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Sample records for medieval hebrew treatise

  1. Gold and not so real gold in Medieval treatises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srebrenka Bogovic-Zeskoski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evidence diverse materials and processes used by artisans (and alchemists required to synthesize a visually viable replacement for gold. The emphasis of the research is upon the production of mosaic gold or porporina, a pigment that has survived into modern times, which was used as ink and as paint. Base metals, mostly tin, but also alloys were used both into foils coated with glazes and varnishes and as pigment. The research focuses upon recipes documented in treatises dating from Antiquity to the late Medieval period (ca. 1500 and an attempt is made to answer two questions. In the first place, why was there a need for a surrogate? Secondly, why are there so few tangible examples detected on surviving artifacts? In conclusion, an argument is offered pointing out that, although much can be learned by scientific examination of artifacts, textual analysis is equally important and necessary to unravel mysteries of ancient technologies

  2. A Medieval Irish Treatise on Astronomy Recalled, with a Memoir of its Translator and Editor, Maura Power (1887-1916)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, M. T.; Conway-Piskorski, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 15th century treatise on astronomy in Irish, an adaptation of a Latin translation of an older Arabic text, was transcribed and published together with an English translation and commentaries under the title An Irish Astronomical Tract in 1914. This work is familiar to Celtic language scholars but is little known among astronomers. Here we briefly describe the text, and include a memoir of its editor and translator Maura Power, a young woman who combined a specialist knowledge of the Irish language with an understanding of medieval science. We also recall two other Irish scholars - the geologist Maxwell Close and the astronomer John Ellard Gore - who played their part in recognizing the value of this early Irish scientific text.

  3. Early Medieval stylistic rhetoric

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    A. G.P. van der Walt

    1981-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the well-known expert on medieval rhetoric, James J. Murphy, the three typical medieval forms of rhetoric are the art of letter writing, the art of preaching and the art of poetry (Murphy, 1971, p. xv. In this paper we are concerned only with the second of these arts, namely, the rhetoric of preaching. Though the perceptive treatises on the rhetoric of preaching, the so-called artes praedicandi, did not originate before the thirteenth century, pulpit rhetoric was very much alive in the earlier part of the Middle Ages and fine examples of this kind of eloquence can be quoted.

  4. Physical chemistry: an advanced treatise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1967-01-01

    ... Reactions Physical Chemistry: An Advanced TreatisePHYSICAL An Advanced CHEMISTRY Treatise V O L U M E I / Thermodynamics Edited by W I L H E L M J O S T Institut fiir Chemie der Universitdt Gotting...

  5. Sound and motion in the De Generatione Sonorum, a treatise by Robert Grosseteste

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Here I am proposing a discussion of some parts of the De Generatione Sonorum, one of the short treatises written by Robert Grosseteste. The main subject of this treatise is the phonetics. However, sound and oscillations are shortly described. Since Grosseteste discussed a phonetics based on the analogy with motions and their combinations, we can find in this text some hints on how a medieval scholar approached the description of motions.

  6. [Hippocrates' treatise physician].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøland, Anders

    2005-01-01

    This small treatise does not appear to have been published in Danish in its entirety. It gives a vivid picture of the physician in ancient Greece. The well known first chapter describes the attitudes and attributes of the doctor. It goes on discussing in some detail how the light should be in the surgery, the instruments to be used, the preparations of bandages and drugs, and the use of cupping instruments. The author stresses both the needs of the patient and the necessity of the physician's dignity and integrity.

  7. Not a Treatise, but a Treatise in Verse...

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    Natalia Gorbaniewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Gorbaniewska, an acclaimed translator of Polish literature into Russian, remembers her first meeting with Miłosz in Paris, and the reading of Traktat poetycki [Treatise on Poetry], which for her became a real translator’s challenge. The memory, in this case, becomes a pre­text for a discussion of the genre characteristic of the Treatise, and of the melody of Miłosz’s language and the literary tradition, which makes it possible to understand his poems.

  8. Early Modern “Citation Index”? Medical Authorities in Academic Treatises on Plague (1480–1725

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    Karel Černý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of early modern scientific citations. It attempts to establish a measure of scientific popularity in a specific area of the academic medicine in a way which resembles a modern evaluation of scientific activity (citation index. For this purpose an analysis of a series of plague treatises written between 1480 and 1725 in Europe was conducted. Citations for various historical medical authorities (Hippocrates, Galen, etc. are given in Tables which reflect a long time development of popularity. The authorities from various groups (Ancient, Medieval, Arabic, Early Modern are linked together, and “generic authorities” are explained and discussed.

  9. Gothic pedagogy and Victorian reform treatises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehler, Grace

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the work of bodily affect in three Victorian reform treatises about the industrial working classes: Kay's The Moral and Physical Condition of the Working Classes Employed in the Cotton Manufacture in Manchester, Chadwick's Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain, and Engels's The Condition of the Working Class in England. Employing a gothic technology that graphically illustrates and appeals to the sensations, these treatises provide a striking instance of the extent to which Victorian attempts at social reform were routed through the visceral, sensible knowledge of the body. Since, however, the gothic tends toward the excessive, a second crucial feature of its technology entails the arousal of conflicting sensations that problematize class relations.

  10. Medieval Dobrun

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    Popović Marko Đ.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting and highly structured medieval complex, Dobrun has been attracting attention of scholars for a long time. Unlike the ruins of medieval fortifications, the remains of wall-painting in the former monastery church received most of the attention. A series of problems have, however remained open. Some of them have escaped observation, and there are hypotheses that ought to be reassessed. The Dobrun complex is not a matter of local or regional significance. It is a surviving testimony to the events and processes that marked the century preceding the final Ottoman occupation of Serbia and Bosnia. After outlining the research work done to date and analyzing the original historical documents and physical remains, this paper brings the author's views of the issue and some reflections aimed at suggesting directions of further research. The Dobrun complex is situated on the fringe of a hospitable landscape in the lower Rzav valley, not far from Višegrad. It is a region of present-day Republika Srpska on the border with Serbia. The medieval fortifications high up on cliffs above either side of the river controlled the entrance to the gorge, a natural border between western Serbia and Podrinje (the Drina river basin. About a kilometer downstream, on a plot of flat land above the right riverbank, surrounded by rocky hillsides and opening onto a gully cut by a mountain stream, sits the monastic complex of Dobrun with the Church of the Annunciation. The discussion of the structural remains of the complex (Fig. 2 proceed from the multipart whole, which consists of fortifications on the rocks above either bank of the Rzav, built in such a way as to take full advantage of the terrain for defence purposes. The steep slopes and inaccessible rocks complete with walls and towers form a fortress considered at the time of building to be virtually unassailable. Fortification elements were laid out on the western edge of the gorge, which was and still is an

  11. Code-Switching Functions in Modern Hebrew Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Yona

    2016-01-01

    The teaching and learning of Modern Hebrew outside of Israel is essential to Jewish education and identity. One of the most contested issues in Modern Hebrew pedagogy is the use of code-switching between Modern Hebrew and learners' first language. Moreover, this is one of the longest running disputes in the broader field of second language…

  12. Discerning Diachronic Change in the Biblical Hebrew Verbal System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    Diachronic change took place in ancient Hebrew as in probably all other languages used for hundreds of years. This change is evident in the biblical texts, some of which are written in early biblical Hebrew (EBH), and some of which are written in late biblical Hebrew (LBH). However, it seems that...

  13. Once again: the problem of dating Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    1997-01-01

    The article argues that the homogeneous nature of biblical Hebrew morphology and syntax does not warrant the conclusion that they were written over a relatively short period of time. Further, the syntactic similarity of pre-exilic Hebrew inscriptions to one type of biblical Hebrew favours...

  14. Peripheral nerve disorders and treatment strategies according to Avicenna in his medical treatise, Canon of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aciduman, Ahmet; Er, Uygur; Belen, Deniz

    2009-01-01

    The written transmission of knowledge has played a great part in the advancement of medicine, and historical documents hold the key to a full exploration of the history of medicine. Some fields, including disciplines that deal with peripheral nerve disorders, have received little benefit from such valuable material. In particular, peripheral nerve surgery lacks perspectives from historical data. For many years, physicians have obtained positive results in the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve diseases. Relevant documents reveal that the first author who described the surgical repair of damaged peripheral nerves was Avicenna, a leading figure of the medieval era who lived in the Middle East. In his primary medical work, the Canon, he provides a description, albeit sketchy, of a suture procedure for peripheral nerve transection. This treatise influenced physicians for several centuries. In this presentation, we analyze excerpts from the Canon that concern peripheral nerve disorders and strategies for their management.

  15. On the Rainbow, a Robert Grosseteste's Treatise on Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    On the Rainbow is one of the short scientific treatises written by Robert Grosseteste. The Latin title is De Iride. In the first part of this treatise, we can find a discussion on reflection and refraction of light, described in the framework of the geometrical optics. In the second part, Grosseteste is writing about the rainbow and how its colors are created

  16. Radioactive geochronometry from the treatise on geochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, H D

    2011-01-01

    The history of Earth in the Solar System has been unraveled using natural radioactivity. The sources of this radioactivity are the original creation of the elements and the subsequent bombardment of objects, including Earth, in the Solar System by cosmic rays. Both radioactive and radiogenic nuclides are harnessed to arrive at ages of various events and processes on Earth. This collection of chapters from the "Treatise on Geochemistry" displays the range of radioactive geochronometric studies that have been addressed by researchers in various fields of Earth science. These range from the age of Earth and the Solar System to the dating of the history of Earth that assists us in defining the major events in Earth history. In addition, the use of radioactive geochronometry in describing rates of Earth surface processes, including the climate history recorded in ocean sediments and the patterns of circulation of the fluid Earth, has extended the range of utility of radioactive isotopes as chronometric and tracer ...

  17. Skin pathology and medical prognosis in medieval Europe: the secrets of Hippocrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman Smoller, L

    2000-12-01

    This article analyzes a medieval text known as The Secrets of Hippocrates. Neither secret (because of its wide circulation in manuscript and print) nor by Hippocrates, the work offered readers a means of offering a prognosis of impending death based on observable signs on the skin. Although the aphorisms that make up the text make little sense in a modern medical understanding, the Secrets of Hippocrates fits well within three medieval traditions: the tradition of secrets literature, the medieval medical tradition, and the tradition of medieval Christian views about the body. First, like other books of secrets, a genre to whose conventions the text closely adheres, the Secrets of Hippocrates offered a shortcut to socially useful knowledge: the ability to offer an accurate medical prognosis. Second, the treatise corresponded to the medieval physician's concern for the so-called nonnaturals, such as diet and exercise. Third, it fit with a medieval Christian notion that sickness and sin were related, as were sin and ugliness. Just as a leper's deformities were a window to his sinful soul, so skin pathologies could clue a medieval physician to the lethal disease hidden inside the body.

  18. La tradición medieval prearistotélica y la formación de la politica como teoría a partir de 1265

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    Francisco Bertelloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the gradual constitution of the politica as theory in the middle ages within the division of the philosophiamoralis in ethica, oeconomica and politica. The author organizes the paper in three parts in accordance with three different stages of medieval treatment of the politica as science. First he gives an overview of the medieval notion of politica until the first half of the thirteenth century. Secondly he analyzes Albert's conception of politica in the treatise Super Ethica. Thirdly he shows Albert's modifications of his own conception after the medieval reception of Aristotle's Politics.

  19. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.

  20. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  1. Essays on medieval computational astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Bergón, José Chabás

    2014-01-01

    In Essays on Medieval Computational Astronomy the authors provide examples of original and intelligent approaches and solutions given by medieval astronomers to the problems of their discipline, mostly presented in the form of astronomical tables.

  2. Anterior Weqatal in the Hebrew Bible and the Qumran Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this article discusses the phenomenon of anterior weqatal in the Hebrew Bible, a verbal usage that seems to be oddly out of place in the Classical Hebrew system of verbal forms. Various approaches to such occurrences of presumed anterior weqatal are considered, and while some...

  3. Breaking into the Hebrew Verb System: A Learning Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Orit; Ravid, Dorit; Gillis, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Verb learning is an important part of linguistic acquisition. The present study examines the early phases of verb acquisition in Hebrew, a language with complex derivational and inflectional verb morphology, analyzing verbs in dense recordings of CDS and CS of two Hebrew-speaking parent-child dyads aged 1;8-2;2. The goal was to pinpoint those cues…

  4. Reading Hebrews through Akan ethnicity and social identity | Kissi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Akan people of Ghana have concepts of ethnicity and social identity which are similar to those found in the Mediterranean world, which find expression in the issues addressed in the letter to the Hebrews. This similarity makes the reading of Hebrews in light of Akan ethnicity and social identity possible, giving one the ...

  5. The contribution of Qumran to historical Hebrew linguistics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Evidence from the syntax of participial negation at. Qumran as opposed to Biblical Hebrew provides evidence for this claim. The contribution of Qumran to historical Hebrew linguistics: Evidence from the syntax of participial negation. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device.

  6. Hebrew-Arabic bilingual schooling in Israel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Carmit Romano

    2010-01-01

    . The “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel” is a grass-root movement of bilingual, bi-national primary schools in which Jewish and Arab children study together. The first school was open in Jerusalem in 1998. Currently there are 4 schools throughout the country The schools’ rational is......This paper deals with the policies and practices employed in the teaching of Arabic and Hebrew at a school belonging to the “Hand In Hand Centre for Jewish-Arab Education in Israel”. Its focus is on strategies that the school has developed in order to support the acquisition of biliteracy......, that by implementing a curriculum which puts emphasis on the equal presentation and representation of the cultural heritage, religious beliefs, and historical narratives of both communities, equality, understanding, respect, reduction fear & prejudice, would be achieved. The linguistic & cultural goal of bilingualism...

  7. ‘FOR MUSIKE MEUEÞ AFFECCIOUNS’: INTERPRETING HARP PERFORMANCE IN MEDIEVAL ROMANCE

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    Alana Bennett

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Performances are focal points in medieval romances with musical protagonists. Whilst these performances may not necessarily be accurate representations of medieval music, such episodes in popular literature are valuable to early music practitioners because they describe the whole context of the performance. These scenes preserve a snapshot of the medieval experience of music: the physicality of the performance, the sounds created and the emotional responses to the music. The hyperbolic tendencies of popular literature are effective at communicating imagined performance contexts because of the use of language that deliberately presents and evokes extremes of emotion, involving the reader or listener in a simulacrum of musical affect. When used alongside surviving musical notation, musical treatises, accounts of performances in historical records, and iconography, these romances are, I argue, a highly valuable and informative source for medieval performance. They reveal to the modern reader how music was perceived and represented in the medieval popular imagination. This paper will examine harp performances in several music-focused romances and I will set alongside these examples my own amateur reconstructions of the performances as described.

  8. Defending the Concept of Time in the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundvad, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability of the bibli......Due to the scarcity of reflection on time as an independent subject in the Hebrew Bible, there has been a scholarly tendency to consider biblical time conception more limited than our own, perhaps even nonexistent. This article confronts the scholarly skepticism regarding the ability...... of the biblical authors to think about time, defending the presence of time conceptualization in the Hebrew Bible. In the article I discuss central research contributions to the subject of biblical time, in particular Sacha Stern’s thesis that the concept of time is entirely absent from the Hebrew Bible and from...

  9. Symptom and Surface: Disruptive Deafness and Medieval Medical Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsy, Jonathan

    2016-12-01

    This essay examines constructions of deafness in medieval culture, exploring how deaf experience disrupts authoritative discourses in three textual genres: medical treatise, literary fiction, and autobiographical writing. Medical manuals often present deafness as a physical defect, yet they also suggest how social conditions for deaf people can be transformed in lieu of treatment protocols. Fictional narratives tend to associate deafness with sin or social stigma, but they can also imagine deaf experience with a remarkable degree of sympathy and nuance. Autobiographical writing by deaf authors most vividly challenges diagnostic models of disability, exploring generative forms of perception that deafness can foster. In tracing the disruptive force that deaf experience exerts on perceived notions of textual authority, this essay reveals how medieval culture critiqued the diagnostic power of medical practitioners. Deafness does not simply function as a symptom of an individual problem or a metaphor for a spiritual or social condition; rather, deafness is a transformative capacity affording new modes of knowing self and other.

  10. Reading Hebrews through Akan ethnicity and social identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Kissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Akan people of Ghana have concepts of ethnicity and social identity which are similar to those found in the Mediterranean world, which find expression in the issues addressed in the letter to the Hebrews. This similarity makes the reading of Hebrews in light of Akan ethnicity and social identity possible, giving one the expected meaning from the perspective of those concepts as within the original context of the audience. This article therefore discusses some theories on ethnicity and social identity as well as the Akan people of Ghana and their concepts of ethnicity and social identity. It further explains the social context of the letter of Hebrews against which Hebrews is then read in light of Akan ethnicity and social identity. The focus of this reading is on how the ethnic identity of the readers presented in Hebrews enhances the social identity of the readers and provides the means by which the author’s appeal to his readers for their faithfulness to God becomes meaningful and urgent.

  11. Reading Improvement in English- and Hebrew-Speaking Children with Reading Difficulties after Reading Acceleration Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Cicchino, Nicole; Amiel, Merav; Holland, Scott K.; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    A reading acceleration program known to improve reading fluency in Hebrew-speaking adults was tested for its effect on children. Eighty-nine Hebrew- and English-speaking children with reading difficulties were divided into a waiting list group and two training groups (Hebrew and English) and underwent 4 weeks of reading acceleration training.…

  12. On the Jewish Nature of Medieval Spanish Biblical Translations Linguistic Differences between Medieval and Post-Exilic Spanish Translations of the Bible

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    Schwarzwald, Ora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A linguistic comparison of medieval Spanish translations of the Hebrew Bible and the Constantinople and Ferrara post exilic Ladino translations reveals systematic lexical and grammatical variations. These differences can be explained by the population groups to which the translations were targeted: Christian for the medieval translations; Jewish (or former converso for the post-exilic ones. The conclusion is that the medieval translations are not Jewish in nature and could therefore not have been a source for the post-exilic versions which were based on oral tradition.

    Una comparación lingüística de las traducciones hispano-medievales de la Biblia hebrea y las postexílicas de Constantinopla y Ferrara revela variaciones sistemáticas léxicas y gramaticales. Esas diferencias pueden explicarse por la audiencia a las que iban dirigidas dichas traducciones: cristiana, en el caso de las medievales; judía (o exconversa en el de las post-exílicas. La autora concluye que las traducciones medievales no son judías, por naturaleza, y en consecuencia, no podrían haber sido una fuente para las versiones post-exílicas que estaban basadas en la tradición oral.

  13. Making medieval art modern

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    Elizabeth den Hartog

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Janet T. Marquardt’s book ‘Zodiaque. Making medieval art modern’ discusses the historical context, history and impact of the Zodiaque publications issued by the monks from the abbey of Ste-Marie de la Pierre-qui-Vire in Burgundy between 1951 and 2001 and links the striking photogravures, the core business of these books, to the modern movement. Although Marquardt’s view that the Zodiaque series made a great impact on the study of Romanesque sculpture is somewhat overrated, her claim that the photogravures should be seen as avant-garde works of art and the books as a “museum without walls” is entirely convincing.

  14. Russian Medieval Military Architecture

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    Rappoport, Pavel

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available In Russia defensive works were not less important than in Western Europe. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns, of their siege and defence. In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves.

  15. Neutron scattering treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kostorz, G

    1979-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15: Neutron Scattering shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials. The book discusses the general principles of neutron scattering; the techniques used in neutron crystallography; and the applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering. The text also describes the measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects; and quasi-elastic scattering, with its special merits in the study of microscopic dynamical phenomena in solids and

  16. Wind Diagrams in Medieval Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedwards, Dale

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of the sole wind diagram that survives from medieval Iceland, preserved in the encyclopaedic miscellany in Copenhagen's Arnamagnæan Institute with the shelf mark AM 732b 4to (c. 1300-25). It examines the wind diagram and its accompanying text, an excerpt on the winds...... from Isidore of Seville's Etymologies. It also examines the perimeter of winds on two medieval Icelandic world maps, and the visual traditions from which they draw....

  17. JEWISH SUFISM IN MEDIEVAL ISLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Epafras, Leonard C.

    2011-01-01

    This article is a literary research and preliminary examination to a unique interaction between Jews and Sufism that taken place in medieval Islamic ruling. In the face of the present antagonistic posture of Jews and Muslims relationship that dominates the public sphere, in history, there are some examples of interaction of the two people beyond confictual narrative. One of them is Jewish mysticism that adopted Sufism into their spiritual ideal, which took place in the medieval era. We might ...

  18. Pedagogy of social transformation in the Hebrew Bible: Allowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-12

    May 12, 2016 ... Scripture in a manner that is consistent with the orientation, priorities and methods inherent in the text. This article demonstrates .... set up a dialectic of praxis and interpretation with identity as a crucial middle term. The … laws .... Hebrew Bible assumes a holistic, all-of-life approach to education. Striving to ...

  19. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article argued that the utilisation of philosophy of religion in the study of the Hebrew Bible is possible if we look beyond the stereotype of erroneously equating the auxiliary field with natural theology, apologetics or atheological criticism. Fruitful possibilities for interdisciplinary research are available in the form of ...

  20. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for Hebrew Bible studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-30

    Sep 30, 2010 ... Original Research. DOI: 10.4102/hts.v67i3.855. Descriptive currents in philosophy of religion for. Hebrew Bible studies. Author: Jacobus W. Gericke1 ... interdisciplinary research are available in the form of descriptive varieties of philosophy ...... Otto, R., 1968, The Idea of the Holy, Galaxy Books, vol.

  1. Arab Students in a Hebrew University--Existing but Unnoticed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halabi, Rabah

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on ways in which Arab students cope with challenges of integrating into the academic life of a Hebrew university in Israel. From this research we can learn that the students face considerable hardships during their university studies. Some of these hardships derive from language barriers. In addition, findings show that the…

  2. The Judaeo-Karaite Reception of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    DESCRIPTION: The Karaites emerged as a school of thought within Middle Eastern Judaism in the 8th century. The Karaites were a “reading community” whose intellectual activity and daily lives were based around the divine scriptures. Over time Karaism became one of the two main competing schools of...... between the Rabbinate and the Karaite reception and interpretation of the Hebrew Bible....

  3. Samaria, Samaritans and the Composition of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Examination of supersessionism and competition over cult and belief inherent in narratives and structures of the Hebrew Bible. While discussions over cult  places are presented in a variety of extra-biblical sources as taking place in post-exilic times, biblical narratives anachronistically place...

  4. Pedagogy of social transformation in the Hebrew Bible: Allowing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hebrew Bible itself teaches its readers and listeners how to learn. Its pedagogy of social transformation instructs contemporary Christians how to interpret and apply lessons from Scripture in a manner that is consistent with the orientation, priorities and methods inherent in the text. This article demonstrates that ...

  5. Hebrew-Only Language Policy in Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This article ethnographically analyzes the everyday negotiations of a language policy at a private religious educational institution whose explicit educative mission is the transmission of religious beliefs, values, and practices. Specifically, it explores a Hebrew-only language policy at a Jewish day school located in New York City, and focuses…

  6. Exodus, Psalms and Hebrews: A God abounding in steadfast love ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of hesed (“faithfulness, kindness, grace, steadfast love, solidarity” etc) is one of those. According to the Hebrew Scriptures, God revealed God self to God's people at Sinai. This article will deal specifically with the reference to the Sinai revelation as it appears in three Psalms. This discussion will be followed by a ...

  7. SHEBANQ : System for HEBrew Text: ANnotations for Queries and Markup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, D.; Glanz, Oliver; van den Berg, H.; Van de Schraaf, Heleen

    2014-01-01

    The shebanq service is the first data service of ancient-data.org. Shebanq is a search engine for the Hebrew Bible, powered by the ETCBC4 linguistic database, formerly know as WIVU. The data is archived for open access, clicking the Sources menu or the DANS logo at the bottom will bring you to the

  8. Beyond divine command theory: Moral realism in the Hebrew bible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper the author challenges the popular consensus with several arguments demonstrating the presence of moral realism in the text. It is furthermore suggested that the popular consensus came about as a result of prima facie assessments informed by anachronistic metatheistic assumptions about what the Hebrew ...

  9. Pharyngeal related non-lexical vowels in Sephardic Modern Hebrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pariente, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines non-lexical vowels in Sephardic Modern Hebrew. It is argued that two kinds of vowel, which are triggered by the pharyngeal consonants, should be identified: (a) true epenthetic vowels that emerge on the surface to repair illicit (marked) syllable structures. (b) "Echo-vowels"

  10. Late Hebrew Immersion at Mt. Scopus College, Melbourne: Towards Complete Hebrew Fluency for Jewish Day School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, S. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and evaluates a Hebrew immersion program for Jewish day school students at Mt. Scopus College in Melbourne, Australia. Specific sections address the following: (1) the first year; (2) the second year; (3) designing the evaluation of the program; (4) results of the evaluation (including academic outcomes, student and parent…

  11. The Reception of the Classical Ancient Tradition of Consolatio in Medieval Arabic Christian Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseeva Sof'ia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with three texts written in the genre of “consolation”, or consolatio, by the medieval Christian Arab authors Elias al-Jawhari, Severus ibn al-Muqaff a, and Elias bar Shinaya of Nisibis. The goal of this study is to reveal their connection to works of the Arab tradition, including the treatise by the Muslim Arab philosopher al-Kindi. This treatise serves as a link connecting the works of al-Jawhari, ibn al- Muqaff a and bar Shinaya with the Ancient Greek consolatio. The analysis off ered in the paper leads to the conclusion that Christian Arab writers adopted the literary form of the epistolary treatise, but modifi ed its content. All of the three authors theologise the content of consolatio, but choose diff erent strategies. Elias bar Shinaya brings the problem to a generalised ethical level considering it in the context of virtues and vices and organising the material mainly as a collection of sayings and short stories. Elias al-Jawhari and Severus ibn al-Muqaff a try to combine the argumentation typical for ancient consolations with arguments based on texts known to the Christian reader, fi rst and foremost Biblical. Furthermore, Elias al-Jawhari mostly employs themes from the Old Testament that could also be relevant for Muslim readers, whereas Severus ibn al-Muqaff a actively synthesises Classical and Christian material. The latter allows us to suggest the development of a theoretic treatise in the genre of consolatio, containing Christian content for the fi rst time. This paper also puts forward the idea that this phenomenon may be related to the powerful impetus gained by Arab writers during the so-called Abbasid Renaissance.

  12. The medieval Persian manuscript of Afyunieh: the first individual treatise on the opium and addiction in history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavyzadeh, Abdolali; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Zargaran, Arman; Mokri, Azarakhsh; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Naseri, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    According to historical evidence, the abuse of opium has been reported all over the globe-specifically throughout Eastern nations-since the sixteenth century. Before that, opium had mostly been applied as medication. Reference has been made in traditional Persian medical literature to the method of cultivation, properties, side effects and toxicity. In sixteenth century Iran, during the reign of the Safavids, opium abuse began. It was from then that prominent Persian scholars started to think of solutions to this societal problem. One of the most famous scholars was Imad al-Din Mahmud ibn Mas'ud Shirazi, who composed a book concerning addiction-Afyunieh, a comprehensive book on the topic of opium and all issues of opium. Furthermore, he recommended methods for reducing opium dose as well as substitution with other medications that had a narrower range of side effects, in order to eradicate dependency upon opium and opium-derived materials. This is most likely the first book that comprehensively addressed opium and discussed drug rehabilitation methodology, in traditional Persian medical literature. In this historical review, the authors have introduced the book Afyunieh, which presents methods for treating addiction to and giving up opium; the text comprises a synthesis of the author's opinions, professional experience and references to the work of other famous physicians. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Neutron fluctuations a treatise on the physics of branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Pazsit, Imre; Pzsit, Imre

    2007-01-01

    The transport of neutrons in a multiplying system is an area of branching processes with a clear formalism. This book presents an account of the mathematical tools used in describing branching processes, which are then used to derive a large number of properties of the neutron distribution in multiplying systems with or without an external source. In the second part of the book, the theory is applied to the description of the neutron fluctuations in nuclear reactor cores as well as in small samples of fissile material. The question of how to extract information about the system under study is discussed. In particular the measurement of the reactivity of subcritical cores, driven with various Poisson and non-Poisson (pulsed) sources, and the identification of fissile material samples, is illustrated. The book gives pragmatic information for those planning and executing and evaluating experiments on such systems. - Gives a complete treatise of the mathematics of branching particle processes, and in particular n...

  14. [Neurology in medieval regimina sanitatis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Frutos González, V; Guerrero Peral, A L

    2011-09-01

    In medical medieval literature some works about dietetics stand out. Dietetics, as a separate branch of medicine, includes not only food or drinks, but other environmental factors influencing on health. They are known as regimina sanitatis or salutis, and specially developed in the Christian west. They generally consisted of a balance between the Galenic "six non-natural things"; factors regulating health and its protection: environment, exercise, food, sleep, bowel movements and emotions. After reviewing the sources and defining the different stages of this genre, we have considered three of the most out-standing medieval regimina, the anonymous Regimen sanitatis salernitanum, Arnaldo de Vilanova's Regimen sanitatis ad regem aragonum and Bernardo de Gordon's Tractatus of conservatione vite humane. In them we review references to neurological disease. Though not independently considered, there is a significant presence of neurological diseases in the regimina. Dietetics measures are proposed to preserve memory, nerves, or hearing, as well as for the treatment of migraine, epilepsy, stroke or dizziness. Regimina are quiet representative among medical medieval literature, and they show medieval physicians vision of neurological diseases. Dietetics was considered useful to preserve health, and therapeutics was based on natural remedies. 2010 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. The Role of Emergent Bilingualism in the Development of Morphological Awareness in Arabic and Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Taha, Haitham; Assad, Hanan; Khamaisi, Ferdos; Eviatar, Zohar

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of dual language development and cross-linguistic influence on morphological awareness in young bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2). We examined whether (a) the bilingual children (L1/L2 Arabic and L1/L2 Hebrew) precede their monolingual Hebrew- or Arabic-speaking peers in L1 and L2 morphological awareness, and (b) 1 Semitic language (Arabic) has cross-linguistic influence on another Semitic language (Hebrew) in morphological awareness. The study sample comprised 93 six-year-old children. The bilinguals had attended bilingual Hebrew-Arabic kindergartens for 1 academic year and were divided into 2 groups: home language Hebrew (L1) and home language Arabic (L1). These groups were compared to age-matched monolingual Hebrew speakers and monolingual Arabic speakers. We used nonwords similar in structure to familiar words in both target languages, representing 6 inflectional morphological categories. L1 Arabic and L1 Hebrew bilinguals performed significantly better than Arabic- and Hebrew-speaking monolinguals in the respective languages. Differences were not found between the bilingual groups. We found evidence of cross-linguistic transfer of morphological awareness from Arabic to Hebrew in 2 categories-bound possessives and dual number-probably because these categories are more salient in Palestinian Spoken Arabic than in Hebrew. We conclude that children with even an initial exposure to L2 reveal acceleration of sensitivity to word structure in both of their languages. We suggest that this is due to the fact that two Semitic languages, Arabic and Hebrew, share a common core of linguistic features, together with favorable contextual factors and instructional factors.

  16. Treatise on classical elasticity theory and related problems

    CERN Document Server

    Teodorescu, Petre P

    2013-01-01

    Deformable solids have a particularly complex character; mathematical modeling is not always simple and often leads to inextricable difficulties of computation. One of the simplest mathematical models and, at the same time, the most used model, is that of the elastic body – especially the linear one. But, notwithstanding its simplicity, even this model of a real body may lead to great difficulties of computation. The practical importance of a work about the theory of elasticity, which is also an introduction to the mechanics of deformable solids, consists of the use of scientific methods of computation in a domain in which simplified methods are still used. This treatise takes into account the consideration made above, with special attention to the theoretical study of the state of strain and stress of a deformable solid. The book draws on the known specialized literature, as well as the original results of the author and his 50+ years experience as Professor of Mechanics and Elasticity at the University o...

  17. Johannitius (809-873 AD), a medieval physician, translator and author.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfardi, Behnam; Daneshfard, Babak; Nezhad, Golnoush Sadat Mahmoudi

    2016-08-01

    The medieval physician, translator and author Abū Zayd Ḥunayn ibn Isḥāq al-'Ibādī, best known in the West as Johannitius, is considered the best translator of Greek texts, particularly medical writings, into Arabic. He made great inroads in the art of translation in the Islamic world. In addition to his own translations, Johannitius put significant effort into training pupils and passing knowledge about translation to succeeding generations. He was also a great writer, compiling over 100 books on different subjects, especially medical. Among his own works, the illustrious Kitab al-Ashr Maqalat fil-Ayn (Ten Treatises on the Eye) contains the oldest known illustration of the structure of the eye. It served as the primary source for Galen's theory of vision and subsequent use by Western scholars. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Medieval orthopaedic history in Germany: Hieronymus Brunschwig and Hans von Gersdorff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Hans von Gerssdorff and Hieronymus Brunschwig, who flourished in Germany in the latter half of the fifteenth century, have both left early printed treatises on Surgery which give excellent woodcuts showing pictures of instruments, operations, and costumes, at the end of the medieval period. Hieronymus Brunschwig or Hieronymus Brunschwygk (ca. 1450 - ca. 1512), was a German surgeon (wundartzot), alchemist and botanist. He was notable for his methods of treatment of gunshot wounds. His most influential book was the Buch der Cirurgia. Gersdorff(1455-1529) was a military surgeon who gained wide experience during 40 years of campaigning and was an expert in the treatment of battlefield injuries. His work covers anatomy, surgery, leprosy, and glossaries of anatomical terms, diseases, and medications.

  19. Morphological Processing during Visual Word Recognition in Hebrew as a First and a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined whether sublexical morphological processing takes place during visual word-recognition in Hebrew, and whether morphological decomposition of written words depends on lexical activation of the complete word. Furthermore, it examined whether morphological processing is similar when reading Hebrew as a first language (L1)…

  20. Letter-Transposition Effects Are Not Universal: The Impact of Transposing Letters in Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Hadas; Frost, Ram

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effects of letter-transposition in Hebrew in three masked-priming experiments. Hebrew, like English has an alphabetic orthography where sequential and contiguous letter strings represent phonemes. However, being a Semitic language it has a non-concatenated morphology that is based on root derivations. Experiment 1 showed that…

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Hebrew Language Version of the Satisfaction with Life Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaby, Dana; Jarus, Tal; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    The satisfaction with life scale (SWLS) is a widely accepted and widely used tool for measuring well-being. Although its potential as a cross-cultural index is recognized, an introduction and systematic validation of the Hebrew version is needed. Thus, the purpose of this study is: (1) to describe the process of developing the Hebrew version of…

  2. Anterior Weqatal in the Hebrew Bible and the Qumran Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    The first part of this article discusses the phenomenon of anterior weqatal in the Hebrew Bible, a verbal usage that seems to be oddly out of place in the Classical Hebrew system of verbal forms. Various approaches to such occurrences of presumed anterior weqatal are considered, and while some of...

  3. The Role of Emergent Bilingualism in the Development of Morphological Awareness in Arabic and Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Taha, Haitham; Assad, Hanan; Khamaisi, Ferdos; Eviatar, Zohar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of dual language development and cross-linguistic influence on morphological awareness in young bilinguals' first language (L1) and second language (L2). We examined whether (a) the bilingual children (L1/L2 Arabic and L1/L2 Hebrew) precede their monolingual Hebrew- or…

  4. Humoral theory as motivation for anger metaphors in the Hebrew Bible

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reviews the role of the ancient Israelite humoral theory in the motivation of anger metaphors in the Hebrew Bible. It is argued that the role of the folk theory of bodily fluids on the cognitive interpretation of anger in the Hebrew Bible has been underestimated. While the study of universal bodily experience as ...

  5. Family Language Policies, Reported Language Use and Proficiency in Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Children in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Carmit; Burstein Feldman, Zhanna; Yitzhaki, Dafna; Armon Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between family language policy (FLP) and language choice, language use, proficiency in Russian and Hebrew, codeswitching (CS) and linguistic performance was studied in Russian-speaking immigrant parents and their Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children. By means of Glaser's Grounded Theory, the content of sociolinguistic…

  6. The Meanings of Hebrew: Defining Bilingual Education in a Dual-Language Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Using a discourse analytic framework that draws on theories of language ideologies, this paper analyzes the semiotics of a heritage language as it moves from the context of parochial education to the realm of public schooling. Specifically, it examines how Hebrew undergoes resemioticization when a Hebrew language charter school in the District of…

  7. Hebrew Education in the United States: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avni, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article sketches the trajectory of Hebrew education in the United States from the early 1900s to the present. Attending to the historiography of Hebrew education, it shows how current curricula and pedagogical approaches have been stamped by historical considerations and language ideologies, how goals and strategies have changed (or remained…

  8. Classist proofs that “Philosophia” is Hebrew not Greek | Nnaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    :9 ―Niphilaosapher‖ (i.e. numbers that cannot be counted or explained). The study's hypothesis states (1)HO: that all the above Hebrew old Testament words entered Greek from around 300-250BC when the Hebrew-Aramaic Old Testament ...

  9. "A Seed Blessed by the Lord": The Role of Religious References in the Creation of Modern Hebrew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, Iair G.

    2016-01-01

    The nativization of Modern Hebrew at the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth is one of the most commonly cited examples of language planning and (possibly) revival. The Hebrew Language Committee, which was the main body responsible for Hebrew language planning in the formative years 1890-1953, held numerous discussions…

  10. Isaac Newton learns Hebrew: Samuel Johnson's Nova cubi Hebræi tabella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joalland, Michael; Mandelbrote, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This article concerns the earliest evidence for Isaac Newton's use of Hebrew: a manuscript copy by Newton of part of a work intended to provide a reader of the Hebrew alphabet with the ability to identify or memorize more than 1000 words and to begin to master the conjugations of the Hebrew verb. In describing the content of this unpublished manuscript and establishing its source and original author for the first time, we suggest how and when Newton may have initially become acquainted with the language. Finally, basing our discussion in part on an examination of the reading marks that Newton left in the surviving copies of Hebrew grammars and lexicons that he owned, we will argue that his interest in Hebrew was not intended to achieve linguistic proficiency but remained limited to particular theological queries of singular concern.

  11. The Hebrew Language in Quevedo’s España defendida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Cohen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the use of Hebrew in one of the famous writings of Francisco de Quevedo, España defendida. The work considers aspects in the book where Quevedo’s knowledge of Hebrew can be studied from different linguistic perspectives: phonetics, morphology, etymology and, in this specific case, graphematics. Also, in addition to the above, it is interesting to notice how Quevedo is frequently making cultural and literary deductions that, in many cases, are to be considered with his view of Hebrew. Certainly, in the early stages of the work of Quevedo as an author and thinker, he demonstrated a plentitude of exquisite ability of writing about erudite topics. To the point where the analysis of the Hebrew language from socio-linguistic standpoint coincide with his view about the identity of the Spanish people in relation to tradition and religion, from the Hebrews to Christianity and Spain.

  12. Samaria, Samaritans and the Composition of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Examination of supersessionism and competition over cult and belief inherent in narratives and structures of the Hebrew Bible. While discussions over cult  places are presented in a variety of extra-biblical sources as taking place in post-exilic times, biblical narratives anachronistically place...... a north-south competition in a pre-exilic divided Israel, mirrored against the ideal Israel of David (and Solomon), in which Jerusalem plays the role as 'the place Yahweh has chosen'. ...

  13. Medieval monsters, in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a plethora of studies on the medieval monster. These studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of religion, art, literature, and science in the Middle Ages. However, a tendency to treat the medieval monster in purely symbolic and psychological terms ignores the lived experiences of impaired medieval people and their culture's attitudes toward them. With the aid of recent insights provided by disability studies, this article aims to confront "real" medieval monsters--e.g., physically impaired human beings--in both their human and monstrous aspects.

  14. The Logic of Reflection: Samuel Taylor Coleridge's "treatise on Logic"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Janet Sanders

    Though others discuss Coleridge's interest in science, light imagery, the phenomenon of reflection, and his references to Newton and Opticks,^1 this is the first study to examine Coleridge's art in terms of optics, its developing theories, and the nature-of-light debate. This study examines Coleridge's early predilection for visions, illusions, and the supernatural and demonstrates that he gradually shifts from the supernatural to the scientific aspects of "visions" and "illusions," concentrating on causes of illusions and the effects of their deceptive qualities rather than their mystical features. By the 1820's, his preoccupation with illusions had become an interest in optics, fueled, no doubt, by the increasing controversy of the nature-of-light debate and the number of advances in optics resulting from the efforts of its opponents to prove their theories. Tracing the development of the debate, its escalation in the early nineteenth century, and the formation of Coleridge's opinion concerning key issues of the debate, I outline the evolution of Coleridge's theory of reflection and examine the exposition of that theory in his treatise, Logic (1981). Finally, I analyze the relationship between the advances in optics and Coleridge's concepts of thought and knowledge and his notion of the mind as an instrument of knowledge. These ideas in turn, altered his opinions concerning the validity of knowledge resulting from philosophic debate, scientific experiment, and poetic exploration. ftn^1John Beer, "Coleridge and Wordsworth on Reflection," The Wordsworth Circle 20 (1989): 20-29; Coleridge the Visionary. London: Chatto and Windus, 1959; and Coleridge's Poetic Intelligence. London: Macmillan, 1977 and M. H. Abrams Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature. New York: Norton, 1971; and "Coleridge's 'A Light in Sound': Science, Metascience, and Poetic Imagination." The Correspondent Breeze: Essays on English Romanticism. Eds. M. H. Abrams

  15. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient's absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.

  16. Editing Medieval Ashkenazi Masorah and Masora Figurata: Observations on the Functions of the Micrography in Hebrew Manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attia, Elodie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the Subproject B4 of the CRC 933 from Heidelberg University entitled ‘Material Text Culture’. It deals with the material forms of the Bible and its Masorah in Ashkenaz. The MS Vat. Ebr. 14 copied by Elijah ha-Naqdan in 1239 in Northern France offers a great variety of Masoretic notes: regular, ornamental or figurative. This paper presents an extension of the critical edition of Masoretic notes published in the monograph The Masorah of Elijah ha-Naqdan: An Edition of Ashkenazic Micrographical Notes (forthcoming 2015. It assesses here about the praxeological questions of how Figurative Masorah served, in concrete manner, as an aid to the study of the Bible and whether forms and Masoretic contents in these drawings relate to one another or, also, to classical rabbinic sources.Este artículo se enmarca en la Sección B04 del Proyecto CRC 933 de la Universidad de Heidelberg titulado Material Text Culture. Esta sección analiza la forma material de la Biblia y sus masoras en Askenaz, incluyendo el empleo de formas micrográficas figurativas. El ms. Vat. Ebr. 14, copiado por Elijah ha-Naqdan en 1239 en el norte de Francia, presenta una gran variedad de notas masoréticas, figurativas o no. En el presente artículo presentamos solamente las masoras figurativas del códice y nos centramos en sus aspectos praxeológicos, para saber cómo se utilizaban dichas masoras figurativas, si podrían ayudar al estudio de la Biblia y si las formas y los contenidos estaban conectados entre sí o también con fuentes rabínicas clásicas.

  17. Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Magic in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn.......The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn....

  18. (Editors). Dictionaries of Medieval Germanic Languag

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    From 4 to 7 July 1994 the University of Leeds hosted the first International. Medieval Congress. Three sessions were dedicated to "Dictionaries of Medieval. Languages". They dealt with the following themes: "Projects", in which several dictionary projects were presented, "Historical Background", which focuses on.

  19. Medieval Romances: "Perceval" to "Monty Python."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehle, Dorothy M.

    A selection of romances from medieval literature can be used successfully in undergraduate literature classes to trace the appearance and relevance of medieval themes, motifs, and characters in works of modern poetry, fiction, and film. New scholarly editions, historiographies, translations, and modernizations give both teachers and students more…

  20. History of spine biomechanics: part I--the pre-Greco-Roman, Greco-Roman, and medieval roots of spine biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sait; Andalkar, Niteen; Benzel, Edward C

    2007-02-01

    The roots of spine biomechanics reside in the Antiquity and the Medieval and Renaissance periods. A review of historical treatises reveals detailed information regarding this often historically neglected discipline. Ancient medical, philosophical, and physical documents were reviewed, as they pertained to the historical foundation of spine biomechanics. These included medical case reports and observations of nature and motion by ancient philosophers and scientists. These documents heavily influenced the portion of the scientific literature that we now regard as "spine biomechanics" up through the Renaissance. The focus of Part I of this two-part series is placed on the ancient and medieval biomechanics-related literature and on associated literature that influenced the development of the field of modern spine biomechanics.

  1. Medieval theories of mental representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, S

    1998-11-01

    Throughout most of the Middle ages, it was generally held that stored mental representations of perceived objects or events preserved the forms or species of such objects. This belief was consistent with a metaphor used by Plato. It was also consistent with the medieval belief that a number of cognitive processes took place in the ventricles of the brain and with the phenomenology of afterimages and imagination itself. In the 14th century, William of Ockham challenged this belief by claiming that mental representations are not stored but instead constructed in the basis of past learned experiences.

  2. A spectroscopic study of Brazilwood paints in medieval books of hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Maria João; Otero, Vanessa; Vitorino, Tatiana; Araújo, Rita; Muralha, Vânia S F; Lemos, Ana; Picollo, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    In this work, microspectrofluorimetry was for the first time applied to the identification of the red organic lakes that are characteristic of the lavish illuminations found in 15(th) century books of hours. Microspectrofluorimetry identified those red paints, ranging from opaque pink to dark red glazes, as brazilwood lakes. An unequivocal characterization was achieved by comparison with reference paints produced following recipes from the medieval treatise The Book on How to Make Colours, and was further confirmed by fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). For these treasured cultural objects, microspectrofluorimetry and FORS proved to be the only techniques that could identify, in situ or in microsamples, the chromophore responsible for the pinkish hues: a brazilein-Al(3+) complex. Additionally, a multi-analytical approach provided a full characterization of the color paints, including pigments, additives, and binders. Microspectroscopic techniques, based on infrared and X-ray radiation, enabled us to disclose the full palette of these medieval manuscripts, including the elusive greens, for which, besides malachite, basic copper sulfates were found; Raman microscopy suggested a mixture of brochantite and langite. Infrared analysis proved invaluable for a full characterization of the additives that were applied as fillers or whites (chalk, gypsum, and white lead) as well as the proteinaceous and polysaccharide binders that were found pure or in mixture.

  3. Social Perception of Infertility and Its Treatment in Late Medieval Italy: Margherita Datini, an Italian Merchant's Wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2016-12-01

    Because the perception of infertility in medieval Europe ranged from the extremely religious view of it as a malediction of God or the devil's work, to the reasonable medical conception of it as a sort of disease to treat, it is very difficult to determine the general attitudes of ordinary people towards infertility. This article seeks to elucidate the common social perception of infertility and its treatment in late medieval Europe by analyzing the case of Margherita Datini, an Italian merchant's wife who lived in the 1400s. It relies heavily on the documents left by her and her husband, Francesco Datini; the couple left many records, including letters of correspondence between them. Margherita and those around her regarded infertility not as the devil's curse or a punishment by God but as a disease that can be cured. Margherita and her husband, Francesco, tried hard to cure their infertility. They received treatment and prescriptions from several doctors while also relying on folk remedies, religious therapies, and even magical remedies. The comparative analysis of Datini documents, medical books, and theoretical treatises or prescriptive essays by clerics suggests that the general perception of infertility in medieval Europe was located between the extremely religious and modern medical conceptions of it.

  4. Social Perception of Infertility and Its Treatment in Late Medieval Italy: Margherita Datini, an Italian Merchant’s Wife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Kuk NAM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Because the perception of infertility in medieval Europe ranged from the extremely religious view of it as a malediction of God or the devil’s work, to the reasonable medical conception of it as a sort of disease to treat, it is very difficult to determine the general attitudes of ordinary people towards infertility. This article seeks to elucidate the common social perception of infertility and its treatment in late medieval Europe by analyzing the case of Margherita Datini, an Italian merchant’s wife who lived in the 1400s. It relies heavily on the documents left by her and her husband, Francesco Datini; the couple left many records, including letters of correspondence between them. Margherita and those around her regarded infertility not as the devil’s curse or a punishment by God but as a disease that can be cured. Margherita and her husband, Francesco, tried hard to cure their infertility. They received treatment and prescriptions from several doctors while also relying on folk remedies, religious therapies, and even magical remedies. The comparative analysis of Datini documents, medical books, and theoretical treatises or prescriptive essays by clerics suggests that the general perception of infertility in medieval Europe was located between the extremely religious and modern medical conceptions of it.

  5. On Biblical Hebrew and Computer Science: Inspiration, Models, Tools, And Cross-fertilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandborg-Petersen, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Eep Talstra's work has been an inspiration to maby researchers, both within and outside of the field of Old Testament scholarship. Among others, Crist-Jan Doedens and the present author have been heavily influenced by Talstra in their own work within the field of computer science. The present...... of the present author. In addition, the tools surrounding Emdros, including SESB, Libronis, and the Emdros Query Tool, are described. Ecamples Biblical Hebrew scholar. Thus the inspiration of Talstra comes full-circle: from Biblical Hebrew databases to computer science and back into Biblical Hebrew scholarship....

  6. Pripisyvaemyj Robertu Grossetestu traktat o prilivakh %t The treatise on the tides ascribed to Robert Grosseteste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, K. P.

    The publication of the Latin text of the treatise on the tides, ascribed to Robert Grosseteste, and its Russian translation. In 1952, Ezio Franceschini first edited and published the Latin text of the treatise. In 1966, Richard Dales presented a new edition where many defects of the previous edition were corrected. In Dales' edition, the treatise is entitled "Questio de fluxu et refluxu maris". The Latin text of the work used in the present publication repeats almost entirely that of Dales' edition. The Russian translation of the work is published for the first time and is provided with detailed commentary. In the introductory article the problem of authorship is briefly analysed, the time and place of the work's composition is considered. The necessary information concerning the life and works of Robert Grosseteste, Adam Marsh, and Adam Rufus is given in the closing part of the article - each of these masters can be considered as a probable author of the work.

  7. The Hebrew Bible in contemporary philosophy of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Some dialogue among these specialists, especially between biblical scholars and philosophers of religion, is unquestionably long overdue.(Stump 1985:1�Over the last few decades, there has been an increased concern for the establishment of more sustained interdisciplinary dialogue between biblical scholars and philosophers of religion. In this article, aimed at biblical scholars, the author as biblical scholar offers a descriptive and historical overview of some samples of recourse to the Hebrew Bible in philosophical approaches in the study of religion. The aim is to provide a brief glimpse of how some representative philosophers from both the analytic and continental sides of the methodological divide have related to the biblical traditions in the quest for a contemporary relevant Christian philosophy of religion.

  8. SOCIAL PROTECTION – FROM EARLY HEBREW CULTURE TO CONTEMPORARY CIVILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Without the slightest exaggeration we can say that in ancient Israel a complex system of social security was regulated. If that system worked as depicted by the words of Moses and its efficiency are altogether other problems that can make the topic of new research. The disadvantaged categories the Old Testament refers to are not basically different from the persons that make today’s social politics topic, which are: the poor, orphans, widows, emigrants and the sick. Besides, a pericope through Deuteronomy bears the name The Rights of the foreigner, the orphan and widow. It is worth noting that in the Biblical text, the issue of protecting the disadvantaged transcends historical eras. It is found, thus, in the lamentations of the rightful Job, in the thoughts of Solomon and even in the words of our Savior. An everlasting issue to solve which modern approaches should not exclude, in our opinion, is the perennial parts of early Hebrew culture.

  9. Is Hume Attempting to Introduce a New, Pragmatic Conception of a Contradiction in his Treatise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kenneth Schwerin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n3p315 Hume’s Treatise, with its celebrated bundle theory of the self, is a significant contribution to the embryonic Newtonian experimental philosophy of the enlightenment. But the theory is inadequate as it stands, as the appendix to the Treatise makes clear. For this account of the self, apparently, rests on contradictory principles — propositions, fortunately, that can be reconciled, according to Hume. My paper is a critical exploration of Hume’s argument for this intriguing suggestion.

  10. Hebrews 5:7 as the cry of the Davidic sufferer

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    Timothy Bertolet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a better source for the Son’s cry in Hebrews 5:7. It begins by surveying sources previous scholars have identified, including Jesus’ cry in Gethsemane and Golgotha, several Psalms, and the Maccabean martyr literature. It is then argued that these background sources for the language are insufficient. Instead the author of Hebrews has an entire motif from the Psalter as his informing source: the Davidic figure that cries out in trust to be delivered from a death-like experience. Firstly, the motif of the Davidic righteous suffering in the LXX Psalms is demonstrated. Secondly, Hebrews’ use of the Messianic royal figure is demonstrated and thirdly, Hebrews 5:7 as a portrait of the Christ who cries out for deliverance is demonstrated. Thus, Hebrews 5:7 sees the Son as the Davidic king who is the true representative human exercising trust in YHWH, bringing to fulfilment the theme from various Psalms.

  11. Astronomical Beliefs in Medieval Georgia: Innovative Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, Jefferson; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F.

    2014-01-01

    Written sources from medieval Georgia show, among other things, how astronomical ideas were adapted on the periphery of the Byzantine and Islamic worlds. In this paper, we investigate a number of Georgian beliefs about the heavens from a calendrical work and a celestial prognostication text, but also from less expected sources including the medieval life of a saint and an epic poem. For the most part, these sources were derived from Byzantine or Persian models. We show the extent to which the sources nevertheless conform to a specifically Georgian view of the cosmos. We argue that, in so doing, medieval Georgian authors employed several innovative approaches hitherto unnoticed by modern scholars.

  12. The unfolding of God's revelation in Hebrews 1:1–2a | Coetsee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the introduction to his sermon, the writer of Hebrews suggests that God's revelation unfolded from his so-called 'Old Testament' revelation to his 'New Testament' revelation in his Son (Heb. 1:1–2a). By doing a thorough exegesis of Hebrews 1:1–2a, the author's view of such an unfolding revelation is confirmed. From this ...

  13. The Old Testament or Hebrew Bible in Africa: Challenges and prospects for interpretation and translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloo O. Mojola

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Old Testament or Hebrew Bible is much loved in Africa. It is however encountered almost exclusively in translation, either through translation into local indigenous languages or translation into foreign, non-local languages. The source language Hebrew text is inaccessible to the vast majority of readers, including Christian pastors or theological students who would naturally be expected to have access by virtue of their profession. Knowledge of the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible is thus mediated through existing translations and interpretations, and through the popular or scholarly writings of Old Testament or Hebrew Bible experts. In many parts of Africa the latter are in very short supply. This article is an attempt to engage and critically reflect further on some of the issues arising out of this situation with specific reference to the work of Knut Holter, as well as others. This situation and the challenges posed for a full and unencumbered encounter with the Hebrew scriptures and prospects for the future is explored.Intradisciplinary and/or�interdisciplinary�implications: It is expected that the translation of the Hebrew scriptures involves interaction with local cultures and belief systems opening space for new interpretations from the perspectives of local world views and practices. The challenges for local Christian theologies and Christian doctrine in general arising from this are unavoidable.

  14. Quasicrystals in Medieval Islamic Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, and drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. I discuss our recent findings that, by 1200 A. D., a conceptual breakthrough occurred in which girih patterns were reconceived as tessellations of a special set of equilateral polygons (girih tiles) decorated with lines. These girih tiles enabled the creation of increasingly complex periodic girih patterns, and by the 15th century, the tessellation approach was combined with self-similar transformations to construct nearly-perfect quasicrystalline patterns. These patterns have remarkable properties; they do not repeat periodically, and have special symmetry---and were not understood in the West until the 1970s. I will discuss some of the properties of Islamic quasicrystalline tilings, and their relation to the Penrose tiling, perhaps the best known quasicrystal pattern.

  15. Stressing out in medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamble, Julia A.; Boldsen, Jesper L.; Hoppa, Robert D.

    2017-01-01

    with the information from adult skeletal remains, such as age at death. The purpose of this research was to use a life history approach to the exploration of sex differences in the relationship between childhood stress and adult longevity by examining accentuated striae of Retzius (AS). A medieval Danish sample (n......The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired...... = 70) drawn from the rural cemetery of Sejet and the urban cemetery of Ole Wormsgade was considered for AS and age at death. The results suggest sex differences in survivorship, with more stress being associated with reduced survivorship in males and increased survivorship in females. A consideration...

  16. A Medieval Example of Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William S.; Tremblay, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the operation of the trebuchet, a medieval device used to throw objects over castle walls. The trebuchet does not use torsion or elasticity for power, only gravity. Provides mathematical computations to find the velocity of thrown objects. (MVL)

  17. Quantification of virtue in late Medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Simon

    2018-02-01

    Fourteenth century Europe saw a growing interest in quantification. This interest has been well studied by historians of physical sciences, but medieval scholars were also interested in the quantification of psychological qualities. In general, the quantification issues addressed by medieval scholars were theoretical, even (by our standards) mathematical, rather than those of practical measurement. There was recognition that the seriousness of a sin and the penance laid down for it should be proportionate. A number of late medieval scholars were interested in the quantification of caritas, a Latin word that is translatable as charity or loving benevolence. The scholastic interest linked to the practical issue of how caritas might become habitual through the repeated performance of virtuous acts. Gregory of Rimini's treatment of caritas in his commentary on Peter Lombard's Sentences illustrates how one medieval scholar related the quantification of virtue to the quantification of physical qualities such as temperature and luminescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  19. Early European attitudes towards "good death": Eugenios Voulgaris, Treatise on euthanasia, St Petersburg, 1804.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanakis, E; Dimoliatis, I D K

    2007-06-01

    Eugenios Voulgaris (Corfu, Greece, 1716; St Petersburg, Russia, 1806) was an eminent theologian and scholar, and bishop of Kherson, Ukraine. He copiously wrote treatises in theology, philosophy and sciences, greatly influenced the development of modern Greek thought, and contributed to the perception of Western thought throughout the Eastern Christian world. In his Treatise on euthanasia (1804), Voulgaris tried to moderate the fear of death by exalting the power of faith and trust in the divine providence, and by presenting death as a universal necessity, a curative physician and a safe harbour. Voulgaris presented his views in the form of a consoling sermon, abundantly enriched with references to classical texts, the Bible and the Church Fathers, as well as to secular sources, including vital statistics from his contemporary England and France. Besides euthanasia, he introduced terms such as dysthanasia, etoimothanasia and prothanasia. The Treatise on euthanasia is one of the first books, if not the very first, devoted to euthanasia in modern European thought and a remarkable text for the study of the very early European attitudes towards "good death". In the Treatise, euthanasia is clearly meant as a spiritual preparation and reconciliation with dying rather than a physician-related mercy killing, as the term progressed to mean during the 19th and the 20th centuries. This early text is worthy of study not only for the historian of medical ethics or of religious ethics, but for everybody who is trying to courageously confront death, either in private or in professional settings.

  20. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  1. Basic philosophical texts in Medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milosavljević Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Medieval Serbian philosophy took shape mostly through the process of translating Byzantine texts and revising the Slavic translations. Apart from the Aristotelian terminological tradition, introduced via the translation of Damascene’s Dialectic, there also was, under the influence of the Corpus Areopagiticum and ascetic literature, notably of John Climacus’ Ladder, another strain of thought originating from Christian Platonism. Damascene’s philosophical chapters, or Dialectic, translated into medieval Serbian in the third quarter of the fourteenth century, not only shows the high standards of translation technique developed in Serbian monastic scriptoria, but testifies to a highly educated readership interested in such a complex theologico-philosophical text with its nuanced terminology. A new theological debate about the impossibility of knowing God led to Gregory Palamas’ complex text, The Exposition of the Orthodox Faith. Philosophical texts were frequently copied and much worked on in medieval Serbia, but it is difficult to infer about the actual scope of their influence on the formation and articulation of the worldview of medieval society. As a result of their demanding theoretical complexity, the study of philosophy was restricted to quite narrow monastic, court and urban circles. However, the strongest aspect of the influence of Byzantine thought on medieval society was the liturgy as the central social event of the community. It was through the liturgy that the wording of the translated texts influenced the life of medieval Serbian society.

  2. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurice Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27 and 5th (N = 29 grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks, and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks. Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older

  3. Medieval and Post-medieval Turnshoes from Kempten (Allgäu), Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2001-01-01

    In the Mühlberg-Ensemble in Kempten, a group of three late medieval citizen's houses, a complex of concealed shoes was found. The shoes follow the stylistic development between 1470 AD until 1530 AD. The post-medieval ones have not been made in the contemporary welted technique, but stick...

  4. Medieval Stars in Melk Abbey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P. G.; Zotti, G.

    2012-05-01

    Melk Abbey, a marvel of European high baroque architecture, is one of the most frequently visited tourist attractions in Austria, attracting 450 000 visitors each year. The monastery's museum presents selected aspects of Benedictine life in Melk since the monastery's foundation in 1089. After the church, the library is the second-most important room in a Benedictine monastery. Due to the wide scientific interests and contacts of the medieval monks, these libraries also contain manuscripts on mathematics, physics and astronomy. In 2009, the International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009), the annual library exhibition was fully dedicated to astronomical manuscripts and early prints from the past 1000 years. Following earlier research work on astronomical manuscripts in Melk's library, we were invited to organise the exhibition. In addition, we also presented a lecture series and provided more background in an accompanying book. Because of positive feedback from the visitors, the exhibition was extended until March 2011. In the two years of its duration, the exhibition was seen by more than 900 000 visitors. In this article, we describe the background to the scientific project, how the exhibition was organised and lessons learned from this project.

  5. Medievalism: From Ruskin toChesterton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jenko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the topic of medievalism as all existing, still evolving, and future forms of reception of the Middle Ages, focusing primarily on the issues of the term itself and the problems that arise with its definition, its occurrence in John Ruskin’s time, various historical forms, and their variations, especially considering some of the implications of its official or academic aspect – namely, medieval studies in general. Consequently, the article shows that medievalism entails a step beyond or beneath the usual opposition between the real and false Middle Ages. In terms of objectivity as an ideal, as the search or quest for the real Middle Ages (and also as a reaction against subjective receptions, colored by presuppositions, preconceptions, and prejudice, medievalism shifts our perspective on the opposition between the objective and subjective, inaugurating a field of study that centers on the objective-subjective, which should not be seen or taken as a synthesis. Furthermore, it pinpoints a change or shift in the status of truth itself: a truth with no guarantee. Primarily making reference to art history, the article emphasizes the importance of medievalist fantasies and proposes a much needed re-reading of Panofsky’s take on the scholastic habitus. Both terms, fantasy and/or habitus, permeate the field of medievalism, opening what is perhaps the most important question: that of (works of art and materiality.

  6. The Judaeo-Karaite Reception of the Hebrew Bible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabih, Joshua

    DESCRIPTION: The Karaites emerged as a school of thought within Middle Eastern Judaism in the 8th century. The Karaites were a “reading community” whose intellectual activity and daily lives were based around the divine scriptures. Over time Karaism became one of the two main competing schools...... of Judaism in the medieval Arab-Islamic world, notably across Iran, Iraq, the Levant and Egypt. Whilst Rabbinate Judaism emphasised the oral law of the Talmud/Midrash, Karaite Judaism focused on the written law. Much of Karaite classical scholarship remains inaccessible because it is still in manuscript form...... and because it has been and still is considered peripheral and sectarian. This volume presents a critical edition of an anonymous Karaite commentary on the Book of Jeremiah presented in both the original Arabic and in English translation. The volume uses this text to examine the commonalities and differences...

  7. Reading Accuracy and Speed of Vowelized and Unvowelized Scripts among Dyslexic Readers of Hebrew: The Road Not Taken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Katzir, Tami; Shoshan, Noa

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of orthographic transparency on reading ability of children with dyslexia in two Hebrew scripts. The study explored the reading accuracy and speed of vowelized and unvowelized Hebrew words of fourth-grade children with dyslexia. A comparison was made to typically developing readers of two age groups: a group…

  8. Evidence for Language-Specific Influence on the Preference of Stress Patterns in Infants Learning an Iambic Language (Hebrew)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Osnat; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of infants to develop recognition of a common stress pattern that is language specific has been tested mainly in trochaic languages with a strong-weak (SW) stress pattern. The goals of the present study were: (a) to test Hebrew-learning infants on their stress pattern preference in the Hebrew language, for which the…

  9. LAF-Fabric : a data analysis tool for Linguistic Annotation Framework with an application to the Hebrew Bible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk; Kalkman, Gino; Naaijer, Martijn; Cranenburgh, Andreas van

    2014-01-01

    The Linguistic Annotation Framework (LAF) provides a general, extensible stand-off markup system for corpora. This paper discusses LAF-Fabric, a new tool to analyse LAF resources in general with an extension to process the Hebrew Bible in particular. We first walk through the history of the Hebrew

  10. LAF-Fabric: a data analysis tool for Linguistic Annotation Framework with an application to the Hebrew Bible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, D.; Kalkman, G.; Naaijer, M.; van Cranenburgh, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Linguistic Annotation Framework (LAF) provides a general, extensible stand-off markup system for corpora. This paper discusses LAF-Fabric, a new tool to analyse LAF resources in general with an extension to process the Hebrew Bible in particular. We first walk through the history of the Hebrew

  11. The pharmacological treatise (piepsilonrhoí epsilonvphiorhoíov) of Juba II, King of Mauretania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobelli, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Some linguists explain the etymology of the botanical name euphorbion as deriving from the Greek verb phiepsilonrhobetaomega ("nourish, feed"). But according to Pliny this plant was discovered in the Atlas Mountains by Juba II, King of Mauretania, and named after his personal physician, Euphorbos. This paper aims to give credence to Pliny's version. Indeed, Juba described the plant, its latex and its therapeutical applications in a now lost treatise On Euphorbion (piepsilonrhoí epsilonvphiorhobetaioupsilon), which can be reconstructed through Greek and Latin testimonies. This treatise was the beginning of a long standing success. Juba and Euphorbos were living at the time when Greek medicine invaded the Roman world, and they are both representative of this cultural change.

  12. Beautiful Surfaces. Style and Substance in Florentius Schuyl's Illustrations for Descartes' Treatise on Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that the Cartesian bête-machine is the invention of René Descartes (1596-1650) is rarely contested. Close examination of Descartes' texts proves that this is a concept founded not on the basis of his own writings, but a subsequent critical interpretation, which developed and began to dominate his work after his death. Descartes' Treatise on Man, published posthumously in two rival editions, Florentius Schuyl's Latin translation De Homine (1662), and Claude Clerselier's Traité de l'homme, has proved particularly problematic. The surviving manuscript copies of the Treatise on Man left no illustrations, leaving both editors the daunting task of producing a set of images to accompany and clarify the fragmented text. In this intriguing case, the images can be seen to have spoken louder than the text which they illustrated. This paper assesses Schuyl's choice to represent Descartes' Man in a highly stylized manner, without superimposing Clerselier's intentions onto De Homine.

  13. Educating "Good Citizenship" through Bilingual Children Literature Arabic and Hebrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Zamir

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research has been to evaluate the contribution of the genre of bilingual literature, Arabic and Hebrew, to citizenship education. Since the Israeli society is a multicultural society comprised of both nations, Arabs and Jews who live in conflicted environment, one must regard those textbooks as civic agents. Literature is a socialization agent and as such it is an active influential factor in children's mental environment. The responsible citizens act responsibly in their community. They obey rules and regulation, acts kindly to his surroundings and occasionally donates out of their own resources. The participatory citizen actually participates in the social life of the community, at local, state and national levels by joining established systems. The justice citizen calls for attention to matters of injustice and to the importance of pursuing social goals. The content analysis procedure, revealed that most the  stories, hence, ten out the  thirteen  deal  with the  two elevated types  of citizenship,  namely,  the participatory citizen and the justice citizen.  Inspire  of  the  fact   that  we  are  dealing with  children's literature, the  authors  of  bilingual  children literature do not belittle the capacity of  children to  grasp  their role  as citizens in multicultural  society.

  14. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    the disciplines of poetry, history, rhetoric, linguistics, and archaeology. After years of intense critical interest in medieval attitudes towards the classical world, Africa, and the East, this first book-length study of ‘the North’ will inspire new debates and repositionings in medieval studies.......This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... North was an imaginative region, which attracted a number of conflicting interpretations. To Christian Europe, the pagan North was an abject Other, but it also symbolized a place from which ancestral strength and energy derived. Rix maps how these discourses informed ‘national’ legends of ancestral...

  15. Gioacchino Volpe and the medieval religious movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Artifoni

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a widened version of a lecture held in 2005 at the congress: ‘Gioacchino Volpe between past and present’, issued in the volume edited by R. Bonuglia (Rome 2007. It analyzes the main topics present in the work by Gioacchino Volpe: Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana (secoli XI-XIV (‘Religious movements and heretical sects in Italian Medieval society (11th-14th century', of 1922, and connects such essay to the author’s interests for ‘social’ history in the period after the 11th century. It also casts light on the influence of  Volpe’s thesis on many Italian Medieval scholars, who studied the medieval heresies over the 20th century (Morghen, Dupré Theseider, Manselli, Violante.

  16. Mapping Medievalism: An Indigenous Political Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Dion Fletcher

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of Kathryn Brush (ed., Mapping Medievalism at the Canadian Frontier, London Ontario Canada: Museum London and the McIntosh Gallery, 2010. Mapping Medievalism, a collection of essays written by a professor and nine graduate students, is an examination of the role of settlers’ imagination of Europe’s middle ages in the development of Canadian culture. The project aims to be inclusive of Aboriginal histories, and some authors grapple with the colonial implications of the settlers’ imagining of the medieval. This review provides an indigenous political perspective on the book, and argues that some essays provide useful insight into colonial processes. However, some essays approach colonialism in a non-productive fashion and, ultimately, the publication falls short of its aim to be inclusive to Aboriginal histories.

  17. Curriculum Leadership and Teacher Development : Centering upon Fenwick W. English's Treatises on Curriculum Management

    OpenAIRE

    中野, 和光

    2005-01-01

    This paper examined the nature of curriculum leadership based on Fenwick W. English's treatises on curriculum management. English studies educational administration as an interpretive human science and not as a positive science. Interpretation and understanding of human affair is important in human science. And criticism is made much of, too. From this standpoint, he approaches to curriculum management emphasizing the importance of quality management and deep alignment. We need understanding ...

  18. Keynes's theories of money and banking in the Treatise and The General Theory

    OpenAIRE

    John Smithin

    2013-01-01

    This paper identifies what seem to have been the five main issues in contention in monetary theory, both historically and in the current era, and discusses the view that J.M. Keynes took on each of them in the Treatise on Money and The General Theory. The key issues in monetary theory are the ontology of money, endogenous versus exogenous money, interest-rate determination, the choice of the monetary policy instrument, and the neutrality versus non-neutrality of money.

  19. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem (“Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb”) of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12th century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17th century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections. PMID:24669114

  20. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb") of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12(th) century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17(th) century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections.

  1. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an account of selected topics from key mathematical works of medieval Islam, based on the Arabic texts themselves. Many of these works had a great influence on mathematics in Western Europe. Topics covered in the first edition include arithmetic, algebra, geometry, trigonometry, and numerical approximation; this second edition adds number theory and combinatorics. Additionally, the author has included selections from the western regions of medieval Islam—both North Africa and Spain. The author puts the works into their historical context and includes numerous examples of how mathematics interacted with Islamic society.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF RASASASTRA IN MEDIEVAL PERIOD*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harishankar

    1985-01-01

    The paper deals with the historical development of Rasasastra in Medieval period. Knowledge of Rasa has been in existence from the time immemorial. Exploration of natural resources for the benefit of human beings is the object of this therapy. It is a medical science recognized during vedic periods for the betterment of even Devas. Medieval period can be treated as a golden age for the development of this science. Looking at its aim and objects, methodology and therapeutics, it was recognized as a medical science with an independent philosophical background in 14th century, by Madhavacharya in his Sarva Darsana Samgraha. PMID:22557472

  3. The Medieval Dublin Project: A Case Study

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    Niall O'hOisin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the Medieval Dublin Project. It covers the development and release of the DVD ‘Medieval Dublin: From Vikings to Tudors (Schools Edition,’ and outlines the major virtual and interactive features developed for that release. The paper also covers the collaboration that took place between the DVD development team and the academic community and discusses the ways in which 3D visualisations, timelines, interactivity and character-based storytelling were used to present Dublin’s archaeological heritage in an engaging and interesting way

  4. Anthony Davenport. Medieval Narrative – An Introduction

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    Richard TRIM

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This latest book by Tony Davenport represents not only a very useful guide to the different types of narrative associated with the Middle Ages but also succinctly describes their origins in Antiquity as well as linking up the various genres of medieval story-telling to present-day fiction in prose and film. The introductory pages thus give a global picture of narrative both before and after the medieval period and the Middle Ages are thereby not left in a vacuum. Although the focus is on Engl...

  5. Greek Astronomy and the Medieval Arabic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, George

    2002-07-01

    Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages are often credited with preserving the scientific writings of Antiquity through the Dark Ages of Europe. Saliba argues that the medieval Islamic astronomers did far more—actually correcting and improving on Greek astronomy by creating new mathematical tools to explain the motions of celestial objects. These tools were so useful that Copernicus appears to have borrowed them for use in his heliocentric cosmology. In this new light, the medieval Islamic astronomers played a fundamental role in the scientific revolution that was forged in Europe during the Renaissance.

  6. The contemporary in post-medieval archaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura; Penrose, Sefryn

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary archaeology is an emerging field of enquiry within the wider discipline associated with the questioning of temporal boundaries in what we study and why we engage with material remains of the recent past more generally. This article argues that contemporary archaeology should be broadly...... defined at this stage in its development and therefore can be located in Post-Medieval Archaeology through research that explicitly engages with what it is to conduct contemporary archaeology, but also through those implicitly considering how the past intrudes into the present. We believe that Post......-Medieval Archaeology will continue to highlight archaeological studies of the contemporary into the future....

  7. Ritual. Medieval Liturgy and the Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses the combined uses of several media in medieval church rituals. Assessing the application of a (modern) notion of ritual to medieval liturgical ceremonies, it points out how these 'rituals' worked through a sensory combination of words, music, architectural setting......, and movement within that setting. Also visual artefacts and in some cases, the 'sacramental' use of material objects were involved. In a particular ceremony, carried out since Antiquity on the basis of John 13:1-17, the narrative of Jesus washing the feet of the disciples, the singing of chants was combined...

  8. [Aspects of fatigue in medieval anthropology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    König-Pralong, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Psychosomatic sympton of the sinful human soul, progress of natural and progressive wear of the psychic or corporeal machinery, exclusive property of the world of bodies or place of the obligatory link between the intellect and the body, fatigue crosses the philosophical and theological medieval literature. The various treatments of fatigue can, in their turn, serve as symptoms to differentiate the medieval anthropologies. This article presents four of their figures: the anthropology of danger elaborated by Augustin, Greek and Arabe medical diagnosis which is passed on the XIth century, and the readings of Aristotle's psychology by Albert the Great and Thomas Aquinas in the XIIIth century.

  9. The women of Salerno: contribution to the origins of surgery from medieval Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Z A; Ferraris, V A

    1997-12-01

    Medicine in medieval Europe benefited from Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, and Latin influences. Because of geographic and other favorable conditions, many of these cultural contributions synergized to form the Medical School at Salerno around 900 AD. Somewhat uncharacteristically, women physicians played a part in the advances that came from this school. Among the contributions associated with the School of Salerno were (1) textbooks of anatomy, obtained mainly from porcine dissections, (2) insistence on certification and training for physicians, (3) application of investigative thinking and deduction that led to important advances such as the use of healing by secondary intention, (4) the first textbook about women's medicine, and (5) the first recorded female medical school faculty member named Trotula de Ruggiero or Trocta Salernitana. The women physicians of Salerno contributed to a textbook that gained wide acceptance and distribution throughout Europe. The textbook, called De Passionibus Mulierium, was first published about 1100 AD and was a prominent text until a significant revision by Ambrose Paré's assistant in the early 1600s. Paré was the preeminent anatomist of his time, and many of his important anatomic and surgical considerations were directly and indirectly derived from the work of the women of Salerno. The advances first recorded, taught, and implemented by the women of Salerno are an interesting and important part of our surgical heritage.

  10. Medieval Storytelling and Analogous Oral Traditions Today: Two Digital Databases

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    Evelyn Birge Vitz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents two open-access digital databases of video clips of modern performances of medieval narratives and analogous living oral storytelling traditions: Performing Medieval Narrative Today: A Video Showcase and Arthurian Legend in Performance. To help people recognize the performability of medieval narratives, these websites offer examples of medieval-type storytelling that are still alive today in various parts of the world, as well as clips from performances of medieval narrative created by a new generation of storytellers.

  11. The Vicissitudes of a Medieval Japanese Warrior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenbøll, Morten

    2007-01-01

    In standard accounts of medieval Japanese society, enormous stress is put on the conflicts between local landholders (zaichi ryôshu) and absentee proprietors. Fuelled by the debate on feudalism that divided scholars up until the early 1990s, these conflicts have widely been recognised as proof...

  12. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  13. The Role of Morphology in Word Recognition of Hebrew as a Templatic Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oganyan, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Research on recognition of complex words has primarily focused on affixational complexity in concatenative languages. This dissertation investigates both templatic and affixational complexity in Hebrew, a templatic language, with particular focus on the role of the root and template morphemes in recognition. It also explores the role of morphology…

  14. Validation of the Hebrew Version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (H-EAT-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Schechter, Melissa; Flesh-Eyni, Hanna; Litwin, Liat; Makai, Esti; Oestreicher-Kedem, Yael; Yehuda, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is a common disability with different etiologies. In order to measure dysphagia symptom severity and effects on quality of life, the Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) was developed and validated in the English language. We aimed to develop a Hebrew version of the EAT-10 and to evaluate its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and validity in Hebrew-speaking adults with dysphagia. The Hebrew EAT-10 (H-EAT-10) questionnaire was completed by 132 patients: 56 patients with dysphagia and 76 controls. Internal consistency analysis was calculated using Cronbach α, and test-retest reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient in order to assess clinical validity. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were found to be high in the H-EAT-10 (Cronbach α = 0.955 and intraclass correla tion = 0.98). In addition, H-EAT-10 scores in the dysphagia group were found to be significantly higher than those in the control group (p EAT-10 is a reliable and valid tool that may be implemented for clinical practice and research on dysphagia in a Hebrew-speaking population. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Balfour's Mission to Palestine: Science, Strategy, and the Inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Roy

    2008-01-01

    In 1925, A.J. Balfour, first Earl Balfour and author of the famous "Balfour Declaration", attended the inauguration of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. His education and experience of foreign policy equipped him to take a prominent role. However, the conditions of strife-torn Palestine weighed heavily upon him, and raised wider…

  16. Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic in Israel: Linguistic Frameworks and Speech-Language Pathology Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uziel-Karl, Sigal; Kanaan, Fadi; Yifat, Rachel; Meir, Irit; Abugov, Netta; Ravid, Dorit

    2014-01-01

    This article is the result of cooperation between Israeli Jewish and Arab psycholinguists and speech-language disorders specialists. It presents two facets of the Israeli communications disorders scene: (1) a review of some linguistic, psycholinguistic, and sociolinguistic facets of Hebrew and Palestinian Arabic, two Semitic languages whose…

  17. Ethnic reasoning in social identity of Hebrews: A social-scientific study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-21

    Apr 21, 2017 ... ethnic identity (Duling 2010:74–76). The author of Hebrews employs shared historical memory in ... As Johnson has noted, the act of memory is not a simple recall of facts from the past. It is rather making present to ... works for which God will reward them; therefore they should continue to show the same ...

  18. christ as once for all sacrifice: a cultural reading of hebrews

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SACRIFICE: A CULTURAL READING. OF HEBREWS. ABSTRACT. The practice of sacrifices to the ancestors is still prevalent among some African. Christians and it is inspired by various factors such as religious considerations or political aspirations through African renaissance. Furthermore, scholars argue as to whether ...

  19. The Neurologist Lipman Halpern—Author of the Oath of the Hebrew Physician

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    Moshe Feinsod

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipman Halpern was born in 1902 into a family of Grand Rabbis who lived in Bialystok from the mid-nineteenth century. Inspired by his son’s decision to study medicine, Halpern’s father authored a comprehensive and innovative book on medicine according to Rabbinic Law. After completing his initial medical studies in Königsberg, Halpern went on to specialize in neuropsychiatry in Berlin and then in Zurich. In 1934, Halpern immigrated to Eretz-Israel (then Palestine, where he founded and expanded the Department of Neurology at the Hadassah University Hospital in Jerusalem. Under his guidance, the department became a leader in clinical neurology, clinical and basic neurological research, and teaching. For the graduation of the first class of the Faculty of Medicine of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in 1952, he authored the “Oath of the Hebrew Physician,” which went on to become the official oath for all new physicians graduating from Israeli faculties of medicine. Halpern authored many clinical and research articles in English, German, French, and Hebrew. His studies on the relationship between the vestibular, cerebellar, and visual systems resulted in the description of the phenomenon of “monocular disequilibrium” and the “sensorimotor induction syndrome,” also known as “Halpern’s syndrome.” In 1953 he became the first Israel Prize laureate in Medicine. Halpern died in 1968 while serving his second term as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine at Hebrew University.

  20. Ethnic reasoning in social identity of Hebrews: A social-scientific study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... group becomes appreciable and compelling. The article involves the definition of social-scientific criticism, ethnicity and social identity, and discusses the social context of the letter to the Hebrews. It then explains how some social scripts within specific ethnic institutions give meaning to the demands the author makes from ...

  1. Hebrew Brain vs. English Brain: Language Modulates the Way It Is Processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Atira S.; Goelman, Gadi; Frost, Ram

    2011-01-01

    Is language processing universal? How do the specific properties of each language influence the way it is processed? In this study, we compare the neural correlates of morphological processing in Hebrew--a Semitic language with a rich and systematic morphology, to those revealed in English--an Indo-European language with a linear morphology. Using…

  2. Jesus the interceding High Priest: A fresh look at Hebrews 7:25 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to the book of Hebrews, the locus of Jesus' intercession is found in his role as a high priest. Yet neither the Levitical high priest nor Melchizedek, the prototype after which Jesus' priestly function is modelled, interceded in a strict sense of the word. In a context where prayer is seen as an activity that pertains to the ...

  3. Children's Production of Subject-Verb Agreement in Hebrew When Gender and Context Are Ambiguous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karniol, Rachel; Artzi, Sigal; Ludmer, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Third and 5th grade Hebrew-speaking children performed two sentence completion tasks, one requiring the assignment of male, female, or gender-ambiguous names and the inflection of verbs for male-stereotyped, female-stereotyped, and gender-neutral activities, and the other task, of inflecting verbs for male- and female-stereotyped activities…

  4. Hebrew Verbal Passives in Later Language Development: The Interface of Register and Verb Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Vered, Lizzy

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the production of Hebrew verbal passives across adolescence as mediated by linguistic register and verb morphology. Participants aged eight to sixteen years and a group of adults were asked to change written active-voice sentences into corresponding passive-voice forms, divided by verb register (neutral and high),…

  5. Optional Opacity: A Syntactically-Based Analysis of Early Hebrew Verb Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustigman, Lyle

    2015-01-01

    The study aims to account for the distribution of finite versus non-finite verbs during a developmental period when children use both types of verb forms in contexts requiring finiteness. To meet this goal, longitudinal samples from three Hebrew-acquiring children (aged 1;4-2;6) are examined from the onset of verb production and across the…

  6. Evidence for language-specific influence on the preference of stress patterns in infants learning an Iambic language (Hebrew).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Osnat; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2012-10-01

    The ability of infants to develop recognition of a common stress pattern that is language specific has been tested mainly in trochaic languages with a strong-weak (SW) stress pattern. The goals of the present study were: (a) to test Hebrew-learning infants on their stress pattern preference in the Hebrew language, for which the weak-strong (WS) stress pattern is the common one, and (b) to test whether the infants would generalize any preference for the common stress pattern in Hebrew to English words, which belong to a different rhythmic class. Fifty-six 9-month-old Hebrew-learning infants were tested on their preference for SW and WS stress patterns using Hebrew and English bisyllabic words with the head-turn preference procedure. The infants showed preference for WS Hebrew words but not for SW English words. Hebrew-learning infants recognize the common stress pattern in their native language, supporting language-specific distributional learning by infants. This recognition, however, is not generalized to a foreign language with different prosodic characteristics.

  7. The Adaptation of the Treatise on Cold Damage in Eighteenth-century Japan: Text, Society, and Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daidoji, Keiko

    This paper examines how the Shanghanlun , translated as the Treatise on Cold Damage (i.e., the Treatise ), one of the most revered Chinese medical texts of the Han dynasty, was used in Japanese traditional medicine (Kanpō ), and particularly how it was reconfigured to fit with the societal shifts of the Edo period in Japan. The versatility of the Treatise in the formation of Kanpō is exemplified by the medicine of Yoshimasu Tōdō, an innovative eighteenth-century Japanese doctor. In this analysis of Tōdō's unique interpretation of the Treatise , some of his transitional ideas about medicine, the human body, and illness, as well as the transcultural influence from China, will be elucidated. To this end, first Tōdō's application of the Treatise will be re-defined within the historical context of changing medical needs in the consumer society of the Edo period. Secondly, by focusing on the idea of poison that forms the core of Tōdō's theory and practice, I show how his pathology resonated with the period's popular notions of the human body and illness, although it was said at the time to be drawn from Chinese classics. Associating Tōdō's use of the Treatise with such phenomena as the commercialisation and popularisation of medical treatment and the popular imagination of illness, I show the applicability of the Treatise to the evolution of Kanpō in the context of the surrounding social structure and cross-cultural intellectual ebb and flow across East Asia.

  8. The Ionian Muses learn to write: written law and prose treatise in the milesinad and Heraclitus

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    Raúl Caballero

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Throughout s. VI B. C., the first Ionic investigators of the nature chose as way of expression a procedure practically unexplored at that time: the writing in prose. This technology had been only proved previously in the field of the cities written legislation, which liked to use enormous stone inscriptions to show or advertise the laws and community regulations. This publicity was also good to reinforce with the strenght of the lasting thing the civic authority, from which emanated a compulsory law to be carried out. In this work, we try to show that the production and publication ways of the laws were good in certain extent to the first philosophers as reference models for the publication of their own treatises in prose (συγγραφή. That publication existed without a doubt, but it was not claimed by a demand reader mainly, but rather it pursued to reinforce the message locked in the papyrus roll with the authority associated to the written promulgation of the laws. It was, threrefore, a question of symbolic mediation between the philosopher and the city: comparing their work to the law of the city, he claimed the normative and universal force from the cosmos described in the treatise in prose, that enunciated valid laws for all the men and everywhere. In this work, we will explore this hypothesis studying the sociopolitical background that is outlined after the publication of the treatises of Anaximander, Anaximenes and, mainly, Heraclitus. The offering of Heraclitus book to the temple of Artemis in Ephesus can be interpreted from this new perspective.

  9. The Gramática of Nebrija (1492: a didactic treatise and its typography

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    René Pellen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to show the potential interest for linguistic, cultural and socio-historical research of a detailed analysis of the structure and typography of the GC. The aim of this paper is to show the advantages of a system of reference first proposed in v. LXXXIX/2, 2009, of the RFE. Through close examination of its typography, the main characteristics of the text as a didactic treatise soon appear; it also becomes possible to observe certain features of Renaissance prose as it moves towards modern standards (chapter, paragraph, utterances, syntax.

  10. Old Recipes, New Practice? The Latin Adaptations of the Hippocratic Gynaecological Treatises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totelin, Laurence

    2011-01-01

    There were two main gynaecological traditions in the early Middle Ages: the Soranic and Hippocratic traditions. This article focuses on the latter tradition, which was based on the translations into Latin of the Greek treatises Diseases of Women I and II. These translations, referred to here as Latin Diseases of Women and On the Diverse Afflictions of Women, contain a wealth of recipes, which are examined in detail. I ask whether recipes that had been first written down in the fifth century BC could still form the basis of gynaecological practice in the Middle Ages, and whether the act of translation transformed medical practice.

  11. Preparation and properties of thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1982-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 24: Preparation and Properties of Thin Films covers the progress made in the preparation of thin films and the corresponding study of their properties. The book discusses the preparation and property correlations in thin film; the variation of microstructure of thin films; and the molecular beam epitaxy of superlattices in thin film. The text also describes the epitaxial growth of silicon structures (thermal-, laser-, and electron-beam-induced); the characterization of grain boundaries in bicrystalline thin films; and the mechanical properti

  12. Un gobierno medieval en un mundo global.

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    Gisele Becerra

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Colegio Mayor de Nuestra Señora del Rosario is a unique case in the World of corporate governance enduring, by which this university, one of the most prestigious institutions in Colombia, could preserve its culture and medieval tradition in the election of their authorities and governance becoming a modern higher education institution that educate the future social leaders. Nova et Vetera – the New and the Old– the integration of today reality and dynamics, and its future projection, with the more ancient university tradition of the Medieval concept of “Universitas Scholarium” becoming a modern institution of 354 years old. These successful combinations produced by the continuity of traditional corporate governance since 1653 has empowered the institution and permit it to lead the most important intellectual, political and social changes of the country.

  13. Dental caries prevalence of medieval Korean people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sun Sook; Baek, Kyung-won; Shin, Myung Ho; Kim, Jaehyup; Oh, Chang Seok; Lee, Sang Jun; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2010-07-01

    Prevalence and distribution of dental caries in medieval Korean society were evaluated. Two thousand and nine hundred teeth samples of 126 individuals collected from 16th to 18th century Korean tombs. Preservation status of sample was good. The prevalence of ante- and postmortem tooth loss was 4.4% and 14.2%, respectively. The total caries prevalence was 3.9%. The tooth surface most frequently affected by dental caries was occlusal (4.5%), followed by approximal (2.1%), buccal (1.5%), and lingual (1.1%) surfaces. The prevalence of dental caries in Joseon Dynasty skeleton collection was lower than have been found in other collections of similar chronology. The low consumption of refined sugar in medieval Korean society might be a possible explanation, though the technical limitations inherent in such comparison studies preclude definitive conclusions. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    OpenAIRE

    Tadić Milutin; Gavrić Gordana

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11) of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun....

  15. Pedagogy of social transformation in the Hebrew Bible: Allowing Scripture to inform our interpretive strategy for contemporary application

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    Katherine Moloney

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hebrew Bible itself teaches its readers and listeners how to learn. Its pedagogy of social transformation instructs contemporary Christians how to interpret and apply lessons from Scripture in a manner that is consistent with the orientation, priorities and methods inherent in the text. This article demonstrates that relationship and identity are the necessary precursors to biblical education. It then considers the educational perspective for social transformation within the Hebrew Bible. The analysis explores the purpose and process of education for social transformation and the pastorally oriented pedagogy that the Bible utilises to advance moral development and prevent hermeneutic bias. Lastly, the article considers how the narrative, Law, prophets and wisdom texts in the Hebrew Bible train in social critique. This article helps Christians to develop a biblically based hermeneutic of the Hebrew Scripture’s social transformation for application today.

  16. The Treatise on Names from the Nomocanon (Kormchaia of the Kirillo-Belozersk Redaction

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    Elena V. Belyakova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article for the first time publishes the Treatise on Names from the little known redaction of the nomocanon (Kormchaia. In the Treatise the unknown author protests against the widespread use of non-Christian names in his time, such as Tomilo, Shumilo, etc., and he says that it is unacceptable for a Christian to have any name other than the one he received at baptism. He allows adding to the name only some indications of a person’s trade, his fatherland or place of origin. In this article the author analyzes the manuscript tradition of the Kirillo-Belozersk redaction that occurred no later than the first quarter of the 17th century. The redaction is the shortened text of the Canon norms of the Daniil’s redaction. Thus its composition is expanded by sections addressing real-life problems, such as: icons painted by “infidels,” unrighteous wealth, and impious names. The paper also examines the issue of the attribution of the titles of this version, which historians formerly had ascribed to Maximus the Greek.

  17. Insight into the Fulnek Church and Parish Medieval Building Chronology

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    Augustinková Lucie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The church of the Holy Trinity and parish in Fulnek was for nearly four centuries an Augustinian canonry and collegiate church (1293-1389. The medieval church and parish building chronology, however, have not been thus far established. From research between 2015 and 2016 we have been able to identify medieval portions of the buildings, clarify the site medieval construction phases and date the parish buildings (formerly the canonry from dendrochronological analysis of embedded wooden scaffolding.

  18. Disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia

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    Gnjatović Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of this paper is the process of gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbia during the second half of the 14th and the first half of the 15th century. This period is characterized by an appearance of frequent usurpations of the ruling right to mint coinage by local landlords and the attempts of the rulers from Lazarević and Branković families to restore unified monetary system. Common debasements and restorations of silver coinage provoked economic instability and induced frequent turning backwards to the custom of using weighted silver instead of silver coins as commodity monetary standard. The aim of this paper is to explain the reasons for those phenomena. We apply qualitative, historical, empirical analysis where we consider money minting right holders and their decisions to debase and restore the value of silver dinars. We found that gradual disintegration of monetary system of medieval Serbian State continued until the fall of Serbian Despotate as a consequence of political instability following dissolution of medieval Serbian Empire and economic and financial exhaustion of Serbia by Ottoman suzerains.

  19. Geriatric management in medieval Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Morteza; Sadeghpour, Omid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2013-10-01

    In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications.

  20. [Who were the healers in medieval Trondheim?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, K; Westin, S

    1998-12-10

    When Trondheim celebrated its millenium in 1997, this also marked a 1000 year-old medical tradition. In medieval times, sick and disabled people made their pilgrimage to the Nidaros cathedral and the grave of Saint Olav (995-1030). Working from the assumption that every organized society develops rituals and rules to deal with disease and death, we have looked for evidence of what kind of healers one would expect there were in medieval Trondheim up to the reformation in 1537. Sources include reports from archaeological excavations, written material of both medieval and more recent origin, buildings and objects, and living traditions. Three kinds of healer traditions can be identified: The popular and "wise" folk healers were based on traditional pre-Christian mythology and belief in natural forces. The charitable clerics emerged with Christianity. The "professional" wound healers evolved from the needs of the military, later to merge with the early barber surgeons. Traces of scientific traditions, the Salerno school and early European university medicine can be found in local texts, but there is no evidence of any university educated doctor practising in Trondheim before the 17th century.

  1. An Unusual use of the Definite Article in Biblical and Post-Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    1999-01-01

    The article investigates the claim that the definite article in mishnaic Hebrew can be unrelated to determination. This claim is found in the standard grammars of Moshe Azar and in the work of Gabriel Birnbaum. The article argues that this interpretation of the use of the article is based...... on a misunderstanding, and the instances of article use that might seem to be unrelated to determination in fact are perfectly related to determination when analysed carefully....

  2. Hebrew brain vs. English brain: Language modulates the way it is processed

    OpenAIRE

    Bick, Atira S.; Goelman, Gadi; Frost, Ram

    2010-01-01

    Is language processing universal? How do the specific properties of each language influence the way it is processed? In this study we compare the neural correlates of morphological processing in Hebrew – a Semitic language with a rich and systematic morphology, to those revealed in English – an Indo-European language with a linear morphology. Using fMRI we show that while in the bilingual brain both languages involve a common neural circuitry in processing morphological structure, this activa...

  3. A study of color: Uses of לָבָן in the Hebrew Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Santos Carretero

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of color allows us to make assumptions about the correlation (and no correlation between psychological, social, symbolic elements and language itself. And the Hebrew Bible does not escape from this. With regard to the magnitude of this project, this paper reflects the first stage of my work studying colors in the Masoretic text, specifically on לָבָן, term commonly translated as ‘white.’ In addition, there are various verbal forms containing the verbal root לבן. If we compare לָבָן with the rest of terms of color, we find that this is the most common of them all, which makes it to be considered a primary and widely documented term. But its antiquity is also proof of its opacity. A detailed reading of לָבָן reinforces the idea that the translation of this term as ‘white’ is incomplete. It actually refers to something whose chromatism is low but bright at the same time. Such “vague nature” is what makes לָבָן so present throughout the Hebrew Bible. This paper aims to provide a complete picture of the לָבָן in the Hebrew Bible, establishing the sensory chromatic perception of the term.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamus, Dorit; Glasser, Saralee; Langner, Elisheva; Beth-Hakimian, Aliza; Caspi, Israel; Carmel, Narin; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Amir, Hagai; Ziv, A; Papa, M; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2016-06-17

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common health complaints, with lifetime prevalence rates as high as 84%. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is often the measure of choice for LBP in both research and clinical settings and, as such, has been translated into 29 languages and dialects. Currently, however, there is no validated version of Hebrew-translated ODI (ODI-H). To examine the psychometric properties of the ODI-H. Cross-culturally appropriate translation into Hebrew was conducted. A convenience sample of 115 participants (Case Group) with LBP and 68 without LBP (Control Group) completed the ODI-H, SF-36 Health Survey, and two Visual Analog Scales (VAS). Internal consistency was α = 0.94 and test-retest reliability for 18 participants repeating the ODI-H was 0.97. No floor or ceiling effects were noted for Cases, although there was a floor effect for the Control Group. Scores were significantly different for the two groups, indicating discriminant validity. Concurrent validity was reflected by significant correlations with SF-36 scores, particularly the Physical Functioning and Bodily Pain subscales (-0.83 and -0.79, respectively) and with the VAS (0.84 and 0.79). The ODI-H is a valid and reliable measure of low back pain-related disability for the Hebrew-speaking public.

  5. Is the adjective distinct from the noun as a grammatical category in biblical Hebrew?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Miller-Naudé

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The adjective is a beleaguered category in biblical Hebrew grammar with many grammars of biblical Hebrew denying that the adjective is a category distinct from substantives. Within a variety of linguistic theories, the status of the adjective as a grammatical category is also debated. Cross-linguistically adjectives exhibit extraordinary variety: in some languages showing similarities to nouns, in others to verbs and in still others to both nouns and verbs. The debate concerning the status of the adjective is mirrored by the broader debate within contemporary linguistics concerning how the issue of grammatical categorisation ought to be approached. In this article, we re-examine the question of whether or not the adjective is a distinct grammatical category from the noun in biblical Hebrew. We approach the question of the status of the adjective as a grammatical category from two perspectives: morphology and syntax.

  6. Ethnic reasoning in social identity of Hebrews: A social-scientific study

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    Seth Kissi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity reasoning offers one way of looking at social identity in the letter to the Hebrews. The context of socio-economic abuse and hardships of the audience creates a situation in which ethnicity in social identity becomes an important issue for the author of Hebrews to address. This article is a social-scientific study which explores how the author establishes the ethnic identity of the audience as people of God. While this ethnic identity indicates the more privileged position the readers occupy in relation to the benefits of God accessible to them, it also provides the author with the appropriate social institutions and scripts by which his demand for appropriate response to God and the Christian group becomes appreciable and compelling. The article involves the definition of social-scientific criticism, ethnicity and social identity, and discusses the social context of the letter to the Hebrews. It then explains how some social scripts within specific ethnic institutions give meaning to the demands the author makes from his readers.

  7. Validation of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Werner, Perla; Davidson, Michael; Schmidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy

    2003-05-01

    The validity of the Hebrew version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified (TICS-m) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), for dementia, and for cognitive impairment (either MCI or dementia) was investigated. Of the 10 059 who took part of the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease Cohort, 1902 of the 2901 survivors in 1999 had TICS-m interviews. Those with a score of 27 or below and a random sample with a score of 28 or 29 were invited to have a physician's examination for the diagnosis of dementia. The analysis was performed on the 576 who agreed. Based on physician's diagnosis, 269 were diagnosed as suffering from dementia, 128 as suffering from MCI, and 179 were diagnosed with no cognitive impairment. The TICS-m Hebrew version's internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98) and showed a strong convergent validity with the MMSE (r = 0.82; p education and hearing impairment, TICS-m was a strong predictor of dementia, MCI and cognitive impairment. At a cut-off of 27/50 the Hebrew version of the TICS-m is a useful screening instrument to identify subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment, dementia and cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia). Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Psychometric properties of the hebrew translation of the patient activation measure (PAM-13).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnezi, Racheli; Glasser, Saralee

    2014-01-01

    "Patient activation" reflects involvement in managing ones health. This cross-sectional study assessed the psychometric properties of the Hebrew translation (PAM-H) of the PAM-13. A nationally representative sample of 203 Hebrew-speaking Israeli adults answered the PAM-H, PHQ-9 depression scale, SF-12, and Self-efficacy Scale via telephone. Mean PAM-H scores were 70.7±15.4. Rasch analysis indicated that the PAM-H is a good measure of activation. There were no differences in PAM-H scores based on gender, age or education. Subjects with chronic disease scored lower than those without. Scores correlated with the Self-efficacy Scale (0.47), Total SF-12 (0.39) and PHQ-9 (-0.35, PPAM-H score of those who scored below 10 (72.1±14.8) on the PHQ-9 (not depressed) compared to those scoring ≥10 (i.e. probable depression) (59.2±15.8; t 3.75; P = 0.001). The PAM-H psychometric properties indicate its usefulness with the Hebrew-speaking Israeli population. PAM-H can be useful for assessing programs aimed at effecting changes in patient compliance, health behaviors, etc. Researchers in Israel should use a single translation of the PAM-13 so that findings can be compared, increasing understanding of patient activation.

  9. Oral-diadochokinetic rates for Hebrew-speaking healthy ageing population: non-word versus real-word repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Icht, Michal

    2017-05-01

    Oral-diadochokinesis (oral-DDK) tasks are extensively used in the evaluation of motor speech abilities. Currently, validated normative data for older adults (aged 65 years and older) are missing in Hebrew. The effect of task stimuli (non-word versus real-word repetition) is also non-clear in the population of older adult Hebrew speakers. (1) To establish a norm for oral-DDK rate for older adult (aged 65 years and older) Hebrew speakers, and to investigate the possible effect of age and gender on performance rate; and (2) to examine the effects of stimuli (non-word versus real word) on oral-DDK rates. In experiment 1, 88 healthy older Hebrew speakers (60-95 years, 48 females and 40 males) were audio-recorded while performing an oral-DDK task (repetition of /pataka/), and repetition rates (syllables/s) were coded. In experiment 2, the effect of real-word repetition was evaluated. Sixty-eight older Hebrew speakers (aged 66-95 years, 43 females and 25 males) were asked to repeat 'pataka' (non-word) and 'bodeket' (Hebrew real word). Experiment 1: Oral-DDK performance for older adult Hebrew speakers was 5.07 syllables/s (SD = 1.16 syllables/s), across age groups and gender. Comparison of this data with Hebrew norms for younger adults (and equivalent data in English) shows the following gradient of oral-DDK rates: ages 15-45 > 65-74 > 75-86 years. Gender was not a significant factor in our data. Experiment 2: Repetition of real words was faster than that of non-words, by 13.5%. The paper provides normative values for oral-DDK rates for older Hebrew speakers. The data show the large impact of ageing on oro-motor functions. The analysis further indicates that speech and language pathologists should consider separate norms for clients of 65-74 years and those of 75-86 years. Hebrew rates were found to be different from English norms for the oldest group, shedding light on the impact of language on these norms. Finally, the data support using a dual-protocol (real- and non

  10. Magna Carta: Teaching Medieval Topics for Historical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Scott Alan

    2010-01-01

    The Middle Ages are an immensely important era in the Western experience. Unfortunately, medieval studies are often marginalized or trivialized in school curriculum. With the approach of the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta, the famous charter of rights from medieval England, one has a timely and useful example for considering what a focus on…

  11. Locality and Distance in Cults of Saints in Medieval Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2017-01-01

    A discussion of the Norwegian medieval cult of the purported Irish St Sunniva, a cult in which holiness is seen as foreign and distant in the cultural memory of the saint.......A discussion of the Norwegian medieval cult of the purported Irish St Sunniva, a cult in which holiness is seen as foreign and distant in the cultural memory of the saint....

  12. Renewing Audience Response in Study of Medieval Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David V.

    Although modern readers often find the interpretation of medieval literature difficult, they should be encouraged to use their imagination to resolve the dilemmas they encounter. Often, these are the same issues with which medieval audiences had to wrestle and which the poets intended to raise. W. Iser's and H. R. Jauss's principles of…

  13. The Contemporary Evidence for Early Medieval Witchcraft-Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, ATP

    2011-01-01

    'The Contemporary Evidence for Early Medieval Witchcraft-Beliefs' is a note drawing attention to a group of early medieval texts relevant to the history of European witchcraft, and the reasons why they have been overlooked. The main texts are the Life of St Samson, the Old English medical text Wið færstice and the Life of St Swithun.

  14. Clinical practice guidelines as learned treatises: understanding their use as evidence in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recupero, Patricia R

    2008-01-01

    It is important for forensic experts to understand how clinical practice guidelines may enter the courtroom, what role they may play in a trial, and how they relate to expert testimony. Guidelines enter the record in several different ways and in several types of cases, typically with the assistance of an expert witness. A common vehicle for their introduction is the learned-treatise exception to the hearsay rule. Case law before and after Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. helps to elucidate the scrutiny that courts may direct toward medical texts proffered as evidence. This article discusses the implications of different rules and relevant case law for the forensic psychiatrist. The discussion notes important considerations for the expert witness, such as how guidelines may affect the expert's role, concerns about the reliability and relevance of scientific evidence, and questions about whether guidelines will be used for inculpatory or exculpatory purposes in medical malpractice trials.

  15. Patchwork protein chemistry: a practitioner's treatise on the advances in synthetic peptide stitchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzele, Dieter; Madder, Annemieke

    2013-06-17

    With the study of peptides and proteins at the heart of many scientific endeavors, the omics era heralded a multitude of opportunities for chemists and biologists alike. Across the interface with life sciences, peptide chemistry plays an indispensable role, and progress made over the past decades now allows proteins to be treated as molecular patchworks stitched together through synthetic tailoring. The continuous elaboration of sophisticated strategies notwithstanding, Merrifield's solid-phase methodology remains a cornerstone of chemical protein design. Although the non-practitioner might misjudge peptide synthesis as trivial, routine, or dull given its long history, we comment here on its many advances, obstacles, and prospects from a practitioner's point of view. While sharing our perspectives through thematic highlights across the literature, this treatise provides an interpretive overview as a guide to novices, and a recap for specialists. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Narrative and Cultural History in the Hippocratic Treatise On Ancient Medicine

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    Marco Romani Mistretta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ‘history of medicine’ outlined by the author of the Hippocratic treatise On Ancient Medicine, in order to reflect on the relationship between medicine and narrative in Classical Greece. At the outset of the work, the author provides an account of the beginnings of his discipline, conceiving of medicine’s history as a continuum of research and findings that unravel the nature of the human body and the cause of diseases. As this paper shows, the physician-narrator assigns to his craft a crucial role in fostering the birth and progress of human civilization. The rhetorical goals of the historical account are, as I argue, attained through a subtle narrative strategy. In fact, the narrator locates the origins of medicine within a teleological framework, marked by strong emphasis on the heuristic method that characterizes the past, the present, and the future of medical knowledge at once.

  17. Mathematical instrumentation in fourteenth-century Egypt and Syria the illustrated treatise of Najm al-Din al-Misri

    CERN Document Server

    Charette, F

    2003-01-01

    An illustrated Arabic treatise, with an English translation and detailed commentary, on the construction of over 100 various astronomical instruments, many of which are otherwise unknown to specialists. It was composed by Najm al-Din al-Misri, a rather shadowy figure, in Cairo around 1330 CE.

  18. Nicole Oresme's, De visione stellarum (On seeing the stars) a critical edition of Oresme's treatise on optics and atmospheric refraction

    CERN Document Server

    Burton, Dan

    2006-01-01

    A translation of ""On Seeing the Stars"", Nicole Oresme's 14th-century treatise on atmospheric refraction, in which Oresme uses optics and infinitesimals to help solve the problem of astronomy, while proposing that light travels along a curve through the atmosphere.

  19. Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2014-08-01

    This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise.

  20. Critical Review ofRasaratna Samuccaya: A Comprehensive Treatise of Indian Alchemy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumersingh Rajput, Dhirajsingh; Gokarn, Rohit; Jagtap, Chandrashekhar Y; Galib, R; Patgiri, B J; Prajapati, P K

    2016-01-01

    Rasaratna Samuccaya (RRS) a 13 th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin. This text throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy regarding the extraction, purification, conversion of metals/minerals into therapeutically suitable forms, various instruments developed for alchemical purposes and treatment of numerous diseases by using herbo-mineral preparations. The present work is an attempt to summarize the key features of RRS to highlight its utility and contribution in the development of Indian alchemy. To study and summarize the important, comprehensive and specific points mentioned in RRS and to elaborate the contribution of RRS in the field of Indian alchemy. A critical review of RRS from Suratnojjvalā Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri was done and the collected information was compared with other available literature of Rasaśāstra . Research of modern science was also utilized to explore some facts mentioned by Vāgbhaṭa. RRS is a precise treatise among available ancient literature. It comprises of all eight branches of Ayurveda, although it mainly deals with therapeutic aspects of Rasaśāstra and emphasizes the use of metals and minerals in treating nearly 68 types of ailments. It contains 30 chapters, 3871 verses and detailed description of 960 formulations. Classification of metals and minerals; description of some new instruments, formulations and averting use of metals and minerals in pregnancy are the key features of RRS.

  1. Critical Review of Rasaratna Samuccaya: A Comprehensive Treatise of Indian Alchemy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirajsingh Rajput Sumersingh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rasaratna Samuccaya (RRS a 13th century C.E. alchemical treatise, authored by Vāgbhaṭa, is a useful compilation related to preparation and properties of drugs of mineral and metallic origin. This text throws light on the state of Indian expertise in the field of alchemy regarding the extraction, purification, conversion of metals/minerals into therapeutically suitable forms, various instruments developed for alchemical purposes and treatment of numerous diseases by using herbo-mineral preparations. The present work is an attempt to summarize the key features of RRS to highlight its utility and contribution in the development of Indian alchemy. To study and summarize the important, comprehensive and specific points mentioned in RRS and to elaborate the contribution of RRS in the field of Indian alchemy. A critical review of RRS from Suratnojjvalā Hindi commentary by Ambikadatta Shastri was done and the collected information was compared with other available literature of Rasaśāstra. Research of modern science was also utilized to explore some facts mentioned by Vāgbhaṭa. RRS is a precise treatise among available ancient literature. It comprises of all eight branches of Ayurveda, although it mainly deals with therapeutic aspects of Rasaśāstra and emphasizes the use of metals and minerals in treating nearly 68 types of ailments. It contains 30 chapters, 3871 verses and detailed description of 960 formulations. Classification of metals and minerals; description of some new instruments, formulations and averting use of metals and minerals in pregnancy are the key features of RRS.

  2. Artificios pasados. Nociones del Derecho medieval

    OpenAIRE

    Dell’Elicine, Eleonora; Fossier, Arnaud; Madero, Marta; Martin, Céline; Meccarelli, Massimo; Miceli, Paola; Morin, Alejandro; Roumy, Franck; Théry, Julien

    2017-01-01

    En la larga historia de Occidente, el derecho fue y sigue siendo el medio por excelencia para la construcción institucional. A partir de montajes hechos de palabras, proferidas por quien tiene el poder para hacerlo, el derecho tiene la singularidad de promover existencia a lo que ellas enuncian. Esta capacidad de artificio que contiene el discurso jurídico se remonta a la tradición latina, romana y medieval, que designaba al derecho como un arte, un saber sistemático y técnico que moviliza...

  3. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... North was an imaginative region, which attracted a number of conflicting interpretations. To Christian Europe, the pagan North was an abject Other, but it also symbolized a place from which ancestral strength and energy derived. Rix maps how these discourses informed ‘national’ legends of ancestral...

  4. Embroided Portraits in the Romanian Medieval Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Marghidan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available If the artistic value of the Romanian medieval embroidery is obvious, it is no less real its documentary value. Most embroided portraits are made on liturgical pieces and they are a proof of the relationship of the rulers with the Orthodox Church. The position of the characters is a mute way of communicating the status that the voievod had. The vertical rigid representations, kneeling, the gestures of the palms and elbows, the beneficence objects, the way characters are grouped, the proportion or their placement in the work can be symbolically interpreted depending on the type of the Liturgical item on which the embroidery was done.

  5. Voluntarism and realism in medieval ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldane, J

    1989-01-01

    In contrast to other articles in this series on the history of moral philosophy the present essay is not devoted to expounding the views of a single author, or to examining a particular moral theory. Instead it discusses an important dispute between two medieval accounts of the relation between theological and moral propositions. In addition to its historical interest this debate is important both because it connects earlier and later ethical thought--being influenced by Greek moral theories and influencing subsequent European philosophy--and because it concerns issues that remain important to philosophers and to those who claim that their ethical beliefs are dictated by religious convictions. PMID:2926786

  6. Modeling plague transmission in Medieval European cities

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Katharine Rose

    2015-01-01

    The Black Death pandemic swept through Europe during the Middle Ages leading to high mortality from plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. How the disease was transmitted in Europe is not fully elucidated, and prior to the identification of the bacterium in medieval tooth samples, the nature of the pandemic led to speculation that the Black Death was not the same disease as current-day plague. In the classical mode of transmission to humans, black rats act as an intermediate host an...

  7. Alfonso X y el teatro medieval castellano

    OpenAIRE

    Humberto López Morales

    1991-01-01

    En la primera de las Partidas de Alfonso X se encuentra una ley que prohíbe a los clérigos participar en los juegos de escarnio, asistir a ellos en calidad de espectadores o que se celebren en las iglesias, y en cambio les anima a intervenir en representaciones piadosas y edificantes, aunque con algunas restricciones. La postura que casi sin excepción han tomado los estudiosos e historiadores de nuestro teatro medieval ha sido la de otorgar a este texto carácter de prueba fehaciente de la exi...

  8. Medieval bindings: stiff board structures in Slovenian manuscript collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedert Vodopivec

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research of particular binding structures in extant Slovene medieval codices. The research is limited only to stiff-board bound medieval manuscript collections in Slovenian public archives and libraries. The research synthetically presents particular structures, binding techniques and materials on medieval manuscripts bound or rebound before 16th century. The basis of the research is a census of extant medieval bookbinding monuments, which includes all obtainable data, sketches, pencil rubbings, and photographs. The paper aims to present the methodology of work used in the research as well as the process of formulating description form related to conservation bookbinding. The paper closes with observations and conclusions drawn from the analysis of the Slovenian collection of medieval codices.

  9. Quomodo decoretur pictura librorum: materiales y técnicas de la iluminación medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroustallis, Stefanos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The illumination of manuscripts was one of the most important sumptuary arts from the 6th to the 13th centuries, due to the symbolic and material value of the illuminated codex. As one of the tempera painting techniques, illumination followed the same guidelines regarding the preparation and use of pigments and colorants, taking into account the peculiarities of a flexible support such as parchment. The paper will study the materials and techniques of medieval illumination, using as primary sources contemporary treatises on art technology. These technical data will be associated with documentary information regarding the concept and work of the painterilluminator in order to highlight the importance of one of the main ars mecanicae in the Middle Ages.La iluminación de los manuscritos ha sido una de las artes suntuarias más importantes a lo largo de los siglos VI-XIII tanto por el valor simbólico como material del códice iluminado. Como técnica pictórica al temple, ha seguido las pautas de este tipo de pintura respecto a los pigmentos y colorantes empleados, así como su preparación y aplicación, teniendo siempre en cuenta las peculiaridades de un soporte flexible como es el pergamino. En el presente trabajo se estudiarán las sustancias colorantes y las técnicas de la iluminación medieval, empleando como fuente diversos tratados de tecnología artística. Estos datos técnicos se han relacionado con información documental sobre el concepto y el trabajo del pintoriluminador para resaltar, precisamente, la importancia de una de las mayores ars mecanicae en la Edad Media.

  10. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelouahed, H. Ben, E-mail: habdelou@cern.ch [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Gharbi, F. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Roumie, M. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Baccouche, S. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia); Romdhane, K. Ben [Faculte des lettres et des sciences humaines, Universite de Tunis (Tunisia); Nsouli, B. [IBA Laboratory, Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission, National Council for Scientific Research, 11-8281, Beirut (Lebanon); Trabelsi, A. [Centre National des Sciences et Technologies Nucleaires (CNSTN), Pole technologique, 2020 Sidi Thabet, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-01-15

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135{sup o} to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  11. Some more earthquakes from medieval Kashmir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Bashir; Shafi, Muzamil

    2014-07-01

    Kashmir has the peculiarity of having written history of almost 5,000 years. However, the description of earthquakes in the archival contents is patchy prior to 1500 a.d. Moreover, recent search shows that there exist certain time gaps in the catalogs presently in use especially at medieval level (1128-1586 a.d.). The presence of different ruling elites in association with socioeconomic and political conditions has in many ways confused the historical context of the medieval sources. However, by a meticulous review of the Sanskrit sources (between the twelfth and sixteenth century), it has been possible to identify unspecified but fair number (eight seismic events) of earthquakes that do not exist in published catalogs of Kashmir or whose dates are very difficult to establish. Moreover, historical sources reveal that except for events which occurred during Sultan Skinder's rule (1389-1413) and during the reign of King Zain-ul-Abidin (1420-1470), all the rediscovered seismic events went into oblivion, due mainly to the fact that the sources available dedicated their interests to the military events, which often tended to overshadow/superimpose over and even concealed natural events like earthquakes, resulting in fragmentary accounts and rendering them of little value for macroseismic intensity evaluation necessary for more efficient seismic hazard assessment.

  12. Episodes in the mathematics of medieval Islam

    CERN Document Server

    Berggren, J L

    1986-01-01

    From the reviews: The book is, in spite of the author's more modest claims, an introductory survey of main developments in those disciplines which were particularly important in Medieval Islamic mathematics...No knowledge of mathematics (or of the history of mathematics) beyond normal high-school level is presupposed, and everything required beyond that (be it Apollonian theory of conics or the definitions of celestial circles) is explained carefully and clearly. Scattered throughout the work are a number of lucid remarks on the character of Islamic mathematics or of mathematical work in general. The book will hence not only be an excellent textbook for the teaching of the history of mathematics but also for the liberal art aspect of mathematics teaching in general. - Jens Høyrup, Mathematical Reviews ...as a textbook, this work is highly commendable...It is definitely the product of a skillful mathematician who has collected over the years a reasonably large number of interesting problems from medieval Arab...

  13. PIXE analysis of medieval silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelouahed, H. Ben; Gharbi, F.; Roumie, M.; Baccouche, S.; Romdhane, K. Ben; Nsouli, B.; Trabelsi, A.

    2010-01-01

    We applied the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analytical technique to twenty-eight medieval silver coins, selected from the Tunisian treasury. The purpose is to study the fineness evolution from the beginning of the 7th to the 15th centuries AD. Each silver coin was cleaned with a diluted acid solution and then exposed to a 3 MeV proton beam from a 1.7 MV tandem accelerator. To allow the simultaneous detection of light and heavy elements, a funny aluminum filter was positioned in front of the Si(Li) detector entrance which is placed at 135 o to the beam direction. The elements Cu, Pb, and Au were observed in the studied coins along with the major component silver. The concentration of Ag, presumably the main constituent of the coins, varies from 55% to 99%. This significant variation in the concentration of the major constituent reveals the economical difficulties encountered by each dynasty. It could be also attributed to differences in the composition of the silver mines used to strike the coins in different locations. That fineness evolution also reflects the poor quality of the control practices during this medieval period. In order to verify the ability of PIXE analytical method to distinguish between apparently similar coins, we applied hierarchical cluster analysis to our results to classify them into different subgroups of similar elemental composition.

  14. Diagnosing ADHD in Israeli adults: the psychometric properties of the adult ADHD Self Report Scale (ASRS) in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Ada H; Konfortes, Hani

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of diagnosing ADHD in adults, while acknowledging the many attendant difficulties. The paper presents results from two studies implementing the Adult ADHD Self Report Screen (ASRS) in Hebrew. The Hebrew version of the ASRS as approved by the World Health Organization is appended to this paper. The first of the two studies used a paper and pencil version of the ASRS (ASRS_PP) and the second used a computer administered version (ASRS_C). A subset of the participants in the two studies was given both versions. The Hebrew ASRS had excellent test-retest reliability. It had good internal consistency in both forms. Support for the validity of the Hebrew ASRS is given by the significantly higher scores of adults with ADHD versus those without, on both versions of the ASRS and on all of its subscales. The sensitivity of the raw sum of all 18 items was significantly higher than that of the 6-item screen suggested by the authors of the ASRS. The sensitivity and specificity of the ASRS in Hebrew should be further examined in future studies including clinically referred participants. The benefit of using the ASRS as part of the diagnostic process for adult ADHD is discussed.

  15. Between L2 and SLI: Inflections and Prepositions in the Hebrew of Bilingual Children with TLD and Monolingual Children with SLI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Verb inflectional morphology and prepositions are loci of difficulty for bilingual children with typical language development (TLD) as well as children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). This paper examines errors in these linguistic domains in these two populations. Bilingual English-Hebrew and Russian-Hebrew preschool children, aged five…

  16. Vernacular Authorship in Late Medieval Religious Discourse. The Case of William Flete’s Remedies against Temptations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the main topic of William Flete’s Remedies against Temptations was a pivotal concern of late medieval spiritual literature and the treatise in letter form was widely circulated in both Latin and English, it has remained rather marginal to critical discourse. Neither epistolary space as the site of interaction author/audience nor the role of spiritual authorities in establishing themselves as real authors of religious texts as distinguished from compilers and scribes have been specifically investigated. The paper focuses on the dialogic construction of the authorial voice in William Flete’s Remedies against Temptations through the analysis of the linguistic and discursive strategies used in the vernacular version of this work of spiritual advice. The most relevant strategy is the choice of the letter format to address a female audience as it allows to transfer authoritative religious discourse into English and to assert the writer’s status of author of a text addressed to both religious women and the lay public. In addition, the paper aims at highlighting the relevance of stylistic analysis to delineate the construction of the textual vernacular author in the context of audience recognition. In addressing a non-academic public, the author of one of the English versions of Remedies against Temptations engages with Latin learning and asserts himself as the author of a vernacular theology text.

  17. Abu-Sahl al-Masihi (died circa 1010 AD): The Persian physician in the early medieval era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi-Shirazi, Maryam; Ghods, Roshanak; Hashem-Dabaghian, Fataneh; Zargaran, Arman

    2018-01-01

    In the early medieval era, in the time which is called the Islamic Golden Age, medicine flourished through the practice of Persian physicians (9th to 12th century AD). Abu-Sahl al-Masihi (died circa 1010 AD) was one of the physicians in that period who had great influence on the progress of medicine by his own writings as well as his influence on great scholars like Biruni and Avicenna as their teacher. He was a polymath and had many writings in various fields of science, in particular medical sciences. Some of his manuscripts in medicine were Al-Mia fil-Tibb (Book of the Hundred), Kitab al-Teb al-Koli (The General Medicine), Ezhar al-Hekmat Allah Ta'ala fi Khalgh al-Ensan (God's Mystery on the Creation of Man), Resalat al-Adwiya (Treatise of Drugs), Osool Elm Nabz (the Principles of Pulse), and Resala f ī Taḥqiq Amral-Waba' (On the determination of the matter of infectious diseases). As a sign of his impact in Persian medicine, many later physicians (until 19th century) referred to and cited his works in their manuscripts several times.

  18. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many......” by Baggesen, in turn based on German and English sources. Anna Maria Lenngren followed with several ballads, often based on Danish sources. One more purely Swedish medieval ballad is “Varulven”. From 1810 unto 1971 thirteen versions of this Swedish ballad was discovered and printed. I place the focus...

  19. The Vorlage of Psalm 45:6-7 (44:7-8 in Hebrews 1:8-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Steyn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The origin and text form of Psalm 45:6-7 (44:7-8 in Hebrews 1:8-9 are investigated. On a tradition-historical level it is established that Psalm 45:1-2b was quoted in 4Q171 in early Judaism, but in early Christianity, prior to Hebrews, no evidence of quoting Psalm 45 has been found. Messianic connections might have prompted the author to use it. On a text-critical level, new manuscript evidence is assessed and variant readings are discussed. It is concluded that the author himself made minor changes to his text without following another Vorlage. Insofar as Jesus is being called “God” by God himself, Psalm 45 confirmed to the author of Hebrews the divinity of Jesus. The royal imagery, righteous rule and eternal throne are christologically applied.

  20. Erōs and chorasis in Plotinus’ Treatise On Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Weiss

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the role of Love as the relation of the Soul to the object of its love – supreme Beauty. Since this relation comes into existence as an act of contemplation, the driving force behind the Plotinian emanation process, the study pays particular attention to Plotinus’ contemplation theory, where Eros, as the Soul’s Eye, plays an important role. While the word ‘relation’ normally implies only the existence of the two related realities, Plotinus’ Love-Relation is itself a substance (οὐσία. Secondly, the article confronts the challenge posed by the Plotinian allegorical interpretation of various myths and allegories, especially Plato’s, related to the figure of Eros as god and daemon. The most controversial point of Plotinus’ interpretation is his inclusion of Eros, a ‘mixed’ and imperfect reality, in the emanation process, by representing the god Eros (Love, the son of Afrodite (the Soul, as actively involved in her contemplation of supreme Beauty. By itself, this point would present no problems, had not Plotinus included in his doctrine of the Soul’s contemplation Plato’s allegorical figure of Penia (Poverty, which is, in the Symposium, the cause of the imperfect and dissatisfied nature of Love the daemon. It is no wonder, then, if one of the most eminent experts on Plotinus, A. H. Armstrong, opined (in a single note, which, however, reverberated in other editions of this treatise that Plotinus may have gone beyond all his attested doctrines here. The article tries to dispel this doubt by showing that Plotinus’ symbolism of Penia is supported by his doctrine of noetic matter, adducing precisely his contemplation theory, according to which the unlimited, undefinable quality appears at the very core of the emanation process. Plotinus’ treatise on Eros, which begins as a commentary on one of Plato’s passages, thus develops into a multilayered theory of a substantialised relation of the Soul

  1. The concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible � A comparative-philosophical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus W. Gericke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief comparative philosophical clarification of the concept of wisdom in the Hebrew Bible. Utilising the format of a presentation presented by Ryan (2008, four philosophical definitions of wisdom were compared with similar sentiments in ancient Israelite religion: (1 wisdom as epistemic humility, (2 wisdom as factual knowledge, (3 wisdom as useful knowledge, and (4 wisdom as successful living. Cumulatively the four criteria might approximate a functional list of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for instantiating the property of being wise.

  2. A study of color: Uses of לָבָן in the Hebrew Bible

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Santos Carretero

    2017-01-01

    The study of color allows us to make assumptions about the correlation (and no correlation) between psychological, social, symbolic elements and language itself. And the Hebrew Bible does not escape from this. With regard to the magnitude of this project, this paper reflects the first stage of my work studying colors in the Masoretic text, specifically on לָבָן, term commonly translated as ‘white.’ In addition, there are various verbal forms containing the verbal root לבן. If we compare לָבָן...

  3. Auditory working memory and early reading skills in Hebrew-speaking preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Yifat, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that different subcomponents of auditory working memory are differentially related to early reading skills was tested in 63 Hebrew speaking 4-year-old children, using a battery of early reading (phonological processing and familiarity with written language) and memory (simple and complex spans) tasks. Complex spans accounted for significant amounts of variance on both facets of early reading even after the contribution of simple spans was accounted for. These findings suggest that the unique contribution of complex working memory to early reading can be identified as early as preschool and that the structure of correlations between reading and memory is similar across ages.

  4. Orientation of medieval churches of Morava school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Milutin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the mathematical and topographic analysis of orientation of the most significant churches (11 of Morava school, the last style in architecture of medieval Serbia whose executors were chief architects. The deviation from equinox East of the main axis of each church and the dates when the Sun rises on the physical horizon, in the extension of the main axis, have been calculated. These were the dates when the church could have been oriented towards the rising Sun. This possibility has been ruled out for four churches. As for the other churches, the matching of the mentioned dates with the patron’s days wasn’t established. The churches in monasteries Ljubostinja and Kalenic are oriented with astronomical precision towards equinox East, an admirable fact considering the tools available to the builders. Rade Borovic, the only chief architect who put his signature on his work, was the chief architect of Ljubostinja.

  5. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  6. A Treatise for A New Age in Economic Theory: A Review of George Reisman's Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Kraus

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available George Reisman’s magnum opus Capitalism: A Treatise on Economics is a monumental attempt at theoretical integration of leading economic phenomena into one unified whole. Few such books have been published in the history of economics. Still fewer of them contain a comparable proportion of path-breaking innovations both in approach and substance that are integrated in a tightly-spun system of thought that Capitalism does. Yet despite its numerous path-breaking contributions to economic theory, the book has attracted virtually zero attention from the scientific community. History shows that for the most part this has been the fate of all great innovations in science. This review attempts (a to point out reasons why the book’s content is revolutionary, and (b to finally start a serious discussion of its substantive ideas. Specifically, the review focuses in some detail on some of Reisman’s most important innovations which all point the way to a wholly new direction in economic theory that promises to provide the hitherto unseen conformity with empirical reality, analytical rigor, and doctrinal integration.

  7. Ibn Tufail as a SciArtist in the Treatise of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Maftouni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ibn Tufail as a scientist as well as an artist exposes the issues of human anatomy, autopsy, and vivisection and, thereby, could be regarded as a SciArtist. SciArt might be defined as a reciprocal relation between art and science. Followings are the kinds of these interactions: artistically-inclined scientific activities,science-minded artistic activities, and intertwined scientific and artistic activities. In their fictional treatises, Avicenna, Ibn Tufail, and Suhrawardi are traditional avatars of SciArt. This paper frames an account of SciArt, suggesting in detail Ibn Tufail’s work as a prototypical example, while Avicenna and Suhrawardi go beyond the scope of this paper. An instant of intertwined scientific and artistic activities strongly captivates the attentions to Ibn Tufail, describing human anatomy, autopsy, and vivisection in his Treatiseof Hay Ibn Yaqzan. Recognized as the first philosophical story, Hay Ibn Yaqzan depicts the whole philosophy of Ibn Tufail by the story of an autodidactic feral child a gazelle raised whom in an island in the Indian Ocean.

  8. Descriptions and Images of the Early Medieval Latin Abacus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otisk, Marek

    -, č. 7/11/ (2015), s. 13-35 ISSN 2080-492X Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : early medieval abacus * Bernelius of Paris * Richer of Reims * computation * numeration Subject RIV: AB - History

  9. Chronic otitis media sequelae in skeletal material from medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, M; Grøntved, A M

    2001-01-01

    be useful in the gross evaluation of general standard of living. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Temporal bones and auditory ossicles from 659 individuals from two Danish medieval rural parish cemeteries, dated to 1050-1200 and 1150-1350, respectively, were examined otomicroscopically. RESULTS: Osseous fistulae from...... of infectious middle ear disease in early medieval Denmark were found. This may reflect a deterioration of living conditions from the 11th through the 14th centuries....

  10. Historical fencing and scientific research medieval weapons: common ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Hrynchyshyn

    2015-07-01

    We considered various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. It is proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods The various approaches to the reconstruction of the historical fencing. Proved that the activities of such societies has a positive effect on the process research of features of medieval weapons, fighting tactics of different periods.

  11. A panorama of tooth wear during the medieval period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, Rémi; Hadjouis, Djillali; Donat, Richard; Passarrius, Olivier; Maret, Delphine; Vaysse, Frédéric; Crubézy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Tooth wear is a natural phenomenon and a universal occurrence that has existed from the origin of humankind and depends on the way of life, especially diet. Tooth wear was very serious in ancient populations up to the medieval period. The aim of this paper is to present a global view of tooth wear in medieval times in Europe through different parameters: scoring systems, quantity and direction of wear, gender, differences between maxilla and mandible, relations with diet, caries, tooth malpositions and age.

  12. The medieval architecture of the Mendicant orders in Silesia

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this dissertation thesis is medieval architecture of mendicant orders in Silesia and focuses on convent churches of the Minorites and Dominicans. The chosen subject has not been hitherto treated in detail in specialized literature neither in Polish, German or Czech art history. Mendicant orders in Silesia are studied especially by historians who research into medieval history of these orders and, above all, the formation and development of order provinces. The focal points of t...

  13. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, Graham N.; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E.

    2011-01-01

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined...

  14. Why We Need a Medieval Narratology: A Manifesto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva von Contzen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the growing interest in diachronic approaches and the historicizing of narratology, a medieval narratology is called for which systematically scrutinizes medieval forms and functions of narration. In the first part of the article, the problems of applying classical narratological theories to medieval literature are sketched, as well as the reasons for the relative invisibility of the narratological studies already conducted by medievalists. In the second part, the main parameters of a medieval narratology are outlined by means of selected sample analyses across a range of genres. A medieval narratology, it is argued, requires necessary shifts and modifications of existing theories, but also an open dialogue between the disciplines. Both narratologists and medievalists can profit from such an endeavor, which does not reject classical and post-classical theories. Rather, it is based on an informed understanding of the historical grounding of narrative forms and their place in the history of literature. The essay rounds off with a proposal of “Ten Theses for a Medieval Narratology”.

  15. [THE NEW HADASSAH-HEBREW UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTER: A LEADER IN ISRAELI PUBLIC MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mevorach, Dror; Leibergall, Meir; Rothstein, Zeev

    2018-03-01

    Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center is regaining its lead in Israeli public medicine with clinical excellence, state-of-the art technology, high achievement in research, and outstanding medical education for students and trainees. Hadassah has two campuses at Ein Kerem and Mount Scopus that together offer 1200-hospital beds and 40 hybrid and advanced operating rooms. Hadassah Medical Center, an initiative of Hadassah organization led by Henrietta Szold, is one of the foremost health care providers in Israel. Together, the Hebrew University and Hadassah are home to Schools of Medicine, Pharmacy, Nursing, Public Health, Occupational Therapy, and Dental Medicine. The medical school enrolls over 1000 medical students including a special track for military physicians. Hadassah opened the new Davidson medical tower in 2012 and the development of new infrastructure continues for Centers of Excellence in Surgery, Oncology, Hematology, and Medicine, for the benefit of the public in greater Jerusalem and all of Israel. In this journal, we will present 12 articles that represent the integration of state-of-the-art clinical medicine and research technologies, all dedicated to advancing medicine for the people of Israel.

  16. Reading Sacred Texts in the Classroom: The Alignment between Students and Their Teacher's Interpretive Stances When Reading the Hebrew Bible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassenfeld, Ziva R.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the voices of students interpreting Hebrew Bible texts in one fourth-grade classroom. Through think-alouds on the Biblical text with each student, exit interviews, teacher interviews, and classroom observations, this study found that those students whose interpretive stances were more aligned with the teacher's were given…

  17. Family Language Policy: A Case Study of a Russian-Hebrew Bilingual Family--Toward a Theoretical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeliovich, Shulamit

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an in-depth, small-scale qualitative study of a Hebrew-Russian bilingual family with 8 children, and compares the parents' perspective on the family language policy with their children's evaluation of it. Spolsky's (2004, 2009) model of language policy enables tracing the development of the parents' language…

  18. "Why Do We Know Hebrew and They Do Not Know Arabic?" Children's Meta-Linguistic Talk in Bilingual Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mila; Gorbatt, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Language-focused listening to young children's talk provides insight into their internal thinking mechanisms regarding language as they engage in language learning. The aim of this exploratory longitudinal study was to examine and analyze children's meta-linguistic talk and its main characteristics in a bilingual Arabic-Hebrew-speaking preschool.…

  19. [The anti-philosophical anthropology in the Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Masahiro

    2007-01-01

    The Hippocratic treatise De Vetere Medicina (On Ancient Medicine) has been the focus of attention among classical scholars and historians of medicine. The author attacks in ch. 20 doctors and sophists who base their own medical theories and methods on philosophical anthropology taken from the contemporary natural philosophers. Many attempts have been made to elucidate, as opposed to their philosophical inquiry into human nature, the author's way of understanding it, which still remains unclear. I draw attention to the following points to make it clear that the conceptual framework of the author's medical anthropology is different from theirs. Their philosophical inquiry into human nature has its starting point in fundamental element(s), from which human beings were originally formed. The author focuses on human beings as existent in their present states, whose conditions and functions must be investigated through interrelations between them and their external factors, such as foods and drinks. A medical investigation into the interrelations will give us a scientific idea about human body, whose constituents are taken to be a large number of humors, reacting against some external factors and accordingly making us feel pain. This may presuppose that, in the author's medical anthropology, human body is conceptually demarcated as the physical or material aspect of human being, within which all physiological events depending on external factors and the humors take place. In their philosophical anthropology, however, human body doesn't seem to have been clearly conceptualized as such, because our experience of feeling pain should be judged to take place within the actions of the fundamental element(s), which must be supposed to constitute our cognitive self.

  20. Jeffrey Burns: The music of psalms, Proverbs and Job in the Hebrew bible : A revised theory of musical accents in the Hebrew bible ; general analysis, bibliography, table of contents CD with complete text and audio files of musically reconstructed psalms, proverbs and Job, sung by computer speech synthesis \\ [rezensiert von] Zsolt Balla

    OpenAIRE

    Balla, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    rezensiertes Werk: Jeffrey Burns: The music of psalms, Proverbs and Job in the Hebrew bible : A revised theory of musical accents in the Hebrew bible ; general analysis, bibliography, table of contents CD with complete text and audio files of musically reconstructed psalms, proverbs and Job, sung by computer speech synthesis. Wiesbaden : Harrassowitz Verlag, 2011. 169 S. ISBN 978-3-447-06191-9

  1. Light - Shadow Interactions in Italian Medieval Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, Manuela

    In the relationship between architecture and the sky, it is possible to identify three different design issues. The first regards the alignment of buildings with visible points on the horizon that coincide with the rising or setting of a celestial body (sun, planets, stars, or moon) on particular dates during the astronomical year (or liturgical year for sacred buildings). The second is the relationship between planimetric design and the design of the elevations. We are all familiar today with several "light effects", which sometimes have almost hierophanic characteristics that, on certain days of the year, were used to engross, captivate, and amaze the spectator. Contrary to the first two issues, the third comes after the design and building stages and concerns the question of decorative elements. It is reasonable to believe that many years after the works were terminated, certain wall finishings were chosen over others, such as painted frescoes or statues. Whoever did this was fully aware, thanks to direct observation, that such decoration would be struck by a single ray of light on a specific day. This chapter examines light-shadow interactions in some Italian medieval churches.

  2. El simbolismo animal en la cultura medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordar un tema tan amplio y complejo como el de la simbología animal en los siglos medievales en un espacio tan corto, me obliga a seleccionar los puntos prioritarios a tratar. En primer lugar adelanto que el trabajo aquí presentado es parte de una línea de investigación más amplia sobre culturas zoológicas en la España medieval, entendiendo comparativamente a la cristiana, a la musulmana y a la judía. Como se sabe, la zoohistoria y sus implicaciones en la vida del Inombre —sobre todo esto último— es una especialidad cada vez más cultivada dentro de la investigación reciente, también para la Edad Media. La simbología, dentro de aquella especialidad, resulta uno de los aspectos más sugerentes, y en estas líneas queremos plantear los puntos más relevantes de esta contribución.

  3. Multiscale Pigment Analysis of Medieval Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Erica; Manukyan, Khachatur; Wiescher, Michael; Gura, David

    2017-09-01

    Three medieval illuminated manuscripts (codd. Lat. b. 1; Lat. b. 2; Lat. e. 4), housed at the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library, vary in style, pigments, scribes, and regions, despite all three being Psalters used in the Late Middle Ages. XRF and Raman spectroscopy, which provided the elemental and molecular composition of the pigments, respectively, were used to analyze the pigments' compositions in an attempt to narrow further the manuscripts' possible origins. This experimental investigation emphasizes the importance of understanding the history of the manuscript through their pigments. Codd. Lat. b. 1 and Lat. b. 2 are Latinate German Psalters from the fifteenth century likely used in Katharinenkloster in Nuremberg. While there are visible differences in style within each Psalter, the variations in some of the pigment compositions, such as the inconstant presence of zinc, suggest different admixtures. Cod. Lat. e. 4 is a Latinate English Psalter from the fourteenth century, and it was written by two scribes and illuminated by two distinct painters. It is currently being tested to determine whether there are any correlations between the scribes and painters. These physical analyses will clarify the origins and provenances of the manuscripts.

  4. 78 FR 28274 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Medieval Treasures from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Medieval Treasures from Hildesheim... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Medieval Treasures from Hildesheim,'' imported...

  5. Representations of Lancet or Phlebotome in Serbian Medieval Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajić, Sanja; Jurišić, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    The topic of this study are representations of lancet or phlebotome in frescoes and icons of Serbian medieval art. The very presence of this medical instrument in Serbian medieval art indicates its usage in Serbian medical practices of the time. Phlebotomy is one of the oldest forms of therapy, widely spread in medieval times. It is also mentioned in Serbian medical texts, such as Chilandar Medical CodexNo. 517 and Hodoch code, i.e. translations from Latin texts originating from Salerno-Montpellier school. Lancet or phlebotome is identified based on archaeological finds from the Roman period, while finds from the Middle Ages and especially from Byzantium have been scarce. Analyses of preserved frescoes and icons has shown that, in comparison to other medical instruments, lancet is indeed predominant in Serbian medieval art, and that it makes for over 80% of all the representations, while other instruments have been depicted to a far lesser degree. Examination of written records and art points to the conclusion that Serbian medieval medicine, both in theory and in practice, belonged entirely to European traditions of the period.

  6. The first cosmetic treatise of history. A female point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, P; Proto, M C; Patruno, C; Del Sorbo, A; Bifulco, M

    2008-04-01

    The Schola Medica Salernitana was an early medieval medical school in the south Italian city of Salerno and the most important native source of medical knowledge in Europe at the time. The school achieved its splendour between the 10th and 13th centuries, during the final decades of Longobard kingdom. In the school, women were involved as both teachers and students for medical learning. Among these women, there was Trotula de Ruggiero (11th century), a teacher whose main interest was to alleviate suffering of women. She was the author of many medical works, the most notable being De Passionibus Mulierum Curandarum (about women's diseases), also known as Trotula Major. Another important work she wrote was De Ornatu Mulierum (about women's cosmetics), also known as Trotula Minor, in which she teaches women to conserve and improve their beauty and treat skin diseases through a series of precepts, advices and natural remedies. She gives lessons about make-up, suggests the way to be unwrinkled, remove puffiness from face and eyes, remove unwanted hair from the body, lighten the skin, hide blemishes and freckles, wash teeth and take away bad breath, dying hair, wax, treat lips and gums chaps.

  7. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkibi, Hod

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a short Hebrew version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory that can be easily administered by health professionals in research, therapy, and counseling. First, the empirical links of time perspective (TP) to subjective well-being and health protective and health risk behaviors are reviewed. Then, a brief account of the instrument's previous modifications is provided. Results of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 572) verified the five-factor structure of the short version and yielded acceptable internal consistency reliability for each factor. The correlation coefficients between the five subscales of the short (20 items) and the original (56 items) instruments were all above .79, indicating the suitability of the short version for assessing the five TP factors. Support for the discriminant and concurrent validity was also achieved, largely in agreement with previous findings. Finally, limitations and future directions are addressed, and potential applications in therapy and counseling are offered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman-Ovadia, Hadassah; Balducci, Cristian; Ben-Moshe, Tali

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Hebrew version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS-10), developed by Schaufeli, Shimazu, and Taris (2009). Three hundred fifty-one employees completed a questionnaire measuring workaholism; of these, 251 employees completed questionnaires measuring work engagement, job satisfaction, overcommitment, and burnout. The results confirmed the expected two-factor structure of workaholism: working excessively and working compulsively. Strong correlations were obtained between self-reports and peer-reports, and satisfactory correlations were obtained between the first and second administrations of the DUWAS-10. Furthermore, DUWAS-10 scores showed predictable relations with actual number of hours worked per week, work engagement, job satisfaction, overcommitment, and burnout. Interestingly, despite working fewer hours per week, women reported higher levels of workaholism in comparison to men, and managers reported higher levels of workaholism in comparison to nonmanagerial employees.

  9. The Implications of The Sociopolitical Context on Arab Teachers in Hebrew Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Y. Brosh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of Arabic in Israel by a native speaker is unique; it has ramifications different from the teaching of, say, English by a native speaker. It is not just the nativity issue per se but, even more, the interaction between the native speaker and the status and role of the language in society in a given context. This paper investigates the extent to which language teachers from one ethnic group can integrate themselves into another ethnic group and still effectively teach their language. The paper describes how contextual variables impact the ability of the native language teacher to work in a nonnative educational network under conditions of cultural and political duress. In particular, the paper highlights the special circumstances confronting an Arab language teacher teaching Arabic in Israeli Hebrew schools, and the effects that this native teacher has on a learner's motivation to acquire the language in the first place. The teaching of Arabic in Israel by a native speaker is unique; it has ramifications different from the teaching of, say, English by a native speaker. It is not just the nativity issue per se but, even more, the interaction between the native speaker and the status and role of the language in society in a given context. This paper investigates the extent to which language teachers from one ethnic group can integrate themselves into another ethnic group and still effectively teach their language. The paper describes how contextual variables impact the ability of the native language teacher to work in a nonnative educational network under conditions of cultural and political duress. In particular, the paper highlights the special circumstances confronting an Arab language teacher teaching Arabic in Israeli Hebrew schools, and the effects that this native teacher has on a learner's motivation to acquire the language in the first place.

  10. Morphosyntactic constructs in the development of spoken and written Hebrew text production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravid, Dorit; Zilberbuch, Shoshana

    2003-05-01

    This study examined the distribution of two Hebrew nominal structures-N-N compounds and denominal adjectives-in spoken and written texts of two genres produced by 90 native-speaking participants in three age groups: eleven/twelve-year-olds (6th graders), sixteen/seventeen-year-olds (11th graders), and adults. The two constructions are later linguistic acquisitions, part of the profound lexical and syntactic changes that occur in language development during the school years. They are investigated in the context of learning how modality (speech vs. writing) and genre (biographical vs. expository texts) affect the production of continuous discourse. Participants were asked to speak and write about two topics, one biographical, describing the life of a public figure or of a friend; and another, expository, discussing one of ten topics such as the cinema, cats, or higher academic studies. N-N compounding was found to be the main device of complex subcategorization in Hebrew discourse, unrelated to genre. Denominal adjectives are a secondary subcategorizing device emerging only during the late teen years, a linguistic resource untapped until very late, more restricted to specific text types than N-N compounding, and characteristic of expository writing. Written texts were found to be denser than spoken texts lexically and syntactically as measured by number of novel N-N compounds and denominal adjectives per clause, and in older age groups this difference was found to be more pronounced. The paper contributes to our understanding of how the syntax/lexicon interface changes with age, modality and genre in the context of later language acquisition.

  11. "Treatises on Earthquakes" in late Renaissance (16th-17th cent), at the roots of historical seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, P.

    2009-04-01

    It was soon after the damaging November 1570 earthquake at Ferrara, Northern Italy, that the academic Stefano Breventano from Pavia, a small town in Northern Italy as well, started to compose his "Treatise on the earthquake". Completed by September 1576, this 250-page manuscript was to remain unpublished for centuries. The critical edition recently appeared (Albini, 2007) was a due tribute to the remarkable amount of information put together by Breventano, an otherwise "obscure" literate who, before getting involved with earthquakes, had published a history of the antiquities and remarkable events at his hometown Pavia (1570). Indeed, he was not the first Renaissance author to pursue the goal of checking into the historical sources of the previous centuries in search of earthquakes and other natural phenomena. What is outstanding in his "Treatise" is that he suceeded in retrieving information on more than two hundred earthquakes, along two thousand years, between 504 B.C. and 1575 A.D., covering the whole Euro-Mediterranean region, and the West Indies in early 16th century. Breventano's essay is here presented, together with a comparison between his style and amount of information with those included in the work by the contemporary British author Stephen Batman, "The Doome warning all men to the Judgement" (1581). A later treatise is presented also, the work by Marcello Bonito (1690) "Terra Tremante [Trembling Earth]", which could easily be defined as a worldwide list of earthquakes. In structure and content, Bonito's work goes along the same lines of Breventano, and could be considered a precursor of today descriptive catalogues, because of his outstandingly modern approach that paved the way to modern historical seismology.

  12. Women performers and prostitutes in Medieval India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Shadab

    2012-01-01

    Music and dance, the esoteric performing arts, were markers of culture in medieval India. A number of these differing forms developed into well-recognized and reputed arts over time. The practitioners were, accordingly, regarded as agents of refinement and culture. At the same time, music and dance were also among the most popular forms of entertainment and physical pleasure. This aspect remained crucial in classifying musicians, singers and dancers as entertainers, alongside prostitutes. While the labelling together might have reduced the status of performers at times, the labelling hardly remained fixed. Certain practitioners, even if involved in practices otherwise considered immoral, could remain within the elite circle, while for others the ‘evil’ characteristics got emphasized. There were, within the class of women who prostituted themselves, courtesans trained in the skills of music and dancing and educated in the fine arts, who were treated more as embodiments of culture. These categories—artists, skilled entertainers, courtesans—were quite fluid, with the boundaries seemingly fused together. Still, there were certainly some distinctions among the categories and those did not totally disappear, affording sanctity and purity to certain kinds of performers and allowing them to claim distinctiveness. Notably, the class of courtesans clearly stood apart from the common prostitutes. The attempt in this article is to look at different categories of women performers and prostitutes, their apparent coalescing boundaries and specialities as a separate group, their societal position, their shifting roles and the changes that affected their status. In this, it is worthwhile to consider the state’s attitude towards them, besides societal views that remained quite diverse.

  13. Research output in medieval and crusades studies 1981-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Kjersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the numerical research output of crusade studies over the past thirty years. The article compares its findings to the output of medieval studies in general in the same period. It shows in detail how the applied bibliometric statistics are generated and elaborates on some...... of the methodological considerations necessary in carrying out this kind of quantitative research. On the basis of bibliometric statistics generated from the International Medieval Bibliography (IMB) and Bibliographie de Civilisation Médiévale (BCM), the article identifies a numeric decrease in research output both...... in crusade studies in particular and in medieval studies in general. The article proposes further discussion on the “why” and “how” of this somewhat surprising result....

  14. Role of Light - Shadow Hierophanies in Early Medieval Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataoguz, Kirsten

    In the early Middle Ages, solar observance shaped the art and architecture of Christian churches in primarily three ways. First, medieval writers from across the Mediterranean often related dramatic lighting effects to alignment with the rising sun on astronomically and liturgically significant days. Second, in still-surviving pictorial compositions, light coming in through strategically placed windows aligned with the east-west axis stands in for Christ in a variety of recognizable compositions. Third, archaeoastronomers have hypothesized that select medieval pictorial programs were coordinated with fenestration to spotlight-specific scenes and figures on specific days and at specific hours.

  15. Tuberculosis in early medieval Switzerland--osteological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christine; Fellner, Robert; Heubi, Olivier; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Lesions consistent with skeletal tuberculosis were found in 13 individuals from an early medieval skeletal sample from Courroux (Switzerland). One case of Pott's disease as well as lytic lesions in vertebrae and joints, rib lesions and endocranial new bone formation were identified. Three individuals with lesions and one without were tested for the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) ancient DNA (aDNA), and in two cases, evidence for MTBC aDNA was detected. Our results suggest the presence of tuberculosis in the analysed material, which is in accordance with other osteological and biomolecular research that reported a high prevalence of tuberculosis in medieval skeletons.

  16. Ideal kingship in the late medieval world: The Ottoman case

    OpenAIRE

    Yelçe, Zeynep Nevin; Yelce, Zeynep Nevin

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the characteristics of the ideal ruler as seen through the eyes of the members of late medieval societies. Throughout the study, main features attributed to the ideal ruler in various cultures have been pursued. Comparing the concepts and attributes apparent in these cultures, it has become possible to talk about a single ideal of kingship as far as the "Christian" and "Muslim" realms of the late medieval era is concerned. The early Ottoman enterprise has b...

  17. The Facts of Life before God and the Prophetic Peculiarity. Three Illness Narratives of the Hebrew Bible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Forsling

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hebrew Bible (Old Testament is a canonical text for many including its portrayals of illness. This article explores the narrative representation of illness in three longer narratives in the Hebrew Bible by means of a close reading. The narratives are all legends of some sort and involve terminal or impossible illnesses and the prophet. In 2 Kings 4 the story revolves around illness as an enigma and involves the motifs of hospitality, responsibility, and empowerment in an ever expanding plot. In 2 Kings 5 leprosy as an incurable disease stands at the center and the story develops through several contrasting motifs including greatness, simplicity, and humility. In 2 Kings 20/Isaiah 38 illness is a death warrant leading to bitterness, and the story probes the necessity and honesty of prayer. Two common traits in the narratives are prayer and argument as a response to illness, and the status of the prophet as a health care consultant.

  18. Dating mortars: three medieval Spanish architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in building archaeology is finding the age of elements and structures discovered. Mortars represent a class of material basically constituted by a mixture of different phases (i.e. binder, aggregates, water and are widely used for constructive uses and artworks. Current scientific literature regarding the possibility of accurate radiocarbon dating for mortars reports different and still contradictory results. In this study, a new protocol for radiocarbon dating of mortar developed at the Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE is used to perform 14C measurements on archaeological mortars coming from three medieval architectures of northern Spain (two churches and the walls of a castle. Results observed will be discussed and compared with independent age estimations (i.e. radiocarbon dating performed on organic materials found in the same study site, archaeological analyses in order to frame experimental observations in the actual site knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach.Una de las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrenta la arqueología de la arquitectura es datar los elementos y las estructuras. Las argamasas son un tipo de material constituido por una mezcla de diferentes elementos (agregados, agua y empleadas en muchos tipos de construcciones. Los estudios realizados hasta la actualidad en torno a la posibilidad de realizar dataciones radiocarbónicas precisas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo de este artículo es el de presentar un nuevo protocolo para datar la arquitectura histórica desarrollado por el Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Enviromental Heritage (CIRCE, basado en la realización de dataciones radiocarbónicas de argamasas a partir del análisis de tres arquitecturas medievales del norte del España, dos iglesias y la muralla de un castillo. Los resultados obtenidos han sido confrontados y comparados con otros

  19. Saving the Phenomena in Medieval Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeskin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Aristotle's theory of motion is based on two principles: (1) all motion to either from the midpoint of the Earth, toward it, or around it, and (2) circular motion must proceed around an immovable point. On this view, the heavenly bodies are individual points of light carried around by a series of concentric spheres rotating at a constant pace around the midpoint of the Earth. But even in Aristotle's day, it was known that this theory had a great deal of difficulty accounting for planetary motion. Ptolemy's alternative was to introduce epicycles and eccentric orbits, thus denying Aristotle's view of natural motion. There was no doubt that Ptolemy's predictions were far better than Aristotle's. But for the medievals, Aristotle's theory made better intuitive sense. Moreover, Ptolemy's theory raised the question of how one sphere could pass through another. What to do? The solution of Moses Maimonides (1138-1204) was to say that it is not the job of the astronomer to tell us how things actually are but merely to propose a series of hypotheses that allow us to explain the relevant data. This view had obvious theological implications. If astronomy could explain planetary motion in an acceptable way, there was reason to believe that the order or structure of the heavens is what it is by necessity. This suggests that God did not exercise any degree of choice in making it that way. But if astronomy cannot explain planetary motion, the most reasonable explanation is that we are dealing with contingent phenomena rather than necessary ones. If there is contingency, there is reason to think God did exercise a degree of choice in making the heavens the way they are. A God who exercises choice is much closer to the God of Scripture. Although Galileo changed all of this, and paved the way for a vastly different view of astronomy, the answer to one set of questions raises a whole different set. In short, the heavenly motion still poses ultimate questions about God, existence, and

  20. Averroes' Physics A Turning Point in Medieval Natural Philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Glasner, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Ruth Glasner presents an illuminating reappraisal of Averroes' physics. Glasner is the first scholar to base her interpretation on the full range of Averroes' writings, including texts that are extant only in Hebrew manuscripts and have not been hitherto studied. She reveals that Averroes changed his interpretation of the basic notions of physics - the structure of corporeal reality and the definition of motion - more than once. After many hesitations he offers a bold newinterpretation of physics which Glasner calls 'Aristotelian atomism'. Ideas that are usually ascribed to scholastic scholars

  1. Proper Living - Exploring Domestic Ideals in Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2014-01-01

    Houses frame homes, households, and daily life, and it is reasonable to suggest that ideas of domestic space in medieval society, and ideas of how to live in an orderly and acceptable manner in the eyes of one’s peers and oneself are reflected in domestic architecture, its layout, fittings...

  2. Norse agriculture in Greenland? Farming in a remote medieval landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen

    The aim of the project Norse Farming in Greenland: Agriculture on the edge was to determine whether the Norse farmers actually cultivated crops in Greenland during colonisation in the Viking age and the medieval period. This was investigated by analysing macrofossils extracted from soil samples...

  3. The Medieval Swedish Horror Ballad in the Romantic Era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhr, Mattias

    2014-01-01

    In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many Scandinav......In the late 18th century the Horror Ballad became popular in Sweden. The rediscovery of medieval tales and ballads inspired the Romantic authors. Clas Livijn uses the medieval folksong of "Hafsfrun" in his dramatic play of the same title (1806). In Livijn’s own library we also find many...... Scandinavian texts from the 17th century, by Saxo Gramaticus, Verelius and others as well as modern printings of old texts by for instance Afzelius. The Horror Ballad in Sweden was introduced by Johan Henrik Kellgren in “Fredrics vålnad” in 1793, although it’s in reality a translation of “Ludvigs Gjenfærd...

  4. Genome-wide comparison of medieval and modern Mycobacterium leprae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuenemann, Verena J; Singh, Pushpendra; Mendum, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was endemic in Europe until the Middle Ages. Using DNA array capture, we have obtained genome sequences of Mycobacterium leprae from skeletons of five medieval leprosy cases from the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Denmark. In one case, the DNA was so well preserved that full de novo assembly...

  5. Social representations of memory and gender in later medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Bronach

    2012-12-01

    Social representations in later medieval culture have attracted little attention amongst psychologists, pre-dating the development of the so-called 'public sphere' in the eighteenth century. In addition, the association of pre-modern societies with 'traditional' modes of communication in social psychology places implicit limits on areas that may be studied through the lens of social representation theory. This article analyses the way in which knowledge circulated in late medieval society, noting initially the plural nature of representations of events and marginal groups, and the myriad channels through which beliefs were consolidated. In later medieval England perceptions of the past depended on collective and group memory, with customary rights and local histories forged through 'common knowledge', hearsay and the opinions of 'trustworthy men' of the village. The final section of this commentary provides an analysis of testimony from the late medieval church courts, in which witnesses articulated gender ideologies that reflected perceptions drawn from everyday life. Social representations of women were thus deployed in ecclesiastical suits, on the one hand supporting evidence of female witnesses and on the other justifying misogynistic stereotypes of women's behaviour.

  6. Herbal diuretics in medieval Persian and Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Bosmia, Anand N; Fakhree, Mohammad A A; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Balch, Margaret Wood; Loukas, Marios; Khodadoust, Kazem; Khalili, Majid; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-06-01

    In accord with the notions of humoralism that prevailed in medieval medicine, therapeutic interventions, including diuretics, were used to restore the disturbed balance among the four humors of the human body: blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile. Most diuretics were derived from plants. The primary textual reference on herbal diuretics was Dioscorides's De Materia Medica, which was written during the first century CE. The authors reviewed the medieval medical texts written in Persian and Arabic and compiled a list of 135 herbal diuretics used by the medieval medical authorities for treating various ailments. Between the 8th and 11th centuries CE, Middle Eastern physicians systematically reviewed extant books on medicine and pharmacotherapy and compiled new and expanded lists of herbal medicines, diuretics in particular. Furthermore, they introduced new chemical methods of extraction, distillation, and compounding in the use of herbal medicines. Several herbal remedies now are considered as potentially safe and affordable alternatives to chemical pharmaceuticals. Thus, research on medieval herbal therapies may prove to be relevant to the practice of current cardiovascular and renal pharmacotherapy. The authors propose that modern research methods can be employed to determine which of these agents actually are effective as diuretics.

  7. Medieval Cities of Europe: Click, Tweet, Map, and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyerson, Kathryn; Mummey, Kevin; Higdon, Jude

    2011-01-01

    During spring semester 2010, a long-standing upper-division lecture course, Medieval Cities of Europe, 500-1500 CE, underwent a course transformation. The goal was to address specific challenges with student engagement that the authors had experienced in the course in the past; their overarching strategy was to introduce technology into the course…

  8. Portraits of Aging Men in Late Medieval Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Roisin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This essay examines the human experience of aging in the distant past by investigating a group of aging men during the 14th century in an Italian city, Bergamo, using notarial "documents of practice" from that community. Studying the aging process and its effects on the lives of people in the medieval era has three-fold…

  9. Medieval Day at Reynolds: An Interdisciplinary Learning Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Nancy S.

    2012-01-01

    Medieval Day at Reynolds turned a typical Friday class day into an interdisciplinary learning event, which joined faculty and students into a community of learners. From classrooms issued tales of Viking and Mongol conquests, religious crusaders, deadly plague, and majestic cathedrals and art, all told by costumed faculty members with expertise in…

  10. The Medieval Kingdom Topology: Peer Relations in Kindergarten Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Andrew; Derervensky, Jeffrey

    1995-01-01

    Examines the applicability of the medieval kingdom social role topology with kindergarten children and assesses the association between the social roles children assume and seven nonbehavioral variables. Confirmed hypotheses that the topology could be distilled from a sample of kindergarten children (n=173) and that specific nonbehavioral…

  11. Imágenes y apocaliptismo en el Occidente medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmartín, Israel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will explore the importance of imagery in the medieval world and particularly in some representations related to eschatological events related to apocalypticism. We´ll work separately the images in the medieval world and a brief development of apocalypticism. The ultimate stage of the article will seek opportunities for dialogue between images and apocalypticism, which lead us to reflect on different iconography and apocalyptic. We ended withthe importance of “location” of the so-called object-images in relation to its function of making the absent and present practice of producing real.

    En el presente artículo se estudiará la importancia de las imágenes en el mundo medieval y en concreto en algunas representaciones vinculadas a episodios escatológicos vinculados al apocaliptismo. Estudiaremos de forma separada tanto la imagen en el mundo medieval como un breve desarrollo del apocaliptismo. El fin último del trabajo será buscar los espacios de encuentro entre las imágenes y el apocaliptismo, que nos llevarán a reflexionar sobre diferentes iconografías apocalípticas y concluir en la importancia de la “localización” de las llamadas imágenes-objeto en relación a su función de hacer presente lo ausente y ejercer de productoras de lo real.

  12. Rules & legislation on love charms in early medieval Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.

    2010-01-01

    Love magic is defined as verbal and material instruments by which erotic and affectionate feelings are believed to be aroused or destroyed in a supernatural way. This is a discussion of love magic as it is presented in early medieval Hiberno-Latin penitentials and Irish legal texts.

  13. Medieval reclamation and colonization of marginal land on Romney Marsh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Barber

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1991 the UCL Field Archaeology Unit (UCLFAU has been investigating the settlement pattern and landscape history of part of Romney Marsh in Kent, revealed by gravel extraction at Lydd Quarry. The project manager describes the work and shows how it is contributing to our knowledge of rural life in medieval England.

  14. Medieval reclamation and colonization of marginal land on Romney Marsh

    OpenAIRE

    Luke Barber

    1999-01-01

    Since 1991 the UCL Field Archaeology Unit (UCLFAU) has been investigating the settlement pattern and landscape history of part of Romney Marsh in Kent, revealed by gravel extraction at Lydd Quarry. The project manager describes the work and shows how it is contributing to our knowledge of rural life in medieval England.

  15. Medieval Music. Alfonso X & the Cantigas de Santa Maria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Lee

    This lesson introduces students to music in the Court of Alfonso X The Learned, Spanish king from 1252-1284. The readings provide information about King Alfonso, his political ambitions, and his contributions to Spanish medieval history. The lesson also introduces his establishment of laws with new legal codes and his remarkable collection of…

  16. From the Dictionary of Medieval Latin in Czech Lands. Gracocenderius

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3/4 (2017), s. 455-470 ISSN 0024-4457 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ravens * ancient and medieval zoology * Latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristotle * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  17. Corruption as a Legacy of the Medieval University: Financial Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2004-01-01

    Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old "universitas" and modern universities have…

  18. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Vai

    Full Text Available In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  19. Genealogical relationships between early medieval and modern inhabitants of Piedmont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vai, Stefania; Ghirotto, Silvia; Pilli, Elena; Tassi, Francesca; Lari, Martina; Rizzi, Ermanno; Matas-Lalueza, Laura; Ramirez, Oscar; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio; Lancioni, Hovirag; Giostra, Caterina; Bedini, Elena; Pejrani Baricco, Luisella; Matullo, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Cornelia; Piazza, Alberto; Veeramah, Krishna; Geary, Patrick; Caramelli, David; Barbujani, Guido

    2015-01-01

    In the period between 400 to 800 AD, also known as the period of the Barbarian invasions, intense migration is documented in the historical record of Europe. However, little is known about the demographic impact of these historical movements, potentially ranging from negligible to substantial. As a pilot study in a broader project on Medieval Europe, we sampled 102 specimens from 5 burial sites in Northwestern Italy, archaeologically classified as belonging to Lombards or Longobards, a Germanic people ruling over a vast section of the Italian peninsula from 568 to 774. We successfully amplified and typed the mitochondrial hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of 28 individuals. Comparisons of genetic diversity with other ancient populations and haplotype networks did not suggest that these samples are heterogeneous, and hence allowed us to jointly compare them with three isolated contemporary populations, and with a modern sample of a large city, representing a control for the effects of recent immigration. We then generated by serial coalescent simulations 16 millions of genealogies, contrasting a model of genealogical continuity with one in which the contemporary samples are genealogically independent from the medieval sample. Analyses by Approximate Bayesian Computation showed that the latter model fits the data in most cases, with one exception, Trino Vercellese, in which the evidence was compatible with persistence up to the present time of genetic features observed among this early medieval population. We conclude that it is possible, in general, to detect evidence of genealogical ties between medieval and specific modern populations. However, only seldom did mitochondrial DNA data allow us to reject with confidence either model tested, which indicates that broader analyses, based on larger assemblages of samples and genetic markers, are needed to understand in detail the effects of medieval migration.

  20. Patriarch Ephrem: A late medieval saintly cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patriarch Ephrem, monk and hermit, writer and saint, Bulgarian-born but twice the leader of the Serbian Church (1375-78 and 1389-92, is an outstanding figure of the late medieval Balkans. His "life and works" are discussed here in the light of hagiological texts and the information provided by various types of sources with the view to drawing some historically relevant conclusions. The main source of information about Ephrem's life and activity are the eulogies, Life and service composed by bishop Mark, his disciple and loyal follower for twenty-three years. Making use of hagiographical topica combined with plentiful data of undoubted documentary value, he relates the story of Ephrem's life through all of its major stages: from his birth and youth to his withdrawal from the world and taking of a monk's habit. Of formative influence were his years on the Holy Mount Athos, where he experienced different styles of monastic life, coenobitic, as well as solitary, which he practiced in the well-known hermitages in the heights of Athos. The further course of Ephrem's life was decided by the turbulent developments in the Balkans brought about by the Ottoman conquests. In that sense, his biography, full of forced and voluntary resettlements, is a true expression of the spirit of the times. Forced to flee Mount Athos, Ephrem made a short stay in Bulgaria and then, about 1347, came to Serbia, where he spent the rest of his life. An eminent representative of the monastic elite and under the aegis of the Serbian patriarch, he spent ten years in a hesychastria of the Monastery of Decani. For reasons of security, he then moved to a cave hermitage founded specially for him in the vicinity of the Patriarchate of Pec. It was in that cell, where he lived for twenty years powerfully influencing the monastic environment, that his literary work profoundly marked by hesychast thought and eschatology, was created. Ephrem twice accepted the office of patriarch in the

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of repetition tasks for the identification of specific language impairment (SLI) in bilingual children: evidence from Russian and Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Meir, Natalia

    2016-11-01

    Previous research demonstrates that repetition tasks are valuable tools for diagnosing specific language impairment (SLI) in monolingual children in English and a variety of other languages, with non-word repetition (NWR) and sentence repetition (SRep) yielding high levels of sensitivity and specificity. Yet, only a few studies have addressed the diagnostic accuracy of repetition tasks in bilingual children, and most available research focuses on English-Spanish sequential bilinguals. To evaluate the efficacy of three repetition tasks (forward digit span (FWD), NWR and SRep) in order to distinguish mono- and bilingual children with and without SLI in Russian and Hebrew. A total of 230 mono- and bilingual children aged 5;5-6;8 participated in the study: 144 bilingual Russian-Hebrew-speaking children (27 with SLI); and 52 monolingual Hebrew-speaking children (14 with SLI) and 34 monolingual Russian-speaking children (14 with SLI). Parallel repetition tasks were designed in both Russian and Hebrew. Bilingual children were tested in both languages. The findings confirmed that NWR and SRep are valuable tools in distinguishing monolingual children with and without SLI in Russian and Hebrew, while the results for FWD were mixed. Yet, testing of bilingual children with the same tools using monolingual cut-off points resulted in inadequate diagnostic accuracy. We demonstrate, however, that the use of bilingual cut-off points yielded acceptable levels of diagnostic accuracy. The combination of SRep tasks in L1/Russian and L2/Hebrew yielded the highest overall accuracy (i.e., 94%), but even SRep alone in L2/Hebrew showed excellent levels of sensitivity (i.e., 100%) and specificity (i.e., 89%), reaching 91% of total diagnostic accuracy. The results are very promising for identifying SLI in bilingual children and for showing that testing in the majority language with bilingual cut-off points can provide an accurate classification. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language

  2. The early reception of Aristotle through Averroes in medieval Jewish philosophy: the case of the Midrash ha-Hokhmah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Midrash ha-hokhmah ('The exposition of science') is a thirteenth-century Hebrew encyclopedic text that aims to divu lge contemporary science and philosophy among Jews. Its author is the rather unknown Judah ben Solomon ha-Kohen of Toledo. Originally drafted in Arabic in Toledo, the Hebrew

  3. Hebrew and Latin astrology in the twelfth century: the example of the location of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Charles

    2010-06-01

    The formative period of Latin and Hebrew astrology occurred virtually simultaneously in both cultures. In the second quarter of the twelfth century the terminology of the subject was established and the textbooks which became authoritative were written. The responsibility for this lay almost entirely with two scholars: John of Seville for the Latins, and Abraham ibn Ezra for the Jews. It is unlikely to have been by coincidence that the same developments in astrology occurred in these two cultures. John of Seville and Abraham ibn Ezra were both brought up within the Islamic culture of Spain, and their astrology was Arabic astrology. Moreover, some scholars have thought that John's origins were Jewish, while Ibn Ezra is known to have collaborated with Latin scholars (whose names are not recorded). It cannot be a coincidence that they forged the science of astrology for their respect co-religionists at almost the same time. Yet, very little research has been done on the possible relations between the two scholars. The purpose of this paper is to begin to explore this relationship, and to illustrate it in particular by their shared doctrine concern the location of pain.

  4. Conversion, persecution, and malaise: Life in the community for which Hebrews was written

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. Koester

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Hebrews was written for Christians whose situation had developed as a result of several stages. Firstly the readers’ community was established when the message of salvation led to conversion and was confirmed by experiencing miracles and a sense of the Spirit’s presence. Secondly, during a time of persecution conditions became more difficult but the community remained steadfast in the wake of abuse, dispossession, and imprisonment and was not pressurised into relinquishing their commitments. During the third stage, conditions within the community seemed to deteriorate as ongoing friction with non-Christians and the demands of mutual support within the Christian community evidently moved some to exhibit a diminished commitment to the faith and to neglect the community’s gatherings. In response, the author develops the contrast between the seen and the unseen in order to address the apparent contradiction between the promises of glory that drew them to faith and the inglorious experience of life in the world. The author seeks to bolster the readers’ confidence by showing that Jesus’ suffering was followed by exaltation to heavenly glory and that Jesus’ followers can be confident that God will also bring others who suffer into the glory that has been promised to them.

  5. Comparing online opportunities and risks among Israeli children and youth Hebrew and Arabic speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ina

    2014-10-01

    This study explores the relationships between application usage, online communication patterns, problematic Internet use (PIU) of online applications, and online self-disclosure among children from culturally different groups. An online survey was administered in Hebrew and Arabic among 3867 Israeli 7-17 year old, including Jews, Arabs, and Bedouins. The level of PIU was relatively low-only 9.5% scored "very high" in the PIU index. For all the groups the highest level of communication was reported for safe interactions with family and friends, lower level for purely virtual communication with online acquaintances, and the lowest level for meeting online acquaintances face-to-face. However, various forms of the online communication patterns and use of applications differed across the groups, suggesting cultural diversity in Internet usage among children in the same country. PIU and self-disclosure explained 47.3% of variance in risky e-communication activities (e.g. sending ones' photos to online acquaintances, providing them with a school or home address, and meeting them face-to-face), as well as 34.4% of variance in exposure to unpleasant online experiences (e.g. receiving messages, pictures, or videos that make the children feel uncomfortable). However, both PIU and self-disclosure were unrelated to educational activities and to the use of educational applications.

  6. A Preliminary Bibliography of Medieval Arabic Military Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Zaky, A.

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available BEFORE Islam, the Arabs of the Peninsula had their own local system of warfare, that was not of big armies, but of small battles and skirmishes among the tribes. After the death of Muhammad (632, the caliphs established their rule in Arabia, and started their conquests towards Iraq and Persia in the East; and towards Syria, Egypt and North Africa in the West. After the conquest of Spain (711, the Arabs had already built a vast empire extending from the Atlantic shores to the Indus in about one hundred years. While the Arabs began to develop their warfare system, they did not disdain to learn many lessons from the nations they already defeated. Accordingly the Byzantine army served as a model for their land forces. Arab writers and translators began to contribute invaluable treatises on war, archery and chivalry. It is a pity that very few of these have survived, whether Arabic or Persian. Some of the treatises were the translations of books written in Latin, Greek, Persian or Sanskrit. One can say that by the tenth century, the Arabs had an art of war of their own.

    No disponible

  7. Translation Memory and Computer Assisted Translation Tool for Medieval Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Törcsvári Attila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation memories (TMs, as part of Computer Assisted Translation (CAT tools, support translators reusing portions of formerly translated text. Fencing books are good candidates for using TMs due to the high number of repeated terms. Medieval texts suffer a number of drawbacks that make hard even “simple” rewording to the modern version of the same language. The analyzed difficulties are: lack of systematic spelling, unusual word orders and typos in the original. A hypothesis is made and verified that even simple modernization increases legibility and it is feasible, also it is worthwhile to apply translation memories due to the numerous and even extremely long repeated terms. Therefore, methods and algorithms are presented 1. for automated transcription of medieval texts (when a limited training set is available, and 2. collection of repeated patterns. The efficiency of the algorithms is analyzed for recall and precision.

  8. Imagining Place and Moralizing Space: Jerusalem at Medieval Westminster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Slater

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Monuments and landscape ensembles across medieval Europe recreated the Christian holy places of Jerusalem for local devotees. Contemporary legends surrounding the death of King Henry IV in 1413, who died in the Jerusalem Chamber in the abbot’s house at Westminster Abbey, place the room firmly within this cultural tradition. In the sixteenth century, a neighbouring Jericho Parlour was built. This paper highlights the political significances of such “recreated Jerusalem” sites: in contrast to the religious and demographic diversity found in the earthly city, and in connection with European crusading and imperial ambitions. Exploring the “death in Jerusalem” topos in detail, it argues that the Jerusalem Chamber should not be understood as a recreated holy place. Instead, the links to the Holy Land found in the abbot’s house form part of an imaginative reinvention of space within medieval Westminster, deliberately intended to provoke moral admonition and self-scrutiny in its users.

  9. Recovery of a Medieval Brucella melitensis Genome Using Shotgun Metagenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Gemma L.; Sergeant, Martin J.; Giuffra, Valentina; Bandiera, Pasquale; Milanese, Marco; Bramanti, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Shotgun metagenomics provides a powerful assumption-free approach to the recovery of pathogen genomes from contemporary and historical material. We sequenced the metagenome of a calcified nodule from the skeleton of a 14th-century middle-aged male excavated from the medieval Sardinian settlement of Geridu. We obtained 6.5-fold coverage of a Brucella melitensis genome. Sequence reads from this genome showed signatures typical of ancient or aged DNA. Despite the relatively low coverage, we were able to use information from single-nucleotide polymorphisms to place the medieval pathogen genome within a clade of B. melitensis strains that included the well-studied Ether strain and two other recent Italian isolates. We confirmed this placement using information from deletions and IS711 insertions. We conclude that metagenomics stands ready to document past and present infections, shedding light on the emergence, evolution, and spread of microbial pathogens. PMID:25028426

  10. A tall rostral hook in a medieval horse premolar tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viranta, Suvi; Mannermaa, Kristiina

    2017-06-01

    Development of dental abnormalities due to improper occlusal wear is common among modern domestic horses. This phenomenon often is attributed to jaw conformation. Rostral mandibular hooks may develop in horses with underjet or mandibular prognathism, a condition where the lower jaw protrudes forward, beyond the upper jaw. Less abrasive diet, free of phytoliths and matrix-like plant fibers, also may promote enamel and focal overgrowths of equine dentition. Here we report a rostral mandibular hook in a lower premolar tooth of a medieval horse, found in a spring deposit in Levänluhta, Osthrobothnia, Finland. To our knowledge, this is the first such report from a medieval horse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Further Evidence for Medieval Faulting along the Puerto Rico Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Fuentes, Z.; Halley, R. B.; Spiske, M.; Tuttle, M. P.; Wei, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Has the Antilles Subduction Zone produced thrust or outer-rise earthquakes east of Hispaniola? An affirmative answer is suggested by tiered evidence for overwash 120 km south of the Puerto Rico Trench. The evidence comes from Anegada, British Virgin Islands, 200 km east-northeast of San Juan, Puerto Rico. PREVIOUS FINDINGS* suggested that a medieval overwash event had greater geologic effects at Anegada than did a Lisbon(?) event, and that both events outrank recent storms. The medieval overwash, in AD 1200-1450, dislodged brain corals from a reef, moved them as much as 500 m across a shallow subtidal flat, and scattered them as solitary boulders as much as 1000 m inland. Gentler overwash in 1650-1800, called Lisbon(?) because it may represent the 1755 tsunami, laid down a sheet of sand and island-derived shells as much as 1500 m from the north shore. A recent hurricane of category 4 left no durable geologic record other than sandy fans within 40 m of the south shore. NEW FINDINGS reinforce the ranking medieval > Lisbon(?) > storm: (1) The medieval event washed ashore marine shells that the Lisbon(?) event did not. An articulated marine bivalve (Codakia orbicularis), probably deposited live, is part of an overwash fan 400 m inland from Windlass Bight. The shell dates to the same time window as the medieval coral boulders. Additional articulated Codakia shells and a conch shell adjoin the buried base of one of these coral boulders 1500 m south of the fringing reef from which the coral was probably derived. (2) Lisbon(?) overwash used breaches that the medieval event had cut through beach ridges of the north shore. The re-use is marked by sand: on the muddy floor of a partly filled breach, on an organic soil in another such breach, and on a pre-existing fan south of an area of beach-ridge dissection. The buried organic soil, inset into a old breach, is 500 m inland from an area, near Cow Wreck High Point, where young beach ridges may have been breached for the first

  12. Judicial astrology in theory and practice in later medieval Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Hilary M

    2010-06-01

    Interrogations and elections were two branches of Arabic judicial astrology made available in Latin translation to readers in western Europe from the twelfth century. Through an analysis of the theory and practice of interrogations and elections, including the writing of the Jewish astrologer Sahl b. Bishr, this essay considers the extent to which judicial astrology was practiced in the medieval west. Consideration is given to historical examples of interrogations and elections mostly from late medieval English manuscripts. These include the work of John Dunstaple (ca. 1390-1453), the musician and astrologer who is known have served at the court of John, duke of Bedford. On the basis of the relatively small number of surviving historical horoscopes, it is argued that the practice of interrogations and elections lagged behind the theory.

  13. Histories of Medieval European Literatures: New Patterns of Representation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Borsa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Interfaces: A Journal of Medieval European Literatures is invested in bringing together the linguistic, literary, and historical expertise to take a European approach to medieval literature. The journal aims to establish a forum both for articles which move across literatures (plural and also, more ambitiously, to foster reflections on a more elusive, but no longer entirely absent, object, European medieval literature (singular.In line with the journal’s scope and vision to promote integrated approaches to European medieval literatures, we begin by facing head-on the multiple challenges of devising new types of narratives about medieval textual cultures. We have invited papers which take a wider regional perspective and move across medieval Europe as well as papers which bring an explicitly European perspective to more specific topics (with a tighter thematic, chronological, geographic, or linguistic focus.

  14. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  15. The structure of the medieval town of Rupea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borcoman, M.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The town of Rupea, set up at the beginning of the 12th century, was the capital of the county of Rupea between 1337 and 1876. Its urban structure and organization prove that it belonged to group of Transylvania’s German medieval towns. Here, alongside with the German (established in the central area, Romanians lived in the outskirts. This structure was preserved until the early 1800s, and even until nowadays although the initial ethnical composition has altered.

  16. The Medieval History of Russian Regions in the School Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    Katsva, Leonid

    2008-01-01

    Russia is a very specific country, enjoying huge territories and the great variety of ethnic groups, that's why the attempt of studying the history of all, or just the largest regions is doomed to failure; that's why it's necessary to create a special course (or just a separate textbook) of historical ethnology. The study of the regional history in the school course of the medieval history of Russia is connected with the topic "The period of Feudal Partition of Rus"; traditionally Russian sch...

  17. Farmsteads in early medieval Germany – architecture and organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Schreg, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In Germany early medieval rural settlements are known from a rising number of excavated sites. Rural architecture was a wooden architecture. Only churches were built in stone. A farmstead consisted of several buildings: the main house and several economic buildings as pit houses and storages. Before the 1980s, when large scale excavations became more and more common, there was little awareness of changes in rural settlement history. The formation of still existing villages was only late in th...

  18. Auditory Ossicles in Archaeological Skeletal Material from Medieval Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, M; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    Auditory ossicles were collected from two skeletal materials from early medieval Denmark. A total of 147 and 1,162 ossicles were obtained from the 2 materials, constituting 23% and 55% of the possible in vivo ossicles. The numbers and percentages found are among the highest reported from studies ...... of archaeological skeletal material. Archaeological ossicles may be used in palaeopathological evaluation of chronic otitis media and otosclerosis, and morphometric studies of the ossicles might be valuable in analysis of population genetics and taxonomy....

  19. The Arma Christi in Medieval and Early Modern Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    The Arma Christi, the cluster of objects associated with Christ’s Passion, was one of the most familiar iconographic devices of European medieval and early modern culture. From the weapons used to torment and sacrifice the body of Christ sprang a reliquary tradition that produced active and contemplative devotional practices, complex literary narratives, intense lyric poems, striking visual images, and innovative architectural ornament. This collection displays the fascinating range of intell...

  20. Galeata: chronic migraine independently considered in a medieval headache classification

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero-Peral, Ángel Luís; de Frutos González, Virginia; Pedraza-Hueso, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is a quite recent concept. However, there are descriptions suggestive of episodic migraine since the beginning of scientific medicine. We aim to review main headache classifications during Classical antiquity and compared them with that proposed in the 11th century by Constantine the African in his Liber Pantegni, one of the most influential texts in medieval medicine. Method We have carried out a descriptive review of Henricum Petrum's Latin edition, year 1539. Re...

  1. Corruption as a Legacy of the Medieval University

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2004-01-01

    Looking back upon the centuries one would suspect that in earlier ages universities of medieval France and Italy were very different from the multiplicity of organizational and institutional forms of higher education institutions in modern times, and yet one would be surprised how much these old universitas and modern universities have in common. The increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc as well as numerous other countries urges a better unders...

  2. Waste Management and Attitudes Towards Cleanliness in Medieval Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havlíček Filip

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the relationships between people and waste in the Middle Ages, primarily in urban environments in Central Europe. At the center of interest are the attitudes of the inhabitants of medieval cities towards cleanliness and a description of different waste management practices. This paper also describes an experiment using ashes to launder clothing as one possible use of a particular waste material.

  3. Population-Area Relationship for Medieval European Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaretti, Rudolf; Lobo, José; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Ortman, Scott G; Smith, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Medieval European urbanization presents a line of continuity between earlier cities and modern European urban systems. Yet, many of the spatial, political and economic features of medieval European cities were particular to the Middle Ages, and subsequently changed over the Early Modern Period and Industrial Revolution. There is a long tradition of demographic studies estimating the population sizes of medieval European cities, and comparative analyses of these data have shed much light on the long-term evolution of urban systems. However, the next step-to systematically relate the population size of these cities to their spatial and socioeconomic characteristics-has seldom been taken. This raises a series of interesting questions, as both modern and ancient cities have been observed to obey area-population relationships predicted by settlement scaling theory. To address these questions, we analyze a new dataset for the settled area and population of 173 European cities from the early fourteenth century to determine the relationship between population and settled area. To interpret this data, we develop two related models that lead to differing predictions regarding the quantitative form of the population-area relationship, depending on the level of social mixing present in these cities. Our empirical estimates of model parameters show a strong densification of cities with city population size, consistent with patterns in contemporary cities. Although social life in medieval Europe was orchestrated by hierarchical institutions (e.g., guilds, church, municipal organizations), our results show no statistically significant influence of these institutions on agglomeration effects. The similarities between the empirical patterns of settlement relating area to population observed here support the hypothesis that cities throughout history share common principles of organization that self-consistently relate their socioeconomic networks to structured urban spaces.

  4. The spontaneous use of Hebrew verb forms by Israeli preschool children with and without sli The spontaneous use of Hebrew verb forms by Israeli preschool children with and without sli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Dromi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present findings on the spontaneous use of verb forms by preschool Hebrew speaking children who were diagnosed as SLI (Specific Language Impairment and by younger normally developing (ND - L children who were matched by language level to the SLI group. We evaluate the spontaneous use of verb forms in obligatory contexts and compare it with previous results on the morphological abilities of SLI and ND-L children in elicitation tasks. This article reviews previous published findings on verb elicitation tasks and report new data on the use of Hebrew verb forms in spontaneous language samples. Results indicate that HSLI (High Specific Language Impairment children produce verb forms as successfully as their utterance length in morphemes lead to expect. This is especially true when the verb forms they use belong to simple verb patterns. The difficulty HSLI children face with respect to verb morphology is selective rather than sweeping, and it is not evident in the spontaneous speech samples because in this context children avoid producing complex verb forms. The article highlights the position that in languages with rich inflectional morphology it is always useful to combine elicited and spontaneous research methods for studying the productive morphological abilities of young children. In this article we present findings on the spontaneous use of verb forms by preschool Hebrew speaking children who were diagnosed as SLI (Specific Language Impairment and by younger normally developing (ND - L children who were matched by language level to the SLI group. We evaluate the spontaneous use of verb forms in obligatory contexts and compare it with previous results on the morphological abilities of SLI and ND-L children in elicitation tasks. This article reviews previous published findings on verb elicitation tasks and report new data on the use of Hebrew verb forms in spontaneous language samples. Results indicate that HSLI (High

  5. Transfer of L1 Visual Word Recognition Strategies during Early Stages of L2 Learning: Evidence from Hebrew Learners Whose First Language Is Either Semitic or Indo-European

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Tal; Degani, Tamar; Peleg, Orna

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined visual word recognition processes in Hebrew (a Semitic language) among beginning learners whose first language (L1) was either Semitic (Arabic) or Indo-European (e.g. English). To examine if learners, like native Hebrew speakers, exhibit morphological sensitivity to root and word-pattern morphemes, learners made an…

  6. ‘FOR MUSIKE MEUEÞ AFFECCIOUNS’: INTERPRETING HARP PERFORMANCE IN MEDIEVAL ROMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Alana Bennett

    2015-01-01

    Performances are focal points in medieval romances with musical protagonists. Whilst these performances may not necessarily be accurate representations of medieval music, such episodes in popular literature are valuable to early music practitioners because they describe the whole context of the performance. These scenes preserve a snapshot of the medieval experience of music: the physicality of the performance, the sounds created and the emotional responses to the music. The hyperbolic tenden...

  7. Cities and Socialization of Libraries in Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Bayır Toplu

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, socialization of libraries in Medieval Europe has been examined by means of the growing of cities and movements of ideologies. Cities, as results of economic based changes, caused the apperance of merchantiles in produce and consumption flows. Cities, by selecting an area outside of feudal city walls, and by consisting new living habits which shows differances from village living habits took its place in Medieval Feudal Regime. While cities consist their conceits, conceits consists the specialisatians which identifies the city from the village. Technologic developments, innovations, the movements of different social classes, the changes in produce and consumption models, movements of ideologies; carried Medieval Europe to Enlighment Period after very long and difficult experiements. While the man in “Enlighment Period” ideologically based on rationalism and critical thinking; it realized knowledge as a product of rationalism. That realisation gave start to the socialisation of libraries and books and books which includes the “knowledge” stating with the innovation of press, the gobalization of books and the movements in cities gave speed to the interaction between cultures and effected the extansi-on of knowledge in a positive way. While knowledge was socialized by means of the opportunities of cities, libraries became space which knowledge can easily reachable by society. Cities arosed in Middle ageesand by effecting social structures, they became an indirect effect for reaching of libraries to society and moneyfree service.

  8. Limitations imposed by wearing armour on Medieval soldiers' locomotor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Graham N; Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E

    2012-02-22

    In Medieval Europe, soldiers wore steel plate armour for protection during warfare. Armour design reflected a trade-off between protection and mobility it offered the wearer. By the fifteenth century, a typical suit of field armour weighed between 30 and 50 kg and was distributed over the entire body. How much wearing armour affected Medieval soldiers' locomotor energetics and biomechanics is unknown. We investigated the mechanics and the energetic cost of locomotion in armour, and determined the effects on physical performance. We found that the net cost of locomotion (C(met)) during armoured walking and running is much more energetically expensive than unloaded locomotion. C(met) for locomotion in armour was 2.1-2.3 times higher for walking, and 1.9 times higher for running when compared with C(met) for unloaded locomotion at the same speed. An important component of the increased energy use results from the extra force that must be generated to support the additional mass. However, the energetic cost of locomotion in armour was also much higher than equivalent trunk loading. This additional cost is mostly explained by the increased energy required to swing the limbs and impaired breathing. Our findings can predict age-associated decline in Medieval soldiers' physical performance, and have potential implications in understanding the outcomes of past European military battles.

  9. Schleswig: medieval leprosy on the boundary between Germany and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldsen, Jesper L; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Riis, Thomas; Dittmar, Manuela; Weise, Svenja

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy was a well-recognized and dreaded disease in medieval Europe. The disease is reported to have reached Germany with the Roman invasion and it was present in Scandinavia in the first centuries AD. This paper estimates and analyzes the frequency of leprosy among adult people buried in one of five medieval cemeteries in the city of Schleswig. Seven different dichotomous osteological lesions indicative of leprosy were analyzed, and it was possible to score at least one of these conditions on 350 adult skeletons (aged 15 or older). The scores were transformed to a statistic indicating the likelihood that the person to whom the skeleton belonged suffered from leprosy. It was found that the frequency of leprosy in the five cemeteries varied between 9 and 44%. Four of the five cemeteries showed frequencies ranging from 35 and 44% and with no statistically significant differences among them. The fifth cemetery showed a significantly lower frequency of leprosy (9%). The distribution of female age at death does not appear to be affected by leprosy status. This means that females experienced a considerably elevated risk of dying once they had contracted leprosy as the disease usually has a mid-adulthood age of onset. In four of the five cemeteries males with leprosy died in higher ages than men without leprosy--in two of the cemeteries the difference was statistically significant. This indicates that leprosy usually added less to the risk of dying among men than among women in medieval Schleswig.

  10. The medieval origins of the concept of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Dalfardi, Behnam; Golzari, Samad E J; Habibi, Hamzeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Despite the well-known history of hypertension research in the modern era, like many other cardiovascular concepts, main points in the medieval concept of this disease and its early management methods remain obscure. This article attempts to make a brief review on the medieval origin of the concept of this disease from the Hidayat of Al-Akhawayni (?-983 AD). This article has reviewed the chapter of "Fi al-Imtela" (About the Fullness) from the Hidβyat al-Muta'allimin fi al-Tibb (The Students' Handbook of Medicine) of Al-Akhawayni. The definition, symptoms and treatments presented for the Imtela are compared with the current knowledge on hypertension. Akhawayni believed that Imtela could result from the excessive amount of blood within the blood vessels. It can manifest with symptoms including the presence of a pulsus magnus, sleepiness, weakness, dyspnea, facial blushing, engorgement of the vessels, thick urine, vascular rupture, and hemorrhagic stroke. He also suggested some ways to manage al-Imtela'. These include recommendations of changes in lifestyle (staying away from anger and sexual intercourse) and dietary program for patients (avoiding the consumption of wine, meat, and pastries, reducing the volume of food in a meal, maintaining a low-energy diet and the dietary usage of spinach and vinegar). Al-Akhawayni's description of "Imtela," despite of its numerous differences with current knowledge of hypertension, can be considered as medieval origin of the concept of hypertension.

  11. Erecting Sex: Hermaphrodites and the Medieval Science of Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVun, Leah

    2015-01-01

    This essay focuses on "hermaphrodites" and the emerging profession of surgery in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Europe. During this period, surgeons made novel claims about their authority to regulate sexual difference by surgically ''correcting" errant sexual anatomies. Their theories about sex, I argue, drew upon both ancient roots and contemporary conflicts to conceptualize sexual difference in ways that influenced Western Europe for centuries thereafter. I argue that a close examination of medieval surgical texts complicates orthodox narratives in the broader history of sex and sexuality: medieval theorists approached sex in sophisticated and varied manners that belie any simple opposition of modern and premodern paradigms. In addition, because surgical treatments of hermaphrodites in the Middle Ages prefigure in many ways the treatment of atypical sex (a condition now called, controversially, intersex or disorders/differences of sex development) in the modern world, I suggest that the writings of medieval surgeons have the potential to provide new perspectives on our current debates about surgery and sexual difference.

  12. Urban and rural mortality and survival in Medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Brittany S; DeWitte, Sharon N

    2017-06-01

    Late medieval England underwent intensive urbanisation, particularly in its largest city: London. Urban dwellers were exposed to factors such as high population density, elevated risk of infection, unsanitary living conditions and precarious food supplies. To assess whether the urban environment was more detrimental to health than the rural environment, this study compares risks of mortality and survival, as proxies for health, in medieval urban vs rural England. This study uses samples from rural St. Peter's cemetery in Barton-upon-Humber, Lincolnshire (c. 1150-1500) and urban St. Mary Spital cemetery in London (c. 1120-1539). Cox proportional hazards analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis are used to assess differences in mortality and survival between urban and rural environments, including differences between sexes. The results indicate that urban adults faced elevated risks of dying and reductions in survivorship. Specifically, urban females faced elevated risks of dying and reductions in survivorship, while the risks for males were similar in both environments. These results suggest that the effects of urbanisation in medieval England varied by sex. Deleterious conditions associated with urbanisation in London were hazardous for adults, particularly females who may have migrated into London from rural areas for labour opportunities.

  13. Human Parasites in Medieval Europe: Lifestyle, Sanitation and Medical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Piers D

    2015-01-01

    Parasites have been infecting humans throughout our evolution. However, not all people suffered with the same species or to the same intensity throughout this time. Our changing way of life has altered the suitability of humans to infection by each type of parasite. This analysis focuses upon the evidence for parasites from archaeological excavations at medieval sites across Europe. Comparison between the patterns of infection in the medieval period allows us to see how changes in sanitation, herding animals, growing and fertilizing crops, the fishing industry, food preparation and migration all affected human susceptibility to different parasites. We go on to explore how ectoparasites may have spread infectious bacterial diseases, and also consider what medieval medical practitioners thought of parasites and how they tried to treat them. While modern research has shown the use of a toilet decreases the risk of contracting certain intestinal parasites, the evidence for past societies presented here suggests that the invention of latrines had no observable beneficial effects upon intestinal health. This may be because toilets were not sufficiently ubiquitous until the last century, or that the use of fresh human faeces for manuring crops still ensured those parasite species were easily able to reinfect the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Medieval Concept of Music Perception. Hearing, Calculating and Contemplating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzbieta Witkowska-Zaremba

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeking to indicate the most salient features of the medieval perception of music, we must first of all point to the close relationship between the sensual and intellectual elements. This relationship is most conspicuous in the term "harmonica" introduced in the Latin Middle Ages by Boethius and defined as follows: "harmonica is the faculty of perceiving through senses and the intellect the differences between high and low sounds". The same definition reveals another significant feature of the perception of music, namely, that the importance is attached not to individual sounds, but to the differences or relationships between them, that is to the intervals. Since - in accordance with the Pythagorean tradition, which was a major force in medieval music theory - the relationship between sounds can be expressed numerically, it may therefore be considered in terms of the relationship of two numbers, apart from actual sound and beyond physical time. The question arises whether this concept of music could influence the perception of a medieval listener. For instance, can listening to music be understood as a process which engages both cognitive powers and concerns reducing in some unspecified manner the data perceived and processed by the senses to abstract categories which can be conceived only by the intellect?

  15. Judicial privilgies of Saxons in mixed disputes in Medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katančević Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the contemporary testimonies, wealth of the Serbian medieval kings was significantly increased by exploitation of number of precious metal mines that existed in their realm. Beginnings of the mine exploitation in medieval Serbia are related to the settlements of Saxon miners. Saxons were mining experts in medieval Europe who worked in distant mines far away from their homeland Saxony. They worked in this profitable mining business not only in Serbia, but also in Bohemia, Hungary (Transylvania and modern Slovakia and Bosnia. The settlement of Saxons in Serbia occurred in time of the reign of King Stefan Uros I (1234-1276. Although without preserved sources which could directly support this thesis, Serbian historiography advocates that certain privileges were granted to the Roman Catholic Saxons at the time of their migration in orthodox Serbia. It appears that these privileges included self-government, freedom of religion, and mining concessions. Also judicial privileges are often mentioned in historiography especially the right of Saxons to one half of the members of their ethnicity in judicial collegium and jury in the case of a dispute with member of another ethic group. This paper attempts to test the thesis related to composition of mixed courts and juries by applying historical method, and linguistic, systemic and historical interpretation of the sources such as King's Charters issued to Dubrovnik, Dusan's Code and Despot Stefan's Mining Code.

  16. Ancient and medieval Iberia seen through glass: An archaeometric perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Ares, J. de; Nadine Schibille, N.

    2017-01-01

    The study of ancient and medieval glasses has identified distinct compositional groups as a result of the chemical characteristics of the raw materials used for its production. Archaeometric analysis can determine the provenance of the glass, and has demonstrated a large-scale production and commercialisation of raw glass throughout the Mediterranean during the ancient and medieval periods. Secondary workshops on the Iberian Peninsula imported raw glass from the Near East for the better part of the first millennium CE, following a similar pattern observed elsewhere in the Mediterranean region. However, there are some indications that point to a local production of glass and that deserve further investigation. In the ninth century, natron glass was replaced in al-Ándalus by plant ash and lead-rich glass that may represent a local production. Little is known about the production or use of glass in the Christian parts of the peninsula during this period. The increasing volume of analytical data on Spanish glass demonstrates the potential of an archaeometric approach to shed light not only on the production and trade of glass on the Iberian Peninsula but also on the ancient and medieval economy more generally. [es

  17. Morphological structure mediates the notional meaning of gender marking: Evidence from the gender-congruency effect in Hebrew speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital; Dank, Maya

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the gender-congruency effect of animate nouns in Hebrew. The Picture-Word Interference paradigm was used to manipulate gender congruency between target pictures and spoken distractors. Naming latency revealed an inhibitory gender-congruency effect, as naming the pictures took longer in the presence of a gender-congruent distractor than with a distractor from a different gender category. The inhibitory effect was demonstrated for feminine (morphologically marked) nouns, across two stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs) (Experiments 1a and 1b), and masculine (morphologically unmarked) nouns (Experiment 2). The same pattern was observed when participants had to produce bare nouns (Experiment 1) or gender-marked noun phrases (Experiment 3). The inhibitory pattern of the effect resembles previous findings of bare nouns in a subset of Romance languages, including Italian and Spanish. These findings add to previous research which investigated the gender-congruency effect of inanimate nouns, where no effect of gender-congruent words was found. The results are discussed in relation to the null effect previously found for inanimate nouns. The comparison of the present and previous studies is motivated by a common linguistic distinction between animate and inanimate nouns in Hebrew, which ascribes grammatical gender specifications to derivational structures (for inanimate nouns) versus inflectional structures (for animate nouns). Given the difference in the notional meaning of gender specification for animate and inanimate nouns, the case of Hebrew exemplifies how language-specific characteristics, such as rich morphological structures, can be used by the linguistic system to express conceptual distinctions at the form-word level.

  18. The Book of Ruth and Song of Songs in the First Hebrew Translation of The Taming of the Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn Lily

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the earliest Hebrew rendition of a Shakespearean comedy, Judah Elkind’s מוסר סוררה musar sorera ‘The Education of the Rebellious Woman’ (The Taming of the Shrew, which was translated directly from the English source text and published in Berditchev in 1892. Elkind’s translation is the only comedy among a small group of pioneering Shakespeare renditions conducted in late nineteenth-century Eastern Europe by adherents of the Jewish Enlightenment movement. It was rooted in a strongly ideological initiative to establish a modern European-style literature in Hebrew and reflecting Jewish cultural values at a time when the language was still primarily a written medium on the cusp of its large-scale revernacularisation in Palestine. The article examines the ways in which Elkind’s employment of a Judaising translation technique drawing heavily on romantic imagery from prominent biblical intertexts, particularly the Book of Ruth and the Song of Songs, affects the Petruchio and Katherine plotline in the target text. Elkind’s use of carefully selected biblical names for the main characters and his conscious insertion of biblical verses well known in Jewish tradition for their romantic connotations serve to transform Petruchio and Katherine into Peretz and Hoglah, the heroes of a distinctly Jewish love story which offers a unique and intriguing perspective on the translation of Shakespearean comedy.

  19. Treatise on acoustics the first comprehensive English translation of E.F.F. Chladni's traité d’acoustique

    CERN Document Server

    Chladni, E F F

    2015-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive translation of the expanded French version of E.F.F. Chladni’s Traité d’Acoustique, using Chladni's 1802 Die Akustik for reference and clarification.  Chladni’s experiments and observations with sound and vibrations profoundly influenced the development of the field of Acoustics.  The famous Chladni diagrams along with other observations are contained in Die Akustik, published in German in 1802 and Traité d’Acoustique, a greatly expanded version, published in French in 1809.  The present translation was undertaken by Robert T. Beyer, PhD (1920-2008), noted acoustician, Professor of Physics at Brown University, and Gold Medal recipient of the Acoustical Society of America. Along with many other projects completed over the course of his career, Dr. Beyer translated Von Neumann’s seminal work, Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics from the original German, spent 30 years translating Russian physics treatises and journals, served as editor of the English t...

  20. Magic squares in the tenth century twoAarabic treatises by Anṭākī and Būzjānī

    CERN Document Server

    Sesiano, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains the texts and translations of two Arabic treatises on magic squares, which are undoubtedly the most important testimonies on the early history of that science. It is divided into the three parts: the first and most extensive is on tenth-century construction methods, the second is the translations of the texts, and the third contains the original Arabic texts, which date back to the tenth century. .

  1. A Treatise on the Systematization of School Health Guidance (3) : The Formation of the Comcept of Guidance under the Theory of School Health in the Meiji Era

    OpenAIRE

    瀧澤, 利行

    1990-01-01

    In early Meiji era, the foundations of theories on school health in Japan were formed by translation and interpretation of theories on school health in mordern Europe. Simultaneously, school health practices were consisted of three backgrounds, community prevention of infectious diseases, the maintenance of school facilities, and school child protections. The points of this treatise are summurised as follows. 1) the assesment the dates of realization of each backgrounds above mentioned. 2) th...

  2. The Celtic evil eye and related mythological motifs in medieval Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsje, J.

    2012-01-01

    If looks could kill... They can, according to medieval Irish texts - our richest literary inheritance in a Celtic language. The belief in evil, angry or envious eyes casting harmful glances that destroy their target is widespread. This is the first comprehensive study of ‘the evil eye’ in medieval

  3. Medieval Universities, Legal Institutions, and the Commercial Revolution. NBER Working Paper No. 17979

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantoni, Davide; Yuchtman, Noam

    2012-01-01

    We present new data documenting medieval Europe's "Commercial Revolution'' using information on the establishment of markets in Germany. We use these data to test whether medieval universities played a causal role in expanding economic activity, examining the foundation of Germany's first universities after 1386 following the Papal Schism. We…

  4. The National Standards and Medieval Music in Middle School Choral and General Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Patrick; Beegle, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how medieval music can be utilized in the choral and general music classroom to teach middle school students and to address the National Standards for Music Education. Provides background information on medieval music, ideas for lessons, and a glossary of key terms. (CMK)

  5. Teaching Medieval Towns: Group Exercises, Individual Presentations and Self-Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Andrew; Gunn, Vicky

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of innovative collaborative small group activities in a Medieval History undergraduate honors course. Discusses student evaluations and feedback from a focus group to investigate the use of group exercises that involve the construction of three-dimensional models of medieval towns and the use of self-assessment. (Author/LRW)

  6. Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference, Birmingham 3.–6. 7. 2014

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mráčková, Veronika; Baťa, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 51, 3-4 (2014), s. 414-417 ISSN 0018-7003. [Medieval and Renaissance Music Conference. Birmingham, 03.07.2014-06.07.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : conference * medieval * music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. A Brief History of the Major Components of the Medieval Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Thomas J.

    This paper provides a brief description of the medieval university, which developed its institutional structure during the 12th century. The medieval university may be said to have begun in Italy and France in the 12th century, with the University of Bologna and the University of Paris serving as models for others. It was not until the 15th…

  8. "It's Like 'Lord of the Rings,' Sir. but Real!": Teaching, Learning and Sharing Medieval History for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Medieval history is on the rise. Among the many recent reforms in the history curriculum is a requirement for medieval themes at GCSE and across the country the new linear A-level offers fresh opportunities for teachers to look beyond the traditional diet of Tudors and modern history. The huge divide between us and the medieval mind can make the…

  9. Diabetes and related remedies in medieval Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Khademian, Sedigheh; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic disorder presenting increased amounts of serum glucose and will cover 5.4% of population by year 2025. Accordingly, this review was performed to gather and discuss the stand points on diagnosis, pathophysiology, non-pharmacological therapy and drug management of diabetes this disorder as described in medieval Persian medicine. To this, reports on diabetes were collected and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Traditional Persian Medicine. A search on databases as Pubmed, Sciencedirect, Scopus and Google scholar was also performed to reconfirm the Anti diabetic activities of reported herbs. The term, Ziabites, was used to describe what is now spoken as diabetes. It was reported that Ziabites, is highly associated with kidney function. Etiologically, Ziabites was characterized as kidney hot or cold dystemperament as well as diffusion of fluid from other organs such as liver and intestines into the kidneys. This disorder was categorized into main types as hot (Ziabites-e-har) and cold (Ziabites-e-barid) as well as sweet urine (Bole-e-shirin). Most medieval cite signs of Ziabites were remarked as unusual and excessive thirst, frequent urination and polydipsia. On the management, life style modification and observing the essential rules of prevention in Persian medicine as well as herbal therapy and special simple manipulations were recommended. Current investigation was done to clarify the knowledge of medieval scientists on diabetes and related interventions. Reported remedies which are based on centuries of experience might be of beneficial for- further studies to the management of diabetes.

  10. The state of research on church chant in medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Byzantine-musicological studies in Serbia during the last few decades have been at an unsatisfactory level. The fact that Serbian musicologists have not exhibited much interest in exploring this research area could be somewhat justified by the fact that its scope for new studies might seem limited. The efforts aimed towards reconstructing and ‘resounding’ the medieval liturgical melodies based on the anagogic sources (the primary sources - notated manuscripts are very deficient seems, at first glance, discouraging, even futile. Nevertheless, the conditions for systematic research do exist, all the more because the current knowledge on music paleography, rhythmic and scale characteristics of Byzantine church chant has considerably changed the previous inquiry that had been limited to a few, although very precious musical pieces of only three known Serbian fifteenth-century composers - Ishaia, Nikola and Stefan. After a brief account on the topics and issues that have, until now, been in the scholarlyfocus, I draw attention to what has been done and what is currently underway in the research on Serbian medieval chant, while also indicating the areas that could be of greater interest for future explorations. I pay special critical attention to certain conclusions and methodological methods applied to the notated manuscripts that deal with liturgical music practice in medieval Serbia. According to some new findings in the field of Byzantine musicology, a new critical reading of available sources is necessary. Becoming acquainted with the earlier false approaches and conclusions made in haste and without particular evidence could be of significant help and serve as an important impulse for young researchers to get involved with explorations of Serbian music past. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Identiteti srpske muzike od lokalnih do globalnih okvira: tradicije, promene, izazovi

  11. The medieval feminine personage in the romance O guarani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrânio Gurgel Lucena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We objectify to present a intertextual analysis of the literary text that contemplates a process of mythical constitution of the personages of the romance the Guarani (1857 of the writer Jose de Alencar. Focamos the analysis on the Cecília young for where we discover its “static” adaptation as medieval myth in the Brazilian romantic romance. The unconditional, protective and servile love of the Peri indian (One arquétipo of the medieval knight. conditions the construction of the loved one, therefore under the medieval myth of the gracious love, a personage is formed in function of the other, is opposing destinations that search the balance in the love. Exactly being something distant and inaccessible, as they present the trovadorescas Cantigas of love. In the theoretical recital, we have: MOISÉS (2004 - 2005 characterizing the mythos and the definitions of the plain and round personages; a platonic reference to the servile love in the Slap-up meal; Spalding (1973, Brunel (1988 for the dicionarizações concerning the thematic one and of the critical one; in the literary theory, Brunel, Pichois and Rousseau (1995, p.115: the myth, “a narrative set consecrated by the tradition”; in Samuel (2000, the mythical literariedade in the formation of a people; Bosi (1994, information on the indianismo and Coutinho (1988, gênese of our literariedade and the romantic romance. Thus, our work presents a result to the literary study: the thematic influence of the Average Age and its mythical love (gracious and servile in the composition of the indianista romance.

  12. Pigments and dyes of the works of art in Portugal, in the beginning of the 17th century, according to the Filipe Nunes' treatise on painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António João Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The painting treatise published in 1615 by Filipe Nunes, entitled Arte da Pintura, has great significance for the study of the 17th century Portuguese painting materials and techniques, especially for the first half of the century. However, the mentioned pigments and dyes are not always easy to identify due to the changes in nomenclature that have occurred since then. This study pretends to report those materials and to establish the correspondence between them and the modern names. Whenever the materials identification was not evident, several sources of data were considered: the details provided by the treatise, the studies already published relevant to the subject and several documentary sources, particularly those of the time. Although some doubts still persist about some names, 24 pigments and 10 dyes were identified. This study has provided information that will constitute a reference useful for the analytical study of works of art, the conservation treatments and the interpretation of other technical treatises. It has also brought to light the great diversity of dyes that might have been used in works of art, as opposed to the few cases where they have been identified by analysis. This suggests that redoubled care should be taken in scientific studies of works of art, where the information obtained by conservators-restorers should play an important role.

  13. Three individuals, three stories, three burials from medieval Trondheim, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stian Suppersberger Hamre

    Full Text Available This article presents the life stories of three individuals who lived in Trondheim, Norway, during the 13th century. Based on skeletal examinations, facial reconstructions, genetic analyses, and stable oxygen isotope analyses, the birthplace, mobility, ancestry, pathology, and physical appearance of these people are presented. The stories are discussed within the relevant historical context. These three people would have been ordinary citizens, without any privileges out of the ordinary, which makes them quite rare in the academic literature. Through the study of individuals one gets a unique look into the Norwegian medieval society.

  14. Three individuals, three stories, three burials from medieval Trondheim, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppersberger Hamre, Stian; Ersland, Geir Atle; Daux, Valérie; Parson, Walther; Wilkinson, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the life stories of three individuals who lived in Trondheim, Norway, during the 13th century. Based on skeletal examinations, facial reconstructions, genetic analyses, and stable oxygen isotope analyses, the birthplace, mobility, ancestry, pathology, and physical appearance of these people are presented. The stories are discussed within the relevant historical context. These three people would have been ordinary citizens, without any privileges out of the ordinary, which makes them quite rare in the academic literature. Through the study of individuals one gets a unique look into the Norwegian medieval society.

  15. Two incrusted medieval swords from Zbaszyn, Lubusz voivodship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Głosek, Marian

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two interesting medieval swords that can be dated between the end of the 12th century to the beginning of the 14th century AD. Both display, engraved in the fuller, inscriptions in silver and copper inlay, one of them a Latin text, the other heraldic symbols.

    Se presentan dos espadas medievales fechables entre finales del S. XII y principios del XIV, decoradas con damasquinados en plata y aleación de cobre. Una presenta un texto latino y mativos ornamentales; la otra, elementos heráldicos.

  16. PMCT investigation of mummified forensic evidence from medieval Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Kranioti, Elena

    2016-01-01

    ObjectivesTo estimate the sex of a set of mummified right hands from Medieval Germany with the aid of non-invasive Computed Tomography in an effort to shed light to these people's identities. These hands were initially thought to belong to thieves, robbers or impertinent children that were punished by amputation. Recent research identified them in the literature as “Leibzeichen”, body members of unknown individuals murdered in the late middle Ages that represented the dead person in court.Mat...

  17. Multi-Ethnicity and Material Exchangesin Late Medieval Tallinn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    . It explores ambiguities arising from daily interactions in the shared physical landscape of the town, such as material exchanges, and the development of new technological solutions, and the simultaneous insistence on maintenance of sharp inter-group boundaries. As material culture plays a significant role......his article examines the cultural and social dynamics of a multi-ethnic medieval town. Taking the lower town of Tallinn as a case study, this paper identifies the major urban ethnic groups living in the town and discusses their co-existence, self-definition, and processes of categorization...

  18. Visitors’ Motivations, Satisfaction and Loyalty Towards Castro Marim Medieval Fair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iolanda Márcia Barbeitos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study tests the relationship between motivation, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural equation model. Data have been collected through a questionnaire applied to visitors attending a local festival, Castro Marim Medieval Fair, which hosts every year between 45.000 and 60.000 visitors. Results show that satisfaction towards controlled variables of the event within the venue’s boundaries, such as animation, gastronomy, and handicraft, influences visitors’ overall satisfaction towards the event. On the other hand, they also reveal a direct relationship between overall satisfaction and loyalty. The study contributes to a better understanding of visitors’ behaviour and provides useful guidance to festival ideation and design.

  19. Finger printing of medieval investment cast idols by radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatraman, B.; Babu Rao, C.; Bhattacharya, D.K.; Raj, Baldev

    1993-01-01

    Among the various methods, radiography is an important technique that can be used to fingerprint an idol. This is because, these idols are cast structures, and radiography is the most reliable technique for the detection of internal features like casting defects. This paper presents the radiographic methodology adopted and the results of the studies to characterise radiographically three medieval cast idols belonging to different periods 9th, 13th, and 16th century obtained from the government museum Madras. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. The Hebrew Academy for Special Children's Summer Program: An Evaluation Report. An Innovative Program To Enhance the Academic and Social Outcomes of Developmentally Disabled Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Bernard

    This document presents an evaluation report and parent handbook of for a federally supported 6-week residential summer program for children and adults with developmental disabilities developed by the Hebrew Academy for Special Children (Brooklyn, New York). It also includes the program's parent handbook. Evaluation focused on three groups of camp…

  1. The Separability of Morphological Processes from Semantic Meaning and Syntactic Class in Production of Single Words: Evidence from the Hebrew Root Morpheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Avital

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated to what extent the morphological facilitation effect induced by the derivational root morpheme in Hebrew is independent of semantic meaning and grammatical information of the part of speech involved. Using the picture-word interference paradigm with auditorily presented distractors, Experiment 1 compared the…

  2. The Acquisition of the English Progressive: A Case Study of a Seven-Year-Old Hebrew Speaker. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshtain, Elite

    The present paper reports on a case study investigating the acquisition of form and function of the English progressive by a seven-year-old Hebrew speaker, learning English as a second language. The paper describes the different elicitation techniques used, and discusses the suitability of such techniques for the investigation of form and…

  3. Correlation between Phonological and Morphological Awareness and the Reading of Punctuated and Non-Punctuated Words in Arabic as First Language and Hebrew as Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishara, Saied; Weiss, Itzhak

    2017-01-01

    Phonological and morphological awareness and its correlation with reading punctuated and non-punctuated words in Arabic as a first language were examined, as well as its transfer to Hebrew as a second language. Research participants were 30 fourth grade pupils. Phonological awareness was examined by phonological decoding of actual and meaningless…

  4. Saxon Obsequies: the Early Medieval Archaeology of Richard Cornwallis Neville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the origins of British Anglo-Saxon archaeology by focusing on the work of one early Victorian archaeologist: Richard Cornwallis Neville. The seemingly descriptive and parochial nature of Neville’s archaeological pursuits, together with the attention he afforded to Romano-British remains, has impeded due recognition, and critical scrutiny, of his contributions to the development of early Medieval burial archaeology. Using his archaeological publications as source material, I will show how Neville’s interpretations of Saxon graves were a form of memory work, defining his personal, familial and martial identity in relation to the landscape and locality of his aristocratic home at Audley End, near Saffron Walden, Essex. Subsequently, I argue that Neville’s prehistoric and Romano-British discoveries reveal his repeated concern with the end of Roman Britain and its barbarian successors. Finally, embodied within Neville’s descriptions of early Medieval graves and their location we can identify a pervasive Anglo-Saxonism. Together these strands of argument combine to reveal how, for Neville, Saxon graves constituted a hitherto unwritten first chapter of English history that could be elucidated through material culture and landscape.

  5. An Atlas of Medieval Combs from Northern Europe

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    Steven P. Ashby

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As an aid to understanding chronology, economics, identity and culture contact, the early medieval bone/antler hair-comb is an under-exploited resource, despite the existence of an extensive literature borne out of a long-standing tradition of empirical research. Such research has been undertaken according to diverse traditions, is scattered amongst site reports and grey literature, regional, national, and international journals, and is published in a number of different languages. The present article provides a general synthesis of this data, together with the author's personal research, situated within a broad view of chronology and geography. It presents the author's classification of early medieval composite combs, and applies this in a review of comb typology in space and time. It makes use of recently excavated material from little-known and unpublished sites, as well as the classic studies of familiar towns and 'emporia'. The atlas is intended for use as a reference piece that may be accessed according to need, and read in a non-linear fashion. Thus, it may act as a first port-of-call for scholars researching the material culture of a particular spatio-temporal context, while simultaneously facilitating rapid characterisation of freshly excavated finds material. It should provide a useful complement to recent and ongoing question-oriented research on combs.

  6. Genetic research at a fivefold children's burial from medieval Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Jessica; Melisch, Claudia; Powers, Natasha; Geppert, Maria; Zander, Judith; Purps, Josephine; Spors, Birgit; Nagy, Marion

    2015-03-01

    Berlin originated from the two twin cities Berlin and Cölln, which both were founded at the beginning of the 13th century. However the real date of their foundation as well as the origin of the first settlers is still unknown. On the Berlin site the historic city center is still visible in the Nikolaiviertel, but the medieval origin of Cölln disappeared almost completely. In 2007 a large scale excavation, which comprised an area of about 1700m(2) of the historical center of the St. Peters church, recovers the remains of Cölln's first citizens and span a period of 500 years of medieval population. Here we present the first genetic analysis of a fivefold children's burial from excavations in Berlin. The genetic data unveiled next to ancestry and eye color data also the kinship and the gender of the five individuals. Together with the archeological context the new gained information help to shed more light on the possible reasons for this burial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA and bone structure preservation in medieval human skeletons.

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    Coulson-Thomas, Yvette M; Norton, Andrew L; Coulson-Thomas, Vivien J; Florencio-Silva, Rinaldo; Ali, Nadir; Elmrghni, Samir; Gil, Cristiane D; Sasso, Gisela R S; Dixon, Ronald A; Nader, Helena B

    2015-06-01

    Morphological and ultrastructural data from archaeological human bones are scarce, particularly data that have been correlated with information on the preservation of molecules such as DNA. Here we examine the bone structure of macroscopically well-preserved medieval human skeletons by transmission electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, and the quantity and quality of DNA extracted from these skeletons. DNA technology has been increasingly used for analyzing physical evidence in archaeological forensics; however, the isolation of ancient DNA is difficult since it is highly degraded, extraction yields are low and the co-extraction of PCR inhibitors is a problem. We adapted and optimised a method that is frequently used for isolating DNA from modern samples, Chelex(®) 100 (Bio-Rad) extraction, for isolating DNA from archaeological human bones and teeth. The isolated DNA was analysed by real-time PCR using primers targeting the sex determining region on the Y chromosome (SRY) and STR typing using the AmpFlSTR(®) Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. Our results clearly show the preservation of bone matrix in medieval bones and the presence of intact osteocytes with well preserved encapsulated nuclei. In addition, we show how effective Chelex(®) 100 is for isolating ancient DNA from archaeological bones and teeth. This optimised method is suitable for STR typing using kits aimed specifically at degraded and difficult DNA templates since amplicons of up to 250bp were successfully amplified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hallazgos inéditos de moneda medieval en Galicia

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    Núñez Meneses, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work wants to promote medieval mumismatic material found in Galicia, which still remained unpublished outside the institutions where it is preserved, aware of the importance of the knowledge of all possible data for historical interpretation, being the coin finds the truer testimony, along with the documentation, of the use and circulation of money at all times. We have visited numismatists funds from principal Galician museums and institutions who kindly opened us their doors, discovering, on occasions, medieval coins that had gone unnoticed or other badly catalogued. Sometimes, however, the cataloguing was perfect and the metrological work and photography was already done. This search was necessary because of the scarce published medieval coin finds for Northwest Spain, insufficient to draw firm conclusions. It has allowed us to conclude, among other things, that coins and money are already very present in rural areas in XII and XIII Galician middle ages, or that Portuguese coins had immense presence in medieval XIV and XV Galicia. Nevertheless, we know that recent archaeological activity in Galicia is discovering new specimens that will increase our knowledge, allowing us to know if there has been or not coin survival in several decades or if depression of the use of money after the fall of the Roman Empire has been so intense as it seems up to the recovery of XII century.El presente trabajo pretende dar a conocer el material numismático medieval hallado en Galicia que aún permanecía inédito fuera de las instituciones donde se preserva, conscientes de la importancia del conocimiento de todos los datos posibles para la interpretación histórica, siendo los hallazgos de moneda el más fiel testimonio, junto a la documentación, del uso y circulación de la moneda en todas épocas. Hemos accedido a los fondos numismáticos de diversos museos e instituciones de Galicia que amablemente nos abrieron sus puertas, descubriendo, en ocasiones

  9. Sex estimation standards for medieval and contemporary Croats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Željana; Kružić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Anđelinović, Deny; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2017-06-14

    To develop discriminant functions for sex estimation on medieval Croatian population and test their application on contemporary Croatian population. From a total of 519 skeletons, we chose 84 adult excellently preserved skeletons free of antemortem or postmortem changes and took all standard measurements. Sex was estimated/determined using standard anthropological procedures and ancient DNA (amelogenin analysis) where pelvis was insufficiently preserved or where sex morphological indicators were not consistent. We explored which measurements showed sexual dimorphism and used them for developing univariate and multivariate discriminant functions for sex estimation. We included only those functions that reached accuracy rate ≥80%. We tested the applicability of developed functions on modern Croatian sample (n=37). From 69 standard skeletal measurements used in this study, 56 of them showed statistically significant sexual dimorphism (74.7%). We developed five univariate discriminant functions with classification rate 80.6%-85.2% and seven multivariate discriminant functions with an accuracy rate of 81.8%-93.0%. When tested on the modern population functions showed classification rates 74.1%-100%, and ten of them reached aimed accuracy rate. Females showed higher classified in the mediaeval populations, whereas males were better classification rates in the modern populations. Developed discriminant functions are sufficiently accurate for reliable sex estimation in both medieval Croatian population and modern Croatian samples and may be used in forensic settings. The methodological issues that emerged regarding the importance of considering external factors in development and application of discriminant functions for sex estimation should be further explored.

  10. Neuropsychiatric phenomena in the medieval text Cantigas de Santa Maria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Francisco De Assis Aquino; Griesbach, Sarah H; Thomas, Florian P

    2015-05-12

    To discuss the neuropsychiatric phenomena described in Cantigas de Santa Maria (Canticles of St. Mary [CSM]). CSM is a collection of 427 canticles composed in Galician-Portuguese between 1252 and 1284 at the Court of King Alfonso X the Wise of Spain (1221-1284). The canticles (of which 9 are repeated) include devotional and liturgical poems and 353 narrative stories consisting mainly of depictions of Marian miracles. Most are set to music and many are illustrated. We reviewed the canticles for description of miracles and other neuropsychiatric phenomena. Two neurologists reached a consensus about the descriptions. Of the 353 miracles, 279 medically relevant facts (from 187 canticles) and 25 instances of resurrection were reported. Possible neuropsychiatric conditions were described in 98 canticles. Physicians were mentioned in 16 narratives. The most common neurologic conditions detailed were blindness (n = 17), dystonia, weakness, and deformities (n = 20). Other common conditions included psychosis (n = 15), speech disorder/deaf-mutism (n = 12), infections (n = 15), sexual dysfunction/infertility/obstetrical-gynecologic issues (n = 18), head trauma (n = 5), ergotism/St. Anthony's fire (n = 7), and others. There were 9 instances of prodromic mystical experiences/hallucinations heralding death. While limited by retrospection and interpretation of neuropsychiatric phenomena in the medieval context, these short accounts are among the first descriptions of neuropsychiatric conditions in early Portuguese/Galician. They reflect how medieval societies used rational and irrational approaches to understand occurrences in their lives. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Archeological Applications of XAFS: Prehistorical Paintings And Medieval Glasses

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    Farges, F.; Chalmin, E.; Vignaud, C.; Pallot-Frossard, I.; Susini, J.; Bargar, J.; Brown, G.E., Jr.; Menu, M.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-10-27

    High-resolution manganese and iron K-edges XANES spectra were collected on several samples of archeological interest: prehistorical paintings and medieval glasses. XANES spectra were collected at the ID21 facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) using a micro-beam device and at the 11-2 beamline (SSRL, Stanford, USA) using a submillimetric beam. The medieval glasses studied are from gothic glass windows from Normandy (XIVth century). The aim of this study is to help understand the chemical durability of these materials, exposed to weathering since the XIVth century. They are used as analogues of weathered glasses used to dump metallic wastes. These glasses show surficial enrichment in manganese, due to its oxidation from II (glass) to III/IV (surface), which precipitates as amorphous oxy-hydroxides. Similarly, iron is oxidized on the surface and forms ferrihydrite-type aggregates. The prehistorical paintings are from Lascaux and Ekain (Basque country). We choose in that study the black ones, rich in manganese to search for potential evidences of some 'savoir-faire' that the Paleolithic men could have used to realize their paint in rock art, as shown earlier for Fe-bearing pigments. A large number of highly valuable samples, micrometric scaled, were extracted from these frescoes and show large variation in the mineralogical nature of the black pigments used, from an amorphous psilomelane-type to a well-crystallized pyrolusite. Correlation with the crystals morphology helps understanding the know-how of these early artists.

  12. Breaking the Barriers of a "Silenced Identity": Teacher Trainees' Attitudes towards the Bilingual Presentation in Hebrew and Amharic

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    Baratz Lea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the attitudes of students in a teacher training college training regarding the bilingual presentation of children's literature -- in Hebrew and Amharic. A questionnaire on the importance of bilingual books was used with a group of students of Ethiopian descent (of the Beta Israel community and a group of students who do not belong to this community, with the expectation that a substantial difference would be found between the attitudes of the two groups. The study population, students training to be literature teachers, was aware of the qualities that make "a good story". The main findings emphasize that participants have a substantial understanding of the significance of bilingual books, both in terms of its function in the curriculum and in building a cultural narrative in order to break out of the silenced identity and eliminate cultural visibility.

  13. Patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma in medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krakowka, Kathryn

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns and prevalence of violence-related skull trauma (including the cranium and mandible) among a large sample of skeletons from medieval London (1050-1550 AD). In total, data from 399 skulls, representing six different sites from across medieval London, were analyzed for evidence of trauma and assessed for the likelihood that it was caused by violence. The sites include the three parish cemeteries of St Nicholas Shambles (GPO75), St Lawrence Jewry (GYE92), and St Benet Sherehog (ONE94); the two monastic houses of London Blackfriars (PIC87) and St Mary Graces (MIN86); and the early inmate cemetery from the medieval hospital of St Mary Spital (NRT85). The overall findings suggest that violence affected all aspects of medieval London society, but how that violence was characterized largely depended on sex and burial location. Specifically, males from the lay cemeteries appear to have been the demographic most affected by violence-related skull injuries, particularly blunt force trauma to the cranial vault. Using both archaeological and historical evidence, the results suggest that violence in medieval London may have been more prevalent than in other parts of medieval England, particularly rural environments, but similar to other parts of medieval Europe. However, more studies focusing on medieval trauma, and violence specifically, need to be carried out to further strengthen these results. In particular, males from the lay cemeteries were disproportionately affected by violence-related trauma, especially blunt force trauma. It perhaps indicates a means of informal conflict resolution as those of lower status did not always have the newly established medieval legal system available to them. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Práctica social, saber médico y reflejo literario de la cultura del baño en el contexto catalán medieval

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    Cifuentes, Lluís

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bathing, particularly thermal baths, which were therapeutic, but also cold baths, became an occasion for social gatherings in late-medieval Catalonia, especially among the elite. It had the sanction of the prestigious university medicine, but it was nevertheless an activity condemned by moralists, a situation that is frequently reflected in literary works. The characteristics of the medical literature market account for the absence of specialised treatises on this subject during this period.

    En el contexto catalán de los últimos siglos medievales, la cultura del baño, especialmente del baño termal, terapéutico, pero también del baño frío, fue ocasión, sobre todo entre las élites, para la sociabilidad, bendecida por el apoyo de la prestigiosa medicina universitaria, pero también dio lugar a constantes ataques de los moralistas, mientras todo ello proporcionaba abundante material para la creación literaria. Las características del mercado de demanda de literatura médica explicarían la ausencia de una tratadística médica especializada en el particular durante este período.

  15. Frail or hale: Skeletal frailty indices in Medieval London skeletons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklein, Kathryn E; Crews, Douglas E

    2017-01-01

    To broaden bioarchaeological applicability of skeletal frailty indices (SFIs) and increase sample size, we propose indices with fewer biomarkers (2-11 non-metric biomarkers) and compare these reduced biomarker SFIs to the original metric/non-metric 13-biomarker SFI. From the 2-11-biomarker SFIs, we choose the index with the fewest biomarkers (6-biomarker SFI), which still maintains the statistical robusticity of a 13-biomarker SFI, and apply this index to the same Medieval monastic and nonmonastic populations, albeit with an increased sample size. For this increased monastic and nonmonastic sample, we also propose and implement a 4-biomarker SFI, comprised of biomarkers from each of four stressor categories, and compare these SFI distributions with those of the non-metric biomarker SFIs. From the Museum of London WORD database, we tabulate multiple SFIs (2- to 13-biomarkers) for Medieval monastic and nonmonastic samples (N = 134). We evaluate associations between these ten non-metric SFIs and the 13-biomarker SFI using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Subsequently, we test non-metric 6-biomarker and 4-biomarker SFI distributions for associations with cemetery, age, and sex using Analysis of Variance/Covariance (ANOVA/ANCOVA) on larger samples from the monastic and nonmonastic cemeteries (N = 517). For Medieval samples, Spearman's correlation coefficients show a significant association between the 13-biomarker SFI and all non-metric SFIs. Utilizing a 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFI, we increase the nonmonastic and monastic samples and demonstrate significant lifestyle and sex differences in frailty that were not observed in the original, smaller sample. Results from the 6-biomarker and parsimonious 4-biomarker SFIs generally indicate similarities in means, explained variation (R2), and associated P-values (ANOVA/ANCOVA) within and between nonmonastic and monastic samples. We show that non-metric reduced biomarker SFIs provide alternative indices for

  16. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr-1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr-1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr-1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km-2 yr-1, that by far outweigh bedrock denudation rates

  17. A modern conceptualization of phobia in al-Balkhi's 9th century treatise: Sustenance of the Body and Soul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaad, Rania; Ali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Morbid fears and phobias have been mentioned in religious, philosophical and medical manuscripts since ancient times. Despite early insights by the Greeks, phobias did not appear as a separate clinical phenomenon in Western medicine until the 17th century and has evolved substantially since. However, robust investigations attempting to decipher the clinical nature of phobias emerged in pre-modern times during the oft-overlooked Islamic Golden Era (9th-12th centuries); which overlapped with Europe's medieval period. An innovative attempt was made by the 9th century Muslim scholar, Abu Zayd al-Balkhi, in his medical manuscript "Sustenance of the Body and Soul," to define phobias as a separate diagnostic entity. Al-Balkhi was one of the earliest to cluster psychological and physical symptoms of phobias under one category, "al-Fazaá", and outline a specific management plan. We analyze al-Balkhi's description of phobias, according to the modern understanding of psychiatric classifications and symptomatology as described in the DSM-5. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of medieval manuscripts from the University of Seville

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    Santos, F.J., E-mail: fsantos@us.e [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain); Gomez-Martinez, I.; Garcia-Leon, M. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA), Avda. Thomas Alva Edison 7, Isla de la Cartuja, 41092 Seville (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Eleven samples (parchment and paper) from different medieval manuscripts belonging to the cultural heritage of the University of Seville have been radiocarbon dated on the 1 MV AMS facility at the CNA in Seville (Spain). The objective of this study is double. First of all, these are the first real 'unknown' samples treated in the radiocarbon laboratory and dated on our AMS facility, SARA (Spanish Accelerator for Radionuclide Analysis). Besides, some useful information about the manuscripts can be obtained, either to corroborate the dates, or in some cases, to decide between possible dates. As expected, a general agreement is found between radiocarbon results and palaeographical data. Nevertheless, some interesting facts have been learned through this study. We present in this paper the procedure to prepare the samples and the ages obtained with a brief discussion of the results.

  19. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  20. Decagonal and quasi-crystalline tilings in medieval Islamic architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peter J; Steinhardt, Paul J

    2007-02-23

    The conventional view holds that girih (geometric star-and-polygon, or strapwork) patterns in medieval Islamic architecture were conceived by their designers as a network of zigzagging lines, where the lines were drafted directly with a straightedge and a compass. We show that by 1200 C.E. a conceptual breakthrough occurred in which girih patterns were reconceived as tessellations of a special set of equilateral polygons ("girih tiles") decorated with lines. These tiles enabled the creation of increasingly complex periodic girih patterns, and by the 15th century, the tessellation approach was combined with self-similar transformations to construct nearly perfect quasi-crystalline Penrose patterns, five centuries before their discovery in the West.

  1. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

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    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  2. Thermodynamic model of natural, medieval and nuclear waste glass durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Plodinec, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of glass durability based on hydration of structural units has been applied to natural glass, medieval window glasses, and glasses containing nuclear waste. The relative durability predicted from the calculated thermodynamics correlates directly with the experimentally observed release of structural silicon in the leaching solution in short-term laboratory tests. By choosing natural glasses and ancient glasses whose long-term performance is known, and which bracket the durability of waste glasses, the long-term stability of nuclear waste glasses can be interpolated among these materials. The current Savannah River defense waste glass formulation is as durable as natural basalt from the Hanford Reservation (10 6 years old). The thermodynamic hydration energy is shown to be related to the bond energetics of the glass. 69 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  3. Isidoro de Sevilla: el banco de datos medieval

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    Américo Abad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available San Isidoro de Sevilla, el Doctor egregius de Ios siglos VI y VII, constituye una referencia medieval de suma importancia y en varios aspectos. Su obra enciclopédica, su pensamiento jurídico y filosófico, su conducción de los asuntos políticos, su apología de la iglesia como institución ecuménica, cuando apenas se dibujaban los primeros rasgos -impalpables casi - de la sociedad civil y del estado y la organizacJón del saber y del conocimiento llegados a su tiempo.Contenido: Presentación. El proyecto enciclopédico. Universo y sistema. Etimologías y otros textos. La ley y el gobierno. La filosofía. Comunidad y comunidades. Consideraciones finales

  4. A Cristandade medieval entre o mito e a utopia

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    Francisco José Silva Gomes

    Full Text Available Apresentaremos neste ensaio três temas para a reflexão: em primeiro lugar, discutiremos a hipótese sobre o caráter eminentemente religioso da ideologia na cristandade medieval. Em seguida, ressaltaremos o papel da "reforma gregoriana" no século XI para a reestruturação desta nova cristandade; por último analisaremos a reação particular que os "reformadores gregorianos" criaram com a temporalidade enquanto categoria antropológica. Cremos que entre o mito e a utopia, os "reformadores gregorianos" tentaram criar, por vezes sem muito êxito, uma fronteira entre uma escatologia oficial e uma escatologia apocalíptica e/ou milenarista, com o designio sobretudo de fazer prevalecer a ordem na sociedade/cristandade.

  5. Some early medieval swords in the Wallace Collection and elsewhere

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    Edge, David

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of eight early medieval swords shows that some were made from a single piece of steel, while others had a steel cutting edge welded on. Heat-treatment to harden the steel was undertaken in six out of seven cases; the other proved to be a modern replica.

    El análisis de ocho espadas altomedievales muestra que algunas de ellas fueron hechas a partir de una sola pieza de acero, mientras que a otras se les ha soldado un cortante filo de este material. El endurecimiento del acero mediante forja fue realizado en seis de siete casos, mientras que el restante se demostró que era una réplica moderna.

  6. Two medieval swords from the regional museum in Jagodina

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    Cvetković Branislav

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes two medieval swords (one found near Kalenić monastery and one near the Ćuprija town from the funds of the Department of Archaeology in the Regional Museum in Jagodina. He presents arguments in opposition to the typological classification existent in scholarly literature of the first one, and concludes that the both specimens most probably originate from the same workshop, as were being stamped with identical maker-marks. In the end the author draws one’s attention to circumstances of the site find of the first sword, and also points towards possible directions of research of the sacred topography of the Kalenić monastery environs.

  7. The phallus tree: a medieval and renaissance phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelaer, Johan J

    2010-02-01

    In the year 2000, an exceptional mural was discovered at a fountain in Massa Marittima, Italy. It depicts a tree with phalluses, which are distributed across all the branches, are disproportionately large and in an aroused state, and include a scrotum. Other examples were identified by systematic literature research. Several other depictions of a phallus tree from the medieval and Renaissance periods exist, for example in manuscripts, as wood carvings, on pilgrimage badges, or frescoes, and were retrieved in Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Turkey, and France. The phallus tree was a well-known phenomenon in Western Europe during the late Middle Ages and the beginning of the Renaissance, and mostly find their roots in the link between infertility and impotence on the one hand, and sorcery and witchcraft on the other.

  8. The Relations between Astronomy and Music in Medieval Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardumyan, Arpi

    2015-07-01

    In Middle Ages Astronomy and Music were included in the four sciences, together with Mathematics and Geometry. From ancient times philosophers thought that harmony lies in the basis of world creation. The Earth was in the centre of the Universe, and the seven planets went around it, the Sun and the Moon in their number. Harmony was also in the basis of music, with seven sounds due to seven planets. It was considered that owing to harmonic rotation cosmic universal music appears, and it is not attainable for human ear as it is used to it. Medieval connoisseurs of music therapy believed that for healing a person his astrological data must first be cleared out, in order to define in which musical mode should sound the melody in order to treat him/her. Comparing music with astrology they considered easier to practise the first one because the celestial luminaries are much higher and farther from people.

  9. Archaeomagnetic Study performed on Early Medieval Buildings from western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Blain, S.; Guibert, P.; Oberlin, C.; Sapin, C.

    2009-05-01

    A multiple dating study, involving a collaboration between specialists of dating techniques (thermoluminescence (TL) and radiocarbon), historians of art and archaeologists, has been carried out on several early medieval buildings from western France. The early medieval period is not well known especially in France where there is a lack of visible evidence that identifies pre-Romanesque architecture. The majority of buildings to have survived from this period are religious ones, considered important enough to be made of strong, non-perishable material such as stone or brick, as for example the churches of Notre-Dame-sous- Terre in the Mont-Saint-Michel or St Martin in Angers. Due to their significance in architectural history, it is imperative to position them accurately in the chronology of the history of art. Bricks are often used to build up round-headed arches or to reinforce the frame of a wall with bonding courses in those churches. TL dating and archeomagnetic analysis were performed on cores drilled within bricks while radiocarbon dating were undertaken on coals found within mortars. In order to increase the number of data during the early Middle Ages, archeointensity determinations using the classical Thellier technique with anisotropy of thermal remanence and cooling rate corrections were performed. Archaeomagnetic directions were used to recognize the firing position of bricsk during manufacture. Reliable and precise ages were obtained on the church Notre-Dame-sous-Terre; they indicate two phases of building in 950±50AD and 990±50AD. Mean archeointensities obtained on 17 (21) samples from the first (second) phases appears very closed 69.1±1.2 and 68.3±1.6 microTesla. Ages and archeomagnetic results obtained on 4 other sites will be presented and compared to the available data in western Europe.

  10. Sex differentials in caries frequencies in Medieval London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Brittany S; DeWitte, Sharon N; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-03-01

    Tooth decay is one of the most common oral infections observed in skeletal assemblages. Sex differentials in caries frequency are commonly examined, with most studies finding that females tend to have a higher frequency of carious lesions (caries) compared to males. Less research has examined differences in caries between males and females with respect to age in past populations. Findings from living populations indicate that caries frequencies are higher in females, at least in part, because of the effects of estrogen and pregnancy. We are interested in the interaction of age, sex, and caries in medieval London, during a period of repeated famines, which might have exacerbated underlying biological causes of caries sex differentials. We examined caries in adults from two medieval London cemeteries dating to c. 1120-1539 AD: St. Mary Spital (n=291) and St. Mary Graces (n=80) to test the hypothesis that males and females have different caries frequencies irrespective of age. The association between maxillary molar caries and sex was tested using hierarchical log-linear analysis to control for the effects of age on caries frequencies. The results indicate a higher frequency of maxillary molar caries in females (P<0.00), and that the age distribution of caries differs between the sexes (P=0.01), with a consistent increase in frequency with age for females until late adulthood, but not males. The difference in caries frequencies is not explained by differences in the age distributions of the sexes. Differences in the age patterns of caries for males and females could be the result of biological factors that present during reproductive age, differences in diet, or differential access to resources during famine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dental health and diet in early medieval Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mario

    2015-09-01

    With the aim to get a better picture of dental health, diet and nutrition in early medieval Ireland a population-based study focusing on several attributes of oral health in adult individuals was conducted. The study focused on possible differences between sexes and age groups in terms of frequency and distribution of studied pathologies in order to determine whether these differences result from different diets, cultural practices or are age-related. Permanent dentitions belonging to adult individuals from five Irish early medieval sites were examined for the evidence of caries, ante-mortem tooth loss, abscesses, calculus, alveolar bone resorption and tooth wear. All pathologies were analysed and presented by teeth and alveoli. A total of 3233 teeth and 3649 alveoli belonging to 167 individuals (85 males and 82 females) were included into the analysis. Males exhibited significantly higher prevalence of abscesses, heavy wear and alveolar bone resorption, while females exhibited significantly higher prevalence of calculus. All studied dento-alveolar pathologies showed a strong correlation with advanced age, except calculus in females. Additionally, dental wear associated with habitual activities was observed in two females. The results of the present study confirm the data gained by written sources and stable isotopes analyses suggesting the diet of the early Irish was rich in carbohydrates with only occasional use of meat. Furthermore, significant differences between the sexes in terms of recorded pathologies strongly suggest different nutritional patterns with females consuming foods mostly based on carbohydrates in comparison to males. The observed sex-differences might also occur due to differences between male and female sex such as reproductive biology and pregnancy, a somewhat different age distributions, but also as a result of different cultural practices between the sexes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physicochemical investigation of medieval ceramics from excavation site Novo Brdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čugalj Snežana S.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artefacts produced or treated at high temperatures provide information about manufacturing techniques. Well preserved ceramic objects are therefore excellent chronological markers as well as general markers of society development. In order to determine provenance of pottery fragments, archaeologists classify samples according to their physical characteristics, decoration and aesthetic style. However, a more objective multidisciplinary approach, based on undoubted results, is necessary to complete this study. In this work we have investigated 27 samples of medieval ceramics from excavation site Novo Brdo, using X-ray fluorescence (XRF, FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD. Novo Brdo was large and rich mining and trading center of Serbia in XIV and XV century. A large number of ceramic samples found during the systematic excavation of this archaeological site allow good choice of samples for both destructive and nondestructive analysis. Combining results obtained by different experimental techniques, i.e. by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis, we have determined mineralogical composition and technology of production of investigated pottery. Estimated temperature of firing ranged from 800 to 900 °C, which is in agreement with the presence of high-temperature minerals like gehlenite and anorthite. Firing was preformed in the oxidation atmosphere since hematite, which is formed only in oxidation atmosphere, is detected in all investigated samples. Cross sections showed presence of defects and inhomogeneity of investigated ceramic, which indicates fast and incomplete firing procedure. All these findings indicate that investigated pottery was produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up the National database for medieval ceramics as well as the database for the Balkan region.

  13. Pliny’s Naturalis Historia and Medieval Animal Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Germ

    2007-12-01

    Studying Pliny’s influence on animal iconography is rendered additionally difficult because the methods of transferring content from literary tradition into an artistic medium have been insufficiently explored. The most tangible and recognizable is the role of bestiaries; in numerous examples of late Romanesque and Gothic sculptures it is possible to prove the direct influence of animal illuminations and descriptions in bestiaries, in which the method of depiction expresses the awareness of the symbolic value of the animal, which is transferred from the bestiaries into architectural sculpture and other fine arts media. A special role in studying the transfer of allegoric content from bestiaries into medieval animal iconography is played by the written records of medieval artists, which have been rarely preserved, and especially by “pattern books” (Musterbücher, which on the one hand sculptors and painters used as a direct template and, on the other, undoubtedly express the author’s knowledge of bestiaries. Thus, the animal drawings from the famous Sketchbook of Villard de Honnecourt indicate that the author was familiar with contemporary bestiaries and found inspiration in them; however, the relations between the drawings – juxtaposition of positively and negatively valued animals – indicates that he also took their symbolic value into account. Villard’s Sketchbook reveals an additional interesting detail: his annotation to the drawing of a porcupine reveals the influence of Pliny’s Naturalis Historia on the formation of the symbolic meaning of animals because Villard explicitly mentions features of the porcupine that were first mentioned by Pliny the Elder.

  14. ACTIVE BRIBERY IN CROATIAN MEDIEVAL AND MODERN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijo Galiot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to writing about the history of punishment, it is always linked with critically re-thinking and better understanding of the contemporary system of punishment, as a result of its long historical development. In such a way, „contemporary criminal law cannot be seen as a result of an effort made by a certain nation or in a certain epoch“. „Permanently faced with social changes, in its long historical development, criminal law has been modifying its fundamental principles and categories, by building new institutes and instruments, in order to become less cruel and more human, but not less efficient than in earlier stages of its development, characterized by rudeness, cruelty and exemplarity of its sanctions. Although it is not easy to answer the question, if there is the measure, in which social understanding of punishment and its purpose, determines the civilizational level in the society, there is no doubt about the fact that civilizational and legal point of view towards punishment derives from a waste range of factors: general, cultural, sociological, psychological, religious, political and other factors that should be taken altogether in their historical dimension. The genesis of criminal law is linked with the moment of establishing the public authorities and the state. According to different criteria, it is possible to introduce different periodization of criminal law. When it comes to the historical criterion, there can be made a historical division into periods of ancient, medieval, modern and contemporary criminal law (punishment, which periods should not be taken as absolutely inseparable. The point of this paper is to present a review and development of punishing active bribery in the Croatian medieval and modern law.

  15. Investigation of medieval ceramics from Ras by physicochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindović Nataša D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although early medieval Serbian ceramic is well described by the archeologists and historians, knowledge of the Balkan ceramic production is still limited. Archaeometric study of ceramics provenance, technology of preparation and used pigments as well as influence of neighboring countries and specific characteristics of different workshops has never been performed so far. The detailed knowledge of the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of an archaeological artifact is critical in finding solutions to problems of restoration, conservation, dating and authentication in the art world. In this work we present results of systematic investigation of pottery shards from archeological site Ras. The term Ras, which signifies both the fortress and the region encompassing the upper course of Raška River, used to be the center of the medieval Serbian state. Both the ceramic body and the polychromatic glaze of the artifacts were studied by a multianalitical approach combining optical microscopy (OM, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Mineralogical composition of pottery shards has been determined combining results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis. Firing temperature has been estimated based on the mineralogical composition and positions of Si-O stretching (-1000 cm-1 and banding (-460 cm-1 vibrations. Investigated samples have been classified into two groups based on the mineralogical composition, cross sections and firing temperature. Larger group consists of samples of fine-grained, homogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures bellow 800 °C which indicates imported products. Second, smaller group consists of inhomogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures between 850 and 900 °C produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up a national database for the compositions of bodies, glazes and pigments.

  16. A Treatise on Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  17. [Differences of concept and entity of xiao-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Golden Chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Ping; Wang, Zhen-Guo; Lu, Xing

    2012-01-01

    There are significant differences of the XIAO-named herb between Shennong's Herbal Classic and the Song-edition Treatise on Febrile Disease and Synopsis of the Golden Chamber. The reasons are: (1) With the development of history, differentiation of herb category and effect kept changing from the Han Dynasty to the Song Dynasty, which led to the differences in concept and entity of herbs in different periods. (2) Lin Yi of the Song Dynasty may have redefined some herb's names according to the current situation when he revised Zhang Zhongjing's works.

  18. Functional anatomy of the spine by Avicenna in his eleventh century treatise Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canons of Medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sait; Acar, Feridun; Mertol, Tansu; Arda, M Nuri

    2003-06-01

    The history of spinal surgery is an important part of the spine-related sciences. The development of treatment strategies for spine-related disorders is acquired from the Western literature. In this article, an Eastern physician, Ibn Sina, who is known as Avicenna in the West, and his treatise, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (the Canons of Medicine), are presented. Eight chapters of this book regarding the functional neuroanatomy of the spine were reviewed and are presented to give insight into the development of the understanding of spinal anatomy and biomechanics.

  19. Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), author of a pioneering treatise on pituitary surgery: the foundations of this new field in Europe in the early 1900s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, José M; Mongardi, Lorenzo; Prieto, Ruth; Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Rosdolsky, María; Strauss, Sewan; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Winter, Eduard; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    The field of pituitary surgery was born in the first decade of the twentieth century in Europe, and it evolved rapidly with the development of numerous innovative surgical techniques by some of the founding fathers of neurosurgery. This study investigates the pioneering Italian treatise on pituitary surgery, La Patologia Chirurgica dell'Ipofisi (Surgical Pathology of the Hypophysis), published in 1911 by Giovanni Verga (1879-1923), a surgeon from Pavía and one of Golgi's disciples. This little-known monograph compiles the earliest experience on pituitary surgery through the analysis of the first 50 procedures performed between 1903 and 1911. We conducted a biographical survey of Giovanni Verga and the motivations for his work on pituitary surgery. In addition, a systematic analysis of all original reports and historical documents about these pituitary procedures referenced in Verga's treatise was carried out. Verga's treatise provides a summary of the techniques employed and surgical outcomes for the first 50 attempted procedures of pituitary tumor removal. This monograph is the only scientific source that includes a complete account of the series of 10 pituitary tumors operated on by Sir Victor Horsley in the 1900s. Three major types of surgery were employed: (i) palliative procedures of craniectomy (n = 6); (ii) transcranial approaches to the pituitary gland, either subfrontal or subtemporal (n = 13); and (iii) transphenoidal routes to expose the sella turcica, either using an upper transnasal-transethmoidal approach (n = 19) or a lower sublabial/endonasal-transeptal one (n = 12). An operative mortality rate of 36% (n = 17) was observed in these early series. The pathological nature of the tumors operated on was available in 42 cases. There were 28 adenomas and 15 craniopharyngiomas. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916) and the Viennese surgeons Anton von Eiselsberg (1860-1939) and Oskar Hirsch (1877-1965) were the leading European figures in the development

  20. The Religious Significance of the Medieval Body and Flannery O'Connor's Fiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Novak, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Flannery O'Connor based what she called her "anagogic vision" on the medieval way of seeing the world that allowed the reader of a text to discern "different levels of reality in one image or one situation...

  1. Anticancer bioactivity of compounds from medicinal plants used in European medieval traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teiten, Marie-Hélène; Gaascht, François; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Since centuries, natural compounds from plants, animals and microorganisms were used in medicinal traditions to treat various diseases without a solid scientific basis. Recent studies have shown that plants that were used or are still used in the medieval European medicine are able to provide relieve for many diseases including cancer. Here we summarize impact and effect of selected purified active natural compounds from plants used in European medieval medicinal traditions on cancer hallmarks and enabling characteristics identified by Hanahan and Weinberg. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the pharmacological effect of pure compounds originally discovered in plants with therapeutic medieval use. Whereas many reviews deal with Ayurvedic traditions and traditional Chinese medicine, to our knowledge, the molecular basis of European medieval medicinal approaches are much less documented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ruins of medieval castles as refuges for endangered species of molluscs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Juřičková, L.; Kučera, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2005), s. 233-246 ISSN 0260-1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : molluscs , medieval castles, Central Europe Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.758, year: 2005

  3. Tablet-woven and tabby-woven braids from the Czech late medieval archaeological findings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Březinová, Helena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2010), s. 47-51 ISSN 0860-0007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : textile fragments * tablet -woven braids * tabby-woven braids * late medieval Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  4. A medieval city within Assyrian walls: the continuity of the town of Arbil in Northern Mesopotamia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováček, K.; Amin, A.M.; Melčák, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, autumn (2013), s. 1-42 ISSN 0021-0889 Institutional support: RVO:68378009 Keywords : medieval Arbil * North Mesopotamia * topography * remote sensing * archeology Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Paradise, pleasure and desire: Edenic delight in some late-medieval dramatic fragments

    OpenAIRE

    James, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the biblical Paradise and its relationship with the concept of delight or pleasure. In the first section it discusses the changing descriptions and interpretations of Paradise, from the biblical text to later medieval works; it goes on to explore the Augustinian and Thomist philosophies of pleasure and delight. Finally it brings together three late-medieval dramatic texts, all of which share an interest in Paradise, and explores the ways in which these texts utilise the co...

  6. Two medieval doctors: Gilbertus Anglicus (c1180-c1250) and John of Gaddesden (1280-1361).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2013-02-01

    Biographies of medieval English doctors are uncommon and fragmentary. The two best-known English medieval physicians were Gilbertus Anglicus and John of Gaddesden. This paper brings together the known details of their lives, compiled from extant biographies and from internal references in their texts. The primary records of their writings exist in handwritten texts and thereafter in incunabula from the time of the invention of printing in 1476. The record of the lives of these two medieval physicians can be expanded, as here, by the general perspective of the life and times in which they lived. Gilbertus Anglicus, an often-quoted physician-teacher at Montpellier, wrote a seven-folio Compendium medicinae in 1271. He described pioneering procedures used later in the emergent disciplines of anaesthetics, cosmetic medicine and travel medicine. Gilbertus' texts, used extensively in European medical schools, passed in handwritten copies from student to student and eventually were printed in 1510. John of Gaddesden, an Oxford graduate in Arts, Medicine and Theology, wrote Rosa Anglica, published circa 1314. Its detailed text is an exemplar of the mixture of received Hippocratic and Galenic lore compounded by medieval astronomy and religious injunction, which mixture was the essence of medieval medicine. The writings of both these medieval English physicians formed part of the core curriculum that underpinned the practice of medicine for the next 400 years.

  7. Psychometric properties of responses by clinicians and older adults to a 6-item Hebrew version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D6)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; O'Rourke, Norm; Goldfracht, Margalit

    2013-01-01

    The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) is commonly used as a screening instrument, as a continuous measure of change in depressive symptoms over time, and as a means to compare the relative efficacy of treatments. Among several abridged versions, the 6-item HAM-D6 is used most widely in lar...... degree because of its good psychometric properties. The current study compares both self-report and clinician-rated versions of the Hebrew version of this scale....

  8. Fast and slow readers of the Hebrew language show divergence in brain response ∼200 ms post stimulus: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korinth, Sebastian Peter; Breznitz, Zvia

    2014-01-01

    Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word) and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features) while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs) were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development.

  9. Yhwh, the Goddess and Evil: Is 'monotheism' an adequate concept to describe the Hebrew Bible's discourses about the God of Israel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. R�mer

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of �monotheism� has become a matter of debate in Hebrew Bible scholarship. This article investigates whether the concept should still be used, starting with Second Isaiah, who in the early Persian period elaborated a discourse that presented Yhwh as the only god. Therefore he had to integrate into this deity functions traditionally attributed to goddesses and to demons or evil gods. However, this attempt did not succeed. The goddess, whose elimination is probably reflected in Zechariah 5, returned in a certain way through the personification of Wisdom in Proverbs 8, and the �dark sides� of the gods were materialised in the figure of Satan, who experienced an impressive career in the following centuries. The question of evil is not resolved in the Hebrew Bible. Some texts admit the autonomy of evil, whereas Isaiah 45 claims that Yhwh himself is at the origin of evil. This diversity makes it difficult to characterise the Hebrew Bible as the result of a straightforward evolution from polytheism to monotheism.

  10. Fast and slow readers of the Hebrew language show divergence in brain response ∼200 ms post stimulus: an ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Peter Korinth

    Full Text Available Higher N170 amplitudes to words and to faces were recently reported for faster readers of German. Since the shallow German orthography allows phonological recoding of single letters, the reported speed advantages might have their origin in especially well-developed visual processing skills of faster readers. In contrast to German, adult readers of Hebrew are forced to process letter chunks up to whole words. This dependence on more complex visual processing might have created ceiling effects for this skill. Therefore, the current study examined whether also in the deep Hebrew orthography visual processing skills as reflected by N170 amplitudes explain reading speed differences. Forty university students, native speakers of Hebrew without reading impairments, accomplished a lexical decision task (i.e., deciding whether a visually presented stimulus represents a real or a pseudo word and a face decision task (i.e., deciding whether a face was presented complete or with missing facial features while their electroencephalogram was recorded from 64 scalp positions. In both tasks stronger event related potentials (ERPs were observed for faster readers in time windows at about 200 ms. Unlike in previous studies, ERP waveforms in relevant time windows did not correspond to N170 scalp topographies. The results support the notion of visual processing ability as an orthography independent marker of reading proficiency, which advances our understanding about regular and impaired reading development.

  11. Iznīqī and Jābir, Sirr and Miftāḥ: Two Authors, Four Titles, One Alchemical Treatise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Carusi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An alchemical Arabic treatise alternatively entitled Miftāḥ al-ḥikma, Miftāḥ jannāt al-khuld, Sirr al-asrār and Sirr al-sārr wa-sirr al-asrār is attributed in its manuscripts to two different authors: al-Iznīqī and Jābir b. Ḥayyān. In this article I briefly discuss some characteristic aspects of the treatise and its significance for the history of alchemy. These aspects include its ancient and important sources, such as the Muṣḥaf al-jamā‛a (Turba philosophorum and the Kitāb al-Ḥabīb, and its connection with the tradition of the artists and the activity of the workshop and laboratory, which first comes to the fore in Greek alchemy and later in Islamic alchemy. Furthermore, the work includes references to alchemical physical theories in which the influence of Islamic theology may perhaps be traced. This article, which summarises the results of investigations carried out over the last few years, could be considered as a kind of introduction to the edition and translation of the text currently in progress.

  12. Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wolniewicz-Slomka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Framing the Holocaust in popular knowledge: 3 articles about the Holocaust in English, Hebrew and Polish Wikipedia The goal of this article is to examine how different events and phenomena related to the Second World War and the Holocaust are framed via Wikipedia articles written in Polish, Hebrew and English. Departing from the pillars of the theory of framing in mass media, the article conducts a content analysis of three articles, in three different languages. The articles under analysis are the following: “Auschwitz-Birkenau Camp”, “The Pogrom in Jedwabne”, and “Righteous Among the Nations”. The analysis will use the four roles of frames as categories, determined by Entman: definition of the problem/phenomenon, causal interpretation, moral evaluation, and treatment recommendation. Analyzing how the articles fulfill each of the roles in the different languages, the research hypothesis is that the framing of the phenomena will differ between the versions, and each version will follow pillars of the collective memory of the Holocaust in its respective country. Findings, however, are not in complete compliance with this hypothesis.   Kształtowanie popularnej wiedzy o Holocauście na przykładzie trzech artykułów z polskiej, hebrajskiej i angielskiej Wikipedii Celem artykułu jest zbadanie, jak przedstawiane są wybrane wydarzenia i zjawiska, związane z historią II wojny światowej oraz Holokaustem, w internetowej encyklopedii „Wikipedia” w różnych językach. Prezentowana analiza treści opiera się na teorii framingu w mass mediach i obejmuje trzy artykuły: „Auschwitz-Birkenau”, „Pogrom w Jedwabnem” oraz „Sprawiedliwy wśród Narodów Świata”, opublikowane w językach polskim, angielskim oraz hebrajskim. W analizie wykorzystano cztery role „ram” (frames, sformułowane przez Entmana: definicja problemu/zjawiska, interpretacja przyczyn, ewaluacja moralna oraz propozycja rozwiązań. Autor, badając to, jak

  13. Seasonal climate variability in Medieval Europe (1000 to 1499)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, C.

    2009-04-01

    In his fundamental work on medieval climate Alexandre (1987) highlighted the significance of dealing with contemporary sources. Recently, long series of temperature indices for "summer" and "winter" were set up by Shabalova and van Engelen (2003) for the Low Countries, but the time resolution is not strictly seasonal. This paper worked out within the EU 6th Framework Project "Millennium" draws on critically reviewed documentary evidence from a spatially extensive area of Western and Central Europe (basically England, France, BENELUX, Western Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Hungary and todays Czech Republic. The narrative evidence is complemented with dendro-climatic series from the Alps (Büntgen et al. 2006). Each "climate observation" is georeferenced which allows producing spatial displays of the data for selected spaces and time-frames. The spatial distribution of the information charts can be used as a tool for the climatological verification of the underlying data. Reconstructions for winter (DJF) and summer (JJA) are presented in the form of time series and charts. Cold winters were frequent from 1205 to 1235 i.e. in the "Medieval Warm Period" and in the Little Ice Age (1306-1330; 1390-1470). Dry and warm summers prevailed in Western and Central Europe in the first half of the 13th century. During the Little Ice Age cold-wet summers (triggered by volcanic explosions in the tropics) were more frequent, though summer climate remained highly variable. Results are discussed with regard to the "Greenhouse Debate" and the relationship to glacier fluctuations in the Alps is explored. References -Alexandre, Pierre, 1987: Le Climat en Europe au Moyen Age. Contribution à l'histoire des variations climatiques de 1000 à 1425. Paris. -Büntgen, Ulf et al. 2006: Summer Temperature Variation in the European Alps, AD. 755-2004, J. of Climate 19 5606-5623. - Pfister, Christian et al. 1998: Winter air temperature variations in Central Europe during the Early and

  14. On textual and contextual position of the ophthalmological treatise of bodhisattva nāgārjuna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongsu; Kang, Sungyong

    2013-04-01

    Medical knowledge in India began to be introduced to China in earliest from the Later Han Dynasty period to the times of Wei-Qin and South & North Dynasties. This is proved by many Buddhist medical books appeared in those days. Of the contents of Indian medicine, the theory of four major elements affected Chinese medicine more than did the theory of body fluids. Based on the theory of four major elements that was began to be introduced in Fú shuō fú yī jīng, an attempt to establish a new medical system was made in Zhŏu hòu băi yīfāng written by Táo Hóng-jĭng and Sūn Sī-miăo who tried to develop etiology further but could not achieve any great outcomes. Unlike the foregoing situation, Indian medicine aroused a large echo in China in the field of ophthalmology with ophthalmological knowledge mentioned in Suśrutasa hitā and 'Jīnzhēn-shù'(cataract couching) introduced as a surgical treatment of cataract. The Suśrutasa hitā which is one of the three major texts of Indian medicine contains additional information on surgical operations not introduced in the Carakasa hitā. The technique of cataract surgery was particularly popular in the Tang and Song dynasty periods in China under the name Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn(The Ophthalmological Treatise of Bodhisattva Nāgārjuna) or Lóng shù lùn and was even designated as a subject to educate medical officers. While the original text of Lóng shù pú sà yăn lùn was not handed down, the first testimony that show the trace of the introduction of this text into China was the Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn mentioned in Wài tái mì yào(Arcane Essential from the Imperial Library) written by Wang Tao. Long shàng dào ren who was mentioned as the compiler of the book is assumed to be Lóng shù. Although Tiān zhú jīng lùn yăn introduced anatomical knowledge about the eyeball that could have not been in the traditional Chinese medicine, this book has only limited quantity of information in this

  15. Farm Studies and Post-Medieval Rural Archaeology in Denmark: Comments on the Past, the Present and the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mette Svart

    2012-01-01

    Farms and villages formed a powerful and important scene for the emergence and development of cultural studies as well as post-medieval archaeology in the first half of the 20th century in Denmark. However, the present research agenda in museums and universities, and in some respect the antiquarian...... legislation and administrative practice, has left the post-medieval cultural heritage in a rather peculiar and to some extent neglected position. This paper will address research on post-medieval rural buildings and farms in particular and discuss the current challenges within post-medieval rural archaeology...

  16. On the distribution of trace element concentrations in multiple bone elements in 10 Danish medieval and post-medieval individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Kaare; Skytte, Lilian; D'imporzano, Paolo; Orla Thomsen, Per; Søvsø, Morten; Lier Boldsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The differences in trace element concentrations among 19 different bone elements procured from 10 archaeologically derived human skeletons have been investigated. The 10 individuals are dated archaeologically and some by radiocarbon dating to the medieval and post-medieval period, an interval from ca. AD 1150 to ca. AD 1810. This study is relevant for two reasons. First, most archaeometric studies analyze only one bone sample from each individual; so to what degree are the bones in the human body equal in trace element chemistry? Second, differences in turnover time of the bone elements makes the cortical tissues record the trace element concentrations in equilibrium with the blood stream over a longer time earlier in life than the trabecular. Therefore, any differences in trace element concentrations between the bone elements can yield what can be termed a chemical life history of the individual, revealing changes in diet, provenance, or medication throughout life. Thorough decontamination and strict exclusion of non-viable data has secured a dataset of high quality. The measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (for Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, Ba, Sr, Zn, Pb and As) and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (for Hg) on ca. 20 mg samples. Twelve major and trace elements have been measured on 19 bone elements from 10 different individuals interred at five cemeteries widely distributed in medieval and renaissance Denmark. The ranges of the concentrations of elements were: Na (2240-5660 µg g -1 ), Mg (440-2490 µg g -1 ), Al (9-2030 µg g -1 ), Ca (22-36 wt. %), Mn (5-11450 µg g -1 ), Fe (32-41850 µg g -1 ), Zn (69-2610 µg g -1 ), As (0.4-120 µg g -1 ), Sr (101-815 µg g -1 ), Ba (8-880 µg g -1 ), Hg (7-78730 ng g -1 ), and Pb (0.8-426 µg g -1 ). It is found that excess As is mainly of diagenetic origin. The results support that Ba and Sr concentrations are effective provenance or dietary indicators. Migrating

  17. The long-term impact of developmental stress. Evidence from later medieval and post-medieval London (AD1117-1853).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Episodes of ill-health in childhood can predispose affected individuals to further periods of illness and early adult mortality. This study uses nonspecific indicators of stress to examine how growth disruptions during infancy/early childhood, and late childhood/early adolescence affected adult longevity in later medieval and post-medieval London. Hazards analysis was used to evaluate the effect of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH) and the size of the anteroposterior (AP) and transverse (TR) diameters of the vertebral neural canal (VNC) on adult age-at-death. This was applied to skeletal samples from later medieval (n = 461) and post-medieval (n = 480) London. Growth disruptions during infancy/early childhood (LEH and AP VNC diameters) were not associated with longevity, or with impaired growth at later stages of development (TR VNC diameters). Growth disruptions during late childhood/early adolescence (TR VNC diameters) were associated with a significantly increased risk of adult mortality. Macroscopic hypoplasia represent short periods of stress during infancy/early childhood which did not disrupt future investments in growth or cause long-term damage to health. Small TR diameters represent chronic stress during late childhood/early adolescence which resulted in greater susceptibility to infections and increased risk of mortality. These interactions were influenced by sex and socioeconomic status, suggesting that socioeconomic circumstances in both childhood and adult life could influence exposure and resistance to stressors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Health journalism in the service of power: 'moral complacency' and the Hebrew media in the Gaza-Israel conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna

    2014-05-01

    The power of health news as a vehicle in the production of meaning in the service of power is the core of this article. Tracking the media coverage of a medical service, it shows how a routine practice can be invoked at a time of armed conflict so as to enhance a benevolent state image. The case at hand is the medical treatment of Gaza children in Israeli hospitals. A series of Internet searches revealed a group of publications on the subject in the Hebrew media, during and shortly after Israel's assault on Gaza in the winter of 2008-2009. In the press articles the treatments were invariably constituted as the epitome of Israel's compassion towards the enemy's children. This image relied, however, on a simultaneous silencing of other aspects of these treatments, which would have challenged this image. The monolithic depictions give rise to the notion of reversed moral panic or 'moral complacency', wherein the media amplifies a little-known social phenomenon into an epitome of societal values and charges it with significance on a national scale. The article ends with considering some features that possibly render health news an especially convenient domain for state-supportive media presentations. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of phonological and morphological awareness on reading comprehension in Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Rachel; Schwartz-Nahshon, Sarit; Nagar, Revital

    2011-06-01

    This research explored phonological and morphological awareness among Hebrew-speaking adolescents with reading disabilities (RD) and its effect on reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities. Participants included 39 seventh graders with RD and two matched control groups of normal readers: 40 seventh graders matched for chronological age (CA) and 38 third graders matched for reading age (RA). We assessed phonological awareness, word reading, morphological awareness, and reading comprehension. Findings indicated that the RD group performed similarly to the RA group on phonological awareness but lower on phonological decoding. On the decontextualized morphological task, RD functioned on par with RA, whereas in a contextualized task RD performed above RA but lower than CA. In reading comprehension, RD performed as well as RA. Finally, results indicated that for normal readers contextual morphological awareness uniquely contributed to reading comprehension beyond phonological and word-reading abilities, whereas no such unique contribution emerged for the RD group. The absence of an effect of morphological awareness in predicting reading comprehension was suggested to be related to a different recognition process employed by RD readers which hinder the ability of these readers to use morphosemantic structures. The lexical quality hypothesis was proposed as further support to the findings, suggesting that a low quality of lexical representation in RD students leads to ineffective reading skills and comprehension. Lexical representation is thus critical for both lexical as well as comprehension abilities.

  20. Energy study of a medieval tower, restored as a museum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.M.; Avgelis, A. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Santamouris, M. [National Kapodestrean University, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2003-10-01

    Museums are buildings of particular significance due to their function and their status. At the same time they are buildings in which the principles of energy conservation are rarely applied, sometimes without reason. It has been decided by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture to convert a medieval tower, built in the year 1344 as a fortress with 0.8-1.5 m thick walls and almost no windows, into a museum. The present paper discusses the difficulties that arise in the attempt to balance between the indoor climate conditions necessary to protect the exhibits and to provide comfortable conditions to the visitors, whilst respecting the aesthetics and the historical significance of the building. Furthermore, one needs to consider the difficult but necessary task of assessing factors such as the building's shell's thermal conductivity and capacity, the ventilation necessary as well as the indoor air movement, in order to determine the cooling loads. Finally, the challenge lies in designing and dimensioning an effective and efficient HVAC system, which should be as discrete as possible. The present paper aims to present the results of the study, to discuss the expected energy behaviour of the building and to comment on the options for introducing energy conservation techniques. (author)

  1. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

  2. Education and transmission of knowledge in medieval India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyid Zaheer Husain Jafri

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The various regions of the Indian subcontinent came into contact with the Islamic cultural tradition in the seventh century CE. Indian scholars were able to leave a mark on the world of Islamic scholarship especially in the fields of ḥadīth and other connected disciplines, significantly underlining their recognition for contributions in the Islamic East. An attempt has been made to analyse and to understand the processes of transmission of knowledge through formal and informal means, including the transfer of accumulated experience to the next generation and even the passing of “intuitive knowledge” to the seeker of knowledge. It has been argued that the level of Indian scholarship in certain disciplines was at par with the level of scholarship in the Islamic East. It has also been examined that during the medieval period Sanskrit based studies flourished at important Hindu pilgrimage centres such as Benaras, often described by European travellers as the Athens of India. The Royal and private libraries functioned with firm footings. Finally, it is shown that education and transmission of knowledge was organized in a manner that owes much to the best of Greco-Arab tradition.

  3. Medieval Horse Stable; The Results of Multi Proxy Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejmal, Miroslav; Lisá, Lenka; Fišáková Nývltová, Miriam; Bajer, Aleš; Petr, Libor; Kočár, Petr; Kočárová, Romana; Nejman, Ladislav; Rybníček, Michal; Sůvová, Zdenka; Culp, Randy; Vavrčík, Hanuš

    2014-01-01

    A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle. PMID:24670874

  4. Articular Eminence Inclination in Medieval and Contemporary Croatian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjčić, Josip; Šlaus, Mario; Vodanović, Marin; Peršić, Sanja; Vojvodić, Denis

    2016-12-01

    Articular eminence inclination (AEI) of the temporomandibular joint leads the mandible in its movements. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine AEI values in medieval (MP) and recent (RP) Croatian population. The study was carried out on two groups of specimens: first group with 30 MP human dry skulls, while the other, serving as control group consisted of 137 dry skulls. The AEI was measured on lateral digital skull images as the angle between the best fi t line drawn along the posterior wall of the articular eminence and the Frankfurt horizontal plane. No statistically significant (p>0.05) differences between the left and right side AEI were found between MP skulls and RP skulls. The mean value of MP AEI was 45.5˚, with a range of 20.9˚-64˚. The mean RP AEI value was steeper (61.99˚), with a range of 30˚-94˚. Difference between the mean MP and RP AEI values was statistically significant (pmedieval time, and consequently different masticatory loads and forces.

  5. A medieval physician: Amirdovlat Amasiatsi (1420-1495).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Hakobyan, Tatevik

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to acquaint the reader with a medieval physician, Amirdovlat Amasiatsi, who lived and practiced in the 15th century Anatolia. Amirdovlat wrote several books on medicine mainly focusing on phytotherapy and pharmacology using medicinal plants, animal-derived products and minerals. All his works were written in Middle Armenian, spoken Armenian language of the time. In his writings, Amirdovlat described unique recipes that represent a portrayal of medical knowledge and practice at the time in Anatolia where he lived and worked. He discussed the physical and therapeutic properties as well as geographic distributions of various plants and minerals, using different languages, mainly Turkish, Greek, Arabic, French and Persian. Amirdovlat's works not only enhanced our understanding of Armenian medical practices but also provided great deal of information on those of Ancient Greco-Roman as well as Islamic world, demonstrating close relationship of Armenian medicine with Greco-Roman and Islamic medicine. Amirdovlat accomplished this by amalgamating the past and contemporary practices of his time. In this regard, Amirdovlat's works, in particular "Useless for the Ignorant", are very unique playing a significant role in preserving traditions and heritage of different cultures.

  6. Medieval horse stable; the results of multi proxy interdisciplinary research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Dejmal

    Full Text Available A multi proxy approach was applied in the reconstruction of the architecture of Medieval horse stable architecture, the maintenance practices associated with that structure as well as horse alimentation at the beginning of 13th century in Central Europe. Finally, an interpretation of the local vegetation structure along Morava River, Czech Republic is presented. The investigated stable experienced two construction phases. The infill was well preserved and its composition reflects maintenance practices. The uppermost part of the infill was composed of fresh stabling, which accumulated within a few months at the end of summer. Horses from different backgrounds were kept in the stable and this is reflected in the results of isotope analyses. Horses were fed meadow grasses as well as woody vegetation, millet, oat, and less commonly hemp, wheat and rye. Three possible explanations of stable usage are suggested. The stable was probably used on a temporary basis for horses of workers employed at the castle, courier horses and horses used in battle.

  7. Madness and care in the community: a medieval perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, D; Roffe, C

    Care in the community for insane people today is more a matter of expert provision than communal support. In consequence, although they are no longer confined to hospital, mentally ill people largely remain marginalised in a society that does not have the resources, nor often the inclination, to take responsibility for their care. The experience of insane people in medieval England seems to have been of a different order, as shown by a particularly well documented case dating from 1383. From the late 13th century congenital idiots were protected by law. Care of lunatics, by contrast, was primarily the responsibility of the family. However, where the family could not or was unwilling to provide, provision was made by the crown. Through the instrument of the inquisition, the diagnosis and social circumstances of each case were determined by commissioners in consultation with a local jury and all interested parties, including the subject himself or herself. The best interests of the subject remained a prime concern, and the settlement that was ordained was tried and enforced in law. The process was confined to those with real or personal estate, but it encompassed poor as well as rich and proved, through the close identity of the local community with the process, to be a sophisticated and effective mechanism for maintaining and sustaining insane people. Unlike today, care in the community was a communal activity that ensured a truly public provision for those who could not look after themselves.

  8. The Name Day as a Part of Medieval Historiographical Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna F. Litvina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the ways in which the celebration of the name day (imeniny of Russian princes or their entourages was presented in the Russian chronicles. The custom of celebrating the name day was firmly rooted in the Russian princely environment. For a chronicle narrative, the very rootedness of this custom and the number of its associated actions plays an important role—it is this rootedness that makes stories told in the chronicles quite opaque to the modern reader. A prince’s Christian name and the day of his patron saint were considered to be important background knowledge for the audience of the medieval compiler. There were, apparently, clear ideas about appropriate behavior for prince or a person from his environment on his name day or on the eve of this day but, on the other hand, such assumptions explain why this kind of “normal” behavior rarely forms the subject of special reflection in the chronicles. It is not only a description of the celebration itself that might be very informative, whether it be a church service, a ceremonial feast with various relatives, or an exchange of gifts, but also the description of acts and deeds that were undertaken specifically on a prince’s name day. Therefore, particular attention is given here to stories about undue or inappropriate behavior on this special day. The paper deals with the function and nature of such episodes in the broader context of historiographical narrative.

  9. [Meat inspection in the medieval Zähringer towns.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, S

    2010-01-01

    An explanation of medieval practices of meat supply and regulation, using examples drawn from the so-called "Zähringer towns" founded by the Dukes of Zähringen: Bern, Burgdorf, Thun, Murten, Freiburg and Rheinfelden. For the town councils it was important to be able to provide the population with sufficient quantities of good-quality meat at fair prices. After the 14th century the slaughtering of animals had to be carried out in public slaughterhouses. Meat could only be sold publicly, at designated butchers' stalls. Meat and organs were checked on a daily basis by the town's meat inspectors, who verified the names under which products were sold, their price, and hygienic conditions, including the absence of tapeworm larvae. In addition to the publicly-regulated meat trade, town dwellers could also buy meat products at the markets, and could raise their own pigs, sheep and goats to be slaughtered in the back alleys. Permission to raise small livestock at home was a privilege granted by the town council. The sale of meat by non-resident peddlers was officially forbidden, but could not be prevented entirely.

  10. Medieval Round Churches and the Shape of the Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haagensen, Erling; Lind, Niels C

    2015-12-01

    There is a unique cluster of four medieval round churches, linked by a simple geometry, on Bornholm Island in the Baltic Sea. Why so many and why so close together? Immediate simple answers are "Just by chance" and "For no reason." Why are the churches round? "Defense." This essay proposes another hypothesis for this unique situation: the churches are astronomical observatories, meant to solve a scientific problem (Is the Earth really spherical?) and a practical problem (How far is it to sail west to the Orient?). The capacity and desire to find answers, together with other practical needs related to astronomy, can better explain these round churches' special architecture. The geometry that connects them fits the ideal pattern with an angular accuracy of 1 minute of a degree. The round churches may be the earliest astronomical observatories in Christian Europe; other hypotheses have been shown to be untenable. Their location provides for a good method to estimate the Earth's extent in the east-west direction, seemingly the earliest such measurements.

  11. [Disciplinary non-consolidation. On the original of medieval archaeology in the 1920s and the 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the roots of the sub-discipline medieval archaeology that emerged in German-speaking universities in the 1950s and 1960s. In the 1930s, research practices crucial for the formation of medieval archaeology, such as the investigation of medieval castles and peasant houses, became more prominent in the humanities, especially in the context of vilkisch research. After the Nazis took power in Germany, they encouraged such research because it built a scientific basis for their nationalist policy. This politically motivated funding did not result in a new discipline, in contrast to research fields such as prehistory and folklore studies. In this article, I propose two explanations for why medieval archaeology did not emerge as an interdisciplinary research field in the 1930s and 1940s, even though the course was set for its development. First, for archaeologists, art historians, and regional medieval historians, research objects such as medieval castles were semantically too indeterminate. Archaeologists would investigate a castle as a building completely destroyed and buried under rubble, while art historians would be interested in its building technique, and regional medieval historians in its written record. Second, disciplines that were important for the creation of medieval archaeology, such as prehistoric archaeology, art history, and regional medieval history, structurally did not allow for the emergence of an interdisciplinary research field in the 1930s. In particular, prehistoric archaeology, which was crucial for the development of medieval archaeology, itself was not fully institutionalized at universities in the 1930s. This institutionalization process prevented the emergence and development of an interdisciplinary research field such as medieval archaeology To demonstrate this argument, I draw on two examples of investigations of castles, one in Nazi Germany and the other in the German-speaking part of Switzerland.

  12. Code-Switching in Judaeo-Arabic Documents from the Cairo Geniza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Esther-Miriam; Connolly, Magdalen

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates code-switching and script-switching in medieval documents from the Cairo Geniza, written in Judaeo-Arabic (Arabic in Hebrew script), Hebrew, Arabic and Aramaic. Legal documents regularly show a macaronic style of Judaeo-Arabic, Aramaic and Hebrew, while in letters code-switching from Judaeo-Arabic to Hebrew is tied in with…

  13. Stressing out in medieval Denmark: An investigation of dental enamel defects and age at death in two medieval Danish cemeteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Julia A; Boldsen, Jesper L; Hoppa, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    The influence of early life stress on later life experiences has become a major focus of research in medicine and more recently in bioarchaeology. Dental enamel, which preserves a record of childhood stress events, represents an important resource for this investigation when paired with the information from adult skeletal remains, such as age at death. The purpose of this research was to use a life history approach to the exploration of sex differences in the relationship between childhood stress and adult longevity by examining accentuated striae of Retzius (AS). A medieval Danish sample (n=70) drawn from the rural cemetery of Sejet and the urban cemetery of Ole Wormsgade was considered for AS and age at death. The results suggest sex differences in survivorship, with more stress being associated with reduced survivorship in males and increased survivorship in females. A consideration of AS formation time also suggests a difference in the impact of developmental timing between males and females. These results are interpreted in terms of differential frailty and selective mortality, drawing in both biomedical and cultural perspectives. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval/Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2015-01-01

    Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014......Chronologically organized list of books authored/co-authored and edited/co-edited by members of staff of the Department of Medieval and Renaissance Archaeology, Aarhus University, 1971-2014...

  15. De uisu: o mais antigo tratado supérstite de oftalmologia do Ocidente De uisu: the oldest surviving treatise on ophthalmology in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Cairus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se aqui, em língua portuguesa, o tratado mais antigo que o Ocidente nos legou acerca da oftalmologia, "Sobre a visão" ou em latim De uisu, com um estudo introdutório que tem por fim situá-lo na história da medicina, sem, contudo, abdicar da demonstração das dificuldades filológicas que o texto encerra.We present here in Portuguese the oldest treatise that the West has bequeathed us about ophthalmology and eyesight in general, namely "On vision" or De uisu in Latin, with an introductory study that seeks to situate its place in the history of medicine, without, however, failing to dwell on the philological difficulties that the text contains.

  16. [Research on mutual collation between Japan Cabinet Edition and National Beijing Library Edition of Shang han lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Disease)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chao-Chen; Liang, Yong-Xuan

    2004-01-01

    Through textual research on the Song Dynasty block-printed large-character and small-character editions of Shang han lun (Treatise on Cold Pathogenic Disease), it can be definitely verified that Yang Shoujing's so-called 'facsimile handwritten copy of Northern Song edition' was an apocrypha fabricated by Yang himself. Japanese Horikawa's An zheng edition, the original edition adopted by Yun Tieqiao's photocopy, did exert a profound and lasting influence on China. After collating the Song Dynasty block-printed edition collected in Japan National Cabinet Library with the one collected in the National Beijing Library thoroughly, and checking the prefaces and postscripts carefully, it has been found, for the first time, that these two editions, both called 'Song edition', differ dramatically.

  17. Mr. DuHamel's 1728 treatise on the violet root rot of saffron crocus : physical explanation of a disease that perishes several plants in the Gastinois, and saffron in particular

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Contains an English translation and a reprint of the original treatise: Explication physique d'une maladie qui fait perir plusieurs plantes dans le Gastinois, et particulierement le Safran / par M. Du Hamel. Memoires de 'l'Academie Royale, 7 Avril 1728

  18. The Monk's Tale: Nero's Nets and Caesar's Father -- An Inquiry into the Transformations of Classical Roman History in Medieval Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Martha S.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the lack of consistent accuracy about historical figures in Chaucer's "Monk's Tale." The story of Nero fishing in the Tiber with golden nets is corroborated by many other ancient and medieval authors; however, the reference to Julius Caesar as being of lowly birth is peculiar only to Chaucer and a few medieval English authors.…

  19. „Incendula“ or „monedula“? An Enigmatic Bird Name in Medieval Latin-Written Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 74 (2016), s. 89-109 ISSN 1376-7453 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : latin lexicography * ancient and medieval zoology * ancient and medieval zoology * latin names of birds * Bartholomaeus de Solencia dictus Claretus * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics OBOR OECD: Specific languages

  20. An Introduction to the Medieval English: The Historical and Literary Context, Traces of Church and Philosophical Movements in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behtash, Esmail Zare; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi; Samani, Farzane Safarzade

    2017-01-01

    The Transition from Greek to medieval philosophy that speculated on religion, nature, metaphysics, human being and society was rather a rough transition in the history of English literature. Although the literature content of this age reflected more religious beliefs, the love and hate relationship of medieval philosophy that was mostly based on…

  1. In search of "Organ III" strata-a sedimentary record of the Medieval Warm Period (ca. AD 900 to 1300)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The period AD 900 to 1300, internationally referred to as the Medieval Warm Period, is a critical time for the archaeological record of the Southwestern USA. During the Medieval Warm Period both alluvial and eolian sedimentation increased, but not to the magnitude of the middle Holocene (the Altithe...

  2. Nicole Oresme's 'On Seeing the Stars (De visione stellarum)': A critical edition of Oresme's treatise on optics and atmospheric refraction, with an introduction, commentary, and English translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Danny Ethus

    2000-10-01

    In the middle of the fourteenth century, the renowned natural philosopher Nicole Oresme composed a treatise entitled: De visione stellarum (= On Seeing the Stars). This text appears to be the earliest separate treatise devoted to the study of atmospheric refraction and its deeper implications. A major portion of this dissertation is the formulation of the first critical edition and English translation of this work. Accompanying this edition is a commentary explicating its major themes as well as arguments in support of Oresme's authorship. The fundamental question Oresme's De visione attempts to answer is: Utrum stelle videantur ubi sint - ``Are the stars really where they seem to be?'' Using perspectivist optics, Oresme ultimately answered that they are not. Further, he concluded not only the stars but almost nothing is seen where it truly is, calling all visual sense data into doubt. The De visione builds upon the foundations laid by the great perspectivists such as Ptolemy, Alhazen, Bacon, and Witelo on atmospheric optics, but it also goes further. This dissertation argues that one of the more profound scientific discoveries by Oresme is the following. Two centuries before the Scientific Revolution, Oresme proposed the qualitatively correct solution to the problem of atmospheric refraction, that light travels along a curve through a medium of uniformly varying density, and he arrived at this solution using infinitesimals. This solution at this solution using infinitesimals. This solution had even escaped the great 17th century scholar of optics and astronomy, Johannes Kepler, and up to now, the credit for its first discovery has been given to Robert Hooke and its mathematical resolution to Isaac Newton. Oresme's argument concerning the curvature of light is a major milestone in the history of optics and astronomy that was previously unknown to modern scholarship. And it further confirms that Oresme was one of the most innovative scientists of the pre

  3. Publication of Renaissance architectural treatises in the Soviet Union in the 1930s: Alexander Gabrichevsky's contribution to the theory and history of architecture

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    Nadejda Podzemskaia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available : In just a couple of years in the second half of the 1930s, a considerable corpus of architectural treatises, mostly written in the Renaissance, was translated and published with detailed commentaries in the USSR. This great publishing program was conceived of as part of a new system of architectural training. This article formulates the question of the historical and cultural significance of this publishing project in the wider artistic and political context of the 1920s and 1930s. In discussions about the destiny of classical heritage, two majors tendencies, constructivism, represented by Moisei Ginzburg, and classicism, advocated by Ivan Zholtovsky, show not only their differences, but also their shared positions, such as the criticism of eclecticism. The paper concentrates on the collaboration between Zholtovsky and the art historian and theorist Aleksandr Gabrichevsky. This was a true meeting of minds based on profound mutual understanding and common basic notions of art (such as the ambiguous concept of 'classical art’. Because of the language barrier, Gabrichevsky and his works have remained little known to scholars who work in West-European languages. A disciple of Paul Frankl, during the 1920s he researched the problems of space and time in a broader theoretical and philosophical context at the GAKhN. His main work of the time, The Morphology of Art, demonstrates influences of Friedrich Schelling, Johann Wolfgang Goethe, Henri Bergson and, above all, Georg Simmel. This work could not have been completed nor published at the time. Its recent publication revealed the profound philosophical foundations of Gabrichevsky’s studies of architecture as well as of the project of publishing Renaissance architectural treatises that he organized.

  4. The medieval župa: Nahiya of Vatnica

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    Pekić Radmilo B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of disclosed and closed records of the Dubrovnik Archive, Turkish census from 1468-1469. and 1475-1477, researches on the ground and relevant literature, we made an attempt to discover how the župa of Vatnica got its name and to define its borders that parted the area of Travunia from the area of Hum. Vatnica had been populated before Slavic people settled the area. Recent history records present Vatnica borders vaguely and imprecisely. Our findings contradict the findings presented in history records that state Travunia borders stretch to Trusina. The župa of Vatnica was placed eastward from the župa of Dabar in Hum land, with the borderline alongside Divin and Kuti village. In the northwest Vatnica bordered župa of Nevesinje alongside Davidovići and Lukavac villages, while the southeast border was reaching župa of Rudine, east from Narat village. Turkish invasion brought in suffering and migrations with local people causing them to leave their homes. Turkish administrative system naturalized itself according to its needs thus changing the old borders. While occupied by Turks, a part of former župa of Vatnica, including Vatnica village, became a part of Turkish nahiya Dabar, but at the same time on the east side of Vatnica village existed nahiya of Vatnica stayed behind with six unpopulated villages, which was supported by the Turkish census. Windy political odds affected the medieval economy of Vatnica. Population pursued agriculture, above all grape growing. They would breed draught cattle for transport and market. Economy of this region was partly influenced by Dubrovnik where the youngster would go to find work and learn trade. Remainders of the past times are stone tombs called 'stećak' as well as the sites of orthodox churches.

  5. An Early Medieval Tradition of Building in Britain

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    Gardiner, Mark

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Early medieval houses in Britain were largely constructed of timber. Various approaches have been adopted for interpreting the character of these buildings, since no standing structure survives. These include the study of water-logged timber, the reproduction of methods of working and the reconstruction of buildings, as well as the conventional analysis of the plans of excavations. The problems of identifying the ethnic affiliations of houses in Britain are particularly acute because the structural features which define the building traditions in England and Scotland have rarely been identified. However, it is argued that it is possible to identify a distinctive tradition of building in timber which persists from the fifth to the eleventh or even twelfth century, and is found throughout England and into southern Scotland.En la Gran Bretaña de la alta Edad Media se solían construir las viviendas de madera y por consiguiente no queda ninguna estructura en pie. Así, se han adoptado varios enfoques para interpretar las características de dichas viviendas, como el análisis de la madera saturada de agua, la recreación de la metodología de trabajo y la reconstrucción de edificios, así como los tradicionales análisis de las plantas de las construcciones en las excavaciones. La atribución étnica de las viviendas en Gran Bretaña resulta especialmente difícil porque rara vez se han identificado las tradiciones constructivas de Inglaterra y Escocia. No obstante, se ha argumentado que es posible identificar a una tradición característica de construcción en madera que se mantuvo del siglo V al siglo XI e incluso hasta el siglo XII y que se puede encontrar en toda Inglaterra y en el sur de Escocia.

  6. Geomorphic legacy of medieval Himalayan earthquakes in the Pokhara Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas and their foreland belong to the world's most earthquake-prone regions. With millions of people at risk from severe ground shaking and associated damages, reliable data on the spatial and temporal occurrence of past major earthquakes is urgently needed to inform seismic risk analysis. Beyond the instrumental record such information has been largely based on historical accounts and trench studies. Written records provide evidence for damages and fatalities, yet are difficult to interpret when derived from the far-field. Trench studies, in turn, offer information on rupture histories, lengths and displacements along faults but involve high chronological uncertainties and fail to record earthquakes that do not rupture the surface. Thus, additional and independent information is required for developing reliable earthquake histories. Here, we present exceptionally well-dated evidence of catastrophic valley infill in the Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Bayesian calibration of radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments yields a robust age distribution that matches the timing of nearby M>8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sediment sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from the Annapurna Massif >60 km away. The landscape-changing consequences of past large Himalayan earthquakes have so far been elusive. Catastrophic aggradation in the wake of two historically documented medieval earthquakes and one inferred from trench studies underscores that Himalayan valley fills should be considered as potential archives of past earthquakes. Such valley fills are pervasive in the Lesser Himalaya though high erosion rates reduce

  7. Tristan and Isolde, or On the Conventions and Liberties of Medieval Eros

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    Florica Bodistean

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although written by men, medieval literature, whose main invention isassociated with courtly love, seems to be the echo of women’s Eros-relatedBovarism. Having a status of servitude in society, the medieval woman ispraised in literature. She becomes an object of adoration in a conventionthat follows the principles of feudal behaviour, but offers to the followingcenturies a fundamental lesson about love – a love which involves distanceand platonicism. In this context, my study aims to point to the modernity ofthe novel Tristan and Isolde, which breaks the known patterns byambiguating not only the moral medieval Manichaeism, but also the idea ofan unconsummated love and by proposing a complex female model, foreverdifferent according to the perspective from which she is perceived: thehusband’s, the lover’s, God’s.

  8. Postmortem Inventories in Medieval Valencia. A Source for the Study of Household Consumption and Living Standards

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    Luis Almenar Fernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Basic questions about the nature of postmortem inventories in late medieval Valencia have rarely been asked. What distinguished them from other lists of goods and what was their legal basis? Why were inventories made? Which goods were listed and which ones omitted? How many inventories are preserved today? Which sectors of medieval society requested them? The answers that this paper provides clearly show the potential of a serial and quantitative usage of the Valencian inventory for the study of household consumption, an analysis that would enable us to measure far more accurately the changes in living standards in late medieval society to a degree that is difficult to achieve in other regions of Europe.

  9. Materiality of Body: The Material Practices of Life and Death in Medieval Britain

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    Mabast A. Muhammad Amin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate the ways people understood their body during the medieval period in Britain. I bring together the multiple different ways in which the body was treated in death, I focus on the role and power of grave goods and evidence found in dead bodies for plasticity in life to embrace the complexity of the medieval body, I examine the cultural practice of nutrition and environment affected the bodily mold. Another point I take into consideration is the practice of dietary through differentiation between male and female body in which we explore how medieval people socially and culturally constructed body based on their notion and understanding of gender identity. In addition, religion had a great influence on people’s understanding to deal with dead bodies and I concentrate on how bodily resurrection impacted on people’s preparation for the Day of Judgment by placing the goods in burials.

  10. "By expresse experiment": the doubting midwife Salome in late medieval England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Alaya

    2015-01-01

    This article examines late medieval English representations of the startling and apocryphal story of Salome, the skeptical midwife who dares to touch, or at least attempt to touch, the Virgin Mary "in sexu secreto" during a postpartum examination at the nativity. Salome's story originated in the second century, but its late medieval iterations are inflected by a culture interested in evaluating and examining sensory evidence, in both medicine and religion. The story appears in sermon collections, devotional texts, the cycle nativity plays, and John Lydgate's Life of Our Lady, and these variations demonstrate the intersection of gender and experience-based knowledge in medical and devotional contexts. Salome's story provides a unique opportunity to study late medieval interpretations of female medicine, materialism, and spirituality.

  11. Adolescent mortality at Winchester College, 1393-1540: new evidence for medieval mortality and methodological considerations for historical demography.

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    Oakes, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This article presents new data on mortality in the late medieval period, and suggests methodologies for analysing incomplete datasets. Using data collated from the records of Winchester College this study follows the lives of 2,692 individuals, and analyses adolescent mortality in the sample group for the period 1393-1540. This study of mortality among 10-18 year olds is the first of its kind to produce data for a sample of adolescents in late medieval England, and thereby contributes significant new data to our understanding of late medieval mortality. These data are placed within the context of that obtained for other medieval population samples, most notably with studies of medieval monastic groups.

  12. The image at the service of the text: figured masorah in the biblical hebrew manuscript BH Mss1

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    Martín Contreras, Elvira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Masoretic notes that appear alongside the biblical text written in geometric or figured shapes are little studied to date. The few existing studies usually focus on the form without paying attention to the content. The biblical Hebrew manuscript BH Mss1 (M1 has a huge number of Masoretic notes in figured patterns and while the existence of figured Masorah has been addressed, their designs have not been described and studied in relation to their content. This paper focuses on the figured Masorah notes, their location, shape and content. From a joint analysis of the form and content it is possible to conclude that the main purpose behind writing the Masorah in figured patterns in M1 is a practical one: to record all the information in the available space.Las noticias masoréticas escritas en formas geométricas o figurativas que aparecen junto al texto bíblico han sido poco estudiadas hasta la fecha. Los escasos estudios existentes se suelen centrar en la forma, sin tener en cuenta el contenido. El manuscrito bíblico BH Mss1 (M1 contiene un gran número de noticias masoréticas en forma figurativa que, si bien ya habían sido mencionadas, sus diseños no han sido descritos ni estudiados en relación con su contenido. El presente trabajo se centra en las noticias de Masora figurativa, su localización, forma y contenido. El análisis conjunto de la forma y el contenido de las noticias permite concluir que la razón principal para escribir la Masora en forma figurativa en M1 es práctica.

  13. Practical theology as life science: Fides Quaerens Vivendi and its connection to Hebrew thinking (Hālak

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    Daniël J. Louw

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The term practical theology is complex and, due to many different religious and cultural settings, a many layered concept. During the past 40 years the paradigm in theory formation for an academic and disciplinary approach to practical theology shifted from the clerical and ecclesial paradigm of ministerial actions to experiences of faith with the emphasis on an empirical based epistemology. Rather than a deductive approach, the shift is towards a more inductive approach within the methodological framework of phenomenology. Currently, in the international discourse on theory formation, there is a tendency towards a hermeneutical approach with the focus on the networking, relational dynamics of civil society Thus, the attempt to describe practical theology as a kind of ‘life science’ (the concern for the mundane and existential reality of everyday life – Alltagsreligion. Within the context of African spiritualties, with its emphasis on the communal dynamics of vital, human relationships, the focus on lifestyles becomes vital. In light of an ontology of life (l’energie spirituelle – Henri Bergson, the notion of fides quaerens vivendi [faith seeking lifestyles] is researched. With reference to the theory of complexification and chaosmos as well as the impact thereof on different theories in life sciences, the connection between sapientia and the vivid praxis of God is critically explored. The focus of this article is on the question: What is the impact of an ontology of life on both praxis thinking and theological reflection? Instead of the Cartesian framework of causative definitions, the notion of the ‘infinition of God’ is proposed within the praxis of Hebrew, wisdom thinking.

  14. Vessels from Late Medieval cemeteries in the Central Balkans

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    Bikić Vesna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence in late medieval cemeteries, vessels have been found on almost all major sites of the period, such as Novo Brdo, Trgovište, Reljina Gradina and the churchyard of St Peter’s near Novi Pazar, the churchyard of St Nicholas’ at Kuršumlija, the churchyard of St Stephen’s at Milentija near Brus, Mali Zvečan, Mirijevo, Vinča. Vessels occur in different places, both on top of and in graves. Fragments of pottery and glass vessels are relatively abundant in layers of earth filling burial pits and chambers, and in those immediately overlaying burial pits or gravestones. The available data make it possible to recognize almost all functional types. The most frequently found pottery shapes are larger liquid containers - jugs and pitchers, and apparently there have also been many pots, both hearth cooking and glazed (figs. 1-3; 5-9. Recognizable among the glass vessels are bottles, usually those with long fluted necks and biconical, as well as infrequent icon lamps. The data about the vessels found buried with the deceased is much more detailed. Such finds are recorded at Mačvanska Mitrovica (fig. 10/3, Brestovik (fig. 13/3, Mirijevo (fig. 4/1, Vinča (figs. 4/2; 10/4, Stragari near Kragujevac, Milentija near Brus, round the church of St Peter near Novi Pazar, at the monastery of Končulić (fig. 13/2 and the monastery of Gradac. The relatively plentiful and diverse vessels discovered at the cemeteries of medieval Trgovište are especially illustrative (fig. 10/2, 7. The available descriptions of vessels and archaeological contexts provide a general impression about the types of vessels recorded in the cemeteries of a late medieval and early modern date in the central Balkans. Glass bottles as a rule were laid in graves, while earth-fill layers, apart from bottles, contained plentiful shards of drinking vessels. As for the bottles, two types were registered: biconical and those with long fluted necks (figs. 10; 12/1. Among

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Hebrew Version of the SpREUK Questionnaire for Religiosity, Spirituality and Health: An Application for Oral Diseases

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    Harold D. Sgan-Cohen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Research has examined the connection between religiosity, spirituality (SpR and health, and the potential of these variables to prevent, heal and cope with disease. Research indicated that participation in religious meetings or services was associated with a lower risk of developing oral disease. We intended to test a Hebrew version of the SpREUK 1.1 questionnaire, which is reported to be a reliable and valid measure of distinctive issues of SpR, and to test its relevance in the context of oral illness among a Jewish population. Methods: In order to validate the SpREUK-Hebrew instrument, minor translational and cultural/religious adaptations were applied. Reliability and factor analyses were performed, using standard procedures, among 134 Jewish Israeli subjects (mean age 38.4 years. Results: Analysis of reliability for internal consistency demonstrated an intra-class correlation of Cronbach's alpha = 0.90 for the intrinsic religiosity/spiritual and the appraisal scales, and of 0.90 for the support through spirituality/religiosity scales. Inter reliability agreement by kappa ranged between 0.7 and 0.9. We were able to approve the previously described factorial structure, albeit with some unique characteristics in the Jewish population. Individuals´ time spent on spiritual activity correlated with the SpREUK scales. The instrument discriminated well between religious subgroups (i.e., ultra Orthodox, conventional religious and less-religious. Preliminary results indicate an association between measures of spirituality and oral health. Conclusions: The traditional and cultural adaptation of the tool was found to be appropriate. SpREUK-Hebrew was reliable and valid among a Jewish population. This method could therefore be employed in comparative studies among different cultural and religious backgrounds.

  16. Anguish and Acedia as Disorders in Medieval Monasticism, Examples and Curative Resources

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    Rubén Peretó Rivas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The spiritual and mental disorders typical of medieval monasticism had a common symptomatology expressed in anguish concerning their own existence, known as acedia. The therapeutic response of medieval monks to this situation involved certain liturgical variations, understood as therapeutic representation and as the healing word, both derived from the curatio verbi of the monks in the Egyptian desert. It is, in short, the performative capacity of liturgy. In this paper my objective is to present the most significant features of acedia in Christian monasticism and to analyze three liturgical texts as therapeutic instances of this disorder.

  17. [Subjectivity and objectivity, semiotics and diagnosis. An approach to the medieval concept of illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, O

    1996-01-01

    Relying on their patients' complaints, medieval physicians did not discriminate theoretically between sickness and health. As for the types of illness, there were two different concepts of disease: The semiotic tracts (sphygmology, uroscopy, hematoscopy) describe signs of dyscrasia and locus affectus, while the medical handbooks combine symptoms like fever, pain, nausea, constipation etc. with the signs of pulse, urine and blood. The term "diagnosis" should be used only for this latter type of disease. Because of the ancient model of humoral pathology and because of the deductive construction of symptomatology, "medieval" illnesses cannot be compared with "ours".

  18. A lime based mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, P.K.; Hansen, Tessa Kvist

    2016-01-01

    A new mortar for thermal insulation of medieval church vaults was tested in a full scale experiment in Annisse Church, DK. The mortar consists of perlite, a highly porous aggregate, mixed with slaked lime. These materials are compatible with the fired clay bricks and the lime mortar joints. The lambda-value of the insulation mortar is 0.08 W/m K or twice the lambda-value for mineral wool. The water vapour permeability is equal to a medieval clay brick, and it has three times higher capacity f...

  19. Physical education of the medieval knight La educación física del caballero medieval

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    Buenaventura DELGADO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The medieval knight was required to perform the same physical exercices and have the same capabilities as Spartan, Athenian and Roman soldiers. They had to be agile, strong, fast and able to use weapons on foot as on horseback. To be pysically fit was as important as knowing history as explained by tutors and sung by jugglers in moments of leisure during which they learnt of legends, nationals heroes and the paradigms that distinguish nations. All the heroes praised through generations provide models shaped the collective personality of entire peoples. San Isidoro de Sevilla, Ramón Llull, King Alfonso X the Wise and Don Juan Manuel were the principal writers to exalt the figure of the knight and his education. During the XII, XIII, XIV and XV centuries and including the Renaissance, there were exhibitions of physical games, during which knights sought fame and fortune: jousts, tournaments, staged games, games using canes and processions of arms called «pasos honrosos» were undertaken with popular enthusiasm in Western and central Europe in the Byzantine Empire and throughout the Moslem world.Los ejercicios y habilidades físicas exigidos al caballero medieval fueron semejantes a los que se pedían al militar espartano, ateniense y romano. Debían ser ágiles, fuertes, rápidos y diestros en el manejo de las armas a pie y a caballo. Tan importante como una buena forma física era conocer la Historia cantada por ayos y juglares en los momentos de ocio, a través de la cual se familiarizaban con las tradiciones, leyendas, héroes nacionales y los paradigmas que distinguían a un pueblo de otro. El abanico de héroes alabados y ensalzados de generación en generación eran otros tantos modelos destinados a troquelar la personalidad colectiva de cada pueblo. San Isidoro de Sevilla, Ramón Llull, el rey Alfonso X el Sabio y Don Juan Manuel son los principales escritores interesados en ensalzar la figura del caballero y su educación. En los siglos

  20. Padua and the Stars: Medieval Painting and Illuminated Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canova, G. M.

    2011-06-01

    In the Middle Ages, the University of Padua was one of the most prominent centre for astrological studies in Europe. The Paduan doctor and philosopher, Pietro d'Abano, who lived in the first decades of the 14th century, was the main figure in this field. At the end of the 13th century, during a long stay in Paris, he got in contact with the new astrological doctrines flourished after the translation into Latin of Ptolemy's and Arab's works in Spain. Thus, when he went back to Padua, he published several studies on the influence of celestial bodies on human life and human physical characteristics and psychology. These ideas deeply affected the Paduan society of the 14th century and, consequently, the most important painters chose or were asked to evoke the images of stars, planets, and their properties. This adventure began with Giotto who shows a surprising interest in celestial bodies in the Scrovegni Chapel where he represented a comet, and soon after he produced a cycle of astrological paintings on the vault of the Palazzo della Ragione in the Public Palace of Padua. Unfortunately, in 1420, these paintings were destroyed in a fire, but the magnificent cycle of astrological frescoes realized soon after on the walls of the same room gives us some clues on Giotto's work and shows us the complexity of the Medieval astrological science. Other astrological paintings, still preserved, were realized by the painters of the Carrarese Court such as Guariento, who painted the planets and their influences on human ages in the church of the Eremitani, and Giusto dei Menabuoi who represented a superb zodiac around a realistic map of Earth in the Cathedral Baptistery. So Padua really became the capital of astrological painting in Europe. Other evidence of the astrological image in the Veneto Region, between the 14th and 15th centuries, can be found in the manuscripts illuminated in the milieu of the University of Padua and in the first books printed in Venice.

  1. Farmsteads in early medieval Germany – architecture and organisation

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    Schreg, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany early medieval rural settlements are known from a rising number of excavated sites. Rural architecture was a wooden architecture. Only churches were built in stone. A farmstead consisted of several buildings: the main house and several economic buildings as pit houses and storages. Before the 1980s, when large scale excavations became more and more common, there was little awareness of changes in rural settlement history. The formation of still existing villages was only late in the Middle Ages. However, even today it is difficult to understand the changes in rural architecture as there are distinct regional differences. Probably the 5th century on the one hand and the period of village formation between the 10th and 13th centuries on the other hand were the most innovative periods. This article provides a short characteristic of buildings and settlement organisation. He gives an outline of research history and identifies some recent trends and future perspectives of research.Tenemos conocimiento de los asentamientos rurales de la alta Edad Media en Alemania gracias a un número creciente de excavaciones arqueológicas. La arquitectura rural es una arquitectura de madera, reservándose la piedra para las iglesias. Las alquerías comprendían varias edificaciones: la casa principal y varias construcciones destinadas a fines económicos, como las viviendas semienterradas y almacenes. Antes de los años 80 del siglo pasado, cuando las excavaciones a gran escala se hicieron más habituales, se conocía poco sobre la evolución de la historia de los asentamientos rurales. Las aldeas que aún permanecen se formaron a finales de la Edad Media e incluso hoy resulta difícil entender los cambios que se produjeron en la arquitectura rural cuando existen diferencias regionales. Es probable que el periodo comprendido entre el siglo V, por una parte, y los siglos X y XIII por otra fue la de mayor innovación. El presente artículo ofrece un

  2. Is Medieval Warm Period (MWP) wetter in Nagaland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S.; Agarwal, D. S.; Bhattacharyya, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Dzukou Valley, Nagaland is one of the biodiversity rich regions in northeast India. It is house to 113 families of plants where primitive angiosperms and endemic plants species contribute 19% and 6% respectively to this unique floristic wealth. Floristic uniqueness of the valley is that 50 families are represented by single genus and 128 genuses are represented by single species. Present work is the first attempt to use soil organic matter (SOM) d13C and pollen data to understand climate vis-à-vis vegetation dynamics in an area where climatic changes were not strong enough to induce a significant change in vegetation cover. The d13C values in our study range from -29.1‰ to -27.7‰ during late Holocene. These values are typical of forest soils and suggest organic carbon derived exclusively from C3 vegetation. Generated proxy data reveals three phases of climatic and vegetational shifts in the region since 3100 yr BP. During the first phase from 3100 yr BP to 2300 yr BP isotope data shows higher values, indicating towards a comparatively dry climate and area was occupies by dry Pine-Oak forest. Subsequently in second phase from 2300 yr BP to 1060 yr BP increase in arboreal pollens (tree elements) and gradually decreasing trend in d13C values from 2300 to 1060 yrs BP by 1.4 ‰ indicate towards comparatively moist climatic conditions corresponding to Medieval Warm Period. Later on in the third phase from 1060 yr BP onwards climate again climate turned dry and continued till date as postulated from the increasing trend in d13C values and good recovery of Pinus-Oak forest pollens.This study holds its significance not only as the first attempt to address palaeoclimate and palaeo-vegetation study from Nagaland but also as the first attempt to use SOM d13C along with pollen data to understand the influence of fluctuating rainfall (in a high rainfall zone) in altering the floristic wealth of a region. This type of study is essentially needed to address several issues

  3. Elemental mapping of medieval teeth using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muja, Cristina [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France); Faculty of Biology, University of Bucharest (Romania); Vasile Parvan Institute of Archaeology, Bucharest (Romania); Therese, Laurent; Guillot, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.guillot@univ-jfc.fr [Laboratoire Diagnostics des Plasma, CUFR J.F.C, Albi (France)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Recent developments in X-Ray Fluorescence micro-analysis techniques made the traditional range of XRF applications expand, benefiting from the combination of single point analysis with high spatial element imaging. The sample is scanned through the X-Ray beam and corresponding spectra are continuously read from the detector and correlated to a particular position on the sample. In this work, elemental concentrations were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique (Jobin Yvon Horiba XGT-5000 instrument) offering detailed elemental analysis. The instrument is equipped with a tungsten X-ray tube and a beryllium window, operating at 50 kV with a beam collimator of 100{mu}m in diameter to irradiate the sample and with a Si detector. Tooth mapping provided semi-quantitative information and highlighted the regions of interest. Then multi-points analysis was used to obtain quantitative results on calcium, phosphorus, strontium and iron. As the chemical composition of dental tissues is similar to the one of bone tissue, the certified reference materials NIST SRM 1400 Bone Ash and NIST SRM 1486 Bone Meal were used for calibration. In this study, only permanent first molars were selected for analysis. The material comes from the medieval cemetery (XII{sup th} . XIII{sup th}) of Feldioara (Bra.ov County, Romania). In the same time, modern teeth were used as reference. The top of the tooth was removed using a diamond disk, with a cut lying perpendicular to the dental cusps, creating a flat transversal surface to be characterized. XRF elemental (Ca, P, Sr, Fe) and ratio (Ca/P, Sr/Ca, Sr/Fe) distribution images for dental tissues (enamel and dentin) were obtained from past and modern teeth with and without caries and the results are presented and discussed. The analysis of the spatial element distribution in the teeth tissues revealed severe alterations in elemental composition of both enamel and dentin from the regions affected by caries that were confirmed by the

  4. Wrestling with Stephen and Matilda: Planning Challenging Enquiries to Engage Year 7 in Medieval Anarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    McDougall found learning about Stephen and Matilda fascinating, was sure that her pupils would also and designed an enquiry to engage them in "the anarchy" of 1139-1153 AD. Pupils enjoyed exploring "the anarchy" and learning about it enhanced their knowledge and understanding of the medieval period considerably. However,…

  5. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primeau, C.; Lynnerup, Niels; Friis, Laila Saidane

    2012-01-01

    for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined...

  6. Restorian of outdoor plaster pavement floors in a medieval Czech castle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Drdácký, Miloš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2008), s. 81-98 ISSN 1355-6207 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : floor plaster * metakaoline modified mortar * medieval castle rampart * non-standard testing Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  7. In praise of death : history and poetry in medieval Marwar (South Asia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, Janet

    2008-01-01

    This study of heroic and epic “war poetry” transmitted by the poets of pastoral-nomadic communities in medieval Marwar (Rajasthan) evokes the lived past of the Rajput, Bhil and Charan of the Marwari desert with a detailed analysis of poetic sources concerning Pabuji, a fourteenth-century warrior and

  8. The archaeology of early medieval violence: the mass grave at Budeč, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefan, I.; Stránská, Petra; Vondrová, H.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 351 (2016), s. 759-776 ISSN 0003-598X Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Czech Republic * Bohemia * Budeč * tenth-eleventh centuries * early medieval * mass grave * violence * warfare Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 1.536, year: 2016

  9. El sentido del saber en la Escolástica medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Vergara Ciordia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia del aprendizaje es en parte la historia de la cultura. En este artículo se aborda cómo se entendieron en la Edad Media las relaciones entre el conocimiento y el aprendizaje. En primer lugar se estudia la historia del conocimiento enciclopédico hasta la escolástica medieval; a continuación se analiza la concepción medieval de la historia y del libro, haciendo especial hincapié en su carácter sacral; el artículo termina analizando la concepción del conocimiento en los enciclopedistas, especialmente en la figura y obra de Vicente de Beauvais, a quien se debe la principal enciclopedia de esta época.The history of Learning is partly the history of Culture. In this article we find an approach about the way the relationships between Knowledge and Learning were understood in the Middie Ages. Firstly there is and analysls of the history of encyclopedic knowledge till the scholastic medieval. Then, we find an analysls about the medieval conception of history and of the book, with and special stress in thelr sacred character. Lastly, the study analyces the conception of Knowledge in the enciclopedists, especially in the figure and work of Vincent of Beauvais, to whom the main encyclopedia of this time is owed.

  10. Early Medieval silver pearl from Lumbe's garden cemetery at Prague Castle: Composition, manufacture, deterioration, and conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Děd, J.; Ottenwelter, Estelle; Šejvlová, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2016), s. 174-183 ISSN 0039-3630 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/2195 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : medieval jewellery * Lumbe's Garden * archaeometry Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.578, year: 2016

  11. The Accreditation of Hildegard Von Bingen as Medieval Female Technical Writer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Although scholars have acknowledged technical texts written during the Middle-Ages, there is no mention of "technical writer" as a profession except for Geoffrey Chaucer, and historically absent is the accreditation of medieval female writers who pioneered the field of medical-technical communication. In an era dominated by identifiable medieval…

  12. Actively Engaging Students in Culture, Gender, and Class Issues in Medieval Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Colleen E.

    2017-01-01

    Students often find it difficult to understand literature of another era and a world that differs from their own. From interacting with illuminated manuscript pages to conducting a mock trial, this article discusses ways in which visual and active learning techniques can be used to engage students in medieval literature and culture.

  13. Long life, natural death. The learned ideal of dying in late medieval commentaries on Avicenna's Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van 't Land, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Within late medieval learned medicine, natural death functioned both as a theoretical concept and as a goal for practice. Late medieval commentaries on Avicenna's Canon are used as source material in this study, in order to investigate the ways in which these learned medical authors envisaged natural death. The findings are compared to descriptions of natural death by natural philosophers, and to ideals of dying in broader medieval culture. According to the physicians, natural death was caused by the extinction of innate heat, due to a lack of innate moisture. They discussed natural death in relation to regimen, as the right regimen protected the body's heat and moisture, and thus helped a patient to keep natural death aloof. So, in order to think about natural death, the physicians turned to the whole of life, during which heat dried out moisture and regimens ought to be followed. By contrast, natural philosophers tended to focus on the moment of death itself. The comparison of natural death with the Good Death in broad medieval culture highlights the amoral nature of the natural death.

  14. Doing SoTL in Medieval History a Cross-Atlantic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky; Shopkow, Leah

    2007-01-01

    This article, presented as a dialogue between the authors, explores what they perceive as critical areas of teaching and learning in the discipline of Medieval Studies. Within the discussion, notions of relevance and usefulness, widening access, and epistemological assumptions about the discipline are discussed and related to the practice of…

  15. Measuring the Measuring Rod: Bible and Parabiblical Texts within the History of Medieval Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Doležalová

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the acknowledged crucial role it had in forming medieval written culture, the Bible and a wide-range of parabiblical texts still remain largely ignored by histories of medieval literatures. The reason for this striking omission of an important group of medieval texts from the 'canonical' narratives is, as I argue, the strong bias in favour of national, secular, fictional, and original texts which shapes literary studies – an inheritance from the nineteenth-century nationalising approaches discussed in the first issue of the Interfaces journal. Of course, the discipline of literary studies and therefore selection, hierarchization, and interpretation are complex social, cultural and political processes where almost anything is possible. It is the environment, the interpretive community, in which the interpretation takes place that has a decisive role. And that, too, is constantly being transformed. Thus, there are no final categories and answers because as long as there are interpretive communities, meanings are generated and operate in new ways. That is why the present discussion does not aim to claim that many of the parabiblical texts are literature and should have been included in the canon of medieval literature. Rather, I examine what the nineteenth-century notion of canon did to these texts and how the current questioning and substantial reshaping of notions of canon can transform our understanding of parabiblical texts.

  16. Preparing a Union List of Microforms on the Classical, Medieval, and Renaissance Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a project of the Association of College and Research Libraries to compile a union list of microforms dealing with the classical, medieval, and Renaissance periods. Goals of the project, questionnaire development, survey response, and questions raised by the project are discussed. The union list, including 101 titles and 45 libraries, is…

  17. The use of geothermal energy at a chieftan's farm in medieval Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Sveinbjarnardottir

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at the farm site of Reykholt, in the Reykholtsdalur valley in western Iceland (Fig. 1 , have produced evidence of sophisticated use of geothermal energy in the medieval period that is unmatched by comparable finds elsewhere in this geothermally and volcanically active country.

  18. Temporal trends in vertebral size and shape from medieval to modern-day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Junno

    Full Text Available Human lumbar vertebrae support the weight of the upper body. Loads lifted and carried by the upper extremities cause significant loading stress to the vertebral bodies. It is well established that trauma-induced vertebral fractures are common especially among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological factors that could have affected the prevalence of trauma-related vertebral fractures from medieval times to the present day. To determine if morphological differences existed in the size and shape of the vertebral body between medieval times and the present day, the vertebral body size and shape was measured from the 4th lumbar vertebra using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and standard osteometric calipers. The modern samples consisted of modern Finns and the medieval samples were from archaeological collections in Sweden and Britain. The results show that the shape and size of the 4th lumbar vertebra has changed significantly from medieval times in a way that markedly affects the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebral column. These changes may have influenced the incidence of trauma- induced spinal fractures in modern populations.

  19. Elemental oxides analysis of the medieval period glazed ware from Gogha, Gulf of Khambhat, Gujarat, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Khedekar, V.; Rao, B.R.

    the experiment. We also thank the Director General, UP Coun- cil of Agricultural Research for providing financial assistance. Received 1 June 2007; revised accepted 25 July 2008 Elemental oxides analysis of the medieval period glazed ware from Gogha, Gulf..., assisted us during the fieldwork at Gogha. This is NIO Contribution No. 4403. Received 30 January 2008; revised accepted 25 July 2008 ...

  20. Managing Uncertainty through Profit sharing Contracts from medieval Italy to Silicon Valley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Organizational innovation is essential to economic development. But, the way successful societies have organized new ventures has been remarkably similar in both past and present. The commenda organizations of medieval Italy shared many characteristics with modern startups that are financed by

  1. Location-based technology and game-based learning in secondary education: learning about medieval Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admiraal, W.; Akkerman, S.; Huizenga, J.; van Zeijts, H.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile games in education are excellent ways to combine situated, active and constructive learning with fun. In the mobile city game Frequency 1550 teams -of four students each- step into the game's world. With help of the Internet, smart phones and GPS technology, Amsterdam changes into a medieval

  2. Social inequality and death as illustrated in late-medieval death dances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractLate-medieval murals and books of the then-popular "dances of death" usually represented the living according to their social standing. These works of art thus provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationship between social inequality and death

  3. Locomotory Apparatus and Health Status of the Early medieval population in Great Moravia (the Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velemínský, P.; Stránská, Petra; Dobisíková, M.; Zikán, V.; Likovský, Jakub; Zítková, J.; Žaloudková, M.; Fialová, L.; Stloukal, M.; Poláček, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 40 (2005), s. 112-113 ISSN 0002-9483. [Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologist. 06.04.05-09.04.05, Milwaukee] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : early medieval Slavonic population * ontogenesis * sexual dimorphism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology , Ethnology

  4. Becoming Artifacts Medieval Seals, Passports and the Future of Digital Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chango, Mawaki

    2012-01-01

    What does a digital identity token have to do with medieval seals? Is the history of passports of any use for enabling the discovery of Internet users' identity when crossing virtual domain boundaries during their digital browsing and transactions? The agility of the Internet architecture and its simplicity of use have been the engines of its…

  5. Introduction : Faithful to the Cross in a Moving World: Late Medieval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Mathilde; van Aelst, José; Gaens, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This is the introduction to the thematic issue Faithful to the Cross in a Moving World: Late Medieval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers. The editors discuss how the Carthusian order expanded in the Late Middle Ages and how, in contrast to the first Carthusians, new charterhouses were created in or

  6. Nonmetric cranial trait variation and population history of medieval East Slavic tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsesian, Alla A

    2013-12-01

    The population history of the East Slavs is complicated. There are still many unanswered questions relating to the origins and formation of the East Slavic gene pool. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to assess the degree of biological affinity in medieval East Slavic tribes and to test the hypothesis that East Slavic peoples have a common origin; (2) to show their genetic connections to the autochthonous populations of the northern part of Eastern Europe (Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes); and (3) to identify a genetic continuity between the bearers of Chernyakhov culture and medieval Eastern Slavs. In this study, nonmetric cranial trait data for medieval East Slavic tribes and comparative samples from unrelated groups were examined. Analyzes of phenotypic differentiation were based on Nei's standard genetic distance and hierarchical GST statistics. The results obtained suggest that the genetic affinity of the East Slavic tribes is due not only to inter-tribal gene flow, but is, more importantly, a result of their common population history. Evidence of gene flow from the Baltic and Finno-Ugric groups was showed in the gene pool of Eastern Slavs, as was genetic continuity between medieval East Slavic tribes and the populations of the preceding Chernyakhov culture. These findings support a "generalizing" hypothesis of East Slavic origin, in which a Slavic community was formed in some particular ancestral area, and subsequently spread throughout Eastern Europe. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. "Quid dant artes nisi luctum?": Learning, Ambition, and Careers in the Medieval University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferruolo, Stephen C.

    1988-01-01

    Focusing on the medieval university during its formative years (late 1100s and early 1200s), the author addresses questions such as "How did the ambitions of students and masters influence the organization and curriculum of these new institutions?" Concludes that society was served by these universities despite the indication that the…

  8. Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Danica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Life of archbishop Eustathios I [Jevstatije] (1279-1286, deserving head of the medieval Serbian Church and a saint, is a very interesting source for studying the cult of relics with the Serbs. This is not surprising considering that the Life was penned by one of the most illustrious of Eustathios' successors on the church throne, Daniel II [Danilo], a learned Athonite and unquestionable master of the hagiographie literary genre. In his account of the life of his distinguished predecessor, Daniel describes extensively the events constituting the key stage in the glorification of a saint, namely Eustathios' death and posthumous occurrences at his grave. As most holy men, Eustathios foresaw his own death, and he departed from this world serenely. He was buried, with due honours, in the 'marble grave' he had prepared for himself in the cathedral church of Holy Saviour at Žiča. In keeping with the well-established saint-making process, a few years after the funeral 'extraordinary signs' began to occur at the archbishop's grave, in this particular case, candlelight and a multitude of murmuring voices followed by the miraculous cure of an incurably ill person. These occurrences preceded the great miracle which, to the best of my knowledge, is unparalleled in the medieval Serbian practice of relic veneration. Namely, 'one day they found growing from his marble grave three flowers endowed with wondrous beauty and impossible to liken to anything else. For, indeed, they were not of earthly humidity or of union with flowers that grow from earth; but, o wonder, how a dry stone standing for so long in the church could send forth fragrant flowers, to the renewal of the sanctified one's body'. Flower metaphors occur in the Service to the holy archbishop Eustathios, yet another piece penned by Daniel II, notably in his paraphrases of Psalm 92, 12-14 ('The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon. These that be

  9. Drought as a Catalyst for Early Medieval European Subsistence Crises and Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Francis; Cook, Edward; Kostick, Conor; McCormick, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Tree-ring records provide one of most reliable means of reconstructing past climatic conditions, from longer-term multi-decadal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation to inter-annual variability, including years that experienced extreme weather. When combined with written records of past societal behaviour and the incidence of major societal stresses (e.g., famine, disease, and conflict), such records hold the potential to shed new light on historical interactions between climate and society. Recent years have seen the continued development of long dendroclimatic reconstructions, including, most recently the development of the Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA; Cook et al., 2015) which for the first time makes available a robust reconstruction of spring-summer hydroclimatic conditions and extremes for the greater European region, including the entirety of the Dark Ages. In this paper, we examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and well-dated reports of severe drought in early medieval European annals and chronicles, and find a clear statistical correspondence, further confirming the accuracy of the OWDA and its importance as an independent record of hydroclimatic extremes, a resource that can now be drawn upon in both paleoclimatology and studies of climatic impacts on human society. We proceed to examine the association between hydroclimatic extremes identified in the OWDA and the incidence of a range of major societal stresses (scarcity and famine, epidemic disease, and mass human mortality) drawn from an exhaustive survey of early medieval European annals and chronicles. The outcome of this comparison firmly implicates drought as a significant driver of major societal stresses during early medieval times. Using a record of the violent killings of societal elites recorded on a continuous annual basis in medieval Irish monastic annals, we further examine the role of hydroclimatic extremes as triggers in medieval violence

  10. Population-specific stature estimation from long bones in the early medieval Pohansko (Czech Republic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sládek, Vladimír; Macháček, Jiří; Ruff, Christopher B; Schuplerová, Eliška; Přichystalová, Renáta; Hora, Martin

    2015-06-29

    We tested the effect of population-specific linear body proportions on stature estimation. We used a skeletal sample of 31 males and 20 females from the Early Medieval site at Pohansko (Břeclav, Central Europe) and a comparative Central European Early Medieval sample of 45 males and 28 females. We developed new population-specific equations for the Pohansko sample using anatomical reconstructions of stature, then compared percentage prediction errors (%PEs) of anatomical stature from limb bone lengths using the derived Pohansko equations with those previously derived from more general European and other Early Medieval samples. Among general European equations, the lowest %PEs for the Pohansko sample were obtained using the equations of Formicola and Franceschi: Am J Phys Anthropol 100 (1996) 83-88 and Ruff et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 148 (2012) 601-617. However, unexpectedly, the choice between tibial latitudinal variants proposed by Ruff et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 148 (2012) 601-617 appeared to be sex-specific, with northern and southern variants producing lower %PEs for males and females, respectively. Equations from Breitinger: Anthropol Anz 14 (1937) 249-274, Bach: Anthropol Anz 29 (1965) 12-21, and Sjøvold: Hum Evol 5 (1990) 431-447 provided poor agreement with anatomical stature. When applied to the comparative Central European Early Medieval sample, our new formulae have generally lower %PE than previously derived formulae based on other European Early Medieval samples (Maijanen and Niskanen: Int J Osteoarchaeol 20 (2010) 472-480; Vercellotti et al.: Am J Phys Anthropol 140 (2009) 135-142. The best agreement with anatomical stature among our newly developed equations was obtained using femoral+tibial length, followed by femoral length. Upper limb bone lengths resulted in higher %PEs. Variation in the tibia is likely to contribute most to potential bias in stature estimation. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley

  11. Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 as a point of convergence in the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible: A consideration of the intra and intertextual relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. (Fanie Snyman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 occupies a special place in the canon of Scriptures. In Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 not only the book of Malachi comes to a close but the whole of the Prophets (Nebi’im, and the second part of the Hebrew Bible. In the Christian Bible the book of Malachi is the last book in the Old Testament, which is concluded with this passage, before one turns to the New Testament. In this article it was argued the these three verses serve not only as the conclusion to the book of Malachi but also as a fitting close to the second part of the Hebrew Bible. It also serves as a link to both the Pentateuch as the first part, and the Psalms as the third part, of the Hebrew canon of Scriptures. In this sense Malachi 4:4−6 (Heb 3:22−24 can be viewed as a point of convergence in the Old Testament or Hebrew Bible.

  12. The frailties of ‘basileia’ according to John Chrysostom: some remarks on the treatise ‘A comparison between a king and a monk’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Ventura da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Living in a society under the threat of Persians and Barbarians, John Chrysostom, differently from his predecessors, like Eusebius of Cesarea, did not devise the Graeco-Roman basileia as an institution that bore any special religious meaning. As for him, the Roman Empire was just a gathering of humans governing other humans due to an election; a government that did not arise from a natural basis and did not exhibit any mystical, supernatural capacity, for such government was not geared to linger on. In his works, John Chrysostom seldom mentions the Imperium Chistianum and the emperors of his time, subjects which did not attract his attention. Truth to tell, according to the author, the basileus did not represent a Christian model that should be followed by his contemporaries. Such honor should be bestowed on the monks instead. In light of these remarks, we intend to discuss, in this article, some characteristics of the monarchy in the Late Antiquity, a time span when we witness the flourishing of the monasticism as well. In order to do that, we deal with one of John’s first works: the treatise A comparison between a king and a monk, written in Antioch, John’s homeland, in the first years of the decade of 370 A. D.

  13. THE ORIGIN OF THE CONCEPT OF NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN EARLY MEDIEVAL PERSIA (9TH-12TH CENTURY CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Mojtaba; Shams, Mesbah; Hashempur, Mohammad Hashem; Zargaran, Arman; Dalfardi, Behnam; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain is supposed to be a post-renaissance described medical entity. Although it is often believed that John Fothergill (1712-1780) provided the first description of this condition in 1773, a review of the medieval Persian medical writings will show the fact that neuropathic pain was a medieval-originated concept. "Auojae Asab" [Nerve-originated Pain] was used as a medical term in medieval Persian medical literature for pain syndromes which etiologically originated from nerves. Physicians like Rhazes (d. 925 CE), Haly Abbas (d. 982 CE), Avicenna (d. 1037 CE), and Jorjani (d. 1137 CE) have discussed multiple aspects of nerve-originated pain including its classification, etiology, differentiating characteristics, different qualities, and pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments. Recognizing medieval scholars' views on nerve-originated pain can lighten old historical origins of this concept.

  14. [Crusading and Chronicle Writing on the Medieval Baltic Frontier: A Companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia] / Michael Amundsen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Amundsen, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Arvustus: Crusading and chronicle writing on the medieval Baltic frontier : a companion to the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia / edited by Marek Tamm, Linda Kaljundi, Carsten Selch Jensen. Farnham : Ashgate, 2011

  15. Social Perception of Infertility and Its Treatment in Late Medieval Italy: Margherita Datini, an Italian Merchant’s Wife

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Kuk NAM

    2016-01-01

    Because the perception of infertility in medieval Europe ranged from the extremely religious view of it as a malediction of God or the devil’s work, to the reasonable medical conception of it as a sort of disease to treat, it is very difficult to determine the general attitudes of ordinary people towards infertility. This article seeks to elucidate the common social perception of infertility and its treatment in late medieval Europe by analyzing the case of Margherita Datini, an Italian merch...

  16. Combined GPR and ERT exploratory geophysical survey of the Medieval Village of Pancorbo Castle (Burgos, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Álvarez, José-Paulino; Rubio-Melendi, David; Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio; González-Quirós, Andrés; Cimadevilla-Fuente, David

    2017-09-01

    Ground-penetrating Radar (GPR) and Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been fruitfully employed for archaeological purposes. An area at the Pancorbo medieval site in Burgos (Spain) has been jointly explored by GPR and ERT in the search for the buried remains of the Pancorbo medieval village. After data collection, quality control and merging, a shallow depth of interest was identified and studied in detail. 3D resistivity simulation, considering sensible geometrical structures of the targets helped discover anomalies present in the area. On the other hand, visual GPR inspection was considerably enhanced by trace energy attribute analysis which provided a plan view of the existing anomalies. Two posterior archaeological excavations have a very good correlation between the identified anomalies and the excavated remains. The survey also provides hints for the continuation of the excavation.

  17. Interaction of pulse laser radiation of 532 nm with model coloration layers for medieval stone artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colson, J. [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nimmrichter, J. [Austrian Federal Office for the Care of Monuments, Department for Conservation and Restoration, Arsenal, Objekt 15, Tor 4, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Kautek, W., E-mail: wolfgang.kautek@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Department of Physical Chemistry, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-01

    Multilayer polychrome coatings on medieval and Renaissance stone artefacts represent substantial challenges in laser cleaning. Therefore, polychromic models with classical pigments, minium (Pb{sub 2}{sup 2+}Pb{sup 4+}O{sub 4}), zinc white (ZnO), and lead white ((PbCO{sub 3}){sub 2}·Pb(OH){sub 2}) in an acrylic binder, were irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser emitting at 532 nm. The studied medieval pigments exhibit strongly varying incubation behaviours directly correlated to their band gap energies. Higher band gaps beyond the laser photon energy of 2.3 eV require more incubative generation of defects for resonant transitions. A matching of the modification thresholds after more than four laser pulses was observed. Laser cleaning with multiple pulsing should not exceed ca. 0.05 J/cm{sup 2} when these pigments coexist in close spatial proximity.

  18. Red layered medieval stained glass window characterization by means of micro-PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Feliu, I., E-mail: iofeliu@us.es [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Gomez-Tubio, B. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Respaldiza, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Universidad de Sevilla, Avda. Thomas A. Edison 7, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Sevilla (Spain); Capel, F. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Red layered medieval stained glass windows on a transparent greenish substrate are characteristic of European medieval cathedrals, but few compositional analyses have been performed on the coloured layers. The PIXE technique has been performed on a red layered stained glass window obtained during the restoration works carried out in Las Huelgas Monastery in Burgos (Spain). Protons of 3 MeV with a beam of 4 x 5 {mu}m{sup 2} were used to acquire elemental maps of a cross section of the sample, in order to observe the homogeneity of the layered structure and its substrate. In our work, copper was detected as in other layered glasses but a correspondence with lower amounts of zinc has also been determined. Both elements appear enriched in the red coloured layers, while the other quantified elements have the same relative composition along the sample. Corrosion layers, due to the lead supporting structure of the window, were also found.

  19. Medieval and early modern approaches to fractures of the proximal humerus: an historical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.

    2010-01-01

    within the last two centuries. However, the historical preconditions for this development have not been studied. This paper reviews written sources from the fall of the Roman Empire to the late eighteenth century. Medieval and early modern writers mainly rely on the Hippocratic writings De Fracturis...... and De Articulationes. The Hippocratic account of the normal anatomy of the shoulder reveals some biomechanical insights. However, knowledge of bone and joint anatomy of the shoulder useful for surgical purposes is not found in medieval sources. Even in fourteenth century illustrations based on human......, and Vesalius (1514-1564) gives a systematic account for the osteology and myology of the shoulder. In early eighteenth century, the Hippocratic approach is challenged and more gentle modes of reduction and bandaging are proposed. Desault (1744-1795) gives an account of the muscle traction responsible...

  20. The Impact of Devegetated Dune Fields on North American Climate During the Late Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B. I.; Seager, R.; Miller, R. L.

    2011-01-01

    During the Medieval Climate Anomaly, North America experienced severe droughts and widespread mobilization of dune fields that persisted for decades. We use an atmosphere general circulation model, forced by a tropical Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction and changes in the land surface consistent with estimates of dune mobilization (conceptualized as partial devegetation), to investigate whether the devegetation could have exacerbated the medieval droughts. Presence of devegetated dunes in the model significantly increases surface temperatures, but has little impact on precipitation or drought severity, as defined by either the Palmer Drought Severity Index or the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Results are similar to recent studies of the 1930s Dust Bowl drought, suggesting bare soil associated with the dunes, in and of itself, is not sufficient to amplify droughts over North America.

  1. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  2. Three cases of feet and hand amputation from Medieval Estremoz, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Teresa; Liberato, Marco; Marques, Carina; Cunha, Eugénia

    2017-09-01

    Peri-mortem limb amputations are rarely reported in the paleopathological literature. The cases reported here concern severing of both hands and feet observed in three adult male skeletons, exhumed from the medieval Portuguese necropolis of Rossio do Marquês de Pombal, Estremoz, Portugal. The fact that they were found in the same site, in graves placed side by side, that all are young males, and that the three skeletons show similar perimortem injuries, make this a unique case meriting detailed analysis. Considering the lesions' location and pattern, as well as historical data, we hypothesize that this is a case of amputation as a consequence of judicial punishment. Estremoz was an important city in sustaining the Royal power at a regional scale during the medieval period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Universality of revealed Law and reflections on religions in Medieval Islamic philosophy: a few considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Barchiesi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available By analysing some Medieval Islamic philosophical theories, this paper aims at investigating the approach adopted by authors such as Avicenna and Averroës in respect of religions different from those of origin (Judaism, Christianism, Zoroastrianism and Sabeism. Moreover, it reflects on the universality of Islamic religion. The author will examine these philosophers' thoughts on prophetic teaching, recalling the Platonic sources from which they were developed, she will motivate the relevance of such thoughts in political science and she will explain their purposes. Furthermore, through a comparison with several scholars who have focused on whether Islamic Law has a conventional or natural status, she will try to investigate the origins of this problem, by examining the universal message that those Islamic Medieval philosophers found in revealed Law and the reasons that led them to present it as addressed to the whole mankind.

  4. The effect of fires on the development and appearance of medieval towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kušar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of fires was one of the main dangers, which slowed down development of medieval towns. Frequent fires, whether they occurred due to carelessness, poorly maintained fireplaces and chimneys or military attacks, caused damage, particularly to those towns and buildings, which were constructed of inflammable materials such as timber and straw. In medieval times most towns were built using such materials, except those near the coast. Citizens tried to reduce fire hazards and the consequences of fires. With substitution of inflammable materials, apparatus and with the improved maintenance of fireplaces and chimneys, as well as other preventive measures, they influenced the development of towns and thus changed their architectural image.

  5. Transient Astronomical Events as Inspiration Sources of Medieval and Renaissance Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incerti, M.; Bònoli, F.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2011-06-01

    It is known long since that a number of exceptional and highly impressive astronomical events have been represented in Medieval artworks. We just remember the Bayeux Tapestry and Giotto's The Adoration of the Magi in the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, representing the P/Halley comet transits of 1067 and 1301, respectively, while The Apparition of Star to Magi fresco in the San Pietro in Valle Abbey in Ferentillo (1182) has been suggested to represent the 1181 supernova. However, no systematic survey of figurative Medieval and Renaissance art has been performed to date, in order to analyzing the role of transient astronomical events as inspiration sources of artworks in these epochs. In this work, we analyze a significant number of artworks, dated between the 9th and 16th century and representing figurative elements in some way connected with astronomy, in order to evaluate if they have been influenced by coeval extraordinary astronomical events.

  6. Medieval and early modern approaches to fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, S.

    2010-01-01

    and De Articulationes. The Hippocratic account of the normal anatomy of the shoulder reveals some biomechanical insights. However, knowledge of bone and joint anatomy of the shoulder useful for surgical purposes is not found in medieval sources. Even in fourteenth century illustrations based on human......The diagnosis and management of complex fractures of the proximal humerus have challenged surgical practitioners and medical writers since the earliest recorded surgical texts. Current knowledge of fractures of the proximal humerus has been obtained through pathoanatomical and biomechanical studies...... within the last two centuries. However, the historical preconditions for this development have not been studied. This paper reviews written sources from the fall of the Roman Empire to the late eighteenth century. Medieval and early modern writers mainly rely on the Hippocratic writings De Fracturis...

  7. Story grammar elements and causal relations in the narratives of Russian-Hebrew bilingual children with SLI and typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichman, Sveta; Altman, Carmit; Voloskovich, Anna; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Walters, Joel

    2017-09-01

    While there is general agreement regarding poor performance of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) on microstructure measures of narrative production, findings on macrostructure are inconsistent. The present study analyzed narrative abilities of Russian-Hebrew bilingual preschool children with and without SLI, with a particular focus on story grammar (SG) elements and causal relations, in order to identify macrostructure features which distinguish bilingual children with SLI from those with typical development. Narratives were collected from 35 typically developing bilinguals (BiTD) and 14 bilinguals with SLI (BiSLI) in both Russian/L1 and Hebrew/L2 using a retelling procedure (LITMUS-Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives) (Gagarina, Klop, Kunnari, Tantele, Välimaa, Balčiūnienė, Bohnacker, & Walters, 2012). Each story contained three episodes, and each episode introduced a different protagonist with explicitly stated Goals (G), Attempts (A) and Outcomes (O). Causal relations assessed included Enabling, Physical, Motivational, and Psychological relations, following Trabasso & Nickels (1992). Each Goal-Attempt-Outcome (GAO) episode was examined for the use of SG elements and causal relations. Group differences emerged for both aspects of macrostructure. For causal relations, narratives of BiSLI children contained fewer Enabling and Physical relations, and differed qualitatively from those of BiTD children. For SG elements, BiSLI children referred to fewer SG elements than BiTD children in the first episode, but performed like BiTD children in the second and the third episodes. Story grammar elements in specific episodes along with Enabling and Physical causal relations distinguish the narratives of children with BiSLI from those with BiTD, which stresses the importance of examining wider array of macrostructure features in narratives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL) questionnaire in Hebrew and in Arabic and its association with clinical tests in cochlear-implanted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geal-Dor, Miriam; Jbarah, Rema; Adler, Miriam; Yehezkely, Michal Kaufmann; Adelman, Cahtia

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the results of the Auditory Behavior in Everyday Life (ABEL) questionnaire adapted to Hebrew and to Arabic and its association to clinical test results in children with cochlear implants. As assessment of hearing by audiometry does not always adequately reflect performance in daily life, questionnaires have been developed to assess functioning in natural surroundings and to track progress. In order to evaluate cochlear-implanted children's verbal and communicative abilities, the parental ABEL questionnaire was developed in 2002. The advantages of the ABEL questionnaire are that it is intended for a wide age range, is quick to administer, and is filled out by parents themselves. The ABEL questionnaire was translated into Hebrew and into Arabic and routinely used in the clinic. A total of 61 questionnaires were thus filled out by parents of children with cochlear implants (ages 3.9-14.3 years) when they came for routine mapping. Retrospectively, data were analyzed and questionnaire results were compared with performance with the implant on several clinical tests: audiometric thresholds, discrimination (percentage) of vowel-consonant-vowel nonsense syllables, and results of speech perception tests with monosyllabic and bisyllabic words and with sentences in quiet and in noise. A correlation was found between the different sections of the questionnaire, and age at implantation had a significant effect on questionnaire scores. However, correlations between questionnaire score and clinical tests were found only for speech perception tests in noise and not in quiet or to audiogram and speech reception threshold. As has been reported previously, self-evaluation or parental evaluation does not always correlate with all measured results of hearing performance. However, the subjective information collected through questionnaires can be valuable for evaluation of progress, for counseling and rehabilitation training, as well as for mapping.

  9. Seismic Activity in Medieval Jeroným Mine, West Bohemia, During Period 2006-2009

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Lednická, Markéta; Knejzlík, Jaromír; Hrubešová, E.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2010), s. 67-77 ISSN 1896-3145. [Ochrona środowiska w górnictwie podziemnym, odkrywkowym i otworowym. Zawiercie, 19.05.2010-21.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/0089 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : medieval Jeroným mine * seismic load * numerical modelling of underground spaces Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  10. Money Matters: A Critique of the Postan Thesis on Medieval Population, Prices, and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    John H. MUNRO

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a critique of Michael Postan's famous Malthusian-Ricardo model demonstrating that late-medieval prices and wages were essentially determined by demographic factors, especially after the Black Death, while contending that monetary factors played no role in determining prices or wages. His central argument is simple: that rapid and drastic depopulation (falling perhaps from ca. 1320) - by about 50% in England ca. 1450 - drastically altered the land:labour ratio so that real wages ...

  11. Decline of Medieval Urban Symbols of Power: Tower Houses in Trogir, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plosnić Škarić, Ana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the diminishment of the importance and significance of the medieval tower houses in Trogir caused by social, political, and economic changes as well as by the urban development and the changes in the city defence system. The findings suggest that the decline of the towers had already begun during the 13th century. Eventually it resulted in the preservation of only a few, who have, however, been subjected to subsequent remodelling.

  12. Virtual Reality Experience of a Medieval Romanesque Church in Uruena, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Bowman, Emilia

    2015-01-01

    "3D Digitized Romanesque Ermita in Virtual Reality" is a digital exploration of the historical, architectural, and cultural significance of a medieval Romanesque church in Valladolid, Spain. In this project, I recreate Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Anunciada, a reconstructed Catholic monastery. A digital replica of the church, produced by photogrammetry in the summer of 2014, has been created in a virtual environment and is experienced through immersive technologies. The use of a head-moun...

  13. La escolástica medieval en los escritos confesionales del luteranismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Svensson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El artículo busca establecer la presencia de elementos de la escolástica medieval en los escritos confesionales del luteranismo. Por esta vía se busca alcanzar algunas precisiones sobre la continuidad en este periodo de la historia intelectual, así como iluminar también el tipo de valoración de la actividad filosófica por parte de los reformadores.

  14. Stephenson, Political Power in Medieval Gwynedd: Governance and the Welsh Princes (University of Wales Press, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Yasemin Julian-Jones

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of David Stephenson, Political Power in Medieval Gwynedd: Governance and the Welsh Princes, (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2nd edn. 2014, considering the text in light of its new edition, assessing the need for such a work and the benefits of an updated reprint. The review also considers the limitations of the new edition, and the impact on potential audiences.

  15. An early medieval symbol carved on a tree trunk. Pathfinder or territorial marker?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dreslerová, Dagmar; Mikuláš, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 326 (2010), s. 1067-1075 ISSN 0003-598X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00020701; GA AV ČR IAA300130505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Central Europe * early medieval * wood carving * fossil oak * alluvial setting Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 0.969, year: 2010 http://antiquity.ac.uk/ant/084/ant0841067.htm

  16. Aristotle's carp as Claretus' bird comor? Tracing the origin of one medieval term

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedinová, Hana

    -, č. 2 (2016), s. 111-123 ISSN 0567-8269 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13043 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : ancient and medieval zoology * Latin lexicography * Aristoteles * Aristoteles Latinus * Michael Scotus * Thomas of Cantimpré * Claretus * carp * komor * comor Subject RIV: AI - Linguistics http://www.karolinum.cz/ink2_stat/index.jsp?include=AUC_clanek&id=2668&casopis=94&zalozka=0&predkl=0

  17. Dendrochronological sampling of medieval fishweirs on the Fergus Estuary, Co. Clare, Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Aoife; Sands, Rob

    2011-01-01

    At the spring tides, during the summer of 2011, a team from the School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, made several research trips to a complex of medieval fishweirs at a location close to Boarland Rock on the Fergus estuary, Co. Clare, Ireland. The purpose of these visits was to obtain samples for part of a Marie Curie funded IEF fellowship. In this phase of the project two case studies from the fishweir complex are underway using dendrochronological techniques to refine approache...

  18. Environment and Economy of the Early Medieval Settlement in Žatec

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočár, P.; Čech, Petr; Kozáková, Radka; Kočárová, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, 1-2 (2010), s. 45-60 ISSN 1804-848X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA800020706 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Žatec * Early Medieval Period * plant macroremains * agriculture * cereals * pollen analysis * charcoal analysis * three field system Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2010-01-02-kocar.pdf

  19. The wine trade, piracy and maritime contract law in late medieval Southampton

    OpenAIRE

    Pamuk, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of History, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2014. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2014. Includes bibliographical references leaves 102-105. In late medieval Southampton, wine was a commodity, which was extensively traded, and quite precious to the pirates of the English Channel because it was easy to sell and the vessels loaded with wine had less protection than the ships of precious metals. Therefore, increase of wine trade in the late m...

  20. Reflexões sobre o gênero e o monacato hispânico medieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Lopes Frazão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From a presentation of the main approaches to the study of medieval hispanic monasticism, this article provides theoretical and methodological reflections and exposes the dilemmas resulting from the use of gender category to the study of monastic life. Such reflections are associated with the research that I am developping, which is scoped to the monastery of San Millán de la Cogolla into two periods: 1076-1109 and 1227-1265.

  1. Reported weather events in medieval Hungary: the 11th-15th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    In the presentation an overview of weather events, documented in contemporary written sources - available both in private and institutional evidence -, is provided: geographically the study covers the Hungarian kingdom (occasionally also with sources from the medieval Croatian kingdoms) that included most parts of the Carpathian Basin. Even if the temporal coverage extends the high and late medieval period between 1000 to 1500, most of the data comes from the late medieval times, with special emphasis on the 15th century. Most of the information is available regarding cold spells (e.g. early and late frosts), but especially cold winter periods. Nevertheless, contemporary documentary evidence - mainly legal documentation (charters), official and private correspondence, partly narratives and town accounts - also consists of evidence concerning other, weather-related extreme events such as (thunder)storms, floods and droughts. Apart from the discussion of the availability and type of these events, based on the relative frequency of occurrence we can define periods when a higher frequency and magnitude of weather-related events were reported that is mainly not dependent on changing source densities. These detectable periods (e.g. the early and mid-14th, early and late 15th centuries) are also a further, separate topic of discussion in the presentation.

  2. Genetics of the peloponnesean populations and the theory of extinction of the medieval peloponnesean Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Bose, Aritra; Teodosiadis, Athanasios; Tsetsos, Fotis; Plantinga, Anna; Psatha, Nikoletta; Zogas, Nikos; Yannaki, Evangelia; Zalloua, Pierre; Kidd, Kenneth K; Browning, Brian L; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Paschou, Peristera; Drineas, Petros

    2017-05-01

    Peloponnese has been one of the cradles of the Classical European civilization and an important contributor to the ancient European history. It has also been the subject of a controversy about the ancestry of its population. In a theory hotly debated by scholars for over 170 years, the German historian Jacob Philipp Fallmerayer proposed that the medieval Peloponneseans were totally extinguished by Slavic and Avar invaders and replaced by Slavic settlers during the 6th century CE. Here we use 2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate the genetic structure of Peloponnesean populations in a sample of 241 individuals originating from all districts of the peninsula and to examine predictions of the theory of replacement of the medieval Peloponneseans by Slavs. We find considerable heterogeneity of Peloponnesean populations exemplified by genetically distinct subpopulations and by gene flow gradients within Peloponnese. By principal component analysis (PCA) and ADMIXTURE analysis the Peloponneseans are clearly distinguishable from the populations of the Slavic homeland and are very similar to Sicilians and Italians. Using a novel method of quantitative analysis of ADMIXTURE output we find that the Slavic ancestry of Peloponnesean subpopulations ranges from 0.2 to 14.4%. Subpopulations considered by Fallmerayer to be Slavic tribes or to have Near Eastern origin, have no significant ancestry of either. This study rejects the theory of extinction of medieval Peloponneseans and illustrates how genetics can clarify important aspects of the history of a human population.

  3. Duration and severity of Medieval drought in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppe, J.A.; Brothers, D.S.; Kent, G.M.; Biondi, F.; Jensen, S.; Driscoll, N.W.

    2011-01-01

    Droughts in the western U.S. in the past 200 years are small compared to several megadroughts that occurred during Medieval times. We reconstruct duration and magnitude of extreme droughts in the northern Sierra Nevada from hydroclimatic conditions in Fallen Leaf Lake, California. Stands of submerged trees rooted in situ below the lake surface were imaged with sidescan sonar and radiocarbon analysis yields an age estimate of ∼1250 AD. Tree-ring records and submerged paleoshoreline geomorphology suggest a Medieval low-stand of Fallen Leaf Lake lasted more than 220 years. Over eighty more trees were found lying on the lake floor at various elevations above the paleoshoreline. Water-balance calculations suggest annual precipitation was less than 60% normal from late 10th century to early 13th century AD. Hence, the lake’s shoreline dropped 40–60 m below its modern elevation. Stands of pre-Medieval trees in this lake and in Lake Tahoe suggest the region experienced severe drought at least every 650–1150 years during the mid- and late-Holocene. These observations quantify paleo-precipitation and recurrence of prolonged drought in the northern Sierra Nevada.

  4. The "Endura" of The Cathars' Heresy: Medieval Concept of Ritual Euthanasia or Suicide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamis, Costas; Tounta, Eleni; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the medieval concepts on the voluntary death of severely sick people, as they emerge through the endura (endurance) of the heresy of the Cathars in France (twelfth to fourteenth centuries). The endura was the prerequisite act of repentance that would allow the fallen soul to return to heaven. The endura was a necessary act of repentance, after the performance of a ceremonial purification of the soul (consolamentum), and consisted of the patients' voluntary abstention from vital food. The consolamentum and endura could be performed in the final stage of a disease with the consent of the patients or their relatives. The role of the Cathar physician was only to determine the severity of the disease and the forthcoming death of the patient. The physician was not allowed to take steps that would deprive the life of the patient, and the performance of the ritual endura was duty of the spiritual leaders of the community. The modern ethical approach to this subject is dictated by the medieval belief on the salvation of the soul and tries to answer the question of whether the endura could be seen as a medieval concept of a ritual euthanasia or fell within the theological sin of suicide.

  5. Sex determination in skeletal remains from the medieval Eastern Adriatic coast - discriminant function analysis of humeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašić, Željana; Anterić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Petaros, Anja; Bosnar, Alan; Madžar, Tomislav; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the usefulness of humerus measurement for sex determination in a sample of medieval skeletons from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. Additional aim was to compare the results with contemporary female population. Five humerus measurements (maximum length, epicondylar width, maximum vertical diameter of the head, maximum and minimum diameter of the humerus at midshaft) for 80 male and 35 female medieval and 19 female contemporary humeri were recorded. Only sufficiently preserved skeletons and those with no obvious pathological or traumatic changes that could affect the measurements were included. For ten samples, analysis of DNA was performed in order to determine sex using amelogenin. The initial comparison of men and women indicated significant differences in all five measures (Pmedieval and contemporary women did not show significant difference in any of the measured features. Sex results obtained by anthropological and DNA analysis matched in all 10 cases. The results indicate that humerus measurement in Croatian medieval population may be sufficient to determine the sex of the skeleton. Furthermore, it seems that secular changes have not substantially affected contemporary population, suggesting that the results of this study are transferable to contemporary population as well.

  6. The Medieval Climate Anomaly and Little Ice Age in Chesapeake Bay and the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T. M.; Hayo, K.; Thunell, R.C.; Dwyer, G.S.; Saenger, C.; Willard, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A new 2400-year paleoclimate reconstruction from Chesapeake Bay (CB) (eastern US) was compared to other paleoclimate records in the North Atlantic region to evaluate climate variability during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). Using Mg/Ca ratios from ostracodes and oxygen isotopes from benthic foraminifera as proxies for temperature and precipitation-driven estuarine hydrography, results show that warmest temperatures in CB reached 16-17. ??C between 600 and 950. CE (Common Era), centuries before the classic European Medieval Warm Period (950-1100. CE) and peak warming in the Nordic Seas (1000-1400. CE). A series of centennial warm/cool cycles began about 1000. CE with temperature minima of ~. 8 to 9. ??C about 1150, 1350, and 1650-1800. CE, and intervening warm periods (14-15. ??C) centered at 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1600. CE. Precipitation variability in the eastern US included multiple dry intervals from 600 to 1200. CE, which contrasts with wet medieval conditions in the Caribbean. The eastern US experienced a wet LIA between 1650 and 1800. CE when the Caribbean was relatively dry. Comparison of the CB record with other records shows that the MCA and LIA were characterized by regionally asynchronous warming and complex spatial patterns of precipitation, possibly related to ocean-atmosphere processes. ?? 2010.

  7. Bernard de Gordon (fl. 1270-1330): medieval physician and teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2013-02-01

    The Montpellier physician Bernard de Gordon flourished in the late Middle Ages in the era when university education first evolved in the training of European physicians. Fragmentary details of his life and medical influence are known from seven books, particularly his extensive (163 chapters) text Lilium Medicine and from Chaucer's reference to him in the Canterbury Tales. Chaucer lists Bernard de Gordon as one whose writings were part of the core curriculum of the best-trained European doctors of medieval Europe. Bernard de Gordon was one of that small group of medieval physicians who reverently followed Galenic lore which had endured for a thousand years yet who began to challenge its details and to experiment clinically with new methods of treatment. In his writings, Bernard de Gordon made the first reference to spectacles and to the hernial truss. His writings also contained detailed desiderata for the ethical best practice of medicine of his day, extending the principles of both Hippocrates and Haly ibn Abbas. Unlike many of the surviving writings of other medieval medical teachers, his texts have within them a tone of humility and acknowledged fallibility. Bernard de Gordon holds a small but significant place in the evolving pre-Renaissance chronology of medical professionalism.

  8. Climate variations during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Bernier, M. M.; de Vernal, A.; Chartier, D.; Boucher, E.

    2017-12-01

    Climatic variations in Canada during the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age are analysed from multidisciplinary and multiproxy data (tree ring growth, glacier movements, varved sediments, lake microfossils, early instrumental data, documentary and discursive sources). They are examined in parallel with the critical relationship between human and their environment, with the aim to give a better portrait of climatic changes from different perspectives, taking into consideration regional and seasonal disparities and show long-term climate anomaly (proxy-data) and weather-related extreme events (human archives). The preliminary results of the compilation suggest that, in Canada, the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age were initiated earlier in the Western part and expended to the East and North. The Medieval Warm Period was recorded from 700-1000 AD to 1100-1300 AD. It lasted longer in Southern Canada ( 400 years) than in Northern Canada ( 200 years). The Little Ice Age was recorded from 1150-1300 AD to 1850 AD. It was characterized by 2 or 3 cooling pulses of 50 to 200 years each occurring around 1400-1450, 1600-1650 and 1800-1850 AD. Most of the reconstructions agreed with an ending in 1850 AD, with exception of the Eastern part of Canada where cold conditions were recorded until the late 19th century. The Year Without a Summer (1816) was recorded in most regions. It was associated with the Tambora eruption and amplified by cold conditions in early-19th century.

  9. The Legal Regulation of Artisan and Trade Corporations in the Cities of Medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine G. Medvedev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article features an analysis of the legal regulation of the formation and activity of artisan and trade corporations in the cities of medieval Europe. Based on the findings of an analysis of existing scientific theories, as well as a study of legal and regulatory acts, the author aims to explore the issue of the emergence of cities and workshop organizations in them and reveal their legal essence and content. The relevance of this paper is due to the fact that up until now a sufficiently definitive opinion is yet to be propounded in historical and historical/legal science as to the origin and development of such specific urban institutions as workshops and workshop corporations, with their special legal regulation. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of cities and workshop organizations reflected the evolution of the economic and social development of medieval society, which was associated with social division of labor. The paper’s major focus is not on the statutory regulation of the work of masters and not on the regulation of workshop craft methods, which can be explained quite logically by the economic need for adapting medieval artisan production to the limited needs and capacity of the local market, and which is the subject of study for the majority of present-day scholars, but issues related to the very organization of the workshop, its position in the system of urban establishments, as well as the legal status of its members.

  10. SharedCanvas: A Collaborative Model for Medieval Manuscript Layout Dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Albritton, Benjamin [Stanford University; Schwemmer, Rafael [e-codices; Van De Sompel, Herbert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a model based on the principles of Linked Data that can be used to describe the interrelationships of images, texts and other resources to facilitate the interoperability of repositories of medieval manuscripts or other culturally important handwritten documents. The model is designed from a set of requirements derived from the real world use cases of some of the largest digitized medieval content holders, and instantiations of the model are intended as the input to collection-independent page turning and scholarly presentation interfaces. A canvas painting paradigm, such as in PDF and SVG, was selected based on the lack of a one to one correlation between image and page, and to fulfill complex requirements such as when the full text of a page is known, but only fragments of the physical object remain. The model is implemented using technologies such as OAI-ORE Aggregations and OAC Annotations, as the fundamental building blocks of emerging Linked Digital Libraries. The model and implementation are evaluated through prototypes of both content providing and consuming applications. Although the system was designed from requirements drawn from the medieval manuscript domain, it is applicable to any layout-oriented presentation of images of text.

  11. Los animales en el mundo medieval cristiano-occidental : actitud y mentalidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Carmen Morales Muñiz

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el peso que los animales tuvieron en la sociedad medieval y especialmente en la mentalidad del hombre. Se subraya la importancia que el uso material de los animales tuvo a la hora de conformar esa actitud. En la segunda parte del trabajo se profundiza en manifestaciones como la simbología o la magia en donde los animales jugaron un papel principal. Un último punto del trabajo comenta la hipótesis de J. Salisbury sobre el descubrimiento, a partir del siglo xii, del animal interior presente en los hombres.The present paper reviews the role played by animals in medieval society and mentality. In particular we stress the importance which the material use of each species had in determining specific roles. The second part of the work deals with symbolic and magical connotations, fields in which animáis played a most prominent role throughout medieval times. One final aspect comments on J. Salisbury's hypothesis of «the beast within man» which seems to date back to the tweifth century.

  12. Alteration of medieval stained-glasses. Contribution to the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpenich, J.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the behaviour of glasses during alteration have been studied in two different ways: 1)study of the alteration of medieval stained-glasses 2)experimental leaching of modelled glasses. Medieval stained-glasses have a silico-calcic and alkaline composition. It appears three different alteration modes for these glasses: 1)by condensation waters 2)by atmospheric agents 3)by porosity waters and humic acids. A chemical study of the altered areas has allowed to understand the alteration behaviour of a lot of elements: in particular transition elements, heavy metals and some rare earths. On the other hand, two vitrified wastes and a glass having the same composition of the potassic medieval stained-glasses have been leached in a static mode (pH=1 to 10, T=20 to 80 degrees Celsius, T=12 hours to 6 months). These experiments have revealed that the alteration mechanisms depend on the pH of the solution and on the chemical composition of the glass. An increasing durability of glasses in terms of the global polymerization degree has been revealed too. At last, the behaviours of glasses during alteration, observed with natural and experimental conditions, show that it is necessary to study natural analogous for predicting the long-term behaviour of vitrified wastes. (O.M.)

  13. Don Yllán and the Egyptian Sorcerer: Vernacular commonality and literary diversity in medieval Castile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wacks, David A.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author compares the exemplo of Don Yllán and the Deán de Santiago -no. 11 in Don Juan Manuel's Conde Lucanor (ca. 1335- with an earlier Hebrew analogue found in the Hebrew Mešal Haqadmonī (ca. 1285 of fellow Castilian author Isaac ibn Sahula. A thorough analysis of the rhetorical and narrative style of both versions reveals that the two tales shared a common source in Castilian oral tradition. The appearance of the tale in an earlier Hebrew text from Castile (the only other known version in any language calls into question the originality of Don Juan Manuel's most famous exemplo, suggesting a productive interplay between a common oral tradition in Castilian and coexisting literary traditions in Hebrew and Castilian.

    En este artículo, el autor compara el exemplo de Don Yllán y el Deán de Santiago -n.° 11 en el Conde Lucanor (ca. 1335 de Don Juan Manuel- con una versión anterior en la obra hebrea, Mešal Haqadmonī (ca. 1285 de otro autor castellano, Isaac ibn Sahula. Un análisis cuidadoso del estilo narrativo y retórico de ambas versiones revela que las dos comparten una fuente común en la tradición oral castellana. La aparición del cuento en un texto hebreo anterior de Castilla (la única versión conocida en cualquier otra lengua cuestiona la originalidad literaria del más famoso exemplo de Don Juan Manuel, y sugiere un intercambio productivo entre una tradición oral común castellana y tradiciones literarias hebreas y castellanas coexistentes.

  14. Karg S., D.E. Robinson (2002): Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices. In: K. Viklund, R. Engelmark (eds.) Nordic Archaeobotany-NAG 2000 in Umeå.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2002-01-01

    Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices.......Secondary food plants from medieval sites in Denmark: fruits, nuts, vegetables, herbs and spices....

  15. Learned Treatise and Legal Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster-Swendsen, Mia

    2010-01-01

      The aim of this paper is to shed new light on a central, yet much misunderstood source from the initial stage in the process of the codification of Danish law. On the literal level, the Lex castrensis, written in the 1180s, represents a description of changes in the internal jurisdiction...... of the royal court from the time of the reign of Cnut the Great to the author's present. In Danish as well as international scholarship this deceptively simple text has frequently been treated either as a ‘law code' or ‘law book' in itself or as a reflection of actual legal practice. Yet here I will contend...

  16. Treatise on intuitionistic type theory

    CERN Document Server

    Granström, Johan Georg

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic type theory can be described, somewhat boldly, as a fulfillment of the dream of a universal language for science.  In particular, intuitionistic type theory is a foundation for mathematics and a programming language.

  17. An elementary treatise on electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, James Clerk

    2011-01-01

    Albert Einstein characterized the work of James Clerk Maxwell as the ""most profound and the most fruitful that physics has experienced since the time of Newton."" Max Planck went even further, declaring that ""he achieved greatness unequalled,"" and Richard Feynman asserted that ""From a long view of the history of mankind - seen from, say, ten thousand years from now - there can be little doubt that the most significant event of the nineteenth century will be judged as Maxwell's discovery of the laws of electrodynamics."" Maxwell made numerous other contributions to the advancement of scien

  18. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Zielhofer

    Full Text Available The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.

  19. The Fingerprint of Persistence: The Remarkable Character of Medieval Climate Change over the Western US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, N. E.; Hughes, M. K.

    2007-12-01

    The body of evidence for persistent aridity and recurrent severe drought across the western US during Medieval times (more or less 800-1300 AD) has grown from suggestive tree-ring chronologies developed during 1970s to a variety of convincing proxy records available today. These records come from tree-rings (moisture availability), lake level reconstructions (precipitation), sediment charcoal and fire scar records (wild fire), pollen and diatom assemblages (moisture availability, river discharge), soil mobilization (rainfall, wind) and archeological studies. Two recurring themes that arise from this collected work are that a) the instrumental climate record for the West is not representative of the past millennium, and b) Medieval climate in the West was marked more by persistent precipitation deficits than by remarkably dry years. Such change requires persistently altered circulation patterns which, in turn, imply important and long-lasting changes in boundary conditions. Recent proxy-model statistical studies and dynamical model experiments have attempted to reconstruct circulation changes and mechanisms that may have produced these precipitation changes. Not surprisingly, the results are consistent with the idea that Medieval climate change over the western US resulted from persistently cool sea surface temperatures in the eastern tropical Pacific. Notably, such cooling is supported by proxy records from the tropical and mid-latitude Pacific. While this congruence of proxy and model results is not conclusive, alternative candidates for producing such circulation changes have not yet been put forward and tested. The presentation will review the much of evidence discussed above and frame a general picture of current hypotheses.

  20. Charlemagne's summit canal: an early medieval hydro-engineering project for passing the Central European Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhofer, Christoph; Leitholdt, Eva; Werther, Lukas; Stele, Andreas; Bussmann, Jens; Linzen, Sven; Schneider, Michael; Meyer, Cornelius; Berg-Hobohm, Stefanie; Ettel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The Central European Watershed divides the Rhine-Main catchment and the Danube catchment. In the Early Medieval period, when ships were important means of transportation, Charlemagne decided to link both catchments by the construction of a canal connecting the Schwabian Rezat and the Altmühl rivers. The artificial waterway would provide a continuous inland navigation route from the North Sea to the Black Sea. The shortcut is known as Fossa Carolina and represents one of the most important Early Medieval engineering achievements in Europe. Despite the important geostrategic relevance of the construction it is not clarified whether the canal was actually used as a navigation waterway. We present new geophysical data and in situ findings from the trench fills that prove for the first time a total length of the constructed Carolingian canal of at least 2300 metres. We have evidence for a conceptual width of the artificial water course between 5 and 6 metres and a water depth of at least 60 to 80 cm. This allows a crossing way passage of Carolingian cargo scows with a payload of several tons. There is strong evidence for clayey to silty layers in the trench fills which reveal suspension load limited stillwater deposition and, therefore, the evidence of former Carolingian and post-Carolingian ponds. These findings are strongly supported by numerous sapropel layers within the trench fills. Our results presented in this study indicate an extraordinarily advanced construction level of the known course of the canal. Here, the excavated levels of Carolingian trench bottoms were generally sufficient for the efficient construction of stepped ponds and prove a final concept for a summit canal. We have evidence for the artificial Carolingian dislocation of the watershed and assume a sophisticated Early Medieval hydrological engineering concept for supplying the summit of the canal with adequate water.