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Sample records for medieval plagues including

  1. Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welford, Mark R; Bossak, Brian H

    2009-12-22

    Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues") and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics.

  2. Validation of inverse seasonal peak mortality in medieval plagues, including the Black Death, in comparison to modern Yersinia pestis-variant diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Welford

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have noted myriad qualitative and quantitative inconsistencies between the medieval Black Death (and subsequent "plagues" and modern empirical Y. pestis plague data, most of which is derived from the Indian and Chinese plague outbreaks of A.D. 1900+/-15 years. Previous works have noted apparent differences in seasonal mortality peaks during Black Death outbreaks versus peaks of bubonic and pneumonic plagues attributed to Y. pestis infection, but have not provided spatiotemporal statistical support. Our objective here was to validate individual observations of this seasonal discrepancy in peak mortality between historical epidemics and modern empirical data. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compiled and aggregated multiple daily, weekly and monthly datasets of both Y. pestis plague epidemics and suspected Black Death epidemics to compare seasonal differences in mortality peaks at a monthly resolution. Statistical and time series analyses of the epidemic data indicate that a seasonal inversion in peak mortality does exist between known Y. pestis plague and suspected Black Death epidemics. We provide possible explanations for this seasonal inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results add further evidence of inconsistency between historical plagues, including the Black Death, and our current understanding of Y. pestis-variant disease. We expect that the line of inquiry into the disputed cause of the greatest recorded epidemic will continue to intensify. Given the rapid pace of environmental change in the modern world, it is crucial that we understand past lethal outbreaks as fully as possible in order to prepare for future deadly pandemics.

  3. High throughput, multiplexed pathogen detection authenticates plague waves in medieval Venice, Italy.

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    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-03-10

    Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th-16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century.

  4. High Throughput, Multiplexed Pathogen Detection Authenticates Plague Waves in Medieval Venice, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Signoli, Michel; Fozzati, Luigi; Aboudharam, Gérard; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Historical records suggest that multiple burial sites from the 14th–16th centuries in Venice, Italy, were used during the Black Death and subsequent plague epidemics. Methodology/Principal Findings High throughput, multiplexed real-time PCR detected DNA of seven highly transmissible pathogens in 173 dental pulp specimens collected from 46 graves. Bartonella quintana DNA was identified in five (2.9%) samples, including three from the 16th century and two from the 15th century, and Yersinia pestis DNA was detected in three (1.7%) samples, including two from the 14th century and one from the 16th century. Partial glpD gene sequencing indicated that the detected Y. pestis was the Orientalis biotype. Conclusions These data document for the first time successive plague epidemics in the medieval European city where quarantine was first instituted in the 14th century. PMID:21423736

  5. The climatic context of major plague outbreaks in late medieval England

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    Pribyl, Kathleen

    2017-04-01

    The climatological triggers of major plague outbreaks in late medieval and early modern Europe remain unclear; recent studies have been inconclusive. Plague is primarily a rodent disease and due to the involvement of rodent hosts and insect vectors, the epidemiology of plague is complicated, but research on outbreaks in the Third Pandemic, which began in the late nineteenth century, has shown that in central and eastern Asia plague is linked to specific meteorological conditions. The disease adapts to a varied spectrum of ecological and climatological settings, which influence the development of plague waves, and due to Europe's geographical diversity, this paper focuses on one region, England, in its search for meteorological parameters contributing to plague outbreaks. The study period of this paper is defined by the arrival of Yersinia pestis in the British Isles in 1348 and the end of the fifteenth century. During this time, England's population dynamics were mortality-driven due to recurrent epidemic disease; and public health measures, such as quarantining, had not yet been introduced, hence the influence of social factors on the formation of major plague waves was very limited. The geographical and temporal focus of this study allows for the combination of the series of English major plague outbreaks, verified in the original texts, with the high-quality climate reconstructions based on both documentary sources and proxy data available for this region. The detailed analysis of the mechanisms contributing to English plague waves presented in this paper, reveals a complex interplay of time-lag responses and concurrent conditions involving temperature and precipitation parameters.

  6. Historical Epidemics Cartography Generated by Spatial Analysis: Mapping the Heterogeneity of Three Medieval "Plagues" in Dijon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanaud, Pierre; Galanaud, Anne; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This work was designed to adapt Geographical Information System-based spatial analysis to the study of historical epidemics. We mapped "plague" deaths during three epidemics of the early 15th century, analyzed spatial distributions by applying the Kulldorff's method, and determined their relationships with the distribution of socio-professional categories in the city of Dijon. Materials and Methods Our study was based on a database including 50 annual tax registers (established from 1376 to 1447) indicating deaths and survivors among the heads of households, their home location, tax level and profession. The households of the deceased and survivors during 6 years with excess mortality were individually located on a georeferenced medieval map, established by taking advantage of the preserved geography of the historical center of Dijon. We searched for clusters of heads of households characterized by shared tax levels (high-tax payers, the upper decile; low-tax payers, the half charged at the minimum level) or professional activities and for clusters of differential mortality. Results High-tax payers were preferentially in the northern intramural part, as well as most wealthy or specialized professionals, whereas low-tax payers were preferentially in the southern part. During two epidemics, in 1400–1401 and 1428, areas of higher mortality were found in the northern part whereas areas of lower mortality were in the southern one. A high concentration of housing and the proximity to food stocks were common features of the most affected areas, creating suitable conditions for rats to pullulate. A third epidemic, lasting from 1438 to 1440 had a different and evolving geography: cases were initially concentrated around the southern gate, at the confluence of three rivers, they were then diffuse, and ended with residual foci of deaths in the northern suburb. Conclusion Using a selected historical source, we designed an approach allowing spatial analysis of

  7. Plague

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    Abbott, Rachel C.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague offers readers an overview of this highly complex disease caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. The history of the disease, as well as information about Yersinia pestis and its transmission by fleas, is described. The section Geographic Distribution presents areas of the world and United States where plague occurs most commonly in rodents and humans. Species Susceptibility describes infection and disease rates in rodents, humans, and other animals. Disease Ecology considers the complex relationship among rodents, domestic and wild animals, and humans and explores possible routes of transmission and maintenance of the organism in the environment. The effects of climate change, the potential for Y. pestis to be used as a bioweapon, and the impact of plague on conservation of wildlife are considered in Points to Ponder. Disease Prevention and Control outlines methods of prevention and treatment including vaccination for prairie dogs and black-footed ferrets. A glossary of technical terms is included. Tonie E. Rocke, the senior author and an epizootiologist at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), is a prominent researcher on oral vaccination of prairie dogs to prevent plague. She is currently working to transfer her success in the laboratory to the field to control plague in prairie dogs. Rachel C. Abbott, a biologist at the NWHC, is assisting Dr. Rocke in this process and will coordinate field trials of the vaccine. Milt Friend, first director of the NWHC, wrote the foreword. Plague is intended for scholars and the general public. The material is presented in a simple, straightforward manner that serves both audiences. Numerous illustrations and tables provide easily understood summaries of key points and information.

  8. Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    The health care provider will perform a physical examination and ask about your symptoms. Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Culture of lymph node aspirate (fluid taken from an affected lymph node or bubo) Sputum culture

  9. Medieval Chinese syntax

    OpenAIRE

    Anderl, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Medieval Chinese Syntax” aims to provide a sketch of the development of function words and syntactic structures during the Chinese Medieval period, including Early Medieval Chinese (ca. 0-700 A.D.) and Late Medieval Chinese (ca. 700-1100).

  10. Plague Symptoms

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    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  11. Normal growth, altered growth? Study of the relationship between harris lines and bone form within a post-medieval plague cemetery (Dendermonde, Belgium, 16th Century).

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    Boucherie, Alexandra; Castex, Dominique; Polet, Caroline; Kacki, Sacha

    2017-01-01

    Harris lines (HLs) are defined as transverse, mineralized lines associated with temporary growth arrest. In paleopathology, HLs are used to reconstruct health status of past populations. However, their etiology is still obscure. The aim of this article is to test the reliability of HLs as an arrested growth marker by investigating their incidence on human metrical parameters. The study was performed on 69 individuals (28 adults, 41 subadults) from the Dendermonde plague cemetery (Belgium, 16th century). HLs were rated on distal femora and both ends of tibiae. Overall prevalence and age-at-formation of each detected lines were calculated. ANOVA analyses were conducted within subadult and adult samples to test if the presence of HLs did impact size and shape parameters of the individuals. At Dendermonde, 52% of the individuals had at least one HL. The age-at-formation was estimated between 5 and 9 years old for the subadults and between 10 and 14 years old for the adults. ANOVA analyses showed that the presence of HLs did not affect the size of the individuals. However, significant differences in shape parameters were highlighted by HL presence. Subadults with HLs displayed slighter shape parameters than the subadults without, whereas the adults with HLs had larger measurements than the adults without. The results suggest that HLs can have a certain impact on shape parameters. The underlying causes can be various, especially for the early formed HLs. However, HLs deposited around puberty are more likely to be physiological lines reflecting hormonal secretions. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 29:e22885, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Enzootic plague foci, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Malek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Algeria, PCR sequencing of pla, glpD and rpoB genes found Yersinia pestis in 18/237 (8% rodents of five species, including Apodemus sylvaticus, previously undescribed as pestiferous; and disclosed three new plague foci. Multiple spacer typing confirmed a new Orientalis variant. Rodent survey should be reinforced in this country hosting reemerging plague.

  13. Plague: Frequently Asked Questions

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    ... a vaccine available to prevent plague? What is plague? Plague is an infectious disease that affects rodents, ... United States. How do people become infected with plague? People most commonly acquire plague when they are ...

  14. Plague Prevention

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    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics Info for ... or working outdoors. Products containing DEET can be applied to the skin as well as clothing and ...

  15. Plague: Clinics, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Vladimir V; Gao, He; Zhou, Lei; Anisimov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Plague still poses a significant threat to human health and as a reemerging infection is unfamiliar to the majority of the modern medical doctors. In this chapter, the plague is described according to Dr. Nikiforov's experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of patients, and also a review of the relevant literature on this subject is provided. The main modern methods and criteria for laboratory diagnosis of plague are briefly described. The clinical presentations include the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Early diagnosis and the prompt initiation of treatment reduce the mortality rate associated with bubonic plague and septicemic plague to 5-50 %; although a delay of more than 24 h in the administration of antibiotics and antishock treatment can be fatal for plague patients. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics.

  16. Duck plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, M.

    1999-01-01

    Duck plague is caused by a herpesvirus. Infection often results in an acute, contagious, and fatal disease. As with many other herpesviruses, duck plague virus can establish inapparent infections in birds that survive exposure to it, a state referred to as latency. During latency, the virus cannot be detected by standard methods for virus isolation. Studies of domestic species of waterfowl have detected multiple strains of the virus that vary in their ability to cause disease and death. Little is known about the response of wild waterfowl to strain differences.Duck plague outbreaks are thought to be caused when birds that carry the virus shed it through fecal or oral discharge, thus releasing the virus into food and water with which susceptible birds may have contact. Experimental studies have demonstrated spontaneous virus shedding by duck plague carriers during spring. Changes in the duration of daylight and onset of breeding are thought to be physiological stresses that stimulate virus shedding at this time of year. The carriers are immune to the disease, but the virus shed by them causes infection and disease among susceptible waterfowl. Bird-to-bird contact and contact with virus that has contaminated the environment perpetuate an outbreak. Scavenging and decomposition of carcasses of infected birds also contaminate the environment by releasing viruses from tissues and body fluids. Virus transmission through the egg has been reported, but the role of the egg in the disease cycle remains to be resolved.

  17. Plague Maps and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States Plague was first introduced ... them at higher risk. Reported Cases of Human Plague - United States, 1970-2016 Since the mid–20th ...

  18. Plague Vaccines: Status and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Three major plague pandemics caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis have killed nearly 200 million people in human history. Due to its extreme virulence and the ease of its transmission, Y. pestis has been used purposefully for biowarfare in the past. Currently, plague epidemics are still breaking out sporadically in most of parts of the world, including the United States. Approximately 2000 cases of plague are reported each year to the World Health Organization. However, the potential use of the bacteria in modern times as an agent of bioterrorism and the emergence of a Y. pestis strain resistant to eight antibiotics bring out severe public health concerns. Therefore, prophylactic vaccination against this disease holds the brightest prospect for its long-term prevention. Here, we summarize the progress of the current vaccine development for counteracting plague.

  19. Molecular history of plague.

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    Drancourt, M; Raoult, D

    2016-11-01

    Plague, a deadly zoonose caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been firmly documented in 39 historical burial sites in Eurasia that date from the Bronze Age to two historical pandemics spanning the 6th to 18th centuries. Palaeomicrobiologic data, including gene and spacer sequences, whole genome sequences and protein data, confirmed that two historical pandemics swept over Europe from probable Asian sources and possible two-way-ticket journeys back from Europe to Asia. These investigations made it possible to address questions regarding the potential sources and routes of transmission by completing the standard rodent and rodent-flea transmission scheme. This suggested that plague was transmissible by human ectoparasites such as lice, and that Y. pestis was able to persist for months in the soil, which is a source of reinfection for burrowing mammals. The analyses of seven complete genome sequences from the Bronze Age indicated that Y. pestis was probably not an ectoparasite-borne pathogen in these populations. Further analyses of 14 genomes indicated that the Justinian pandemic strains may have formed a clade distinct from the one responsible for the second pandemic, spanning in Y. pestis branch 1, which also comprises the third pandemic strains. Further palaeomicrobiologic studies must tightly connect with historical and anthropologic studies to resolve questions regarding the actual sources of plague in ancient populations, alternative routes of transmission and resistance traits. Answering these questions will broaden our understanding of plague epidemiology so we may better face the actuality of this deadly infection in countries where it remains epidemic. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Medieval Day at Reynolds: An Interdisciplinary Learning Event

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    Morrison, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    Medieval Day at Reynolds turned a typical Friday class day into an interdisciplinary learning event, which joined faculty and students into a community of learners. From classrooms issued tales of Viking and Mongol conquests, religious crusaders, deadly plague, and majestic cathedrals and art, all told by costumed faculty members with expertise in…

  1. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

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    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  2. Medieval Theatre: It's More Fun than It Looks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Mike

    1996-01-01

    Explores production ideas for plays other than works by Shakespeare, including medieval plays such as the "Wakefield Noah" by the Wakefield Master. Lists some questions to consider when deciding to perform a medieval play. (PA)

  3. Medieval Dobrun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marko Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting and highly structured medieval complex, Dobrun has been attracting attention of scholars for a long time. Unlike the ruins of medieval fortifications, the remains of wall-painting in the former monastery church received most of the attention. A series of problems have, however remained open. Some of them have escaped observation, and there are hypotheses that ought to be reassessed. The Dobrun complex is not a matter of local or regional significance. It is a surviving testimony to the events and processes that marked the century preceding the final Ottoman occupation of Serbia and Bosnia. After outlining the research work done to date and analyzing the original historical documents and physical remains, this paper brings the author's views of the issue and some reflections aimed at suggesting directions of further research. The Dobrun complex is situated on the fringe of a hospitable landscape in the lower Rzav valley, not far from Višegrad. It is a region of present-day Republika Srpska on the border with Serbia. The medieval fortifications high up on cliffs above either side of the river controlled the entrance to the gorge, a natural border between western Serbia and Podrinje (the Drina river basin. About a kilometer downstream, on a plot of flat land above the right riverbank, surrounded by rocky hillsides and opening onto a gully cut by a mountain stream, sits the monastic complex of Dobrun with the Church of the Annunciation. The discussion of the structural remains of the complex (Fig. 2 proceed from the multipart whole, which consists of fortifications on the rocks above either bank of the Rzav, built in such a way as to take full advantage of the terrain for defence purposes. The steep slopes and inaccessible rocks complete with walls and towers form a fortress considered at the time of building to be virtually unassailable. Fortification elements were laid out on the western edge of the gorge, which was and still is an

  4. Black plague

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacIsaac, M.

    1995-09-01

    The Canadian government has eliminated the subsidy that Cape Breton Development Corporation (Devco) has received for the past 27 years (averaging $59.5 million annually for the last decade). Other problems facing Devco include privatization of two of Devco`s major customers, demand for lower coal prices, absenteeism, union difficulties, and problems with the Phalen mine. Pittsburgh`s John T. Boyd Co. was hired in May to assess Devco`s operations and its ability to compete with other coal mining companies. In July, Joe Shannon was appointed as the new president of Devco and given the mandate of making Devco commercially viable, with privatization in the longer term. Shannon will attempt to determine whether the mine`s problems with production are due to bad management or to technical problems and geology. 1 fig.

  5. Protect Yourself from Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rodents. Plague can also infect humans and their pets. How do people get plague? • • Bites of infected fleas • • Touching or ... be treated successfully with antibiotics, but an infected person must be treated ... your pets 1. Eliminate nesting places for rodents around homes, ...

  6. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Boris V; Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2015-03-10

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe.

  7. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W. Ryan; Ginzler, Christian; Walløe, Lars; Bramanti, Barbara; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2015-01-01

    The Black Death, originating in Asia, arrived in the Mediterranean harbors of Europe in 1347 CE, via the land and sea trade routes of the ancient Silk Road system. This epidemic marked the start of the second plague pandemic, which lasted in Europe until the early 19th century. This pandemic is generally understood as the consequence of a singular introduction of Yersinia pestis, after which the disease established itself in European rodents over four centuries. To locate these putative plague reservoirs, we studied the climate fluctuations that preceded regional plague epidemics, based on a dataset of 7,711 georeferenced historical plague outbreaks and 15 annually resolved tree-ring records from Europe and Asia. We provide evidence for repeated climate-driven reintroductions of the bacterium into European harbors from reservoirs in Asia, with a delay of 15 ± 1 y. Our analysis finds no support for the existence of permanent plague reservoirs in medieval Europe. PMID:25713390

  8. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Nasser; Gorji, Ali

    2006-12-01

    The history of psychological sciences and especially the ways in which related disorders were treated in medieval Persia are not well known in the West. The main objective of this article is to review the clinical approaches to psychological disorders used by practitioners in medieval Persia. Several documents still exist from which the clinical data on different psychological syndromes in medieval Persia can be ascertained. Data for this review were identified by searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, the Internet, references from relevant articles and books, the Astan-e-Ghods Razavi Library, the Tehran University Library, the Mashhad University Library, and the files of the authors. Search terms included psychiatry, psychology, Persian, medieval, Avicenna, and pharmacotherapy. The medieval practitioners defined various signs and symptoms, apparent causes, and hygienic and dietary rules for prevention of these disorders. Medieval Persian medical writings encouraged the treatment of psychological disorders by tackling the conditions that cause or contribute to the disorder and through the use of electrical-shock therapy, phlebotomy, psychotherapy, music and color therapy, and especially prescription of long lists of medicaments. Some of the approaches of doctors in medieval Persia are accepted today, although most remain largely unexamined. With further research, more of these treatments may be shown to be of use to modern medicine.

  9. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L

    2011-09-01

    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. [The Antonine plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Charles

    2006-01-01

    During the reign of Marcus Aurelius, the Roman Empire was struck by a long and destructive epidemic. It began in Mesopotamia in late AD 165 or early AD 166 during Verus' Parthian campaign, and quickly spread to Rome. It lasted at least until the death of Marcus Aurelius in AD 180 and likely into the early part of Commodus' reign. Its victims were "innumerable". Galen had first-hand knowledge of the disease. He was in Rome when the plague reached the city in AD 166. He was also present during an outbreak among troops stationed at Aquileia during the winter of AD 168-169. His references to the plague are scattered and brief but enough information is available to firmly identify the plague as smallpox. His description of the exanthema is fairly typical of the smallpox rash, particularly in the hemorrhagic phase of the disease.

  11. Empirical assessment of a threshold model for sylvatic plague

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Stephen; Leirs, Herwig; Viljugrein, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plague surveillance programmes established in Kazakhstan, Central Asia, during the previous century, have generated large plague archives that have been used to parameterize an abundance threshold model for sylvatic plague in great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations. Here, we assess the model...... examine six hypotheses that could explain the resulting false positive predictions, namely (i) including end-of-outbreak data erroneously lowers the estimated threshold, (ii) too few gerbils were tested, (iii) plague becomes locally extinct, (iv) the abundance of fleas was too low, (v) the climate...

  12. Ecology of Yersinia pestis and the Epidemiology of Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Yeszhanov, Aidyn B

    2016-01-01

    This chapter summarizes information about the natural foci of plague in the world. We describe the location, main hosts, and vectors of Yersinia pestis. The ecological features of the hosts and vectors of plague are listed, including predators - birds and mammals and their role in the epizootic. The epizootic process in plague and the factors affecting the dynamics of epizootic activity of natural foci of Y. pestis are described in detail. The mathematical models of the epizootic process in plague and predictive models are briefly described. The most comprehensive list of the hosts and vectors of Y. pestis in the world is presented as well.

  13. Human plague occurrences in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences in ...

  14. Plague in Yosemite

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-23

    Dr. Vicki Kramer, with the California Department of Public Health, discusses two cases of plague in Yosemite National Park.  Created: 3/23/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/23/2017.

  15. Plague in Uganda

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-01-25

    Dr. Paul Mead, a medical officer at CDC, discusses his article on Plague in Uganda.  Created: 1/25/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/25/2018.

  16. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  17. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an account of selected topics from key mathematical works of medieval Islam, based on the Arabic texts themselves. Many of these works had a great influence on mathematics in Western Europe. Topics covered in the first edition include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and numerical approximation; this second edition adds number theory and combinatorics. Additionally, the author has included selections from the western regions of medieval Islam—both North Africa and Spain. The author puts the works into their historical context and includes numerous examples of how mathematics interacted with Islamic society.

  18. Plague and Climate: Scales Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Gage, Kenneth L.; Kreppel, Katharina; Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Plague is enzootic in wildlife populations of small mammals in central and eastern Asia, Africa, South and North America, and has been recognized recently as a reemerging threat to humans. Its causative agent Yersinia pestis relies on wild rodent hosts and flea vectors for its maintenance in nature. Climate influences all three components (i.e., bacteria, vectors, and hosts) of the plague system and is a likely factor to explain some of plague's variability from small and regional to large scales. Here, we review effects of climate variables on plague hosts and vectors from individual or population scales to studies on the whole plague system at a large scale. Upscaled versions of small-scale processes are often invoked to explain plague variability in time and space at larger scales, presumably because similar scale-independent mechanisms underlie these relationships. This linearity assumption is discussed in the light of recent research that suggests some of its limitations. PMID:21949648

  19. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... origins, showing how an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend can be found in works by several familiar writers including Jordanes, Bede, ‘Fredegar’, Paul the Deacon, Freculph, and Æthelweard. The book investigates how legends of northern warriors were first created in classical texts and since re-calibrated to fit...... the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies....

  20. Climate-driven introduction of the Black Death and successive plague reintroductions into Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schmid, B. V.; Büntgen, Ulf; Easterday, W. R.; Ginzler, Ch.; Walloe, L.; Bramanti, B.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 10 (2015), s. 3020-3025 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : yersinia-pestis * xenopsylla-cheopis * bubonic plague * central-asia * synchrony * dynamics * transmission * temperature * populations * thresholds * Yersinia pestis * medieval epidemiology * climate-driven disease dynamics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.423, year: 2015 http://www.pnas.org/content/112/10/3020.full.pdf

  1. [Plague in Zaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, P G; Pattyn, S R

    1994-01-01

    Two endemic foci of plague have been discovered in Zaïre, the first in the Ituri in 1928, the other in North-Kivu in 1938. They are situated in the region of the great East-African Rift and are adjacent to the Ugandan focus, identified in 1877. A strict surveillance of these endemic foci makes it possible to state that, between 1928 and 1959, 632 cases of plague have been diagnosed in the Ituri, or 20 a year, and 190 in the N-Kivu, or 8 a year. Since then several flare ups have been notified. This situation is very remote from the "black death" concept. Yersinia pestis presents, besides its bipolar staining, many other characteristics such as the indispensable presence of iron to produce virulence, or the fermentation of glycerine and reduction of nitrates as parameters for the identification of 3 biovars, corresponding with a specific geographic distribution: antiqua, medievalis, orientalis or maritima. The antigenic structure has been discussed and also the role of plasmids. Plague is a disease of rats, a variegated gathering of rodents with different degrees of tolerance and sensitiveness to Y.pestis, living in a frail equilibrium. The multimammate houserat was in the Ituri the principal agent until the black rat Rattus rattus invaded the region and a new balance came into being. The frequent changes in taxonomy of Mastomys caused uncertainties. The transmission is due to fleas subject to a blocking of their ventriculum by Y.pestis. Fleas play an active part in the process. Man is only a casual intruder. The pathogenicity is related to its invasiveness and its intracellular localization in macrophages and other R.E. cells, in which Y.pestis can survive. The bubo is characteristic of the disease. In Zaïre a septicaemic tendency has been observed, with a possible involvement of the C.N.S. and of the lungs. The latter may produce among the surrounding relatives primary pneumonic plague. The clinical diagnosis ought to be confirmed by bacteriologic investigation

  2. [Advance to the research of the climate factor effect on the distribution of plague].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, A P; Wei, R J; Xiong, H M; Wang, Z Y

    2016-05-01

    Plague is an anthropozoonotic disease caused by the Yersinia pestis ,which developed by many factors including local climate factors. In recent years, more and more studies on the effects of climate on plague were conducted. According to the researches, climate factors (mainly the rainfall and temperature) affected the development and distribution of plague by influencing the abundance of plague host animals and fleas index. The climate also affected the epidemic dynamics and the scope of plague. There were significant differences existing in the influence of climate on the palgue developed in the north and south China. In the two different plague epidemic systems, the solitary Daurian ground squirrel-flea-plague and the social Mongolian gerbil-flea-plague, the obvious population differences existed among the responses of the host animal to the climate changes. Although the internal relationship between the rainfall, the flea index, the density of rodents and the plague supported the nutritional cascade hypothesis, it can not prove that there is a clear causality between the occurrence of plague and rainfall. So the influence of climate factors on plague distribution can only be used for early forecasting and warning of the plague.

  3. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  4. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention.Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties. Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described.Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012. Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level.Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  5. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-02-01

    Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  6. Plague in Iran: its history and current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. METHODS: In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. RESULTS: This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today’s Iran and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  7. Plague in Iran: its history and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Carniel, Elizabeth; Mostafavi, Ehsan

    2016-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, particularly in old foci. Multiple epidemics of this disease have been recorded throughout the history of Iran. Despite the long-standing history of human plague in Iran, it remains difficult to obtain an accurate overview of the history and current status of plague in Iran. In this review, available data and reports on cases and outbreaks of human plague in the past and present in Iran and in neighboring countries were collected, and information was compiled regarding when, where, and how many cases occurred. This paper considers the history of plague in Persia (the predecessor of today's Iran) and has a brief review of plague in countries in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, including a range of countries in the Middle East and North Africa. Since Iran has experienced outbreaks of plague for several centuries, neighboring countries have reported the disease in recent years, the disease can be silent for decades, and the circulation of Yersinia pestis has been reported among rodents and dogs in western Iran, more attention should be paid to disease monitoring in areas with previously reported human cases and in high-risk regions with previous epizootic and enzootic activity.

  8. Did medieval trade activity and a viral etiology control the spatial extent and seasonal distribution of Black Death mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossak, Brian H; Welford, Mark R

    2009-06-01

    Recent research into the world's greatest recorded epidemic, the Medieval Black Death (MBD), has cast doubt on Bubonic Plague as the etiologic agent. Prior research has recently culminated in outstanding advances in our understanding of the spatio-temporal pattern of MBD mortality, and a characterization of the incubation, latent, infectious, and symptomatic periods of the MBD. However, until now, several mysteries remained unexplained, including perhaps the biggest quandary of all: why did the MBD exhibit inverse seasonal peaks in mortality from diseases recorded in modern times, such as seasonal Influenza or the Indian Plague Epidemics of the early 1900 s? Although some have argued that climate changes likely explain the observed differences between modern clinical Bubonic Plague seasonality and MBD mortality accounts, we believe that another factor explains these dissimilarities. Here, we provide a synthetic hypothesis which builds upon previous theories developed in the last ten years or so. Our all-encompassing theory explains the causation, dissemination, and lethality of the MBD. We theorize that the MBD was a human-to-human transmitted virus, originating in East-Central Asia and not Africa (as some recent work has proposed), and that its areal extent during the first great epidemic wave of 1347-1350 was controlled hierarchically by proximity to trade routes. We also propose that the seasonality of medieval trade controlled the warm-weather mortality peaks witnessed during 1347-1350; during the time of greatest market activity, traders, fairgoers, and religious pilgrims served as unintentional vectors of a lethal virus with an incubation period of approximately 32 days, including a largely asymptomatic yet infectious period of roughly three weeks. We include a description of the rigorous research agenda that we have proposed in order to subject our theory to scientific scrutiny and a description of our plans to generate the first publicly available

  9. Plague in Arab Maghreb, 1940-2015: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliya Alia Malek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the epidemiology of 49 plague outbreaks which resulted in about 7,612 cases in 30 localities in the Arabic Maghreb (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt over 75 years. Between 1940 and 1950, most cases recorded in Morocco (75% and Egypt (20%, resulted from plague imported to Mediterranean harbours and transmitted by rat ectoparasites. In contrast, the re-emergence of plague in the southern part of Western Sahara in 1953 and in northeast Libya in 1976, was traced to direct contact between nomadic populations and infected goats and camels in natural foci, including the consumption of contaminated meat, illustrating this neglected oral route of contamination. Further familial outbreaks were traced to human ectoparasite transmission. Efforts to identify the factors contributing to natural foci may guide where to focus the surveillance of sentinel animals in order to eradicate human plague, if not Y. pestis from the Arab Maghreb.

  10. Plague and the Human Flea, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes H

    2007-01-01

    Domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. Of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. In the remaining 5 villages with low plague...... frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. Pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. The density of P. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, was significantly higher in villages with a higher plague frequency or incidence. Moreover, the P....... irritans index was strongly positively correlated with plague frequency and with the logarithmically transformed plague incidence. These observations suggest that in Lushoto District human fleas may play a role in plague epidemiology. These findings are of immediate public health relevance because...

  11. Testing the generality of a trophic-cascade model for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, S.K.; Johnson, W.C.; Ray, C.; Matchett, R.; Grensten, J.; Cully, J.F.; Gage, K.L.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Loye, J.E.; Martin, A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Climate may affect the dynamics of infectious diseases by shifting pathogen, vector, or host species abundance, population dynamics, or community interactions. Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to plague, yet little is known about factors that influence the dynamics of plague epizootics in prairie dogs. We investigated temporal patterns of plague occurrence in black-tailed prairie dogs to assess the generality of links between climate and plague occurrence found in previous analyses of human plague cases. We examined long-term data on climate and plague occurrence in prairie dog colonies within two study areas. Multiple regression analyses revealed that plague occurrence in prairie dogs was not associated with climatic variables in our Colorado study area. In contrast, plague occurrence was strongly associated with climatic variables in our Montana study area. The models with most support included a positive association with precipitation in April-July of the previous year, in addition to a positive association with the number of "warm" days and a negative association with the number of "hot" days in the same year as reported plague events. We conclude that the timing and magnitude of precipitation and temperature may affect plague occurrence in some geographic areas. The best climatic predictors of plague occurrence in prairie dogs within our Montana study area are quite similar to the best climatic predictors of human plague cases in the southwestern United States. This correspondence across regions and species suggests support for a (temperature-modulated) trophic-cascade model for plague, including climatic effects on rodent abundance, flea abundance, and pathogen transmission, at least in regions that experience strong climatic signals. ?? 2005 EcoHealth Journal Consortium.

  12. [The pathogenic ecology research on plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Rui-xia; Wei, Bai-qing; Li, Cun-xiang; Xiong, Hao-ming; Yang, Xiao-yan; Fan, Wei; Qi, Mei-ying; Jin, Juan; Wei, Rong-jie; Feng, Jian-ping; Jin, Xing; Wang, Zu-yun

    2013-12-01

    To study the pathogenic ecology characteristics of plague in Qinghai plateau. Applied molecular biology techniques, conventional technologies and geographic information system (GIS) to study phenotypic traits, plasmid spectrum, genotype, infected host and media spectrum etc.of 952 Yersinia pestis strains in Qinghai plateau plague foci, which were separated from different host and media in different regions during 1954 to 2012. The ecotypes of these strains were Qingzang plateau (91.49%, 871/952),Qilian mountain (6.41%, 61/952) and Microtus fuscus (1.26%, 12/952).83.6% (796/952) of these strains contained all the 4 virulence factors (Fr1, Pesticin1,Virulence antigen, and Pigmentation), 93.26% (367/392) were velogenic strains confirmed by virulence test.725 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Qinghai plateau plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, among which 713 strains from Marmot himalayan plague foci carried 9 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 7×10(6), 23×10(6), 27×10(6), 30×10(6), 45×10(6), 52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6) respectively. 12 Yersinia pestis strains were separated from Microtus fuscus plague foci carried only 3 kinds of plasmid, the Mr were 6×10(6), 45×10(6), 65×10(6). Meanwhile, the strains carrying large plasmid (52×10(6), 65×10(6) and 92×10(6)) were only distributed in particular geographical location, which had the category property. The research also confirmed that 841 Yersinia pestis strains from two kinds of plague foci in Qinghai plateau had 11 genomovars. The strains of Marmot himalayan plague foci were given priority to genomovar 5 and 8, amounted to 611 strains, genomovar 8 accounted for 56.00% (471/841), genomovar 5 accounted for 23.07% (194/841). Besides, 3 new genomovars, including new 1(62 strains), new 2(52 strains), new 3(48 strains) were newly founded, and 12 strains of Microtus fuscus plague foci were genomovar 14. The main host and media of Qinghai plateau plague foci directly affected the spatial

  13. Sylvatic plague vaccine and management of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC), in collaboration with colleagues at the University of Wisconsin (UW), have developed a sylvatic plague vaccine that shows great promise in protecting prairie dogs against plague (Mencher and others, 2004; Rocke and others, 2010). Four species of prairie dogs reside in the United States and Canada, and all are highly susceptible to plague and regularly experience outbreaks with devastating losses. Along with habitat loss and poisoning, plague has contributed to a significant historical decline in prairie dog populations. By some estimates, prairie dogs now occupy only 1 to 2 percent of their former range (Proctor and others, 2006), with prairie dog colonies being now much smaller and fragmented than they were historically, making individual colonies more vulnerable to elimination by plague (Antolin and others, 2002). At least one species, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as "threatened." Controlling plague is a vital concern for ongoing management and conservation efforts for prairie dogs. Current efforts to halt the spread of plague in prairie dog colonies typically rely on dusting individual prairie dog burrows with pesticides to kill plague-infected fleas. Although flea-control insecticides, such as deltamethrin, are useful in stopping plague outbreaks in these prairie dog colonies, dusting of burrows is labor intensive and time consuming and may affect other insects and arthropods. As an alternative approach, NWHC and UW scientists developed a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) for prairie dogs that can be delivered via oral bait. Laboratory studies have shown that consumption of this vaccine-laden bait by different prairie dog species results in significant protection against plague infection that can last for at least 9 months (Rocke and others, 2010; Rocke, unpublished). Work has now shifted to optimizing baits and distribution methods for

  14. Sylvatic plague vaccine: A new tool for conservation of threatened and endangered species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rachel C.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bunck, Christine M.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2012-01-01

    Plague, a disease caused by Yersinia pestis introduced into North America about 100 years ago, is devastating to prairie dogs and the highly endangered black-footed ferret. Current attempts to control plague in these species have historically relied on insecticidal dusting of prairie dog burrows to kill the fleas that spread the disease. Although successful in curtailing outbreaks in most instances, this method of plague control has significant limitations. Alternative approaches to plague management are being tested, including vaccination. Currently, all black-footed ferret kits released for reintroduction are vaccinated against plague with an injectable protein vaccine, and even wild-born kits are captured and vaccinated at some locations. In addition, a novel, virally vectored, oral vaccine to prevent plague in wild prairie dogs has been developed and will soon be tested as an alternative, preemptive management tool. If demonstrated to be successful, oral vaccination of selected prairie dog populations could decrease the occurrence of plague epizootics in key locations, thereby reducing the source of bacteria while avoiding the indiscriminate environmental effects of dusting. Just as rabies in wild carnivores has largely been controlled through an active surveillance and oral vaccination program, we believe an integrated plague management strategy would be similarly enhanced with the addition of a cost-effective, bait-delivered, sylvatic plague vaccine for prairie dogs. Control of plague in prairie dogs, and potentially other rodents, would significantly advance prairie dog conservation and black-footed ferret recovery.

  15. What Is Medieval European Literature?

    OpenAIRE

    Borsa, Paolo; Høgel, Christian; Mortensen, Lars Boje; Tyler, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The editors of Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures explain the scope and purpose of the new journal by mapping out the significance and possible meanings of the three key terms of the subtitle: ‘literature,’ ‘medieval,’ ‘Europe.’ The specific theme of Issue 1 is introduced: ‘Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation.’ With respect to this theme, theoretical problems concerning teleology and the present possibilities for liter...

  16. Medieval Pictorial Art and Medieval Spanish Literature: A Case in Point for the Use of the Visual Arts in the Literature Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Stanford E.

    1991-01-01

    An exploration of the connection between literature and the visual arts and its application in the foreign language literature class includes an illustration of how a medieval literary Spanish masterpiece becomes more clear when the text is compared with medieval pictorial art pieces. (four references) (Author/CB)

  17. Potential corridors and barriers for plague spread in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plague (Yersinia pestis infection) is a vector-borne disease which caused millions of human deaths in the Middle Ages. The hosts of plague are mostly rodents, and the disease is spread by the fleas that feed on them. Currently, the disease still circulates amongst sylvatic rodent populations all over the world, including great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) populations in Central Asia. Great gerbils are social desert rodents that live in family groups in burrows, which are visible on satellite images. In great gerbil populations an abundance threshold exists, above which plague can spread causing epizootics. The spatial distribution of the host species is thought to influence the plague dynamics, such as the direction of plague spread, however no detailed analysis exists on the possible functional or structural corridors and barriers that are present in this population and landscape. This study aims to fill that gap. Methods Three 20 by 20 km areas with known great gerbil burrow distributions were used to analyse the spatial distribution of the burrows. Object-based image analysis was used to map the landscape at several scales, and was linked to the burrow maps. A novel object-based method was developed – the mean neighbour absolute burrow density difference (MNABDD) – to identify the optimal scale and evaluate the efficacy of using landscape objects as opposed to square cells. Multiple regression using raster maps was used to identify the landscape-ecological variables that explain burrow density best. Functional corridors and barriers were mapped using burrow density thresholds. Cumulative resistance of the burrow distribution to potential disease spread was evaluated using cost distance analysis. A 46-year plague surveillance dataset was used to evaluate whether plague spread was radially symmetric. Results The burrow distribution was found to be non-random and negatively correlated with Greenness, especially in the floodplain areas. Corridors and

  18. Making medieval art modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth den Hartog

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Janet T. Marquardt’s book ‘Zodiaque. Making medieval art modern’ discusses the historical context, history and impact of the Zodiaque publications issued by the monks from the abbey of Ste-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in Burgundy between 1951 and 2001 and links the striking photogravures, the core business of these books, to the modern movement. Although Marquardt’s view that the Zodiaque series made a great impact on the study of Romanesque sculpture is somewhat overrated, her claim that the photogravures should be seen as avant-garde works of art and the books as a “museum without walls” is entirely convincing.

  19. Russian Medieval Military Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoport, Pavel

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available In Russia defensive works were not less important than in Western Europe. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns, of their siege and defence. In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves.

  20. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  1. JEWISH SUFISM IN MEDIEVAL ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Epafras, Leonard C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a literary research and preliminary examination to a unique interaction between Jews and Sufism that taken place in medieval Islamic ruling. In the face of the present antagonistic posture of Jews and Muslims relationship that dominates the public sphere, in history, there are some examples of interaction of the two people beyond confictual narrative. One of them is Jewish mysticism that adopted Sufism into their spiritual ideal, which took place in the medieval era. We might ...

  2. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  3. Phylogeny and Classification of Yersinia pestis Through the Lens of Strains From the Plague Foci of Commonwealth of Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kutyrev

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The established phylogeny of the etiological agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, is not perfect, as it does not take into account the strains from numerous natural foci of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS. We have carried out PCR and SNP typing of 359 strains and whole genome sequencing of 51 strains from these plague foci and determined the phylogenetic diversity of the strains circulating here. They belong to 0.ANT3, 0.ANT5, 2.ANT3, 4.ANT branches of antique biovar, 2.MED0, 2.MED1 branches of medieval biovar and to 0.PE2, 0.PE4a. 0.PE4h, 0.PE4t branches. Based on the studies of 178 strains from 23 plague foci of CIS countries, it was determined that the population structure of 2.MED strains is subdivided into Caucasian–Caspian and Central Asian–Chinese branches. In Central-Caucasian high-mountain plague foci in the Russian Federation (RF the most deeply diverged branch of medieval biovar, 2.MED0, has been found. With the data obtained, the current population structure of Y. pestis species has been refined. New subspecies classification is developed, comprising seven subspecies: pestis, caucasica (0.PE2, angolica (0.PE3, central asiatica (0.PE4, tibetica (0.PE7, ulegeica (0.PE5, and qinghaica (0.PE10.

  4. The Formula of Plague Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Riber

    2015-01-01

    The article is a narratological investigation of a selection of plague tales. The selection spans millennia and different text types, technologies and genres, from The Bible to apocalyptical films, iPhone games and testimonials from Médecins Sans Frontières. The research question is whether...

  5. [Who were the healers in medieval Trondheim?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K; Westin, S

    1998-12-10

    When Trondheim celebrated its millenium in 1997, this also marked a 1000 year-old medical tradition. In medieval times, sick and disabled people made their pilgrimage to the Nidaros cathedral and the grave of Saint Olav (995-1030). Working from the assumption that every organized society develops rituals and rules to deal with disease and death, we have looked for evidence of what kind of healers one would expect there were in medieval Trondheim up to the reformation in 1537. Sources include reports from archaeological excavations, written material of both medieval and more recent origin, buildings and objects, and living traditions. Three kinds of healer traditions can be identified: The popular and "wise" folk healers were based on traditional pre-Christian mythology and belief in natural forces. The charitable clerics emerged with Christianity. The "professional" wound healers evolved from the needs of the military, later to merge with the early barber surgeons. Traces of scientific traditions, the Salerno school and early European university medicine can be found in local texts, but there is no evidence of any university educated doctor practising in Trondheim before the 17th century.

  6. Early Modern “Citation Index”? Medical Authorities in Academic Treatises on Plague (1480–1725

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of early modern scientific citations. It attempts to establish a measure of scientific popularity in a specific area of the academic medicine in a way which resembles a modern evaluation of scientific activity (citation index. For this purpose an analysis of a series of plague treatises written between 1480 and 1725 in Europe was conducted. Citations for various historical medical authorities (Hippocrates, Galen, etc. are given in Tables which reflect a long time development of popularity. The authorities from various groups (Ancient, Medieval, Arabic, Early Modern are linked together, and “generic authorities” are explained and discussed.

  7. The dancing plague: a public health conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, L J; Cavanagh, J; Rankin, J

    1997-07-01

    The phenomenon of mass, frenzied dancing affected large populations in various parts of Europe from the thirteenth century and lasted, on and off, for three centuries. The exact aetiology of the Dancing Plague (or Dancing Mania) is still unclear. Retrospective historical review of this public health problem reveals claims for causative factors including demonic possession, epilepsy, the bite of a tarantula, ergot poisoning and social adversity. It seems unlikely that Dancing Mania resulted from a single cause but rather resulted from multiple factors combining with a predisposing cultural background and triggered by adverse social circumstances. Dancing Mania remains one of the unresolved mysteries of public health.

  8. Assessing plague risk and presence through surveys of small mammal flea communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Friggens; P. L. Ford; R. R. Parmenter; M. Boyden; K. Gage

    2011-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, remains a threat to human and wildlife populations in the Western United States (Gage and Kosoy 2005). Several rodent species have been implicated as important maintenance hosts in the U.S., including Peromyscus maniculatus and Dipodomys spp. Fleas are a critical component of plague foci (Gage and Kosoy 2005)....

  9. Three days in October of 1630: detailed examination of mortality during an early modern plague epidemic in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, S R

    1989-01-01

    The epidemiology of medieval and early modern European plague remains highly controversial. It now seems likely that the epidemiology was not uniform throughout either the geographic or temporal boundaries of the plague in Western Europe. The Venetian plague of 1630 was extensively documented; day-by-day records were kept, and each mortality in the city was recorded in a set format. The days 23-25 October 1630, representing a period when mortality was beginning to increase sharply, are examined. In all, 1,163 deaths were recorded. They show a large preponderance of women; a mean age of 28, but a majority of cases clumped between ages 0 and 25 years; and an unequal sex ratio among children. Further, there was an identifiable smallpox epidemic raging simultaneously with plague, and more than one-quarter of all the deaths in this period of high mortality were clearly due to nonplague causes. Deaths due to wounds and associated with violence were prominent in one parish, which suggests that in times of plague the breakdown in the normal machinery of government, in everyday patterns of life, and possibly of mental well being resulted in an even more exaggerated death toll. These factors--violence, accidents, and other epidemics--have never been so definitively tied to a European plague epidemic. In addition, there are hints that plague has a marked proclivity to kill pregnant women--their deaths far outnumber those anticipated--and that plague was very localized at a given moment within Venice itself, even during times of peak mortality.

  10. Spread of plague among black-tailed prairie dogs is associated with colony spatial characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T.L.; Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.; Frey, C.M.; Sandercock, B.K.

    2011-01-01

    Sylvatic plague (Yersinia pestis) is an exotic pathogen that is highly virulent in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and causes widespread colony losses and individual mortality rates >95%. We investigated colony spatial characteristics that may influence inter-colony transmission of plague at 3 prairie dog colony complexes in the Great Plains. The 4 spatial characteristics we considered include: colony size, Euclidean distance to nearest neighboring colony, colony proximity index, and distance to nearest drainage (dispersal) corridor. We used multi-state mark-recapture models to determine the relationship between these colony characteristics and probability of plague transmission among prairie dog colonies. Annual mapping of colonies and mark-recapture analyses of disease dynamics in natural colonies led to 4 main results: 1) plague outbreaks exhibited high spatial and temporal variation, 2) the site of initiation of epizootic plague may have substantially influenced the subsequent inter-colony spread of plague, 3) the long-term effect of plague on individual colonies differed among sites because of how individuals and colonies were distributed, and 4) colony spatial characteristics were related to the probability of infection at all sites although the relative importance and direction of relationships varied among sites. Our findings suggest that conventional prairie dog conservation management strategies, including promoting large, highly connected colonies, may need to be altered in the presence of plague. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  11. Environmental drivers of Yersinia pestis - a holistic perspective on Medieval Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buentgen, U.

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated some evidence for a link between climate variability and plague (Yersinia pestis) dynamics in Central Asia and during most of the 20th century. An intensification of plague outbreaks via population peaks in its host-species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) and its fleas (Xenopsylla spp) has been found to occur during periods of warmer spring and wetter summer climate. This is important, as human epidemics of plague ultimately originate in its wildlife reservoirs. Given the fact that Medieval Europe was strongly devastated by the Black Death - the second pandemic after the Justinian plague ~540AD, and that the worldwide highest quality and quantity of climate proxy data exist for Europe, we here present, for the first time, a holistic approach to enhance understanding of the mid-14th century Black Death. This is of primary importance not only for medical/epidemiological research, but also for other scientific communities, because the Black Death disease had a sustainable impact on the socio-economic development, culture, art, and religion of Medieval Europe. Palaeoclimatic records of annually resolved European temperature and drought variability are compiled, a high-resolution time-series of anthropogenic deforestation is utilized, documentary archives of socio-economic relevance are considered, and the animal-born plague bacterium is placed in the ecological web. Considering the European/North Atlantic sector and the last millennium, periods of high solar radiation and reduced volcanic activity shift the North Atlantic Oscillation into a generally positive mode, yielding towards warmer temperatures and an intensification of the hydrological cycle. We now argue that increased internal circulation resulted in an overall wetter and warmer climate ~1350AD, which most likely was able to promote the prevalence of existing and widespread Yersinia pestis bacillus. Resulting outbreaks of bubonic plague could have been also supported by the

  12. Richard Rufus's theory of mixture: a medieval explanation of chemical combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Michael; Wood, Rega

    2003-05-01

    Richard Rufus of Cornwall offered a novel solution to the problem of mixture raised by Aristotle. The puzzle is that mixts or mixed bodies (blood, flesh, wood, etc.) seem to be unexplainable through logic, even though the world is full of them. Rufus's contribution to this long-standing theoretical debate is the development of a modal interpretation of certain Averroistic doctrines. Rufus's account, which posits that the elemental forms in a mixt are in accidental potential, avoids many of the problems that plagued non-atomistic medieval theories of mixture. This paper is an initial examination of Rufus' account.

  13. Vegetation habitats and small mammals in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: plague, vegetation, habitats, rodents distribution, Tanzania ... diseases (Eisen et al., 2007), and for the development of pest management .... This study received approval from Directorate of Research and Post-Graduate Studies of ..... be explained by the nature of human activities including grazing, bush fires, fire.

  14. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised

  15. The Image of Medieval Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Marjorie D.

    1978-01-01

    California State University offered a course concerning the roles and positions of women in medieval society as depicted in Middle High German literature. The course was open to all undergraduate students and required no prerequisites or knowledge of German. The content and structure of the course are outlined. (SW)

  16. Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2014-08-01

    This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise.

  17. Living History with a Medieval Banquet in the Alhambra Palace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbas, Audrey

    1996-01-01

    Recommends that students learn about Islamic civilization by presenting a "medieval banquet in the Alhambra Palace." Provides information about middle eastern culture and history that students could use to plan and produce the banquet. Includes a list of 26 "guests" who would be role-played by students. (CFR)

  18. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  19. Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... agents that pose the highest risk to national security and public health because they can be easily ... Career Stage Postdocs' Guide to Gaining Independence Small Business Programs Compare NIAID’s Small Business Programs High-Priority ...

  20. Plague dynamics are driven by climate variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Samia, Noelle I.; Viljugrein, Hildegunn

    2006-01-01

    The bacterium Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague. In Central Asia, where human plague is still reported regularly, the bacterium is common in natural populations of great gerbils. By using field data from 1949-1995 and previously undescribed statistical techniques, we show that Y. pestis...

  1. Pneumonic Plague Transmission, Moramanga, Madagascar, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasindrazana, Beza; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Rakotondramanga, Jean Marius; Birdsell, Dawn N; Ratsitorahina, Maherisoa; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2017-03-01

    During a pneumonic plague outbreak in Moramanga, Madagascar, we identified 4 confirmed, 1 presumptive, and 9 suspected plague case-patients. Human-to-human transmission among close contacts was high (reproductive number 1.44) and the case fatality rate was 71%. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Yersinia pestis isolates belonged to group q3, different from the previous outbreak.

  2. [The plague: An overview and hot topics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, A; Loubet, P; Peiffer-Smadja, N; Yazdanpanah, Y

    2018-04-05

    Plague is a bacterial zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, usually found in fleas and small rodents that constitute the reservoir of the disease. It is transmitted to humans by flea bite, contact with rodents or inhalation of infected droplets. There are three clinical forms: bubonic plague, pulmonary plague and septicemic plague. The usual presentation is a flu-like syndrome possibly accompanied by an inflammatory lymphadenopathy which appears after 1 to 7days of incubation. Bubonic plague has a case fatality rate of about 50% while other forms of plague are almost always fatal without treatment. Diagnosis can be confirmed by usual bacteriological techniques (Gram examination, culture) but also by serological examination, use of rapid diagnostic tests or PCR. Although aminoglycosides are traditionally regarded as the most effective treatment, fluoroquinolones or cyclins are currently recommended in France. Plague is one of the re-emerging diseases according to the WHO and Madagascar suffered in 2017 the most important plague epidemic of the 21st century with more than 2000 cases and 200 deaths. Peru and the Democratic Republic of Congo are also considered endemic areas. Public health measures and a relentless fight against poverty are the cornerstone of the control of the disease. Vaccine improvement in endemic areas may also play an important role. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Travel history key to picking up on signs of bubonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Health officials note an uptick in cases of bubonic plague in the United States this year, with at least 12 reported human cases reported since April 1. The CDC notes that healthcare providers should consider plague in patients who have traveled to plague-endemic areas and exhibit fever, headache, chills, weakness, and one or more swollen or tender and painful lymph nodes, referred to as buboes. Officials note that the disease rarely passes from person to person, but that this is a concern with patients who have developed the pneumonic form of the disease. Health officials note that in recent years there has been an average of seven cases of human plague each year in the United States, and that most of these cases are the bubonic form of the illness. Four patients confirmed to have plague this year have died, including the most recent case, a Utah man in his 70s. Most cases of plague in the United States occur in two regions. The first includes northern New Mexico, northern Arizona, and southern Colorado, and the second includes California, southern Oregon, and far western Nevada. When plague is suspected, treatment with antibiotics should begin immediately.

  4. Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhill, J; Wren, B W; Thomson, N R; Titball, R W; Holden, M T; Prentice, M B; Sebaihia, M; James, K D; Churcher, C; Mungall, K L; Baker, S; Basham, D; Bentley, S D; Brooks, K; Cerdeño-Tárraga, A M; Chillingworth, T; Cronin, A; Davies, R M; Davis, P; Dougan, G; Feltwell, T; Hamlin, N; Holroyd, S; Jagels, K; Karlyshev, A V; Leather, S; Moule, S; Oyston, P C; Quail, M; Rutherford, K; Simmonds, M; Skelton, J; Stevens, K; Whitehead, S; Barrell, B G

    2001-10-04

    The Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the systemic invasive infectious disease classically referred to as plague, and has been responsible for three human pandemics: the Justinian plague (sixth to eighth centuries), the Black Death (fourteenth to nineteenth centuries) and modern plague (nineteenth century to the present day). The recent identification of strains resistant to multiple drugs and the potential use of Y. pestis as an agent of biological warfare mean that plague still poses a threat to human health. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Y. pestis strain CO92, consisting of a 4.65-megabase (Mb) chromosome and three plasmids of 96.2 kilobases (kb), 70.3 kb and 9.6 kb. The genome is unusually rich in insertion sequences and displays anomalies in GC base-composition bias, indicating frequent intragenomic recombination. Many genes seem to have been acquired from other bacteria and viruses (including adhesins, secretion systems and insecticidal toxins). The genome contains around 150 pseudogenes, many of which are remnants of a redundant enteropathogenic lifestyle. The evidence of ongoing genome fluidity, expansion and decay suggests Y. pestis is a pathogen that has undergone large-scale genetic flux and provides a unique insight into the ways in which new and highly virulent pathogens evolve.

  5. Paleoproteomics of the Dental Pulp: The plague paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Rémi; Mekni, Rania; Levasseur, Anthony; Chabrière, Eric; Signoli, Michel; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Aboudharam, Gérard; Drancourt, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Chemical decomposition and fragmentation may limit the detection of ancient host and microbial DNA while some proteins can be detected for extended periods of time. We applied paleoproteomics on 300-year-old dental pulp specimens recovered from 16 individuals in two archeological funeral sites in France, comprising one documented plague site and one documented plague-negative site. The dental pulp paleoproteome of the 16 teeth comprised 439 peptides representative of 30 proteins of human origin and 211 peptides representative of 27 proteins of non-human origin. Human proteins consisted of conjunctive tissue and blood proteins including IgA immunoglobulins. Four peptides were indicative of three presumable Yersinia pestis proteins detected in 3/8 dental pulp specimens from the plague-positive site but not in the eight dental pulp specimens collected in the plague-negative site. Paleoproteomics applied to the dental pulp is a new and innovative approach to screen ancient individuals for the detection of blood-borne pathogens and host inflammatory response.

  6. Medieval monsters, in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a plethora of studies on the medieval monster. These studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of religion, art, literature, and science in the Middle Ages. However, a tendency to treat the medieval monster in purely symbolic and psychological terms ignores the lived experiences of impaired medieval people and their culture's attitudes toward them. With the aid of recent insights provided by disability studies, this article aims to confront "real" medieval monsters--e.g., physically impaired human beings--in both their human and monstrous aspects.

  7. The Desirability of Medieval Germany: Some Observations on an Introductory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillings, Lewis G.; Murdoch, Brian O.

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems and advantages of a course in Medieval Germany, including history, culture and literature along with language. Attention is given to issues and texts to be studied. (CHK)

  8. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Yersinia pestis and plague - an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2014-12-01

    The plague of man is a severe, systemic bacterial infectious disease. Without antibacterial therapy, the disease is associated with a high case fatality rate, ranging from 40% (bubonic plague) to nearly 100% (septicemic and pneumonic plague). The disease is caused by Yersinia pestis, a non-motile, gram-negative, facultative anaerobic bacterium belonging to the family of Enterobacteriaceae. In nature, Y. pestis has been found in several rodent species and some other small animals such as shrews. Within its reservoir host, Y. pestis circulates via flea bites. Transmission of Y. pestis to humans occurs by the bite of rat fleas, other flea vectors or by non vectorial routes, e. g., handling infected animals or consumption of contaminated food. Human-to-human transmission of the pathogen occurs primarily through aerosol droplets. Compared to the days when plague was a pandemic scourge, the disease is now relatively rare and limited to some rural areas of Africa. During the last ten years, however, plague outbreaks have been registered repea- tedly in some African regions. For treatment of plague, streptomycin is still considered the drug of choice. Chloramphenicol, doxycycline, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are also promising drugs. Recombinant vaccines against plague are in clinical development.

  10. Herbal diuretics in medieval Persian and Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.

  11. [All around the deathbed of Lubbert ten Busch. The Modern Devotion and the plague in Deventer in 1398].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, T

    1999-01-01

    The seriousness of plague epidemics can be expressed in numbers and medical terms, but we get closer to the past, and it becomes our own history more than in any other way, when we can empathise with the story of a single individual. In the summer months of 1398, the plague raged in the city of Deventer, which lies on the river IJssel, in the east of the present-day Netherlands. This plague epidemic also threatened the small community of priests and minor clerics which gave rise to the new spiritual movement of the Modern Devotion. This new community was concerned about its survival. Their vocation required that the brethren should help the citizens who remained behind. However, this could prove to be their undoing, and therefore it would be better to leave the city. They resolved the dilemma by dividing into two groups. Half of the brethren left to ensure the continuity of the community; the other half stayed in Deventer to help the people. The two groups stayed in contact by means of letters, the text of which has survived in several sources. The fears and forebodings became reality. The plague also affected the new community of brethren. The deputy rector, Lubbert ten Busch, also died of the plague. There is a letter from him which he wrote just before he died. This farewell letter was sent together with a letter from one of the brethren, saying that Lubbert had meanwhile died, and describing the scene of his death. Because of the personal tone and the tragic of content, the letters about the death of Lubbert ten Busch are unique medieval documents. They give a good insight into the way in which the plague could personally affect someone and his immediate companions in the late Middle Ages. This paper focuses attention on these letters, and reconstructs the events around this death, so that the letters speak to us once again.

  12. Small mammals distribution and diversity in a plague endemic area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammals play a role in plague transmission as hosts in all plague endemic areas. Information on distribution and diversity of small mammals is therefore important for plague surveillance and control in such areas. The objective of this study was to investigate small mammals' diversity and their distribution in plague ...

  13. A review of plague persistence with special emphasis on fleas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimsatt, Jeffrey; Biggins, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    Sylvatic plague is highly prevalent during infrequent epizootics that ravage the landscape of western North America. During these periods, plague dissemination is very efficient. Epizootics end when rodent and flea populations are decimated and vectored transmission declines. A second phase (enzootic plague) ensues when plague is difficult to detect from fleas, hosts or the environment, and presents less of a threat to public health.

  14. Sylvatic plague vaccine: combating plague in prarie dogs and black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    After achieving promising results in laboratory trials, researchers at the USGS National Wildlife Health Center (NWHC) and University of Wisconsin at Madison will soon begin field testing a new oral vaccine for sylvatic plague, a devastating disease affecting prairie dogs and other mammals, particularly the endangered black-footed ferret. Our team has developed and is currently registering a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) that uses raccoon poxvirus (RCN) to express two key antigens of the Yersinia pestis bacterium, the causative agent of plague.

  15. Setting the stage for medieval plague: Pre-black death trends in survival and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2015-11-01

    The 14(th) -century Black Death was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history, killing tens of millions of people in a short period of time. It is not clear why mortality rates during the epidemic were so high. One possibility is that the affected human populations were particularly stressed in the 14(th) century, perhaps as a result of repeated famines in areas such as England. This project examines survival and mortality in two pre-Black Death time periods, 11-12(th) centuries vs 13(th) century CE, to determine if demographic conditions were deteriorating before the epidemic occurred. This study is done using a sample of individuals from several London cemeteries that have been dated, in whole or in part, either to the 11-12(th) centuries (n = 339) or 13(th) century (n = 258). Temporal trends in survivorship and mortality are assessed via Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and by modeling time period as a covariate affecting the Gompertz hazard of adult mortality. The age-at-death distributions from the two pre-Black Death time periods are significantly different, with fewer older adults in 13(th) century. The results of Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicate reductions in survival before the Black Death, with significantly lower survival in the 13(th) century (Mantel Cox p < 0.001). Last, hazard analysis reveals increases in mortality rates before the Black Death. Together, these results suggest that health in general was declining in the 13(th) century, and this might have led to high mortality during the Black Death. This highlights the importance of considering human context to understand disease in past and living human populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Magic in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn.......The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn....

  17. Medieval Romances: "Perceval" to "Monty Python."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dorothy M.

    A selection of romances from medieval literature can be used successfully in undergraduate literature classes to trace the appearance and relevance of medieval themes, motifs, and characters in works of modern poetry, fiction, and film. New scholarly editions, historiographies, translations, and modernizations give both teachers and students more…

  18. Plague metapopulation dynamics in a natural reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Klassovskiy, N; Ageyev, V

    2007-01-01

    The ecology of plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in its ancient foci in Central Asia remains poorly understood. We present field data from two sites in Kazakhstan where the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the major natural host. Family groups inhabit and defend burrow systems spaced throughout...... the landscape, such that the host population may be considered a metapopulation, with each occupied burrow system a subpopulation. We examine plague transmission within and between family groups and its effect on survival. Transmission of plague occurred disproportionately within family groups although not all...... gerbils became infected once plague entered a burrow system. There were no spatial patterns to suggest that family groups in close proximity to infected burrow systems were more at risk of infection than those far away. At one site, infection increased the chances of burrow-system extinction. Overall...

  19. Ten years of surveillance of the Yulong plague focus in China and the molecular typing and source tracing of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Shi, Liyuan; Zhang, Fuxin; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhikai; Tan, Hongli; Cui, Zhigang; Ding, Yibo; Liang, Ying; Liang, Yun; Yu, Dongzheng; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Wei; Song, Zhizhong

    2018-03-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, was classified as a reemerging infectious disease by the World Health Organization. The five human pneumonic plague cases in Yulong County in 2005 gave rise to the discovery of a Yulong plague focus in Yunnan province, China. Thereafter, continuous wild rodent plague (sylvatic plague) was identified as the main plague reservoir of this focus. In this study, the epizootics in Yulong focus were described, and three molecular typing methods, including the different region (DFR) analysis, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) (14+12), were used for the molecular typing and source tracing of Y. pestis isolates in the Yulong plague focus. Simultaneously, several isolates from the vicinity of Yunnan were used as controls. The results showed that during the 10-year period from 2006 to 2016, an animal plague epidemic occurred in 6 of those years, and 5 villages underwent an animal plague epidemic within a 30-km2 area of the Yulong plague focus. Searching for dead mice was the most effective monitoring method in this plague focus. No positive sample has been found in 6937 captured live rodents thus far, suggesting that the virulence of strains in the Yulong plague focus is stronger and the survival time of mice is shorter after infection. Strains from Lijiang, Sichuan and Tibet were of the same complex based on a typing analysis of DFR and CRISPR. The genetic relationship of Y. pestis illustrated by MLVA "14+12" demonstrates that Tibet and Sichuan strains evolved from the strains 1.IN2 (Qinghai, 1970 and Tibet, 1976), and Lijiang strains are closer to Batang strains (Batang County in Sichuan province, 2011, Himalaya marmot plague foci) in terms of genetic or phylogenic relationships. In conclusion, we have a deeper understanding of this new plague focus throughout this study, which provides a basis for effective prevention and

  20. Human Plague Risk: Spatial-Temporal Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    This chpater reviews the use of spatial-temporal models in identifying potential risks of plague outbreaks into the human population. Using earth observations by satellites remote sensing there has been a systematic analysis and mapping of the close coupling between the vectors of the disease and climate variability. The overall result is that incidence of plague is correlated to positive El Nino/Southem Oscillation (ENSO).

  1. Orientation of English Medieval Parish Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Peter G.

    Our understanding of the alignment of English medieval parish churches, after more than three centuries of research, is far from complete. The arrangement of relatively few structures has been explained beyond reasonable doubt, and tests of the overwhelmingly popular festival orientation theory are often insufficiently rigorous to provide convincing answers. Much work remains to be done, including verifying and analyzing some of the existing raw data, determining whether the present church was dedicated at the time of construction, examining wills for evidence of early dedications, measuring the effect of eastern horizons on sunrise azimuths, and consulting excavation reports to assess whether earlier buildings may have influenced the arrangement of those churches that replaced them.

  2. OBESITY : A MODERN DAY PLAGUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Yatendra Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Obesity is the presence of excess body fat. Unfortunately obesity is taken as a mere cosmetic problem and not a medical one. Today obesity is being 'dealt' with more by the self-proclaimed fitness experts running the rapidly mushrooming fitness centres rather than by medical professionals. But rather than merely a cosmetic problem, obesity should be viewed as a disease because there are multiple biologic hazards at surprisingly low levels of excess fat With the rapid pace of industrialisation and economic progress, today more and more jobs are becoming sedentary and dietary patterns are also changing with a decline in the cereal intake and increase in the intake of sugar and fats. However, inherited physiologic differences in response to eating and exercise are also important factors. Treating obesity can often be a frustrating experience for both the physician and the patient because of the great difficulty in maintaining weight loss over the long term. However, a clear understanding of the causes of obesity and a treatment strategy based on a combination of diet, nutrition, education, exercise, behaviour modification and social support can go a long way in containing this 'modern day plague' before it acquires epidemic proportions.

  3. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  4. Outbreak of Plague in a High Malaria Endemic Region - Nyimba District, Zambia, March-May 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyange, Nyambe; Kumar, Ramya; Inambao, Akatama; Moonde, Loveness; Chama, Jonathan; Banda, Mapopa; Tembo, Elliot; Nsonga, Beron; Mwaba, John; Fwoloshi, Sombo; Musokotwane, Kebby; Chizema, Elizabeth; Kapin'a, Muzala; Hang'ombe, Benard Mudenda; Baggett, Henry C; Hachaambwa, Lottie

    2016-08-12

    Outbreaks of plague have been recognized in Zambia since 1917 (1). On April 10, 2015, Zambia's Ministry of Health was notified by the Eastern Provincial Medical Office of possible bubonic plague cases in Nyimba District. Eleven patients with acute fever and cervical lymphadenopathy had been evaluated at two rural health centers during March 28-April 9, 2015; three patients died. To confirm the outbreak and develop control measures, the Zambia Ministry of Health's Field Epidemiology Training Program (ZFETP) conducted epidemiologic and laboratory investigations in partnership with the University of Zambia's schools of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine and the provincial and district medical offices. Twenty-one patients with clinically compatible plague were identified, with symptom onset during March 26-May 5, 2015. The median age was 8 years, and all patients were from the same village. Blood specimens or lymph node aspirates from six (29%) patients tested positive for Yersinia pestis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There is an urgent need to improve early identification and treatment of plague cases. PCR is a potential complementary tool for identifying plague, especially in areas with limited microbiologic capacity. Twelve (57%) patients, including all six with PCR-positive plague and all three who died, also tested positive for malaria by rapid diagnostic test (RDT). Plague patients coinfected with malaria might be misdiagnosed as solely having malaria, and appropriate antibacterial treatment to combat plague might not be given, increasing risk for mortality. Because patients with malaria might be coinfected with other pathogens, broad spectrum antibiotic treatment to cover other pathogens is recommended for all children with severe malaria, until a bacterial infection is excluded.

  5. Host resistance, population structure and the long-term persistence of bubonic plague: contributions of a modelling approach in the Malagasy focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Gascuel

    Full Text Available Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar.

  6. Host Resistance, Population Structure and the Long-Term Persistence of Bubonic Plague: Contributions of a Modelling Approach in the Malagasy Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Fanny; Choisy, Marc; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Débarre, Florence; Brouat, Carine

    2013-01-01

    Although bubonic plague is an endemic zoonosis in many countries around the world, the factors responsible for the persistence of this highly virulent disease remain poorly known. Classically, the endemic persistence of plague is suspected to be due to the coexistence of plague resistant and plague susceptible rodents in natural foci, and/or to a metapopulation structure of reservoirs. Here, we test separately the effect of each of these factors on the long-term persistence of plague. We analyse the dynamics and equilibria of a model of plague propagation, consistent with plague ecology in Madagascar, a major focus where this disease is endemic since the 1920s in central highlands. By combining deterministic and stochastic analyses of this model, and including sensitivity analyses, we show that (i) endemicity is favoured by intermediate host population sizes, (ii) in large host populations, the presence of resistant rats is sufficient to explain long-term persistence of plague, and (iii) the metapopulation structure of susceptible host populations alone can also account for plague endemicity, thanks to both subdivision and the subsequent reduction in the size of subpopulations, and extinction-recolonization dynamics of the disease. In the light of these results, we suggest scenarios to explain the localized presence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:23675291

  7. Mortality risk factors show similar trends in modern and historic populations exposed to plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Mauro; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Manzon, Vanessa S; Rinaldo, Natascia; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2016-05-31

    Plague has been responsible for two major historic pandemics (6th-8th century CE; 14th-19th century CE) and a modern one. The recent Malagasy plague outbreaks raised new concerns on the deadly potential of the plague-causing bacteria Yersinia pestis. Between September 2014 and April 2015, outbreaks of bubonic and pneumonic plague hit the Malagasy population. Two hundred and sixty-three cases, including 71 deaths, have been reported in 16 different districts with a case fatality rate of 27%. The scope of our study was to ascertain whether the risk factors for health in modern-day populations exposed to plague and in ancient populations that faced the two historic pandemics varied or remained substantially unaltered. The risk of mortality of the Malagasy population with those obtained from the reconstruction of three samples of European populations exposed to the historic pandemics was contrasted. The evidence shows that the risks of death are not uniform across age neither in modern nor in historic populations exposed to plague and shows precise concentrations in specific age groups (children between five and nine years of age and young adults). Although in the post-antibiotic era, the fatality rates have drastically reduced, both modern and historic populations were exposed to the same risk factors that are essentially represented by a low standard of environmental hygiene, poor nutrition, and weak health systems.

  8. Burrowing Owls, Pulex irritans, and Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belthoff, James R; Bernhardt, Scott A; Ball, Christopher L; Gregg, Michael; Johnson, David H; Ketterling, Rachel; Price, Emily; Tinker, Juliette K

    2015-09-01

    Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western North America that frequent prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. Because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. We examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of Yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. During 2012-2013, fleas and blood were collected from burrowing owls in portions of five states with endemic plague-Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Colorado, and South Dakota. Fleas were enumerated, taxonomically identified, pooled by nest, and assayed for Y. pestis using culturing and molecular (PCR) approaches. Owl blood underwent serological analysis for plague antibodies and nested PCR for detection of Y. pestis. Of more than 4750 fleas collected from owls, Pulex irritans, a known plague vector in portions of its range, comprised more than 99.4%. However, diagnostic tests for Y. pestis of flea pools (culturing and PCR) and owl blood (PCR and serology) were negative. Thus, even though fleas were prevalent on burrowing owls and the potential for a relationship with burrowing owls as a phoretic host of infected fleas exists, we found no evidence of Y. pestis in sampled fleas or in owls that harbored them. We suggest that studies similar to those reported here during plague epizootics will be especially useful for confirming these results.

  9. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orning, Hans Jacob

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour......, and other kinds of material or symbolic assets? Seven essays by Scandinavian scholars are supplemented by contributions from Stephen White, John Hudson and Gerd Althoff, to provide a new baseline for discussing both the strategies pursued in the political game and those used to settle local disputes. Using...... practice and process as key analytical concepts, these authors explore formal law and litigation in conjunction with non-formal legal proceedings such as out-of-court mediation, rituals, emotional posturing, and feuding. Their insights place the Northern medieval world in a European context of dispute...

  10. Climate change. Climate in Medieval time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Raymond S; Hughes, Malcolm K; Diaz, Henry F

    2003-10-17

    Many papers have referred to a "Medieval Warm Period." But how well defined is climate in this period, and was it as warm as or warmer than it is today? In their Perspective, Bradley et al. review the evidence and conclude that although the High Medieval (1100 to 1200 A.D.) was warmer than subsequent centuries, it was not warmer than the late 20th century. Moreover, the warmest Medieval temperatures were not synchronous around the globe. Large changes in precipitation patterns are a particular characteristic of "High Medieval" time. The underlying mechanisms for such changes must be elucidated further to inform the ongoing debate on natural climate variability and anthropogenic climate change.

  11. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  12. Influences of introduced plague on North American mammals: Implications from ecology of plague in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, D.E.; Kosoy, M.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Intercontinental movements of invasive species continue to modify the world's ecosystems. The plague bacterium (Yersinia pestis) has colonized and altered animal communities worldwide but has received much more attention as a human pathogen. We reviewed studies on the ecology of Y. pestis in ancient foci of central Asia and in western North America, where the bacterium apparently has become established much more recently. Although rodent populations on both continents are affected dramatically by epizootics of plague, the epidemiologically important species of Asia demonstrate resistance in portions of their populations, whereas those of North America are highly susceptible. Individual variation in resistance, which is widespread in Asian rodents and allows a microevolutionary response, has been documented in few North American species of rodents. Plague increases costs of sociality and coloniality in susceptible hosts, increases benefits of disease resistance in general, and increases benefits of adaptability to variable environments for species at higher trophic levels. Prairie dogs (Cynomys) epitomize taxa with high risk to plague because prairie dogs have uniformly low resistance to plague and are highly social. Relationships to plague are poorly understood for many North American rodents, but more than one-half of the species of conservation concern occur within the geographic range of plague.

  13. The Challenge of Folklore to Medieval Studies

    OpenAIRE

    John Lindow

    2018-01-01

    When folklore began to emerge as a valid expression of a people during the early stages of national romanticism, it did so alongside texts and artifacts from the Middle Ages. The fields of folklore and medieval studies were hardly to be distinguished at that time, and it was only as folklore began to develop its own methodology (actually analogous to medieval textual studies) during the nineteenth century that the fields were distinguished. During the 1970s, however, folklore adopted a wholly...

  14. Plague in China 2014-All sporadic case report of pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Fang; Li, De-Biao; Shao, Hong-Sheng; Li, Hong-Jun; Han, Yue-Dong

    2016-02-19

    Yersinia pestis is the pathogen of the plague and caused three pandemics worldwide. Pneumonic plague is rarer than bubonic and septicemic plague. We report detailed clinical and pathogenic data for all the three sporadic cases of pneumonic plagues in China in 2014. All the three patients are herders in Gansu province of China. They were all infected by Yersinia pestis and displayed in the form of pneumonic plague respectively without related. We tested patient specimens from the upper (nasopharyngeal swabs) or the lower (sputum) respiratory tract and whole blood, plasma, and serum specimens for Yersinia pestis. All patients had fever, cough and dyspnea, and for patient 2 and 3, unconscious. Respiratory symptoms were predominant with acute respiratory failure. The chest X-ray showed signs consistent with necrotizing inflammation with multiple lobar involvements. Despite emergency treatment, all patients died of refractory multiple organ failure within 24 h after admission to hospital. All the contacts were quarantined immediately and there were no secondary cases. Nowadays, the plague is epidemic in animals and can infect people who contact with the infected animals which may cause an epidemic in human. We think dogs maybe an intermediate vector for plague and as a source of risk for humans who are exposed to pet animals or who work professionally with canines. If a patient has been exposed to a risk factor and has fever and dyspnea, plague should be considered. People who had contact with a confirmed case should be isolated and investigated for F1 antigen analysis and receive post-exposure preventive treatment. A vaccination strategy might be useful for individuals who are occupationally exposed in areas where endemically infected reservoirs of plague-infected small mammals co-exist.

  15. Cities and Socialization of Libraries in Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Bayır Toplu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, socialization of libraries in Medieval Europe has been examined by means of the growing of cities and movements of ideologies. Cities, as results of economic based changes, caused the apperance of merchantiles in produce and consumption flows. Cities, by selecting an area outside of feudal city walls, and by consisting new living habits which shows differances from village living habits took its place in Medieval Feudal Regime. While cities consist their conceits, conceits consists the specialisatians which identifies the city from the village. Technologic developments, innovations, the movements of different social classes, the changes in produce and consumption models, movements of ideologies; carried Medieval Europe to Enlighment Period after very long and difficult experiements. While the man in “Enlighment Period” ideologically based on rationalism and critical thinking; it realized knowledge as a product of rationalism. That realisation gave start to the socialisation of libraries and books and books which includes the “knowledge” stating with the innovation of press, the gobalization of books and the movements in cities gave speed to the interaction between cultures and effected the extansi-on of knowledge in a positive way. While knowledge was socialized by means of the opportunities of cities, libraries became space which knowledge can easily reachable by society. Cities arosed in Middle ageesand by effecting social structures, they became an indirect effect for reaching of libraries to society and moneyfree service.

  16. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs ...

  17. Wild felids as hosts for human plague, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S.N.; Tracey, J.A.; Franklin, S.P.; Schmit, V.L.; MacMillan, M.L.; Gage, K.L.; Schriefer, M.E.; Logan, K.A.; Sweanor, L.L.; Alldredge, M.W.; Krumm, C.; Boyce, W.M.; Vickers, W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Roelke, M.E.; Salman, M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.

  18. Identification of duck plague virus by polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.R.; Brown, Sean E.; Nashold, S.W.; Knudson, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for detecting duck plague virus. A 765-bp EcoRI fragment cloned from the genome of the duck plague vaccine (DP-VAC) virus was sequenced for PCR primer development. The fragment sequence was found by GenBank alignment searches to be similar to the 3a?? ends of an undefined open reading frame and the gene for DNA polymerase protein in other herpesviruses. Three of four primer sets were found to be specific for the DP-VAC virus and 100% (7/7) of field isolates but did not amplify DNA from inclusion body disease of cranes virus. The specificity of one primer set was tested with genome templates from other avian herpesviruses, including those from a golden eagle, bald eagle, great horned owl, snowy owl, peregrine falcon, prairie falcon, pigeon, psittacine, and chicken (infectious laryngotracheitis), but amplicons were not produced. Hence, this PCR test is highly specific for duck plague virus DNA. Two primer sets were able to detect 1 fg of DNA from the duck plague vaccine strain, equivalent to five genome copies. In addition, the ratio of tissue culture infectious doses to genome copies of duck plague vaccine virus from infected duck embryo cells was determined to be 1:100, making the PCR assay 20 times more sensitive than tissue culture for detecting duck plague virus. The speed, sensitivity, and specificity of this PCR provide a greatly improved diagnostic and research tool for studying the epizootiology of duck plague. /// Se desarroll?? una prueba de reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa para detectar el virus de la peste del pato. Un fragmento EcoRI de 765 pares de bases clonado del genoma del virus vacunal de la peste del pato fue secuenciado para la obtenci??n de los iniciadores de la prueba de la reacci??n en cadena por la polimerasa. En investigaciones de alineaci??n en el banco de genes ('GenBank') se encontr?? que la secuencia del fragmento era similar a los extremos 3a?? de un marco de lectura abierto

  19. [The plague in Finland in 1710].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, N G

    1994-01-01

    In the autumn of 1710 Helsinki was struck by the so-called oriental plague during four months. The infection was transferred by black rats which harboured fleas. The flea-bites caused boils. It was believed that the plague was air-borne, and the air was very humid that autumn. Big fires were lit in order to reduce the humidity, the purpose being to make it easier for the infected to breathe. Attempts were also made to dissect the boils. The carriers of the contamination came as refugees from Estland over the Gulf of Finland. The infection had spread from Turkey to Poland and Balticum after the defeat of the Finnish-Swedish army in the summer of 1709 at Poltava in Ucraine. Helsingfors (Helsinki) was struck extremely hard. About two-thirds of the inhabitants died of the pestilence. Some escaped by fleeing to the countryside. The plague spread through the country as far north as to Uleåborg (Oulu) and Cajana (Kajaani). Marketplaces became important centres of infection. With the advent of the frost in December the plague dwindled. At that time Helsinki was practically a dead town.

  20. Plague and the gallium scan: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahly, T.L.; Shoop, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Inflammation in the right axillary lymph nodes and the meninges was detected by 67 Ga-citrate scans in an 11-year-old boy with Yersinia pestis infection. This case provides another example of 67 Ga localizing to areas of infection, indicating potential utility in future cases of bubonic plague

  1. An overview of plague in the United States and a report of investigations of two human cases in Kern county, California, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madon, M B; Hitchcock, J C; Davis, R M; Myers, C M; Smith, C R; Fritz, C L; Emery, K W; O'Rullian, W

    1997-06-01

    Plague was confirmed in the United States from nine western states during 1995. Evidence of Yersinia pestis infection was identified in 28 species of wild or domestic mammals. Thirteen of the plague positive species were wild rodents; 15 were predators/carnivores. Yersinia pestis was isolated from eight species of fleas. Seven confirmed cases of human plague were reported in 1995 (New Mexico 3; California 2; Arizona and Oregon 1 each). Five of the seven cases were bubonic; one was septicemic and one a fatal pneumonic case. Months of onset ranged from March through August. In California, during 1995, plague was recorded from 15 of the 58 counties. Over 1,500 animals were tested, of which 208 were plague positive. These included 144 rodents and 64 predators/carnivores. Two confirmed human cases (one bubonic and one fatal pneumonic) occurred, both in Kern County. Case No. 1 was reported from the town of Tehachapi. The patient, a 23 year-old male resident, died following a diagnosis of plague pneumonia. The patient's source of plague infection could not be determined precisely. Field investigations revealed an extensive plague epizootic surrounding Tehachapi, an area of approximately 500-600 square miles (800-970 square kilometers). Case No. 2 was a 57 year-old female diagnosed with bubonic plague; she was placed on an antibiotic regimen and subsequently recovered. The patient lives approximately 20 miles (32 km) north of Tehachapi. Field investigations revealed evidence of a plague epizootic in the vicinity of the victim's residence and adjacent areas. Overall results of the joint field investigations throughout the entire Kern county area revealed a high rate of plague positive animals. Of the numerous samples submitted, 48 non-human samples were plague positive.

  2. Oral vaccination against plague using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeure, Christian E; Derbise, Anne; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is among the deadliest bacterial pathogens affecting humans, and is a potential biological weapon. Because antibiotic resistant strains of Yersinia pestis have been observed or could be engineered for evil use, vaccination against plague might become the only means to reduce mortality. Although plague is re-emerging in many countries, a vaccine with worldwide license is currently lacking. The vaccine strategy described here is based on an oral vaccination with an attenuated strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Indeed, this species is genetically almost identical to Y. pestis, but has a much lower pathogenicity and a higher genomic stability. Gradual modifications of the wild-type Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain IP32953 were performed to generate a safe and immunogenic vaccine. Genes coding for three essential virulence factors were deleted from this strain. To increase cross-species immunogenicity, an F1-encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis strain was then generated. For this, the Y. pestis caf operon, which encodes F1, was inserted first on a plasmid, and subsequently into the chromosome. The successive steps achieved to reach maximal vaccine potential are described, and how each step affected bacterial virulence and the development of a protective immune response is discussed. The final version of the vaccine, named VTnF1, provides a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague after a single oral vaccine dose. Since a Y. pestis strain deprived of F1 exist or could be engineered, we also analyzed the protection conferred by the vaccine against such strain and found that it also confers full protection against the two forms of plague. Thus, the properties of VTnF1 makes it one of the most efficient candidate vaccine for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas as well as for populations exposed to bioterrorism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lovastatin protects against experimental plague in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Ayyadurai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is an ectoparasite-borne deadly infection caused by Yersinia pestis, a bacterium classified among the group A bioterrorism agents. Thousands of deaths are reported every year in some African countries. Tetracyclines and cotrimoxazole are used in the secondary prophylaxis of plague in the case of potential exposure to Y. pestis, but cotrimoxazole-resistant isolates have been reported. There is a need for additional prophylactic measures. We aimed to study the effectiveness of lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug known to alleviate the symptoms of sepsis, for plague prophylaxis in an experimental model. METHODOLOGY: Lovastatin dissolved in Endolipide was intraperitoneally administered to mice (20 mg/kg every day for 6 days prior to a Y. pestis Orientalis biotype challenge. Non-challenged, lovastatin-treated and challenged, untreated mice were also used as control groups in the study. Body weight, physical behavior and death were recorded both prior to infection and for 10 days post-infection. Samples of the blood, lungs and spleen were collected from dead mice for direct microbiological examination, histopathology and culture. The potential antibiotic effect of lovastatin was tested on blood agar plates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lovastatin had no in-vitro antibiotic effect against Y. pestis. The difference in the mortality between control mice (11/15; 73.5% and lovastatin-treated mice (3/15; 20% was significant (P<0.004; Mantel-Haenszel test. Dead mice exhibited Y. pestis septicemia and inflammatory destruction of lung and spleen tissues not seen in lovastatin-treated surviving mice. These data suggest that lovastatin may help prevent the deadly effects of plague. Field observations are warranted to assess the role of lovastatin in the prophylaxis of human plague.

  4. Medieval Stars in Melk Abbey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Zotti, G.

    2012-05-01

    Melk Abbey, a marvel of European high baroque architecture, is one of the most frequently visited tourist attractions in Austria, attracting 450 000 visitors each year. The monastery's museum presents selected aspects of Benedictine life in Melk since the monastery's foundation in 1089. After the church, the library is the second-most important room in a Benedictine monastery. Due to the wide scientific interests and contacts of the medieval monks, these libraries also contain manuscripts on mathematics, physics and astronomy. In 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009), the annual library exhibition was fully dedicated to astronomical manuscripts and early prints from the past 1000 years. Following earlier research work on astronomical manuscripts in Melk's library, we were invited to organise the exhibition. In addition, we also presented a lecture series and provided more background in an accompanying book. Because of positive feedback from the visitors, the exhibition was extended until March 2011. In the two years of its duration, the exhibition was seen by more than 900 000 visitors. In this article, we describe the background to the scientific project, how the exhibition was organised and lessons learned from this project.

  5. The abundance threshold for plague as a critical percolation phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Trapman, P; Leirs, H

    2008-01-01

    . However, no natural examples have been reported. The central question of interest in percolation theory 4 , the possibility of an infinite connected cluster, corresponds in infectious disease to a positive probability of an epidemic. Archived records of plague (infection with Yersinia pestis....... Abundance thresholds are the theoretical basis for attempts to manage infectious disease by reducing the abundance of susceptibles, including vaccination and the culling of wildlife 6, 7, 8 . This first natural example of a percolation threshold in a disease system invites a re-appraisal of other invasion...

  6. Medievalism: From Ruskin toChesterton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jenko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the topic of medievalism as all existing, still evolving, and future forms of reception of the Middle Ages, focusing primarily on the issues of the term itself and the problems that arise with its definition, its occurrence in John Ruskin’s time, various historical forms, and their variations, especially considering some of the implications of its official or academic aspect – namely, medieval studies in general. Consequently, the article shows that medievalism entails a step beyond or beneath the usual opposition between the real and false Middle Ages. In terms of objectivity as an ideal, as the search or quest for the real Middle Ages (and also as a reaction against subjective receptions, colored by presuppositions, preconceptions, and prejudice, medievalism shifts our perspective on the opposition between the objective and subjective, inaugurating a field of study that centers on the objective-subjective, which should not be seen or taken as a synthesis. Furthermore, it pinpoints a change or shift in the status of truth itself: a truth with no guarantee. Primarily making reference to art history, the article emphasizes the importance of medievalist fantasies and proposes a much needed re-reading of Panofsky’s take on the scholastic habitus. Both terms, fantasy and/or habitus, permeate the field of medievalism, opening what is perhaps the most important question: that of (works of art and materiality.

  7. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph; Mead, Paul S

    2017-09-01

    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient's village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague.

  8. Pneumonic Plague: The Darker Side of Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechous, Roger D; Sivaraman, Vijay; Stasulli, Nikolas M; Goldman, William E

    2016-03-01

    Inhalation of the bacterium Yersinia pestis results in primary pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is the most severe manifestation of plague, with mortality rates approaching 100% in the absence of treatment. Its rapid disease progression, lethality, and ability to be transmitted via aerosol have compounded fears of the intentional release of Y. pestis as a biological weapon. Importantly, recent epidemics of plague have highlighted a significant role for pneumonic plague during outbreaks of Y. pestis infections. In this review we describe the characteristics of pneumonic plague, focusing on its disease progression and pathogenesis. The rapid time-course, severity, and difficulty of treating pneumonic plague highlight how differences in the route of disease transmission can enhance the lethality of an already deadly pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Patterns of Human Plague in Uganda, 2008–2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Joseph D.; Apangu, Titus; Griffith, Kevin; Acayo, Sarah; Yockey, Brook; Kaggwa, John; Kugeler, Kiersten J.; Schriefer, Martin; Sexton, Christopher; Ben Beard, C.; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Candia, Bosco; Okoth, Jimmy Felix; Apio, Harriet; Nolex, Lawrence; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Atiku, Linda; Mpanga, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008–2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague. Reports of an unusual number of dead rats in a patient’s village around the time of illness onset was significantly associated with laboratory confirmation of plague. This descriptive summary of human plague in Uganda highlights the episodic nature of the disease, as well as the potential that, even in endemic areas, illnesses of other etiologies might be being mistaken for plague. PMID:28820134

  10. Diverse Genotypes of Yersinia pestis Caused Plague in Madagascar in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehm, Julia M; Projahn, Michaela; Vogler, Amy J; Rajerison, Minoaerisoa; Andersen, Genevieve; Hall, Carina M; Zimmermann, Thomas; Soanandrasana, Rahelinirina; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Nottingham, Roxanne; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Scholz, Holger C

    2015-06-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of human plague and is endemic in various African, Asian and American countries. In Madagascar, the disease represents a significant public health problem with hundreds of human cases a year. Unfortunately, poor infrastructure makes outbreak investigations challenging. DNA was extracted directly from 93 clinical samples from patients with a clinical diagnosis of plague in Madagascar in 2007. The extracted DNAs were then genotyped using three molecular genotyping methods, including, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing, multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) analysis. These methods provided increasing resolution, respectively. The results of these analyses revealed that, in 2007, ten molecular groups, two newly described here and eight previously identified, were responsible for causing human plague in geographically distinct areas of Madagascar. Plague in Madagascar is caused by numerous distinct types of Y. pestis. Genotyping method choice should be based upon the discriminatory power needed, expense, and available data for any desired comparisons. We conclude that genotyping should be a standard tool used in epidemiological investigations of plague outbreaks.

  11. Gioacchino Volpe and the medieval religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Artifoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a widened version of a lecture held in 2005 at the congress: ‘Gioacchino Volpe between past and present’, issued in the volume edited by R. Bonuglia (Rome 2007. It analyzes the main topics present in the work by Gioacchino Volpe: Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana (secoli XI-XIV (‘Religious movements and heretical sects in Italian Medieval society (11th-14th century', of 1922, and connects such essay to the author’s interests for ‘social’ history in the period after the 11th century. It also casts light on the influence of  Volpe’s thesis on many Italian Medieval scholars, who studied the medieval heresies over the 20th century (Morghen, Dupré Theseider, Manselli, Violante.

  12. The Medieval Dublin Project: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall O'hOisin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Medieval Dublin Project. It covers the development and release of the DVD ‘Medieval Dublin: From Vikings to Tudors (Schools Edition,’ and outlines the major virtual and interactive features developed for that release. The paper also covers the collaboration that took place between the DVD development team and the academic community and discusses the ways in which 3D visualisations, timelines, interactivity and character-based storytelling were used to present Dublin’s archaeological heritage in an engaging and interesting way

  13. Anthony Davenport. Medieval Narrative – An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TRIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This latest book by Tony Davenport represents not only a very useful guide to the different types of narrative associated with the Middle Ages but also succinctly describes their origins in Antiquity as well as linking up the various genres of medieval story-telling to present-day fiction in prose and film. The introductory pages thus give a global picture of narrative both before and after the medieval period and the Middle Ages are thereby not left in a vacuum. Although the focus is on Engl...

  14. Greek Astronomy and the Medieval Arabic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, George

    2002-07-01

    Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages are often credited with preserving the scientific writings of Antiquity through the Dark Ages of Europe. Saliba argues that the medieval Islamic astronomers did far more—actually correcting and improving on Greek astronomy by creating new mathematical tools to explain the motions of celestial objects. These tools were so useful that Copernicus appears to have borrowed them for use in his heliocentric cosmology. In this new light, the medieval Islamic astronomers played a fundamental role in the scientific revolution that was forged in Europe during the Renaissance.

  15. Further development of raccoon poxvirus-vectored vaccines against plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Iams, Keith P.; Dawe, S.; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy L.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Osorio, Jorge E.

    2009-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated protection against plague in mice and prairie dogs using a raccoon pox (RCN) virus-vectored vaccine that expressed the F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis. In order to improve vaccine efficacy, we have now constructed additional RCN-plague vaccines containing two different forms of the lcrV (V) gene, including full-length (Vfull) and a truncated form (V307). Mouse challenge studies with Y. pestis strain CO92 showed that vaccination with a combination of RCN-F1 and the truncated V construct (RCN-V307) provided the greatest improvement (P = 0.01) in protection against plague over vaccination with RCN-F1 alone. This effect was mediated primarily by anti-F1 and anti-V antibodies and both contributed independently to increased survival of vaccinated mice.

  16. [Origin of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis: structure of the process of speciation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntsov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the plague microbe Yersinia pestis are considered in the context of propositions of modern Darwinism. It was shown that the plague pathogen diverged from the pseudotuberculous microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b in the mountain steppe landscapes of Central Asia in the Sartan: 22000-15000 years ago. Speciation occurred in the tarbagan (Marmota sibirica)--flea (Oropsylla silantiewi) parasitic system. The structure of the speciation process included six stages: isolation, genetic drift, enhancement of intrapopulational polymorphism, the beginning of pesticin synthesis (genetic conflict and emergence of hiatus), specialization (stabilization of characteristics), and adaptive irradiation (transformation of the monotypic species Y. pestis tarbagani into a polytypic species). The scenario opens up wide prospects for construction of the molecular phylogeny of the plague microbe Y. pestis and for investigation of the biochemical and molecular-genetic aspects of "Darwinian" evolution of pathogens from many other nature-focal infections.

  17. [Human plague and pneumonic plague : pathogenicity, epidemiology, clinical presentations and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehm, Julia M; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Yersinia pestis is a highly pathogenic gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of human plague. In the last 1500 years and during three dreaded pandemics, millions of people became victims of Justinian's plague, the Black Death, or modern plague. Today, Y. pestis is endemic in natural foci of Asian, African and American countries. Due to its broad dissemination in mammal species and fleas, eradication of the pathogen will not be possible in the near future. In fact, plague is currently classified as a "re-emerging disease". Infection may occur after the bite of an infected flea, but also after oral ingestion or inhalation of the pathogen. The clinical presentations comprise the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics. However, the high transmission rate and lethality of pneumonic plague require international and mandatory case notification and quarantine of patients. Rapid diagnosis, therapy and barrier nursing are not only crucial for the individual patient but also for the prevention of further spread of the pathogen or of epidemics. Therefore, WHO emergency schedules demand the isolation of cases, identification and surveillance of contacts as well as control of zoonotic reservoir animals and vectors. These sanctions and effective antibiotic treatment usually allow a rapid containment of outbreaks. However, multiple antibiotic resistant strains of Y. pestis have been isolated from patients in the past. So far, no outbreaks with such strains have been reported.

  18. Flea diversity as an element for persistence of plague bacteria in an East African plague focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Eisen

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne rodent-associated zoonotic disease that is caused by Yersinia pestis and characterized by long quiescent periods punctuated by rapidly spreading epidemics and epizootics. How plague bacteria persist during inter-epizootic periods is poorly understood, yet is important for predicting when and where epizootics are likely to occur and for designing interventions aimed at local elimination of the pathogen. Existing hypotheses of how Y. pestis is maintained within plague foci typically center on host abundance or diversity, but little attention has been paid to the importance of flea diversity in enzootic maintenance. Our study compares host and flea abundance and diversity along an elevation gradient that spans from low elevation sites outside of a plague focus in the West Nile region of Uganda (~725-1160 m to higher elevation sites within the focus (~1380-1630 m. Based on a year of sampling, we showed that host abundance and diversity, as well as total flea abundance on hosts was similar between sites inside compared with outside the plague focus. By contrast, flea diversity was significantly higher inside the focus than outside. Our study highlights the importance of considering flea diversity in models of Y. pestis persistence.

  19. Mapping risk of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Quan; Zhao, Jian; Fang, Liqun; Zhou, Hang; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Lan; Yang, Hong; Yin, Wenwu; Cao, Wuchun; Li, Qun

    2014-07-10

    Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China is known to be the plague endemic region where marmot (Marmota himalayana) is the primary host. Human plague cases are relatively low incidence but high mortality, which presents unique surveillance and public health challenges, because early detection through surveillance may not always be feasible and infrequent clinical cases may be misdiagnosed. Based on plague surveillance data and environmental variables, Maxent was applied to model the presence probability of plague host. 75% occurrence points were randomly selected for training model, and the rest 25% points were used for model test and validation. Maxent model performance was measured as test gain and test AUC. The optimal probability cut-off value was chosen by maximizing training sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. We used field surveillance data in an ecological niche modeling (ENM) framework to depict spatial distribution of natural foci of plague in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Most human-inhabited areas at risk of exposure to enzootic plague are distributed in the east and south of the Plateau. Elevation, temperature of land surface and normalized difference vegetation index play a large part in determining the distribution of the enzootic plague. This study provided a more detailed view of spatial pattern of enzootic plague and human-inhabited areas at risk of plague. The maps could help public health authorities decide where to perform plague surveillance and take preventive measures in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  20. THE ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL PERSIA (9TH-12TH CENTURY CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Shams, Mesbah; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman; Dalfardi, Behnam; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is supposed to be a post-renaissance described medical entity. Although it is often believed that John Fothergill (1712-1780) provided the first description of this condition in 1773, a review of the medieval Persian medical writings will show the fact that neuropathic pain was a medieval-originated concept. "Auojae Asab" [Nerve-originated Pain] was used as a medical term in medieval Persian medical literature for pain syndromes which etiologically originated from nerves. Physicians like Rhazes (d. 925 CE), Haly Abbas (d. 982 CE), Avicenna (d. 1037 CE), and Jorjani (d. 1137 CE) have discussed multiple aspects of nerve-originated pain including its classification, etiology, differentiating characteristics, different qualities, and pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. Recognizing medieval scholars' views on nerve-originated pain can lighten old historical origins of this concept.

  1. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medieval codes of ius commune in Portugal: status quaestionis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Domingues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Portugal inherited from the kingdom of León legal sources and its earliest law code. With the “rebirth” of Roman law, the Ius commune –arriving very early in the twelfth century– soon came to shape everyday life, from the middle ages until the Enlightenment of the late eighteenth century. Enormous research efforts have been made to locate chronologically and spatially medieval remnants of these legal texts. This work aims to provide a summary, including a comprehensive and updated picture, of the status quaestionis of this theme.

  3. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    different medieval understandings of identity and ethnicity. Among other things, the ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ tale was exploited to promote a legacy of ‘barbarian’ vigor that could withstand the negative cultural effects of Roman civilization. This volume employs a variety of perspectives cutting across...

  4. Sex differentials in frailty in medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2010-10-01

    In most modern populations, there are sex differentials in morbidity and mortality that favor women. This study addresses whether such female advantages existed to any appreciable degree in medieval Europe. The analyses presented here examine whether men and women with osteological stress markers faced the same risks of death in medieval London. The sample used for this study comes from the East Smithfield Black Death cemetery in London. The benefit of using this cemetery is that most, if not all, individuals interred in East Smithfield died from the same cause within a very short period of time. This allows for the analysis of the differences between men and women in the risks of mortality associated with osteological stress markers without the potential confounding effects of different causes of death. A sample of 299 adults (173 males, 126 females) from the East Smithfield cemetery was analyzed. The results indicate that the excess mortality associated with several osteological stress markers was higher for men than for women. This suggests that in this medieval population, previous physiological stress increased the risk of death for men during the Black Death to a greater extent than was true for women. Alternatively, the results might indicate that the Black Death discriminated less strongly between women with and without pre-existing health conditions than was true for men. These results are examined in light of previous analyses of East Smithfield and what is known about diet and sexually mediated access to resources in medieval England. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  6. [Women, bodies, and Hebrew medieval medical literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2008-01-01

    This essay explores different views on the female body articulated within Hebrew medieval texts on women's health care. It also investigates whether texts also integrate women's own perceptions of their bodies, and of their needs and care. I have analysed how this genre of Hebrew literature understood two key issues in the construction of sexed bodies: menstruation and cosmetics.

  7. The Vicissitudes of a Medieval Japanese Warrior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In standard accounts of medieval Japanese society, enormous stress is put on the conflicts between local landholders (zaichi ryôshu) and absentee proprietors. Fuelled by the debate on feudalism that divided scholars up until the early 1990s, these conflicts have widely been recognised as proof...

  8. Model-based analysis of an outbreak of bubonic plague in Cairo in 1801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Xavier; Whittles, Lilith K; Hall, Ian

    2017-06-01

    Bubonic plague has caused three deadly pandemics in human history: from the mid-sixth to mid-eighth century, from the mid-fourteenth to the mid-eighteenth century and from the end of the nineteenth until the mid-twentieth century. Between the second and the third pandemics, plague was causing sporadic outbreaks in only a few countries in the Middle East, including Egypt. Little is known about this historical phase of plague, even though it represents the temporal, geographical and phylogenetic transition between the second and third pandemics. Here we analysed in detail an outbreak of plague that took place in Cairo in 1801, and for which epidemiological data are uniquely available thanks to the presence of medical officers accompanying the Napoleonic expedition into Egypt at that time. We propose a new stochastic model describing how bubonic plague outbreaks unfold in both rat and human populations, and perform Bayesian inference under this model using a particle Markov chain Monte Carlo. Rat carcasses were estimated to be infectious for approximately 4 days after death, which is in good agreement with local observations on the survival of infectious rat fleas. The estimated transmission rate between rats implies a basic reproduction number R 0 of approximately 3, causing the collapse of the rat population in approximately 100 days. Simultaneously, the force of infection exerted by each infected rat carcass onto the human population increases progressively by more than an order of magnitude. We also considered human-to-human transmission via pneumonic plague or human specific vectors, but found this route to account for only a small fraction of cases and to be significantly below the threshold required to sustain an outbreak. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  10. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on ...

  11. Trade routes and plague transmission in pre-industrial Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Ricci P H; Lee, Harry F; Wu, Connor Y H

    2017-10-11

    Numerous historical works have mentioned that trade routes were to blame for the spread of plague in European history, yet this relationship has never been tested by quantitative evidence. Here, we resolve the hypothetical role of trade routes through statistical analysis on the geo-referenced major trade routes in the early modern period and the 6,656 geo-referenced plague outbreak records in AD1347-1760. Ordinary Least Square (OLS) estimation results show that major trade routes played a dominant role in spreading plague in pre-industrial Europe. Furthermore, the negative correlation between plague outbreaks and their distance from major trade ports indicates the absence of a permanent plague focus in the inland areas of Europe. Major trade routes decided the major plague outbreak hotspots, while navigable rivers determined the geographic pattern of sporadic plague cases. A case study in Germany indicates that plague penetrated further into Europe through the local trade route network. Based on our findings, we propose the mechanism of plague transmission in historical Europe, which is imperative in demonstrating how pandemics were spread in recent human history.

  12. Disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, T.; Collinge, S.K.; Ray, C.

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been affected by the disease. We hypothesized that the presence of plague would significantly reduce overall black-tailed prairie dog colony area, reduce the sizes of colonies on these landscapes, and increase nearest-neighbor distances between colonies. Within the region historically affected by plague, individual colonies were smaller, nearest-neighbor distances were greater, and the proportion of potential habitat occupied by active prairie dog colonies was smaller than at plague-free sites. Populations that endured plague were composed of fewer large colonies (>100 ha) than populations that were historically plague free. We suggest that these differences among sites in colony size and isolation may slow recolonization after extirpation. At the same time, greater intercolony distances may also reduce intercolony transmission of pathogens. Reduced transmission among smaller and more distant colonies may ultimately enhance long-term prairie dog population persistence in areas where plague is present.

  13. Ancient genomes reveal a high diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Avanzi, Charlotte; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Seitz, Alexander; Herbig, Alexander; Inskip, Sarah; Bonazzi, Marion; Reiter, Ella; Urban, Christian; Dangvard Pedersen, Dorthe; Taylor, G Michael; Singh, Pushpendra; Stewart, Graham R; Velemínský, Petr; Likovsky, Jakub; Marcsik, Antónia; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, György; Mariotti, Valentina; Riga, Alessandro; Belcastro, M Giovanna; Boldsen, Jesper L; Nebel, Almut; Mays, Simon; Donoghue, Helen D; Zakrzewski, Sonia; Benjak, Andrej; Nieselt, Kay; Cole, Stewart T; Krause, Johannes

    2018-05-01

    Studying ancient DNA allows us to retrace the evolutionary history of human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, the main causative agent of leprosy. Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded and most stigmatizing diseases in human history. The disease was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries with over 200,000 new cases reported annually. Previous worldwide studies on modern and European medieval M. leprae genomes revealed that they cluster into several distinct branches of which two were present in medieval Northwestern Europe. In this study, we analyzed 10 new medieval M. leprae genomes including the so far oldest M. leprae genome from one of the earliest known cases of leprosy in the United Kingdom-a skeleton from the Great Chesterford cemetery with a calibrated age of 415-545 C.E. This dataset provides a genetic time transect of M. leprae diversity in Europe over the past 1500 years. We find M. leprae strains from four distinct branches to be present in the Early Medieval Period, and strains from three different branches were detected within a single cemetery from the High Medieval Period. Altogether these findings suggest a higher genetic diversity of M. leprae strains in medieval Europe at various time points than previously assumed. The resulting more complex picture of the past phylogeography of leprosy in Europe impacts current phylogeographical models of M. leprae dissemination. It suggests alternative models for the past spread of leprosy such as a wide spread prevalence of strains from different branches in Eurasia already in Antiquity or maybe even an origin in Western Eurasia. Furthermore, these results highlight how studying ancient M. leprae strains improves understanding the history of leprosy worldwide.

  14. Ancient genomes reveal a high diversity of Mycobacterium leprae in medieval Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena J Schuenemann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Studying ancient DNA allows us to retrace the evolutionary history of human pathogens, such as Mycobacterium leprae, the main causative agent of leprosy. Leprosy is one of the oldest recorded and most stigmatizing diseases in human history. The disease was prevalent in Europe until the 16th century and is still endemic in many countries with over 200,000 new cases reported annually. Previous worldwide studies on modern and European medieval M. leprae genomes revealed that they cluster into several distinct branches of which two were present in medieval Northwestern Europe. In this study, we analyzed 10 new medieval M. leprae genomes including the so far oldest M. leprae genome from one of the earliest known cases of leprosy in the United Kingdom-a skeleton from the Great Chesterford cemetery with a calibrated age of 415-545 C.E. This dataset provides a genetic time transect of M. leprae diversity in Europe over the past 1500 years. We find M. leprae strains from four distinct branches to be present in the Early Medieval Period, and strains from three different branches were detected within a single cemetery from the High Medieval Period. Altogether these findings suggest a higher genetic diversity of M. leprae strains in medieval Europe at various time points than previously assumed. The resulting more complex picture of the past phylogeography of leprosy in Europe impacts current phylogeographical models of M. leprae dissemination. It suggests alternative models for the past spread of leprosy such as a wide spread prevalence of strains from different branches in Eurasia already in Antiquity or maybe even an origin in Western Eurasia. Furthermore, these results highlight how studying ancient M. leprae strains improves understanding the history of leprosy worldwide.

  15. The ethics of heroism in medieval and American Indian tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A

    1990-01-01

    Oral-traditional stories detail their heroes' growth through a narrative pattern of exile and return that places the heroes in situations repeatedly challenging their strength and resolve. Through the motif of the quest, medieval and American Indian tales alike reaffirm general psychological truths that bear upon our understanding of human nature. Stories about heroes are stories about us: about our desires to grow up, to defeat death, to prove ourselves in difficult situations, and to achieve recognition or admiration among our peers (Becker, 1973, p. 4). In this way, medieval and American Indian tales are about self-actualization. They maintain that "one has within oneself proclivity toward growth and unity of personality ... and an automatic thrust toward expression" of these qualities (Yalom, 1980, p. 9). All forms of literature, however, reflect ideas peculiar to their cultures. The ways in which these basic human truths are represented in medieval and American Indian tales suggest the differing religious or social concerns that have informed these truths and have given them shape. To a large degree, the medieval knight's view of "self" and "other" encompasses the view that Western humanity has had (and continues to have) of itself. This is a view conditioned upon the superiority of the "self" as measured against the inferiority of the "other," reinforced through existing social (hierarchial) and religious (Judeo-Christian) codes of behavior. Such codes are not only inadequate to the task of interpreting American Indian perceptions of "self" and "other," they are inimical to the ethical foundation underlying them. Scott Momaday remarks that "you cannot understand how the Indian thinks of himself in relation to the world around him unless you understand his conception of what is appropriate; particularly what is morally appropriate within the context of that relationship" (Basso, 1984, p. 46). For the American Indian hero, self-actualization is self

  16. Was Plague an Exclusively Urban Phenomenon? Plague Mortality in the Seventeenth-Century Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship reinforces the notion that by the early modern period, plague had become largely an urban concern in northwestern Europe. However, a data set comprised of burial information from the seventeenth-century Low Countries suggests that plague’s impact on the countryside was far more

  17. Druids, deer and ‘words of power’: coming to terms with evil in medieval Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.; van Doorn-Harder, N.; Minnema, L.

    2008-01-01

    This contribution describes what is understood by evil, as perceived within Irish medieval texts, both by the authors and by the groups described in the texts. It attempts to include the points of view of possible audiences or readers of the texts as well. The definition of evil employed here thus

  18. A bibliography of literature pertaining to plague (Yersinia pestis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Laura E.; Frank, Megan K. Eberhardt

    2011-01-01

    Plague is an acute and often fatal zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mainly cycles between small mammals and their fleas; however, it has the potential to infect humans and frequently causes fatalities if left untreated. It is often considered a disease of the past; however, since the late 1800s, plagueis geographic range has expanded greatly, posing new threats in previously unaffected regions of the world, including the Western United States. A literature search was conducted using Internet resources and databases. The keywords chosen for the searches included plague, Yersinia pestis, management, control, wildlife, prairie dogs, fleas, North America, and mammals. Keywords were used alone or in combination with the other terms. Although this search pertains mostly to North America, citations were included from the international research community, as well. Databases and search engines used included Google (http://www.google.com), Google Scholar (http://scholar.google.com), SciVerse Scopus (http://www.scopus.com), ISI Web of Knowledge (http://apps.isiknowledge.com), and the USGS Library's Digital Desktop (http://library.usgs.gov). The literature-cited sections of manuscripts obtained from keyword searches were cross-referenced to identify additional citations or gray literature that was missed by the Internet search engines. This Open-File Report, published as an Internet-accessible bibliography, is intended to be periodically updated with new citations or older references that may have been missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the audience (users) think need to be included.

  19. The role and significance of Luo Zhiyuan's Shu yi hui bian in the history of plague in Lingnan (south of the five ridges).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Lai, W

    1999-04-01

    Being the earliest monograph on plague in China, Luo Zhiyuan's Shu yi hui bian, not included in the National Catalogue of TCM Books, include the following contents: personal idea on the etiology of plague; Luo's friend Wu Xuanchang' unpublished Shu yu zhi fa on the treatment and manifestations of plague; Luo's specific recipe for plague based on medified Wang Qingren's Jie du huo xue decoction based on Wang Qingrens yi lin gai cuo; therapy for critical cases; many therapies applied on Lingnan, including experimental recipes, external therapy, preventive methods, and preventing recurrence methods; Luo's special administrating methods, including persisting day-and-night method, immediate persisting method, single-dose persisting method, and double-dose persisting method. He also gave several cured case records. His book, featuring unique idea with good effect, was repeatedly printed and extensively distributed, exerting influence, more or less, on the plague monographs of later ages, and occupying important position in the history of plague on Lingnan and the whole country as well. His idea of "that poisons and static blood" in pathogenesis and therapeutic principle of antitoxicity and activating blood is coincided with the results of present day clinical and laboratory studies. His administration of medicines is heuristic to the therapy of critical cases with Chinese medicaments and to the recognition of pathogenesis, etiology, and treatment of modern plague as well as other diseases of similar etiology and pathognesis and is worth of further study.

  20. [Monitoring the Microtus fuscus plague epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li-Mao; Song, Xiao-Yu; Zhu, Xiao-Ping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemic tendency of Microtus fuscus plague during 2000 - 2008 in Sichuan province. METHODS: To investigate the plague each year according to "overall Plan of the Plague in the Whole Nation" and "Surveillance Program of Sichuan Province Plague". RESULTS: There were plague...... of fleas, Callopsylla sparsilis, Amphipsylla tutua tutua and Rhadinopsylla dahurica vicina, with the overall infection rate as 0.054%. CONCLUSION: Plague among Microtus fuscus showed a continuous epidemic in Sichuan province during 2000 - 2008....

  1. Plague epizootic cycles in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Begon, Mike; Ageyev, Vladimir S; Leirs, Herwig

    2014-06-01

    Infection thresholds, widely used in disease epidemiology, may operate on host abundance and, if present, on vector abundance. For wildlife populations, host and vector abundances often vary greatly across years and consequently the threshold may be crossed regularly, both up- and downward. Moreover, vector and host abundances may be interdependent, which may affect the infection dynamics. Theory predicts that if the relevant abundance, or combination of abundances, is above the threshold, then the infection is able to spread; if not, it is bound to fade out. In practice, though, the observed level of infection may depend more on past than on current abundances. Here, we study the temporal dynamics of plague (Yersinia pestis infection), its vector (flea) and its host (great gerbil) in the PreBalkhash region in Kazakhstan. We describe how host and vector abundances interact over time and how this interaction drives the dynamics of the system around the infection threshold, consequently affecting the proportion of plague-infected sectors. We also explore the importance of the interplay between biological and detectability delays in generating the observed dynamics.

  2. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since 1980 plague has been a human threat in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. However, the spatial-temporal pattern of plague occurrence remains poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to gain understanding of human activity patterns in relation to spatial distribution of fleas in Lushoto ...

  3. Successful plague control in Namibia | Shangula | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To demonstrate that plague can be successfully controlled. Design. A descriptive study outlining patterns of plague occurrence in relation to variables such as age group, gender, place and time. Setting. Two northern districts, namely Engela in Ohangwena region and Onandjokwe in Oshikoto region, an area of 2 ...

  4. Un gobierno medieval en un mundo global.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Becerra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario is a unique case in the World of corporate governance enduring, by which this university, one of the most prestigious institutions in Colombia, could preserve its culture and medieval tradition in the election of their authorities and governance becoming a modern higher education institution that educate the future social leaders. Nova et Vetera – the New and the Old– the integration of today reality and dynamics, and its future projection, with the more ancient university tradition of the Medieval concept of “Universitas Scholarium” becoming a modern institution of 354 years old. These successful combinations produced by the continuity of traditional corporate governance since 1653 has empowered the institution and permit it to lead the most important intellectual, political and social changes of the country.

  5. The first coronation churches of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalić Jovanka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The medieval ceremony of coronation as a rule took place in the most important church of a realm. The sites of the coronation of Serbian rulers before the establishment of the Žiča monastery church as the coronation church of Serbian kings in the first half of the thirteenth century have not been reliably identified so far. Based on the surviving medieval sources and the archaeological record, this paper provides background information about the titles of Serbian rulers prior to the creation of the Nemanjić state, and proposes that Stefan, son of the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty, was crowned king (1217 in the church of St Peter in Ras.

  6. Insight into the Fulnek Church and Parish Medieval Building Chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustinková Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The church of the Holy Trinity and parish in Fulnek was for nearly four centuries an Augustinian canonry and collegiate church (1293-1389. The medieval church and parish building chronology, however, have not been thus far established. From research between 2015 and 2016 we have been able to identify medieval portions of the buildings, clarify the site medieval construction phases and date the parish buildings (formerly the canonry from dendrochronological analysis of embedded wooden scaffolding.

  7. Interest in medieval accounts: Examples from England, 1272-1340

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian R. Bell; Chris Brooks; Tony Moore

    2008-01-01

    Research into medieval interest rates has been hampered by the diversity of terms and methods used by historians, creating serious misconceptions in the eporting of medieval interest rates, which have then been taken at face value by later scholars. This has had important repercussions on the wider debate on the credit risk of different forms of medieval governments and the costs of borrowing as a bar to investment. This paper seeks to establish a standardised methodology to accurately calcul...

  8. Pulp fictions of medieval England: Essays in popular romance

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Nicola

    2004-01-01

    Middle English popular romance is the most audacious and compendious testimony to the imaginary world of the English Middle Ages. Yet, with few exceptions, it remains under read and under studied. Pulp fictions of medieval England demonstrates that popular romance merits and rewards serious critical attention and that it is crucial to our understanding of the complex and conflicted world of medieval England. Pulp fictions of medieval England comprises ten essays on individual romances that, w...

  9. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    OpenAIRE

    Tadić Milutin; Gavrić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11) of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun....

  10. Low dimensional chaotic models for the plague epidemic in Bombay (1896–1911)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiarotti, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    A plague epidemic broke out in Bombay in 1896 and became endemic. From 1905 to 1911, the epidemic was closely monitored by an Advisory Committee appointed to investigate the causes of the disease in any way. An impressive quantity of information was gathered, analyzed and published. Published data include records of the number of people who died from plague, and of the two main populations of rodents which were infected by plague in Bombay city. In the present paper, these data are revisited using a global modeling technique. This technique is applied to both single and multivariate observational time series. Several models are obtained for which a chaotic behavior can be observed. Obtaining such models proves that the dynamics of plague can be approximated by low-dimensional deterministic systems that can produce chaos. The multivariate models give a strong argument for interactive couplings between the epidemic and the epizootics of the two main species of rat. An interpretation of this coupling is given.

  11. Hong Kong Junk: Plague and the Economy of Chinese Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Histories of the Third Plague Pandemic, which diffused globally from China in the 1890s, have tended to focus on colonial efforts to regulate the movement of infected populations, on the state's draconian public health measures, and on the development of novel bacteriological theories of disease causation. In contrast, this article focuses on the plague epidemic in Hong Kong and examines colonial preoccupations with Chinese "things" as sources of likely contagion. In the 1890s, laboratory science invested plague with a new identity as an object to be collected, cultivated, and depicted in journals. At the same time, in the increasingly vociferous anti-opium discourse, opium was conceived as a contagious Chinese commodity: a plague. The article argues that rethinking responses to the plague through the history of material culture can further our understanding of the political consequences of disease's entanglement with economic and racial categories, while demonstrating the extent to which colonial agents "thought through things."

  12. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications. PMID:24381461

  13. Disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gnjatović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the process of gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia during the second half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century. This period is characterized by an appearance of frequent usurpations of the ruling right to mint coinage by local landlords and the attempts of the rulers from Lazarević and Branković families to restore unified monetary system. Common debasements and restorations of silver coinage provoked economic instability and induced frequent turning backwards to the custom of using weighted silver instead of silver coins as commodity monetary standard. The aim of this paper is to explain the reasons for those phenomena. We apply qualitative, historical, empirical analysis where we consider money minting right holders and their decisions to debase and restore the value of silver dinars. We found that gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbian State continued until the fall of Serbian Despotate as a consequence of political instability following dissolution of medieval Serbian Empire and economic and financial exhaustion of Serbia by Ottoman suzerains.

  14. Measuring the Measuring Rod: Bible and Parabiblical Texts within the History of Medieval Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Doležalová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the acknowledged crucial role it had in forming medieval written culture, the Bible and a wide-range of parabiblical texts still remain largely ignored by histories of medieval literatures. The reason for this striking omission of an important group of medieval texts from the 'canonical' narratives is, as I argue, the strong bias in favour of national, secular, fictional, and original texts which shapes literary studies – an inheritance from the nineteenth-century nationalising approaches discussed in the first issue of the Interfaces journal. Of course, the discipline of literary studies and therefore selection, hierarchization, and interpretation are complex social, cultural and political processes where almost anything is possible. It is the environment, the interpretive community, in which the interpretation takes place that has a decisive role. And that, too, is constantly being transformed. Thus, there are no final categories and answers because as long as there are interpretive communities, meanings are generated and operate in new ways. That is why the present discussion does not aim to claim that many of the parabiblical texts are literature and should have been included in the canon of medieval literature. Rather, I examine what the nineteenth-century notion of canon did to these texts and how the current questioning and substantial reshaping of notions of canon can transform our understanding of parabiblical texts.

  15. Changing Settlements and Landscapes: Medieval Whittlewood, its Predecessors and Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jones

    2006-09-01

    approach. Methodologies have included test pitting in village cores, larger excavations and trial trenches both within and outside the village, geophysical and earthwork survey, extensive fieldwalking, exhaustive documentary research, retrospective analysis of a rich corpus of early maps, targeted palaeoenvironmental sampling, detailed place-name study, and the comprehensive survey of the standing buildings of the area. This has generated a substantial body of evidence, the broader conclusions from which are due to be published in 2006 in a monograph entitled Medieval Villages in an English Landscape: Beginnings and Ends (Macclesfield, Windgather Press. In embracing the unique opportunity offered by e-publishing and its integration with extensive digital archives, this article thus aims to achieve far more than simply duplicating its sister publication. It does not offer the in-depth explanations for change that are set out in the monograph, but rather focuses on the mechanics of change. But by presenting all the data on which reconstructions of these villages' territories have been based, readers will be able to test the veracity of the conclusions outlined both here and in the monograph, and to identify the intrinsic strengths and weaknesses of each class of evidence. It is hoped that by providing access to the data, readers will be encouraged to explore their own research agenda and to develop different readings of the evidence on which alternative models of medieval settlement and landscape change can be built.

  16. Vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (Cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, Dean E.; Godbey, Jerry L.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Carter, Leon G.; Montenieri, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (PDs) (Cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (Yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. Plague epizootics in PDs might arise as the result of introductions of Y. pestis from sources outside PD colonies. However, it remains possible that plague persists in PDs during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between their colonies. If this is true, application of vector control to reduce flea numbers might reduce mortality among PDs. To test whether vector control enhances PD survival in the absence of obvious plague epizootics, we reduced the numbers of fleas (vectors for Y. pestis) 96–98% (1 month posttreatment) on 15 areas involving three species of PDs (Cynomys leucurus, Cynomys parvidens in Utah, and Cynomys ludovicianus in Montana) during 2000–2004 using deltamethrin dust delivered into burrows as a pulicide. Even during years without epizootic plague, PD survival rates at dusted sites were 31–45% higher for adults and 2–34% higher for juveniles compared to survival rates at nondusted sites. Y. pestis was cultured from 49 of the 851 flea pools tested (6882 total fleas) and antibodies against Y. pestis were identified in serum samples from 40 of 2631 PDs. Although other explanations are possible, including transmission of other potentially fatal pathogens by fleas, ticks, or other ectoparasites, our results suggest that plague might be maintained indefinitely in PD populations in the absence of free epizootics and widespread mortality among these animals. If PDs and their fleas support enzootic cycles of plague transmission, there would be important implications for the conservation of these animals and other species.

  17. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xiao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252 and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254 by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  18. Venice: a meeting, a plague, a death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Botasso

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Death in Venice is based on the novella of the same name by Thomas Mann, except that in the cinema version the main character, Gustav von Aschenbach, is a musician instead of a writer. Owing to poetic license not always within the layman’s grasp, Luchino Visconti also wished to identify the artist with Gustav Mahler. Beyond such dissimilarities, however, the film is a feasible recreation of the story and a faithful reconstruction of those times: a Venice divorced from its former splendor and invaded by a plague and yet at the same time still able to evoke the captivating, nostalgic legacy of its magnificent past. An ideal scenario indeed for the musical ideas of Mahler, and perfectly reflected in the Midnight Song and the adagietto of his third and fifth symphonies.

  19. Plague in Guinea Pigs and Its Prevention by Subunit Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration–approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. PMID:21406168

  20. Plague: A Millenary Infectious Disease Reemerging in the XXI Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grácio, A J Dos Santos; Grácio, Maria Amélia A

    2017-01-01

    Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future. It is important to remember that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the known natural foci, for example, those of Algeria, Angola, and Madagascar. In a general context, it is important that governments know the dangerous impact that this disease may have and that the health and medical community be familiar with the epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and control of plague, so an appropriated and timely response can be delivered should the worst case happen. Plague can be used as a potential agent of bioterrorism. We have concluded that plague is without a doubt a reemerging infectious disease.

  1. Plague: A Millenary Infectious Disease Reemerging in the XXI Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. dos Santos Grácio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague, in the Middle Ages known as Black Death, continues to occur at permanent foci in many countries, in Africa, Asia, South America, and even the USA. During the last years outbreaks were reported from at least 3 geographical areas, in all cases after tens of years without reported cases. The recent human plague outbreaks in Libya and Algeria suggest that climatic and other environmental changes in Northern Africa may be favourable for Y. pestis epidemiologic cycle. If so, other Northern Africa countries with plague foci also may be at risk for outbreaks in the near future. It is important to remember that the danger of plague reoccurrence is not limited to the known natural foci, for example, those of Algeria, Angola, and Madagascar. In a general context, it is important that governments know the dangerous impact that this disease may have and that the health and medical community be familiar with the epidemiology, symptoms, treatment, and control of plague, so an appropriated and timely response can be delivered should the worst case happen. Plague can be used as a potential agent of bioterrorism. We have concluded that plague is without a doubt a reemerging infectious disease.

  2. Interspecific comparisons of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Williams, E.S.

    2001-01-01

    Of the 3 major factors (habitat loss, poisoning, and disease) that limit abundance of prairie dogs today, sylvatic plague caused by Yersinia pestis is the 1 factor that is beyond human control. Plague epizootics frequently kill >99% of prairie dogs in infected colonies. Although epizootics of sylvatic plague occur throughout most of the range of prairie dogs in the United States and are well described, long-term maintenance of plague in enzootic rodent species is not well documented or understood. We review dynamics of plague in white-tailed (Cynomys leucurus), Gunnison's (C. gunnisoni), and black-tailed (C. ludovicianus) prairie dogs, and their rodent and flea associates. We use epidemiologic concepts to support an enzootic hypothesis in which the disease is maintained in a dynamic state, which requires transmission of Y. pestis to be slower than recruitment of new susceptible mammal hosts. Major effects of plague are to reduce colony size of black-tailed prairie dogs and increase intercolony distances within colony complexes. In the presence of plague, black-tailed prairie dogs will probably survive in complexes of small colonies that are usually >3 km from their nearest neighbor colonies.

  3. Magna Carta: Teaching Medieval Topics for Historical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Scott Alan

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Ages are an immensely important era in the Western experience. Unfortunately, medieval studies are often marginalized or trivialized in school curriculum. With the approach of the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, the famous charter of rights from medieval England, one has a timely and useful example for considering what a focus on…

  4. Renewing Audience Response in Study of Medieval Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David V.

    Although modern readers often find the interpretation of medieval literature difficult, they should be encouraged to use their imagination to resolve the dilemmas they encounter. Often, these are the same issues with which medieval audiences had to wrestle and which the poets intended to raise. W. Iser's and H. R. Jauss's principles of…

  5. Exploring the Middle Ages with the Medieval Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Joseph D.

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates how medieval maps provide a means for studying the Middle Ages by allowing students to explore the ideology and representations of the medieval world conveyed by the maps. Explains that students also can compare the maps with literature from the same time period to further analyze the representations of the culture. (CMK)

  6. Locality and Distance in Cults of Saints in Medieval Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2017-01-01

    A discussion of the Norwegian medieval cult of the purported Irish St Sunniva, a cult in which holiness is seen as foreign and distant in the cultural memory of the saint.......A discussion of the Norwegian medieval cult of the purported Irish St Sunniva, a cult in which holiness is seen as foreign and distant in the cultural memory of the saint....

  7. Paltry past-precipitation: Predisposing prairie dogs to plague?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David; Biggins, Dean E.

    2017-01-01

    The plague bacterium Yersinia pestis was introduced to California in 1900 and spread rapidly as a sylvatic disease of mammalian hosts and flea vectors, invading the Great Plains in the United States by the 1930s to 1940s. In grassland ecosystems, plague causes periodic, devastating epizootics in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), sciurid rodents that create and maintain subterranean burrows. In doing so, plague inhibits prairie dogs from functioning as keystone species of grassland communities. The rate at which fleas transmit Y. pestis is thought to increase when fleas are abundant. Flea densities can increase during droughts when vegetative production is reduced and herbivorous prairie dogs are malnourished and have weakened defenses against fleas. Epizootics of plague have erupted frequently in prairie dogs during years in which precipitation was plentiful, and the accompanying cool temperatures might have facilitated the rate at which fleas transmitted Y. pestis. Together these observations evoke the hypothesis that transitions from dry-to-wet years provide conditions for plague epizootics in prairie dogs. Using generalized linear models, we analyzed a 24-year dataset on the occurrence of plague epizootics in 42 colonies of prairie dogs from Colorado, USA, 1982–2005. Of the 33 epizootics observed, 52% erupted during years with increased precipitation in summer. For the years with increased summer precipitation, if precipitation in the prior growing season declined from the maximum of 502 mm to the minimum of 200 mm, the prevalence of plague epizootics was predicted to increase 3-fold. Thus, reduced precipitation may have predisposed prairie dogs to plague epizootics when moisture returned. Biologists sometimes assume dry conditions are detrimental for plague. However, 48% of epizootics occurred during years in which precipitation was scarce in summer. In some cases, an increased abundance of fleas during dry years might

  8. Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus strain 201, an avirulent strain to humans, provides protection against bubonic plague in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingwen; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Qi, Zhizhen; Zhang, Xuecan; Wu, Xiaohong; Qiu, Yefeng; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xin, Youquan; He, Jian; Zhou, Jiyuan; Zeng, Lin; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2014-01-01

    Yersinia pestis biovar Microtus is considered to be a virulent to larger mammals, including guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. It may be used as live attenuated plague vaccine candidates in terms of its low virulence. However, the Microtus strain's protection against plague has yet to be demonstrated in larger mammals. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of the Microtus strain 201 as a live attenuated plague vaccine candidate. Our results show that this strain is highly attenuated by subcutaneous route, elicits an F1-specific antibody titer similar to the EV and provides a protective efficacy similar to the EV against bubonic plague in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques. The Microtus strain 201 could induce elevated secretion of both Th1-associated cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α) and Th2-associated cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6), as well as chemokines MCP-1 and IL-8. However, the protected animals developed skin ulcer at challenge site with different severity in most of the immunized and some of the EV-immunized monkeys. Generally, the Microtus strain 201 represented a good plague vaccine candidate based on its ability to generate strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as its good protection against high dose of subcutaneous virulent Y. pestis challenge.

  9. Embroided Portraits in the Romanian Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Marghidan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available If the artistic value of the Romanian medieval embroidery is obvious, it is no less real its documentary value. Most embroided portraits are made on liturgical pieces and they are a proof of the relationship of the rulers with the Orthodox Church. The position of the characters is a mute way of communicating the status that the voievod had. The vertical rigid representations, kneeling, the gestures of the palms and elbows, the beneficence objects, the way characters are grouped, the proportion or their placement in the work can be symbolically interpreted depending on the type of the Liturgical item on which the embroidery was done.

  10. Knowledge and practices related to plague in an endemic area of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugeler, Kiersten J; Apangu, Titus; Forrester, Joseph D; Griffith, Kevin S; Candini, Gordian; Abaru, Janet; Okoth, Jimmy F; Apio, Harriet; Ezama, Geoffrey; Okello, Robert; Brett, Meghan; Mead, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Plague is a virulent zoonosis reported most commonly from Sub-Saharan Africa. Early treatment with antibiotics is important to prevent mortality. Understanding knowledge gaps and common behaviors informs the development of educational efforts to reduce plague mortality. A multi-stage cluster-sampled survey of 420 households was conducted in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda to assess knowledge of symptoms and causes of plague and health care-seeking practices. Most (84%) respondents were able to correctly describe plague symptoms; approximately 75% linked plague with fleas and dead rats. Most respondents indicated that they would seek health care at a clinic for possible plague; however plague-like symptoms were reportedly common, and in practice, persons sought care for those symptoms at a health clinic infrequently. Persons in the plague-endemic region of Uganda have a high level of understanding of plague, yet topics for targeted educational messages are apparent. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. De herba lunatica (London, Wellcome Library, 573, f. 149v): edition and translation of a medieval opuscule on the magical properties of common moonwort (Botrychium lunaria Swartz)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraces Rodríguez, Arsenio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides the first edition of a medieval text on the properties of a plant named herba lunatica. From the description of the plant found in this text as well as in other medieval sources, together with its iconographic representation on the lower margin of the manuscript, we propose its identification with the ‘Botrychium lunaria’ Swartz. The edition of the Latin text includes its translation into Spanish.

  12. [Evidence of health culture in medieval statute of Budva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovic Karic, Grozdana; Milovic, Dorde

    2010-01-01

    The Statute of Budva dates from the time of Nemanjics. This medieval document was approved at the time Budva was under venetian dominion and remained in force until the end of the Venetian Republic. During 17th century the Statute was translated into the Italian language. The document includes regulations which indicate a concern for the health of the public. Among the regulations is one which prohibit the sale of fisch outside the stalls of the fishmarket presumably to ensure the sale of only fresh fish. Another regulation prohibits the sale of dead animals, the sale of dog's meat instead od wether meat. There is also language indicating a concern for protecting the cleanliness of brooks, rivers and wells. Corporal punishment is mentioned but only with regard to whipping and beheading.

  13. The Relations between Astronomy and Music in Medieval Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardumyan, Arpi

    2015-07-01

    In Middle Ages Astronomy and Music were included in the four sciences, together with Mathematics and Geometry. From ancient times philosophers thought that harmony lies in the basis of world creation. The Earth was in the centre of the Universe, and the seven planets went around it, the Sun and the Moon in their number. Harmony was also in the basis of music, with seven sounds due to seven planets. It was considered that owing to harmonic rotation cosmic universal music appears, and it is not attainable for human ear as it is used to it. Medieval connoisseurs of music therapy believed that for healing a person his astrological data must first be cleared out, in order to define in which musical mode should sound the melody in order to treat him/her. Comparing music with astrology they considered easier to practise the first one because the celestial luminaries are much higher and farther from people.

  14. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  15. Dangers of noncritical use of historical plague databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosen, J.; Curtis, D.R.

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have published several articles using historical data sets on plague epidemics using impressive digital databases that contain thousands of recorded outbreaks across Europe over the past several centuries. Through the digitization of preexisting data sets, scholars have unprecedented

  16. Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Kreppel, Katharina; Elissa, Nohal; Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth; Rajerison, Minoarisoa; Jambou, Ronan

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is still found in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Madagascar reports almost one third of the cases worldwide. Y. pestis can be encountered in three very different types of foci: urban, rural, and sylvatic. Flea vector and wild rodent host population dynamics are tightly correlated with modulation of climatic conditions, an association that could be crucial for both the maintenance of foci and human plague epidemics. The black rat Rattus rattus, the main host of Y. pestis in Madagascar, is found to exhibit high resistance to plague in endemic areas, opposing the concept of high mortality rates among rats exposed to the infection. Also, endemic fleas could play an essential role in maintenance of the foci. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of these factors as well as human behavior in the persistence of plague in Madagascar. PMID:24244760

  17. [Epidemics and risk factors of plague in Junggar Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, 2007-2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Wang, C; Luo, T; Guo, R; Meng, W W

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To explore the epidemic situation of animal plague in Junggar Basin natural plague foci. Methods: Data on epidemics of plague and on population involved, as well as results on antibodies and pathogens, were analyzed. Samples on animals and vectors were collected from 18 counties in Junggar Basin plague natural foci between 2007 and 2016. Results: The density of Rhombomys (R.) opimus was temporally fluctuant, from 2.1/hm(2) to 22.6/hm(2) respectively. However, the spatial distribution appeared asymmetrical, with the highest seen in Kelamayi and Wumuqi-midong counties, as 14.2/hm(2) and 13.0/hm(2) respectively. Rates of capture on nocturnal rodents were from 4.2 % to 10.1 % , with the highest rate as 10.1 % in 2014. Meriones meridianus appeared the dominant species in the nocturnal community of rodents, which accounted for 81.9 % . Regarding the spatial and temporal distributions, rates of R. opimus with fleas appeared fluctuant, with an average rate as 90.7 % and the average total flea index was 10.44. In flea community of R. opimus , Xenopsylla (X.) skrjabini was found the dominant species, popular in distribution and accounted for 47.8 % . The average rate of nocturnal rodents with flea was 20.2 % , with total flea index as 1.20 and the dominant fleas were X. conformis conformis and Nosopsyllus laeviceps . A total of 13 species with 9 087 serum samples from rodents were detected as having Y. pestis antibody by IHA, with 617 positive samples. Of them, the positive rate of having R. opimus appeared the highest (9.4 % ), followed by D. sagitta (1.1 % ). Spatially, two clustered areas were found, with one in the eastern Junggar Basin from Changji to Mulei county, with the antibody positive rates of R. opimus as 14.3 % . The other one was in the central area of Junggar Basin, including Kelamayi, Shawan and Wusu counties, with the antibody positive rate as 13.6 % . The prevalence of plague on R. opimus was fluctuant, with the lowest seen in 2008, with the

  18. Some more earthquakes from medieval Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shafi, Muzamil

    2014-07-01

    Kashmir has the peculiarity of having written history of almost 5,000 years. However, the description of earthquakes in the archival contents is patchy prior to 1500 a.d. Moreover, recent search shows that there exist certain time gaps in the catalogs presently in use especially at medieval level (1128-1586 a.d.). The presence of different ruling elites in association with socioeconomic and political conditions has in many ways confused the historical context of the medieval sources. However, by a meticulous review of the Sanskrit sources (between the twelfth and sixteenth century), it has been possible to identify unspecified but fair number (eight seismic events) of earthquakes that do not exist in published catalogs of Kashmir or whose dates are very difficult to establish. Moreover, historical sources reveal that except for events which occurred during Sultan Skinder's rule (1389-1413) and during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470), all the rediscovered seismic events went into oblivion, due mainly to the fact that the sources available dedicated their interests to the military events, which often tended to overshadow/superimpose over and even concealed natural events like earthquakes, resulting in fragmentary accounts and rendering them of little value for macroseismic intensity evaluation necessary for more efficient seismic hazard assessment.

  19. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    1986-01-01

    From the reviews: The book is, in spite of the author's more modest claims, an introductory survey of main developments in those disciplines which were particularly important in Medieval Islamic mathematics...No knowledge of mathematics (or of the history of mathematics) beyond normal high-school level is presupposed, and everything required beyond that (be it Apollonian theory of conics or the definitions of celestial circles) is explained carefully and clearly. Scattered throughout the work are a number of lucid remarks on the character of Islamic mathematics or of mathematical work in general. The book will hence not only be an excellent textbook for the teaching of the history of mathematics but also for the liberal art aspect of mathematics teaching in general. - Jens Høyrup, Mathematical Reviews ...as a textbook, this work is highly commendable...It is definitely the product of a skillful mathematician who has collected over the years a reasonably large number of interesting problems from medieval Arab...

  20. Resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Williamson, Judy; Cobble, Kacy R.; Busch, Joseph D.; Antolin, Michael F.; Wagner, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by Yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. As a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (South Dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (Colorado and Texas) were challenged with Y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse LD50s). South Dakota prairie dogs were far more susceptible to plague than Colorado and Texas prairie dogs (pdogs were quite similar in their response, with overall survival rates of 50% and 60%, respectively. Prairie dogs from these states were heterogenous in their response, with some animals dying at the lowest dose (37% and 20%, respectively) and some surviving even at the highest dose (29% and 40%, respectively). Microsatellite analysis revealed that all three groups were distinct genetically, but further studies are needed to establish a genetic basis for the observed differences in plague resistance.

  1. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  2. Level of damages and economical threshold, decisive aspects in the integrated management of plagues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and application of economical levels demand a procedure to find with precision the insects population in a given moment. In the integrated management of plagues is not allowed the idea that any insect which is feeding from a part of plants requires a control action, that is why it is very important to determine the real effect that this insect population causes to the cultivation. Any decrease in the crop, constitutes a real waste of time; but when the economical level is defined, it is included an additional factor which is the measure cost of the plagues control. The determination of damages of levels is very important for economists, farming experts and specialists; while for producers is very significant its implementation with the objective to count with a sustainable and beneficial agriculture.

  3. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many......” by Baggesen, in turn based on German and English sources. Anna Maria Lenngren followed with several ballads, often based on Danish sources. One more purely Swedish medieval ballad is “Varulven”. From 1810 unto 1971 thirteen versions of this Swedish ballad was discovered and printed. I place the focus...

  4. Multiple mechanisms of transmission of the Caribbean coral disease white plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, E.; Brandt, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    White plague is one of the most devastating coral diseases in the Caribbean, and yet important aspects of its epidemiology, including how the disease transmits, remain unknown. This study tested potential mechanisms and rates of transmission of white plague in a laboratory setting. Transmission mechanisms including the transport of water, contact with macroalgae, and predation via corallivorous worms and snails were tested on the host species Orbicella annularis. Two of the tested mechanisms were shown to transmit disease: water transport and the corallivorous snail Coralliophila abbreviata. Between these transmission mechanisms, transport of water between a diseased coral and a healthy coral resulted in disease incidence significantly more frequently in exposed healthy corals. Transmission via water transport also occurred more quickly and was associated with higher rates of tissue loss (up to 3.5 cm d-1) than with the corallivorous snail treatment. In addition, water that was in contact with diseased corals but was filtered with a 0.22-μm filter prior to being introduced to apparently healthy corals also resulted in the transmission of disease signs, but at a much lower rate than when water was not filtered. This study has provided important information on the transmission potential of Caribbean white plague disease and highlights the need for a greater understanding of how these processes operate in the natural environment.

  5. Aristotle's carp as Claretus' bird comor? Tracing the origin of one medieval term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 111-123 ISSN 0567-8269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ancient and medieval zoology * Latin lexicography * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré * Claretus * carp * komor * comor Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://www.karolinum.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2668&casopis=94&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  6. The wine trade, piracy and maritime contract law in late medieval Southampton

    OpenAIRE

    Pamuk, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of History, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 102-105. In late medieval Southampton, wine was a commodity, which was extensively traded, and quite precious to the pirates of the English Channel because it was easy to sell and the vessels loaded with wine had less protection than the ships of precious metals. Therefore, increase of wine trade in the late m...

  7. A comprehensive study on the role of the Yersinia pestis virulence markers in an animal model of pneumonic plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaman, W.E.; Hawkey, S.; van der Kleij, D.; Broekhuijsen, M.P.; Silman, N.J.; Bikker, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the Gram-negative bacterial agent of plague, is a zoonotic pathogen that primarily infects wild rodents and is transmitted by fleas. Y. pestis is one of the most invasive and virulent bacterial pathogens and has caused devastating pandemics, including the Black Death of 14th century

  8. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11 of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun. This possibility has been ruled out for four churches. As for the other churches, the matching of the mentioned dates with the patron’s days wasn’t established. The churches in monasteries Ljubostinja and Kalenic are oriented with astronomical precision towards equinox East, an admirable fact considering the tools available to the builders. Rade Borovic, the only chief architect who put his signature on his work, was the chief architect of Ljubostinja.

  9. Excavating a Silk Road City: the Medieval Citadel of Taraz, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Dawkes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The city of Taraz, located near the southern border with Uzbekistan, is one of the most significant historic settlements in Kazakhstan, and two seasons of fieldwork in the central market-place have revealed a substantial depth of medieval stratigraphy. Despite frequent mentions in Arabic and Chinese written sources, both the form and evolution of this important Silk Road city remain poorly understood. Evidence for a series of successive medieval buildings, including a bathhouse and a Zoroastrian flame shrine, was found in the area of the former citadel. These excavations, undertaken as a joint initiative between the Centre for Applied Archaeology and Kazakh archaeologists, were the first for 50 years in the city and form part of a wider public outreach programme.

  10. Inhalational Gentamicin Treatment Is Effective Against Pneumonic Plague in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gur

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumonic plague is an infectious disease characterized by rapid and fulminant development of acute pneumonia and septicemia that results in death within days of exposure. The causative agent of pneumonic plague, Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis, is a Tier-1 bio-threat agent. Parenteral antibiotic treatment is effective when given within a narrow therapeutic window after symptom onset. However, the non-specific “flu-like” symptoms often lead to delayed diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we evaluated inhalational gentamicin therapy in an infected mouse model as a means to improve antibiotic treatment efficacy. Inhalation is an attractive route for treating lung infections. The advantages include directly dosing the main infection site, the relative accessibility for administration and the lack of extensive enzymatic drug degradation machinery. In this study, we show that inhalational gentamicin treatment administered 24 h post-infection, prior to the appearance of symptoms, protected against lethal intranasal challenge with the fully virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain (Kim53. Similarly, a high survival rate was demonstrated in mice treated by inhalation with another aminoglycoside, tobramycin, for which an FDA-approved inhaled formulation is clinically available for cystic fibrosis patients. Inhalational treatment with gentamicin 48 h post-infection (to symptomatic mice was also successful against a Y. pestis challenge dose of 10 i.n.LD50. Whole-body imaging using IVIS technology demonstrated that adding inhalational gentamicin to parenteral therapy accelerated the clearance of Y. pestis from the lungs of infected animals. This may reduce disease severity and the risk of secondary infections. In conclusion, our data suggest that inhalational therapy with aerosolized gentamicin may be an effective prophylactic treatment against pneumonic plague. We also demonstrate the benefit of combining this treatment with a conventional parenteral

  11. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  12. Impact of the Pla protease substrate α2-antiplasmin on the progression of primary pneumonic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Justin L; Schroeder, Jay A; Zimbler, Daniel L; Bellows, Lauren E; Lathem, Wyndham W

    2015-12-01

    Many pathogens usurp the host hemostatic system during infection to promote pathogenesis. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, expresses the plasminogen activator protease Pla, which has been shown in vitro to target and cleave multiple proteins within the fibrinolytic pathway, including the plasmin inhibitor α2-antiplasmin (A2AP). It is not known, however, if Pla inactivates A2AP in vivo; the role of A2AP during respiratory Y. pestis infection is not known either. Here, we show that Y. pestis does not appreciably cleave A2AP in a Pla-dependent manner in the lungs during experimental pneumonic plague. Furthermore, following intranasal infection with Y. pestis, A2AP-deficient mice exhibit no difference in survival time, bacterial burden in the lungs, or dissemination from wild-type mice. Instead, we found that in the absence of Pla, A2AP contributes to the control of the pulmonary inflammatory response during infection by reducing neutrophil recruitment and cytokine production, resulting in altered immunopathology of the lungs compared to A2AP-deficient mice. Thus, our data demonstrate that A2AP is not significantly affected by the Pla protease during pneumonic plague, and although A2AP participates in immune modulation in the lungs, it has limited impact on the course or ultimate outcome of the infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. The virtues of balm in late medieval literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truitt, Elly R

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that balm, or balsam, was, by the late medieval period, believed to be a panacea, capable of healing wounds and illnesses, and also preventing putrefaction. Natural history and pharmacological texts on balm from the ancient and late antique periods emphasized specific qualities of balm, especially its heat; these were condensed and repeated in medieval encyclopedias. The rarity and cost of balsam, from antiquity through the medieval period, and the high rate of counterfeiting also demonstrate its high demand and significance in medicine and religious ritual. Travel writing and itineraria from the early and central medieval periods added a new layer to ideas about the capabilities of balsam: that it originated from a Christian miracle and was a particularly Christian plant.

  14. Zoonoses As Ecological Entities: A Case Review of Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppelini, Caio Graco; de Almeida, Alzira Maria Paiva; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i) assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii) species-specific chronic infection models; (ii) flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii) Telluric Plague, and (iv) a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts. The diversity of the community that harbors the reservoir system affects the transmission cycle by predation, competition, and dilution effect. Plague has notable environmental constraints, depending on altitude (500+ meters), warm and dry climates, and conditions for high productivity events for expansion of the transmission cycle. Human impacts are altering Plague dynamics by altering landscape and the faunal composition of the foci and adjacent areas, usually increasing the presence and number of human cases and outbreaks. Climatic change is also affecting the range of its occurrence. In the current transitional state of zoonosis as a whole, Plague is at risk of becoming a public health problem in poor countries where ecosystem erosion, anthropic invasion of new areas, and climate change increase the contact of the population with reservoir systems, giving new urgency for ecologic research that further details its maintenance in the wild, the spillover events, and how it links to human cases.

  15. [ON SOME DEBATABLE PROBLEMS OF THE NATURAL NIDALITY OF PLAGUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzhutsky, D B; Balakhonov, S V

    2016-01-01

    The communication substantiates the opinion that the theory of natural nidality of plague; which is based on the fundamental recognition that fleas play a leading role in the transmission and accumulation of the plague pathogen, cannot be disproved or substantially changed on the alternative weakly reasoned assumptions and hypotheses. All its "bottlenecks" are quite understandable when considering the long-term volumetric materials that have been gathered directly in nature and generalized in multiple publications. Plague is an obligate transmissive infection; its, agent is a highly specialized parasite that is completely associated in its vital activity with the only group of the blood-sucking insects--fleas and that is transmitted through periodic colonization of warm-blooded animals for a short time. All other types of plague microbe persistence in nature are either occasional or minor and do not play any significant role in pathogen persistence in the natural foci of this disease. There are no strong grounds for seriously considering the attempts to revise the main points of the theory of natural nidality of plague, which are widely held in current academic publications.

  16. Zoonoses As Ecological Entities: A Case Review of Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Graco Zeppelini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a zoonosis, Plague is also an ecological entity, a complex system of ecological interactions between the pathogen, the hosts, and the spatiotemporal variations of its ecosystems. Five reservoir system models have been proposed: (i assemblages of small mammals with different levels of susceptibility and roles in the maintenance and amplification of the cycle; (ii species-specific chronic infection models; (ii flea vectors as the true reservoirs; (iii Telluric Plague, and (iv a metapopulation arrangement for species with a discrete spatial organization, following a source-sink dynamic of extinction and recolonization with naïve potential hosts. The diversity of the community that harbors the reservoir system affects the transmission cycle by predation, competition, and dilution effect. Plague has notable environmental constraints, depending on altitude (500+ meters, warm and dry climates, and conditions for high productivity events for expansion of the transmission cycle. Human impacts are altering Plague dynamics by altering landscape and the faunal composition of the foci and adjacent areas, usually increasing the presence and number of human cases and outbreaks. Climatic change is also affecting the range of its occurrence. In the current transitional state of zoonosis as a whole, Plague is at risk of becoming a public health problem in poor countries where ecosystem erosion, anthropic invasion of new areas, and climate change increase the contact of the population with reservoir systems, giving new urgency for ecologic research that further details its maintenance in the wild, the spillover events, and how it links to human cases.

  17. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  18. Premaxillary hyperdontia in medieval Norwegians: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stermer Beyer-Olsen, E M

    1989-11-01

    An excavation of a part of the graveyard of St Olav's church, Trondheim, Norway, uncovered 389 tombs from the medieval period (1100-1600). Radiographic examination of 140 skulls with an intact premaxilla revealed hyperdontia in the form of a mesiodens in two (1.4%) cases. This is within the same range as similar medieval and present Nordic populations. Change in functional pattern does not seem to influence the prevalence.

  19. Flavorings in Context: Spices and Herbs in Medieval Near East

    OpenAIRE

    Lewicka, Paulina B.

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, the approach towards imported spices varied from culture to culture. In medieval and early post-medieval Europe, where spices became an exotic object of temporary desire, they were often used unskillfully and in a haphazard manner. In the Ottoman Constantinople, unlike in Europe, it was the moderate use of spices, and not overdosing them, that became a manifestation of status. As deliberate paragons of refinement, the Ottomans depreciated what they considered uncivilized w...

  20. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  1. Why We Need a Medieval Narratology: A Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva von Contzen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the growing interest in diachronic approaches and the historicizing of narratology, a medieval narratology is called for which systematically scrutinizes medieval forms and functions of narration. In the first part of the article, the problems of applying classical narratological theories to medieval literature are sketched, as well as the reasons for the relative invisibility of the narratological studies already conducted by medievalists. In the second part, the main parameters of a medieval narratology are outlined by means of selected sample analyses across a range of genres. A medieval narratology, it is argued, requires necessary shifts and modifications of existing theories, but also an open dialogue between the disciplines. Both narratologists and medievalists can profit from such an endeavor, which does not reject classical and post-classical theories. Rather, it is based on an informed understanding of the historical grounding of narrative forms and their place in the history of literature. The essay rounds off with a proposal of “Ten Theses for a Medieval Narratology”.

  2. A Taxonomic Update of Small Mammal Plague Reservoirs in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvicino, Cibele R; Oliveira, João A; Cordeiro-Estrela, Pedro; D'andrea, Paulo S; Almeida, Alzira M P

    2015-10-01

    Plague is a disease of epidemic potential that may emerge with discontinuous outbreaks. In South America, 50 wild rodent species have been identified as plague reservoirs, in addition to one lagomorph and two marsupials. To review the nomenclature of plague reservoirs, we examined specimens collected in plague foci, carried out new surveys in Brazilian plague regions, and re-evaluated the nomenclature of South American reservoirs on the basis of the current literature. Five of the 15 species involved with plague in Argentina, three of 10 species involved with plague in Bolivia, three of the seven species involved with plague in Peru, five of the nine species involved with plague in Ecuador, and six of the nine species involved with plague in Brazil have undergone taxonomic changes. In the last 20 years, plague cases were recorded in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. These four countries have a high rodent species richness in plague foci, a fact that may be decisive for the maintenance of plague in the wild.

  3. Wet climate and transportation routes accelerate spread of human plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Stige, Leif Chr.; Kausrud, Kyrre Linné; Ben Ari, Tamara; Wang, Shuchun; Fang, Xiye; Schmid, Boris V.; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Currently, large-scale transmissions of infectious diseases are becoming more closely associated with accelerated globalization and climate change, but quantitative analyses are still rare. By using an extensive dataset consisting of date and location of cases for the third plague pandemic from 1772 to 1964 in China and a novel method (nearest neighbour approach) which deals with both short- and long-distance transmissions, we found the presence of major roads, rivers and coastline accelerated the spread of plague and shaped the transmission patterns. We found that plague spread velocity was positively associated with wet conditions (measured by an index of drought and flood events) in China, probably due to flood-driven transmission by people or rodents. Our study provides new insights on transmission patterns and possible mechanisms behind variability in transmission speed, with implications for prevention and control measures. The methodology may also be applicable to studies of disease dynamics or species movement in other systems. PMID:24523275

  4. [The spread of the plague: A sciento-historiographic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrada, Coral

    2015-01-01

    There is still uncertainty about the diagnosis and nature of the plague; some scholars have been forced to abandon certainties and be filled with doubts: from believing that the mediaeval Black Plague was, in reality, the bubonic plague (although with unusual characteristics) to stating that there is very little evidence to support a retro-diagnosis. This article looks at this in depth, not only reviewing the historiography but also giving new interpretations which question previous hypotheses through research on images of the time, comparing them to the most recent investigative data. Two primary sources are analysed: Renaissance treaties written by four Italian doctors: Michele Savonarola, Marsilio Ficino, Leonardo Fioravanti and Gioseffo Daciano; and iconography: an illustrated manuscript of the Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio and a Hebrew Haggadah from the XIVth century. The results are compared to the most recent research on DNA and in micropaleontology.

  5. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North Atlantic region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/Ca ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm Period (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm periods (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.

  6. Paleoclimate and bubonic plague: a forewarning of future risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMichael Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pandemics of bubonic plague have occurred in Eurasia since the sixth century ad. Climatic variations in Central Asia affect the population size and activity of the plague bacterium's reservoir rodent species, influencing the probability of human infection. Using innovative time-series analysis of surrogate climate records spanning 1,500 years, a study in BMC Biology concludes that climatic fluctuations may have influenced these pandemics. This has potential implications for health risks from future climate change. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/112

  7. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Schneider; Patricia Najera; Sylvain Aldighieri; Deise I Galan; Eric Bertherat; Alfonso Ruiz; Elsy Dumit; Jean Marc Gabastou; Marcos A Espinal

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence...

  8. [The epidemiology and etiology research of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Baiqing; Xiong, Haoming; Yang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yonghai; Qi, Meiying; Jin, Juan; Xin, Youquan; Li, Xiang; Yang, Hanqing; Han, Xiumin; Dai, Ruixia

    2015-03-01

    To identify the epidemiology and etiology characteristics of Tibetan sheep plague in Qinghai plateau. The background materials of Qinghai Tibetan sheep plague found during 1975 to 2009 were summarized, the regional, time and interpersonal distribution, infection routes, ecological factors for the spread were used to analyze; followed by choosing 14 Yersinia pestis strains isolated from such sheep for biochemical test, toxicity test, virulence factors identification, plasmid analysis, and DFR genotype. From 1975 to 2009, 14 Yersinia pestis strains were isolated from Tibetan sheep in Qinghai province. Tibetan sheep, as the infection source, had caused 10 cases of human plague, 25 plague patients, and 13 cases of death. All of the initial cases were infected due to eating Tibetan sheep died of plague; followed by cases due to contact of plague patients, while all the initial cases were bubonic plague. Cases of bubonic plague developed into secondary pneumonic plague and septicemia plague were most popular and with high mortality. Most of the Tibetan sheep plague and human plague occurred in Gannan ecological zone in southern Gansu province, which was closely related to its unique ecological and geographical landscape. Tibetan sheep plague coincided with human plague caused by Tibetan sheep, especially noteworthy was that November (a time for marmots to start their dormancy) witnesses the number of Yersinia pestis strains isolated from Tibetan sheep and human plague cases caused by Tibetan sheep. This constituted the underlying cause that the epidemic time of Tibetan sheep plague lags obviously behind that of the Marmot plague. It was confirmed in the study that all the 14 strains were of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecotype, with virulence factors evaluation and toxicity test demonstrating strains as velogenic. As found in the (Different Region) DFR genotyping, the strains isolated from Yushu county and Zhiduo county were genomovar 5, the two strain isolated from Nangqian

  9. Deltamethrin flea-control preserves genetic variability of black-tailed prairie dogs during a plague outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P.H.; Biggins, D.E.; Eads, D.A.; Eads, S.L.; Britten, H.B.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variability and structure of nine black-tailed prairie dog (BTPD, Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies were estimated with 15 unlinked microsatellite markers. A plague epizootic occurred between the first and second years of sampling and our study colonies were nearly extirpated with the exception of three colonies in which prairie dog burrows were previously dusted with an insecticide, deltamethrin, used to control fleas (vectors of the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis). This situation provided context to compare genetic variability and structure among dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic, and among the three dusted colonies pre- and post-epizootic. We found no statistical difference in population genetic structures between dusted and non-dusted colonies pre-epizootic. On dusted colonies, gene flow and recent migration rates increased from the first (pre-epizootic) year to the second (post-epizootic) year which suggested dusted colonies were acting as refugia for prairie dogs from surrounding colonies impacted by plague. Indeed, in the dusted colonies, estimated densities of adult prairie dogs (including dispersers), but not juveniles (non-dispersers), increased from the first year to the second year. In addition to preserving BTPDs and many species that depend on them, protecting colonies with deltamethrin or a plague vaccine could be an effective method to preserve genetic variability of prairie dogs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  10. Both "illness and temptation of the enemy": melancholy, the medieval patient and the writings of King Duarte of Portugal (r. 1433-38).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Iona

    2009-06-01

    Recent historians have rehabilitated King Duarte of Portugal, previously maligned and neglected, as an astute ruler and philosopher. There is still a tendency, however, to view Duarte as a depressive or a hypochondriac, due to his own description of his melancholy in his advice book, the Loyal Counselor. This paper reassesses Duarte's writings, drawing on key approaches in the history of medicine, such as narrative medicine and the history of the patient. It is important to take Duarte's views on his condition seriously, placing them in the medical and theological contexts of his time and avoiding modern retrospective diagnosis. Duarte's writings can be used to explore the impact of plague, doubt and death on the life of a well-educated and conscientious late-medieval ruler.

  11. Predicting Potential Risk Areas of Human Plague for the Western Usambara Mountains, Lushoto District, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Peterson, A Townsend; Gulinck, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    A natural focus of plague exists in the Western Usambara Mountains of Tanzania. Despite intense research, questions remain as to why and how plague emerges repeatedly in the same suite of villages. We used human plague incidence data for 1986-2003 in an ecological-niche modeling framework to expl...

  12. El simbolismo animal en la cultura medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordar un tema tan amplio y complejo como el de la simbología animal en los siglos medievales en un espacio tan corto, me obliga a seleccionar los puntos prioritarios a tratar. En primer lugar adelanto que el trabajo aquí presentado es parte de una línea de investigación más amplia sobre culturas zoológicas en la España medieval, entendiendo comparativamente a la cristiana, a la musulmana y a la judía. Como se sabe, la zoohistoria y sus implicaciones en la vida del Inombre —sobre todo esto último— es una especialidad cada vez más cultivada dentro de la investigación reciente, también para la Edad Media. La simbología, dentro de aquella especialidad, resulta uno de los aspectos más sugerentes, y en estas líneas queremos plantear los puntos más relevantes de esta contribución.

  13. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  14. Malocclusions in a juvenile medieval skull material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, E

    1983-01-01

    From a mostly medieval skull material--the "Schreiner collections" in Oslo--juvenile crania were selected as follows: Group A: Crania with complete and intact primary dentition. n = 20. Group B: Crania with early mixed dentition. Incisors only erupted or under eruption. n = 47. Group C: Crania with late mixed dentition. n = 14. The author recorded visually: Sagittal and transversal dental relation, frontal dental contact, anterior cross-bite, rotation and crowding. There was good basal stability. Sagittally 1 moderately postnormal dentition was recorded, transversally there were no anomalies. Slight anterior cross-bite was recorded in 1 case, anterior cross-bite of one and two lateral incisors respectively in 2 others, and tête-à-tête contact in 3 cases. Crowding was recorded in 6 cases, in one of them being general, in the others located solely in the mandibular incisor segment. Broken contact and more or less pronounced rotation occurred in these dentitions. Rotation was also recorded in 2 other cases. The prevalence of malocclusions of the type that can be related to continuing finger-sucking or sucking of dummylike objects was very low in this material. This observation prompted the author to discuss a hypothesis concerning the aetiology of dummy- and finger-sucking habits.

  15. Integrating land cover and terrain characteristics to explain plague ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Literature suggests that higher resolution remote sensing data integrated in Geographic Information System (GIS) can provide greater possibility to refine the analysis of land cover and terrain characteristics for explanation of abundance and distribution of plague hosts and vectors and hence of health risk hazards to ...

  16. Observations on the endemicity of plague in Karatu and Ngorongoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commensal and field rodents and wild small carnivores were live-trapped in five villages of Karatu district and one settlement in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area in Ngorongoro district in Tanzania. Blood samples were taken and serologically tested for plague, using the Blocking ELISA technique. Some domestic dogs ...

  17. A curve of thresholds governs plague epizootics in Central Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reijniers, Jonas; Davis, Stephen; Begon, Mike

    2012-01-01

    , it is common to assume a threshold defined by the ratio of vector and host abundances. Here, we show in contrast, both from field data and model simulations, that for plague (Yersinia pestis) in Kazakhstan, the invasion threshold quantity is based on the product of its host (Rhombomys opimus) and vector...

  18. Observations on the endemicity of plague in Karatu and Ngorongoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have been exposed to Yersinia pestis, the plague pathogen, in the recent past. Since home range of rodents is known to be fairly short as previously demonstrated in Muheza, Morogoro and Lushoto districts (Kilonzo, 1984; Leirs, 1992; R.H. Makundi, unpubl.), the current observations can be justifiably interpreted to suggest ...

  19. Plague: Infections of Companion Animals and Opportunities for Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra C.F. Oyston

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease, normally circulating in rodent populations, transmitted to humans most commonly through the bite of an infected flea vector. Secondary infection of the lungs results in generation of infectious aerosols, which pose a significant hazard to close contacts. In enzootic areas, plague infections have been reported in owners and veterinarians who come into contact with infected pets. Dogs are relatively resistant, but can import infected fleas into the home. Cats are acutely susceptible, and can present a direct hazard to health. Reducing roaming and hunting behaviours, combined with flea control measures go some way to reducing the risk to humans. Various vaccine formulations have been developed which may be suitable to protect companion animals from contracting plague, and thus preventing onward transmission to man. Since transmission has resulted in a number of fatal cases of plague, the vaccination of domestic animals such as cats would seem a low cost strategy for reducing the risk of infection by this serious disease in enzootic regions.

  20. Towards a theoretically informed policy against a rakghoul plague outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Dimitrios-Georgios; Kontopoulou, Theano; Ho, Hsi-Cheng; García-Carreras, Bernardo

    2017-12-11

    A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, the Sith Lord Karness Muur engineered the rakghoul plague, a disease that transformed infected humans into near-mindless predatory rakghouls. At its peak, the disease infected millions of individuals, giving rise to armies of rakghouls on a number of planets. Whether rakghoul populations have persisted until this day is not known, making a rakghoul invasion on Earth not completely improbable. Further, a strategy for defence against an outbreak of the disease on Earth has not yet been proposed. To fill this glaring gap, we developed the first mathematical model of the population dynamics of humans and rakghouls during a rakghoul plague outbreak. Using New South Wales as a model site, we then obtained ensembles of model predictions for the outcome of the rakghoul plague in two different disease control strategy scenarios (population evacuation and military intervention), and in the absence thereof. Finally, based on these predictions, we propose a set of policy guidelines for successfully controlling and eliminating outbreaks of the rakghoul plague in Australian states.

  1. Representations of Lancet or Phlebotome in Serbian Medieval Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajić, Sanja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this study are representations of lancet or phlebotome in frescoes and icons of Serbian medieval art. The very presence of this medical instrument in Serbian medieval art indicates its usage in Serbian medical practices of the time. Phlebotomy is one of the oldest forms of therapy, widely spread in medieval times. It is also mentioned in Serbian medical texts, such as Chilandar Medical CodexNo. 517 and Hodoch code, i.e. translations from Latin texts originating from Salerno-Montpellier school. Lancet or phlebotome is identified based on archaeological finds from the Roman period, while finds from the Middle Ages and especially from Byzantium have been scarce. Analyses of preserved frescoes and icons has shown that, in comparison to other medical instruments, lancet is indeed predominant in Serbian medieval art, and that it makes for over 80% of all the representations, while other instruments have been depicted to a far lesser degree. Examination of written records and art points to the conclusion that Serbian medieval medicine, both in theory and in practice, belonged entirely to European traditions of the period.

  2. Contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution in the plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kihupi, Nganga I; Kimaro, Didas N; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Fleas associated with different rodent species are considered as the major vectors of bubonic plague, which is still rampant in different parts of the world. The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of land use to rodent flea load distribution at fine scale in the plague endemic area of north-eastern Tanzania. Data was collected in three case areas namely, Shume, Lukozi and Mwangoi, differing in plague incidence levels. Data collection was carried out during both wet and dry seasons of 2012. Analysis of Variance and Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) statistical methods were used to clarify the relationships between fleas and specific land use characteristics. There was a significant variation (P ≤ 0.05) of flea indices in different land use types. Fallow and natural forest had higher flea indices whereas plantation forest mono-crop and mixed annual crops had the lowest flea indices among the aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on flea indices was variable with fallow having a positive effect and land tillage showing a negative effect. The results also demonstrated a seasonal effect, part of which can be attributed to different land use practices such as application of pesticides, or the presence of grass strips around fields. These findings suggest that land use factors have a major influence on rodent flea abundance which can be taken as a proxy for plague infection risk. The results further point to the need for a comprehensive package that includes land tillage and crop type considerations on one hand and the associated human activities on the other, in planning and implementation of plague control interventions.

  3. Sinusitis in people living in the medieval ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teul, Iwona; Lorkowski, Jacek; Lorkiewicz, Wieslaw; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2013-01-01

    Breathing vitally serves body homeostasis. The prevalence of upper airway infections is often taken as an indicator of overall health status of a population living at a given time. In the present study we examined the unearthed remains of skulls from the XIII-XV century inhabitants searching for signs of maxillary sinusitis. Maxillary sinuses of the skulls of 92 individuals were inspected macroscopically and, if necessary, endoscopically. Osseous changes, including the pitting and abnormal spicule formation were present in 69 cases (75.0 %). It was found that, overall, dental infection was a major cause of maxillary sinusitis (18.8 %). Severe bone changes were observed in the adults' skulls, but were also present in the sinus walls of children's skulls. Post-inflammatory changes were manifest as remodeling and damage to the sinus walls. The results indicate that both children and adults of the Middle Ages suffered from chronic sinusitis. These observations confirm that the climate, environment, and lifestyle of the medieval populations contributed to the morbidity of the upper respiratory tract.

  4. Portraits of aging men in late medieval Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Roisin

    2012-08-01

     This essay examines the human experience of aging in the distant past by investigating a group of aging men during the 14th century in an Italian city, Bergamo, using notarial "documents of practice" from that community. Studying the aging process and its effects on the lives of people in the medieval era has three-fold significance: it broadens our understanding of aging as a human construct and a human experience, challenges an antihistorical theory of aging, and reinforces the importance of studying the specific experiences of aging individuals in both the past and the present.     A qualitative study. Methods of analysis include nominative linkage and an investigation of the physical effects of aging on an individual, as seen in the documents of 1 long-lived notary.   Aging clerics and notaries in Bergamo took on positions of increasing authority in the church and related institutions in the last decades of their lives.   The documented activities of a group of affluent men in 14th-century Bergamo suggest that although there was little recorded discussion of "old age" as a life stage in that community, for these men, aging was a real social process with both positive and negative impacts on their lives. Giving a human face to these aging men of the distant past models an approach to the study of the aging process that has relevance for both historians and gerontologists alike.

  5. Mockers and mocked in Spanish medieval exemplary literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Cándano Fierro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a brief account of comical motifs that appear in some medieval exempla collections, for instance the Disciplina clericalis and Conde Lucanor, with and approximation to a hybrid work, as Libro de Buen amor, by the Arcipreste de Hita. Tge purpose of these writings was to teach and moralize audiences and this is a notable from the very introduction on. However, authors or compilers never include in their preliminaries that the purpose of their writings is to amuse, make their readers laugh, reinterpret or decontextualize the world. The main objective of this investigation is to direct the analysis of exemplary works toward revealing their amusing or even comical side. Central to this study is a conceptual structure of the laughter phenomenon that has come forward from theoretical works by well-known authors such as Aristotle. Bergson, Ducrot and others. The subject matter is to emphasize the universality of the comical vein in the aforesaid writings, which has lasted up to the present.

  6. Education and transmission of knowledge in medieval India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The various regions of the Indian subcontinent came into contact with the Islamic cultural tradition in the seventh century CE. Indian scholars were able to leave a mark on the world of Islamic scholarship especially in the fields of ḥadīth and other connected disciplines, significantly underlining their recognition for contributions in the Islamic East. An attempt has been made to analyse and to understand the processes of transmission of knowledge through formal and informal means, including the transfer of accumulated experience to the next generation and even the passing of “intuitive knowledge” to the seeker of knowledge. It has been argued that the level of Indian scholarship in certain disciplines was at par with the level of scholarship in the Islamic East. It has also been examined that during the medieval period Sanskrit based studies flourished at important Hindu pilgrimage centres such as Benaras, often described by European travellers as the Athens of India. The Royal and private libraries functioned with firm footings. Finally, it is shown that education and transmission of knowledge was organized in a manner that owes much to the best of Greco-Arab tradition.

  7. Outbreak of Human Pneumonic Plague with Dog-to-Human and Possible Human-to-Human Transmission--Colorado, June-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runfola, Janine K; House, Jennifer; Miller, Lisa; Colton, Leah; Hite, Donna; Hawley, Alex; Mead, Paul; Schriefer, Martin; Petersen, Jeannine; Casaceli, Colleen; Erlandson, Kristine M; Foster, Clayton; Pabilonia, Kristy L; Mason, Gary; Douglas, John M

    2015-05-01

    On July 8, 2014, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) laboratory identified Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes plague, in a blood specimen collected from a man (patient A) hospitalized with pneumonia. The organism had been previously misidentified as Pseudomonas luteola by an automated system in the hospital laboratory. An investigation led by Tri-County Health Department (TCHD) revealed that patient A's dog had died recently with hemoptysis. Three other persons who had contact with the dog, one of whom also had contact with patient A, were ill with fever and respiratory symptoms, including two with radiographic evidence of pneumonia. Specimens from the dog and all three human contacts yielded evidence of acute Y. pestis infection. One of the pneumonia cases might have resulted through human-to-human transmission from patient A, which would be the first such event reported in the United States since 1924. This outbreak highlights 1) the need to consider plague in the differential diagnosis of ill domestic animals, including dogs, in areas where plague is endemic; 2) the limitations of automated diagnostic systems for identifying rare bacteria such as Y. pestis; and 3) the potential for milder plague illness in patients taking antimicrobial agents. Hospital laboratorians should be aware of the limitations of automated identification systems, and clinicians should suspect plague in patients with clinically compatible symptoms from whom P. luteola is isolated.

  8. Eighteenth century Yersinia pestis genomes reveal the long-term persistence of an historical plague focus

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Sahl, Jason; Waglechner, Nicholas; Fourment, Mathieu; Forrest, Stephen A; Klunk, Jennifer; Schuenemann, Verena J; Poinar, Debi; Kuch, Melanie; Golding, G Brian; Dutour, Olivier; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Holmes, Edward C

    2016-01-01

    eLife digest A bacterium called Yersina pestis is responsible for numerous human outbreaks of plague throughout history. It is carried by rats and other rodents and can spread to humans causing what we conventionally refer to as plague. The most notorious of these plague outbreaks ? the Black Death ? claimed millions of lives in Europe in the mid-14th century. Several other plague outbreaks emerged in Europe over the next 400 years. Then, there was a large gap before the plague re-emerged as ...

  9. The Pleasure of Discovery: Medieval Literature in Adolescent Novels Set in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhouse, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Discusses three recent novels for young adults set in medieval times, illustrating several ways that modern writers incorporate medieval material into fiction. Argues that pairing such novels with medieval texts such as "Beowulf" and "The Canterbury Tales" offers opportunities to explore traditional literary topics while providing a gateway into…

  10. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the numerical research output of crusade studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of medieval studies in general in the same period. It shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates on some...... of the methodological considerations necessary in carrying out this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output both...... in crusade studies in particular and in medieval studies in general. The article proposes further discussion on the “why” and “how” of this somewhat surprising result....

  11. Knowledge and practices related to plague in an endemic area of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiersten J. Kugeler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plague is a virulent zoonosis reported most commonly from Sub-Saharan Africa. Early treatment with antibiotics is important to prevent mortality. Understanding knowledge gaps and common behaviors informs the development of educational efforts to reduce plague mortality. Methods: A multi-stage cluster-sampled survey of 420 households was conducted in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda to assess knowledge of symptoms and causes of plague and health care-seeking practices. Results: Most (84% respondents were able to correctly describe plague symptoms; approximately 75% linked plague with fleas and dead rats. Most respondents indicated that they would seek health care at a clinic for possible plague; however plague-like symptoms were reportedly common, and in practice, persons sought care for those symptoms at a health clinic infrequently. Conclusions: Persons in the plague-endemic region of Uganda have a high level of understanding of plague, yet topics for targeted educational messages are apparent. Keywords: Plague, Yersinia pestis, Knowledge, Practices, Behaviors, Africa

  12. Geographic distribution and ecological niche of plague in sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon B; Peterson, Andrew T; Gulinck, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    Background Plague is a rapidly progressing, serious illness in humans that is likely to be fatal if not treated. It remains a public health threat, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In spite of plague's highly focal nature, a thorough ecological understanding of the general distribution pattern...... of plague across sub-Saharan Africa has not been established to date. In this study, we used human plague data from sub-Saharan Africa for 1970-2007 in an ecological niche modeling framework to explore the potential geographic distribution of plague and its ecological requirements across Africa. Results We...... predict a broad potential distributional area of plague occurrences across sub-Saharan Africa. General tests of model's transferability suggest that our model can anticipate the potential distribution of plague occurrences in Madagascar and northern Africa. However, generality and predictive ability tests...

  13. Women performers and prostitutes in Medieval India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shadab

    2012-01-01

    Music and dance, the esoteric performing arts, were markers of culture in medieval India. A number of these differing forms developed into well-recognized and reputed arts over time. The practitioners were, accordingly, regarded as agents of refinement and culture. At the same time, music and dance were also among the most popular forms of entertainment and physical pleasure. This aspect remained crucial in classifying musicians, singers and dancers as entertainers, alongside prostitutes. While the labelling together might have reduced the status of performers at times, the labelling hardly remained fixed. Certain practitioners, even if involved in practices otherwise considered immoral, could remain within the elite circle, while for others the ‘evil’ characteristics got emphasized. There were, within the class of women who prostituted themselves, courtesans trained in the skills of music and dancing and educated in the fine arts, who were treated more as embodiments of culture. These categories—artists, skilled entertainers, courtesans—were quite fluid, with the boundaries seemingly fused together. Still, there were certainly some distinctions among the categories and those did not totally disappear, affording sanctity and purity to certain kinds of performers and allowing them to claim distinctiveness. Notably, the class of courtesans clearly stood apart from the common prostitutes. The attempt in this article is to look at different categories of women performers and prostitutes, their apparent coalescing boundaries and specialities as a separate group, their societal position, their shifting roles and the changes that affected their status. In this, it is worthwhile to consider the state’s attitude towards them, besides societal views that remained quite diverse.

  14. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N

    2014-01-01

    The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351) was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75) and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246) cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143). The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133) was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  15. Mortality risk and survival in the aftermath of the medieval Black Death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon N DeWitte

    Full Text Available The medieval Black Death (c. 1347-1351 was one of the most devastating epidemics in human history. It killed tens of millions of Europeans, and recent analyses have shown that the disease targeted elderly adults and individuals who had been previously exposed to physiological stressors. Following the epidemic, there were improvements in standards of living, particularly in dietary quality for all socioeconomic strata. This study investigates whether the combination of the selective mortality of the Black Death and post-epidemic improvements in standards of living had detectable effects on survival and mortality in London. Samples are drawn from several pre- and post-Black Death London cemeteries. The pre-Black Death sample comes from the Guildhall Yard (n = 75 and St. Nicholas Shambles (n = 246 cemeteries, which date to the 11th-12th centuries, and from two phases within the St. Mary Spital cemetery, which date to between 1120-1300 (n = 143. The St. Mary Graces cemetery (n = 133 was in use from 1350-1538 and thus represents post-epidemic demographic conditions. By applying Kaplan-Meier analysis and the Gompertz hazard model to transition analysis age estimates, and controlling for changes in birth rates, this study examines differences in survivorship and mortality risk between the pre- and post-Black Death populations of London. The results indicate that there are significant differences in survival and mortality risk, but not birth rates, between the two time periods, which suggest improvements in health following the Black Death, despite repeated outbreaks of plague in the centuries after the Black Death.

  16. Ideal kingship in the late medieval world: The Ottoman case

    OpenAIRE

    Yelçe, Zeynep Nevin; Yelce, Zeynep Nevin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of the ideal ruler as seen through the eyes of the members of late medieval societies. Throughout the study, main features attributed to the ideal ruler in various cultures have been pursued. Comparing the concepts and attributes apparent in these cultures, it has become possible to talk about a single ideal of kingship as far as the "Christian" and "Muslim" realms of the late medieval era is concerned. The early Ottoman enterprise has b...

  17. Proper Living - Exploring Domestic Ideals in Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2014-01-01

    Houses frame homes, households, and daily life, and it is reasonable to suggest that ideas of domestic space in medieval society, and ideas of how to live in an orderly and acceptable manner in the eyes of one’s peers and oneself are reflected in domestic architecture, its layout, fittings......, and ornaments. This paper addresses ideas of proper living in affluent rural and urban milieus in medieval Denmark, particularly as they are expressed through houses, inventories, and murals, and it also addresses current challenges in understanding the materialized ideas based on excavations and analysis...

  18. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly...... origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human...

  19. [The Antonine Plague and the decline of the Roman Empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, S; Fiorino, S

    2009-12-01

    The Antonine Plague, which flared up during the reign of Marcus Aurelius from 165 AD and continued under the rule of his son Commodus, played such a major role that the pathocenosis in the Ancient World was changed. The spread of the epidemic was favoured by the occurrence of two military episodes in which Marcus Aurelius himself took part: the Parthian War in Mesopotamia and the wars against the Marcomanni in northeastern Italy, in Noricum and in Pannonia. Accounts of the clinical features of the epidemic are scant and disjointed, with the main source being Galen, who witnessed the plague. Unfortunately, the great physician provides us with only a brief presentation of the disease, his aim being to supply therapeutic approaches, thus passing over the accurate description of the disease symptoms. Although the reports of some clinical cases treated by Galen lead us to think that the Antonine plague was caused by smallpox, palaeopathological confirmation is lacking. Some archaeological evidence (such as terracotta finds) from Italy might reinforce this opinion. In these finds, some details can be observed, suggesting the artist's purpose to represent the classic smallpox pustules, typical signs of the disease. The extent of the epidemic has been extensively debated: the majority of authors agree that the impact of the plague was severe, influencing military conscription, the agricultural and urban economy, and depleting the coffers of the State. The Antonine plague affected ancient Roman traditions, also leaving a mark on artistic expression; a renewal of spirituality and religiousness was recorded. These events created the conditions for the spread of monotheistic religions, such as Mithraism and Christianity. This period, characterized by health, social and economic crises, paved the way for the entry into the Empire of neighbouring barbarian tribes and the recruitment of barbarian troops into the Roman army; these events particularly favoured the cultural and

  20. Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Vogler

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis appears to be maintained in multiple, geographically separate, and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations within the highlands of Madagascar. However, the dynamics of these locally differentiated subpopulations through time are mostly unknown. To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period.We generated whole genome sequences for 31 strains and discovered new SNPs that we used in conjunction with previously identified SNPs and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs to genotype 773 Malagasy Y. pestis samples from 1995 to 2012. We mapped the locations where samples were obtained on a fine geographic scale to examine phylogeographic patterns through time. We identified 18 geographically separate and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations that display spatial and temporal stability, persisting in the same locations over a period of almost two decades. We found that geographic areas with higher levels of topographical relief are associated with greater levels of phylogenetic diversity and that sampling frequency can vary considerably among subpopulations and from year to year. We also found evidence of various Y. pestis dispersal events, including over long distances, but no evidence that any dispersal events resulted in successful establishment of a transferred genotype in a new location during the examined time period.Our analysis suggests that persistent endemic cycles of Y. pestis transmission within local areas are responsible for the long term maintenance of plague in Madagascar, rather than repeated episodes of wide scale epidemic spread. Landscape likely plays a role in maintaining Y. pestis subpopulations in Madagascar, with increased topographical relief associated with increased levels of localized differentiation. Local ecological factors likely affect the dynamics of individual subpopulations and the

  1. Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Amy J; Andrianaivoarimanana, Voahangy; Telfer, Sandra; Hall, Carina M; Sahl, Jason W; Hepp, Crystal M; Centner, Heather; Andersen, Genevieve; Birdsell, Dawn N; Rahalison, Lila; Nottingham, Roxanne; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M; Rajerison, Minoarisoa

    2017-09-01

    Yersinia pestis appears to be maintained in multiple, geographically separate, and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations within the highlands of Madagascar. However, the dynamics of these locally differentiated subpopulations through time are mostly unknown. To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period. We generated whole genome sequences for 31 strains and discovered new SNPs that we used in conjunction with previously identified SNPs and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) to genotype 773 Malagasy Y. pestis samples from 1995 to 2012. We mapped the locations where samples were obtained on a fine geographic scale to examine phylogeographic patterns through time. We identified 18 geographically separate and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations that display spatial and temporal stability, persisting in the same locations over a period of almost two decades. We found that geographic areas with higher levels of topographical relief are associated with greater levels of phylogenetic diversity and that sampling frequency can vary considerably among subpopulations and from year to year. We also found evidence of various Y. pestis dispersal events, including over long distances, but no evidence that any dispersal events resulted in successful establishment of a transferred genotype in a new location during the examined time period. Our analysis suggests that persistent endemic cycles of Y. pestis transmission within local areas are responsible for the long term maintenance of plague in Madagascar, rather than repeated episodes of wide scale epidemic spread. Landscape likely plays a role in maintaining Y. pestis subpopulations in Madagascar, with increased topographical relief associated with increased levels of localized differentiation. Local ecological factors likely affect the dynamics of individual subpopulations and the associated

  2. News Reports about Health: Between Heroes and Plagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acianela Montes de Oca

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research characterizes news reports published in the health sections of two newspapers, El Nacional and El Universal, from 1996 to 2006 from the perspective of the myths. Mytheme analysis and rhetorical figures show that myths more frecuently used were The Hero, The Progress, The Plague and Panacea. From the analysis we concluded that the texts of the health sections of analyzed newspapers show a dangerous world (stalked by The Plague that only the Hero (the doctor can face. Science, technology, modernity, health, The Progress, Panacea, seem a gift rather than a human conquest. If we accept the premise that the myths act unify social representations and introduce a single meaning to the future, these stories express a look of helplessness and uncertainty in illness and risk.

  3. Medieval women's writing: Works by and for Women in England, 1100-1500

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, D

    2007-01-01

    Medieval Women's Writing is a major new contribution to our understanding of women's writing in England, 1100-1500. The most comprehensive account to date, it includes writings in Latin and French as well as English, and works for as well as by women. Marie de France, Clemence of Barking, Julian of Norwich, Margery Kempe, and the Paston women are discussed alongside the Old English lives of women saints, The Life of Christina of Markyate, the St Albans Psalter, and the legends of women saints...

  4. 1970 MLA International Bibliography of Books and Articles on the Modern Languages and Literatures, Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, Celtic Literatures; and Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserole, Harrison T., Comp.

    Volume 1 of the four-volume, international bibliography contains over 11,140 entries referring to books, Festschriften, analyzed collections, and articles which focus on General, English, American, medieval and neo-Latin, and Celtic literatures. A section of folklore is also included. The section on general literature includes: (1) aesthetics, (2)…

  5. Saving the Phenomena in Medieval Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeskin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Aristotle's theory of motion is based on two principles: (1) all motion to either from the midpoint of the Earth, toward it, or around it, and (2) circular motion must proceed around an immovable point. On this view, the heavenly bodies are individual points of light carried around by a series of concentric spheres rotating at a constant pace around the midpoint of the Earth. But even in Aristotle's day, it was known that this theory had a great deal of difficulty accounting for planetary motion. Ptolemy's alternative was to introduce epicycles and eccentric orbits, thus denying Aristotle's view of natural motion. There was no doubt that Ptolemy's predictions were far better than Aristotle's. But for the medievals, Aristotle's theory made better intuitive sense. Moreover, Ptolemy's theory raised the question of how one sphere could pass through another. What to do? The solution of Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) was to say that it is not the job of the astronomer to tell us how things actually are but merely to propose a series of hypotheses that allow us to explain the relevant data. This view had obvious theological implications. If astronomy could explain planetary motion in an acceptable way, there was reason to believe that the order or structure of the heavens is what it is by necessity. This suggests that God did not exercise any degree of choice in making it that way. But if astronomy cannot explain planetary motion, the most reasonable explanation is that we are dealing with contingent phenomena rather than necessary ones. If there is contingency, there is reason to think God did exercise a degree of choice in making the heavens the way they are. A God who exercises choice is much closer to the God of Scripture. Although Galileo changed all of this, and paved the way for a vastly different view of astronomy, the answer to one set of questions raises a whole different set. In short, the heavenly motion still poses ultimate questions about God, existence, and

  6. Dating mortars: three medieval Spanish architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in building archaeology is finding the age of elements and structures discovered. Mortars represent a class of material basically constituted by a mixture of different phases (i.e. binder, aggregates, water and are widely used for constructive uses and artworks. Current scientific literature regarding the possibility of accurate radiocarbon dating for mortars reports different and still contradictory results. In this study, a new protocol for radiocarbon dating of mortar developed at the Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE is used to perform 14C measurements on archaeological mortars coming from three medieval architectures of northern Spain (two churches and the walls of a castle. Results observed will be discussed and compared with independent age estimations (i.e. radiocarbon dating performed on organic materials found in the same study site, archaeological analyses in order to frame experimental observations in the actual site knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach.Una de las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrenta la arqueología de la arquitectura es datar los elementos y las estructuras. Las argamasas son un tipo de material constituido por una mezcla de diferentes elementos (agregados, agua y empleadas en muchos tipos de construcciones. Los estudios realizados hasta la actualidad en torno a la posibilidad de realizar dataciones radiocarbónicas precisas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo de este artículo es el de presentar un nuevo protocolo para datar la arquitectura histórica desarrollado por el Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Enviromental Heritage (CIRCE, basado en la realización de dataciones radiocarbónicas de argamasas a partir del análisis de tres arquitecturas medievales del norte del España, dos iglesias y la muralla de un castillo. Los resultados obtenidos han sido confrontados y comparados con otros

  7. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  8. Characteristics of the repair - deficient mutants 1435 plague microbe strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temiralieva, G.A.

    1977-01-01

    Repair-deficient mutants 1435 A uvr - hcr - , 1435-17 uvr - hcr + and 1435-35 lon have been obtained from 1435 plague microbe strain, isolated from a large gerbil living in the Central Asian desert region. The mutants have the same cultural-morphological and enzymatic characteristics, the same need in growth factors and similar virulence determinants as the original strain, but they do not cause death of the experimental animals

  9. The Acridian plagues, a new Holocene and Pleistocene palaeoclimatic indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meco, Joaquín; Petit-Maire, Nicole; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan F.; Ramos, Antonio J. G.

    2010-07-01

    Five palaeosols, intercalated within the Quaternary dune beds of Fuerteventura and Lanzarote (Canary Islands), off the Moroccan coast, mark wetter climatic episodes. In all of them, billions of calcified insect ootheca testify to past occurrences of Acridian plagues, such as those reaching the western Sahara following heavy rainfall events over the Sahel. The most massive infestation is in the Holocene, and should coincide with the climax of Saharo-Sahelian humidity at the peak of the present interglacial.

  10. Importance of intersectoral co-ordination in the control of communicable diseases, with special reference to plague in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, B S

    1994-07-01

    Human health, agriculture, including livestock, energy, education, wildlife, construction, forestry and trade sectors are inter-related and their co-ordination is an important pre-requisite for successful control of most communicable diseases including plague. Similar linkage between research, policy, training and extension activities in each sector are essential for any successful control strategy. Inadequate agricultural produce, inaccessibility of people to the available food and ignorance on proper preparation and usage of available food materials are responsible for malnutrition, and malnourished people are very vulnerable to disease. Irrigation schemes facilitate breeding of various disease vectors and transmission of some communicable diseases. Forests are ecologically favourable for some disease vectors and reservoirs for tsetse flies and rodents, while deforestation leads to soil erosion, lack of rainfall and consequently reduced productivity in agriculture which may result in poor nutrition of the population. Wildlife and livestock serve as reservoirs and/or carriers of various zoonoses including plague, trypanosomiasis and rabies. Lack of proper co-ordination of these sectors in communicable disease control programmes can result in serious and undesirable consequences. Indiscriminate killing of rodents in order to minimize food damage by these vermin forces their flea ectoparasites to seek alternative hosts, including man, a development which may result in transmission of plague from rodents to man. Similarly, avoidance of proper quarantine during plague epidemics, an undertaking which is usually aimed at maintaining economic and social links with places outside the affected focus, can result in the disease becoming widespread and consequently make any control strategies more difficult and expensive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Support for global climate reorganization during the ''Medieval Climate Anomaly''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, N.E. [Hydrologic Research Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Ammann, C.M. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Fleitmann, D. [University of Bern, Institute of Geological Sciences, Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climatic Change Research, Bern (Switzerland); Cobb, K.M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Luterbacher, J. [Justus-Liebig-University, Giessen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Widely distributed proxy records indicate that the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA; {proportional_to}900-1350 AD) was characterized by coherent shifts in large-scale Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation patterns. Although cooler sea surface temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific can explain some aspects of medieval circulation changes, they are not sufficient to account for other notable features, including widespread aridity through the Eurasian sub-tropics, stronger winter westerlies across the North Atlantic and Western Europe, and shifts in monsoon rainfall patterns across Africa and South Asia. We present results from a full-physics coupled climate model showing that a slight warming of the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans relative to the other tropical ocean basins can induce a broad range of the medieval circulation and climate changes indicated by proxy data, including many of those not explained by a cooler tropical Pacific alone. Important aspects of the results resemble those from previous simulations examining the climatic response to the rapid Indian Ocean warming during the late twentieth century, and to results from climate warming simulations - especially in indicating an expansion of the Northern Hemisphere Hadley circulation. Notably, the pattern of tropical Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) change responsible for producing the proxy-model similarity in our results agrees well with MCA-LIA SST differences obtained in a recent proxy-based climate field reconstruction. Though much remains unclear, our results indicate that the MCA was characterized by an enhanced zonal Indo-Pacific SST gradient with resulting changes in Northern Hemisphere tropical and extra-tropical circulation patterns and hydroclimate regimes, linkages that may explain the coherent regional climate shifts indicated by proxy records from across the planet. The findings provide new perspectives on the nature and possible causes of the MCA

  12. A non-stationary relationship between global climate phenomena and human plague incidence in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, Katharina S; Caminade, Cyril; Telfer, Sandra; Rajerison, Minoarison; Rahalison, Lila; Morse, Andy; Baylis, Matthew

    2014-10-01

    Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar. We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation. This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar.

  13. A non-stationary relationship between global climate phenomena and human plague incidence in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina S Kreppel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Plague, a zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis, is found in Asia and the Americas, but predominantly in Africa, with the island of Madagascar reporting almost one third of human cases worldwide. Plague's occurrence is affected by local climate factors which in turn are influenced by large-scale climate phenomena such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO. The effects of ENSO on regional climate are often enhanced or reduced by a second large-scale climate phenomenon, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD. It is known that ENSO and the IOD interact as drivers of disease. Yet the impacts of these phenomena in driving plague dynamics via their effect on regional climate, and specifically contributing to the foci of transmission on Madagascar, are unknown. Here we present the first analysis of the effects of ENSO and IOD on plague in Madagascar.We use a forty-eight year monthly time-series of reported human plague cases from 1960 to 2008. Using wavelet analysis, we show that over the last fifty years there have been complex non-stationary associations between ENSO/IOD and the dynamics of plague in Madagascar. We demonstrate that ENSO and IOD influence temperature in Madagascar and that temperature and plague cycles are associated. The effects on plague appear to be mediated more by temperature, but precipitation also undoubtedly influences plague in Madagascar. Our results confirm a relationship between plague anomalies and an increase in the intensity of ENSO events and precipitation.This work widens the understanding of how climate factors acting over different temporal scales can combine to drive local disease dynamics. Given the association of increasing ENSO strength and plague anomalies in Madagascar it may in future be possible to forecast plague outbreaks in Madagascar. The study gives insight into the complex and changing relationship between climate factors and plague in Madagascar.

  14. Rules & legislation on love charms in early medieval Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.

    2010-01-01

    Love magic is defined as verbal and material instruments by which erotic and affectionate feelings are believed to be aroused or destroyed in a supernatural way. This is a discussion of love magic as it is presented in early medieval Hiberno-Latin penitentials and Irish legal texts.

  15. Primstav and Apocalypse : Time and its Reckoning in Medieval Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Avery Myers

    2011-01-01

    This work is intended as an exploration of methods of time-reckoning and conception in Medieval Scandinavia. In the main this is tied to the dynamism between a duality: that of the cyclical and linear models of time’s progression. Involved in this study are sources verbal and pictoral.

  16. Evolution of Management Thought in the Medieval Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    The medieval times witnessed progress toward the growth of larger and more complex organizations and the application of increasingly sophisticated management techniques. Feudalism contributed the concept of decentralization. The concepts evolved by the Catholic Church can scarcely be improved on and are very much pertinent to the management of…

  17. Analysis of ancient and medieval glasses by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleff, I.; Djingova, R.; Penev, I.

    1984-01-01

    A scheme for instrumental neutron activation analysis of ancient and medieval glasses is proposed. The combination of three irradiations (short time, pile and epithermal) enables the determination of 34 elements. The accuracy of the method is evaluated by analyzing two glass standard reference materials. Results from the analysis of three glasses from different times are presented. (author)

  18. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  19. Cereal production, high status and climate in Medieval Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlendsson, Egill; Riddell, Scott

    2017-04-01

    At Hrísbrú (formerly the medieval Mosfell estate) in the Mosfell Valley, southwest Iceland, archaeologists have excavated a medieval skáli (hall) proposed to be the high status residence of a chieftain. This is indicated by the size of the skáli, artefacts (foreign goods), archaeofaunal (cattle/sheep bone) ratios and macrobotanical remains (cereal grain). The analysis of pollen from nearby natural contexts suggests that cereals were grown locally. Using multiple profile palynological approach, this paper examines if the apparent cereal production is representative of high status in the Icelandic context. First as a correlate by confirming that cereals were grown in association with the archaeological features characteristic of high status; secondly, as an indicator in its own right through comparison with other palynological datasets from inferred lower status farms. The presence or absence of cereal-type pollen (cf. barley) and other arable correlates was examined for each site. The results suggest that medieval cereal cultivation in the Mosfell Valley was confined to the landholding of the medieval Mosfell estate. This feature is seen as an attribute of the locale's greater status in relation to the other farms in Mosfell Valley. The abandonment of cereal cultivation at the Mosfell estate around AD 1200 is probably associated with interactions between changes in the nation's social power structure and how marginal cereal production in Iceland was (and is) in terms of climate.

  20. Corruption as a Legacy of the Medieval University: Financial Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old "universitas" and modern universities have…

  1. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  2. From the Dictionary of Medieval Latin in Czech Lands. Gracocenderius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3/4 (2017), s. 455-470 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ravens * ancient and medieval zoology * Latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristotle * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  3. Multi-Ethnicity and Material Exchangesin Late Medieval Tallinn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    his article examines the cultural and social dynamics of a multi-ethnic medieval town. Taking the lower town of Tallinn as a case study, this paper identifies the major urban ethnic groups living in the town and discusses their co-existence, self-definition, and processes of categorization...

  4. The Resources of the Past in Early Medieval Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantner, C.; McKitterick, R.M.; Meeder, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This volume analyses the importance of history, the textual resources of the past and the integration of Christian and imperial Rome into the cultural memory of early medieval Europe within the wider question of identity formation. The case studies in this book shed new light on the process of

  5. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Pejrani Baricco, Luisella; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  6. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vai

    Full Text Available In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  7. [Tooth pathology analysis of osteological material from the Medieval locality of Saint Pantelejmon church in Nis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Nadica; Mitić, Aleksandar; Crnoglavac, Vesna; Vlak, Dejana; Nikolić, Marija

    2008-01-01

    Medieval necropolis at the porch of St. Panteleimon church in Nis, from 12th century represents a typical Serbian necropolis, which has its analogies in several areas in Serbia. Preservation of the skeletal remains belongs to category of good and medium preservation. The aim of the work was to study the skeletal remains for the prevalence of tooth caries, localization of caries lesions, presence of abrasion, supragingival tartar and resorption of alveolar bone as the indicator of periodontal disease. The analyses included 42 skeletal remains. The anthropological analyses involved paleopathological findings on 954 teeth of 22 men and 20 women. The pathological changes of teeth were determined by inspection, dental probe, dental mirror and x-ray examination. Epidemiological research was done using average caries index. The antropological tooth pathology research of osteological material from the medieval localization of St. Pantaleimon Church in Nis showed the presence of caries in 7.86% cases, 9.93% women and 6.07% men. In 76% caries were localized on the approximal surfaces of teeth. Abrasion of the second and third degree was registered on the side and front teeth with transformation of contact points into contact surfaces and the creation of approximal, interstitial, scolded surfaces. A large quantity of supragingival tartar was found in all individuals aged over 25 years. Expressed alveolar bone resorption is the indicator of generalized periodontal disease. The prevalence of caries in the studied medieval population from the 12th century was sporadic, with localization on secondary predilection places. The abrasion of the second and third degree was present, and the resorption of the alveolar bone was registered in all the examined skeletal remains, which was the indicator of spread periodontal disease in this period.

  8. The medieval župa: Nahiya of Vatnica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekić Radmilo B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of disclosed and closed records of the Dubrovnik Archive, Turkish census from 1468-1469. and 1475-1477, researches on the ground and relevant literature, we made an attempt to discover how the župa of Vatnica got its name and to define its borders that parted the area of Travunia from the area of Hum. Vatnica had been populated before Slavic people settled the area. Recent history records present Vatnica borders vaguely and imprecisely. Our findings contradict the findings presented in history records that state Travunia borders stretch to Trusina. The župa of Vatnica was placed eastward from the župa of Dabar in Hum land, with the borderline alongside Divin and Kuti village. In the northwest Vatnica bordered župa of Nevesinje alongside Davidovići and Lukavac villages, while the southeast border was reaching župa of Rudine, east from Narat village. Turkish invasion brought in suffering and migrations with local people causing them to leave their homes. Turkish administrative system naturalized itself according to its needs thus changing the old borders. While occupied by Turks, a part of former župa of Vatnica, including Vatnica village, became a part of Turkish nahiya Dabar, but at the same time on the east side of Vatnica village existed nahiya of Vatnica stayed behind with six unpopulated villages, which was supported by the Turkish census. Windy political odds affected the medieval economy of Vatnica. Population pursued agriculture, above all grape growing. They would breed draught cattle for transport and market. Economy of this region was partly influenced by Dubrovnik where the youngster would go to find work and learn trade. Remainders of the past times are stone tombs called 'stećak' as well as the sites of orthodox churches.

  9. Identification of Chinese plague foci from long-term epidemiological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Neerinckx, Simon; Agier, Lydiane; Cazelles, Bernard; Xu, Lei; Zhang, Zhibin; Fang, Xiye; Wang, Shuchun; Liu, Qiyong; Stenseth, Nils C.

    2012-01-01

    Carrying out statistical analysis over an extensive dataset of human plague reports in Chinese villages from 1772 to 1964, we identified plague endemic territories in China (i.e., plague foci). Analyses rely on (i) a clustering method that groups time series based on their time-frequency resemblances and (ii) an ecological niche model that helps identify plague suitable territories characterized by value ranges for a set of predefined environmental variables. Results from both statistical tools indicate the existence of two disconnected plague territories corresponding to Northern and Southern China. Altogether, at least four well defined independent foci are identified. Their contours compare favorably with field observations. Potential and limitations of inferring plague foci and dynamics using epidemiological data is discussed. PMID:22570501

  10. Lead pollution recorded in Greenland ice indicates European emissions tracked plagues, wars, and imperial expansion during antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Joseph R; Wilson, Andrew I; Stohl, Andreas; Arienzo, Monica M; Chellman, Nathan J; Eckhardt, Sabine; Thompson, Elisabeth M; Pollard, A Mark; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2018-05-29

    Lead pollution in Arctic ice reflects midlatitude emissions from ancient lead-silver mining and smelting. The few reported measurements have been extrapolated to infer the performance of ancient economies, including comparisons of economic productivity and growth during the Roman Republican and Imperial periods. These studies were based on sparse sampling and inaccurate dating, limiting understanding of trends and specific linkages. Here we show, using a precisely dated record of estimated lead emissions between 1100 BCE and 800 CE derived from subannually resolved measurements in Greenland ice and detailed atmospheric transport modeling, that annual European lead emissions closely varied with historical events, including imperial expansion, wars, and major plagues. Emissions rose coeval with Phoenician expansion, accelerated during expanded Carthaginian and Roman mining primarily in the Iberian Peninsula, and reached a maximum under the Roman Empire. Emissions fluctuated synchronously with wars and political instability particularly during the Roman Republic, and plunged coincident with two major plagues in the second and third centuries, remaining low for >500 years. Bullion in silver coinage declined in parallel, reflecting the importance of lead-silver mining in ancient economies. Our results indicate sustained economic growth during the first two centuries of the Roman Empire, terminated by the second-century Antonine plague.

  11. Phylogenetic Analysis of Entomoparasitic Nematodes, Potential Control Agents of Flea Populations in Natural Foci of Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshel, E. I.; Aleshin, V. V.; Eroshenko, G. A.; Kutyrev, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Entomoparasitic nematodes are natural control agents for many insect pests, including fleas that transmit Yersinia pestis, a causative agent of plague, in the natural foci of this extremely dangerous zoonosis. We examined the flea samples from the Volga-Ural natural focus of plague for their infestation with nematodes. Among the six flea species feeding on different rodent hosts (Citellus pygmaeus, Microtus socialis, and Allactaga major), the rate of infestation varied from 0 to 21%. The propagation rate of parasitic nematodes in the haemocoel of infected fleas was very high; in some cases, we observed up to 1,000 juveniles per flea specimen. Our study of morphology, life cycle, and rDNA sequences of these parasites revealed that they belong to three distinct species differing in the host specificity. On SSU and LSU rRNA phylogenies, these species representing three genera (Rubzovinema, Psyllotylenchus, and Spilotylenchus), constitute a monophyletic group close to Allantonema and Parasitylenchus, the type genera of the families Allantonematidae and Parasitylenchidae (Nematoda: Tylenchida). We discuss the SSU-ITS1-5.8S-LSU rDNA phylogeny of the Tylenchida with a special emphasis on the suborder Hexatylina. PMID:24804197

  12. A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of virulent and attenuated strains of duck plague virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Liji; Xie, Zhixun; Huang, Li; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Jiaoling; Zhang, Yanfang; Zeng, Tingting; Luo, Sisi

    2017-11-01

    Sequence analysis of duck plague virus (DPV) revealed that there was a 528bp (B fragment) deletion within the UL2 gene of DPV attenuated vaccine strain in comparison with field virulent strains. The finding of gene deletion provides a potential differentiation test between DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain based on their UL2 gene sizes. Thus we developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting to the DPV UL2 gene for simultaneous detection of DPV virulent strain and attenuated strain, 827bp for virulent strain and 299bp for attenuated strain. This newly developed PCR for DPV was highly sensitive and specific. It detected as low as 100fg of DNA on both DPV virulent and attenuated strains, no same size bands were amplified from other duck viruses including duck paramyxovirus, duck tembusu virus, duck circovirus, Muscovy duck parvovirus, duck hepatitis virus type I, avian influenza virus and gosling plague virus. Therefore, this PCR assay can be used for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of DPV virulent and attenuated strains affecting ducks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Smell of Relics: Authenticating Saintly Bones and the Role of Scent in the Sensory Experience of Medieval Christian Veneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Brazinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ''The archaeology of smell is a burgeoning field in recent scholarship. This paper adds to existing literature by investigating the function of smell in relation to relic sales and veneration in medieval Europe, a hitherto understudied area of research. Collating historical texts concerning the translatio of saintly relics in Western Europe and the Byzantine Empire with archaeological sources associated with relic veneration and religious worship (including ampullae, unguentaria, sarcophagi, holy oils, pillow graves, and silk, this paper suggests that (1 smell was used in the medieval world as a means to challenge or confirm a relic’s authenticity, and (2 olfactory liquids that imbued or permeated material objects in the context of worship functioned as a means of focusing attention on relic veneration and were an essential part of the cult and/or pilgrimage experience.

  14. 1970 MLA Abstracts of Articles in Scholarly Journals, Volume I: General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, Celtic Literatures; and Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John H., Comp.; Achtert, Walter S., Comp.

    The first volume of an annual series following the arrangement of the "MLA International Bibliography" includes sections on General, English, American, Medieval and Neo-Latin, Celtic literatures, and Folklore. A classified collection of 1,744 brief abstracts of journalarticles on the modern languages and literatures to be used in conjunction with…

  15. Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr.; Ben Ari, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions. PMID:21646523

  16. Climatic and evolutionary drivers of phase shifts in the plague epidemics of colonial India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewnard, Joseph A; Townsend, Jeffrey P

    2016-12-20

    Immune heterogeneity in wild host populations indicates that disease-mediated selection is common in nature. However, the underlying dynamic feedbacks involving the ecology of disease transmission, evolutionary processes, and their interaction with environmental drivers have proven challenging to characterize. Plague presents an optimal system for interrogating such couplings: Yersinia pestis transmission exerts intense selective pressure driving the local persistence of disease resistance among its wildlife hosts in endemic areas. Investigations undertaken in colonial India after the introduction of plague in 1896 suggest that, only a decade after plague arrived, a heritable, plague-resistant phenotype had become prevalent among commensal rats of cities undergoing severe plague epidemics. To understand the possible evolutionary basis of these observations, we developed a mathematical model coupling environmentally forced plague dynamics with evolutionary selection of rats, capitalizing on extensive archival data from Indian Plague Commission investigations. Incorporating increased plague resistance among rats as a consequence of intense natural selection permits the model to reproduce observed changes in seasonal epidemic patterns in several cities and capture experimentally observed associations between climate and flea population dynamics in India. Our model results substantiate Victorian era claims of host evolution based on experimental observations of plague resistance and reveal the buffering effect of such evolution against environmental drivers of transmission. Our analysis shows that historical datasets can yield powerful insights into the transmission dynamics of reemerging disease agents with which we have limited contemporary experience to guide quantitative modeling and inference.

  17. A spectroscopic study of Brazilwood paints in medieval books of hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maria João; Otero, Vanessa; Vitorino, Tatiana; Araújo, Rita; Muralha, Vânia S F; Lemos, Ana; Picollo, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    In this work, microspectrofluorimetry was for the first time applied to the identification of the red organic lakes that are characteristic of the lavish illuminations found in 15(th) century books of hours. Microspectrofluorimetry identified those red paints, ranging from opaque pink to dark red glazes, as brazilwood lakes. An unequivocal characterization was achieved by comparison with reference paints produced following recipes from the medieval treatise The Book on How to Make Colours, and was further confirmed by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). For these treasured cultural objects, microspectrofluorimetry and FORS proved to be the only techniques that could identify, in situ or in microsamples, the chromophore responsible for the pinkish hues: a brazilein-Al(3+) complex. Additionally, a multi-analytical approach provided a full characterization of the color paints, including pigments, additives, and binders. Microspectroscopic techniques, based on infrared and X-ray radiation, enabled us to disclose the full palette of these medieval manuscripts, including the elusive greens, for which, besides malachite, basic copper sulfates were found; Raman microscopy suggested a mixture of brochantite and langite. Infrared analysis proved invaluable for a full characterization of the additives that were applied as fillers or whites (chalk, gypsum, and white lead) as well as the proteinaceous and polysaccharide binders that were found pure or in mixture.

  18. Physical education of the medieval knight La educación física del caballero medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buenaventura DELGADO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medieval knight was required to perform the same physical exercices and have the same capabilities as Spartan, Athenian and Roman soldiers. They had to be agile, strong, fast and able to use weapons on foot as on horseback. To be pysically fit was as important as knowing history as explained by tutors and sung by jugglers in moments of leisure during which they learnt of legends, nationals heroes and the paradigms that distinguish nations. All the heroes praised through generations provide models shaped the collective personality of entire peoples. San Isidoro de Sevilla, Ramón Llull, King Alfonso X the Wise and Don Juan Manuel were the principal writers to exalt the figure of the knight and his education. During the XII, XIII, XIV and XV centuries and including the Renaissance, there were exhibitions of physical games, during which knights sought fame and fortune: jousts, tournaments, staged games, games using canes and processions of arms called «pasos honrosos» were undertaken with popular enthusiasm in Western and central Europe in the Byzantine Empire and throughout the Moslem world.Los ejercicios y habilidades físicas exigidos al caballero medieval fueron semejantes a los que se pedían al militar espartano, ateniense y romano. Debían ser ágiles, fuertes, rápidos y diestros en el manejo de las armas a pie y a caballo. Tan importante como una buena forma física era conocer la Historia cantada por ayos y juglares en los momentos de ocio, a través de la cual se familiarizaban con las tradiciones, leyendas, héroes nacionales y los paradigmas que distinguían a un pueblo de otro. El abanico de héroes alabados y ensalzados de generación en generación eran otros tantos modelos destinados a troquelar la personalidad colectiva de cada pueblo. San Isidoro de Sevilla, Ramón Llull, el rey Alfonso X el Sabio y Don Juan Manuel son los principales escritores interesados en ensalzar la figura del caballero y su educación. En los siglos

  19. Typhoid fever in Fiji: a reversible plague?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corinne N; Kama, Mike; Acharya, Shrish; Bera, Una; Clemens, John; Crump, John A; Dawainavesi, Aggie; Dougan, Gordon; Edmunds, W John; Fox, Kimberley; Jenkins, Kylie; Khan, M Imran; Koroivueta, Josefa; Levine, Myron M; Martin, Laura B; Nilles, Eric; Pitzer, Virginia E; Singh, Shalini; Raiwalu, Ratu Vereniki; Baker, Stephen; Mulholland, Kim

    2014-10-01

    The country of Fiji, with a population of approximately 870 000 people, faces a growing burden of several communicable diseases including the bacterial infection typhoid fever. Surveillance data suggest that typhoid has become increasingly common in rural areas of Fiji and is more frequent amongst young adults. Transmission of the organisms that cause typhoid is facilitated by faecal contamination of food or water and may be influenced by local behavioural practices in Fiji. The Fijian Ministry of Health, with support from Australian Aid, hosted a meeting in August 2012 to develop comprehensive control and prevention strategies for typhoid fever in Fiji. International and local specialists were invited to share relevant data and discuss typhoid control options. The resultant recommendations focused on generating a clearer sense of the epidemiology of typhoid in Fiji and exploring the contribution of potential transmission pathways. Additionally, the panel suggested steps such as ensuring that recommended ciprofloxacin doses are appropriate to reduce the potential for relapse and reinfection in clinical cases, encouraging proper hand hygiene of food and drink handlers, working with water and sanitation agencies to review current sanitation practices and considering a vaccination policy targeting epidemiologically relevant populations. © 2014 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Recombinant raccoon pox vaccine protects mice against lethal plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J.E.; Powell, T.D.; Frank, R.S.; Moss, K.; Haanes, E.J.; Smith, S.R.; Rocke, T.E.; Stinchcomb, D.T.

    2003-01-01

    Using a raccoon poxvirus (RCN) expression system, we have developed new recombinant vaccines that can protect mice against lethal plague infection. We tested the effects of a translation enhancer (EMCV-IRES) in combination with a secretory (tPA) signal or secretory (tPA) and membrane anchoring (CHV-gG) signals on in vitro antigen expression of F1 antigen in tissue culture and the induction of antibody responses and protection against Yersinia pestis challenge in mice. The RCN vector successfully expressed the F1 protein of Y. pestis in vitro. In addition, the level of expression was increased by the insertion of the EMCV-IRES and combinations of this and the secretory signal or secretory and anchoring signals. These recombinant viruses generated protective immune responses that resulted in survival of 80% of vaccinated mice upon challenge with Y. pestis. Of the RCN-based vaccines we tested, the RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1 recombinant construct was the most efficacious. Mice vaccinated with this construct withstood challenge with as many as 1.5 million colony forming units of Y. pestis (7.7×104 LD50). Interestingly, vaccination with F1 fused to the anchoring signal (RCN-IRES-tPA-YpF1-gG) elicited significant anti-F1 antibody titers, but failed to protect mice from plague challenge. Our studies demonstrate, in vitro and in vivo, the potential importance of the EMCV-IRES and secretory signals in vaccine design. These molecular tools provide a new approach for improving the efficacy of vaccines. In addition, these novel recombinant vaccines could have human, veterinary, and wildlife applications in the prevention of plague.

  1. Solidarity and Brotherhood in Medieval Italian Confraternities: AWay of Inclusion or Exclusion? Solidarity and Brotherhood in Medieval Italian Confraternities: A Way of Inclusion or Exclusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gazzini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Historians usually consider medieval confraternities as lay religious communities involved in devotional and charitable practices which carried out a socializing function as well. Confraternities, when seen through this lens, fundamentally appear to be inclusive communities which helped strengthen the identities of good believers and good citizens by focusing on the solidarity created among the members of the association itself. This ecumenical vision depends essentially on a positive prejudice which is automatically ascribed to the concept of solidarity, and which often leads one to forget that, though solidarity in some cases may have rationales for inclusion, in many others it can be a source of exclusion. Yet, these opposite characteristics only seem to conflict, because to exclude someone means including someone else at the same time. The aim of this short paper is to discuss these aspects, especially with respect to northern late medieval Italy, along the lines of the question posed in these preliminary remarks: were medieval confraternities inclusive communities or exclusive institutions?

    Gli studi sulle confraternite medievali, oltre che agli aspetti devozionali e caritativi, sono soliti guardare alle finalità solidaristiche e inclusive di tali associazioni. E, a proposito di queste ultime, la solidarietà che si instaurava all’interno del gruppo confraternale, e fra questo e quella parte della popolazione destinataria di solidarietà e assistenza, spirituale come materiale, viene vista come funzionale al rafforzamento del ruolo e dell’identità di buon cittadino (o buon suddito e di buon fedele. Un pregiudizio positivo grava però sul concetto di solidarietà: se vi sono solidarietà che includono, ne esistono tuttavia altre che escludono. Una confraternita infatti prevedeva spazi chiusi di azione, fisici e metaforici, tali da escludere chi se ne trovava al di fuori. Sulla base di esemplificazioni relative all’Italia del

  2. Morbidity, rickets and long-bone growth in post-medieval Britain--a cross-population analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhasi, R; Shaw, P; White, B; Ogden, A R

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency rickets is associated with skeletal deformities including swollen rib junctions, bowing of the legs, and the flaring and fraying of the wrist and long-bone metaphyses. There is, however, scarce information on the direct effect of rickets on skeletal growth in either present or past populations. The study investigated the effect of vitamin D deficiency rickets on long-bone growth in two post-medieval skeletal populations from East London (Broadgate and Christ Church Spitalfields). Subsequently, inter-population growth variations in relation to non-specific environmental stress (dental enamel defects), industrialization, urbanization and socio-economic status during infancy (birth to 3 years) and early childhood (3-7 years) were examined. Data on long-bone diaphyseal length dimensions and stress indicators of 234 subadults from Anglo-Saxon, late medieval and post-medieval archaeological skeletal samples were analysed using both linear and non-linear growth models. Rickets had no effect on the growth curves for any of the long bones studied. However, pronounced variations in growth between the four populations were noted, mainly during infancy. The diaphyseal length of long bones of Broadgate were significantly smaller-per-age than those of Spitalfields and the other samples up to the age of 4 years, and were associated with a high prevalence of enamel defects during early infancy. Socio-economic status, rather than urbanization, industrialization or rickets, was the central factor behind the observed differences in growth among the post-medieval populations. The observed inter-population growth variations were only significant during infancy.

  3. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Jäger, Günter; Bos, Kirsten I; Herbig, Alexander; Economou, Christos; Benjak, Andrej; Busso, Philippe; Nebel, Almut; Boldsen, Jesper L; Kjellström, Anna; Wu, Huihai; Stewart, Graham R; Taylor, G Michael; Bauer, Peter; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Tucker, Katie; Roffey, Simon; Sow, Samba O; Cole, Stewart T; Nieselt, Kay; Krause, Johannes

    2013-07-12

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly of the ancient bacterial genome could be achieved through shotgun sequencing alone. The ancient M. leprae sequences were compared with those of 11 modern strains, representing diverse genotypes and geographic origins. The comparisons revealed remarkable genomic conservation during the past 1000 years, a European origin for leprosy in the Americas, and the presence of an M. leprae genotype in medieval Europe now commonly associated with the Middle East. The exceptional preservation of M. leprae biomarkers, both DNA and mycolic acids, in ancient skeletons has major implications for palaeomicrobiology and human pathogen evolution.

  4. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  5. Stable isotope evidence for sex- and status-based variations in diet and life history at medieval Trino Vercellese, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J; Vercellotti, Giuseppe

    2012-08-01

    The medieval period in Europe was a time of unprecedented social complexity that affected human diet. The diets of certain subgroups-for example, children, women, and the poor-are chronically underrepresented in historical sources from the medieval period. To better understand diet and the distribution of foods during the medieval period, we investigated stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of 30 individuals from Trino Vercellese, Northern Italy (8th-13th c.). Specifically, we examined diet differences between subgroups (males and females, and high- and low-status individuals), and diet change throughout the life course among these groups by comparing dentine and bone collagen. Our results show a diet based on terrestrial resources with input from C(4) plants, which could include proso and/or foxtail millet. Diets of low-status males differ from those of females (both status groups) and of high-status males. These differences develop in adulthood. Childhood diets are similar among the subgroups, but sex- and status-based differences appear in adulthood. We discuss the possibility of cultural buffering and dietary selectivity of females and high-status individuals. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social Perception of Infertility and Its Treatment in Late Medieval Italy: Margherita Datini, an Italian Merchant’s Wife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Kuk NAM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Because the perception of infertility in medieval Europe ranged from the extremely religious view of it as a malediction of God or the devil’s work, to the reasonable medical conception of it as a sort of disease to treat, it is very difficult to determine the general attitudes of ordinary people towards infertility. This article seeks to elucidate the common social perception of infertility and its treatment in late medieval Europe by analyzing the case of Margherita Datini, an Italian merchant’s wife who lived in the 1400s. It relies heavily on the documents left by her and her husband, Francesco Datini; the couple left many records, including letters of correspondence between them. Margherita and those around her regarded infertility not as the devil’s curse or a punishment by God but as a disease that can be cured. Margherita and her husband, Francesco, tried hard to cure their infertility. They received treatment and prescriptions from several doctors while also relying on folk remedies, religious therapies, and even magical remedies. The comparative analysis of Datini documents, medical books, and theoretical treatises or prescriptive essays by clerics suggests that the general perception of infertility in medieval Europe was located between the extremely religious and modern medical conceptions of it.

  7. Galeata: chronic migraine independently considered in a medieval headache classification

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Peral, Ángel Luís; de Frutos González, Virginia; Pedraza-Hueso, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is a quite recent concept. However, there are descriptions suggestive of episodic migraine since the beginning of scientific medicine. We aim to review main headache classifications during Classical antiquity and compared them with that proposed in the 11th century by Constantine the African in his Liber Pantegni, one of the most influential texts in medieval medicine. Method We have carried out a descriptive review of Henricum Petrum's Latin edition, year 1539. Re...

  8. Bohemian so-called surgical early medieval knives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jiří; Profantová, Naďa; Šilhová, Alena; Ottenwelter, Estelle

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 2007, č. 1 (2007), s. 932-937 ISSN 1335-1532. [Metallography 2007. Stará Lesná, 02.05.2007-04.05.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800020603; GA ČR GA404/05/0232 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : knife * medieval * archaeometallurgy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Cesaretti

    Full Text Available Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations, our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured

  10. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  11. The structure of the medieval town of Rupea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borcoman, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The town of Rupea, set up at the beginning of the 12th century, was the capital of the county of Rupea between 1337 and 1876. Its urban structure and organization prove that it belonged to group of Transylvania’s German medieval towns. Here, alongside with the German (established in the central area, Romanians lived in the outskirts. This structure was preserved until the early 1800s, and even until nowadays although the initial ethnical composition has altered.

  12. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  13. Waste Management and Attitudes Towards Cleanliness in Medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíček Filip

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the relationships between people and waste in the Middle Ages, primarily in urban environments in Central Europe. At the center of interest are the attitudes of the inhabitants of medieval cities towards cleanliness and a description of different waste management practices. This paper also describes an experiment using ashes to launder clothing as one possible use of a particular waste material.

  14. Auditory Ossicles in Archaeological Skeletal Material from Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, M; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Auditory ossicles were collected from two skeletal materials from early medieval Denmark. A total of 147 and 1,162 ossicles were obtained from the 2 materials, constituting 23% and 55% of the possible in vivo ossicles. The numbers and percentages found are among the highest reported from studies...... of archaeological skeletal material. Archaeological ossicles may be used in palaeopathological evaluation of chronic otitis media and otosclerosis, and morphometric studies of the ossicles might be valuable in analysis of population genetics and taxonomy....

  15. Corruption as a Legacy of the Medieval University

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2004-01-01

    Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old universitas and modern universities have in common. The increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc as well as numerous other countries urges a better unders...

  16. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. "Fossils" of practical medical knowledge from medieval Cairo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Efraim; Amar, Zohar

    2008-09-02

    To asses the scientific value of the practical medical fragments found in the Cairo Genizah (10th century), as a useful source for ethnopharmacological purposes (in exposing rare and usually inaccessible original medieval practical knowledge of medicinal substances to present-day researchers), and to reconstruct the practical drugs and their uses. A methodology distinguishing between theoretical (about 1500 fragments) and practical medical knowledge (about 230 fragments) was created and used. The information regarding the practical medicinal substances was extracted from prescriptions (140), lists of drugs (70) and few letters of physicians. The reconstructed lists of practical (278) and theoretical (414) drugs allow us to recognize and quantify the gap between them in medieval times (136). We propose that the data obtained from ancient prescriptions is comparable to ethnopharmacological surveys. The finding of plants such as myrobalan, saffron, licorice, spikenard and lentisk, all of which have scientifically proven anti-microbial/bacterial and anti-fungal activity, sheds a helpful light on the medical decision-making of the medieval practitioners in respect of the plants they applied as drugs. With the wealth of information meticulously assembled from these time capsules we expect to make a significant contribution to contemporary efforts at locating modern drugs in ancient roots and gauging their feasibility.

  18. Migration to the medieval Middle East with the crusades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D; Millard, Andrew R

    2009-11-01

    During the 12th and 13th centuries thousands of people moved from Europe to the Middle East to fight, undertake pilgrimage, or settle and make a new life. The aim of this research is to investigate two populations from the Crusader kingdom of Jerusalem, by determining who was born in Europe and who came from the Middle East. Oxygen and strontium stable isotope analyses were conducted on the enamel of teeth from skeletal remains excavated from Crusader contexts. Twenty individuals from the coastal city of Caesarea (10 high status and 10 low status), and two local Near Eastern Christian farmers from the village of Parvum Gerinum (Tel Jezreel) were analyzed as a control sample. Results were compared with known geographic values for oxygen and strontium isotopes. The population of the city of Caesarea appears to have been dominated by European-born individuals (probably 19/20, but at least 13/20), with few locals. This was surprising as a much higher proportion of locals were expected. Both controls from the farming village of Parvum Gerinum had spent their childhood in the area of the village, which matches our understanding of limited mobility among poor Medieval farmers. This is the first time that stable isotope analysis has been applied to the study of the migration of peoples between Medieval Europe and the Middle East at the time of the crusades. In view of these findings, we must now rethink past estimations of population social structure in Levantine coastal Medieval cities during the Crusader period.

  19. Ancient and medieval Iberia seen through glass: An archaeometric perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Ares, J. de; Nadine Schibille, N.

    2017-01-01

    The study of ancient and medieval glasses has identified distinct compositional groups as a result of the chemical characteristics of the raw materials used for its production. Archaeometric analysis can determine the provenance of the glass, and has demonstrated a large-scale production and commercialisation of raw glass throughout the Mediterranean during the ancient and medieval periods. Secondary workshops on the Iberian Peninsula imported raw glass from the Near East for the better part of the first millennium CE, following a similar pattern observed elsewhere in the Mediterranean region. However, there are some indications that point to a local production of glass and that deserve further investigation. In the ninth century, natron glass was replaced in al-Ándalus by plant ash and lead-rich glass that may represent a local production. Little is known about the production or use of glass in the Christian parts of the peninsula during this period. The increasing volume of analytical data on Spanish glass demonstrates the potential of an archaeometric approach to shed light not only on the production and trade of glass on the Iberian Peninsula but also on the ancient and medieval economy more generally. [es

  20. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  1. Uncovering the Secret: Medieval Women, Magic and the Other

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwikowska Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For medieval audiences women occupied a specific, designated cultural area which, while they could freely form it according to their will and nature, was in fact imaginary and immaterial. Women in social, legal, and religious contexts were mostly counted among the receptive, inactive, and non-ruling groups. On both levels, there was a group of features universally defining all women: the strong, virtuous and independent model Aquinas lamented was replaced in real life by the sinful, carnal and weak stereotype, and the erotic, emotional, mysterious, and often wild type present predominantly in literature. Indeed, women were a source of scientific, theological, and cultural fascination because of their uncanny and complex nature, producing both fear and desire of the source and nature of the unattainable and inaccessible femininity. In social contexts, however, the enchantress seems to lose that veil of allure and, instead, is forced to re-define her identity by suppressing, denying, or losing her supernatural features. With the example of Saint Agnes from the South English Legendary Life of Saint Agnes, and Melior from Partonope of Blois (ca. 1450, the article will explore how medieval texts dealt with the complex and unruly female supernatural, and how its neutralization and subduing fitted into the moral, scientific, and cultural norms of medieval society.

  2. Yersinia pestis endowed with increased cytotoxicity is avirulent in a bubonic plague model and induces rapid protection against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayelet Zauberman

    Full Text Available An important virulence strategy evolved by bacterial pathogens to overcome host defenses is the modulation of host cell death. Previous observations have indicated that Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague disease, exhibits restricted capacity to induce cell death in macrophages due to ineffective translocation of the type III secretion effector YopJ, as opposed to the readily translocated YopP, the YopJ homologue of the enteropathogen Yersinia enterocolitica Oratio8. This led us to suggest that reduced cytotoxic potency may allow pathogen propagation within a shielded niche, leading to increased virulence. To test the relationship between cytotoxic potential and virulence, we replaced Y. pestis YopJ with YopP. The YopP-expressing Y. pestis strain exhibited high cytotoxic activity against macrophages in vitro. Following subcutaneous infection, this strain had reduced ability to colonize internal organs, was unable to induce septicemia and exhibited at least a 10(7-fold reduction in virulence. Yet, upon intravenous or intranasal infection, it was still as virulent as the wild-type strain. The subcutaneous administration of the cytotoxic Y. pestis strain appears to activate a rapid and potent systemic, CTL-independent, immunoprotective response, allowing the organism to overcome simultaneous coinfection with 10,000 LD(50 of virulent Y. pestis. Moreover, three days after subcutaneous administration of this strain, animals were also protected against septicemic or primary pneumonic plague. Our findings indicate that an inverse relationship exists between the cytotoxic potential of Y. pestis and its virulence following subcutaneous infection. This appears to be associated with the ability of the engineered cytotoxic Y. pestis strain to induce very rapid, effective and long-lasting protection against bubonic and pneumonic plague. These observations have novel implications for the development of vaccines/therapies against Y. pestis and shed

  3. Typing methods for the plague pathogen, Yersinia pestis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindler, Luther E

    2009-01-01

    Phenotypic and genotypic methodologies have been used to differentiate the etiological agent of plague, Yersinia pestis. Historically, phenotypic methods were used to place isolates into one of three biovars based on nitrate reduction and glycerol fermentation. Classification of Y. pestis into genetic subtypes is problematic due to the relative monomorphic nature of the pathogen. Resolution into groups is dependent on the number and types of loci used in the analysis. The last 5-10 years of research and analysis in the field of Y. pestis genotyping have resulted in a recognition by Western scientists that two basic types of Y. pestis exist. One type, considered to be classic strains that are able to cause human plague transmitted by the normal flea vector, is termed epidemic strains. The other type does not typically cause human infections by normal routes of infection, but is virulent for rodents and is termed endemic strains. Previous classification schemes used outside the Western hemisphere referred to these latter strains as Pestoides varieties of Y. pestis. Recent molecular analysis has definitely shown that both endemic and epidemic strains arose independently from a common Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ancestor. Currently, 11 major groups of Y. pestis are defined globally.

  4. Pattern and spatial distribution of plague in Lushoto, north-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of plague records from 1986 to 2002 and household interviews were carried out in the plague endemic villages to establish a pattern and spatial distribution of the disease in Lushoto district, Tanzania. Spatial data of households and village centres were collected and mapped using a hand held Global Positioning ...

  5. Archaeological culture and medieval ethnic community: theoretical and methodical problems of correlation (the case of medieval Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to archaeological culture and ethnos comparison in the case of medieval Bulgaria are discussed in the article. According to the author, in recent years it has become evident that the traditional concept and methodology of the study of the Bulgars’ ethnogenesis and ethnic history are in contradiction with the facts accumulated. The methods of “archaeological ethno-genetics”, which dictated solving problems of ethnogenesis of the ancient population belonging to an archaeological culture in direct correlation with ethnicity, are currently being criticized. According to modern ideas about ethnos and ethnicity, ethnicity is based upon identity with a complex hierarchical nature. Contemporary methodology requires proceeding with the integrated study of the problems of ethnogenesis on the basis of archaeology and ethnology. This kind of analysis is based upon the study of the medieval Bulgar mentality as a source of information on key aspects of ethno-political ideas. The analysis of authentic historical sources, historiographical tradition elements and folklore materials makes it possible to reconstruct the basic ideas that were significant for an ethnic group. The archaeological culture of the population of Bulgaria is characterized by two clearly distinguished and interconnected elements – the common Muslim culture and that of the elite military “druzhina” (squad. These elements directly characterize the Bulgar ethno-political community. These theoretical conclusions and empirical research concerning the case of the medieval Bulgars’ ethnogenesis attest to the productivity of ethnological synthesis techniques on an interdisciplinary basis.

  6. Earthquakes and plague during Byzantine times: can lessons from the past improve epidemic preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Marketos, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters have always been followed by a fear of infectious diseases. This raised historical debate about one of the most feared scenarios: the outbreak of bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis. One such event was recorded in the Indian state Maharashtra in 1994 after an earthquake. In multidisciplinary historical approach to the evolution of plague, many experts ignore the possibility of natural foci and their activation. This article presents historical records from the Byzantine Empire about outbreaks of the Plague of Justinian occurring months or even up to a year after high-magnitude earthquakes. Historical records of plague outbreaks can be used to document existence of natural foci all over the world. Knowledge of these historical records and the contemporary examples of plague support the assumption that, in terms of organising humanitarian aid, poor monitoring of natural foci could lead to unpredictable epidemiological consequences after high-magnitude earthquakes.

  7. Ecologic Features of Plague Outbreak Areas, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2004–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shako, Jean-Christophe; Gaudart, Jean; Sudre, Bertrand; Ilunga, Benoit Kebela; Shamamba, Stomy Karhemere Bi; Diatta, Georges; Davoust, Bernard; Tamfum, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Piarroux, Renaud; Piarroux, Martine

    2018-01-01

    During 2004–2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) declared 54% of plague cases worldwide. Using national data, we characterized the epidemiology of human plague in DRC for this period. All 4,630 suspected human plague cases and 349 deaths recorded in DRC came from Orientale Province. Pneumonic plague cases (8.8% of total) occurred during 2 major outbreaks in mining camps in the equatorial forest, and some limited outbreaks occurred in the Ituri highlands. Epidemics originated in 5 health zones clustered in Ituri, where sporadic bubonic cases were recorded throughout every year. Classification and regression tree characterized this cluster by the dominance of ecosystem 40 (mountain tropical climate). In conclusion, a small, stable, endemic focus of plague in the highlands of the Ituri tropical region persisted, acting as a source of outbreaks in DRC. PMID:29350136

  8. Plague bacterium as a transformer species in prairie dogs and the grasslands of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A.; Biggins, Dean E.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive transformer species change the character, condition, form, or nature of ecosystems and deserve considerable attention from conservation scientists. We applied the transformer species concept to the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in western North America, where the pathogen was introduced around 1900. Y. pestis transforms grassland ecosystems by severely depleting the abundance of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and thereby causing declines in native species abundance and diversity, including threatened and endangered species; altering food web connections; altering the import and export of nutrients; causing a loss of ecosystem resilience to encroaching invasive plants; and modifying prairie dog burrows. Y. pestis poses an important challenge to conservation biologists because it causes trophic-level perturbations that affect the stability of ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding of the effects of Y. pestis on ecosystems is rudimentary, highlighting an acute need for continued research.

  9. Plague bacterium as a transformer species in prairie dogs and the grasslands of western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, David A; Biggins, Dean E

    2015-08-01

    Invasive transformer species change the character, condition, form, or nature of ecosystems and deserve considerable attention from conservation scientists. We applied the transformer species concept to the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis in western North America, where the pathogen was introduced around 1900. Y. pestis transforms grassland ecosystems by severely depleting the abundance of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) and thereby causing declines in native species abundance and diversity, including threatened and endangered species; altering food web connections; altering the import and export of nutrients; causing a loss of ecosystem resilience to encroaching invasive plants; and modifying prairie dog burrows. Y. pestis poses an important challenge to conservation biologists because it causes trophic-level perturbations that affect the stability of ecosystems. Unfortunately, understanding of the effects of Y. pestis on ecosystems is rudimentary, highlighting an acute need for continued research. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. "La Chanson de Roland" in the Elementary School Classroom: A Case for Medieval Literature and Young Language Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Karla L.

    1981-01-01

    Describes successful experiment in teaching of medieval literature to elementary French language classes in the Cincinnati public schools. Purpose was to strengthen linguistic awareness and expand social studies unit on medieval France. (BK)

  11. [Tooth macromorphological and ultrastructural analysis of osteological material from the medieval locality of St. Panteleimon Church in Nis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitić, Nadica; Mitić, Aleksandar; Mitić, Vladimir; Savić, Vojin; Nikolić, Marija

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of macromorphological and ultrastructural tooth characteristics of osteological material from the medieval site of St. Pantaleimon Church in Nis provides us with insight on the life, nutrition and habits of medieval population, as well as the structure and composition of their teeth. The aim of this research, based on the tooth inspection of skeletal remains from the medieval site of St. Pantaleimon Church in Nis, was to analyze macromorphological characteristics, ultrastructure of the dental tissue of maxillary and mandibular molars, canines and incisors, as well as their chemical composition. Macromorphological and ultrastructural analysis of the dental tissue of osteological material dating from the 12th century included 1312 teeth with advanced abrasion. Macromorphological changes were detected by using a dental mirror, probe and radiography. After irrigation, the teeth were prepared using the standard procedure and analyzed by scanning electronic microscopy (JEOL-JSM-5300). Chemical analysis was done by expanded downscaling (EDS) method for Mg, P, Ca. The analysis detected second degree abrasions of all teeth in individuals aged 20-25 years. Third and fourth degree abrasions of teeth were detected in individuals aged over 40 years. Ultrastructural analysis showed a complete obliteration of dentin tubules and pulp of the lower incisors, the apposition of intratubular dentin inside the tubules, as well as extensive deformity and loss of dentin structure on molars with preserved pulp volume and nerve fiber calcification. The calcification of nerve fibers showed that the formation of intratubular dentin was proportional with the biological potential of pulp and the degree of abrasion, and inversely proportional with the size of dentin surface. Chemical analysis showed that in the analyzed teeth Ca composition was slightly lower than that in the control group, P composition was almost identical, while Mg composition was multiply increased in comparison to

  12. Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference, Birmingham 3.–6. 7. 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráčková, Veronika; Baťa, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2014), s. 414-417 ISSN 0018-7003. [Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference. Birmingham, 03.07.2014-06.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : conference * medieval * music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  13. The Case for Medieval Drama in the Classroom: An Approach through Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieblein, Leanore; Pare, Anthony

    1983-01-01

    Argues that medieval drama in performance suggests a number of important issues about the nature of literature, particularly about the way narrative and dramatic art can express the life of a community. Presents a series of exercises that start with familiar, nonthreatening situations in order to approach the richness of medieval plays and the…

  14. Medieval Universities, Legal Institutions, and the Commercial Revolution. NBER Working Paper No. 17979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Davide; Yuchtman, Noam

    2012-01-01

    We present new data documenting medieval Europe's "Commercial Revolution'' using information on the establishment of markets in Germany. We use these data to test whether medieval universities played a causal role in expanding economic activity, examining the foundation of Germany's first universities after 1386 following the Papal Schism. We…

  15. Farm Studies and Post-Medieval Rural Archaeology in Denmark: Comments on the Past, the Present and the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2012-01-01

    legislation and administrative practice, has left the post-medieval cultural heritage in a rather peculiar and to some extent neglected position. This paper will address research on post-medieval rural buildings and farms in particular and discuss the current challenges within post-medieval rural archaeology...

  16. The Stone Age Plague and Its Persistence in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrades Valtueña, Aida; Mittnik, Alissa; Key, Felix M; Haak, Wolfgang; Allmäe, Raili; Belinskij, Andrej; Daubaras, Mantas; Feldman, Michal; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Janković, Ivor; Massy, Ken; Novak, Mario; Pfrengle, Saskia; Reinhold, Sabine; Šlaus, Mario; Spyrou, Maria A; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Tõrv, Mari; Hansen, Svend; Bos, Kirsten I; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Herbig, Alexander; Krause, Johannes

    2017-12-04

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague, is a bacterium associated with wild rodents and their fleas. Historically it was responsible for three pandemics: the Plague of Justinian in the 6 th century AD, which persisted until the 8 th century [1]; the renowned Black Death of the 14 th century [2, 3], with recurrent outbreaks until the 18 th century [4]; and the most recent 19 th century pandemic, in which Y. pestis spread worldwide [5] and became endemic in several regions [6]. The discovery of molecular signatures of Y. pestis in prehistoric Eurasian individuals and two genomes from Southern Siberia suggest that Y. pestis caused some form of disease in humans prior to the first historically documented pandemic [7]. Here, we present six new European Y. pestis genomes spanning the Late Neolithic to the Bronze Age (LNBA; 4,800 to 3,700 calibrated years before present). This time period is characterized by major transformative cultural and social changes that led to cross-European networks of contact and exchange [8, 9]. We show that all known LNBA strains form a single putatively extinct clade in the Y. pestis phylogeny. Interpreting our data within the context of recent ancient human genomic evidence that suggests an increase in human mobility during the LNBA, we propose a possible scenario for the early spread of Y. pestis: the pathogen may have entered Europe from Central Eurasia following an expansion of people from the steppe, persisted within Europe until the mid-Bronze Age, and moved back toward Central Eurasia in parallel with human populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Seasonal Weather Variation on the Dynamics of the Plague Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigobert C. Ngeleja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a historic disease which is also known to be the most devastating disease that ever occurred in human history, caused by gram-negative bacteria known as Yersinia pestis. The disease is mostly affected by variations of weather conditions as it disturbs the normal behavior of main plague disease transmission agents, namely, human beings, rodents, fleas, and pathogens, in the environment. This in turn changes the way they interact with each other and ultimately leads to a periodic transmission of plague disease. In this paper, we formulate a periodic epidemic model system by incorporating seasonal transmission rate in order to study the effect of seasonal weather variation on the dynamics of plague disease. We compute the basic reproduction number of a proposed model. We then use numerical simulation to illustrate the effect of different weather dependent parameters on the basic reproduction number. We are able to deduce that infection rate, progression rates from primary forms of plague disease to more severe forms of plague disease, and the infectious flea abundance affect, to a large extent, the number of bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic plague infective agents. We recommend that it is more reasonable to consider these factors that have been shown to have a significant effect on RT for effective control strategies.

  18. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  19. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M.; Khademian, Sedigheh; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder presenting increased amounts of serum glucose and will cover 5.4% of population by year 2025. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the stand points on diagnosis, pathophysiology, non-pharmacological therapy and drug management of diabetes this disorder as described in medieval Persian medicine. To this, reports on diabetes were collected and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine. A search on databases as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus and Google scholar was also performed to reconfirm the Anti diabetic activities of reported herbs. The term, Ziabites, was used to describe what is now spoken as diabetes. It was reported that Ziabites, is highly associated with kidney function. Etiologically, Ziabites was characterized as kidney hot or cold dystemperament as well as diffusion of fluid from other organs such as liver and intestines into the kidneys. This disorder was categorized into main types as hot (Ziabites-e-har) and cold (Ziabites-e-barid) as well as sweet urine (Bole-e-shirin). Most medieval cite signs of Ziabites were remarked as unusual and excessive thirst, frequent urination and polydipsia. On the management, life style modification and observing the essential rules of prevention in Persian medicine as well as herbal therapy and special simple manipulations were recommended. Current investigation was done to clarify the knowledge of medieval scientists on diabetes and related interventions. Reported remedies which are based on centuries of experience might be of beneficial for- further studies to the management of diabetes. PMID:24741508

  20. The medieval feminine personage in the romance O guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Gurgel Lucena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We objectify to present a intertextual analysis of the literary text that contemplates a process of mythical constitution of the personages of the romance the Guarani (1857 of the writer Jose de Alencar. Focamos the analysis on the Cecília young for where we discover its “static” adaptation as medieval myth in the Brazilian romantic romance. The unconditional, protective and servile love of the Peri indian (One arquétipo of the medieval knight. conditions the construction of the loved one, therefore under the medieval myth of the gracious love, a personage is formed in function of the other, is opposing destinations that search the balance in the love. Exactly being something distant and inaccessible, as they present the trovadorescas Cantigas of love. In the theoretical recital, we have: MOISÉS (2004 - 2005 characterizing the mythos and the definitions of the plain and round personages; a platonic reference to the servile love in the Slap-up meal; Spalding (1973, Brunel (1988 for the dicionarizações concerning the thematic one and of the critical one; in the literary theory, Brunel, Pichois and Rousseau (1995, p.115: the myth, “a narrative set consecrated by the tradition”; in Samuel (2000, the mythical literariedade in the formation of a people; Bosi (1994, information on the indianismo and Coutinho (1988, gênese of our literariedade and the romantic romance. Thus, our work presents a result to the literary study: the thematic influence of the Average Age and its mythical love (gracious and servile in the composition of the indianista romance.

  1. The trophic responses of two different rodent-vector-plague systems to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Schmid, Boris V; Liu, Jun; Si, Xiaoyan; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-02-07

    Plague, the causative agent of three devastating pandemics in history, is currently a re-emerging disease, probably due to climate change and other anthropogenic changes. Without understanding the response of plague systems to anthropogenic or climate changes in their trophic web, it is unfeasible to effectively predict years with high risks of plague outbreak, hampering our ability for effective prevention and control of the disease. Here, by using surveillance data, we apply structural equation modelling to reveal the drivers of plague prevalence in two very different rodent systems: those of the solitary Daurian ground squirrel and the social Mongolian gerbil. We show that plague prevalence in the Daurian ground squirrel is not detectably related to its trophic web, and that therefore surveillance efforts should focus on detecting plague directly in this ecosystem. On the other hand, plague in the Mongolian gerbil is strongly embedded in a complex, yet understandable trophic web of climate, vegetation, and rodent and flea densities, making the ecosystem suitable for more sophisticated low-cost surveillance practices, such as remote sensing. As for the trophic webs of the two rodent species, we find that increased vegetation is positively associated with higher temperatures and precipitation for both ecosystems. We furthermore find a positive association between vegetation and ground squirrel density, yet a negative association between vegetation and gerbil density. Our study thus shows how past surveillance records can be used to design and improve existing plague prevention and control measures, by tailoring them to individual plague foci. Such measures are indeed highly needed under present conditions with prevailing climate change. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. The trophic responses of two different rodent–vector–plague systems to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Schmid, Boris V.; Liu, Jun; Si, Xiaoyan; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Plague, the causative agent of three devastating pandemics in history, is currently a re-emerging disease, probably due to climate change and other anthropogenic changes. Without understanding the response of plague systems to anthropogenic or climate changes in their trophic web, it is unfeasible to effectively predict years with high risks of plague outbreak, hampering our ability for effective prevention and control of the disease. Here, by using surveillance data, we apply structural equation modelling to reveal the drivers of plague prevalence in two very different rodent systems: those of the solitary Daurian ground squirrel and the social Mongolian gerbil. We show that plague prevalence in the Daurian ground squirrel is not detectably related to its trophic web, and that therefore surveillance efforts should focus on detecting plague directly in this ecosystem. On the other hand, plague in the Mongolian gerbil is strongly embedded in a complex, yet understandable trophic web of climate, vegetation, and rodent and flea densities, making the ecosystem suitable for more sophisticated low-cost surveillance practices, such as remote sensing. As for the trophic webs of the two rodent species, we find that increased vegetation is positively associated with higher temperatures and precipitation for both ecosystems. We furthermore find a positive association between vegetation and ground squirrel density, yet a negative association between vegetation and gerbil density. Our study thus shows how past surveillance records can be used to design and improve existing plague prevention and control measures, by tailoring them to individual plague foci. Such measures are indeed highly needed under present conditions with prevailing climate change. PMID:25540277

  3. Finding the Sacred Direction: Medieval Books on the Qibla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rius, M.

    2009-08-01

    Medieval Islamic scholars wrote a great number of books on the qibla, the Sacred Direction. These books had a huge readership and provided instructions for finding the direction of Mecca by either exact or approximate means. In principle, the qibla was a purely religious subject, but in practice its determination required the use of astronomy as an applied science. As so often, religion and politics had many points of contact and, in this case, it was generally political considerations that prevailed. Finally, the analysis of nautical charts can offer new perspectives. As yet, modern scholarship has not established the link between this area of study and the classical literature on this subject.

  4. Norse agriculture in Greenland? Farming in a remote medieval landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen

    The aim of the project Norse Farming in Greenland: Agriculture on the edge was to determine whether the Norse farmers actually cultivated crops in Greenland during colonisation in the Viking age and the medieval period. This was investigated by analysing macrofossils extracted from soil samples...... giving information about the local vegetation. Charred grains and threshing waste of barley was found in samples from four sites, strongly indicating that barley was cultivated in Greenland by the Norse farmers. The phosphate analyses showed no sign of any deliberate manuring of the infields as high...

  5. Two incrusted medieval swords from Zbaszyn, Lubusz voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głosek, Marian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two interesting medieval swords that can be dated between the end of the 12th century to the beginning of the 14th century AD. Both display, engraved in the fuller, inscriptions in silver and copper inlay, one of them a Latin text, the other heraldic symbols.

    Se presentan dos espadas medievales fechables entre finales del S. XII y principios del XIV, decoradas con damasquinados en plata y aleación de cobre. Una presenta un texto latino y mativos ornamentales; la otra, elementos heráldicos.

  6. Visitors’ Motivations, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Castro Marim Medieval Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Márcia Barbeitos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tests the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural equation model. Data have been collected through a questionnaire applied to visitors attending a local festival, Castro Marim Medieval Fair, which hosts every year between 45.000 and 60.000 visitors. Results show that satisfaction towards controlled variables of the event within the venue’s boundaries, such as animation, gastronomy, and handicraft, influences visitors’ overall satisfaction towards the event. On the other hand, they also reveal a direct relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty. The study contributes to a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour and provides useful guidance to festival ideation and design.

  7. Three individuals, three stories, three burials from medieval Trondheim, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppersberger Hamre, Stian; Ersland, Geir Atle; Daux, Valérie; Parson, Walther; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the life stories of three individuals who lived in Trondheim, Norway, during the 13th century. Based on skeletal examinations, facial reconstructions, genetic analyses, and stable oxygen isotope analyses, the birthplace, mobility, ancestry, pathology, and physical appearance of these people are presented. The stories are discussed within the relevant historical context. These three people would have been ordinary citizens, without any privileges out of the ordinary, which makes them quite rare in the academic literature. Through the study of individuals one gets a unique look into the Norwegian medieval society.

  8. New astronomical references in two Catalonian late medieval documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, María José; Marco, Francisco J

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, after 13 years of preparation, the Generalitat of Catalunya finished the publication of the 10 volumes of the Dietaris de la Generalitat de Catalunya. The Dietaris, as well as a closely related source, the llibre de Jornades 1411/1484 de Jaume Safont, cover the period of 1411 to 1539. In this article, we examine astronomical references contained in these two sources, and place them in their historical context. Our main focus lies on astronomical phenomena that have not previously been published in the astronomical literature. In fact, relatively few astronomical records are accessible in Spanish medieval and early modern history, and our paper intends to fill this gap partially.

  9. Finger printing of medieval investment cast idols by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Babu Rao, C.; Bhattacharya, D.K.; Raj, Baldev

    1993-01-01

    Among the various methods, radiography is an important technique that can be used to fingerprint an idol. This is because, these idols are cast structures, and radiography is the most reliable technique for the detection of internal features like casting defects. This paper presents the radiographic methodology adopted and the results of the studies to characterise radiographically three medieval cast idols belonging to different periods 9th, 13th, and 16th century obtained from the government museum Madras. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910) in medieval central europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüttli, Annina; Bouwman, Abigail; Akgül, Gülfirde; Della Casa, Philippe; Rühli, Frank; Warinner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72%) exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic evolutionary

  11. Ancient DNA analysis reveals high frequency of European lactase persistence allele (T-13910 in medieval central europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Krüttli

    Full Text Available Ruminant milk and dairy products are important food resources in many European, African, and Middle Eastern societies. These regions are also associated with derived genetic variants for lactase persistence. In mammals, lactase, the enzyme that hydrolyzes the milk sugar lactose, is normally down-regulated after weaning, but at least five human populations around the world have independently evolved mutations regulating the expression of the lactase-phlorizin-hydrolase gene. These mutations result in a dominant lactase persistence phenotype and continued lactase tolerance in adulthood. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at C/T-13910 is responsible for most lactase persistence in European populations, but when and where the T-13910 polymorphism originated and the evolutionary processes by which it rose to high frequency in Europe have been the subject of strong debate. A history of dairying is presumed to be a prerequisite, but archaeological evidence is lacking. In this study, DNA was extracted from the dentine of 36 individuals excavated at a medieval cemetery in Dalheim, Germany. Eighteen individuals were successfully genotyped for the C/T-13910 SNP by molecular cloning and sequencing, of which 13 (72% exhibited a European lactase persistence genotype: 44% CT, 28% TT. Previous ancient DNA-based studies found that lactase persistence genotypes fall below detection levels in most regions of Neolithic Europe. Our research shows that by AD 1200, lactase persistence frequency had risen to over 70% in this community in western Central Europe. Given that lactase persistence genotype frequency in present-day Germany and Austria is estimated at 71-80%, our results suggest that genetic lactase persistence likely reached modern levels before the historic population declines associated with the Black Death, thus excluding plague-associated evolutionary forces in the rise of lactase persistence in this region. This new evidence sheds light on the dynamic

  12. Sugli studi medievali e il mutamento digitale On the medieval studies and the digital change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    La sezione raccoglie tre brevi comunicazioni, tenute nell’ambito del seminario Medium-Evo. Gli studi medievali e il mutamento digitale (Firenze, 2001 e dedicate rispettivamente ai periodici e alle forme di comunicazione del sapere (Giorgio Chittolini, al problema del reperimento delle risorse e della repertoriazione delle fonti (Paolo Delogu, ai contraccolpi dell’uso del mezzo informatico sulla scrittura della storia (Giuseppe Sergi.

    This section includes three short papers - presented at the seminar on Medium-Evo. Gli studi medievali e il mutamento digitale (Firenze, 2001 (Medium-Evo. Medieval studies and the digital change - which are respectively focused on periodicals, different types of learning communication (Giorgio Chittolini, problems linked to document searching and filing (Paolo Delogu, backlashes  coming from the use of computer in writing history (Giuseppe Sergi.

  13. Two cases of neurogenic paralysis in medieval skeletal samples from Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mario; Čavka, Mislav; Šlaus, Mario

    2014-12-01

    Osteological changes consistent with neurogenic paralysis were observed in one male and one female skeleton recovered from two Croatian medieval sites - Virje and Zadar. Both skeletons display limb asymmetry typical of neurogenic paralysis that occurs during the childhood. The male skeleton displays atrophy and shortening of the right arm and the right femur, while the female skeleton exhibits identical changes on the right arm and both legs. Additionally, both skeletons exhibit scoliotic changes of the spine, and the female skeleton also displays bilateral hip dysplasia. Differential diagnosis included disorders such as cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, cerebrovascular accident, and Rasmussen's encephalitis. These are the first cases of neurogenic paralysis (cerebral palsy and/or paralytic poliomyelitis) identified in Croatian archeological series. The Virje skeleton is only the third case of hemiplegia identified from archeological contexts (first with spinal scoliosis), while the Zadar skeleton represents the first case of triplegia reported in the paleopathological literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hip Dislocation and Dystocia in Early Medieval Times: Possible Evidence of Labor Maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgosa, Assumpció; Carrascal, Susana; Piga, Giampaolo; Isidro, Albert

    2016-12-01

    In ancient times, maternal mortality would occur frequently, particularly during labor. Evidence of dystocia resulting in the death of a pregnant woman is very infrequent in paleopathologic literature, with only a few cases being demonstrated. In the early medieval site of Casserres, the skeleton of a young woman with a fetus in the pelvic region was found. Some abnormal findings of the maternal skeleton were evaluated, including a sacral anomaly, femoral head wound, the rare position of the lower left limb with the femoral head dislodged anteriorly and cephalad from the socket, and a fibular fracture. Examining the anomalies all together, a case of anterior hip dislocation related to a McRoberts-like maneuver performed during labor is a plausible explanation of the findings.

  15. About the composition and processing of precious metals from the Serbian medieval mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Kojić Desanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Account Books of the Caboga (Kabužić Brothers 1426-1433 (Squarço - Reminder, Diary and Ledger from the Historical Archive of Dubrovnik provide new evidence about the high degree of treatment and composition of precious metals from the Serbian medieval mines. First of all, that the residue, after the purification of unprocessed into fine silver, was copper. Even the price of this process is listed. In the Squarço, in two items in a receipt from 1430, there is previously unknown data about auriferous silver (argento di glama, the composition of which, besides gold, also included copper, and the precisely determined shares of these metals per litre. Apart from the Account Books of the Caboga (Kabužić Brothers, other written sources and hitherto geological explorations have provided no clues regarding the presence of copper in the auriferous silver mines.

  16. Clothing as a symbol of charity and soul salvation in late Medieval Kotor (Cattaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Valentina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Religious practices in late medieval Kotor included charitable acts of donating clothes to the poor as a form of imitatio Christi. The model of charity for the faithful to follow was set in the vitae of widely-favoured saints such as Sts Martin of Tours, Francis of Assisi and Catherine of Sienna, whose portraits were painted on the walls of Kotor’s church of St Anne in the second half of the fifteenth century. Evidence for the prac­tice and purpose of this particular form of charity is found in the surviving wills of the citizens of Kotor. Apart from giving clothes to the poor out of concern pro remedio animae, the motif of clothes features in the deceased’s testamentary instructions for burial in the habit of a mendicant order.

  17. The development of a medieval scribe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, R.J.; Duntze, Oliver; Schaßan, Torsten; Vogeler, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Every individual has a set of traits unique for that person. These include biometric identifiers such as DNA, but the same principal applies to the notion of a scribal fingerprint or human stylome. In contrast to the innate nature of a real fingerprint, such features have been acquired over time

  18. [Mechanisms of power in disease: the case of the novel "The Plague" by Albert Camus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mansilla, José Miguel

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the elements of power that can be found in an epidemic like the plague. To undertake this task we first studied, the form of containment of the plague from a historical perspective and then, compare them with those described by Camus in his novel The Plague. We also studied the experience of sin among humans in an effort to determine divine power. This last point explores the fear of being touched during an epidemic and how this is overcome by the innate feeling of love among men. Finally in the novel, this is illustrated by the love of Orpheus for Eurydice.

  19. New alternatives on the control of plagues in the handling of the residuals in agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Buenaventura, L.

    1995-01-01

    A recount of the historical evolution of the agriculture is made in the country and the use of agricultural inputs with tendency to the mono cultivations that drove to a biological imbalance and the escalation of the plagues in the main cultivations, that which forced to the integrated handling of plagues. The strategies are described using in the control integrated as they are: the use of the adverse environmental factors to the plagues, the use of the natural enemies, the cultural practices, the use of traps, the employment of resistant varieties and measures of legal type

  20. Plague in Egypt: Disease biology, history and contemporary analysis: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Lotfy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some neighbouring countries disease re-emergence in Egypt should not be excluded. The country is in need for implementation of some preventive measures.

  1. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedictow, Ole Jørgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582–1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532–1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardinia. Those measures undoubtedly spared the surrounding districts from the spread of the contagion. Angelerio seems to have been an extremely successful public health officer in the history of plague epidemics in Sardinia. PMID:23968598

  2. Role of the Yersinia pestis yersiniabactin iron acquisition system in the incidence of flea-borne plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Sebbane

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a flea-borne zoonosis caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Y. pestis mutants lacking the yersiniabactin (Ybt siderophore-based iron transport system are avirulent when inoculated intradermally but fully virulent when inoculated intravenously in mice. Presumably, Ybt is required to provide sufficient iron at the peripheral injection site, suggesting that Ybt would be an essential virulence factor for flea-borne plague. Here, using a flea-to-mouse transmission model, we show that a Y. pestis strain lacking the Ybt system causes fatal plague at low incidence when transmitted by fleas. Bacteriology and histology analyses revealed that a Ybt-negative strain caused only primary septicemic plague and atypical bubonic plague instead of the typical bubonic form of disease. The results provide new evidence that primary septicemic plague is a distinct clinical entity and suggest that unusual forms of plague may be caused by atypical Y. pestis strains.

  3. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diet and diversity at later medieval Fishergate: the isotopic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müldner, Gundula; Richards, Michael P

    2007-10-01

    We present the results of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of bone collagen for 155 individuals buried at the Later Medieval (13th to early 16th century AD) Gilbertine priory of St. Andrew, Fishergate in the city of York (UK). The data show significant variation in the consumption of marine foods between males and females as well as between individuals buried in different areas of the priory. Specifically, individuals from the crossing of the church and the cloister garth had consumed significantly less marine protein than those from other locations. Isotope data for four individuals diagnosed with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are consistent with a diet rich in animal protein. We also observe that isotopic signals of individuals with perimortem sharp force trauma are unusual in the context of the Fishergate dataset. We discuss possible explanations for these patterns and suggest that there may have been a specialist hospital or a local tradition of burying victims of violent conflict at the priory. The results demonstrate how the integration of archaeological, osteological, and isotopic data can provide novel information about Medieval burial and society. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. [Epilepsy treatment in Serbian medieval monastery hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić-Tasić, Slobodanka; Pantović, Mihailo; Jović, Nebojsa; Ravanić, Dragan; Obradović, Dejan; Sretenović, Srdjan; Pantović, Maja; Pantović, Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Emperor John III Ducas Vatatzes (ruled from 1222-1254) and his son Theodore II Lascaris (ruled from 1254-1258) both suffered from epilepsy. On his journeys to Nicaea, St Sava visited emperors Theodore I Lascaris (ruled from 1204-1222) and John II Vatatzes, who richly rewarded him, which was probably of crucial importance for the foundation of hospitals in the Monastery of Hilandar and the Monastery of Studenica These hospitals had special departments for the treatment of patints with epilepsy. According to researches conducted up-to-date, these departments are considered to be the oldest institutions for epilepsy treatment. Monastery hospitals in the West served primarily as a shelter for the poor and patients with chronic incurable diseases. The development of Serbian monastery hospitals was a long process and it included institutions that lasted for a long time (for over two centuries) in which, among others, those affected by epilepsy were cured.

  7. Luminescence dating of architectural ceramics from an early medieval abbey: The St Philbert Intercomparison (Loire Atlantique, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guibert, P. [CNRS-Universite Bordeaux, UMR 5060, IRAMAT-CRP2A, Maison de l' Archeologie, F-33607 Pessac (France)], E-mail: guibert@u-bordeaux3.fr; Bailiff, I.K. [University of Durham, Department of Archaeology, Luminescence Laboratory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blain, S. [CNRS-Universite Bordeaux, UMR 5060, IRAMAT-CRP2A, Maison de l' Archeologie, F-33607 Pessac (France); University of Durham, Department of Archaeology, Luminescence Laboratory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gueli, A.M. [LDL and BBCC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e di Struttura della Materia, Universita di Catania and INFN Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Martini, M.; Sibilia, E. [INFN, CNR-INFN and CUDAM, Univ. Milano Bicocca, U5, via R. Cozzi 53, I-20125 Milano (Italy); Stella, G.; Troja, S.O. [LDL and BBCC, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e di Struttura della Materia, Universita di Catania and INFN Sezione di Catania, via Santa Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    An experimental intercomparison was performed with brick samples from an early medieval building in the west of France, the St-Philbert-de-Grandlieu abbey. A potentially complex set of microdosimetric problems emerged from characterisation measurements, providing a robust test of the routine procedures used by each laboratory. The dating results obtained using quartz coarse grains and fine grain samples span over a large period of time, exhibiting overdispersion, and where systematic deviations appear between quartz and fine grain chronologies. Factors causing such scatter are analysed in detail, including internal radioactivity of quartz grains, millimetre-scale heterogeneity in the fabric, and the observation and modelling of fading behaviour of fine grain minerals.

  8. Luminescence dating of architectural ceramics from an early medieval abbey: The St Philbert Intercomparison (Loire Atlantique, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibert, P.; Bailiff, I.K.; Blain, S.; Gueli, A.M.; Martini, M.; Sibilia, E.; Stella, G.; Troja, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental intercomparison was performed with brick samples from an early medieval building in the west of France, the St-Philbert-de-Grandlieu abbey. A potentially complex set of microdosimetric problems emerged from characterisation measurements, providing a robust test of the routine procedures used by each laboratory. The dating results obtained using quartz coarse grains and fine grain samples span over a large period of time, exhibiting overdispersion, and where systematic deviations appear between quartz and fine grain chronologies. Factors causing such scatter are analysed in detail, including internal radioactivity of quartz grains, millimetre-scale heterogeneity in the fabric, and the observation and modelling of fading behaviour of fine grain minerals.

  9. Land use determinants of small mammal abundance and distribution in a plague endemic area of Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Kimaro, Didas N; Kihupi, Nganga I; Gulinck, Hubert; Mulungu, Loth S; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Small mammals are considered to be involved in the transmission cycle of bubonic plague, still occurring in different parts of the world, including the Lushoto District in Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between land use types and practices and small mammal abundance and distribution. A field survey was used to collect data in three landscapes differing in plague incidences. Data collection was done both in the wet season (April-June 2012) and dry season (August-October 2012). Analysis of variance and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling technique were used to establish the relationship between land use and small mammal abundance and distribution. Significant variations (p ≤ 0.05) of small mammal abundance among land use types were identified. Plantation forest with farming, natural forest and fallow had higher populations of small mammals than the other aggregated land use types. The influence of individual land use types on small mammal abundance level showed that, in both dry and wet seasons, miraba and fallow tended to favour small mammals' habitation whereas land tillage practices had the opposite effect. In addition, during the wet season crop types such as potato and maize appeared to positively influence the distribution and abundance of small mammals which was attributed to both shelter and food availability. Based on the findings from this study it is recommended that future efforts to predict and map spatial and temporal human plague infection risk at fine scale should consider the role played by land use and associated human activities on small mammal abundance and distribution.

  10. [The plague: A disease that is still haunting our collective memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer-Smadja, N; Thomas, M

    2017-06-01

    Although the plague has practically disappeared from Europe since the beginning of the 20th century, it is still present in everyone's memory. Owing to three pandemics, it has left an indelible mark on mankind and has given rise to many popular phrases, paintings, books or more recently movies and video games. After a brief description of the plague as a disease, we will try to trace the history of the plague through some of the works of art it inspired and then to show how the plague is still haunting our collective memory. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Centruy Alghero, Sardinia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ historical Review, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th -Centruy Alghero, Sardinia.

  12. Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States, 1900–2012

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-23

    Dr. Kiersten Kugeler discusses the Epidemiology of Human Plague in the United States.  Created: 2/23/2015 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/23/2015.

  13. Influence of solar activity on the state of the wheat market in medieval England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustil'Nik, Lev A.; Din, Gregory Yom

    2004-09-01

    The database of professor Rogers (1887), which includes wheat prices in England in the Middle Ages, was used to search for a possible influence of solar activity on the wheat market. Our approach was based on the following: (1) Existence of the correlation between cosmic ray flux entering the terrestrial atmosphere and cloudiness of the atmosphere. (2) Cosmic ray intensity in the solar system changes with solar activity, (3) Wheat production depends on weather conditions as a nonlinear function with threshold transitions. (4) A wheat market with a limited supply (as it was in medieval England) has a highly nonlinear sensitivity to variations in wheat production with boundary states, where small changes in wheat supply could lead to bursts of prices or to prices falling. We present a conceptual model of possible modes for sensitivity of wheat prices to weather conditions, caused by solar cycle variations, and compare expected price fluctuations with price variations recorded in medieval England. We compared statistical properties of the intervals between wheat price bursts during the years 1249-1703 with statistical properties of the intervals between the minima of solar cycles during the years 1700-2000. We show that statistical properties of these two samples are similar, both for characteristics of the distributions and for histograms of the distributions. We analyze a direct link between wheat prices and solar activity in the 17th century, for which wheat prices and solar activity data (derived from 10Be isotope) are available. We show that for all 10 time moments of the solar activity minima the observed prices were higher than prices for the corresponding time moments of maximal solar activity (100% sign correlation, on a significance level < 0.2%). We consider these results a direct evidence of the causal connection between wheat prices bursts and solar activity.

  14. Complete Protection against Pneumonic and Bubonic Plague after a Single Oral Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbise, Anne; Hanada, Yuri; Khalifé, Manal; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2015-01-01

    No efficient vaccine against plague is currently available. We previously showed that a genetically attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis producing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen was an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague. This candidate vaccine however failed to confer full protection against bubonic plague and did not produce F1 stably. The caf operon encoding F1 was inserted into the chromosome of a genetically attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, yielding the VTnF1 strain, which stably produced the F1 capsule. Given orally to mice, VTnF1 persisted two weeks in the mouse gut and induced a high humoral response targeting both F1 and other Y. pestis antigens. The strong cellular response elicited was directed mostly against targets other than F1, but also against F1. It involved cells with a Th1-Th17 effector profile, producing IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-10. A single oral dose (108 CFU) of VTnF1 conferred 100% protection against pneumonic plague using a high-dose challenge (3,300 LD50) caused by the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, vaccination protected 100% of mice from bubonic plague caused by a challenge with 100 LD50 Y. pestis and 93% against a high-dose infection (10,000 LD50). Protection involved fast-acting mechanisms controlling Y. pestis spread out of the injection site, and the protection provided was long-lasting, with 93% and 50% of mice surviving bubonic and pneumonic plague respectively, six months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice also survived bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by a high-dose of non-encapsulated (F1-) Y. pestis. VTnF1 is an easy-to-produce, genetically stable plague vaccine candidate, providing a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by wild type or un-encapsulated (F1-negative) Y. pestis. To our knowledge, VTnF1 is the only plague vaccine ever reported that could provide high and durable protection against the two forms of plague after a single oral

  15. Complete Protection against Pneumonic and Bubonic Plague after a Single Oral Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available No efficient vaccine against plague is currently available. We previously showed that a genetically attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis producing the Yersinia pestis F1 antigen was an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague. This candidate vaccine however failed to confer full protection against bubonic plague and did not produce F1 stably.The caf operon encoding F1 was inserted into the chromosome of a genetically attenuated Y. pseudotuberculosis, yielding the VTnF1 strain, which stably produced the F1 capsule. Given orally to mice, VTnF1 persisted two weeks in the mouse gut and induced a high humoral response targeting both F1 and other Y. pestis antigens. The strong cellular response elicited was directed mostly against targets other than F1, but also against F1. It involved cells with a Th1-Th17 effector profile, producing IFNγ, IL-17, and IL-10. A single oral dose (108 CFU of VTnF1 conferred 100% protection against pneumonic plague using a high-dose challenge (3,300 LD50 caused by the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, vaccination protected 100% of mice from bubonic plague caused by a challenge with 100 LD50 Y. pestis and 93% against a high-dose infection (10,000 LD50. Protection involved fast-acting mechanisms controlling Y. pestis spread out of the injection site, and the protection provided was long-lasting, with 93% and 50% of mice surviving bubonic and pneumonic plague respectively, six months after vaccination. Vaccinated mice also survived bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by a high-dose of non-encapsulated (F1- Y. pestis.VTnF1 is an easy-to-produce, genetically stable plague vaccine candidate, providing a highly efficient and long-lasting protection against both bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by wild type or un-encapsulated (F1-negative Y. pestis. To our knowledge, VTnF1 is the only plague vaccine ever reported that could provide high and durable protection against the two forms of plague after a single

  16. Skin pathology and medical prognosis in medieval Europe: the secrets of Hippocrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman Smoller, L

    2000-12-01

    This article analyzes a medieval text known as The Secrets of Hippocrates. Neither secret (because of its wide circulation in manuscript and print) nor by Hippocrates, the work offered readers a means of offering a prognosis of impending death based on observable signs on the skin. Although the aphorisms that make up the text make little sense in a modern medical understanding, the Secrets of Hippocrates fits well within three medieval traditions: the tradition of secrets literature, the medieval medical tradition, and the tradition of medieval Christian views about the body. First, like other books of secrets, a genre to whose conventions the text closely adheres, the Secrets of Hippocrates offered a shortcut to socially useful knowledge: the ability to offer an accurate medical prognosis. Second, the treatise corresponded to the medieval physician's concern for the so-called nonnaturals, such as diet and exercise. Third, it fit with a medieval Christian notion that sickness and sin were related, as were sin and ugliness. Just as a leper's deformities were a window to his sinful soul, so skin pathologies could clue a medieval physician to the lethal disease hidden inside the body.

  17. Dissociation of Tissue Destruction and Bacterial Expansion during Bubonic Plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Guinet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Activation and/or recruitment of the host plasmin, a fibrinolytic enzyme also active on extracellular matrix components, is a common invasive strategy of bacterial pathogens. Yersinia pestis, the bubonic plague agent, expresses the multifunctional surface protease Pla, which activates plasmin and inactivates fibrinolysis inhibitors. Pla is encoded by the pPla plasmid. Following intradermal inoculation, Y. pestis has the capacity to multiply in and cause destruction of the lymph node (LN draining the entry site. The closely related, pPla-negative, Y. pseudotuberculosis species lacks this capacity. We hypothesized that tissue damage and bacterial multiplication occurring in the LN during bubonic plague were linked and both driven by pPla. Using a set of pPla-positive and pPla-negative Y. pestis and Y. pseudotuberculosis strains in a mouse model of intradermal injection, we found that pPla is not required for bacterial translocation to the LN. We also observed that a pPla-cured Y. pestis caused the same extensive histological lesions as the wild type strain. Furthermore, the Y. pseudotuberculosis histological pattern, characterized by infectious foci limited by inflammatory cell infiltrates with normal tissue density and follicular organization, was unchanged after introduction of pPla. However, the presence of pPla enabled Y. pseudotuberculosis to increase its bacterial load up to that of Y. pestis. Similarly, lack of pPla strongly reduced Y. pestis titers in LNs of infected mice. This pPla-mediated enhancing effect on bacterial load was directly dependent on the proteolytic activity of Pla. Immunohistochemistry of Pla-negative Y. pestis-infected LNs revealed extensive bacterial lysis, unlike the numerous, apparently intact, microorganisms seen in wild type Y. pestis-infected preparations. Therefore, our study demonstrates that tissue destruction and bacterial survival/multiplication are dissociated in the bubo and that the primary action of Pla

  18. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Century Alghero, Sardinia

    OpenAIRE

    Bianucci, Raffaella; Benedictow, Ole J?rgen; Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, has been responsible for at least 3 pandemics. During 1582?1583, a plague outbreak devastated the seaport of Alghero in Sardinia. By analyzing contemporary medical texts and local documentation, we uncovered the pivotal role played by the Protomedicus of Alghero, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio (1532?1617), in controlling the epidemic. Angelerio imposed rules and antiepidemic measures new to the 16th-century sanitary system of Sardi...

  19. Identification of risk factors for plague in the West Nile Region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Rebecca J; MacMillan, Katherine; Atiku, Linda A; Mpanga, Joseph T; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Enscore, Russell E; Gage, Kenneth L

    2014-06-01

    Plague is an often fatal, primarily flea-borne rodent-associated zoonosis caused by Yersinia pestis. We sought to identify risk factors for plague by comparing villages with and without a history of human plague cases within a model-defined plague focus in the West Nile Region of Uganda. Although rat (Rattus rattus) abundance was similar inside huts within case and control villages, contact rates between rats and humans (as measured by reported rat bites) and host-seeking flea loads were higher in case villages. In addition, compared with persons in control villages, persons in case villages more often reported sleeping on reed or straw mats, storing food in huts where persons sleep, owning dogs and allowing them into huts where persons sleep, storing garbage inside or near huts, and cooking in huts where persons sleep. Compared with persons in case villages, persons in control villages more commonly reported replacing thatch roofing, and growing coffee, tomatoes, onions, and melons in agricultural plots adjacent to their homesteads. Rodent and flea control practices, knowledge of plague, distance to clinics, and most care-seeking practices were similar between persons in case villages and persons in control villages. Our findings reinforce existing plague prevention recommendations and point to potentially advantageous local interventions. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. A Field Study of Plague and Tularemia in Rodents, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shahraki, Abdolrazagh Hashemi; Japoni-Nejad, Alireza; Esmaeili, Saber; Darvish, Jamshid; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammadi, Ali; Mohammadi, Zeinolabedin; Mahmoudi, Ahmad; Pourhossein, Behzad; Ghasemi, Ahmad; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2017-04-01

    Kurdistan Province in Iran is a historical focus for plague and tularemia. This study aimed at assessing the current status of these two foci by studying their rodent reservoirs. Rodents were trapped and their ectoparasites were collected. The genus and species of both rodents and ectoparasites were determined. Serological analyses of rodent blood samples were done by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for plague and by standard tube agglutination assay for tularemia. Rodent spleen samples were subjected to bacterial culture, microscopic examination, and real-time PCR to search for active plague or tularemia infection. During this study, 245 rodents were trapped, of which the most abundant genera were Apodemus (40%), Mus (24.49%), and Meriones (12.65%). One hundred fifty-three fleas, 37 mites, and 54 ticks were collected on these rodents. The results of all direct and indirect tests were negative for plague. Serological tests were positive for tularemia in 4.8% of trapped rodents. This study is the first report on the presence of tularemia infection in rodents in Western Iran. Since Meriones persicus is a known reservoir for plague and tularemia, and this rodent carried plague and tularemia vectors in Marivan and Sanandaj districts, there is a real potential for the occurrence of these two diseases in this region.

  1. Human activity spaces and plague risks in three contrasting landscapes in Lushoto District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronimo, Proches; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Mulungu, Loth S; Kihupi, Nganga I; Msanya, Balthazar M; Leirs, Herwig; Deckers, Jozef A

    2014-07-01

    Since 1980 plague has been a human threat in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. However, the spatial-temporal pattern of plague occurrence remains poorly understood. The main objective of this study was to gain understanding of human activity patterns in relation to spatial distribution of fleas in Lushoto District. Data were collected in three landscapes differing in plague incidence. Field survey coupled with Geographic Information System (GIS) and physical sample collections were used to collect data in wet (April to June 2012) and dry (August to October 2012) seasons. Data analysis was done using GIS, one-way ANOVA and nonparametric statistical tools. The degree of spatial co-occurrence of potential disease vectors (fleas) and humans in Lushoto focus differs significantly (p ≤ 0.05) among the selected landscapes, and in both seasons. This trend gives a coarse indication of the possible association of the plague outbreaks and the human frequencies of contacting environments with fleas. The study suggests that plague surveillance and control programmes at landscape scale should consider the existence of plague vector contagion risk gradient from high to low incidence landscapes due to human presence and intensity of activities.

  2. Potential role of viruses in white plague coral disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Brandt, Marilyn E; Correa, Adrienne M S; Smith, Tyler B; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2014-02-01

    White plague (WP)-like diseases of tropical corals are implicated in reef decline worldwide, although their etiological cause is generally unknown. Studies thus far have focused on bacterial or eukaryotic pathogens as the source of these diseases; no studies have examined the role of viruses. Using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and 454 pyrosequencing, we compared 24 viral metagenomes generated from Montastraea annularis corals showing signs of WP-like disease and/or bleaching, control conspecific corals, and adjacent seawater. TEM was used for visual inspection of diseased coral tissue. No bacteria were visually identified within diseased coral tissues, but viral particles and sequence similarities to eukaryotic circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses and their associated satellites (SCSDVs) were abundant in WP diseased tissues. In contrast, sequence similarities to SCSDVs were not found in any healthy coral tissues, suggesting SCSDVs might have a role in WP disease. Furthermore, Herpesviridae gene signatures dominated healthy tissues, corroborating reports that herpes-like viruses infect all corals. Nucleocytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV) sequences, similar to those recently identified in cultures of Symbiodinium (the algal symbionts of corals), were most common in bleached corals. This finding further implicates that these NCLDV viruses may have a role in bleaching, as suggested in previous studies. This study determined that a specific group of viruses is associated with diseased Caribbean corals and highlights the potential for viral disease in regional coral reef decline.

  3. Duck plague: carrier state and gross pathology in black ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa, Jorge E.

    1975-01-01

    Duck plague (UP) is a highly fatal disease of ducks, geese, and swans (family Anatidae), produced by a reticulo-endotheliotrophic virus classified as a member of the Herpesvirus group. The disease was recognized in Europe in 1949. On the American continent, the disease was first diagnosed in the United States in 1967. Very little is known of DP virus ecology, particularly of the mechanisms of interepizootic survival and movement. The tendency of the IIerpesviruses to enter into a quiescent state after an overt or inapparent infection is a proven characteristic for most of the members of this group. Herpes simplex, which is the model of the Herpesviruses, is said to be the classical example of a persistent recurrent viral infection. Burnet and Williams (4) were the first to recognize this kind of relationship between herpes simplex and its host in 1939. Later, it was found that the reactivation of the virus can be brought on by a variety of stimuli either physiological (menstruation), pathological (anaphylactic shock), chemical (pesticides) or physical (sunburn). This same latency property has been proved for every member of this group of viruses which has been studied adequately, DP is among the few Herpesviruses for which the carrier state has not been demonstrated, but there is circumstantial evidence suggesting it. The carrier state for DP seems to be a likely explanation for the persistence and the particular pattern of movement of this disease.

  4. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr-1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr-1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr-1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km-2 yr-1, that by far outweigh bedrock denudation rates

  5. Water consumption in Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, E; Slaus, M; O'Connell, T C

    2014-08-01

    Patterns of water consumption by past human populations are rarely considered, yet drinking behavior is socially mediated and access to water sources is often socially controlled. Oxygen isotope analysis of archeological human remains is commonly used to identify migrants in the archeological record, but it can also be used to consider water itself, as this technique documents water consumption rather than migration directly. Here, we report an oxygen isotope study of humans and animals from coastal regions of Croatia in the Iron Age, Roman, and Early Medieval periods. The results show that while faunal values have little diachronic variation, the human data vary through time, and there are wide ranges of values within each period. Our interpretation is that this is not solely a result of mobility, but that human behavior can and did lead to human oxygen isotope ratios that are different from that expected from consumption of local precipitation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (10 6 years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  7. Neutron activation analysis of medieval and early modern times ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kies, A.; Reitsamer, G.; Bauer, W.

    1985-01-01

    Provenience studies of medieval and early modern times ceramics from the Eastern Danube area of Austria have been performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. All sherds examined were selected from pottery which was specially charactrized by pottery marks ('Cross Potent', 'Crossmark within a circle', 'Latin Cross', 'Cross Paty'). With respect to the chemical composition five different pottery groups could be evaluated by cluster analysis. Archaeological results: The'Cross Patent' was used by different potter's workshops whereas the 'Crossmark within a circle' was more likely restricted to one manufacture entre. The distribution of the 'Latin Cross' and The 'Cross Paty' over all five clusters indicated the usage of clay from different deposits. The assignment of the 'Cross Paty' exclusively to the area of Passau could be disproved. (Author)

  8. Gold and not so real gold in Medieval treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrenka Bogovic-Zeskoski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evidence diverse materials and processes used by artisans (and alchemists required to synthesize a visually viable replacement for gold. The emphasis of the research is upon the production of mosaic gold or porporina, a pigment that has survived into modern times, which was used as ink and as paint. Base metals, mostly tin, but also alloys were used both into foils coated with glazes and varnishes and as pigment. The research focuses upon recipes documented in treatises dating from Antiquity to the late Medieval period (ca. 1500 and an attempt is made to answer two questions. In the first place, why was there a need for a surrogate? Secondly, why are there so few tangible examples detected on surviving artifacts? In conclusion, an argument is offered pointing out that, although much can be learned by scientific examination of artifacts, textual analysis is equally important and necessary to unravel mysteries of ancient technologies

  9. Two medieval swords from the regional museum in Jagodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes two medieval swords (one found near Kalenić monastery and one near the Ćuprija town from the funds of the Department of Archaeology in the Regional Museum in Jagodina. He presents arguments in opposition to the typological classification existent in scholarly literature of the first one, and concludes that the both specimens most probably originate from the same workshop, as were being stamped with identical maker-marks. In the end the author draws one’s attention to circumstances of the site find of the first sword, and also points towards possible directions of research of the sacred topography of the Kalenić monastery environs.

  10. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  11. [Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan.

  12. A biological stone from a medieval cemetery in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładykowska-Rzeczycka, Judyta J; Nowakowski, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    A review of the literature shows that origination of biological stones as well as their pathogenesis mostly depend on the environmental factors. As a result, the structural spectrum of such calculi and their chemical composition are highly diversified. It is well known that biological stones are formed mostly in the digestive and urinary tracts. However, it has been demonstrated that this kind of stony structure can be also, though rarely, found in circulatory and reproductive systems, skin, mucosa, and tear ducts. Although in palaeopathology, the list of biological stones is enriched by stony tumours and/or discharges, it is very difficult to uncover the small size deposits in excavation material. In the literature such findings, originating from different countries and centuries, are few. The described stone was found among the bones of an adult individual in the medieval cemetery of Gdańsk (Poland). The SEM, X-ray spectrometer and chemical evaluation revealed that it was a bladder calculus.

  13. Provenance studies of pottery fragments from medieval Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, J.W.; Olmez, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of archeological pottery fragments, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been utilized to establish the elemental concentrations of up to 37 chemical elements for each of 53 archeological pottery samples from medieval Cairo, Egypt, and one additional sample of Chinese porcelain. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. Multivariate analyses have been used to quantitatively determine these interrelationships. This methodology successfully separated the Egyptian samples into two broad categories: polychrome decorated ceramic ware and monochrome celadon ware. In addition the methodology successfully identified the one unique sample of Chinese porcelain. Several samples appeared to be either a mixture of categories or outliers in the data set and were not attributable to any distinct category. (author)

  14. Isidoro de Sevilla: el banco de datos medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Américo Abad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available San Isidoro de Sevilla, el Doctor egregius de Ios siglos VI y VII, constituye una referencia medieval de suma importancia y en varios aspectos. Su obra enciclopédica, su pensamiento jurídico y filosófico, su conducción de los asuntos políticos, su apología de la iglesia como institución ecuménica, cuando apenas se dibujaban los primeros rasgos -impalpables casi - de la sociedad civil y del estado y la organizacJón del saber y del conocimiento llegados a su tiempo.Contenido: Presentación. El proyecto enciclopédico. Universo y sistema. Etimologías y otros textos. La ley y el gobierno. La filosofía. Comunidad y comunidades. Consideraciones finales

  15. Some early medieval swords in the Wallace Collection and elsewhere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edge, David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of eight early medieval swords shows that some were made from a single piece of steel, while others had a steel cutting edge welded on. Heat-treatment to harden the steel was undertaken in six out of seven cases; the other proved to be a modern replica.

    El análisis de ocho espadas altomedievales muestra que algunas de ellas fueron hechas a partir de una sola pieza de acero, mientras que a otras se les ha soldado un cortante filo de este material. El endurecimiento del acero mediante forja fue realizado en seis de siete casos, mientras que el restante se demostró que era una réplica moderna.

  16. Medieval emergence of sweet melons, Cucumis melo (Cucurbitaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S; Amar, Zohar; Lev, Efraim

    2012-07-01

    Sweet melons, Cucumis melo, are a widely grown and highly prized crop. While melons were familiar in antiquity, they were grown mostly for use of the young fruits, which are similar in appearance and taste to cucumbers, C. sativus. The time and place of emergence of sweet melons is obscure, but they are generally thought to have reached Europe from the east near the end of the 15th century. The objective of the present work was to determine where and when truly sweet melons were first developed. Given their large size and sweetness, melons are often confounded with watermelons, Citrullus lanatus, so a list was prepared of the characteristics distinguishing between them. An extensive search of literature from the Roman and medieval periods was conducted and the findings were considered in their context against this list and particularly in regard to the use of the word 'melon' and of adjectives for sweetness and colour. Medieval lexicographies and an illustrated Arabic translation of Dioscorides' herbal suggest that sweet melons were present in Central Asia in the mid-9th century. A travelogue description indicates the presence of sweet melons in Khorasan and Persia by the mid-10th century. Agricultural literature from Andalusia documents the growing of sweet melons, evidently casabas (Inodorous Group), there by the second half of the 11th century, which probably arrived from Central Asia as a consequence of Islamic conquest, trade and agricultural development. Climate and geopolitical boundaries were the likely causes of the delay in the spread of sweet melons into the rest of Europe.

  17. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  18. Investigation of medieval ceramics from Ras by physicochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindović Nataša D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although early medieval Serbian ceramic is well described by the archeologists and historians, knowledge of the Balkan ceramic production is still limited. Archaeometric study of ceramics provenance, technology of preparation and used pigments as well as influence of neighboring countries and specific characteristics of different workshops has never been performed so far. The detailed knowledge of the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of an archaeological artifact is critical in finding solutions to problems of restoration, conservation, dating and authentication in the art world. In this work we present results of systematic investigation of pottery shards from archeological site Ras. The term Ras, which signifies both the fortress and the region encompassing the upper course of Raška River, used to be the center of the medieval Serbian state. Both the ceramic body and the polychromatic glaze of the artifacts were studied by a multianalitical approach combining optical microscopy (OM, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Mineralogical composition of pottery shards has been determined combining results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis. Firing temperature has been estimated based on the mineralogical composition and positions of Si-O stretching (-1000 cm-1 and banding (-460 cm-1 vibrations. Investigated samples have been classified into two groups based on the mineralogical composition, cross sections and firing temperature. Larger group consists of samples of fine-grained, homogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures bellow 800 °C which indicates imported products. Second, smaller group consists of inhomogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures between 850 and 900 °C produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up a national database for the compositions of bodies, glazes and pigments.

  19. ACTIVE BRIBERY IN CROATIAN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to writing about the history of punishment, it is always linked with critically re-thinking and better understanding of the contemporary system of punishment, as a result of its long historical development. In such a way, „contemporary criminal law cannot be seen as a result of an effort made by a certain nation or in a certain epoch“. „Permanently faced with social changes, in its long historical development, criminal law has been modifying its fundamental principles and categories, by building new institutes and instruments, in order to become less cruel and more human, but not less efficient than in earlier stages of its development, characterized by rudeness, cruelty and exemplarity of its sanctions. Although it is not easy to answer the question, if there is the measure, in which social understanding of punishment and its purpose, determines the civilizational level in the society, there is no doubt about the fact that civilizational and legal point of view towards punishment derives from a waste range of factors: general, cultural, sociological, psychological, religious, political and other factors that should be taken altogether in their historical dimension. The genesis of criminal law is linked with the moment of establishing the public authorities and the state. According to different criteria, it is possible to introduce different periodization of criminal law. When it comes to the historical criterion, there can be made a historical division into periods of ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary criminal law (punishment, which periods should not be taken as absolutely inseparable. The point of this paper is to present a review and development of punishing active bribery in the Croatian medieval and modern law.

  20. Micromorphological Approaches to the Formation and Biographies of Early Medieval Towns in Northwest Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wouters, Barbora

    Even after decades of intensive research, the complex stratigraphy of many early medieval and Viking towns in continental Europe remains poorly understood. Debate continues about crucial aspects such as their origins, the changes they underwent through time and, in some cases, their supposed...... on - the youngest early medieval urban phases 7. Post-depositional transformations This framework makes it possible to gain a deeper, more detailed understanding of the sites’ evolution through time as well their spatial organisation, and to mutually compare them without losing sight of their individual...... idiosyncrasies. At the same time, this approach bypasses a generalising discourse of early medieval towns. By juxtaposing the results of these five case studies with existing debates on early medieval towns, a number of set historical narratives can be challenged....

  1. A medieval city within Assyrian walls: the continuity of the town of Arbil in Northern Mesopotamia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováček, K.; Amin, A.M.; Melčák, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, autumn (2013), s. 1-42 ISSN 0021-0889 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : medieval Arbil * North Mesopotamia * topography * remote sensing * archeology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  2. The Religious Significance of the Medieval Body and Flannery O'Connor's Fiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Flannery O'Connor based what she called her "anagogic vision" on the medieval way of seeing the world that allowed the reader of a text to discern "different levels of reality in one image or one situation...

  3. The language and style of Latin rubrics in medieval liturgical Easter drama

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vršecká-Kvízová, Kateřina

    -, č. 71 (2013), s. 267-280 ISSN 1376-7453 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Easter drama * Medieval Latin * Latin rubrics Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics

  4. Tablet-woven and tabby-woven braids from the Czech late medieval archaeological findings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2010), s. 47-51 ISSN 0860-0007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : textile fragments * tablet -woven braids * tabby-woven braids * late medieval Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. The innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild Gunnison's prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Joseph D.; Van Andel, Roger; Stone, Nathan E.; Cobble, Kacy R.; Nottingham, Roxanne; Lee, Judy; VerSteeg, Michael; Corcoran, Jeff; Cordova, Jennifer; Van Pelt, William E.; Shuey, Megan M.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Schupp, James M.; Beckstrom-Sternberg, Stephen; Beckstrom-Sternberg, James; Keim, Paul; Smith, Susan; Rodriguez-Ramos, Julia; Williamson, Judy L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Wagner, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. A colony of Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) in the Aubrey Valley (AV) of northern Arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by Y. pestis. To examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the AV colony, we conducted a laboratory Y. pestis challenge experiment on 60 wild-caught prairie dogs from AV and from a nearby, large colony with frequent past outbreaks of plague, Espee (n = 30 per colony). Test animals were challenged subcutaneously with the fully virulent Y. pestis strain CO92 at three doses: 50, 5,000, and 50,000 colony-forming units (cfu); this range is lethal in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Contrary to our expectations, only 40% of the animals died. Although mortality trended higher in the Espee colony (50%) compared with AV (30%), the differences among infectious doses were not statistically significant. Only 39% of the survivors developed moderate to high antibody levels to Y. pestis, indicating that mechanisms other than humoral immunity are important in resistance to plague. The ratio of neutrophils to lymphocytes was not correlated with plague survival in this study. However, several immune proteins with roles in innate immunity (VCAM-1, CXCL-1, and vWF) were upregulated during plague infection and warrant further inquiry into their role for protection against this disease. These results suggest plague resistance exists in wild populations of the Gunnison's prairie dog and provide important directions for future studies.

  6. Sylvatic plague vaccine partially protects prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) in field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Tripp, Daniel W.; Russell, Robin E.; Abbott, Rachel C.; Richgels, Katherine; Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Griebel, Randall; Schroeder, Greg; Grassel, Shaun M.; Pipkin, David R.; Cordova, Jennifer; Kavalunas, Adam; Maxfield, Brian; Boulerice, Jesse; Miller, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, frequently afflicts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), causing population declines and local extirpations. We tested the effectiveness of bait-delivered sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in prairie dog colonies on 29 paired placebo and treatment plots (1–59 ha in size; average 16.9 ha) in 7 western states from 2013 to 2015. We compared relative abundance (using catch per unit effort (CPUE) as an index) and apparent survival of prairie dogs on 26 of the 29 paired plots, 12 with confirmed or suspected plague (Y. pestis positive carcasses or fleas). Even though plague mortality occurred in prairie dogs on vaccine plots, SPV treatment had an overall positive effect on CPUE in all three years, regardless of plague status. Odds of capturing a unique animal were 1.10 (95% confidence interval [C.I.] 1.02–1.19) times higher per trap day on vaccine-treated plots than placebo plots in 2013, 1.47 (95% C.I. 1.41–1.52) times higher in 2014 and 1.19 (95% C.I. 1.13–1.25) times higher in 2015. On pairs where plague occurred, odds of apparent survival were 1.76 (95% Bayesian credible interval [B.C.I.] 1.28–2.43) times higher on vaccine plots than placebo plots for adults and 2.41 (95% B.C.I. 1.72–3.38) times higher for juveniles. Our results provide evidence that consumption of vaccine-laden baits can protect prairie dogs against plague; however, further evaluation and refinement are needed to optimize SPV use as a management tool.

  7. Paradise, pleasure and desire: Edenic delight in some late-medieval dramatic fragments

    OpenAIRE

    James, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the biblical Paradise and its relationship with the concept of delight or pleasure. In the first section it discusses the changing descriptions and interpretations of Paradise, from the biblical text to later medieval works; it goes on to explore the Augustinian and Thomist philosophies of pleasure and delight. Finally it brings together three late-medieval dramatic texts, all of which share an interest in Paradise, and explores the ways in which these texts utilise the co...

  8. A plague on five of your houses - statistical re-assessment of three pneumonic plague outbreaks that occurred in Suffolk, England, between 1906 and 1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egan Joseph R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague is a re-emerging disease and its pneumonic form is a high priority bio-terrorist threat. Epidemiologists have previously analysed historical outbreaks of pneumonic plague to better understand the dynamics of infection, transmission and control. This study examines 3 relatively unknown outbreaks of pneumonic plague that occurred in Suffolk, England, during the first 2 decades of the twentieth century. Methods The Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test is used to compare the symptomatic period and the length of time between successive cases (i.e. the serial interval with previously reported values. Consideration is also given to the case fatality ratio, the average number of secondary cases resulting from each primary case in the observed minor outbreaks (termed Rminor, and the proportion of individuals living within an affected household that succumb to pneumonic plague via the index case (i.e. the household secondary attack rate (SAR. Results 2 of the 14 cases survived giving a case fatality ratio of 86% (95% confidence interval (CI = {57%, 98%}. For the 12 fatal cases, the average symptomatic period was 3.3 days (standard deviation (SD = 1.2 days and, for the 11 non index cases, the average serial interval was 5.8 days (SD = 2.0 days. Rminor was calculated to be 0.9 (SD = 1.0 and, in 2 households, the SAR was approximately 14% (95% CI = {0%, 58%} and 20% (95% CI = {1%, 72%}, respectively. Conclusions The symptomatic period was approximately 1 day longer on average than in an earlier study but the serial interval was in close agreement with 2 previously reported values. 2 of the 3 outbreaks ended without explicit public health interventions; however, non-professional caregivers were particularly vulnerable - an important public health consideration for any future outbreak of pneumonic plague.

  9. White plague-like coral disease in remote reefs of the Western Caribbean

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    Juan A Sánchez

    2010-05-01

    the disease in this area. This study includes new information of the epizoolotiology of White Plague Disease and documents the permanent prevalence and progression of the WPD in the area of San Andres Island. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (Suppl. 1: 145-154. Epub 2010 May 01.

  10. Two medieval doctors: Gilbertus Anglicus (c1180-c1250) and John of Gaddesden (1280-1361).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2013-02-01

    Biographies of medieval English doctors are uncommon and fragmentary. The two best-known English medieval physicians were Gilbertus Anglicus and John of Gaddesden. This paper brings together the known details of their lives, compiled from extant biographies and from internal references in their texts. The primary records of their writings exist in handwritten texts and thereafter in incunabula from the time of the invention of printing in 1476. The record of the lives of these two medieval physicians can be expanded, as here, by the general perspective of the life and times in which they lived. Gilbertus Anglicus, an often-quoted physician-teacher at Montpellier, wrote a seven-folio Compendium medicinae in 1271. He described pioneering procedures used later in the emergent disciplines of anaesthetics, cosmetic medicine and travel medicine. Gilbertus' texts, used extensively in European medical schools, passed in handwritten copies from student to student and eventually were printed in 1510. John of Gaddesden, an Oxford graduate in Arts, Medicine and Theology, wrote Rosa Anglica, published circa 1314. Its detailed text is an exemplar of the mixture of received Hippocratic and Galenic lore compounded by medieval astronomy and religious injunction, which mixture was the essence of medieval medicine. The writings of both these medieval English physicians formed part of the core curriculum that underpinned the practice of medicine for the next 400 years.

  11. The origins of intensive marine fishing in medieval Europe: the English evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, James H.; Locker, Alison M.; Roberts, Callum M.

    2004-01-01

    The catastrophic impact of fishing pressure on species such as cod and herring is well documented. However, the antiquity of their intensive exploitation has not been established. Systematic catch statistics are only available for ca.100 years, but large-scale fishing industries existed in medieval Europe and the expansion of cod fishing from the fourteenth century (first in Iceland, then in Newfoundland) played an important role in the European colonization of the Northwest Atlantic. History has demonstrated the scale of these late medieval and post-medieval fisheries, but only archaeology can illuminate earlier practices. Zooarchaeological evidence shows that the clearest changes in marine fishing in England between AD 600 and 1600 occurred rapidly around AD 1000 and involved large increases in catches of herring and cod. Surprisingly, this revolution predated the documented post-medieval expansion of England's sea fisheries and coincided with the Medieval Warm Period--when natural herring and cod productivity was probably low in the North Sea. This counterintuitive discovery can be explained by the concurrent rise of urbanism and human impacts on freshwater ecosystems. The search for 'pristine' baselines regarding marine ecosystems will thus need to employ medieval palaeoecological proxies in addition to recent fisheries data and early modern historical records. PMID:15590590

  12. Higher-than-present Medieval pine (Pinus sylvestris treeline along the Swedish Scandes

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    Leif Kullman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The upper treeline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. is renowned as a sensitive indicator of climate change and variability. By use of megafossil tree remains, preserved exposed on the ground surface, treeline shift over the past millennium was investigated at multiple sites along the Scandes in northern Sweden. Difference in thermal level between the present and the Medieval period, about AD 1000-1200, is a central, although controversial, aspect concerning the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate warming. Radiocarbon-dated megafossil pines revealed that the treeline was consistently positioned as much as 115 m higher during the Medieval period than today (AD 2000-2010, after a century of warming and substantial treeline upshift. Drawing on the last-mentioned figure, and a lapse rate of 0.6 °C/100 m, it may be inferred that Medieval summer temperatures were about 0.7 °C warmer than much of the past 100 years. Extensive pine mortality and treeline descent after the Medieval warming peak reflect substantially depressed temperatures during the Little Ice Age. Warmer-than-present conditions during the Medieval period concur with temperature reconstructions from different parts of northern Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and Greenland. Modern warming has not been sufficient to restore Medieval treelines. Against this background, there is little reason to view further modest warming as unnatural.

  13. Optical spectroscopy applied to the analysis of medieval and post-medieval plain flat glass fragments excavated in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Ceglia, A.; Terryn, H.; Nys, K.; Thienpont, H.

    2010-04-01

    Window glass fragments from four Belgian sites were studied and for a set of eighty-five samples the UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra were analyzed. This collection contains historical and archaeological finds originating from religious buildings namely the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen (17th-20thc) and the Church of Our Lady in Bruges (16th-20thc) as well as from secular buildings as a private house/Antwerp (18th-1948) and the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (1448-17thc). All sites contain material on the hinge point between the medieval and the industrial tradition. The variation in composition of the analyzed samples can be explained by the use of different glassmaking recipes, more specifically the use of different raw materials. The composition of window glass differs essentially in the type of flux, using a potash rich fluxing agent until the post-medieval times and industrial soda from the 19th century onwards. A second difference concerns the iron impurities in the glass. For all fragments a clear compositional classification could be made based on the iron concentration. These conclusions were based on archaeological research and drawn after submitting samples to expensive, complex, time-consuming and destructive chemical analyzing methods. Our study indicates that similar conclusions could be made applying the proposed optical based methodology for plain window glass. As a whole, the obtained results make it possible to cluster the fragments for a particular site based on three different sensing parameters: the UV absorption edge, the color and the presence of characteristic absorption bands. This information helps in identifying trends to date window glass collections and indicating the use of different raw materials, production technologies and/or provenance.

  14. Host transcriptomic responses to pneumonic plague reveal that Yersinia pestis inhibits both the initial adaptive and innate immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiying; Wang, Tong; Tian, Guang; Zhang, Qingwen; Wu, Xiaohong; Xin, Youqian; Yan, Yanfeng; Tan, Yafang; Cao, Shiyang; Liu, Wanbing; Cui, Yujun; Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonic plague is the most deadly form of infection caused by Yersinia pestis and can progress extremely fast. However, our understanding on the host transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague is insufficient. Here, we used RNA-sequencing technology to analyze transcriptomic responses in mice infected with fully virulent strain 201 or EV76, a live attenuated vaccine strain lacking the pigmentation locus. Approximately 600 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in lungs from both 201- and EV76-infected mice at 12h post-infection (hpi). DEGs in lungs of 201-infected mice exceeded 2000 at 48hpi, accompanied by sustained large numbers of DEGs in the liver and spleen; however, limited numbers of DEGs were detected in those organs of EV-infected mice. Remarkably, DEGs in lungs were significantly enriched in critical immune responses pathways in EV76-infected but not 201-infected mice, including antigen processing and presentation, T cell receptor signaling among others. Pathological and bacterial load analyses confirmed the rapid systemic dissemination of 201-infection and the confined EV76-infection in lungs. Our results suggest that fully virulent Y. pestis inhibits both the innate and adaptive immune responses that are substantially stimulated in a self-limited infection, which update our holistic views on the transcriptomic response to pneumonic plague. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Epidemiological analysis of the Eyam plague outbreak of 1665-1666.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittles, Lilith K; Didelot, Xavier

    2016-05-11

    Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is one of the deadliest infectious diseases in human history, and still causes worrying outbreaks in Africa and South America. Despite the historical and current importance of plague, several questions remain unanswered concerning its transmission routes and infection risk factors. The plague outbreak that started in September 1665 in the Derbyshire village of Eyam claimed 257 lives over 14 months, wiping out entire families. Since previous attempts at modelling the Eyam plague, new data have been unearthed from parish records revealing a much more complete record of the disease. Using a stochastic compartmental model and Bayesian analytical methods, we found that both rodent-to-human and human-to-human transmission played an important role in spreading the infection, and that they accounted, respectively, for a quarter and three-quarters of all infections, with a statistically significant seasonality effect. We also found that the force of infection was stronger for infectious individuals living in the same household compared with the rest of the village. Poverty significantly increased the risk of disease, whereas adulthood decreased the risk. These results on the Eyam outbreak contribute to the current debate on the relative importance of plague transmission routes. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miarinjara, Adélaïde; Boyer, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a rodent disease transmissible to humans by infected flea bites, and Madagascar is one of the countries with the highest plague incidence in the world. This study reports the susceptibility of the main plague vector Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 different insecticides belonging to 4 insecticide families (carbamates, organophosphates, pyrethroids and organochlorines). Eight populations from different geographical regions of Madagascar previously resistant to deltamethrin were tested with a World Health Organization standard bioassay. Insecticide susceptibility varied amongst populations, but all of them were resistant to six insecticides belonging to pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides (alphacypermethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, etofenprox, deltamethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur). Only one insecticide (dieldrin) was an efficient pulicide for all flea populations. Cross resistances were suspected. This study proposes at least three alternative insecticides (malathion, fenitrothion and cyfluthrin) to replace deltamethrin during plague epidemic responses, but the most efficient insecticide may be different for each population studied. We highlight the importance of continuous insecticide susceptibility surveillance in the areas of high plague risk in Madagascar.

  17. A High-Coverage Yersinia pestis Genome from a Sixth-Century Justinianic Plague Victim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Michal; Harbeck, Michaela; Keller, Marcel; Spyrou, Maria A; Rott, Andreas; Trautmann, Bernd; Scholz, Holger C; Päffgen, Bernd; Peters, Joris; McCormick, Michael; Bos, Kirsten; Herbig, Alexander; Krause, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    The Justinianic Plague, which started in the sixth century and lasted to the mid eighth century, is thought to be the first of three historically documented plague pandemics causing massive casualties. Historical accounts and molecular data suggest the bacterium Yersinia pestis as its etiological agent. Here we present a new high-coverage (17.9-fold) Y. pestis genome obtained from a sixth-century skeleton recovered from a southern German burial site close to Munich. The reconstructed genome enabled the detection of 30 unique substitutions as well as structural differences that have not been previously described. We report indels affecting a lacl family transcription regulator gene as well as nonsynonymous substitutions in the nrdE, fadJ, and pcp genes, that have been suggested as plague virulence determinants or have been shown to be upregulated in different models of plague infection. In addition, we identify 19 false positive substitutions in a previously published lower-coverage Y. pestis genome from another archaeological site of the same time period and geographical region that is otherwise genetically identical to the high-coverage genome sequence reported here, suggesting low-genetic diversity of the plague during the sixth century in rural southern Germany. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Evidence of Yersinia pestis DNA from fleas in an endemic plague area of Zambia

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    Hang'ombe Bernard M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that causes plague which infects a variety of mammals throughout the world. The disease is usually transmitted among wild rodents through a flea vector. The sources and routes of transmission of plague are poorly researched in Africa, yet remains a concern in several sub-Saharan countries. In Zambia, the disease has been reported on annual basis with up to 20 cases per year, without investigating animal reservoirs or vectors that may be responsible in the maintenance and propagation of the bacterium. In this study, we undertook plague surveillance by using PCR amplification of the plasminogen activator gene in fleas. Findings Xenopsylla species of fleas were collected from 83 rodents trapped in a plague endemic area of Zambia. Of these rodents 5 had fleas positive (6.02% for Y. pestis plasminogen activator gene. All the Y. pestis positive rodents were gerbils. Conclusions We conclude that fleas may be responsible in the transmission of Y. pestis and that PCR may provide means of plague surveillance in the endemic areas of Zambia.

  19. [Primary pneumonic plague with nosocomial transmission in La Libertad, Peru 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaires, Luis F; Céspedes, Manuel; Valencia, Pedro; Salas, Juan Carlos; Luna, María E; Castañeda, Alex; Peralta, Víctor; Cabezas, César; Pachas, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    Pneumonic plague is one of the clinical forms of plague, of low frequency and high mortality, transmitted by direct inhalation of Yersinia pestis coming from an animal or from person to person. To describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the cases of primary pneumonic plague in an outbreak in the north of Peru. The clinical records of the confirmed cases of primary pneumonic plague presenting in an outbreak occurring in La Libertad, in July 2010, were reviewed, also the search and contact investigation was performed. The index case was identified, as well as three additional cases, out of these, two were nosocomial infections related to the index case. The initial clinical presentation was characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, myalgia and chest pain, which in less than 24 hours evolved to hypotension and cyanosis. The initiation of specific treatment varied from 2 to 12 days, and cases with prompt initiation of treatment had a better clinical outcome. The lethality was 50% (2/4). Nosocomial transmission of pneumonic plague in Peru is evidenced, with severe clinical manifestations and high lethality.

  20. Palaeopathological Evidence of Infectious Disease in a Skeletal Population from Late Medieval Riga, Latvia (15Th-17Th Centuries AD

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    Gerhards Guntis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in the Dome Church (Riga Cathedral Cemetery population, dating from the late medieval period (15th-17th centuries AD. A total of 274 individuals were macroscopically observed for evidence of infectious disease, and seven individuals with lesions possibly associated with a bacterial infection affecting the skeleton were selected for further analysis. Pathological changes on the outer table of the skull and in the long bones of legs characteristic of venereal syphilis were observed in four female and one male individual. Likewise, changes possibly related to late congenital syphilis were observed in a 14-15-year-old non-adult individual. All these individuals were buried in a small area adjacent to the northern wall of the Dome Church, which possibly belonged to a hospital or a shelter. The evidence for venereal syphilis from the cemetery complements historical data about the spread of the disease in Riga during the 16th-17th centuries AD. One adult male individual had destructive changes in the lower spine, which could be associated with tuberculosis (TB. So far, this is the first individual with possible TB from the archaeological populations of Riga. This research provides unique evidence about infectious disease in skeletal populations from the late medieval period in Latvia, and the results will be used as the basis for future research in the subject, including extraction of ancient pathogen DNA.

  1. “I” of the author of the 12th century: rhetoric and subjectivity of medieval literature

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    Dolgorukova Natalia Mikhailovna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to answer a series of questions relevant to the study of medieval literature: is it possible to create a typology of the medieval “I” and to distinguish rhetorical use of personal constructions from more subjective types which was the author's “I” in the 12th century. Is it possible to talk about subjectivity of medieval literature, and, if so, how is it expressed?

  2. Bacterial profiling of White Plague Disease in a comparative coral species framework.

    KAUST Repository

    Roder, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are threatened throughout the world. A major factor contributing to their decline is outbreaks and propagation of coral diseases. Due to the complexity of coral-associated microbe communities, little is understood in terms of disease agents, hosts and vectors. It is known that compromised health in corals is correlated with shifts in bacterial assemblages colonizing coral mucus and tissue. However, general disease patterns remain, to a large extent, ambiguous as comparative studies over species, regions, or diseases are scarce. Here, we compare bacterial assemblages of samples from healthy (HH) colonies and such displaying signs of White Plague Disease (WPD) of two different coral species (Pavona duerdeni and Porites lutea) from the same reef in Koh Tao, Thailand, using 16S rRNA gene microarrays. In line with other studies, we found an increase of bacterial diversity in diseased (DD) corals, and a higher abundance of taxa from the families that include known coral pathogens (Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, Vibrionaceae). In our comparative framework analysis, we found differences in microbial assemblages between coral species and coral health states. Notably, patterns of bacterial community structures from HH and DD corals were maintained over species boundaries. Moreover, microbes that differentiated the two coral species did not overlap with microbes that were indicative of HH and DD corals. This suggests that while corals harbor distinct species-specific microbial assemblages, disease-specific bacterial abundance patterns exist that are maintained over coral species boundaries.

  3. Modeling the epidemiological history of plague in Central Asia: Palaeoclimatic forcing on a disease system over the past millennium

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    Kausrud Kyrre

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human cases of plague (Yersinia pestis infection originate, ultimately, in the bacterium's wildlife host populations. The epidemiological dynamics of the wildlife reservoir therefore determine the abundance, distribution and evolution of the pathogen, which in turn shape the frequency, distribution and virulence of human cases. Earlier studies have shown clear evidence of climatic forcing on contemporary plague abundance in rodents and humans. Results We find that high-resolution palaeoclimatic indices correlate with plague prevalence and population density in a major plague host species, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus, over 1949-1995. Climate-driven models trained on these data predict independent data on human plague cases in early 20th-century Kazakhstan from 1904-1948, suggesting a consistent impact of climate on large-scale wildlife reservoir dynamics influencing human epidemics. Extending the models further back in time, we also find correspondence between their predictions and qualitative records of plague epidemics over the past 1500 years. Conclusions Central Asian climate fluctuations appear to have had significant influences on regional human plague frequency in the first part of the 20th century, and probably over the past 1500 years. This first attempt at ecoepidemiological reconstruction of historical disease activity may shed some light on how long-term plague epidemiology interacts with human activity. As plague activity in Central Asia seems to have followed climate fluctuations over the past centuries, we may expect global warming to have an impact upon future plague epidemiology, probably sustaining or increasing plague activity in the region, at least in the rodent reservoirs, in the coming decades. See commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/108

  4. Findings of bacterial microflora in piglets infected with conventional swine plague

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    Prodanov Jasna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Piglets infected with the conventional swine plague virus as a result of secondary bacterial infections sometimes show an insufficiently clear clinical and pathoanatomical picture, which is why the very procedure of diagnosis is complex and the final diagnosis unreliable. That is why these investigations were aimed at examining the presence of bacterial microflora in diseased and dead pilgets which were found to have the viral antigen for CSP using the fluorescent antibody technique, in cases where the pathomorphological finding was not characteristic for conventional swine plague. Autopsies of dead piglets most often showed changes in the digestive tract and lungs, with resulting technopathy and diseases of infective nature. Such findings on knowledge of a present bacterial microflora are especially important in cases when conventional swine plague is controlled on farms and an announcement that the disease has been contained is in the offing.

  5. Seroprevalence of hantavirus and Yersinia pestis antibodies in professionals from the Plague Control Program

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    Erika de Cassia Vieira da Costa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Professionals who handle rodents in the field and in the laboratory are at risk of infection by the microorganisms harbored by these animals. Methods Serum samples from professionals involved in rodent and Yersinia pestis handling in field or laboratory work were analyzed to determine hantavirus and plague seroprevalence and to establish a relationship between these activities and reports of illnesses. Results Two individuals had antibodies against hantavirus, and two harbored antibodies against the plague; none of the individuals had experienced an illness related to their duties. Conclusions These results confirm the risks of hantavirus- and plague-related field and laboratory activities and the importance of protective measures for such work.

  6. Demographic and spatio-temporal variation in human plague at a persistent focus in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, S; Makundi, R H; Machang'u, R S

    2006-01-01

    Human plague in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania has been a public health problem since the first outbreak in 1980. The wildlife reservoir is unknown and eradication measures that have proved effective elsewhere in Tanzania appear to fail in this region. We use census data from 2002...... and hospital records kept since 1986 to describe the temporal, spatial and demographic variation in human plague. A seasonal peak in cases occurs from December to February with the numbers of cases during this peak varying between 0 and 1150. Variation in incidence, calculated for each village as the mean...... number of cases per thousand inhabitants per year, indicates that human plague is concentrated around a group of three neighbouring, relatively isolated, high-altitude villages; Nywelo, Madala and Gologolo. However, there was no evidence that these villages were acting as a source of infection...

  7. Investigation of and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Mary; Novak, Mark; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul; Kingry, Luke; Weinburke, Matthew; Buttke, Danielle; Hacker, Gregory; Tucker, James; Niemela, Michael; Jackson, Bryan; Padgett, Kerry; Liebman, Kelly; Vugia, Duc; Kramer, Vicki

    2016-12-01

    In August 2015, plague was diagnosed for 2 persons who had visited Yosemite National Park in California, USA. One case was septicemic and the other bubonic. Subsequent environmental investigation identified probable locations of exposure for each patient and evidence of epizootic plague in other areas of the park. Transmission of Yersinia pestis was detected by testing rodent serum, fleas, and rodent carcasses. The environmental investigation and whole-genome multilocus sequence typing of Y. pestis isolates from the patients and environmental samples indicated that the patients had been exposed in different locations and that at least 2 distinct strains of Y. pestis were circulating among vector-host populations in the area. Public education efforts and insecticide applications in select areas to control rodent fleas probably reduced the risk for plague transmission to park visitors and staff.

  8. [A NATURAL PLAGUE FOCUS. IN GORNYI ALTAI: FORMATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND FUNCTIONING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzun, V M; Balakhoiov, S V; Chpanin, E V; Denisov, A V; Mikhailov, E P; Mischenko, A J; Yarygina, M B; Rozhdestvensky, E N; Fomina, L A

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives the results of analyzing the data of long-term studies of the natural focal pattern of plague in the Gornyi Altai natural focus. It describes a wide range of biological processes occurring in the focus and shows the most important patterns of its functioning as a complex multilevel ecological system. The key features of the formation of the focus have been revealed. The plague focus in South-Western Altai has formed relatively, recently, about half a century ago, then it has intensively developed and its enzootic area and the activity of epizootic manifestations have considerably increased. This process is due to the space-time transformations of the basic ecological and population characteristics of Pallas' pika (Ochotoma pallasi), the principal vector of the pathogen of plague and fleas parasitizing the mammal, which is in turn related to the aridization of mountain steppes in South-Western Altai.

  9. Investigation of and Response to 2 Plague Cases, Yosemite National Park, California, USA, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Mary; Novak, Mark; Petersen, Jeannine; Mead, Paul; Kingry, Luke; Weinburke, Matthew; Buttke, Danielle; Hacker, Gregory; Tucker, James; Niemela, Michael; Jackson, Bryan; Padgett, Kerry; Liebman, Kelly; Vugia, Duc

    2016-01-01

    In August 2015, plague was diagnosed for 2 persons who had visited Yosemite National Park in California, USA. One case was septicemic and the other bubonic. Subsequent environmental investigation identified probable locations of exposure for each patient and evidence of epizootic plague in other areas of the park. Transmission of Yersinia pestis was detected by testing rodent serum, fleas, and rodent carcasses. The environmental investigation and whole-genome multilocus sequence typing of Y. pestis isolates from the patients and environmental samples indicated that the patients had been exposed in different locations and that at least 2 distinct strains of Y. pestis were circulating among vector–host populations in the area. Public education efforts and insecticide applications in select areas to control rodent fleas probably reduced the risk for plague transmission to park visitors and staff. PMID:27870634

  10. [Plague outbreaks in the Mediterranean area during the 2nd World War, epidemiology and treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafart, B; Brisou, P; Bertherat, E

    2004-11-01

    Before the Second World War, the plague was still rife in North Africa but occurred only as sporadic cases or small outbreaks as in Egypt or Morocco. The permanent foci of infected wild rodent were the cause of these rural outbreaks. In 1943 and 1944, plague came back in several Mediterranean towns and ports and was considered as a serious danger for the Allied Forces. These resurgences were related to the World War as well as the overpopulation of the cities, regroupings and population movements, relaxation of prophylactic measures of the plague in sea transport. The Allied Forces medical officers then showed the resistance of Yersinia pestis to penicillin which they had been supplied with recently, the effectiveness of sulphamides but mortality remained high (27%). In parallel, the drastic fight against rodents and fleas (DDT) gave excellent results.

  11. Leprosy in Medieval Denmark--osteological and epidemiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldsen, Jesper L

    2009-12-01

    A total of 3033 skeletons from 11 medieval Danish cemeteries and 99 skeletons from the North Scandinavian medieval site of Westerhus were examined for seven lesions indicative of leprosy. The seven lesions are: rounding to the edge of the nasal aperture, degeneration of spina nasalis anterior, degeneration of the alveolar process of the pre-maxilla, porosity or perforation of the palatine process of maxilla, sub-periostal exostoses on the fibula, general swelling of the shaft of the fibula, and degeneration of the 5th metatarsal bone. The dichotomous scores of these lesions were used to estimate sensitivity and specificity of the lesion scores in relation to leprosy and to estimate sample point prevalence of leprosy at death among adults. In turn the estimates of sensitivity and specificity were used to calculate an individual comprehensive statistic, lamda, indicating leprosy status. Among adults the lamda statistic did not associate with age at death, but this cannot be taken as a sign of lack of selective mortality for leprosy but a combination of the opposing effects of long waiting time before developing leprosy related lesions and short survival with these lesions. In urban communities sufferers of leprosy were institutionalized when the leprosarium was established (in Odense around 1275); in rural communities this did not happen but the pattern of burial does indicate an internal segregation of sufferers. In the early Middle Ages (AD 1150-1350) the point prevalence at death among adults of leprosy was higher in rural (25-40 percent) than in urban (10-20 percent) communities, and villages close to town showed lower frequencies of leprosy than villages situated further away from these centers. Leprosy declined in the late Middle Ages, first in towns and cities, later in rural communities. In Odense and Malmö it appears that leprosy was effectively eliminated by 1350 whereas there were still sufferers of leprosy at Øm Kloster around 1550. Leprosy appears to

  12. Spatiotemporal modelling and mapping of the bubonic plague epidemic in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christakos George

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work studies the spatiotemporal evolution of bubonic plague in India during 1896–1906 using stochastic concepts and geographical information science techniques. In the past, most investigations focused on selected cities to conduct different kinds of studies, such as the ecology of rats. No detailed maps existed incorporating the space-time dependence structure and uncertainty sources of the epidemic system and providing a composite space-time picture of the disease propagation characteristics. Results Informative spatiotemporal maps were generated that represented mortality rates and geographical spread of the disease, and epidemic indicator plots were derived that offered meaningful characterizations of the spatiotemporal disease distribution. The bubonic plague in India exhibited strong seasonal and geographical features. During its entire duration, the plague continued to invade new geographical areas, while it followed a re-emergence pattern at many localities; its rate changed significantly during each year and the mortality distribution exhibited space-time heterogeneous patterns; prevalence usually occurred in the autumn and spring, whereas the plague stopped moving towards new locations during the summers. Conclusion Modern stochastic modelling and geographical information science provide powerful means to study the spatiotemporal distribution of the bubonic plague epidemic under conditions of uncertainty and multi-sourced databases; to account for various forms of interdisciplinary knowledge; and to generate informative space-time maps of mortality rates and propagation patterns. To the best of our knowledge, this kind of plague maps and plots become available for the first time, thus providing novel perspectives concerning the distribution and space-time propagation of the deadly epidemic. Furthermore, systematic maps and indicator plots make possible the comparison of the spatial-temporal propagation

  13. Two Distinct Yersinia pestis Populations Causing Plague among Humans in the West Nile Region of Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respicio-Kingry, Laurel B; Yockey, Brook M; Acayo, Sarah; Kaggwa, John; Apangu, Titus; Kugeler, Kiersten J; Eisen, Rebecca J; Griffith, Kevin S; Mead, Paul S; Schriefer, Martin E; Petersen, Jeannine M

    2016-02-01

    Plague is a life-threatening disease caused by the bacterium, Yersinia pestis. Since the 1990s, Africa has accounted for the majority of reported human cases. In Uganda, plague cases occur in the West Nile region, near the border with Democratic Republic of Congo. Despite the ongoing risk of contracting plague in this region, little is known about Y. pestis genotypes causing human disease. During January 2004-December 2012, 1,092 suspect human plague cases were recorded in the West Nile region of Uganda. Sixty-one cases were culture-confirmed. Recovered Y. pestis isolates were analyzed using three typing methods, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and subpopulations analyzed in the context of associated geographic, temporal, and clinical data for source patients. All three methods separated the 61 isolates into two distinct 1.ANT lineages, which persisted throughout the 9 year period and were associated with differences in elevation and geographic distribution. We demonstrate that human cases of plague in the West Nile region of Uganda are caused by two distinct 1.ANT genetic subpopulations. Notably, all three typing methods used, SNPs, PFGE, and MLVA, identified the two genetic subpopulations, despite recognizing different mutation types in the Y. pestis genome. The geographic and elevation differences between the two subpopulations is suggestive of their maintenance in highly localized enzootic cycles, potentially with differing vector-host community composition. This improved understanding of Y. pestis subpopulations in the West Nile region will be useful for identifying ecologic and environmental factors associated with elevated plague risk.

  14. An encapsulated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a highly efficient vaccine against pneumonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Derbise

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is re-emerging, but no efficient vaccine is available. We previously reported that oral inoculation of a live attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, the recent ancestor of Yersinia pestis, provided protection against bubonic plague. However, the strain poorly protected against pneumonic plague, the most deadly and contagious form of the disease, and was not genetically defined. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The sequenced Y. pseudotuberculosis IP32953 has been irreversibly attenuated by deletion of genes encoding three essential virulence factors. An encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis was generated by cloning the Y. pestis F1-encoding caf operon and expressing it in the attenuated strain. The new V674pF1 strain produced the F1 capsule in vitro and in vivo. Oral inoculation of V674pF1 allowed the colonization of the gut without lesions to Peyer's patches and the spleen. Vaccination induced both humoral and cellular components of immunity, at the systemic (IgG and Th1 cells and the mucosal levels (IgA and Th17 cells. A single oral dose conferred 100% protection against a lethal pneumonic plague challenge (33×LD(50 of the fully virulent Y. pestis CO92 strain and 94% against a high challenge dose (3,300×LD(50. Both F1 and other Yersinia antigens were recognized and V674pF1 efficiently protected against a F1-negative Y. pestis. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The encapsulated Y. pseudotuberculosis V674pF1 is an efficient live oral vaccine against pneumonic plague, and could be developed for mass vaccination in tropical endemic areas to control pneumonic plague transmission and mortality.

  15. Medieval Japan. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.5. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.5 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of medieval Japan." Seventh-grade students describe the significance of Japan's proximity to China and Korea and the influence of these countries on Japan; discuss the reign of…

  16. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and…

  17. The long-term impact of developmental stress. Evidence from later medieval and post-medieval London (AD1117-1853).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Episodes of ill-health in childhood can predispose affected individuals to further periods of illness and early adult mortality. This study uses nonspecific indicators of stress to examine how growth disruptions during infancy/early childhood, and late childhood/early adolescence affected adult longevity in later medieval and post-medieval London. Hazards analysis was used to evaluate the effect of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and the size of the anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TR) diameters of the vertebral neural canal (VNC) on adult age-at-death. This was applied to skeletal samples from later medieval (n = 461) and post-medieval (n = 480) London. Growth disruptions during infancy/early childhood (LEH and AP VNC diameters) were not associated with longevity, or with impaired growth at later stages of development (TR VNC diameters). Growth disruptions during late childhood/early adolescence (TR VNC diameters) were associated with a significantly increased risk of adult mortality. Macroscopic hypoplasia represent short periods of stress during infancy/early childhood which did not disrupt future investments in growth or cause long-term damage to health. Small TR diameters represent chronic stress during late childhood/early adolescence which resulted in greater susceptibility to infections and increased risk of mortality. These interactions were influenced by sex and socioeconomic status, suggesting that socioeconomic circumstances in both childhood and adult life could influence exposure and resistance to stressors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Use of Rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2011-01-01

    Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of C. ludovicianus) when used at concentrations 10 mg RB per kg target animal mass. Whiskers with follicles provided the best sample for RB detection.

  19. Socio-epidemiological determinants of 2002 plague outbreak in Himachal Pradesh, India: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This qualitative investigation was conducted to determine the socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in Himachal Pradesh (HP), India. Methods The data for socio-epidemiological factors related to the plague outbreak (2002) in HP was obtained from residents through 150 in-depth Interviews (IDI) and 30 Focus Group Discussions (FGD) during six visits (from May 2011 to April 2012) by the research team. Natives, health officials and the nomadic population were interviewed. According to their opinion and viewpoints data was collected and their lifestyle and hunting practices were studied in detail. Tape recorders were used during various FGDs and IDIs. The interviews and FGDs were later transcribed and coded. In-depth analysis of the recorded data was done using an inductive thematic analysis approach. Results The study reports that the outbreak in 2002 in a few villages of Himachal Pradesh was that of plague and it occurred by the contact of an index case with wild animals after hunting and de-skinning. The first wave of plague transmission which took 16 lives of residents was followed by a second wave of transmission in a ward of a tertiary care hospital where one visitor acquired it from relatives of the index case and succumbed. The life-style practices of residents (hunting behavior, long stay in caves and jungles, overcrowding in houses, poor hygiene and sanitation, belief in ‘God’ and faith healers for cure of diseases) was optimal for the occurrence and rapid spread of such a communicable disease. The man-rodent contact is intensified due to the practice of hunting in such a rodent-ridden environment. The residents harbor a strong belief that plague occurs due to the wrath of gods. Various un-reported outbreaks of plague were also observed by officials, residents and old folk. The persistence of plague in HP is favoured by its hilly terrain, inaccessible areas, inclement weather (snow) in winters, unhygienic lifestyle

  20. Age at Vaccination May Influence Response to Sylvatic Plague Vaccine (SPV) in Gunnison's Prairie Dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E; Tripp, Dan; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Falendysz, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy; Abbott, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    Gunnison's prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) have been considered at greater risk from Yersinia pestis (plague) infection in the montane portion of their range compared to populations at lower elevations, possibly due to factors related to flea transmission of the bacteria or greater host susceptibility. To test the latter hypothesis and determine whether vaccination against plague with an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) improved survival, we captured prairie dogs from a C. g. gunnisoni or "montane" population and a C. g. zuniensis or "prairie" population for vaccine efficacy and challenge studies. No differences (P = 0.63) were found in plague susceptibility in non-vaccinated animals between these two populations; however, vaccinates from the prairie population survived plague challenge at significantly higher rates (P plague challenge at a much higher rate than adults (P plague in the C. g. gunnisoni or "montane" populations of Gunnison's prairie dogs, and that SPV could be a useful plague management tool for this species, particularly if targeted at younger cohorts.

  1. Spatial distribution patterns of plague hosts : point pattern analysis of the burrows of great gerbils in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, Liesbeth I; Laudisoit, Anne; Hughes, Nelika K; Addink, Elisabeth A; de Jong, Steven M; Heesterbeek, Hans A P; Reijniers, Jonas; Eagle, Sally; Dubyanskiy, Vladimir M; Begon, Mike

    AIM: The spatial structure of a population can strongly influence the dynamics of infectious diseases, yet rarely is the underlying structure quantified. A case in point is plague, an infectious zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague dynamics within the Central Asian desert

  2. Age at vaccination may influence response to sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) in Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Tripp, Daniel W.; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Falendysz, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Susan; Williamson, Judy L.; Abbott, Rachel C.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison’s prairie dogs (Cynomys gunnisoni) have been considered at greater risk from Yersinia pestis (plague) infection in the montane portion of their range compared to populations at lower elevations, possibly due to factors related to flea transmission of the bacteria or greater host susceptibility. To test the latter hypothesis and determine whether vaccination against plague with an oral sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) improved survival, we captured prairie dogs from a C. g. gunnisoni or “montane” population and a C. g. zuniensis or “prairie” population for vaccine efficacy and challenge studies. No differences (P = 0.63) were found in plague susceptibility in non-vaccinated animals between these two populations; however, vaccinates from the prairie population survived plague challenge at significantly higher rates (P age, as the prairie group was much younger on average than the montane group. Vaccinates that were juveniles or young adults survived plague challenge at a much higher rate than adults (P ages. These results suggest that host susceptibility is probably not related to the assumed greater risk from plague in the C. g. gunnisoni or “montane” populations of Gunnison’s prairie dogs, and that SPV could be a useful plague management tool for this species, particularly if targeted at younger cohorts.

  3. On the distribution of trace element concentrations in multiple bone elements in 10 Danish medieval and post-medieval individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Kaare; Skytte, Lilian; D'imporzano, Paolo; Orla Thomsen, Per; Søvsø, Morten; Lier Boldsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The differences in trace element concentrations among 19 different bone elements procured from 10 archaeologically derived human skeletons have been investigated. The 10 individuals are dated archaeologically and some by radiocarbon dating to the medieval and post-medieval period, an interval from ca. AD 1150 to ca. AD 1810. This study is relevant for two reasons. First, most archaeometric studies analyze only one bone sample from each individual; so to what degree are the bones in the human body equal in trace element chemistry? Second, differences in turnover time of the bone elements makes the cortical tissues record the trace element concentrations in equilibrium with the blood stream over a longer time earlier in life than the trabecular. Therefore, any differences in trace element concentrations between the bone elements can yield what can be termed a chemical life history of the individual, revealing changes in diet, provenance, or medication throughout life. Thorough decontamination and strict exclusion of non-viable data has secured a dataset of high quality. The measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (for Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, Ba, Sr, Zn, Pb and As) and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (for Hg) on ca. 20 mg samples. Twelve major and trace elements have been measured on 19 bone elements from 10 different individuals interred at five cemeteries widely distributed in medieval and renaissance Denmark. The ranges of the concentrations of elements were: Na (2240-5660 µg g -1 ), Mg (440-2490 µg g -1 ), Al (9-2030 µg g -1 ), Ca (22-36 wt. %), Mn (5-11450 µg g -1 ), Fe (32-41850 µg g -1 ), Zn (69-2610 µg g -1 ), As (0.4-120 µg g -1 ), Sr (101-815 µg g -1 ), Ba (8-880 µg g -1 ), Hg (7-78730 ng g -1 ), and Pb (0.8-426 µg g -1 ). It is found that excess As is mainly of diagenetic origin. The results support that Ba and Sr concentrations are effective provenance or dietary indicators. Migrating

  4. Damage evaluation and rehabilitation of the Montorio medieval tower after the September 14th, 2003 earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indirli, M.; Carpani, B.; Panza, G.; Romanelli, F.; Spadoni, B.

    2006-12-01

    On September 14th, 2003, a moderate earthquake struck the Bolognese Apennines, with the epicenter near Monghidoro (30 km far from Bologna, Italy). The seismic event, felt in a sufficiently large area, showed an inhomogeneous damage distribution, due both to site effects and building different vulnerability. The paper deals with the evaluation of the seismic input (in general and specifically) and its effects on Masonry CUltural Heritage Structures (MCUHESs): in fact, several among them, mainly churches and ancient monuments, were subjected to relevant damage, including the medieval Montorio Tower, matter of this paper, not far from the epicenter. Some of the authors, involved in the on-site Civil Defense investigations, carried out a detailed survey on the above told building (declared unsafe), which showed heavy and spread damage to structural elements, including vertical walls and wooden floors, with one MCS Intensity level more than the pattern suggested by macroseismic data. After a detailed analysis of its structural characteristics, the Montorio Tower post-seismic rehabilitation (which must avoid a possible conflict between specific conservation criteria and antiseismic requirements) is discussed. (author)

  5. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  6. Recreating a medieval urban scene with virtual intelligent characters: steps to create the complete scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cláudio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available From historical advice to 3D modeling and programming, the process of reconstructing cultural heritage sites populated with virtual inhabitants is lengthy and expensive, and it requires a large set of skills and tools. These constraints make it increasingly difficult, however not unattainable, for small archaeological sites to build their own simulations. In this article, we describe our attempt to minimize this scenario. We describe a framework that makes use of free tools or campus licenses and integrates the curricular work of students in academia. We present the details of methods and tools used in the pipeline of the construction of the virtual simulation of the medieval village of Mértola in the south of Portugal. We report on: a the development of a lightweight model of the village, including houses and terrain, and b its integration in a game engine in order to c include a virtual population of autonomous inhabitants in a simulation running in real-time.

  7. A Medieval Building and its Contents at Island Farm, Ottery St Mary, East Devon: excavations in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mudd

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Excavations in advance of housing development on land at Island Farm, Ottery St Mary, Devon, examined archaeological remains that included what is interpreted as a medieval longhouse (c. AD 1250–1350 that had been destroyed by fire. The evidence included the charred remains of timbers and deposits of charcoal and other botanical remains. The identifications and spatial arrangements of this material are used to suggest the materials employed in the construction of the building, together with its contents, which included a variety of crops stored in the chamber. Other finds include fragments derived from the repair of copper-alloy vessels, an axe-head, and a Bronze Age palstave. Analysis has provided unusual detail of the types of wood used in the construction of the building, principally oak for the timber framing and alder and willow for the wattle panelling, and of the composition of the stored harvest, which included oats, wheat, rye, barley, broad beans, peas and vetches. The longhouse has similarities with others known from Devon, although the interpretation of partial timber-framing appears to be unique in the archaeological record from the county. The crops identified provide physical evidence of what is recorded in historical documents, but also suggest others, such as the composition of fodder. This report includes primary data on the botanical remains to allow readers to interrogate the information for further (and perhaps different insights. The fieldwork was undertaken by Cotswold Archaeology in 2014 on behalf of Waddeton Park Ltd in advance of the construction of new housing by Bovis Homes. A full assessment report on the medieval and other findings was produced in 2016 and is available on Cotswold Archaeology's website.

  8. Octoechos: A model and inspiration for Serbian medieval hymnographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotin-Golubović Tatjana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Octoechos is not merely a musical manual in everyday use during the service in Orthodox Church, but also a comprehensive anthology of church poetry. It contains poetical works of great Byzantine poets, such as John of Damascus, Joseph the Hymnographer, Andrew of Crete. The use of Octoechos during the service is strictly regulated by Typicon. After accepting the Orthodox rite, the Slavs were acquainted with Octoechos which has undoubtedly made a great impression on the attentive audiences present at the service. Octoechos has also influenced the work of medieval Serbian hymnographers all of whom were, as it is well known, pious men. The influence of the poetics typical of hymns of the Octoechos has already been present in the Akoluthia to St. Simeon written by St. Sava. In the hymnographical work of Theodosius this influence is even more present, especially in his Canons on the eight modes (echoi that follow the pattern of the supplicatory canons of the Octoechos. Ephraim, who was the Serbian patriarch in two turns (1375-1379, 1389-1392, wrote his church hymns and prayers following those of the Octoechos. Ephraim composed his stichera dedicated to Christ and Theotokos following the regular change of tones of the Octoechos. The spirit of Octoechos has also marked the work of the last Serbian anonymous hymnographers who wrote Akoluthia to the Translation of the holy relics of Saint Apostle Luke to Serbia and the Paraklisis to St. Luke (mid 15th century.

  9. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  10. Nobleza e iglesias propias en la Cantabria alto-medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel LORING GARCÍA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La documentación altomedieval cántabra, o mejor de Liébana, Asturias de Santillana y Trasmiera, ofrece innumerables ejemplos de donaciones totales o parciales de iglesias a los monasterios de la región, de lo que se desprende que los donantes, en su mayoría laicos, eran propietarios de las mismas. Nos hallamos, por tanto, ante un fenómeno que con mayor o menor acierto se viene designando con la expresión de «iglesias propias», institución típicamente medieval que se caracteriza por el hecho de que la iglesia junto con sus bienes forma una unidad indisoluble dentro del patrimonio del fundador o del de sus descendientes. Estos pueden enajenarlas mediante cualquier negocio jurídico, designar el clero que la sirva y percibir todos o al menos parte de los ingresos producidos. Esta institución remonta sus orígenes al Bajo Imperio, concretamente es resultado de la cristianización del medio rural, donde por regla general las iglesias eran levantadas por los propietarios territoriales en sus dominios pasando a constituir una dependencia más de los mismos.

  11. Energy study of a medieval tower, restored as a museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Avgelis, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Santamouris, M. [National Kapodestrean University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2003-10-01

    Museums are buildings of particular significance due to their function and their status. At the same time they are buildings in which the principles of energy conservation are rarely applied, sometimes without reason. It has been decided by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture to convert a medieval tower, built in the year 1344 as a fortress with 0.8-1.5 m thick walls and almost no windows, into a museum. The present paper discusses the difficulties that arise in the attempt to balance between the indoor climate conditions necessary to protect the exhibits and to provide comfortable conditions to the visitors, whilst respecting the aesthetics and the historical significance of the building. Furthermore, one needs to consider the difficult but necessary task of assessing factors such as the building's shell's thermal conductivity and capacity, the ventilation necessary as well as the indoor air movement, in order to determine the cooling loads. Finally, the challenge lies in designing and dimensioning an effective and efficient HVAC system, which should be as discrete as possible. The present paper aims to present the results of the study, to discuss the expected energy behaviour of the building and to comment on the options for introducing energy conservation techniques. (author)

  12. A medieval physician: Amirdovlat Amasiatsi (1420-1495).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Hakobyan, Tatevik

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to acquaint the reader with a medieval physician, Amirdovlat Amasiatsi, who lived and practiced in the 15th century Anatolia. Amirdovlat wrote several books on medicine mainly focusing on phytotherapy and pharmacology using medicinal plants, animal-derived products and minerals. All his works were written in Middle Armenian, spoken Armenian language of the time. In his writings, Amirdovlat described unique recipes that represent a portrayal of medical knowledge and practice at the time in Anatolia where he lived and worked. He discussed the physical and therapeutic properties as well as geographic distributions of various plants and minerals, using different languages, mainly Turkish, Greek, Arabic, French and Persian. Amirdovlat's works not only enhanced our understanding of Armenian medical practices but also provided great deal of information on those of Ancient Greco-Roman as well as Islamic world, demonstrating close relationship of Armenian medicine with Greco-Roman and Islamic medicine. Amirdovlat accomplished this by amalgamating the past and contemporary practices of his time. In this regard, Amirdovlat's works, in particular "Useless for the Ignorant", are very unique playing a significant role in preserving traditions and heritage of different cultures.

  13. The Name Day as a Part of Medieval Historiographical Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna F. Litvina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the ways in which the celebration of the name day (imeniny of Russian princes or their entourages was presented in the Russian chronicles. The custom of celebrating the name day was firmly rooted in the Russian princely environment. For a chronicle narrative, the very rootedness of this custom and the number of its associated actions plays an important role—it is this rootedness that makes stories told in the chronicles quite opaque to the modern reader. A prince’s Christian name and the day of his patron saint were considered to be important background knowledge for the audience of the medieval compiler. There were, apparently, clear ideas about appropriate behavior for prince or a person from his environment on his name day or on the eve of this day but, on the other hand, such assumptions explain why this kind of “normal” behavior rarely forms the subject of special reflection in the chronicles. It is not only a description of the celebration itself that might be very informative, whether it be a church service, a ceremonial feast with various relatives, or an exchange of gifts, but also the description of acts and deeds that were undertaken specifically on a prince’s name day. Therefore, particular attention is given here to stories about undue or inappropriate behavior on this special day. The paper deals with the function and nature of such episodes in the broader context of historiographical narrative.

  14. Advances in optics in the medieval Islamic world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalili, Jim

    2015-04-01

    This paper reviews the state of knowledge in the field of optics, mainly in catoptrics and dioptrics, before the birth of modern science and the well-documented contributions of men such as Kepler and Newton. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of the subject such as one might find in history of science journals; instead, it is aimed at the curious physicist who has probably been taught that nothing much of note was understood about the behaviour of light, beyond outdated philosophical musings, prior to the seventeenth century. The paper will focus on advances during the medieval period between the ninth and fourteenth centuries, in both the east and the west, when the theories of the Ancient Greeks were tested, advanced, corrected and mathematised. In particular, it concentrates on a multivolume treatise on optics written one thousand years ago by the Arab scholar, Ibn al-Haytham, and examines how it influenced our understanding of the nature of reflection and refraction of light. Even the well-informed physicist should find a few surprises here, which will alter his or her view of the debt we owe to these forgotten scholars.

  15. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.

  16. [Risk assessments and control strategies of plague in five key surveillance counties, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guoxiang; Ju, Cheng; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jimin; Wang, Miaoruo; Zhang, Xiaohe; Ye, Xianming; Zhu, Zhihong; Xing, Jianguang; Liao, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhiping

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the epidemiology data on plague in five counties in Zhejiang province and to evaluate the risk of plague in theses areas. We selected five monitoring stations as a risk assessment (Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, and Ruian city) in Zhejiang province where the plague epidemic more serious in the history. At least one constant site and 1-4 variable sites where plague occurred in history were selected for monitoring. We collected the five counties (cities) surveillance data of indoor rat density, indoor Rattus flavipectus density, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat, the Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus in 1995-2014. Isolation of Yersinia pestis was conducted among 171,201 liver samples and F1 antibody were detected among 228,775 serum samples. Risk matrix, Borda count method, and Delphi approach were conducted to assess risk of the plague of five counties (cities) in Zhejiang province. Indoor rat density in Qingyuan county, Longquan city, Yiwu city, Wencheng county, Ruian city was 1.58%-5.50%, 1.13%-9.76%, 0.56%-3.67%, 2.83%-16.08%, 7.16%-15.96%, respectively; Indoor Rattus flavipectus density of five counties (cities) was 0.08%-2.23%, 0-2.02%, 0-0.54%, 0.71%-5.58%, 0.55%-4.92%, respectively. The Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.011-0.500 and 0.015-0.227, respectively; The Xenopsylla cheopis index of Rattus flavipectus of Qingyuan county and Wencheng county was 0.119-3.412 and 0.100-1.430, respectively; Ruian City and Yiwu city cannot collected Xenopsylla cheopis, Long quan city only collected the Xenopsylla cheopis index of rat in the five years. Yersinia pestis were not isolated in five counties (cities).There were 3 Apodemus agrarius samples positive of plague F1 antibody test, in Longquan city and Yiwu city in 2005. Borda count method to assess the Longquan city, Yiwu (Borda point were both 321) plague risk was higher than three other regions; Delphi approach to

  17. Multiple antigens of Yersinia pestis delivered by live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains elicit protective immunity against plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Patel, Hetal; Sun, Wei; Curtiss, Roy

    2016-05-05

    Based on our improved novel Salmonella vaccine delivery platform, we optimized the recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine (RASV) χ12094 to deliver multiple Yersinia pestis antigens. These included LcrV196 (amino acids, 131-326), Psn encoded on pYA5383 and F1 encoded in the chromosome, their synthesis did not cause adverse effects on bacterial growth. Oral immunization with χ12094(pYA5383) simultaneously stimulated high antibody titers to LcrV, Psn and F1 in mice and presented complete protection against both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intranasal (i.n.) challenges with high lethal doses of Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, no deaths or other disease symptoms were observed in SCID mice orally immunized with χ12094(pYA5383) over a 60-day period. Therefore, the trivalent S. typhimurium-based live vaccine shows promise for a next-generation plague vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval/Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2015-01-01

    Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014......Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014...

  19. Carabelli's trait in contemporary Slovenes and inhabitants of a medieval settlement (Sredisce by the Drava River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamfelj, Iztok; Stefancić, Marija; Gaspersic, Dominik; Cvetko, Erika

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the total frequency, expression and asymmetry of Carabelli's trait in permanent dentitions of contemporary Slovenes and a medieval skeletal population from northeastern Slovenia. A total of 254 dental casts from contemporary Slovene children were examined. The population of a medieval settlement (10th-15th centuries), was represented by 94 skeletons. A modification of the method of Alvesalo and associates was used to classify Carabelli's trait on a five-grade scale. The trait was expressed on the upper first molars of 79.7% of the contemporary subjects and 75.8% of the medieval sample. Positive expressions of the trait were found in 10.1% of the contemporary subjects and 15.2% of the medieval sample. While the observed total frequency of the trait in both samples is characteristic of Europeans, the rates of positive expressions are surprisingly low but consistent with data from a recently published worldwide literature survey. Both populations showed a low rate of left-right fluctuating asymmetry of the trait. This finding might reflect a pronounced ability of individuals in the medieval population to buffer unfavourable influences from the environment and a relatively low level of environmental stress in the contemporary population.

  20. Investigation of original bricks from Ventspils castle for the purpose of restorations of medieval brick masonry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajare, D.; Shvinka, V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper mainly tries to characterize Middle Age brick taken from Ventspils Castle (13-17th century). To this aim, the following techniques were applied: visual inspection, X-ray diffraction, mercury porosimetry, physical laboratory tests (water absorption, density, open porosity, saturation coefficient, Mage's index) and chemical analysis. The medieval bricks are still in good condition, any visible damages were not recognized in the course of visual inspection. According to the results of chemical analysis, three types of bricks made from different clays in different centuries were used. According to X-ray diffraction analysis data no one type of medieval bricks contains illite. So sintering temperature of the medieval bricks studied was higher than 900 deg C. The secondary calcite was formed in the structure of bricks from lime mortars under influence of water migration during several centuries. All medieval bricks studied are porous - open porosity of them amounts to 26-30 %. 14-15th century bricks have inclusions of chamotte additive, which makes the bricks less durable to soluble salts and frost, and of organic additive, that imparts the higher porosity. Mage's index for all medieval is less than 0.55, but saturation coefficient is close to 0,78 and it means that these bricks are not enough durable to soluble salts and frost

  1. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Trends in mortality and biological stress in a medieval polish urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsinger, Tracy K; DeWitte, Sharon

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization in pre-modern populations may have had a variety of consequences related to population crowding. However, research on the effects of urbanization have provided inconsistent results regarding the biological impact of this transition on human populations. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that urbanization caused an increase in overall biological stress in a medieval (10th-13th centuries AD) Polish population. A human skeletal sample (n=164) was examined for the presence of porotic hyperostosis, cribra orbitalia, linear enamel hypoplasia, periosteal reaction, and specific infectious diseases. Prevalence rates were compared among three temporal samples: initial urbanization, early urbanization, and later urbanization. Results indicate no significant trends for any of the pathological conditions. Cox proportional hazards analyses, however, revealed a significant increase in the risk of death over time, which supports the hypothesis. These results reflect the necessity of using multiple analyses to address bioarchaeological questions. The lack of significant results from skeletal indicators may be due to an earlier urbanization trend in the population. This study illustrates that the association of urbanization with elevated biological stress is complicated and dependent on various factors, including culture and time period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations on human and animal remains from a medieval shaft well in Ayasuluk/Ephesos (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanz, Fabian; Pfeiffer-Taş, Şule; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Galik, Alfred; Weissengruber, Gerald; Grossschmidt, Karl; Risser, Daniele U

    2014-01-01

    In course of the archaeological survey of Ayasuluk/Ephesos region (Turkey), a shaft well situated at the area of an extensive medieval bathing complex was excavated. In the stratum corresponding to the reign Mehmed II the well-preserved skeletons of two humans, an equine and a canine were recovered. Anthropological analysis of the human skeletons indentified two males aged 22 (± 3) and 36 (± 5) years. The skeleton of the younger individual showed signs of various antemortal conditions, including a well-healed fraction of right arc of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and a marked asymmetry of the shoulder joints. The older individual exhibited significant peri/postmortem injuries at the elbows, with evident signs of peeling and external burning. Also, the few elements of the cranium recovered showed also indications of burning. Archaeozoological characterization of the complete skeletons of the equine and canine established evidence of well cared-for animals of high value. The time of disposal of this group coincides with uprising of the formerly ruling Aydnoullar clan against the Ottomans in power. The human individuals recovered from the well may have been members of Aydnoullar tribe or men in service of the latter, suffering severe torture and/or mutilation for siding with the rebels after defeat.

  4. Detection and strain typing of ancient Mycobacterium leprae from a medieval leprosy hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G Michael; Tucker, Katie; Butler, Rachel; Pike, Alistair W G; Lewis, Jamie; Roffey, Simon; Marter, Philip; Lee, Oona Y-C; Wu, Houdini H T; Minnikin, David E; Besra, Gurdyal S; Singh, Pushpendra; Cole, Stewart T; Stewart, Graham R

    2013-01-01

    Nine burials excavated from the Magdalen Hill Archaeological Research Project (MHARP) in Winchester, UK, showing skeletal signs of lepromatous leprosy (LL) have been studied using a multidisciplinary approach including osteological, geochemical and biomolecular techniques. DNA from Mycobacterium leprae was amplified from all nine skeletons but not from control skeletons devoid of indicative pathology. In several specimens we corroborated the identification of M. leprae with detection of mycolic acids specific to the cell wall of M. leprae and persistent in the skeletal samples. In five cases, the preservation of the material allowed detailed genotyping using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Three of the five cases proved to be infected with SNP type 3I-1, ancestral to contemporary M. leprae isolates found in southern states of America and likely carried by European migrants. From the remaining two burials we identified, for the first time in the British Isles, the occurrence of SNP type 2F. Stable isotope analysis conducted on tooth enamel taken from two of the type 3I-1 and one of the type 2F remains revealed that all three individuals had probably spent their formative years in the Winchester area. Previously, type 2F has been implicated as the precursor strain that migrated from the Middle East to India and South-East Asia, subsequently evolving to type 1 strains. Thus we show that type 2F had also spread westwards to Britain by the early medieval period.

  5. Detection and strain typing of ancient Mycobacterium leprae from a medieval leprosy hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Michael Taylor

    Full Text Available Nine burials excavated from the Magdalen Hill Archaeological Research Project (MHARP in Winchester, UK, showing skeletal signs of lepromatous leprosy (LL have been studied using a multidisciplinary approach including osteological, geochemical and biomolecular techniques. DNA from Mycobacterium leprae was amplified from all nine skeletons but not from control skeletons devoid of indicative pathology. In several specimens we corroborated the identification of M. leprae with detection of mycolic acids specific to the cell wall of M. leprae and persistent in the skeletal samples. In five cases, the preservation of the material allowed detailed genotyping using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. Three of the five cases proved to be infected with SNP type 3I-1, ancestral to contemporary M. leprae isolates found in southern states of America and likely carried by European migrants. From the remaining two burials we identified, for the first time in the British Isles, the occurrence of SNP type 2F. Stable isotope analysis conducted on tooth enamel taken from two of the type 3I-1 and one of the type 2F remains revealed that all three individuals had probably spent their formative years in the Winchester area. Previously, type 2F has been implicated as the precursor strain that migrated from the Middle East to India and South-East Asia, subsequently evolving to type 1 strains. Thus we show that type 2F had also spread westwards to Britain by the early medieval period.

  6. Towards the Study of the Early Medieval Site Bashanta-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochir-Goryaeva Maria A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors offer preliminary results on study of a new early medieval site discovered in the Gorodovikovo District (Kalmykia during a field survey near Bashanta-I hillfort at Chapaevskoe Lake (or Tsagan nur in Kalmyk language. The new site is found 8 km to the south-west from Bashanta-I hillfort, on the bank of the Egorlyk River. The site is dated by two radiocarbon dates by the middle of the 7th – late 8th centuries, i.e. by the time of Khazar Khanate. Some preliminary studies on the site included topographical mapping, collection of stray finds and a few prospection pits. These activities yielded numerous ceramic sherds, roof tiles and debris of masonry. Judging by the existing cultural stratum, remains of stone structures made of shell stone blocks and numerous ceramic finds of good quality, the new site was a settlement of Saltovo-Mayaki Culture, presumably a satellite hillfort. The identity of ceramics and construction materials allowed the authors to name this new site as Bashanta-II.

  7. The Function of the Medieval in Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Nouvelle Heloise : A Rereading of the Abelard and Heloise Motif

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Alicia C.

    2010-01-01

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau's critical rewriting in his Nouvelle H,lo medieval works-the letters of Ab,lard and H,lo medieval played in his own moral vision. This article both identifies a possible eighteenth-century

  8. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtash, Esmail Zare; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi; Samani, Farzane Safarzade

    2017-01-01

    The Transition from Greek to medieval philosophy that speculated on religion, nature, metaphysics, human being and society was rather a rough transition in the history of English literature. Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on…

  9. „Incendula“ or „monedula“? An Enigmatic Bird Name in Medieval Latin-Written Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 74 (2016), s. 89-109 ISSN 1376-7453 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : latin lexicography * ancient and medieval zoology * ancient and medieval zoology * latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  10. Evaluation of systemic insecticides mixed in rodenticide baits for plague vector control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Søholt; Lodal, Jens

    1997-01-01

    Rodenticide baits containing systemic insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory for their palatability to the house rat Rattus rattus and for their toxicity against the oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis - both animals are important Vectors of plague in Africa. The test bait and a non...

  11. Ovid’s Aeginetan plague and the metamorphosis of the Georgics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, M.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of the ancient literary tradition upon the Georgics is as broad as it is profound , but in Virgil’s highly allusive didactic poem, the description of the Noric cattle plague at the end of Georgics 3 holds a unique position. As R.F. THOMAS comments, "nowhere else does Virgil draw so

  12. The Vague Plague -The continual innovation and spread of BPR and IT in Enterprise Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1998-01-01

    The empirical point of departure of this article is the erosion of enterprise boundaries, which create new conditions for enterprise actors, i.e. they are to an increasing extent forced to operate in networks. They are confronted with a number of unstable and developing change drivers. The focus ...... as a "plague" like SAP R/3, are actually reshaped by the enterprises....

  13. Detections of Yersinia pestis East of the Known Distribution of Active Plague in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mize, Erica L; Britten, Hugh B

    2016-02-01

    We examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern Great Plains for the presence of Yersinia pestis. Across all national park units, Oropsylla tuberculata and Oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. Using a nested PCR assay, we detected 200 Y. pestis-positive fleas from 3117 assays. In total, 6.4% of assayed fleas were Y. pestis positive and 13.9% of prairie dog burrows swabbed contained Y. pestis-positive fleas. Evidence of the presence of Y. pestis was observed at all national park units except Devils Tower National Monument in Wyoming. We detected the presence of Y. pestis without large die-offs, i.e., enzootic sylvatic plague, east of the known distribution of active plague and near the eastern edge of the present distribution of black-tailed prairie dogs. This study, in combination with previous work suggests that sylvatic plague likely occurs across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs and should now be treated as endemic across this range.

  14. Dynamics of the pneumonic plague epidemic in Madagascar, August to October 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Shinya; Lee, Hyojung; Miura, Fuminari; Chan, Yat Hin; Jung, Sung-Mok; Akhmetzhanov, Andrei R; Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Transmission potential and severity of pneumonic plague in Madagascar were assessed. Accounting for reporting delay, the reproduction number was estimated at 1.73. The case fatality risk was estimated as 5.5%. Expected numbers of exported cases from Madagascar were estimated across the world and all estimates were below 1 person from August to October, 2017.

  15. Enhanced Macrophage M1 Polarization and Resistance to Apoptosis Enable Resistance to Plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachulec, Emilia; Abdelwahed Bagga, Rym Ben; Chevallier, Lucie; O'Donnell, Hope; Guillas, Chloé; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Carniel, Elisabeth; Demeure, Christian E

    2017-09-15

    Susceptibility to infection is in part genetically driven, and C57BL/6 mice resist various pathogens through the proinflammatory response of their M1 macrophages (MPs). However, they are susceptible to plague. It has been reported elsewhere that Mus spretus SEG mice resist plague and develop an immune response characterized by a strong recruitment of MPs. The responses of C57BL/6 and SEG MPs exposed to Yersinia pestis in vitro were examined. SEG MPs exhibit a stronger bactericidal activity with higher nitric oxide production, a more proinflammatory polarized cytokine response, and a higher resistance to Y. pestis-induced apoptosis. This response was not specific to Y. pestis and involved a reduced sensitivity to M2 polarization/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 activation and inhibition of caspase 8. The enhanced M1 profile was inducible in C57BL/6 MPs in vitro, and when transferred to susceptible C57BL/6 mice, these MPs significantly increased survival of bubonic plague. MPs can develop an enhanced functional profile beyond the prototypic M1, characterized by an even more potent proinflammatory response coordinated with resistance to killing. This programming plays a key role in the plague-resistance phenotype and may be similarly significant in other highly lethal infections, suggesting that orienting the MP response may represent a new therapeutic approach. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Analysis of anthrax and plague biowarfare vaccine interactions with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skowera, Anna; de Jong, Esther C.; Schuitemaker, Joost H. N.; Allen, Jennifer S.; Wessely, Simon C.; Griffiths, Gareth; Kapsenberg, Martien; Peakman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The anti-biowarfare anthrax and plague vaccines require repeated dosing to achieve adequate protection. To test the hypothesis that this limited immunogenicity results from the nature of vaccine interactions with the host innate immune system, we investigated molecular and cellular interactions

  17. Remote sensing for landscape epidemiology : spatial analysis of plague hosts in Kazakhstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilschut, L.I.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of hosts is a crucial aspect for the understanding of infectious disease dynamics. In Kazakhstan, the great gerbil (Rhombomys opimus) is the main host for plague (Yersinia pestis infection) and poses a public health threat, yet their spatial distribution is unknown. Great

  18. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-18

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  19. New insights into how Yersinia pestis adapts to its mammalian host during bubonic plague.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Pradel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Bubonic plague (a fatal, flea-transmitted disease remains an international public health concern. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of bubonic plague has improved significantly over the last few decades, researchers have still not been able to define the complete set of Y. pestis genes needed for disease or to characterize the mechanisms that enable infection. Here, we generated a library of Y. pestis mutants, each lacking one or more of the genes previously identified as being up-regulated in vivo. We then screened the library for attenuated virulence in rodent models of bubonic plague. Importantly, we tested mutants both individually and using a novel, "per-pool" screening method that we have developed. Our data showed that in addition to genes involved in physiological adaptation and resistance to the stress generated by the host, several previously uncharacterized genes are required for virulence. One of these genes (ympt1.66c, which encodes a putative helicase has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Deletion of ympt1.66c reduced Y. pestis' ability to spread to the lymph nodes draining the dermal inoculation site--probably because loss of this gene decreased the bacteria's ability to survive inside macrophages. Our results suggest that (i intracellular survival during the early stage of infection is important for plague and (ii horizontal gene transfer was crucial in the acquisition of this ability.

  20. New Insights into How Yersinia pestis Adapts to Its Mammalian Host during Bubonic Plague

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradel, Elizabeth; Lemaître, Nadine; Merchez, Maud; Ricard, Isabelle; Reboul, Angéline; Dewitte, Amélie; Sebbane, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Bubonic plague (a fatal, flea-transmitted disease) remains an international public health concern. Although our understanding of the pathogenesis of bubonic plague has improved significantly over the last few decades, researchers have still not been able to define the complete set of Y. pestis genes needed for disease or to characterize the mechanisms that enable infection. Here, we generated a library of Y. pestis mutants, each lacking one or more of the genes previously identified as being up-regulated in vivo. We then screened the library for attenuated virulence in rodent models of bubonic plague. Importantly, we tested mutants both individually and using a novel, “per-pool” screening method that we have developed. Our data showed that in addition to genes involved in physiological adaption and resistance to the stress generated by the host, several previously uncharacterized genes are required for virulence. One of these genes (ympt1.66c, which encodes a putative helicase) has been acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Deletion of ympt1.66c reduced Y. pestis' ability to spread to the lymph nodes draining the dermal inoculation site – probably because loss of this gene decreased the bacteria's ability to survive inside macrophages. Our results suggest that (i) intracellular survival during the early stage of infection is important for plague and (ii) horizontal gene transfer was crucial in the acquisition of this ability. PMID:24675805

  1. Gr1(+) Cells Control Growth of YopM-Negative Yersinia pestis during Systemic Plague

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, Z.; Kerschen, E.J.; Cohen, D.; Kaplan, A.M.; Rooijen, van N.; Straley, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    YopM, a protein toxin of Yersinia pestis, is necessary for virulence in a mouse model of systemic plague. We previously reported YopM-dependent natural killer (NK) cell depletion from blood and spleen samples of infected mice. However, in this study we found that infection with Y. pestis KIM5

  2. REINTRODUCTION OF NOBLE CRAYFISH ASTACUS ASTACUS AFTER CRAYFISH PLAGUE IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAUGBØL T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Glomma and Halden watercourses in Norway were hit by crayfish plague in 1987 and 1989. Reintroduction of the noble crayfish started in 1989 in the Glomma and in 1995 in the Halden watercourse. Norway has especially good conditions for reintroduction of the native crayfish after crayfish plague, as there is no alien plague-carrying crayfish species in the country. In the Glomma watercourse, approx. 15 000 adult crayfish and 10 000 juveniles have been stocked while in the Halden watercourse the figures are 19 000 adults and 26 500 juveniles. All stocking sites were previously regarded as very good crayfish localities. Four years after stocking, natural recruitment was recorded at all adult crayfish stocking sites in the Glomma watercourse and at most sites in the Halden watercourse. Current crayfish density is, however, much lower than pre-plague densities even at the sites where population development has been in progress for more than 10 years. Extensive post-stocking movements were recorded among adult crayfish. Some sites seemed more suitable for settling, resulting in a great variation in CPUE between the different test-fishing sites. Juveniles seem more appropriate as stocking material if the goal is to re-establish a population in a particular area, due to their stationary behaviour, which seems to remain as they grow larger.

  3. Transverse--Harris--lines in a skeletal population from the 1711 Danish plague site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiscella, Gabriela N; Bennike, Pia; Lynnerup, Niels

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the occurrence and distribution of transverse lines in skeletal remains from the Copenhagen site, a plague cemetery dated 1711 AD. A relatively low frequency for evidence of line formation was observed in the individuals comprising the total sample and no transverse lines were...

  4. The galenic plague: a breakdown of the imperial pathocoenosis. Pathocoenosis and longue durée.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourevitch, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Is 'pathocoenosis', a notion conceived and a word coined by Mirko Grmek (1969), useful as far as ancient history is concerned? The author is interested in Galenic pathocoenosis, that of doctor Galen and his Emperor Marcus Aurelius (IInd cent. A.D.), when a new 'pestilence' or 'plague' (smallpox?) devastated the whole empire, from Mesopotamia to the Danube at least.

  5. Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th-Centruy Alghero, Sardinia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-10-28

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ historical Review, Quinto Tiberio Angelerio and New Measures for Controlling Plague in 16th -Centruy Alghero, Sardinia.  Created: 10/28/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/30/2013.

  6. Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-05-08

    Reginald Tucker reads an abridged version of the Emerging Infectious Diseases’ Historical Review, Lessons from the History of Quarantine, from Plague to Influenza A.  Created: 5/8/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/15/2013.

  7. [Analysis on the results of etiology and serology of plague in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonghai; Wang, Mei; Zhao, Xiaolong; Zhao, Zhongzhi; Zhang, Aiping; Wei, Rongjie; Wei, Baiqing; Wang, Zuyun

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the results of etiology and serology of plague among human and infected animals in Qinghai province from 2001 to 2010. Thirty-seven cases of human infected with plague, 53 541 different animal samples, 5 685 sets of vector insects flea and 49 039 different animal serum samples were obtained between 2001 and 2010. A total of 7 811 samples of serum from healthy farmers and herdsmen in 14 counties in Qinghai from 2005 to 2007 were collected. Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) were detected in visceral and secretions from human, infected animals and vector insects, respectively. Plague antigen was detected by reverse indirect hemagglutination assay (RIHA) in those samples. Indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) was used to test plague FI antibody in serum of human and infected animals. 37 human plague cases were confirmed, 21 strains of plague Y. pestis were isolated from human cases and 14 positive were detected out. 133 of 7 811 samples of human serum were IHA positive, with the positive rate at 1.7%. A total of 146 strains of plague were isolated from infected animals and vector insects, 99 out of which were from infected animals, with a ratio of Marmota himalayan at 72.7% (72/99) and the other 47 were from vector insects, with a ratio of callopsylla solaris at 68.1% (32/47). The number of IHA and PIHA positive were 300 and 10, respectively. A total of 3 animals and 3 insects species were identified as new epidemic hosts for plague. The natural plague focus of Microtus fuscus was discovered and confirmed and coexisted with natural focus of Marmota himalayan in Chengduo county, Yushu prefecture. The epidemic situation of plague is distributed mainly in Haixi, Yushu and Hainan prefectures. From 2001 to 2010, animal infected with plague was detected in successive years and human plague was very common in Qinghai. New infected animals and vector insects species and new epidemic areas were confirmed, hence the trend of plague prevalence for humans and animals is very

  8. The Second Plague Pandemic in the Golden Horde and Its Consequences

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    T.F. Khaydarov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the reasons for origin and consequences of spreading for the second plague pandemic in the Golden Horde. By applying scientific data from biology, climatology, medicine, and history, authors come to a conclusion that a large number of natural plague pestholes existed initially in the Ulus of Jochi. Numerous historical sources mentioned plague outbreaks but all of them were of purely local character. The bubonic type of plague characterized by a longer period of illness and an insignificant number of lethal episodes was spread more widely. In the mid-40s of the 14th century a new form of disease, the lung plague, came into existence. It was corpse blackening of the deceased from this type of plague that gave name to the whole pandemic – the “Black Death”. The speed of its progress and spreading significantly exceeded those of the bubonic type and 100% of mortality was recorded among the diseased. However, as historical data show, the outbreak of the lung plague continued in the territory of the Golden Horde from 1346 to 1349. In their article authors prove that one of the most important reasons for the emergence of the lung type was the change in migration flows of Eurasian rodents caused by depletion of nutritional resources in the steppe and serious climatic changes. All other outbreaks of the Black Death are viewed as continuation of the first wave of the disease and their emergence is explained through activity of two natural pestholes (the Relict North-Western and the Lower Volga ones. Consequences of the the first wave were much less substantial for the Ulus of Jochi than those of the following outbreaks (in 1364, 1374, and 1395. The main consequences of the next waves of the disease were: final establishment of 4 political centers (Grand Duchy of Moscow, the Bulgar and the Crimean uluses, and the Blue Horde striving for political leadership in the territory of the former Golden Horde; establishment of a new ethnic

  9. Enzootic plague reduces black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) survival in Montana

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    Matchett, Marc R.; Biggins, Dean E.; Carlson, Valerie; Powell, Bradford; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2010-01-01

    Black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) require extensive prairie dog colonies (Cynomys spp.) to provide habitat and prey. Epizootic plague kills both prairie dogs and ferrets and is a major factor limiting recovery of the highly endangered ferret. In addition to epizootics, we hypothesized that enzootic plague, that is, presence of disease-causing Yersinia pestis without any noticeable prairie dog die off, may also affect ferret survival. We reduced risk of plague on portions of two ferret reintroduction areas by conducting flea control for 3 years. Beginning in 2004, about half of the ferrets residing on dusted and nondusted colonies were vaccinated against plague with an experimental vaccine (F1-V fusion protein). We evaluated 6-month reencounter rates (percentage of animals observed at the end of an interval that were known alive at the beginning of the interval), an index to survival, for ferrets in four treatment groups involving all combinations of vaccination and flea control. For captive-reared ferrets (115 individuals observed across 156 time intervals), reencounter rates were higher for vaccinates (0.44) than for nonvaccinates (0.23, p = 0.044) on colonies without flea control, but vaccination had no detectable effect on colonies with flea control (vaccinates = 0.41, nonvaccinates = 0.42, p = 0.754). Flea control resulted in higher reencounter rates for nonvaccinates (p = 0.026), but not for vaccinates (p = 0.508). The enhancement of survival due to vaccination or flea control supports the hypothesis that enzootic plague reduces ferret survival, even when there was no noticeable decline in prairie dog abundance. The collective effects of vaccination and flea control compel a conclusion that fleas are required for maintenance, and probably transmission, of plague at enzootic levels. Other studies have demonstrated similar effects of flea control on several species of prairie dogs and, when combined with this study, suggest

  10. The Gendered Nose and its Lack: "Medieval" Nose-Cutting and its Modern Manifestations.

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    Skinner, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Time magazine's cover photograph in August 2010 of a noseless Afghan woman beside the emotive strap line, "What happens if we leave Afghanistan," fuelled debate about the "medieval" practices of the Taliban, whose local commander had instructed her husband to take her nose and ears. Press reports attributed the violence to the Pashtun tradition that a dishonored husband "lost his nose." This equation of nose-cutting with tradition begs questions not only about the Orientalist lens of the western press when viewing Afghanistan, but also about the assumption that the word "medieval" can function as a label for such practices. A study of medieval nose-cutting suggests that its identification as an "eastern" practice should be challenged. Rather clearer is its connection with patriarchal values of authority and honor: the victims of such punishment have not always been women, but this is nevertheless a gendered punishment of the powerless by the powerful.

  11. Postmortem Inventories in Medieval Valencia. A Source for the Study of Household Consumption and Living Standards

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    Luis Almenar Fernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic questions about the nature of postmortem inventories in late medieval Valencia have rarely been asked. What distinguished them from other lists of goods and what was their legal basis? Why were inventories made? Which goods were listed and which ones omitted? How many inventories are preserved today? Which sectors of medieval society requested them? The answers that this paper provides clearly show the potential of a serial and quantitative usage of the Valencian inventory for the study of household consumption, an analysis that would enable us to measure far more accurately the changes in living standards in late medieval society to a degree that is difficult to achieve in other regions of Europe.

  12. Materiality of Body: The Material Practices of Life and Death in Medieval Britain

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    Mabast A. Muhammad Amin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the ways people understood their body during the medieval period in Britain. I bring together the multiple different ways in which the body was treated in death, I focus on the role and power of grave goods and evidence found in dead bodies for plasticity in life to embrace the complexity of the medieval body, I examine the cultural practice of nutrition and environment affected the bodily mold. Another point I take into consideration is the practice of dietary through differentiation between male and female body in which we explore how medieval people socially and culturally constructed body based on their notion and understanding of gender identity. In addition, religion had a great influence on people’s understanding to deal with dead bodies and I concentrate on how bodily resurrection impacted on people’s preparation for the Day of Judgment by placing the goods in burials.

  13. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

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    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  14. Perspectives of Medieval Persian Medicine on Multiple Sclerosis.

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    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Sheibani, Behnam; Schiess, Nicoline; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmail; Sadeghpour, Omid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) was the prevailing practice of medicine in the Eurasia region up through the 18th century, a practice of medicine stemming back to Hippocrates and to the 5000 year old civilization of the region. It is a school of medicine which touches on many a delicate points which may seem unimaginable within the realm of modern allopathic medicine. This practice of ancient medicine besides shedding light on various possible theoretical modern day disorders serves as a vast resource for therapeutics. In this paper, we present study of the manuscripts of this ancient medical practice in search of symptom presentations coinciding with presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper represents a comprehensive search through TPM texts and manuscripts with the intention to seek possible clues on MS from potentially valuable age-old resources. We predominantly focused our search on the works of five eminent physicians of Medieval Persia: Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Haly Abbas (949-982 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Averroes (1126-1198 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD). In this paper, the authors attempt a theory and conclude with high probability that a conjunction of a series of signs, symptoms found in TPM texts under the terms khadar, isterkha and falej form the symptoms and the disease pattern of modern day MS. This theory draws upon existent similarities in terms of disease pathology, disease patterns and predisposing factors seen between MS and the related morbidities within Persian Medicine. We recommend further examinations of such potentially valuable long-standing resources, examining the diagnoses and treatments as set forth by Persian Medicine through international collaboration within the global scientific community. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Microalgae on dimension stone of a medieval castle in Thuringia

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    Hallmann, C.; Stannek, L.; Fritzlar, D.; Hoppert, M.

    2012-04-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms are important primary producers on hard rock substrata as well as on building facades. These eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria, along with lichens, have also been recognized as important factors for rock weathering and stone decay. The rock substratum itself mostly provides extreme environmental conditions. Composition and diversity of sub-aeric phototrophic microbial communities is up to now poorly understood. Here we present a comparative study addressing the composition of algal biofilms on sandstone substrata based on the analysis of rDNA clone libraries from environmental samples and enrichment cultures. From a W-exposed, shaded wall area of a medieval castle ruin (Burg Gleichen, Thuringia, Germany cf. Hallmann et al., 2011), green algae like Prasiococcus, Prasiola and Elliptochloris could be retrieved. A ESE, sun-exposed wall section was colonized mainly by Apatococcus, Phyllosiphon and the lichen alga Trebouxia and Myrmecia. Accordingly, cyanobacterial communities show clear differences between both wall areas: the sun exposed area was dominated by Synechococcus-like organisms while on the W-exposed area cyanobacteria were almost absent. Just a few species, in particular Stichococcus-related strains, are ubiquitous in both areas. It is obvious that, apart from few generalists, different species colonize the wall areas that are situated in close vicinity, but provide different microclimatic conditions. These differences are discussed in view of biogenic weathering phenomena: certain microalgal species colonize crusts and scales along fracture planes and may contribute to rapid detachment and turnover of dimension stone surfaces. Hallmann, C., Fritzlar, D., Stannek, L., Hoppert, M. (2011) Ascomycete fungi on dimension stone of the "Burg Gleichen", Thuringia. Env. Earth Sci. 63, 1713-1722.

  16. Histopathological observation of immunized rhesus macaques with plague vaccines after subcutaneous infection of Yersinia pestis.

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    Guang Tian

    Full Text Available In our previous study, complete protection was observed in Chinese-origin rhesus macaques immunized with SV1 (20 µg F1 and 10 µg rV270 and SV2 (200 µg F1 and 100 µg rV270 subunit vaccines and with EV76 live attenuated vaccine against subcutaneous challenge with 6×10(6 CFU of Y. pestis. In the present study, we investigated whether the vaccines can effectively protect immunized animals from any pathologic changes using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. In addition, the glomerular basement membranes (GBMs of the immunized animals and control animals were checked by electron microscopy. The results show no signs of histopathological lesions in the lungs, livers, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleens and hearts of the immunized animals at Day 14 after the challenge, whereas pathological alterations were seen in the corresponding tissues of the control animals. Giemsa staining, ultrastructural examination, and immunohistochemical staining revealed bacteria in some of the organs of the control animals, whereas no bacterium was observed among the immunized animals. Ultrastructural observation revealed that no glomerular immune deposits on the GBM. These observations suggest that the vaccines can effectively protect animals from any pathologic changes and eliminate Y. pestis from the immunized animals. The control animals died from multi-organ lesions specifically caused by the Y. pestis infection. We also found that subcutaneous infection of animals with Y. pestis results in bubonic plague, followed by pneumonic and septicemic plagues. The histopathologic features of plague in rhesus macaques closely resemble those of rodent and human plagues. Thus, Chinese-origin rhesus macaques serve as useful models in studying Y. pestis pathogenesis, host response and the efficacy of new medical countermeasures against plague.

  17. Landscape and Residential Variables Associated with Plague-Endemic Villages in the West Nile Region of Uganda

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    MacMillan, Katherine; Enscore, Russell E.; Ogen-Odoi, Asaph; Borchert, Jeff N.; Babi, Nackson; Amatre, Gerald; Atiku, Linda A.; Mead, Paul S.; Gage, Kenneth L.; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Plague, caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis, is a severe, often fatal disease. This study focuses on the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda, where limited information is available regarding environmental and behavioral risk factors associated with plague infection. We conducted observational surveys of 10 randomly selected huts within historically classified case and control villages (four each) two times during the dry season of 2006 (N = 78 case huts and N = 80 control huts), which immediately preceded a large plague outbreak. By coupling a previously published landscape-level statistical model of plague risk with this observational survey, we were able to identify potential residence-based risk factors for plague associated with huts within historic case or control villages (e.g., distance to neighboring homestead and presence of pigs near the home) and huts within areas previously predicted as elevated risk or low risk (e.g., corn and other annual crops grown near the home, water storage in the home, and processed commercial foods stored in the home). The identified variables are consistent with current ecologic theories on plague transmission dynamics. This preliminary study serves as a foundation for future case control studies in the area. PMID:21363983

  18. Evaluation of Yersinia pestis transmission pathways for sylvatic plague in prairie dog populations in the western U.S.

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    Richgels, Katherine L. D.; Russell, Robin E.; Bron, Gebbiena; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is periodically responsible for large die-offs in rodent populations that can spillover and cause human mortalities. In the western US, prairie dog populations experience nearly 100% mortality during plague outbreaks, suggesting that multiple transmission pathways combine to amplify plague dynamics. Several alternate pathways in addition to flea vectors have been proposed, such as transmission via direct contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, consumption of carcasses, and environmental sources of plague bacteria, such as contaminated soil. However, evidence supporting the ability of these proposed alternate pathways to trigger large-scale epizootics remains elusive. Here we present a short review of potential plague transmission pathways and use an ordinary differential equation model to assess the contribution of each pathway to resulting plague dynamics in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) and their fleas (Oropsylla hirsuta). Using our model, we found little evidence to suggest that soil contamination was capable of producing plague epizootics in prairie dogs. However, in the absence of flea transmission, direct transmission, i.e., contact with bodily fluids or inhalation of infectious droplets, could produce enzootic dynamics, and transmission via contact with or consumption of carcasses could produce epizootics. This suggests that these pathways warrant further investigation.

  19. [Subjectivity and objectivity, semiotics and diagnosis. An approach to the medieval concept of illness].

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    Riha, O

    1996-01-01

    Relying on their patients' complaints, medieval physicians did not discriminate theoretically between sickness and health. As for the types of illness, there were two different concepts of disease: The semiotic tracts (sphygmology, uroscopy, hematoscopy) describe signs of dyscrasia and locus affectus, while the medical handbooks combine symptoms like fever, pain, nausea, constipation etc. with the signs of pulse, urine and blood. The term "diagnosis" should be used only for this latter type of disease. Because of the ancient model of humoral pathology and because of the deductive construction of symptomatology, "medieval" illnesses cannot be compared with "ours".

  20. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.