the scientific context by using topographic examples.

  3. Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Choubani, Fethi; Moussati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the first part of the proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies (MedICT 2015), which was held at Saidia, Morocco during 7–9 May, 2015. MedICT provides an excellent international forum to the researchers and practitioners from both academia as well as industry to meet and share cutting-edge development. The conference has also a special focus on enabling technologies for societal challenges, and seeks to address multidisciplinary challenges in Information & Communication Technologies such as health, demographic change, wellbeing, security and sustainability issues. The proceedings publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories, as well as emerging and practical applications of particular interest to the ICT community. This first volume provides a compact yet broad view of recent developments in devices, technologies and processing, and covers recent research areas in the field including Microwave Devices...

  4. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Least Disturbed Condition for European Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feio, M J; Aguiar, F C; Almeida, S F P; Ferreira, J; Ferreira, M T; Elias, C; Serra, S R Q; Buffagni, A; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Delmas, F; Dörflinger, G; Erba, S; Flor, N; Ferréol, M; Germ, M; Mancini, L; Manolaki, P; Marcheggiani, S; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Prat, N; Puccinelli, C; Rosebery, J; Sabater, S; Ciadamidaro, S; Tornés, E; Tziortzis, I; Urbanič, G; Vieira, C

    2014-04-01

    The present report describes a three-step approach that was used to characterize and define thresholds for the Least Disturbed Condition in Mediterranean streams of four different types, regarding organic pollution and nutrients, hydrological and morphological alterations, and land use. For this purpose, a common database composed of national reference sites (929 records) from seven countries, sampled for invertebrates, diatoms and macrophytes was used. The analyses of reference sites showed that small (catchment rivers were the most affected by stressors: 25-43% of the samples showed at least slight alterations regarding channelization, connectivity, upstream dam influence, hydropeaking and degradation of riparian vegetation. Temporary streams were the least affected by hydromorphological changes, but they were nevertheless affected by alterations in riparian vegetation. There were no major differences between all permanent stream types regarding water quality, but temporary streams showed lower values for oxygenation (DO) and wider ranges for other variables, such as nitrates. A lower threshold value for DO (60%) was determined for this stream type and can be attributed to the streams' natural characteristics. For all other river types, common limits were found for the remaining variables (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total P, % of artificial areas, % of intensive and extensive agriculture, % of semi-natural areas in the catchment). These values were then used to select the list of reference sites. The biological communities were characterized, revealing the existence of nine groups of Mediterranean invertebrate communities, six for diatoms and five for macrophytes: each group was characterized by specific indicator taxa that highlighted the differences between groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  7. Topographic control on the nascent Mediterranean outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Nash, J. D.; Peters, H.; García-Lafuente, J.

    2011-12-01

    Data collected during a 12-day cruise in July 2009 served to examine the structure of the nascent Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) immediately west of the Espartel Sill, the westernmost sill in the Strait of Gibraltar. The MOW is characterized by high salinities (>37.0 and reaching 38.3) and high velocities (exceeding 1 m s-1 at 100 m above the seafloor), and follows a submerged valley along a 30 km stretch, the natural western extension of the strait. It is approx. 150 m thick and 10 km wide, and experiences a substantial drop from 420 to 530 m over a distance of some 3 km between two relatively flat regions. Measurements indicate that the nascent MOW behaves as a gravity current with nearly maximal traveling speed; if this condition is maintained, then the maximum MOW velocity would decrease slowly with distance from the Espartel Sill, remaining significantly high until the gravity current excess density is only a small fraction of its original value. The sharp pycnocline between the Mediterranean and the overlying North Atlantic Central waters is dynamically unstable, particularly where the flow interacts with the 100 m decrease in bottom depth. Here, subcritical gradient Richardson numbers coincide with the development of large interfacial undulations and billows. The very energetic downslope flow is likely responsible for the development of a narrow V-shaped channel downstream of the seafloor drop along the axis of the submerged valley, this probably being the very first erosional scour produced by the nascent MOW. The coincidence of subcritical gradient Richardson numbers with relatively high turbidity values above the channel flanks suggests it may be undergoing upstream erosion.

  8. Security and Political Stability in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The author revises with a critical eye the treatment given the issue of security during the Euro-Mediterranean process from the Declaration of Barcelona to the Conference at Malta. According to Marquina, no idea of security exists which gives backbone to theEuro-Mediterranen process and the documents themselves contain incoherencies and significant imprecisions, especially regarding the concepts of cooperative security, preventative diplomacy and ‘good neighbor’ relations. These principles appear to be rather underexplained in both their conceptual and operative aspects. On one hand, the information about matters that affect security is exchanged on both a voluntary and official basis and can be, as such, thus opaque and not always reliable; on the other hand, the issues thataffect security are so wide-ranging that the operative approach - the communications network, mechanisms for early-warning, the conciliation and peaceful resolution of controversies - seems hardly realistic. With respect to confidence-building measures, the author considers that these should be linked to arms control agreements, which are more in accord with the stated objectives of defense sufficiency and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Marquina also maintains that the role of civil society and the importance of cultural dialogue - both fundamental to conflict prevention - have not been reinforced even though the principal problems of security in the region are due to structural imbalances –military, economical, political– and, precisely the disparities amongcultures. In this sense, the EU states might consider putting forward unilateral policies that restrict such disparities, provided that a certain reciprocity of policy is put forth from the southern states in the Mediterranean.

  9. Energy Efficiency in the Mediterranean Building Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, H.L.; El Habib, El Andaloussi

    2011-01-01

    Despite the alerts that have been sounded since 1992, as international conferences aimed at curbing global warming have come and gone, and despite the plans for reducing the use of fossil fuel resources that call for the moderation of energy consumption, few actions or incentive measures (and even fewer directives) have actually been developed to act on the demand for energy. Yet, as Henri-Luc Thibault and El Habib El Andaloussi show here, some very concrete measures can have major effects in this area. This is the case with everything relating to the improvement of energy efficiency in building, where housing conditions, the housing stock and related energy consumption (heating, air-conditioning etc.) are concerned. Thibault and El Andaloussi show the potential impact of such measures in the Mediterranean region. Basing themselves on the work of the 'Plan Bleu' organization, which has worked out a revolutionary scenario for the energy field in the countries of the southern and eastern Mediterranean (to 2030), they begin by recalling the importance of buildings in regional energy consumption and the various levers that might be used to reduce that consumption (regulation, materials, efficiency of machinery etc.). In such a scenario, the potential for energy savings in this sector would seem considerable. Moreover, this would enable a substantial decrease in greenhouse gas emissions to be achieved, and would also have very positive effects in terms of job creation. In conclusion, the authors point out the need for investment over 20 years, depending on the particular country concerned, to put in place the five flagship measures of energy saving, which would be genuine investments for the future.. (authors)

  10. Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current climate policy and issues of energy security mean wind farms are being built at an increasing rate to meet energy demand. As wind farm development is very likely in the Mediterranean Sea, we provide an assessment of the offshore wind potential and identify expected biological effects of such developments in the region. We break new ground here by identifying potential offshore wind farm (OWF “hotspots” in the Mediterranean. Using lessons learned in Northern Europe, and small-scale experiments in the Mediterranean, we identify sensitive species and habitats that will likely be influenced by OWFs in both these hotspot areas and at a basin level. This information will be valuable to guide policy governing OWF development and will inform the industry as and when environmental impact assessments are required for the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Oxygen consumption in Mediterranean octocorals under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Previati, M.; Scinto, A.; Cerrano, C.; Osinga, R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem resilience to climate anomalies is related to the physiological plasticity of organisms. To characterize the physiological response of some common Mediterranean gorgonians to fluctuations in temperature, four species (Paramuricea clavata, Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolinii and

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%-6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

  13. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spinella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective properties are linked to the large presence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, but especially to the constituents of extra virgin olive oil: oleic acid, phenolic compounds olecanthal, a new recently discovered molecule, with natural anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the Mediterranean diet can reduce disease activity, pain and stiffness in patients with inflammatory arthritis and may thus constitute a valuable support for patients suffering from these diseases.

  14. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà , Nú ria; Jordà , Gabriel; Agusti, Susana; Girard, Coraline; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature

  15. Effects of Mediterranean shrub species on rainfall interception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blazquez, N.; Marques, M. J.; Bienes, R.; Alegre, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall is intercepted by vegetation. Water intercepted could be evaporated, or it could drip from the leaves and stems to the soil or it could run down the stems to the base of the plant. In the Mediterranean, where water is a scant resource, interception loss could have an influence on hydrology. Water storage capacity depends on vegetation type. In the Mediterranean, there are many types of shrubs, and many of them are able to intercept large volumes of water depending on the shrub type. many lands of the Mediterranean basin of Europea Union have been abandoned in the last decades and consequently vegetation type changes too. This modifies hydrologic processes, changing the volume and the way in which the rainfall reaches the soil. The aim of this study was to characterize water storage capacity in 9 Mediterranean shrub species, working with the whole plant and comparing results obtained by two methods, rainfall simulation and submersion method in laboratory conditions. (Author) 12 refs.

  16. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... climate control of greenhouses owned by villagers, having only small holdings barely adequate for supporting ... Mediterranean Sea cost line in Turkey and has rather ..... stove and combination of wood burning and gas tube.

  17. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    OpenAIRE

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA; S. PIGNATTI; S. VAROLI PIAZZA

    2000-01-01

    The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal...

  18. The links between openness and productivity in Mediterranean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Laurence; Lai-tong, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We examine the relation between the international trade, the foreign direct investment and the total factor productivity of the Mediterranean partner countries of Europe within the framework of a cointegrated panel model. The results, obtained from data on seven Mediterranean partner countries of Europe (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey), show that FDI and human capital are complementary in the acquisition of productivity gains. We identify the t...

  19. Skilled Labour market and economic development in the Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Luciano; Roberto Di Monaco

    2011-01-01

    Steady growing literature has examined the relationship between human capital and economic development. However, there is no empirical evidence that the increase in education is always related to growth. The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between human capital and growth in Mediterranean countries to put the premises for further research on single countries and on the functioning of the Mediterranean high skill labour market and the relationship with the economic development of...

  20. The fuzzy outline of the Mediterranean automotive space (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard LAYAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolution of the automotive industry in the Mediterranean area during the last years. First part focuses on the impacts for this region of the geographical changes of the European automotive systems associated to location of multinational automotive firms in CEEC. This leads to difficulties for the automobile countries of the western part of the Mediterranean Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal) on one side, and to a huge growth of the auto industry at the east, in Turkey, o...

  1. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  2. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I, including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot.

  3. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  4. The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Hernández, Alejandra; Alda, José A; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Ferreira-García, Estrella; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and "unhealthy" diets, to date there are no studies that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. We hypothesized that a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet would be positively associated with an increase in ADHD diagnosis. A total of 120 children and adolescents (60 with newly diagnosed ADHD and 60 controls) were studied in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. ADHD diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Energy, dietary intake, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and familial background were measured. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between the adherence to a Mediterranean diet and ADHD. Lower adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with ADHD diagnosis (odds ratio: 7.07; 95% confidence interval: 2.65-18.84; relative risk: 2.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-5.25). Both remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Lower frequency of consuming fruit, vegetables, pasta, and rice and higher frequency of skipping breakfast and eating at fast-food restaurants were associated with ADHD diagnosis (P Mediterranean diet might play a role in ADHD development. Our data support the notion that not only "specific nutrients" but also the "whole diet" should be considered in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà, Núria

    2015-08-13

    The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15°C. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003, and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5°C and at summer surface temperature of 27.5°C. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV), the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  6. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria eMarbà

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15 oC. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003 and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50 % of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5 ºC and at summer surface temperature of 27.5 ºC. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV, the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  7. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  8. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sureda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females of the Balearic Islands population (12–65 years was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers.

  9. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  10. Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Charles; Frontera, Biel; Sebastián, Kristian; Pau Beltran, Joan; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Gómara, Sonia; Gomila, Mikel; Escudier, Romain; Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Garau, Angels; Cañellas, Tomeu; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-04-01

    "Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click" is a research and dissemination project focused on the scientific, technological and societal approaches of the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System ({SOCIB}{www.socib.es}) in a collaboration with "la Caixa" Foundation. SOCIB aims at research excellence and the development of technology which enables progress toward the sustainable management of coastal and marine environments, providing solutions to meet the needs of society. Medclic goes one step forward and has two main goals: at the scientific level, to advance in establishing and understanding the mesoscale variability at the regional scale and its interaction, and thus improving the characterisation of the "oceanic weather" in the Mediterranean; at the outreach level: to bring SOCIB and the new paradigm of multi-platform observation in real time closer to society, through scientific outreach. SOCIB Data Centre is the core of the new multi-platform and real time oceanography and is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions and provides data in line with international standards and conventions (INSPIRE, netCDF Climate and Forecast, ldots). In addition, the Data Centre has implemented a REST web service, called Data Discovery. This service allows data generated by SOCIB to be integrated into applications developed by the Data Centre itself or by third parties, as it is the case with Medclic. Relying on this data distribution, the new web Medclic, www.medclic.es, constitutes an interactive scientific and educational area of communication that contributes to the rapprochement of the general public with the new marine and coastal observing technologies. Thanks to the Medclic web, data coming from new observing technologies in oceanography are available in real time and in one clic

  11. Pediatric jellyfish envenomation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel; Adir, Dikla; Galil, Bella; Scolnik, Dennis; Rimon, Ayelet; Pivko-Levy, Dikla; Hoyte, Christopher

    2017-06-20

    Several species of jellyfish native to the western Indian Ocean have entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. Since the late 1980s, each summer Rhopilema nomadica forms swarms as long as 100 km in the southeastern Levant and since the millennium aggregations of additional nonnative jellyfish have been sighted. The aim of this study was to evaluate children seen in the emergency department after jellyfish envenomations and to establish patterns of toxicity associated with this organism. A retrospective chart review was performed of all children presenting after jellyfish envenomations to the pediatric emergency department during the jellyfish swarming seasons (June-August) between 2010 and 2015. Extracted data included age, location of envenomation, pain scores, local and systemic manifestations, treatment provided in the emergency department and hospital, and disposition. Forty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; their ages ranged from 1 to 16 years and the median age was 9.4 years. Clinical manifestations were evident in all patients. Pain, present in 100% of patients, and an erythematous, whip-like, linear rash present in 87.8%, were the most common manifestations. The majority of 'burns' associated with jellyfish stings were first and second degree. The upper limb was affected in 34% and the lower limb was affected in 61% of cases. One patient suffered a sting to the abdomen and three patients suffered a sting to the face. Treatment in the emergency department included pain control, with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, and antihistamines and topical corticosteroids in some cases. Nearly 49% of patients were seen during the summer of 2015 alone and seven patients in this group needed hospitalization. Reasons for hospitalization included systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, tachycardia, and muscle spasms. Two patients developed severe cellulitis, one patient had an anaphylactic reaction, and one was admitted to the

  12. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia - does it still exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-10-31

    To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. The median MDSS score was 11 out of maximum 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle.

  13. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a sample of Tuscan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Lorini, Chiara; Tanini, Tommaso; Indiani, Laura; Lastrucci, Vieri; Comodo, Nicola; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a group of Italian high school students, in relation to their lifestyles and social and family contexts, and to compare the nutrition habits of the sample with other similar groups. The KIDMED index and an ad hoc questionnaire were administered to 1127 students (mean age 16.8 ± 1.6 y) in the province of Florence. Any significant associations between the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the aforementioned variables were assessed by the χ(2) test and by logistic regression analysis. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was good in 16.5%, average in 60.5%, and poor in 23% of the students. The students attending technical high schools, those who played sports less than "almost every day", those who spent >3 h/d in sedentary activities, those who defined their school performance as worse than "more than sufficient," and those who referred to use of a car/moped as the most frequent mode of transportation, had significantly higher odds of poor rather than average or good adherence to Mediterranean diet. Moreover, being normal weight or overweight/obese, and referring to health workers as source of information on diet, seem to be protective factors against poor adherence to Mediterranean diet. Our sample presents a departure from the Mediterranean dietary pattern. It is certainly necessary to implement public health policies targeting teenagers to promote healthier lifestyle choices; the nutritional patterns of the Mediterranean diet should be among these choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases affect cloud properties, radiative balance and, thus, the hydrological cycle. Observations show that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the beginning of the 20th century, and many studies have investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare the modeled dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to individual forcing agents in a set of global climate models (GCMs. Our analyses show that both greenhouse gases and aerosols can cause drying in the Mediterranean and that precipitation is more sensitive to black carbon (BC forcing than to well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs or sulfate aerosol. In addition to local heating, BC appears to reduce precipitation by causing an enhanced positive sea level pressure (SLP pattern similar to the North Atlantic Oscillation–Arctic Oscillation, characterized by higher SLP at midlatitudes and lower SLP at high latitudes. WMGHGs cause a similar SLP change, and both are associated with a northward diversion of the jet stream and storm tracks, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in northern Europe. Though the applied forcings were much larger, if forcings are scaled to those of the historical period of 1901–2010, roughly one-third (31±17 % of the precipitation decrease would be attributable to global BC forcing with the remainder largely attributable to WMGHGs, whereas global scattering sulfate aerosols would have negligible impacts. Aerosol–cloud interactions appear to have minimal impacts on Mediterranean precipitation in these models, at least in part because many simulations did not fully include such processes; these merit further study. The findings from this study suggest that future BC and WMGHG emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems and

  15. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  16. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  17. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  18. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  19. Local diffusion coefficient determination: Mediterranean Sea experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacciola, D.; Borghini, M.; Cannarsa, S.

    1993-10-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi/enclosed basin characterized by the presence of channels and straits influencing the circulation, temperature and salinity fields. The tides generally have amplitudes of the order of 10 cm and velocities of few cm/s. Conversely, the wind forced circulation is very strong and can assume velocity values of 1 m/s at the sea surface. The temperature and salinity fields have a high temporal and spatial variability, because of many mixing processes existing in the sea. For example, the waters coming from the Provencal basin meet those waters coming from the Tyrrhenian Sea in the eastern Ligurian Sea, creating meanders and eddies. Local runoff influences significantly the coastal circulation. This paper describes diffusion experiments carried out in this complex environment. The experimental apparatus for the detection of the fluorescine released at sea was composed by two Turner mod. 450 fluorometres. During the experiments, temperature and salinity vertical profiles were measured by using a CTD; meteorological data were acquired on a dinghy. The positioning was obtained by means of a Motorola system, having a precision of about 1 meter. The experiments were carried out under different stratification and wind conditions. From data analysis it was found that the horizontal diffusion coefficient does not depend on time or boundary conditions. The role of stratification is important with regard to vertical displacement of the dye. However, its role with regard to vertical diffusion cannot be assessed with the actual experimental apparatus

  20. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  1. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  2. EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, S.; Carranza, M.L.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Acosta, A.T.R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredune habitats of European interest, focusing on floristic, structural and ecological features. We selected two representative sites of Atlantic (The Netherlands) and Mediterranean (Italy) coastal dunes. From a georeferenced vegetation

  3. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  4. Soil erosion in a man-made landscape: the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are characterised by a seasonally contrasted distribution of precipitation, by the coincidence of the driest and hottest season in summer, by an often-mountainous terrain, and by a long history of intense human occupation, especially around the Mediterranean Sea. The history of the Mediterranean lands is the history of human impacts on the soil system, and soil erosion is the most intense and widespread impact on this land where high intensity and uneven rainfall is found. A review of the soil erosion rates measured in the Mediterranean basin will be shown. The measurements done by means of erosion pins, topographical measurements, rainfall simulators, Gerlach collectors in open or close plots, watershed/basin measurements, reservoirs siltation and historical data will be shown. A review of the soil erosion models applied in the Mediterranean will be shown. The tentative approach done until October 2011 show that the soil erosion rates on Mediterranean type ecosystems are not as high as was supposed by the pioneers in the 70's. And this is probably due to the fact that the soils are very shallow and sediments are not available after millennia of high erosion rates. This is related to the large amount of rock fragments are covering the soil, and the rock outcrops that are found in the upper slope trams and the summits. Soil erosion in the Mediterranean is seasonal due to the rainfall concentration in winter, and highly variable within years as the high intensity rainfall events control the sediment production. Natural vegetation is adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions, and they are efficient to control the soil losses. An example are the forest fire that increase the soil losses but this is a temporal change as after 2-4 years the soil erosion rates are similar to the pre-fire period. Agriculture lands are the source of sediments although the highest erosion rates are found in badland areas that cover a small part of

  5. Mediterranean diet adherence by patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Reyes, J A; Álvarez-Luis, D; Arteaga-Hernández, V; Sánchez-Mendez, M; Abreu-González, R

    2017-08-01

    To study the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). An observational study was conducted to assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by POAG, and who attended the Ophthalmology Department of the Canary Islands University Hospital. The study included completing a 14-item questionnaire validated by the PREDIMED Study, in person or by telephone. A total of 100 questionnaires were completed successfully by 50 males and 50 females. The mean age was 69.58 years for the males and 67.42 years for women. The men had more comorbidities than women (tobacco 14 vs. 3%), arterial hypertension, and diabetes (30 vs. 28%, and 16 vs. 6%, respectively). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in males, was low in 9 patients (18%), moderate in 37 (74%), and high in 4 (8%) cases. In women adherence was low in 14 patients (28%), moderate in 34 (68%), and high in 2 (6%) cases. The overall adhesion to the Mediterranean diet is low in 23%, moderate in 71% and high in 6% of the cases. Patients who are affected by POAG have moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Mediterranean diet and inflammaging within the hormesis paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Morena; Ostan, Rita; Biondi, Fiammetta; Bellavista, Elena; Fabbri, Cristina; Bertarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio; Santoro, Aurelia

    2017-06-01

    A coherent set of epidemiological data shows that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects capable of preventing a variety of age-related diseases in which low-grade, chronic inflammation/inflammaging plays a major role, but the underpinning mechanism(s) is/are still unclear. It is suggested here that the Mediterranean diet can be conceptualized as a form of chronic hormetic stress, similar to what has been proposed regarding calorie restriction, the most thoroughly studied nutritional intervention. Data on the presence in key Mediterranean foods of a variety of compounds capable of exerting hormetic effects are summarized, and the mechanistic role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 pathway is highlighted. Within this conceptual framework, particular attention has been devoted to the neurohormetic and neuroprotective properties of the Mediterranean diet, as well as to its ability to maintain an optimal balance between pro- and anti-inflammaging. Finally, the European Commission-funded project NU-AGE is discussed because it addresses a number of variables not commonly taken into consideration, such as age, sex, and ethnicity/genetics, that can modulate the hormetic effect of the Mediterranean diet. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  7. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and Mediterranean diet: Impact on depression outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Toro, M; Vicens-Pons, E; Gili, M; Roca, M; Serrano-Ripoll, M J; Vives, M; Leiva, A; Yáñez, A M; Bennasar-Veny, M; Oliván-Blázquez, B

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and low adherence to Mediterranean diet are frequent in major depression patients and have been separately related with prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyse their predictive power on major depression outcome, at 6 and 12 months. 273 Major depressive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory for depressive symptoms and the 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence score. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). At the baseline Mediterranean diet adherence was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (p=0.007). Depression response was more likely in those patients with normal weight (p=0.006) and not MetS (p=0.013) but it was not associated with Mediterranean diet adherence (p=0.625). Those patients with MetS and obesity were less likely to improve symptoms of depression than patients with obesity but not MetS. Obesity and MetS, but not low adherence to the Mediterranean diet at baseline, predicted a poor outcome of depression at 12 months. Our study suggests that MetS is the key factor that impacts negatively in depression prognosis, rather than obesity or diet. If this finding is confirmed, clinicians should be aware about MetS diagnosis and treatment in overweight depressed patients, especially if outcome is not being satisfactory enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Compositional variability in Mediterranean archaeofaunas from Upper Paleolithic Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily Lena

    2018-03-01

    Recent meta-analyses of Upper Paleolithic Southwestern European archaeofaunas (Jones, 2015, 2016) have identified a consistent "Mediterranean" cluster from the Last Glacial Maximum through the early Holocene, suggesting similarities in environment and/or consistency in hunting strategy across this region through time despite radical changes in climate. However, while these archaeofaunas from this cluster all derive from sites located within today's Mediterranean bioclimatic region, many of them are from locations far from the Mediterranean Sea - Atlantic Portugal, the Spanish Meseta - which today differ significantly from each other in biotic composition. In this paper, I explore clustering (through cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling) within the Mediterranean archaeofaunal group. I test for the influence of sample size as well as the geographic variables of site elevation, latitude, and longitude on variability in the large mammal portions of archaeofaunal assemblages. ANOVA shows no relationship between cluster-defined groups and site elevation or longitude; instead, site latitude appears to be a primary contributor to patterning. However, the overall compositional similarity of the Mediterranean archaeofaunas in this dataset suggests more consistency than variability in Upper Paleolithic hunting strategy in this region.

  9. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  10. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS FOR MEDITERRANEAN SUBCATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  11. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137 Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr -1 ) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr -1 ) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  12. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral

  14. [Role of Mediterranean diet on the prevention of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Arnoldo; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina; Mennickent, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Cardiovascular protection is related to the actions of polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids on the vascular endothelium. The Mediterranean diet also can improve cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. These beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet should have a role in Alzheimer’s disease prevention.

  15. Mediterranean climate modelling: variability and climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)

  16. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  17. Marine Renewable Energy in the Mediterranean Sea: Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takvor H. Soukissian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an extended overview of the marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean Sea is provided as regards current status, potential problems, challenges, and perspectives of development. An integrated and holistic approach is necessary for the economic viability and sustainability of marine renewable energy projects; this approach comprises three different frameworks, not always aligned, i.e., geotechnical/engineering, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological frameworks. In this context, the geomorphological, climatological, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological particularities of the Mediterranean basin are discussed, as they constitute key issues of the spatial context in which marine renewable energy projects are to be implemented. General guidelines for the sustainable development of marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean are also provided.

  18. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  19. Sibling species of copepods in association with Mediterranean gorgorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Conradi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto a single species of Doridicola Leydig (Poecilostomatoida: Rhynchomolgidae has been found reported in association with gorgonians in Europe: Doridicola botulosus (Stock and Kleeton, 1963, living on the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis (Esper, 1791. During a survey along the Iberian Mediterranean coast, several specimens of D. botulosus were collected from its reported host. Furthermore, an undescribed species of Doridicola was discovered living in association with Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826, a Mediterranean gorgonian usually living in overlaps with that of E. singularis. Although the new species is close to D. botulosus, they differ in the oral appendages. A common origin of these two species was suggested. This is a good example of sibling species produced by the colonisation of two hosts with overlapping habitats

  20. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  1. Avoidance within a changing assessment paradigm for Mediterranean Hake stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.

  2. Siracusa, EuroMediterranean Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Minozzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available About three years ago, the City of Siracusa has started a serious reflection about the crisis, about its model of development and its problems related to its territorial marginality. In this context, it lodged a service "Complex Programs and EU Policies" internal the Department of Public Works as the first embryo of the future Urban Center in Siracusa. The Smarter Cities Challenge program, sponsored by IBM, provides, for the years 2011-2012-2013 a selection through a call, a hundred cities around the world that offer a program of counseling on territorial issues, urban, social, exposed by the city in challenge. The program for 2012, selected Siracusa, the only Italian city in a hundred choices, with a theme that emphasizes the need to find methods (smart to integrate the two systems, the industrial and the historical, cultural, into the overall Siracusa system territorial. The advent of smart policies also confirms the trend that characterized the most evolved from the most marginal realities in Europe. For the realities of the Euro-Mediterranean area, such as Siracusa, the winners model’s urban policies originate from the most evolved and developed, where the economy is more structured and able to assume the active role of actors development and urban transformations. So, a universal language of transformations really exist? The same model development produces the same results everywhere, regardless the places and the people tribe? To promote smart Siracusa means, not only, economic innovation promotion, social inclusion and environmental sustainability, but also: Siracusa intends to strengthen its image as innovation land and to evolve into a center of excellence for smart policies.

  3. Sicily in its Mediterranean geological frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, P.

    2016-10-01

    The Island of Sicily is generally considered to be the geological link between the North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, in Italy. This comes from a cylindristic meaning and is only partly exact. As a matter of fact, Sicily is essentially Greek; Ionian. Up to Middle Cretaceous time, the Sicilian area was a submerged shoal in the sea or the Panormide area, bordering the Ionian Ocean. This shoal lay between the future North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, forming an intermediate link between the Appenninic, Apulian, Panormian and Tunisian platforms. It was only during the Middle to Upper Cretaceous that the Atlantic and Ligure Oceans merged, making a continuous relationship between the Appenninic, Sicilian and North African sedimentary series. The key time periods are the Permian, Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene periods leading to the formation of the actual Calabro-Sicilian arc. From the Permian to the present, the Sicilian geological history pertains to three oceanic domains: Ionian, Ligurian and Atlantic, of which the Ionian and Ligurian were under the influence of Tethys (Neo and Paleo-Tethys). The Tethysian identity of Sicily constitutes the major aspect of its geological history. However, the European and African plate tectonic movements complicated its structure. During the Middle Miocene subduction, southern Sicily became African, meanwhile its north-eastern part became, in Pliocene time, Maghrebian by accretion. Sicily is thus a truly geological patchwork, but its main section remains Ionian and now constitutes a link between North Africa and the Appennines. With older data, but also by means of recent results, we will replace Sicily in its Mediterranean frame, giving the mean stages of its paleogeographical and then its tectonic evolution. We will review the calabro-sicilian arc evolution from the Oligocene, developing the actual context and recalling the main fundamental play of the Numidian flysch. (Author)

  4. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  5. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  6. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mediterranean diet adherence and body composition among Southern Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Antoci, Mariagrazia; Cagnetti, Antonella; Giogianni, Gabriele; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Pecora, Giulia; Marranzano, Marina

    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been associated with health benefits in young populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardio-metabolic parameters in adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted during two school years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) on 1643 adolescents of 11-16 years attending 15 secondary schools. Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected. The KIDMED score was used to evaluate the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test the association between the variable of interest and the outcomes. A higher percentage of boys compared with girls was overweight (30.8% vs. 25.4%) and obese (28.7% vs. 18.5%) and only 9.1% had high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable intake was negatively associated with being overweight/obese whereas higher intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast foods was associated with overweight and obesity. A good adherence to the Mediterranean diet resulted in 30% decreased odds of being overweight or obese (odd ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.87) in both boys and girls. An inverse correlation was found between KIDMED score and BMI, waist circumference and fat mass. No relation with blood pressure was found. Mediterranean dietary pattern resulted significantly associated with weight status in adolescents. These results underline the importance of providing lifestyle and dietary habits education to prevent overweight and obesity in adolescent. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dementia in Eastern Mediterranean countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Sara Mahmoud; Bartlett, Ruth; Brannelly, Tula

    2018-01-01

    Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent. Firstly, prevalence, comorbidity and gender: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, many studies identify that the prevalence of dementia is high. As is the case elsewhere, many older adults in Eastern Mediterranean countries have at least one coexisting long-term condition, and some experience low life-satisfaction. Secondly, culture: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, the older adult is highly respected, and placement outside of the family home is considered an abandonment of family duty. The term dementia carries stigma, and it is widely believed that dementia is caused by 'fate'. Thirdly, recognition and tools: There is a lack of verified assessment instruments to assess for dementia. Despite concerns about the cultural appropriateness of the Mini-Mental State Exam, particularly for people who have low literacy levels, and low literacy being the norm in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Mini-Mental State Examination is the main assessment instrument. Translation and transition of non-Arabic assessment instruments and tools with psychometric properties presents a challenge for clinicians. Finally, workforce issues: health care workers lack knowledge about dementia, as dementia care is a relatively recent addition to the nursing and medical syllabi. While there were some inconsistencies in the papers published, many of the articles call for increasing educational programmes

  9. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  10. The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tognon, G.; Lissner, L.; Saebye, D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) is associated with reduced total mortality, cardiovascular incidence and mortality in a Danish population. Analyses were performed on 1849 men and women sampled during the 1982-83 Danish MONICA (MONItoring...... trends and determinants of Cardiovascular disease) population study, whose diet was assessed by means of a validated 7d food record. The adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was calculated by three different scores: one based on a classification excluding ingredients from mixed dishes and recipes...

  11. Natural gas and electrical interconnections in the Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate and long term socio-economical and energetic scenarios have shown that mediterranean basin countries will know a great growth of energy demand, particularly power demand. The first part of this paper describes the main projects for the establishment of interconnected natural gas systems through Mediterranean sea, by pipelines (Algeria-Tunisia-Libya project, Algeria-Morocco-Spain project, Libya-Italy project). The second part describes the main projects of electrical networks with the establishment of undersea links between Spain and Morocco, and between Italy and Tunisia; beefing up the interconnections between the North African countries; and developing ties in the Near East (from Egypt to Turkey)

  12. Analyzing satisfaction to tourists in the Spanish Mediterranean arc

    OpenAIRE

    Cutáková, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    The tourism sector has become one of the main wealth generating activities in the world economy. At the beginning of the 21st century, this sector accounts yet for more than 10% of the world GDP (World Travel and Tourism Council). Moreover, the Mediterranean coast is one of the world´s leading markets for sun and sand tourism in recent times. Forecast studies carried out by WTO estimate that international tourist arrivals to the Mediterranean coast will amount to 270 millions in 2010 and to 3...

  13. Trace Metals in Mussels from the N.W. Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    A coastal survey in the northwestern Mediterranean region was initiated to measure existing levels of selected trace metals in mussels. For most metals the highest values were found in samples from port cities and areas in the vicinity of river discharge. Marked seasonal variation for many metals was evident; an overall increase in metal concentration in mussels from most stations during March 1974 was attributed to high precipitation and attendant run-off rather than to local pollution. Data comparison indicates that average metal levels in northwestern Mediterranean mussels do not differ markedly from those measured in similar species from different localities throughout the world. (author)

  14. Climate changes over the past millennium: Relationships with Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed for climate change and its causes over the interval spanning roughly the past millennium. Particular emphasis is placed on patterns of climate change influencing Mediterranean climates of the Northern Hemisphere. The evidence is taken from studies using high-resolution climate proxy data sources, and climate modeling simulations. The available evidence suggests that forced changes in dynamical modes of variability including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have played a key role in the patterns of climate variability in Mediterranean regions over the past millennium

  15. Assessing the sampling strategy in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, Félix; Testor, Pierre; Bosse, Anthony; Heslop, Emma; L'Hévéder, Blandine; Arsouze, Thomas; Houpert, Loic; Mortier, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The deployment of numerous autonomous platforms (gliders, argo floats, moorings) added to the repeated ship cruises in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea account for a considerable data coverage of the area through the past 10 years. In this study, we analyse the in-situ observations' ability to assess for the changes in the Northwester Mediterranean basin water masses properties over time. Comparing the observed time series for the different regions and different water masses to that of a glider simulator in the NEMO-Med12 model, we estimate both the quality of the model and the skill of the in-situ observations in reproducing the evolution of the basin properties.

  16. Wind mapping offshore in coastal Mediterranean area using SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...... of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models and space borne...

  17. Estimating the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget: impact of RCM design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, S.; Elguindi, N.; Sanchez-Gomez, E.; Herrmann, M.; Déqué, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Sea can be considered as a thermodynamic machine that exchanges water and heat with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the atmosphere through its surface. Considering the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget (MSWB) multi-year mean, the Mediterranean basin looses water at the surface due to an excess of evaporation over freshwater input (precipitation, river runoff, Black Sea input). Moreover the MSWB largely drives the Mediterranean Sea water mass formation and therefore a large part of its thermohaline circulation. This could even have an impact on the characteristics of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation through the Mediterranean Outflow Waters that flow into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 m. From a climate point of view, the MSWB acts as a water source for the Mediterranean countries and therefore plays an important role on the water resources of the region. The regional physical characteristics of the Mediterranean basin (complex orography, strong land-sea contrast, land-atmosphere coupling, air-sea coupling, river inflow, Gibraltar Strait constraint and complex ocean bathymetry) strongly influence the various components of the MSWB. Moreover extreme precipitation events over land and strong evaporation events over the sea due to local winds can play a non-negligible role on the mean MSWB despite their small spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, modelling the mean behaviour, the interannual variability and the trends of the MSWB is a challenging task of the Regional Climate Model community in the context of climate change. It is actually one of the highlighted issues of the HyMex project planned for the 2010-2020 period. We propose here to start investigating some key scientific issues of the regional modelling of the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget using a wide range of regional climate simulations performed at Météo-France or in the framework of FP6 European projects (ENSEMBLES, CIRCE). The addressed

  18. A case of acute quadriplegia complicating Mediterranean spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroleo, Santo; Longo, Chiara; Pirritano, Domenico; Nisticò, Rita; Valentino, Paola; Iocco, Maurizio; Santangelo, Ermenegildo; Amantea, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    Mediterranean spotted fever is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia conorii. Mediterranean spotted fever is considered to be a benign disease, however, approximately 10% of patients present with a severe systemic manifestation in which neurologic involvement occurs. We present a case of an 80-year-old man with a R. conorii infection who developed an acute quadriplegia secondary to an axonal polyneuropathy. The characteristic tache noire was observed on the lateral region of the thigh and elevated IgM antibody titres against R. conorii were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test.

  19. Climatic fluctuation of temperature and air circulation in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzokas, A.; Metaxas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the long term fluctuation of sea surface temperature and 1000/500 mb thickness data in the Mediterranean sea during the last 45 years has shown that the global warming does not appear everywhere. Warming is not apparent in the East Mediterranean but only during the last years, the time series of surface pressure and relative geostrophic vorticity were examined for possible explanation: a strengthening of the northerly wind force have occurred. Thus it can be assumed that local atmospheric circulation changes may support or oppose the global warming in some places

  20. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolation and biological activities of secondary metabolites from the sponges monanchora aff. arbuscula, aplysina sp. petromica ciocalyptoides and topsentia ophiraphidies, from the ascidian didemnum ligulum and from the octocoral carijoa riisei; Isolamento e atividades biologicas de produtos naturais das esponjas monanchora arbuscula, aplysina sp., petromica ciocalyptoides e topsentia ophiraphidites, da ascidia didemnum ligulum e do octocoral carijoa riisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossuga, Miriam H.; Lira, Simone P. de; Nascimento, Andrea M.; Gambardella, Maria Teresa P.; Berlinck, Roberto G.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: rgsberlinck@iqsc.usp.br; Torres, Yohandra R. [Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, Guarapuava, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Nascimento, Gislene G.F. [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias da Saude; Pimenta, Eli F.; Silva, Marcio; Thiemann, Otavio H.; Oliva, Glaucius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Tempone, Andre G.; Melhem, Marcia S.C. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Div. de Biologia Medica; Souza, Ana O. de; Galetti, Fabio C.S.; Silva, Celio L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia; Cavalcanti, Bruno; Pessoa, Claudia O.; Moraes, Manoel O. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Fisiologia e Farmacologia; Hajdu, Eduardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional; Peixinho, Solange [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia; Rocha, Rosana M. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Setor de Ciencias Biologicas. Dept. de Zoologia

    2007-09-15

    The investigation of extracts from six species of marine invertebrates yielded one new and several known natural products. Isoptilocaulin from the sponge Monanchora aff. arbuscula displayed antimicrobial activity at 1.3 mg/mL against an oxacillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus. Five inactive known dibromotyrosine derivatives, 2 6, were isolated from a new species of marine sponge, Aplysina sp. The sponges Petromica ciocalyptoides and Topsentia ophiraphidites yielded the known halistanol sulfate A (7) as an inhibitor of the antileishmanial target adenosine phosphoribosyl transferase. The ascidian Didemnum ligulum yielded asterubin (10) and the new N,N-dimethyl-O-methylethanolamine (11). The octocoral Carijoa riisei yielded the known 18-acetoxypregna-1,4,20-trien-3-one (12), which displayed cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines SF295, MDA-MB435, HCT8 and HL60. (author)

  2. The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Carol M.

    1999-08-01

    I was asked to present a keynote paper on the socio-economic aspects of oceanographic research in the Mediterranean Sea in the Session on From Oceanographic Science to Policy at the International Conference on Progress in Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome November 1997. The session was unique in that it included papers from oceanographers, social scientists and economists. For this reason I have aimed this paper towards, what I consider to be, social and economic issues that may have important oceanographic outcomes and vice versa. I have attempted to express them in a manner that can be understood by economists, social scientists, policy makers and oceanographers alike. The Mediterranean is highly populated and the greatest tourist destination in the world, both of which are predicted by UNEP to rise substantially in the future. Its blue waters, however, include some of the most extreme oligotrophic waters in the world such that it is only capable of supplying 50% of its requirements for fish. The relatively clear, pigment poor surface waters of the Mediterranean have a general increasing oligotrophy eastward with substantially lower phytoplankton, benthic and fish production in the eastern basin. The Mediterranean Sea is highly sensitive to climatic changes; it has high evaporation rates, low land runoff from few rivers and seasonal rains resulting in a deficit in its hydrological balance. This has worsened with the damming of rivers such as the Nile. Nutrient depleted Atlantic water flows into the Mediterranean through the narrow Strait of Gibraltar and exits after circulating the basin with nearly 10% more salt content. This hydrological imbalance may have far-reaching consequences in the Atlantic, producing similar climate changes in Northern Europe, to that seen during the last glaciation, and may be linked to a hydrological deficit in the Mediterranean Sea resulting from a decline in the Nile outflow. The basin-wide circulation, hot-dry and

  3. Age at maturity of Mediterranean marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collected data on the age at maturity (tm and maximum reported age (tmax for 235 stocks of Mediterranean marine fishes, belonging to 82 species, 37 families, 12 orders and 2 classes (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii. Among Actinopterygii (mean tm ± SD = 2.20 ± 1.43 y, n = 215, tm ranged from 0.3 y, for the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, to 12 y, for dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, while among Elasmobranchii (mean tm ± SD = 5.94 ± 2.47 y, n = 20, tm ranged between 2.7 y, for brown ray Raja miraletus, and 12 y for picked dogfish Squalus acanthias. Overall, the tmax ranged between 1 y, for transparent goby Aphia minuta, and 70 y, for wreckfish Polyprion americanus. The mean tmax of Actinopterygii (tmax ± SD = 10.14 ± 9.42 y was lower than that of Elasmobranchii (tmax ± SD = 14.05 ± 8.47 y. The tm exhibited a strong positive linear relation with tmax for both Actinopterygii (logtm = 0.58 ´ logtmax – 0.25, r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001 and Elasmobranchii (logtm = 0.67 ´ logtmax – 0.006, r2 = 0.51, P = 0.007. The mean tm/tmax did not differ significantly with sex within Actinopterygii (ANOVA: F = 0.27, P = 0.60, n = 90; females: mean ± SD = 0.276 ± 0.143; males: mean ± SD = 0.265 ± 0.138 and Elasmobranchii (ANOVA: F = 1.44, P = 0.25, n = 10; females: mean ± SD = 0.499 ± 0.166; males: mean ± SD = 0.418 ± 0.133. Finally, the dimensionless ratio tm/tmax was significantly lower (ANOVA: F = 31.04, P < 0.001 for Actinopterygii (mean ± SD = 0.270 ± 0.135, n = 180 than for Elasmobranchii, (mean ± SD = 0.458 ± 0.152, n = 20, when stocks with combined sexes were excluded from the analysis.

  4. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe. Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  5. The Mediterranean Diet: its definition and evaluation of a priori dietary indexes in primary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2018-01-18

    We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease. These different effects might depend on the definition of Mediterranean Diet and the indexes of the adhesion to the same one used. To compare the effects of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke a univocal model of Mediterranean Diet should be established as a reference, and it might be represented by the Modern Mediterranean Diet Pyramid. The a priori index to evaluate the adhesion to Mediterranean Diet might be the Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score that has some advantages in comparison to the others a priori indexes.

  6. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Román-Viñas, Blanca; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups. PMID:24394536

  7. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  9. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  10. Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis) | Saglam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of fire behavior in fire prone ecosystems is of vital importance in all phases of fire management including fire prevention, presuppression, suppression and fire use. This paper deals with an experimental burning exercise conducted in the Mediterranean region in Turkey. A series of 18 experimental fires were ...

  11. Strategies of Mediterranean Oaks to Survive Summer Drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegwolf, R.T.W.; Besson, C. [Inst. Sup. de Agronomia, ISA Lisboa (Portugal); Chaves, M.M. [ISA Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, J. [ISA Lisboa (Portugal)

    2004-03-01

    In arid, Mediterranean regions the scarce water supply during summer limits plant growth. Yet trees and shrubs often grow in areas where no water supply is apparent. By means of the deuterium isotope ratio it could be shown that various plants can access different water sources, allowing them to endure long periods of severe drought. (author)

  12. Crisis, routine, consolidation: the politics of the Mediterranean migration crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeandesboz, J.; Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    The current ‘migration crisis’ is framed as a moment of reckoning in the EU’s dealings with its Mediterranean neighbourhood. Yet to what extent is crisis the most useful tool to account for migration and European border control practices in the current context? An exclusive focus on crisis, we

  13. Yield Response of Mediterranean Rangelands under a Changing Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Hessel, Rudi; Mayor, Angeles G.; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the Mediterranean rangelands degradation trends is a key element of mitigating their vulnerability and enhancing their resilience. Climate change and its inherent effects on mean temperature and the precipitation variability can regulate the magnitude, frequency and duration of

  14. Evaluating the Water Footprint of the Mediterranean and American Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global food demand is increasing rapidly as a result of multiple drivers including population growth, dietary shifts and economic development. Meeting the rising global food demand will require expanding agricultural production and promoting healthier and more sustainable diets. The goal of this paper is to assess and compare the water footprint (WF of two recommended diets (Mediterranean and American, and evaluate the water savings of possible dietary shifts in two countries: Spain and the United States (US. Our results show that the American diet has a 29% higher WF in comparison with the Mediterranean, regardless of products’ origin. In the US, a shift to a Mediterranean diet would decrease the WF by 1629 L/person/day. Meanwhile, a shift towards an American diet in Spain will increase the WF by 1504 L/person/day. The largest share of the WF of both diets is always linked to green water (62%–75%. Grey water in the US is 67% higher in comparison with Spain. Only five products account for 36%–46% of the total WF of the two dietary options in both countries, being meat, oil and dairy products the food items with the largest WFs. Our study demonstrates that adopting diets based on a greater consumption of vegetables, fruits and fish, like the Mediterranean one, leads to major water savings.

  15. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and…

  16. Spatial diversity of recent trends in Mediterranean tree growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galván, J. D.; Camarero, J. J.; Ginzler, C.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, 084001 (2014) ISSN 1748-9326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * dendroecology * drought climatology * Mediterranean Basin * tree-ring research Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.906, year: 2014

  17. Drought-induced decline in Mediterranean truffle harvest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Egli, S.; Camarero, J. J.; Fischer, E. M.; Stobbe, U.; Kauserud, H.; Tegel, W.; Sproll, L.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 12 (2012), s. 827-829 ISSN 1758-678X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mediterranean truffle * melanosporum * satisfying explanations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 14.472, year: 2012

  18. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  19. Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, E.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone impact on Mediterranean forests remains largely under-investigated, despite strong photochemical activity and harmful effects on crops. As representative of O 3 impacts on Mediterranean vegetation, this paper reviews the current knowledge about O 3 and forests in Italy. The intermediate position between Africa and European mid-latitudes creates a complex patchwork of climate and vegetation. Available data from air quality monitoring stations and passive samplers suggest O 3 levels regularly exceed the critical level (CL) for forests. In contrast, relationships between O 3 exposure and effects (crown transparency, radial growth and foliar visible symptoms) often fail. Despite limitations in the study design or underestimation of the CL can also affect this discrepancy, the effects of site factors and plant ecology suggest Mediterranean forest vegetation is adapted to face oxidative stress, including O 3 . Implications for risk assessment (flux-based CL, level III, non-stomatal deposition) are discussed. - Why Mediterranean forests are more ozone tolerant than mesophilic vegetation is explored

  20. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  1. Primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health

  2. CITRUS AS A COMPONENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are native to southeastern Asia, but are present in the Mediterranean basin for centuries. This group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries and, in the case of orange, mandarin and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allows them to achieve a high level of fruit quality, even better than in the regions where they came from. Citrus fruits are present in the diet of the peoples living on the Mediterranean basin, at least since the time of the Roman Empire. In the 20th century they became the main crop in various agricultural areas of the Mediterranean, playing an important role in the landscape, in the diet of the overall population, and also in international trade. They are present in the gardens of palaces and monasteries, but also in the courtyards and orchards of the poorest families. Their fruits are not only a refreshing dessert, but also a condiment, or even a major component of many dishes. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits. They can actually help prevent and cure some diseases and, above all, they are essential in a balanced and tasty diet.

  3. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  4. Effects of wildfire on soil nutrients in Mediterranean ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caon, L.; Vallejo, V.R.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and fast-spreading wildfires are natural in the Mediterranean basin. However, since 1960, wildfire occurrence has increased because of changes in land use, which resulted in extensive land abandonment, increases in the fuel load and continuity in the landscape. The level of soil

  5. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  6. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  7. Modeling Mediterranean Ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mikolajewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions complicated. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.

  8. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests.

  9. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups.

  10. Offshore Wind Resource Estimation in Mediterranean Area Using SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods of m...

  11. Improvement of greenhouse design and climate control in mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Yuksel; Zwart, de Feije; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, Silke; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the most important areas of the world in terms of protected cultivation. Turkey, with its increasing greenhouse area, is one of the representative countries of the region. Thanks to the mild winter climatic conditions, cultivation of vegetables under simple

  12. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  13. Mediterranean extension and the Africa-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Faccenna, Claudio

    2000-12-01

    A number of tectonic events occurred contemporaneously in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East 30-25 Myr ago. These events are contemporaneous to or immediately followed a strong reduction of the northward absolute motion of Africa. Geological observations in the Neogene extensional basins of the Mediterranean region reveal that extension started synchronously from west to east 30-25 Myr ago. In the western Mediterranean it started in the Gulf of Lion, Valencia trough, and Alboran Sea as well as between the Maures massif and Corsica between 33 and 27 Ma ago. It then propagated eastward and southward to form to Liguro-Provençal basin and the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the eastern Mediterranean, extension started in the Aegean Sea before the deposition of marine sediments onto the collapsed Hellenides in the Aquitanian and before the cooling of high-temperature metamorphic core complexes between 20 and 25 Ma. Foundering of the inner zones of the Carpathians and extension in the Panonnian basin also started in the late Oligocene-early Miocene. The body of the Afro-Arabian plate first collided with Eurasia in the eastern Mediterranean region progressively from the Eocene to the Oligocene. Extensional tectonics was first recorded in the Gulf of Aden, Afar triple junction, and Red Sea region also in the Oligocene. A general magmatic surge occurred above all African hot spots, especially the Afar one. We explore the possibility that these drastic changes in the stress regime of the Mediterranean region and Middle East and the contemporaneous volcanic event were triggerred by the Africa/Arabia-Eurasia collision, which slowed down the motion of Africa. The present-day Mediterranean Sea was then locked between two collision zones, and the velocity of retreat of the African slab increased and became larger than the velocity of convergence leading to backarc extension. East of the Caucasus and northern Zagros collision zone the Afro-Arabian plate was still pulled by the slab

  14. Mediterranean Agricultural Soil Conservation under global Change: The MASCC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclot, Damien; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2017-04-01

    The MASCC project (2016-2019, http://mascc-project.org) aims to address mitigation and adaptation strategies to global change by assessing current and future development of Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability to erosion in relation to projected land use, agricultural practices and climate change. It targets to i) assess the similarities/dissimilarities in dominant factors affecting the current Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability by exploring a wide range of Mediterranean contexts; ii) improve the ability to evaluate the impact of extreme events on both the current and projected agricultural soil vulnerability and the sediment delivery at catchment outlet; iii) evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of agricultural production to a combination of potential changes in a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, iv) and provide guidelines on sustainable agricultural conservation strategies adapted to each specific agro-ecosystem and taking into consideration both on- and off-site erosion effects and socio-economics issues. To achieve these objectives, the MASCC project consortium gather researchers from six Mediterranean countries (France, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Spain and Portugal) which monitor mid- to long-term environmental catchments and benefit from mutual knowledge created from previous projects and network. The major assets for MASCC are: i) the availability of an unrivalled database on catchment soil erosion and innovative agricultural practices comprising a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, ii) the capacity to better evaluate the impact of extreme events on soil erosion, iii) the expert knowledge of the LANDSOIL model, a catchment-scale integrated approach of the soil-landscape system that enables to simulate both the sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet and the intra-catchment soil evolving properties and iv) the multi-disciplinarity of the involved researchers with an international reputation in the fields of soil science

  15. Mediterranean diet for type 2 diabetes: cardiometabolic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Katherine; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Giugliano, Dario

    2017-04-01

    Dietary patterns influence various cardiometabolic risk factors, including body weight, lipoprotein concentrations, and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial health. The Mediterranean diet can be described as a dietary pattern characterized by the high consumption of plant-based foods, olive oil as the main source of fat, low-to-moderate consumption of fish, dairy products and poultry, low consumption of red and processed meat, and low-to-moderate consumption of wine with meals. The American Diabetes Association and the American Heart Association recommend Mediterranean diet for improving glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies show that higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with a 20-23 % reduced risk of developing type 2 diabetes, while the results of randomized controlled trials show that Mediterranean diet reduces glycosylated hemoglobin levels by 0.30-0.47 %, and is also associated with a 28-30 % reduced risk for cardiovascular events. The mechanisms by which Mediterranean diet produces its cardiometabolic benefits in type 2 diabetes are, for the most, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative: increased consumption of high-quality foods may cool down the activation of the innate immune system, by reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing that of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This may favor the generation of an anti-inflammatory milieu, which in turn may improve insulin sensitivity in the peripheral tissues and endothelial function at the vascular level and ultimately act as a barrier to the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and development of atherosclerosis.

  16. Comparative patterns of plant invasions in the Mediterranean biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Delipetrou, Pinelopi; Vilà, Montserrat; Dimitrakopoulos, Panayiotis G; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Wardell-Johnson, Grant; Henderson, Lesley; Fuentes, Nicol; Ugarte-Mendes, Eduardo; Rundel, Philip W

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare and contrast the patterns of alien plant invasions in the world's five mediterranean-climate regions (MCRs). We expected landscape age and disturbance history to have bearing on levels of invasion. We assembled a database on naturalized alien plant taxa occurring in natural and semi-natural terrestrial habitats of all five regions (specifically Spain, Italy, Greece and Cyprus from the Mediterranean Basin, California, central Chile, the Cape Region of South Africa and Southwestern - SW Australia). We used multivariate (hierarchical clustering and NMDS ordination) trait and habitat analysis to compare characteristics of regions, taxa and habitats across the mediterranean biome. Our database included 1627 naturalized species with an overall low taxonomic similarity among the five MCRs. Herbaceous perennials were the most frequent taxa, with SW Australia exhibiting both the highest numbers of naturalized species and the highest taxonomic similarity (homogenization) among habitats, and the Mediterranean Basin the lowest. Low stress and highly disturbed habitats had the highest frequency of invasion and homogenization in all regions, and high natural stress habitats the lowest, while taxonomic similarity was higher among different habitats in each region than among regions. Our analysis is the first to describe patterns of species characteristics and habitat vulnerability for a single biome. We have shown that a broad niche (i.e. more than one habitat) is typical of naturalized plant species, regardless of their geographical area of origin, leading to potential for high homogenization within each region. Habitats of the Mediterranean Basin are apparently the most resistant to plant invasion, possibly because their landscapes are generally of relatively recent origin, but with a more gradual exposure to human intervention over a longer period.

  17. The Mediterranean diet: the reasons for a success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccio, Marialaura; Iacoviello, Licia; de Gaetano, Giovanni; Moli-Sani Investigators

    2012-03-01

    There is a substantial body of evidence linking Mediterranean Diet to cardiovascular risk reduction and prevention of the major chronic diseases. Nevertheless Mediterranean societies are rapidly withdrawing from this eating pattern orienting their food choices toward products typical of the Western diet pattern, which is rich in refined grains, animal fats, sugars, processed meat but are quite poor in legumes, cereals, fruits and vegetables. The reasons people keep on shifting from healthy to unhealthy dietary habits remain open to several interpretations. Social changes appear to have consistently contributed to radical reversal in dietary habits in European Mediterranean societies even though developing Countries are somewhat turning into westernized diets as well. Among possible causes, increasing prices of some of the major food items of Mediterranean pyramid seem to have led people to give up this eating pattern in favor of less expensive products which allow to save money but are definitively unhealthy. Many studies suggest that diet quality follows a socio-economic gradient highlighting how disadvantaged people present higher rates of obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. Recent studies have shown a linear relationship between food cost and adherence to eating patterns and obesity. In addition to financial crisis, during the last decades the Mediterranean Diet has been put on the spot because of its alcohol -in- moderation component. Does it make any sense to blame a whole philosophy, which turned out to have beneficial effects on human health, just because, in some Countries, there is a misuse of alcoholic beverages? Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Travelling in the eastern Mediterranean with landscape character assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Jaber, N.; Abunnasr, Y.; Abu Yahya, A.; Boulad, N.; Christou, O.; Dimitropoulos, G.; Dimopoulos, T.; Gkoltsiou, K.; Khreis, N.; Manolaki, P.; Michael, K.; Odeh, T.; Papatheodoulou, A.; Sorotou, A.; Sinno, S.; Suliman, O.; Symons, N.; Terkenli, T.; Trigkas, Vassilis; Trovato, M. G.; Victora, M.; Zomeni, M.; Vogiatzakis, I. N.

    2015-06-01

    Following its application in Northern Europe, Landscape Character Assessment has also been implemented in Euro-Mediterranean countries as a tool for classifying, describing and assessing landscapes. Many landscape classifications employed in the Euro-Mediterranean area are similar in philosophy and application to the ones developed in Northern Europe. However, many aspects of landform, climate, land-use and ecology, as well as socio-economic context are distinctive of Mediterranean landscapes. The paper discusses the conceptual and methodological issues faced during landscape mapping and characterisation in four East-Mediterranean countries (within the MEDSCAPES project): Cyprus, Greece, Jordan and Lebanon. The major hurdles to overcome during the first phase of methodology development include variation in availability, quality, scale and coverage of spatial datasets between countries and also terminology semantics around landscapes. For example, the concept of landscape - a well-defined term in Greek and English - did not exist in Arabic. Another issue is the use of relative terms like 'high mountains,' `uplands' `lowlands' or ' hills'. Such terms, which are regularly used in landscape description, were perceived slightly differently in the four participating countries. In addition differences exist in nomenclature and classification systems used by each country for the dominant landscape-forming factors i.e. geology, soils and land use- but also in the cultural processes shaping the landscapes - compared both to each other and to the Northern-European norms. This paper argues for the development of consistent, regionally adapted, relevant and standardised methodologies if the results and application of LCA in the eastern Mediterranean region are to be transferable and comparable between countries.

  19. A Mediterranean Diet Model in Australia: Strategies for Translating the Traditional Mediterranean Diet into a Multicultural Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. George

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence supports the effect of the Mediterranean Diet (MD for managing chronic diseases, although trials have been primarily conducted in Mediterranean populations. The efficacy and feasibility of the Mediterranean dietary pattern for the management of chronic diseases has not been extensively evaluated in non-Mediterranean settings. This paper aims to describe the development of a MD model that complies with principles of the traditional MD applied in a multiethnic context. Optimal macronutrient and food-based composition was defined, and a two-week menu was devised incorporating traditional ingredients with evidence based on improvements in chronic disease management. Strategies were developed for the implementation of the diet model in a multiethnic population. Consistent with the principles of a traditional MD, the MD model was plant-based and high in dietary fat, predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids from extra virgin olive oil. Fruits, vegetables and wholegrains were a mainstay, and moderate amounts of nuts and seeds, fish, dairy and red wine were recommended. The diet encompassed key features of the MD including cuisine, biodiversity and sustainability. The MD model preserved traditional dietary components likely to elicit health benefits for individuals with chronic diseases, even with the adaptation to an Australian multiethnic population.

  20. A Mediterranean Diet Model in Australia: Strategies for Translating the Traditional Mediterranean Diet into a Multicultural Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elena S; Kucianski, Teagan; Mayr, Hannah L; Moschonis, George; Tierney, Audrey C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2018-04-09

    Substantial evidence supports the effect of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) for managing chronic diseases, although trials have been primarily conducted in Mediterranean populations. The efficacy and feasibility of the Mediterranean dietary pattern for the management of chronic diseases has not been extensively evaluated in non-Mediterranean settings. This paper aims to describe the development of a MD model that complies with principles of the traditional MD applied in a multiethnic context. Optimal macronutrient and food-based composition was defined, and a two-week menu was devised incorporating traditional ingredients with evidence based on improvements in chronic disease management. Strategies were developed for the implementation of the diet model in a multiethnic population. Consistent with the principles of a traditional MD, the MD model was plant-based and high in dietary fat, predominantly monounsaturated fatty acids from extra virgin olive oil. Fruits, vegetables and wholegrains were a mainstay, and moderate amounts of nuts and seeds, fish, dairy and red wine were recommended. The diet encompassed key features of the MD including cuisine, biodiversity and sustainability. The MD model preserved traditional dietary components likely to elicit health benefits for individuals with chronic diseases, even with the adaptation to an Australian multiethnic population.

  1. Variability of Mediterranean aerosols properties at three regional background sites in the western Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Totems, Julien; Barragan, Rubén.; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Augustin, Patrick; Chazette, Patrick; Léon, Jean-François; Olmo-Reyes, Francisco José; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest - northeast (SW-NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: - Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), - Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and - Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW-NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.

  2. Ascidians from Caribbean shallow water localities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodbody, Ivan

    1984-01-01

    Between 1930 and 1973 PIETER WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK of the Zoölogisch Laboratorium of the State University of Utrecht made nine collecting trips to the Caribbean. While most collecting was undertaken in the territories of the Netherlands Antilles, visits were also made to several other West Indian

  3. Long term precipitation trends and variability within the Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Philandras

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the trends and variability of annual precipitation totals and annual rain days over land within the Mediterranean region are analyzed. Long term ground-based observations concerning, on one hand, monthly precipitation totals (1900–2010 and rain days (1965–2010 from 40 meteorological stations within the Mediterranean region were obtained from the Hellenic National Meteorological Service and the World Climate Data and Monitoring Programme (WCDMP of the World Meteorological Organization. On the other hand, high spatial resolution (0.5° × 0.5° gridded monthly data CRU TS 3.1 were acquired from the Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, for the period 1901–2009. The two datasets were compared by means of trends and variability, while the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO in the Mediterranean precipitation was examined. In the process, the climatic changes in the precipitation regime between the period 1961–1990 (reference period and the period 2071–2100 (future climate were presented using climate model simulations (RACMO2.1/KNMI. The future climate projections were based on SRES A1B.

    The findings of the analysis showed that statistically significant (95% confidence level negative trends of the annual precipitation totals exist in the majority of Mediterranean regions during the period 1901–2009, with an exception of northern Africa, southern Italy and western Iberian peninsula, where slight positive trends (not statistically significant at 95% CL appear. Concerning the annual number of rain days, a pronounced decrease of 20 %, statistically significant (95% confidence level, appears in representative meteorological stations of east Mediterranean, while the trends are insignificant for west and central Mediterranean. Additionally, NAO index was found to be anticorrelated with the precipitation totals and the number of rain days mainly in Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece. These

  4. Excess of {sup 236}U in the northwest Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamizo, E., E-mail: echamizo@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); López-Lora, M., E-mail: mlopezlora@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Junta de Andalucía, Thomas Alva Edison 7, 41092 Seville (Spain); Bressac, M., E-mail: matthieu.bressac@utas.edu.au [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS (Australia); Levy, I., E-mail: I.N.Levy@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco); Pham, M.K., E-mail: M.Pham@iaea.org [IAEA-Environment Laboratories, Monte Carlo 98000 (Monaco)

    2016-09-15

    In this work, we present first {sup 236}U results in the northwestern Mediterranean. {sup 236}U is studied in a seawater column sampled at DYFAMED (Dynamics of Atmospheric Fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea) station (Ligurian Sea, 43°25′N, 07°52′E). The obtained {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in the dissolved phase, ranging from about 2 × 10{sup −9} at 100 m depth to about 1.5 × 10{sup −9} at 2350 m depth, indicate that anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column. The corresponding deep-water column inventory (12.6 ng/m{sup 2} or 32.1 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}) exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the expected one for global fallout at similar latitudes (5 ng/m{sup 2} or 13 × 10{sup 12} atoms/m{sup 2}), evidencing the influence of local or regional {sup 236}U sources in the western Mediterranean basin. On the other hand, the input of {sup 236}U associated to Saharan dust outbreaks is evaluated. An additional {sup 236}U annual deposition of about 0.2 pg/m{sup 2} based on the study of atmospheric particles collected in Monaco during different Saharan dust intrusions is estimated. The obtained results in the corresponding suspended solids collected at DYFAMED station indicate that about 64% of that {sup 236}U stays in solution in seawater. Overall, this source accounts for about 0.1% of the {sup 236}U inventory excess observed at DYFAMED station. The influence of the so-called Chernobyl fallout and the radioactive effluents produced by the different nuclear installations allocated to the Mediterranean basin, might explain the inventory gap, however, further studies are necessary to come to a conclusion about its origin. - Highlights: • First {sup 236}U results in the northwest Mediterranean Sea are reported. • Anthropogenic {sup 236}U dominates the whole seawater column at DYFAMED station. • {sup 236}U deep-water column inventory exceeds by a factor of 2.5 the global fallout one. • Saharan dust intrusions are responsible for an annual

  5. Mediterranean food consumption patterns: low environmental impacts and significant health-nutrition benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussaleh, Y; Capone, R; Bilali, H El

    2017-11-01

    The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species. This review paper aims at highlighting the nutrition-health benefits of the MD and analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that the MD has significant health-nutrition benefits and low environmental footprints, so there is urgent need to reverse the ongoing erosion of the MD heritage and to promote it as a sustainable diets model.

  6. Mediterranean banks in EBSA area: Hotspots of biodiversity under threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Chiara; Perzia, Patrizia; Falautano, Manuela; Consoli, Pierpaolo; Canese, Simonepietro; Romeo, Teresa; Andaloro, Franco

    2017-10-01

    This study demonstrates that, in the Central Mediterranean Sea, the Graham, Nereo and Pantelleria Vecchia Banks of the Strait of Sicily represent, in the wide and diversified 'Sicily Channel' Ecological or Biological Significant Area, unknown hot spots of biodiversity threatened by human activities. The investigated banks show an high ecological and biological value (EBV), assessed through presence/absence of specific indicators. The ecological groups of Graham Bank show the maximum EBV; the same as Nereo and Pantelleria Vecchia, except for the benthic component. All three banks are highly threatened, mainly the benthic and benthopelagic ecological groups. However, these Banks still have wide pristine areas to protect and can be considered eligible sites for the imposition of area-based management measures of conservation. This study represent also a support for decision makers involved in protection of the Mediterranean open sea areas, to pinpoint other priority conservation banks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Familial Mediterranean fever - clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Tomáš; Ilenčíková, Denisa; Kovács, László

    2014-01-01

    Familial mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most prevalent genetically determined autoinflammatory disease. FMF significantly decreases the quality of life and limits life expectancy due to the development of amyloidosis in affected individuals. Prevalence of FMF is highest in the south-eastern Mediterraneans. In other parts of the world, its occurance is often restricted to high-risk ethnic goups. In Central Europe, experience with FMF is scarse. As for Slovakia, we have reported the first cases of FMF in ethnic Slovaks only recently. Along with their complicated fates, this has lead us to compile a comprehensive overview of the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of this elusive disease. Hereby we hope to be able to promote the awareness about this disease and possibly aid the diagnosis in new patients.

  8. 'Mediterranean' dietary pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Karen; Hartley, Louise; Flowers, Nadine; Clarke, Aileen; Hooper, Lee; Thorogood, Margaret; Stranges, Saverio

    2013-08-12

    The Seven Countries study in the 1960s showed that populations in the Mediterranean region experienced lower cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality probably as a result of different dietary patterns. Later observational studies have confirmed the benefits of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern on CVD risk factors. Clinical trial evidence is limited, and is mostly in secondary prevention. To determine the effectiveness of a Mediterranean dietary pattern for the primary prevention of CVD. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, Issue 9 of 12, September 2012); MEDLINE (Ovid, 1946 to October week 1 2012); EMBASE (Ovid, 1980 to 2012 week 41); ISI Web of Science (1970 to 16 October 2012); Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (Issue 3 of 12, September 2012). We searched trial registers and reference lists of reviews and applied no language restrictions. We selected randomised controlled trials in healthy adults and adults at high risk of CVD. A Mediterranean dietary pattern was defined as comprising at least two of the following components: (1) high monounsaturated/saturated fat ratio, (2) low to moderate red wine consumption, (3) high consumption of legumes, (4) high consumption of grains and cereals, (5) high consumption of fruits and vegetables, (6) low consumption of meat and meat products and increased consumption of fish, and (7) moderate consumption of milk and dairy products. The comparison group received either no intervention or minimal intervention. Outcomes included clinical events and CVD risk factors. Two review authors independently extracted data and contacted chief investigators to request additional relevant information. We included 11 trials (15 papers) (52,044 participants randomised). Trials were heterogeneous in the participants recruited, in the number of dietary components and

  9. Mediterranean diet recommended not only in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Chudzińska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is characterized by high consumption of vegetables, fruits,  cereals, nuts, olive oil (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, fish (rich in Omega - 3 fatty acids and moderate consumption of dry red wine. The positive impact of the diet on life expectancy and cardiovascular disease has been widely discussed, but further studies prove that it is also beneficial in supporting treatment of other civilization diseases such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, infertility and neurodegenerative or autoimmune diseases. Although certain studies on the effects of the Mediterranean diet still require further action, they undoubtedly give hope that the proper nutrition can have a significant impact on the prevention and treatment of civilization diseases.

  10. [Ethics, culture and psychiatry: the ethics of Mediterranean Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Ibor, Juan-José; Crespo, Hervás

    2003-09-01

    The defence of the rights of the person, in Mediterranean ethics, is based on a synthesis of civic humanism and liberalism, derived from the spirit of Greek democracy and Enlightenment, and including the achievements of the XIX and XX centuries. It tempers liberalism with the principles of social welfare. Present bioethics, specialy in European countries, try to integrate both the mediterranean ethics of virtues and the anglosaxon ethics of principles, further adding and integrating a social element, the principle of solidarity and distributive justice (equity). Therefore, European ethics do not proclaim the autonomy of persons and the independence of the individual from society, but the interdependency of persons and nations. They advocate a greater equity and a better management of resources in health care.

  11. A Rare Case of Mediterranean Spotted Fever and Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sousa Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediterranean spotted fever is a tick-borne zoonotic disease caused by Rickettsia conorii. It is transmitted by the dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. It usually presents as a benign self-limited disease characterized by a skin rash, high fever, and, sometimes, a characteristic ulcer at the tick bite site called tache noir. The course of this disease is usually benign, although severe manifestations have been previously described, mainly in adults. Neurological manifestations are very unusual. We present a case of Mediterranean spotted fever with encephalitis to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion, mainly in endemic areas, the potential severity of this disease, and the need of early initiation of therapy in order to prevent severe complications.

  12. Trends in energy efficiency in countries of the Mediterranean Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    This report describes trends in energy efficiency in four countries of the southern side of the Mediterranean Sea (Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia) and five Mediterranean European countries (France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal). This study is based on energy efficiency indicators per sector of energy consumption as they are developed within the frame of the MEDENER project for the four southern countries and of the ODYSSEE-MURE project for the European countries. The report presents the context of energy efficiency (challenges and objectives, trends in energy consumption, primary and final intensities), discusses trends of energy efficiency in the transformation sector, in the housing sector, in the transport sector (trends in consumption, road and air transport), in the industry (sector intensities), in the tertiary sector (global trends, sector indicators), and in agriculture and fishing (global trends and sector indicators)

  13. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Mediterranean indicator area: from Cyprim to Hymex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.; Ducrocq, V.; Joly, A.; Joly, B.; Nuissier, O.; Quintana-Segui, P.; Ricard, D.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.; Drobinski, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    The Mediterranean area exhibits very special characteristics. Severe extreme events occur regularly and the area has been identified as a climate 'hot spot' in a recent study. The project CYPRIM studies the extreme rain events and the variation of their intensity or frequency under changed climate conditions. In a first step, the project characterizes these systems using their large and medium scale environment. In a second step, using a high resolution climate scenario, some extreme rain events will be simulated using the model Meso-NH. The impact on the river discharge will be evaluated using the TOPMODEL and SIM hydrological models. The interest in the Mediterranean region under the framework of the CYPRIM project and other projects leads to the HyMeX initiative. A white book is currently being written in order to obtain a wide agreement of the scientific community on a field experiment and a project on intense rain events and regional impact of climate change. (authors)

  15. Funding renewable electricity as part of the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coguic, R.; Gromard, Ch. de

    2009-01-01

    Factors related to energy and the climate are now weighing down on the economies of both developed and emerging lands. All countries are urged to advance quickly toward systems that save energy and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. Energy and climate issues are a major concern in countries to the south and east of the Mediterranean. Given their growth rates, ranging from 6% to 8%, their demand for energy is rising twice as fast as Europe's while their production - dependent for 99% on fossil fuels - is vulnerable owing to the volatility of (rising) oil prices. To cope with this situation, these Mediterranean lands are forced to intensify their policies for controlling energy: efficiency must be combined with savings, and with renewable sources of energy as well as a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. (authors)

  16. Local Sustainability and Cooperation Actions in the Mediterranean Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberio Daddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The populations of the Middle East and Africa are increasing rapidly, contributing to rapid urban growth. This paper describes a two-year action research process involving diverse public, private, and community stakeholders. The actions aimed to develop and strengthen the capabilities of three Mediterranean cities (Marrakech, Morocco; Sin el Fil, Lebanon; and Bodrum, Turkey in managing and promoting local sustainable development. The needs and priorities of each Mediterranean partner were identified and pilot actions were elaborated to promote urban sustainability, the exploitation of local resources, and the enhancement of local tangible and intangible assets. The paper describes the outputs of pilot actions carried out in these cities, highlighting how these experiences contribute to the current debate on urban sustainability. Broad implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  17. Energy in the Mediterranean: status, perspectives, constraints, and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    In its first part, this report comments the differences between the north and the south of the Mediterranean Sea in terms of energy consumption, highlights the fact that energy resources are mainly located in the South and that energy flows are corresponding to a stronger demand by the North, and shows the high potential of renewable energies for this region. Then, it analyses the various concerns and constraints which can be noticed: uncertain supplies on a fluctuating market, a strong dependence on diesel and petrol, an unequal access to electricity, a high sensitivity to climatic change. The third part aims at demonstrating that energy could play a major role in the project of Mediterranean Union. Several potential themes are identified: development of North-South partnerships, status of hydrocarbon supply platform, potential development of the petrochemical industry, development of local markets, promotion of sustainable development, diversification of energy supply with the nuclear energy

  18. Mediterranean biomes: Evolution of their vegetation, floras and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundel, Philip W.; Arroyo, Mary T.K.; Cowling, R.M.; Keeley, J. E.; Lamont, B.B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems (MTEs) possess the highest levels of plant species richness in the world outside of the wet tropics. Sclerophyll vegetation similar to today’s mediterranean-type shrublands was already present on oligotrophic soils in the wet and humid climate of the Cretaceous, with fire-adapted Paleogene lineages in southwestern Australia and the Cape Region. The novel MTC seasonality present since the mid-Miocene has allowed colonization of MTEs from a regional species pool with associated diversification. Fire persistence has been a primary driving factor for speciation in four of the five regions. Understanding the regional patterns of plant species diversity among the MTEs involves complex interactions of geologic and climatic histories for each region as well as ecological factors that have promoted diversification in the Neogene and Quaternary. A critical element of species richness for many MTE lineages has been their ability to speciate and persist at fine spatial scales, with low rates of extinction.

  19. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a Spanish university population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Meseguer, María José; Burriel, Faustino Cervera; García, Cruz Vico; Serrano-Urrea, Ramón

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize food habits of Spanish University students and to assess the quality of their diet and some possible determinant factors according to Mediterranean food pattern among other indices. Two hundred eighty-four enrolled students during the academic year 2012-2013 participated in this survey. For each individual a questionnaire involving anthropometric measurements, types of housing, smoking habits and levels of physical activity were self-reported. Food consumption was gathered by two nonconsecutive 24 hour recalls including one weekend day. BMI within the normal range was showed by 72.5% of students and 75% of the sample reflected a sedentary lifestyle or low physical activity. The percentage of total energy from each macronutrient was approximately 17% proteins, 40% carbohydrates and 40% lipids. The ratio of polyunsaturated to monounsaturated fat only reached 0.32. Cholesterol consumption in men exceeded the intake in women by 70 mg/day but nutritional objectives were exceeded in both genders. The main source of protein had an animal origin from meat (38.1%), followed by cereals (19.4%) and dairy products (15.6%). The assessment of diet quality conducted by Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) revealed a low-intermediate score in both (51.2 ± 12.8 and 4.0 ± 1.5, respectively). The main deviations from Mediterranean pattern were a low intake of vegetables and fruit and a high consumption of meat and dairy products. According to HEI classification, 96.1% of subjects scored "poor" or "needs improvement" about the quality of their diet and only 5.3% of students achieved a high adherence to Mediterranean diet. It is necessary to foster changes toward a healthier diet pattern according to cultural context in this population for preventing cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Measuring ecological change of aquatic macrophytes in Mediterranean rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Dodkins, Ian; Aguiar, Francisca; Rivaes, Rui; Albuquerque, António; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Patricia; Ferreira, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    A metric was developed for assessing anthropogenic impacts on aquatic macrophyte ecology by scoring macrophyte species along the main gradient of community change. A measure of ecological quality was then calculated by Weighted Averaging (WA) of these species scores at a monitoring site, and comparison to a reference condition score. This metric was used to illustrate the difficulties of developing aquatic macrophyte indices based on indicator species in Mediterranean rivers. The ...

  1. Mediterranean diet adherence rates in Sicily, southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Marventano, Stefano; Giorgianni, Gabriele; Raciti, Teodoro; Galvano, Fabio; Mistretta, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    To assess adherence to the Mediterranean diet and nutrient intakes in a population of Sicily, southern Italy and to evaluate possible determinants, particularly socio-cultural and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional. Urban and rural areas of eastern Sicily. Between May 2009 and December 2010, 3090 adults were randomly recruited through the collaboration of fourteen general practitioners. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was measured by the MedDietScore. Nutrient intakes were assessed through the 24 h recall of the previous day's dietary intake. Rural participants were barely more adherent to the Mediterranean diet than their urban counterparts (mean scores were 27·8 and 27·2, respectively, P = 0·037). The MedDietScore was correlated with intakes of MUFA, fibre and vitamin C, as well as with consumption of non-refined cereals, vegetables, fruit, meat, dairy products, alcohol and nuts. Regression analysis revealed that older and more educated people were more likely to be in the highest tertile of MedDietScore (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·59 and OR = 1·29; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·58, respectively). A significant difference in quantity (moderate) and quality (red wine and beer) of alcohol was found according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Finally, more active participants were 1·5 times more likely to form part of the high-adherence group. A slow but concrete moving away from traditional patterns has been observed in younger people and low educated people. Public health interventions should focus on these target populations in order to improve the quality of their diet.

  2. Variability in regional background aerosols within the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Theodosi, C.; Gerasopoulos, E.; Kubilay, N.; Koçak, M.

    2009-07-01

    The main objective of this study is the identification of major factors controlling levels and chemical composition of aerosols in the regional background (RB) along the Mediterranean Basin (MB). To this end, data on PM levels and speciation from Montseny (MSY, NE Spain), Finokalia (FKL, Southern Greece) and Erdemli (ERL, Southern Turkey) for the period 2001 to 2008 are evaluated. Important differences on PM levels and composition are evident when comparing the Western and Eastern MBs. The results manifest W-E and N-S PM10 and PM2.5 gradients along the MB, attributed to the higher frequency and intensity of African dust outbreaks in the EMB, while for PM1 very similar levels are encountered. PM in the EMB is characterized by higher levels of crustal material and sulphate as compared to WMB (and central European sites), however, RB nitrate and OC + EC levels are relatively constant across the Mediterranean and lower than other European sites. Marked seasonal trends are evidenced for PM levels, nitrate (WMB), ammonium and sulphate. Also relatively higher levels of V and Ni (WMB) are measured in the Mediterranean basin, probably as a consequence of high emissions from fuel-oil combustion (power generation, industrial and shipping emissions). Enhanced sulphate levels in EMB compared to WMB were measured. The high levels of sulphate in the EMB may deplete the available gas-phase NH3 so that little ammonium nitrate can form due to the low NH3 levels. This study illustrates the existence of three very important features within the Mediterranean that need to be accounted for when modeling climate effects of aerosols in the area, namely: a) the increasing gradient of dust from WMB to EMB; b) the change of hygroscopic behavior of mineral aerosols (dust) via nitration and sulfation; and c) the abundance of highly hygroscopic aerosols during high insolation (low cloud formation) periods.

  3. Climate Local Information over the Mediterranean to Respond User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruti, P.

    2012-12-01

    CLIM-RUN aims at developing a protocol for applying new methodologies and improved modeling and downscaling tools for the provision of adequate climate information at regional to local scale that is relevant to and usable by different sectors of society (policymakers, industry, cities, etc.). Differently from current approaches, CLIM-RUN will develop a bottom-up protocol directly involving stakeholders early in the process with the aim of identifying well defined needs at the regional to local scale. The improved modeling and downscaling tools will then be used to optimally respond to these specific needs. The protocol is assessed by application to relevant case studies involving interdependent sectors, primarily tourism and energy, and natural hazards (wild fires) for representative target areas (mountainous regions, coastal areas, islands). The region of interest for the project is the Greater Mediterranean area, which is particularly important for two reasons. First, the Mediterranean is a recognized climate change hot-spot, i.e. a region particularly sensitive and vulnerable to global warming. Second, while a number of countries in Central and Northern Europe have already in place well developed climate service networks (e.g. the United Kingdom and Germany), no such network is available in the Mediterranean. CLIM-RUN is thus also intended to provide the seed for the formation of a Mediterranean basin-side climate service network which would eventually converge into a pan-European network. The general time horizon of interest for the project is the future period 2010-2050, a time horizon that encompasses the contributions of both inter-decadal variability and greenhouse-forced climate change. In particular, this time horizon places CLIM-RUN within the context of a new emerging area of research, that of decadal prediction, which will provide a strong potential for novel research.

  4. Rainfall, runoff and sediment transport in a Mediterranean mountainous catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuset, J; Vericat, D; Batalla, R J

    2016-01-01

    The relation between rainfall, runoff, erosion and sediment transport is highly variable in Mediterranean catchments. Their relation can be modified by land use changes and climate oscillations that, ultimately, will control water and sediment yields. This paper analyses rainfall, runoff and sediment transport relations in a meso-scale Mediterranean mountain catchment, the Ribera Salada (NE Iberian Peninsula). A total of 73 floods recorded between November 2005 and November 2008 at the Inglabaga Sediment Transport Station (114.5 km(2)) have been analysed. Suspended sediment transport and flow discharge were measured continuously. Rainfall data was obtained by means of direct rain gauges and daily rainfall reconstructions from radar information. Results indicate that the annual sediment yield (2.3 t km(-1) y(-1) on average) and the flood-based runoff coefficients (4.1% on average) are low. The Ribera Salada presents a low geomorphological and hydrological activity compared with other Mediterranean mountain catchments. Pearson correlations between rainfall, runoff and sediment transport variables were obtained. The hydrological response of the catchment is controlled by the base flows. The magnitude of suspended sediment concentrations is largely correlated with flood magnitude, while sediment load is correlated with the amount of direct runoff. Multivariate analysis shows that total suspended load can be predicted by integrating rainfall and runoff variables. The total direct runoff is the variable with more weight in the equation. Finally, three main hydro-sedimentary phases within the hydrological year are defined in this catchment: (a) Winter, where the catchment produces only water and very little sediment; (b) Spring, where the majority of water and sediment is produced; and (c) Summer-Autumn, when little runoff is produced but significant amount of sediments is exported out of the catchment. Results show as land use and climate change may have an important

  5. The Biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: Estimates, Patterns, and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S.; Gasol, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterra- nean Sea. However, our estimates of marine...

  6. Israel-New natural gas producer in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaffer, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    In 2009 and 2010, major offshore natural gas reserves were discovered near the State of Israel. This article examines Israel's newly discovered natural gas reserves and the implications of this discovery for Israel, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean region. The article will discuss Israel's energy security approach; the role of natural gas in Israel's energy consumption patterns; the organization of Israel's natural gas sector; regional political and security implications of the natural gas discoveries; the prospects for export, and the outlook for various natural gas markets. These new discoveries significantly improve Israel's energy security. They may also spur Israel to develop technologies related to utilization of natural gas in a variety of sectors, such as transportation. The discoveries may contribute to the emergence of a number of maritime border delimitation conflicts in the Eastern Mediterranean. At current volumes, the Israeli discoveries will not be a game-changer for gas markets in southern Europe or liquefied natural gas (LNG) markets. However, they will lead to expanded natural gas consumption in the region. In addition, offshore exploration efforts in Israel and in neighboring countries are intensifying. Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. - Highlights: → In 2009 and 2010, major natural gas deposits were discovered offshore of Israel's port city of Haifa. → They will satisfy a large portion of Israel's domestic energy consumption needs for a number of decades. → The gas discoveries have created an opportunity to fundamentally change the country's energy policies. → Additional discoveries may turn the Eastern Mediterranean region into a new source of natural gas and oil. → Israel could become a supplier of natural gas to neighbors in the Middle East region, such as Jordan.

  7. SACRED ARCHITECTURE ORIENTATION ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN: A COMPARATIVE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    García, A. César González; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The idea of temporality and how this concept is introduced in the ritual domain could be investigated in past cultures through measurements of the orientation of cultic build-ings, provided that such orientations are linked with particular astronomical events. Hel-lenic societies, among those of the Mediterranean Iron Age, had a need to regulate time through a calendar. The orientation of Hellenic temples in present day Greece and the South of Italy have recently been shown to be somewhat dis...

  8. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII) definition being the most effective in the identificat...

  9. Looking for the best flash floods indicators in Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Llasat-Botija, Montserrat; Turco, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Flash floods are a recurrent hazard in Mediterranean Region. From a global point of view, a distinction between two kinds of floods can be made (Llasat, 2009): a) Short-lived and strongly convective events (cases recorded between 2005 and 2006. This sample has been increased with some selected cases of the European project HYDRATE. Information from all the flash-floods recorded in Catalonia (Spain) since 1982, completed with data about population density and so on, has also been considered.

  10. Severe Weather Guide - Mediterranean Ports. 4. Augusta Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    the year. The track o-f strong extratropical storms has moved northward and poses little tiireat to Augusta Bay. Sea breezes are daily occurrences...as temperatures, begin to moderate. Extratropi cal systems begin to transit Europe as the storm track moves southward in advance of the winter...SUB-GROUP 18. SUBJECT TERMS {Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) Storm haven Mediterranean meteorology Augusta Bay

  11. Mediterranean drama: pragmatic, legal and moral aspects of hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Nowak, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Hospitality is „not a concept which lends itself to objective knowledge,” Jacques Derrida assumes. His assumption „provokes” and challenges European hospitability, not only in the Mediterranean area in which „welcoming” and „ingratiating” (in Derrida’s terms) forms of human conduct met together thousands years ago, and an asylum seeker found hospitia. What is hospitality and why philosophize about it today? The paper examines hospitality’s pragmatic, customary, legal and ...

  12. Eastern Mediterranean University Quality Assurance Handbook (Volume: 7, 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Altınay, Mehmet; Ezel, Cahit

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is an essential element of social and economic growth and prosperity. Development of a system offering high quality education is a prerequisite to gain access to knowledge which ensures development in any society. Moreover, at the micro-level, attaining high level of quality in education enables the higher education institutions (HEIs) to establish a sustainable system by attracting high caliber lecturers, researchers, and students. Being aware of this, Eastern Mediterranean ...

  13. Potential Impact of Mediterranean Aquaculture on the Wild Predatory Bluefish

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles, Laura; Mrugala, Agata; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Juanes, Francis; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture impacts on wild populations of fish have been considered principally due to farm escapes. The Bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix, which exhibits two distinct genetic units in the Mediterranean Sea, is a voracious predator and is attracted to aquaculture cages to prey on farmed fish, particularly Gilthead Seabream Sparus aurata and European Sea Bass Dicentrarchus labrax. We compared the genetic diversity of adult Bluefish caught inside one aquaculture farm located in Spanish waters of th...

  14. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami; Öztürk, Bayram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  15. The exclusive economic zone debates in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Başeren, Bayram Öztürk and Sertaç Hami

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Delimitation and proclamations of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is important issue for several reasons for the bordering nations. The Mediterranean Sea is unique case due to geographical characteristics and some conflicts already existed on maritime delimitations among some nations. It’s a matter of fact that; all States will have to reach agreement, regarding proclamations of the delimitation of the Exclusive Economic Zone in the Eastern Mediterranean ...

  16. Mediterranean Diet: From a Healthy Diet to a Sustainable Dietary Pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Dernini, Sandro; Berry, Elliot M.

    2015-01-01

    The notion of the Mediterranean diet has undergone a progressive evolution over the past 60 years, from a healthy dietary pattern to a sustainable dietary pattern, in which nutrition, food, cultures, people, environment, and sustainability all interact into a new model of a sustainable diet. An overview of the historical antecedents and recent increased interest in the Mediterranean diet is presented and challenges related to how to improve the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet are ide...

  17. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Fabri, Marie-claire; Pedel, Laura; Beuck, L.; Galgani, Francois; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-01-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in...

  18. Cruise Summary Report - MEDWAVES survey (MEDiterranean out flow WAter and Vulnerable EcosystemS)

    OpenAIRE

    Orejas, Covadonga; Addamo, Anna; Alvarez, Marta; Aparicio, Alberto; Alcoverro, Daniel; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bilan, Meri; Boavida, Joana; Cainzos, Veronica; Calderon, Ruben; Cambeiro, Peregrino; Castano, Monica; Fox, Alan; Gallardo, Marina; Gori, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The MEDWAVES (MEDiterranean out flow WAter and Vulnerable EcosystemS) cruise targeted areas under the potential influence of the MOW within the Mediterranean and Atlantic realms. These include seamounts where Cold-water corals (CWCs) have been reported but that are still poorly known, and which may act as essential “stepping stones” connecting fauna of seamounts in the Mediterranean with those of the continental shelf of Portugal, the Azores and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. During MEDWAVES samplin...

  19. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but als...

  20. The Presence of the invasive Lionfish Pterois miles in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BARICHE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the occurrence of Pterois miles in the Mediterranean Sea, based on the capture of two specimens along the coast of Lebanon. Previously, only one record of the species from the Mediterranean Sea had been documented. The new records highlight the arrival of new propagules of P. miles, more than two decades later, hinting to a future potential invasion of the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Nitrate in Polluted Mountainous Catchments with Mediterranean Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meixner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The mountains of southern California receive some of the highest rates of nitrogen (N deposition in the world (~40 kg ha�1 year�1. These high rates of deposition have translated into consistently high levels of nitrate (NO3� in some streams of the San Bernardino Mountains. However, not all streams are exhibiting these high levels of NO3�. Perennial streams have high NO3� concentrations (~200 [b.mu ]moles l�1 while ephemeral streams do not (~20 [b.mu ]moles l�1. This difference points to groundwater as the source of the NO3� observed in streams. Furthermore, the evidence indicates a differential impact of N deposition on terrestrial and aquatic systems in Mediterranean climates, with aquatic systems being impacted more quickly. The primary reason for this difference involves the asynchrony between the time that atmospheric deposition occurs (summer, the time period of maximum soil NO3� availability and leaching (winter, and the time of maximum plant N demand (spring. Our results indicate that semiarid Mediterranean climate systems behave differently from more humid systems in that, because of this asynchrony, aquatic systems may not be indicative of changes in terrestrial ecosystem response. These differences lead us to the conclusion that the extrapolation of impacts from humid to Mediterranean climates is problematic and the concept of N saturation may need to be revisited for semiarid and seasonally dry systems.

  2. Bryozoan diversity in the Mediterranean Sea: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ROSSO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a current view of the bryozoan biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea updating the checklist by Rosso (2003. Bryozoans presently living in the Mediterranean increase to 556 species, 212 genera and 93 families. Cheilostomes largely prevail (424 species, 159 genera and 64 families followed by cyclostomes (75 species, 26 genera and 11 families and ctenostomes (57 species, 27 genera and 18 families. Few families and genera make the bulk of this biodiversity whereas one third of families are monospecific. The number of species-rank taxa has increased by 81 in the last dozen years but most of these additions relate to the revision of material from old collections and to the introduction of non-indigenous species. Most of the bryozoan diversity is distributed in the coralligenous and dark and semi-dark cave biocoenoses followed by detritic bottoms. Diversity lowers in shallow-water vegetated bottoms and in bathyal habitats. Further increase in diversity is expected from investigation of still poorly known areas and habitats and the need for rapid assessment is remarked on in view of the management of Mediterranean habitats through the EU Marine Strategy Directive.

  3. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  4. Non-communicable diseases and adherence to Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretto, Antonio; Lagattolla, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) also known as chronic diseases last for a long time and progress generally slow. Major non-communicable diseases are cardiovascular diseases, cancers, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes. Unhealthy lifestyles and food behaviours play an important role for determining such diseases. The change in unhealthy behaviours or the maintenance of healthy lifestyles has enormous value in the reduction of diseases and longer life expectancy not only on an individual level but for the community as a whole. Recent meta-analyses reported Mediterranean diet to be an optimal diet when adopted as a whole, in order to preserve and maintain a good health status. A greater adherence score to the Mediterranean diet (2-point increase) was related to induce an 8% reduction in overall mortality, a 10% reduced risk of CVD and a 4% reduction in neoplastic diseases. However, there is no direct method in quantifying and evaluating adherence, therefore a large number of indirect indices in several studies have been proposed, with a last unifying score. Recently more and more e-health techniques such as web communication or desktop publishing (DVDs and so on) are being used, obtaining good results in the Mediterranean diet adherence. For successfully changing the unhealthy lifestyles and food behaviours of the population, interventions at all levels are needed with the cooperation of Institutions, mass media, agricultural and food industry and healthcare professionals guided by expert scientific societies.

  5. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Zalidis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Mediterranean agricultural areas. It is based on well established methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration through surface energy fluxes, customized for better performance under the Mediterranean conditions: small parcel sizes, detailed crop pattern, and lack of necessary data. The methodology has been tested and validated on the agricultural plain of the river Strimonas (Greece using a time series of Terra MODIS and Landsat 5 TM satellite images, and used to produce a seasonal water use map at a high spatial resolution. Finally, a tool has been designed to implement the methodology with a user-friendly interface, in order to facilitate its operational use.

  6. Urban hybrids: Mediterranean cities in search of new identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Guarrasi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Geographies of cultural contact within the cosmopolitan city: Mediterranean cities looking for new identities. Contemporary society stresses its multicultural and multiethnic character. The comings and goings of humankind are becoming more important than ever before, affecting cities and metropolises, exposing them to global risk and causing them to search for nervous and confused responses to the global challenge. In order to understand this current transmutation, it is necessary first to adopt a cosmopolitan outlook and to perform “sopralluoghi” ( over-places. In other words, it is necessary to go beyond the methodological nationalism which is a constituent of the social sciences, and, by using on-the-spot inspections, to detect the places of contact where the present cosmopolitan processes are manifesting themselves. Mediterranean cities are, in this sense, the best places to explore this phenomenon, because new cultures and identities continue to spring up there, thanks to the duration and the intensity of human mobility, the frequency of contacts, the variety of cultures and the stratification of a shared cultural heritage.Keywords: Geographies; Cultural contacts (in between; Cosmopolitan view; Mediterranean cities 

  7. Development of electrical connections around the Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoz, H.; Nogaret, E.

    1992-01-01

    Interconnections of electrical networks bring a great many benefits, which explains why European countries did this as early as the fifties. More recently, the nations to the south and east of the Mediterranean basin have started interconnecting, and cross-sea links are also planned, which will put all of the countries in contact with each other. The main projects in this direction concern the establishment of undersea links between Spain and Morocco and between Italy and Tunisia; beefing up the interconnections between the North African countries; and developing ties in the Near East, from Egypt to Turkey. As this system comes into being, a computerized management system will have to be installed too, to avoid operational difficulties; so the overall consistency of the various projects will have to be verified by studies conducted at the regional level. This clearly shows that cooperation is indispensable among all the countries concerned. Medelec, a liaison committee of Mediterranean electrical producer association, was created to undertake common actions in this sense. It is certain that the creation of an interconnected electrical network around the Mediterranean will go a long way toward strengthening exchanges and cooperation among these nations. 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Changes in rainfall patterns in Mediterranean ecosystems: the MIND project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papale D

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Will Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems be affected by the expected changes in precipitation regimes? If so, by how much and in which direction? These questions are at the basis of the research performed in context of the EU MIND project, whose key objectives were: i to investigate the potential effects of increasing drought on Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems at the process, ecosystem and regional scales and ii to assess ecosystem vulnerability to changes in rainfall patterns. A network of experimental study sites has been created in Portugal, Spain, France and Italy, where field manipulations alter the amount of water available to the ecosystem. The most up-to-date methods of ecophysiology, micrometeorology, soil ecology and remote sensing have been used to elucidate the mechanisms that regulate the response of vegetation and soil to changes in water availability. This information is providing the basis for the implementation and validation of simulation models capable of predicting the drought response of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems, and their vulnerability to future climate change, on a larger scale. The out-coming results are elucidating how water availability affects plant ecophysiological processes, the dynamics of soil carbon and the overall exchange of mass and energy between the land and the atmosphere. This paper focuses on some of the important, yet preliminary, results on C and energy fluxes that have been obtained at the large scale troughfall manipulation experiment (Tolfa, Italy, in a forest dominated by Arbutus unedo L.

  9. Sustainable Forest Management in a Mediterranean region: social preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroto, C.; Segura, M.; Ginestar, C.; Uriol, J.; Segura, B.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: There is a lack of empirical research that deals with sustainable forest management in Mediterranean regions, among the most vulnerable ecosystems. The main purpose of this work is to define the strategic criteria and objectives for sustainable forest management and aggregate the preferences of stake holders in a Mediterranean region, using AHP and Goal Programming. Area of study: Valencian Community (Spain). Material and Methods: Firstly, we identified forest stake holders and structured a decision hierarchy. Then a workshop was carried out to test and validate the proposed criteria and objectives, as well as a survey to determine social preferences. Secondly, another survey was conducted amongst experts to prioritize action plans. Main results: Stake holders preferences gave the greatest importance to the environmental criteria (hydrological regulation and erosion, climate change mitigation and biodiversity) with an average weight of 40%. Social criteria (employment, recreational activities and landscape) had a weight of 38% and 22% the economic criteria case (wood, hunting and fishing, livestock, renewable energies, rural tourism and mining). The results showed that new products and services such as tourism, renewable energies, landscape, hydrological regulation and erosion control, biodiversity or climate change mitigation are very relevant objectives. We also prioritized action plans comparing them with the distribution of the administration budget. Research highlights: The environmental and social criteria are much more important than the economic ones in the regional planning of the Mediterranean forest, regardless of the method used to aggregate the social preferences and if the forest is public or private. (Author)

  10. Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea: evidences, debates and unanswered questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Millot

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The overall counterclockwise alongslope circulation of Atlantic Water (AW in the western basin of the Mediterranean Sea is now generally accepted. As the eastern basin displays similar general features, why is it generally assumed to function in a different way, and why is AW now said to circulate across the interior of the eastern basin? Relatively huge mesoscale anticyclonic eddies induced by the instability of the AW circulation in the south of the western basin have lifetimes up to several years. It is possible that they extend down to the sea bottom and play a major role in the distribution of all water masses. Why have apparently similar eddies generated in the eastern basin never received specific attention? Once formed, Mediterranean Waters (MWs must spread and circulate before outflowing. Why have simple dynamical arguments for understanding the circulation of AW, such as the Coriolis effect, rarely been considered for the circulation of MWs? In this paper we address these major aspects of water circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. In order to be as objective and convincing as possible, and to write a paper that can be understood by as broad a readership as possible, we have chosen to present only raw data sets that can be easily interpreted by the reader without any help from the author. Based on the evidence provided by these data sets, we specify the current debates and list what we think are the main unanswered questions.

  11. Distribution of caesium-137 in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Vas, D.

    1980-01-01

    The International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity (Monaco) conducted several oceanographic cruises during 1975-1977 to collect data on heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in the open Mediterranean. Sea water samples for radionuclide measurements were also collected on these cruises. The 137 Cs measurements in these samples are presented and discussed. After collection sea water was immediately acidified to pH 1.5 and 137 Cs was sorbed on solid ammonium phosphomolybdate together with added stable cesium carrier. After dissolution of AMP by NaoH, Cs was separated from K and Rb by ion exchange, precipitated as chloroplatinate and beta-counted. The surface concentrations of 137 Cs in the different areas of the Mediterranean fall in the range of 80-180 fCi 137 Cs/l, the average of all values being 126 +- 7 fCi 137 Cs. The vertical distribution of 137 Cs measured at four different locations varied considerably. It increased from surface to a maximum at a depth between 50m and 250m and then decreased with depth. The depth of maximum concentration differed from station to station but was always above the chlorinity maximum. The vertical distribution, therefore, seems to be closely related to vertical water mass movements. The inventories of 137 Cs delivered by radioactive fallout into the Mediterranean water columns are computed on the basis 137 Cs/ 90 Sr activity ratio and presented. (M.G.B.)

  12. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Anagnostis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.

  13. Metabolic syndrome in the Mediterranean region: Current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities including abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, hypertension and dyslipidemia. It seems to affect about one-fourth to one-fifth of the Mediterranean population, and its prevalence increases with age, being similar for both sexes and depending on the region and the definition used, with the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel-III (NCEP-ATPIII) definition being the most effective in the identification of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular risk. Except for these, MetS is associated with fatty liver disease, some forms of cancer, hypogonadism, and vascular dementia. The Mediterranean diet seems to be an ideal diet in patients with MetS, being rich in fibre, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, and low in animal protein; and decreases the prevalence of MetS and cardiovascular disease risk. Except for weight loss, multifactorial intervention including insulin resistance reduction and normoglycemia, management of dyslipidemia, optimizing blood pressure and administration of low-dose aspirin for patients at high or moderately high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are additional targets. The present review provides current understanding about MetS in the Mediterranean region, focusing on its prevalence, clinical significance, and therapeutic strategy.

  14. Mediterranean diet and faecal microbiota: a transversal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Díaz, I; Fernández-Navarro, T; Sánchez, B; Margolles, A; González, S

    2016-05-18

    Despite the existing evidence on the impact of olive oil and red wine on the intestinal microbiota, the effect of the global Mediterranean Diet (MD) has not been sufficiently studied. We explored the association between the adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, and its components, with faecal microbiota in a cohort of adults with non-declared pathology. This transversal study involved 31 adults without a previous diagnosis of cancer, autoimmune or digestive diseases. Based on the data obtained by means of an annual food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and the information existing in the literature, a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) was calculated. Dietary fibre was obtained from Marlett et al. tables and Phenol-Explorer Database was used for phenolic compounds intake. Quantification of microbial groups was performed by Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis and quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS). MDS was associated with a higher abundance of Bacteroidetes (p = 0.001), Prevotellacea (p = 0.002) and Prevotella (p = 0.003) and a lower concentration of Firmicutes (p = 0.003) and Lachnospiraceae (p = 0.045). Also, in subjects with MDS ≥ 4, higher concentrations of faecal propionate (p = 0.034) and butyrate (p = 0.018) were detected. These results confirm the complexity of the diet-microbiota interrelationship.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL OVERVIEW OF HODGKIN LYMPHOMA ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Salati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL is an uncommon neoplasm of B-cell origin with an incidence that varies significantly by age, sex, ethnicity, geographic location and socioeconomic status. This complex pattern was also found to be replicated among Mediterranean basin populations. HL incidence rates progressively decreased from industrialized European countries such as France (ASR=2.61 and Italy (ASR=2.39 to less developed nations such as Albania (ASR=1.34 and Bosnia Herzegovina (ASR=1.1. Regarding HL mortality we have found that countries with the lowest incidence rates show the highest number of deaths from this cancer and viceversa. Finally, a wide gap in terms of survival was showed across the Mediterranean basin with survival rates ranged from 82.3% and 85.1% among Italian men and women, to 53.3 % and 59.3% among Libyan men and women, respectively. Factors such as the degree of socio-economic development, the exposure to risk factors westernization-related, the availability of diagnostic practices along with different genetic susceptibilities to HL may explain its variation across Mediterranean countries. Furthermore, the lack of health resources decisively contribute to the poor prognosis recorded in less developed region. In the future, the introduction of appropriate and accessible treatment facilities along with an adequate number of clinical specialists in the treatment of HL and other cancers are warranted in order to improve the outcomes of affected patients and treat a largely curable type of cancer in disadvantaged regions.

  16. Deadwood Decay in a Burnt Mediterranean Pine Reforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Molinas-González

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dead wood remaining after wildfires represents a biological legacy for forest regeneration, and its decay is both cause and consequence of a large set of ecological processes. However, the rate of wood decomposition after fires is still poorly understood, particularly for Mediterranean-type ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed deadwood decomposition following a wildfire in a Mediterranean pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Natural and National Park (southeast Spain. Three plots were established over an elevational/species gradient spanning from 1477 to 2053 m above sea level, in which burnt logs of three species of pines were experimentally laid out and wood densities were estimated five times over ten years. The logs lost an overall 23% of their density, although this value ranged from an average 11% at the highest-elevation plot (dominated by Pinus sylvestris to 32% at an intermediate elevation (with P. nigra. Contrary to studies in other climates, large-diameter logs decomposed faster than small-diameter logs. Our results provide one of the longest time series for wood decomposition in Mediterranean ecosystems and suggest that this process provides spatial variability in the post-fire ecosystem at the scale of stands due to variable speeds of decay. Common management practices such as salvage logging diminish burnt wood and influence the rich ecological processes related to its decay.

  17. Central obesity and the Mediterranean diet: A systematic review of intervention trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, C L; Mayr, H L; Opie, R S; Bes-Rastrollo, M; Itsiopoulos, C; Thomas, C J

    2017-10-17

    Central obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and is a risk factor for cardiometabolic syndrome. The Mediterranean diet pattern has a convincing evidence-base for improving cardiometabolic health. This review investigated the impact of Mediterranean diet interventions on central obesity, specifically. A systematic literature search was conducted in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane library databases. Search terms included: 'Mediterranean Diet', 'Mediterranean dietary pattern', 'central obesity' and 'visceral fat'. The search was limited to English language and humans ≥18 years. Eighteen articles met the eligibility criteria and reported at least one outcome measure of central obesity with Mediterranean diet intervention. Central obesity measures included waist circumference (16 studies), waist-hip ratio (5 studies) and visceral fat (2 studies). Thirteen (72%) of the studies, totaling 7186 subjects (5168 subjects assigned to a Mediterranean Diet), reported a significant reduction in central obesity with a Mediterranean-type diet. However, seven out of these 13 interventions employed energy restriction, and only three showed a statistically significant favorable effect of the Mediterranean diet relative to a control group. This systematic review highlights the potential for a Mediterranean diet intervention to reduce central obesity and in turn reduce obesity-related chronic disease risk and associated public health burden.

  18. Burden of celiac disease in the Mediterranean area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Luigi; Timpone, Laura; Abkari, Abdelhak; Abu-Zekry, Mona; Attard, Thomas; Bouguerrà, Faouzi; Cullufi, Paskal; Kansu, Aydan; Micetic-Turk, Dusanka; Mišak, Zrinjka; Roma, Eleftheria; Shamir, Raanan; Terzic, Selma

    2011-12-07

    To estimate the burden of undiagnosed celiac disease (CD) in the Mediterranean area in terms of morbidity, mortality and health cost. For statistics regarding the population of each country in the Mediterranean area, we accessed authoritative international sources (World Bank, World Health Organization and United Nations). The prevalence of CD was obtained for most countries from published reports. An overall prevalence rate of 1% cases/total population was finally estimated to represent the frequency of the disease in the area, since none of the available confidence intervals of the reported rates significantly excluded this rate. The distribution of symptoms and complications was obtained from reliable reports in the same cohort. A standardized mortality rate of 1.8 was obtained from recent reports. Crude health cost was estimated for the years between symptoms and diagnosis for adults and children, and was standardized for purchasing power parity to account for the different economic profiles amongst Mediterranean countries. In the next 10 years, the Mediterranean area will have about half a billion inhabitants, of which 120 million will be children. The projected number of CD diagnoses in 2020 is 5 million cases (1 million celiac children), with a relative increase of 11% compared to 2010. Based on the 2010 rate, there will be about 550,000 symptomatic adults and about 240,000 sick children: 85% of the symptomatic patients will suffer from gastrointestinal complaints, 40% are likely to have anemia, 30% will likely have osteopenia, 20% of children will have short stature, and 10% will have abnormal liver enzymes. The estimated standardized medical costs for symptomatic celiac patients during the delay between symptom onset and diagnosis (mean 6 years for adults, 2 years for children) will be about €4 billion (€387 million for children) over the next 10 years. A delay in diagnosis is expected to increase mortality: about 600,000 celiac patients will die in

  19. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Marta; Piroddi, Chiara; Steenbeek, Jeroen; Kaschner, Kristin; Ben Rais Lasram, Frida; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Ballesteros, Enric; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Corbera, Jordi; Dailianis, Thanos; Danovaro, Roberto; Estrada, Marta; Froglia, Carlo; Galil, Bella S; Gasol, Josep M; Gertwagen, Ruthy; Gil, João; Guilhaumon, François; Kesner-Reyes, Kathleen; Kitsos, Miltiadis-Spyridon; Koukouras, Athanasios; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Laxamana, Elijah; López-Fé de la Cuadra, Carlos M; Lotze, Heike K; Martin, Daniel; Mouillot, David; Oro, Daniel; Raicevich, Sasa; Rius-Barile, Josephine; Saiz-Salinas, Jose Ignacio; San Vicente, Carles; Somot, Samuel; Templado, José; Turon, Xavier; Vafidis, Dimitris; Villanueva, Roger; Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-08-02

    The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet-undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of

  20. Variability and trends of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, Maria; Flocas, Helena A.; Simmonds, Ian; Kouroutzoglou, John; keay, Kevin; Rudeva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated with the aid of the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm, applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim mean sea level pressures. The algorithm is employed for the first time to study anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in the Mediterranean were checked and verified. The tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems revealed two major anticyclonic routes: over the northern (i.e. from the Iberian towards the Balkan Peninsula) and over the southern (i.e. the North Africa coast) Mediterranean barriers. A transition of the system density and anticyclogenesis maxima is evident throughout the year from solely continental environments in winter and autumn to also maritime in spring and summer. These variations can be attributed to the seasonal variability of the major anticyclonic systems that are involved in this region. The interannual variability of synoptic systems can be attributed to natural low frequency variability. The interannual variations of the system density and strength were linked to the Northern Hemisphere modes of atmospheric variability; e.g. more (less) antiyclonic tracks are observed around the Mediterranean basin during periods of positive (negative) NAO, with a consequent enhancement (decline) of the pressure field. Moreover, possible trends in the frequency and intensity of the anticyclonic systems were explored in an attempt to examine any impacts of recent global warming conditions. Positive trends of system density, genesis and intensity prevail during the cold period over the greater area around the Mediterranean basin. During summer, the general increase in system density is not followed by a corresponding tendency in the number of the generating systems and the intensity. Regarding the depth of the

  1. The biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea: estimates, patterns, and threats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Coll

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet-undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular

  2. The Mediterranean Sea Mollusks - a school shell collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Delia

    2017-04-01

    School: 1. "Ana Aslan" Technical College, Street Decebal 1, Cluj-Napoca, Romania 2. Orthodox Theological Seminary, Avram Iancu Square No.18, Cluj-Napoca, Romania The aim of the present project is to develop the students awareness of human activities impact on mollusks population in the Mediterranean Sea. Students have studied about the Geography of the Mediterranean Sea and they have the theoretical knowledge related to the its specific flora and fauna. One of the main fears related to the Mediterranean Sea is the loss of marine and coastal biodiversity due to biological disturbance, climate change and human activities. Out of all reasons, the human impact is considered to be the major cause of habitat loss, degradation and extinction. Regarding the Phylum Mollusca a major threat is represented by unregulated fisheries and shell traffic. In order to enable the students possibility to observe the great diversity of the Phylum Mollusca in the Mediterranean Sea, a school shell collection was made. The shells were brought by the students and they had to mention if the shells were bought, received as a souvenir or picked from their environment. Further, the students learned how to prepare the shells for the collection. The next step involved the shell classification and by this activity the students learned how to use the IUCN: International Union for Conservation of Nature database to identify the threatened species, as well as the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) for a correct identification of the species. As Romania romania bordering the Black Sea, the students had the opportunity to identify the mollusks species common for both the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. The objectives of this study were to highlight the human-environment relation and the interconnection between environment conditions and life quality, to develop the students research, exploration and investigation skills, to be able to identify the causes of species extinction and methods

  3. Offshore Gas in East Mediterranean: From Myth to Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2013-01-01

    The wave of deep offshore and unconventional gas and oil exploration projects, rendered economically feasible by relatively high prices and new technologies, has reached the shores of the Mediterranean. Levantine countries, including Cyprus, Israel, Palestinian Territories, Lebanon, Syria, have new offshore gas potentials. A few years ago, the East Mediterranean energy situation looked gloomy. East Mediterranean countries, struggling to feed their growing domestic energy consumption, were forced to depend on neighbours like Egypt whose export gas pipeline kept on blowing or Syria which was unable to fulfil the export contracts it signed and they meanwhile had to buy LNG at world markets high spot prices or fuel their power stations with highly priced fuel oil or diesel. Long term prospects did not look good either as the ability of Egypt -the main regional supplier- to maintain gas export's volumes is being challenged by rising domestic demand. Israel in particular, given its tense relations with energy rich Arab countries was finding itself in a difficult situation to secure its supplies. The discoveries of giant gas fields offshore Israel, now followed by its neighbours who all started to explore their offshore, has changed the picture. Gas fields have provided these countries a great feeling of blessing as expected economic benefits will be massive and energy security improved - a major concern after Arab Revolutions have shaken established energy routes. The road leading to a change of energy paradigm in the East Mediterranean is however long and bumpy. Before these countries will be able to tap benefits from these deep water gas (and oil) resources, these countries will actually have to overcome significant geopolitical, regulatory and commercial hurdles. Energy laws and clear and attractive legal frameworks for exploration and production activities, will need to be set up, and sometimes from scratch. Infrastructures -so far almost inexistent- will have to be

  4. Med Diet 4.0: the Mediterranean diet with four sustainable benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dernini, S; Berry, E M; Serra-Majem, L; La Vecchia, C; Capone, R; Medina, F X; Aranceta-Bartrina, J; Belahsen, R; Burlingame, B; Calabrese, G; Corella, D; Donini, L M; Lairon, D; Meybeck, A; Pekcan, A G; Piscopo, S; Yngve, A; Trichopoulou, A

    2017-05-01

    To characterize the multiple dimensions and benefits of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet, in order to revitalize this intangible food heritage at the country level; and to develop a multidimensional framework - the Med Diet 4.0 - in which four sustainability benefits of the Mediterranean diet are presented in parallel: major health and nutrition benefits, low environmental impacts and richness in biodiversity, high sociocultural food values, and positive local economic returns. A narrative review was applied at the country level to highlight the multiple sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet into a single multidimensional framework: the Med Diet 4.0. Setting/subjects We included studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals that contained data on the characterization of sustainable diets and of the Mediterranean diet. The methodological framework approach was finalized through a series of meetings, workshops and conferences where the framework was presented, discussed and ultimately refined. The Med Diet 4.0 provides a conceptual multidimensional framework to characterize the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet model, by applying principles of sustainability to the Mediterranean diet. By providing a broader understanding of the many sustainable benefits of the Mediterranean diet, the Med Diet 4.0 can contribute to the revitalization of the Mediterranean diet by improving its current perception not only as a healthy diet but also a sustainable lifestyle model, with country-specific and culturally appropriate variations. It also takes into account the identity and diversity of food cultures and systems, expressed within the notion of the Mediterranean diet, across the Mediterranean region and in other parts of the world. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed for the assessment of the sustainability of the Mediterranean diet to include these new dimensions.

  5. MEDITERRANEAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANT HEALTH AND NUTRITION BENEFITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbilali, H.; Capone, R.; Lamaddalena, N.; Lamberti, L.; Elferchichi, A.; Aboussaleh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nutrition is central in the prevention of food-related non-communicable diseases representing an important health risk factor and an enormous socio-economic burden for Mediterranean societies. Nevertheless, assessment of food systems and diets sustainability should take into account not only their health benefits but also their environmental impacts. This work aims at analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns (MFCPs) and at highlighting their nutrition and health benefits. The paper provides a review on nutrition and health benefits of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) as well as on water and land resources and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. FAO food consumption statistics and standard footprint data were used to characterise the MFCP and to calculate and discuss environmental impacts, i.e. water, carbon and ecological footprints. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2,300 plant species. The share of plant-based energy in the diet is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe and America. Peoples adhering to the Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrients intakes. The MD was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. During the last decades, the ecological footprint (EF) per capita in the Mediterranean increased while the biocapacity decreased thus the ecological deficit increased. The carbon footprint alone is generally higher than the biocapacity. MENA region has a lower EF than North America. Food consumption represents the highest share of water footprint of consumption (WFC) in the Mediterranean. WFC is lower in Mediterranean countries, especially MENA ones, than in North America. The traditional MD offers considerable health benefits and has lower environmental impacts than Northern

  6. Temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen profile data from MULTIPLE SHIPS in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: (NODC Accession 9400176)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) and other data were collected in Mediterranean Sea, Eastern Basin as part of Mediterranean Ocean Circulation project. Data...

  7. Impacts of exotic forest pathogens on Mediterranean ecosystems: Four case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteo Garbelotto; Marco Pautasso

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are hotspots of biodiversity. Because of a coincidence of high species richness and human presence, Mediterranean biodiversity is particularly threatened by processes such as habitat degradation, fragmentation and loss, pollution, climate change and introduction of invasive species. Invasive tree pathogens are among the problematic exotic...

  8. Modified Mediterranean Diet Score and Cardiovascular Risk in a North American Working Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Justin; Farioli, Andrea; Korre, Maria; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is linked to lower risk for cardiovascular morbidity/mortality in studies of Mediterranean cohorts, older subjects, and/or those with existing health conditions. No studies have examined the effects of this dietary pattern in younger working populations in the United States. We investigated the effects of Mediterranean diet adherence on cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, metabolic syndrome and body composition in an occupationally active, non-Mediterranean cohort. Methods A cross-sectional study in a cohort of 780 career male firefighters, ages 18 years or older, from the United States Midwest. No dietary intervention was performed. A modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was developed for assessment of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern from a previously administered life-style questionnaire that examined pre-existing dietary habits. Clinical data from fire department medical examinations were extracted and analyzed. Results Obese subjects had significantly lower mMDS, and they reported greater fast/take-out food consumption (pMediterranean-style dietary pattern had significant inverse associations with metabolic syndrome, LDL-cholesterol and reported weight gain, and was significantly and independently associated with higher HDL-cholesterol. Our results support the potential effectiveness of this diet in young, non-Mediterranean working cohorts, and justify future intervention studies. PMID:24503596

  9. A modified Mediterranean diet score is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2018-03-21

    Findings from studies in Western countries showed that Mediterranean diet is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome, but little is known about this association in Asian countries. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean diet and metabolic syndrome in Korean population, this study was conducted. A total of 8387 adults 19-64 years of age from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015 were assessed. A 112-item dish-based semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intakes. Mediterranean diet was assessed by a modified Mediterranean diet score, which was based on the alternate Mediterranean diet score of Fung et al. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for other dietary and lifestyle variables. Participants with 5-6 and 7 or higher modified Mediterranean diet scores had a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 27% (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.56-0.96) and 36% (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.46-0.89; P-trend = 0.0031), compared with those with 2 or lower modified Mediterranean diet scores, respectively. Higher modified Mediterranean diet scores were associated with a lower prevalence of abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia, which are components of metabolic syndrome CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, peanuts and fish is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

  10. Precipitation Climatology over Mediterranean Basin from Ten Years of TRMM Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Amita V.; Yang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Climatological features of mesoscale rain activities over the Mediterranean region between 5 W-40 E and 28 N-48 N are examined using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 and 2A25 rain products. The 3B42 rainrates at 3-hourly, 0.25 deg x 0.25 deg spatial resolution for the last 10 years (January 1998 to July 2007) are used to form and analyze the 5-day mean and monthly mean climatology of rainfall. Results show considerable regional and seasonal differences of rainfall over the Mediterranean Region. The maximum rainfall (3-5 mm/day) occurs over the mountain regions of Europe, while the minimum rainfall is observed over North Africa (approximately 0.5 mm/day). The main rainy season over the Mediterranean Sea extends from October to March, with maximum rainfall occurring during November-December. Over the Mediterranean Sea, an average rainrate of approximately 1-2 mm/day is observed, but during the rainy season there is 20% larger rainfall over the western Mediterranean Sea than that over the eastern Mediterranean Sea. During the rainy season, mesoscale rain systems generally propagate from west to east and from north to south over the Mediterranean region, likely to be associated with Mediterranean cyclonic disturbances resulting from interactions among large-scale circulation, orography, and land-sea temperature contrast.

  11. Climate change impact on fire probability and severity in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachisio Arca; Grazia Pellizzaro; Pierpaolo Duce; Michele Salis; Valentina Bacciu; Donatella Spano; Alan Ager; Mark Finney

    2010-01-01

    Fire is one of the most significant threats for the Mediterranean forested areas. Global change may increase the wildland fire risk due to the combined effect of air temperature and humidity on fuel status, and the effect of wind speed on fire behaviour. This paper investigated the potential effect of the climate changes predicted for the Mediterranean basin by a...

  12. Water-use strategies of six co-existing Mediterranean woody species during a summer drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quero, J.L.; Sterck, F.J.; Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Villar, R.

    2011-01-01

    Drought stress is known to limit plant performance in Mediterranean-type ecosystems. We have investigated the dynamics of the hydraulics, gas exchange and morphology of six co-existing Mediterranean woody species growing under natural field conditions during a drought that continued during the

  13. 1.2 million years of climate change, globally and in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konijnendijk, T.Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we make a detailed reconstruction of climate changes based on materials from the Mediterranean Sea. Not only does this provide new insights in climate changes in the Mediterranean region, the aim is to improve our understanding of global climate changes as well. We created a single

  14. Mediterranean Outflow Water dynamics during the past ~570 kyr : Regional and global implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaboth, Stefanie; de Boer, Bas; Bahr, André; Zeeden, Christiaan; Lourens, Lucas J.

    The Gulf of Cadiz constitutes a prime area to study teleconnections between the North Atlantic Ocean and climate change in the Mediterranean realm. In particular, the highly saline Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) is an important modulator of the North Atlantic salt budget on intermediate water

  15. Mediterranean-Paratethys connectivity during the Messinian salinity crisis : The Pontian of Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, Christiaan G C; Stoica, Marius; Grothe, Arjen; Aliyeva, Elmira; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis, a connection was established between the Mediterranean Sea and the Paratethys region to the north. Rivers currently draining into the Caspian Sea thereby became important for the Mediterranean hydrological budget. The role of this connection and

  16. The Messinian Salinity Crisis: chronology and paleoenvironment in the (circum-) Mediterranean area. Geologica Ultraiectina (317)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, E.

    2010-01-01

    During the Messinian salinity crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.33 million years ago (Ma)), Atlantic–Mediterranean connections became stepwise restricted and interrupted. Massive evaporites were deposited in the Mediterranean Basin, which - after water levels dropped ~1km (5.59-5.5 Ma) - was partially refilled

  17. Mediterranean Fin Whales (Balaenoptera physalus) Threatened by Dolphin MorbilliVirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzariol, Sandro; Centelleghe, Cinzia; Beffagna, Giorgia; Povinelli, Michele; Terracciano, Giuliana; Cocumelli, Cristiano; Pintore, Antonio; Denurra, Daniele; Casalone, Cristina; Pautasso, Alessandra; Di Francesco, Cristina Esmeralda; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    During 2011-2013, dolphin morbillivirus was molecularly identified in 4 stranded fin whales from the Mediterranean Sea. Nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, and hemagglutinin gene sequences of the identified strain were highly homologous with those of a morbillivirus that caused a 2006-2007 epidemic in the Mediterranean. Dolphin morbillivirus represents a serious threat for fin whales.

  18. The exotic crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (Decapoda, Grapsidae in the Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Relini

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The grapsid crab Percnon gibbesi (H. Milne Edwards, 1853, not previously recorded in the Mediterranean, has been found by underwater observations in several localities of Linosa, Pelagie Islands, (Italy. This presence increases the list of alien Decapods in the Mediterranean, with a form which can be considered a western migrant.

  19. Reproduction ecology of Pinus halepensis : a monoecious, wind-pollinated and partially serotinous Mediterranean pine tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goubitz, Shirrinka

    2001-01-01

    Fire is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of Mediterranean plant species. The fire frequency has increased in the 20st century. Pines are the most important tree species in the area. Pinus halepensis is the only natural pine in parts of the east Mediterranean basin, such as Israel and

  20. First record red lionfish Pterois volitans (Linnaeus, 1785 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gürlek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A single male specimen of red lionfish Pterois volitans was recorded for the first time in 13 May 2016 from the Iskenderun Bay, North-eastern Mediterranean, Turkey. The present paper also reports the first record of the red lionfish P. volitans along the Mediterranean Sea.