WorldWideScience

Sample records for medicines unproven aids

  1. HIV/AIDS Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

  2. Nuclear medicine and AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.F.; Middlesex Hospital, London

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear medicine has a central role to play in the diagnosis of the malignant and infectious conditions. This article reviews the role of radionuclide studies in the diagnosis of HIV-related disease. (orig./MG)

  3. Nuclear medicine and AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Doherty, M.J.; Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury; Nunan, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its associated illnesses in a relatively young population of patients provides an expanding role for nuclear medicine. The disease enforces a review of each department's infection control procedures. It has also resulted in an increase in the number of patients presenting with diseases such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma etc. which prior to the HIV epidemic were extremely rare. Thus in high risk patients the interpretation of abnormalities in nuclear medicine scans needs to include the spectrum of opportunistic infections and unusual tumours. The presence of opportunistic infections in the severely immunocompromised patient has led to the development of techniques not normally used, i.e. lung 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) transfer/clearance, donor leukocyte scanning to allow rapid diagnosis of an abnormality. Radionuclide techniques are also used to monitor the effect of therapy directed at the HIV itself or against opportunistic infections. This review covers aspects of infection control as well as the use of radionuclides to investigate specific problems related to HIV infection and therapy of the associated disease processes. (author)

  4. HIV and AIDS: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Free Publications HIV and AIDS--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet ... You take these combination drugs along with other HIV drugs.) Brand Name Other Names Combivir lamivudine and ...

  5. HIV/AIDS Medicines - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Roads Media Spanish (español) Expand Section HIV/AIDS Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Medicinas para el VIH/SIDA: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National ...

  6. Use of unproven therapies by people with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, L M; Fowler, L L; Williams, M E

    1995-07-01

    To describe the use of unproven therapies for Alzheimer's disease. Descriptive survey using a written questionnaire. 101 primary caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease who attended Alzheimer's disease support group meetings. Fifty-five percent of caregivers reported that they had tried at least one alternative therapy to improve the patient's memory. Twenty percent of caregivers tried three or more unproven therapies. Vitamins were used most frequently (84%), and health foods (27%), herbal medicines (11%), "smart pills" (9%), and home remedies (7%) were also tried. Most caregivers reported trying the therapies in the early stage of the illness and did not notice significant improvement in the patient's memory. Twenty-five percent of caregivers had tried unproven therapies for behavior problems. There was no correlation between the use of alternative therapies and the sex of the caregiver, age of the caregiver, level of caregiver frustration, presence of problem behaviors, or perceived level of physician support. The use of unproven therapies by people with early Alzheimer's disease is common and cannot be predicted by characteristics of the primary caregiver. Although this use may be understandable, it exposes vulnerable people to possible side effects, increased costs, and possible exploitation. Health care workers should actively inquire about the use of alternative therapies, and explore the reasons behind their use, so that they can better understand and meet the needs of their patients and their caregivers.

  7. The roles and responsibilities of physicians in patients' decisions about unproven stem cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Aaron D; Wolf, Leslie E

    2012-01-01

    Capitalizing on the hype surrounding stem cell research, numerous clinics around the world offer "stem cell therapies" for a variety of medical conditions. Despite questions about the safety and efficacy of these interventions, anecdotal evidence suggests a relatively large number of patients are traveling to receive these unproven treatments - a practice called "stem cell tourism." Because these unproven treatments pose risks to individual patients and to legitimate translational stem cell research, stem cell tourism has generated substantial policy concern and inspired attempts to reduce these risks through the development of guidelines for patients and medical practitioners. This paper examines the roles and responsibilities of physicians in patients' home countries with respect to patients' decisions to try unproven stem cell therapies abroad. Specifically, it examines professional guidance from two organizations - the American Medical Association and the International Society for Stem Cell Research - and assesses physicians' professional and legal obligations to patients considering unproven stem cell therapies. Then, drawing on qualitative interviews conducted with patients who traveled abroad for unproven stem cell treatments, it explores the roles that physicians actually play in patients' decisions and compares these actual roles with their professional and legal responsibilities. The paper concludes with a discussion of strategies to help improve the guidance physicians provide to patients considering unproven treatments. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  8. Nuclear medicine in the management of the aids patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For the medical diagnostic imaging specialist in general, and for the nuclear medicine physician specifically, the AIDS epidemic has generated an enormous demand to develop a means of making early diagnoses of the complications of AIDS. For the most part this has meant the early detection, and when possible, the characterization of the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that are a major source of morbidity and mortality for the AIDS patient. Detection of opportunistic infections has been helpful in reclassifying HIV-seropositive patients as having AIDS. This paper reports on nuclear medicine used to evaluate the efficacy and the complications of treatment in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most recently, functional brain imaging has been used for the diagnosis and follow-up of the AIDS dementia complex. (author). 77 refs., 8 figs

  9. Nuclear medicine in the management of the AIDS patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    For the medical diagnostic imaging specialist in general, and for the nuclear medicine physician specifically, the AIDS epidemic has generated an enormous demand to develop a means of making early diagnoses of the complications of AIDS. For the most part this has meant the early detection, and when possible, the characterization of the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that are a major source of morbidity and mortality for the AIDS patient. Detection of opportunistic infections has been helpful in reclassifying HIV-seropositive patients as having AIDS. This paper reports on nuclear medicine used to evaluate the efficacy and the complications of treatment in human immunodeficiency virus infection. Most recently, functional brain imaging has been used for the diagnosis and follow-up of the AIDS dementia complex

  10. Traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: Herbal medicine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    TCAMS) are increasingly being promoted by various Sub-Saharan African governments as a promising health resource in the control and amelioration of. HIV/AIDS. The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith ...

  11. Traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: Herbal medicine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional, complimentary and alternative medicines (TCAMS) are increasingly being promoted by various Sub-Saharan African governments as a promising health resource in the control and amelioration of HIV/AIDS. The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and ...

  12. Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Hand Sanitizers Carry Unproven Claims to Prevent MRSA Infections Share ... Flickr. Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Some hand sanitizers and antiseptic products come with claims that they ...

  13. Legal implications of translational promises of unproven stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-02

    Aug 2, 2015 ... MSCs are to be regarded as biological drugs in future, meaning that the provider and/or manufacturer will .... unproven stem cell therapy or direct derivatives to patients outside of a clinical trial, especially when .... in exercising informed decisions regarding their treatment options. Patients can further expect ...

  14. A novel classification method for aid decision of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Bo; He, Liyun; Bai, Wenjing; Yu, Xueyun; Cao, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Rong, Peijing; Zhao, Yuxue; Li, Guozheng; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-09-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, Manifold Ranking is employed to develop the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. First, 115 stroke patients from three hospitals are recruited in the cross-sectional survey. Simultaneously, traditional Chinese physicians determine the traditional Chinese patent medicines appropriate for each patient. Second, particular indicators are explored to characterize the population feature of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. Moreover, these particular indicators can be easily obtained byWestern physicians and are feasible for widespread clinical application in the future. Third, the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment is constructed based on Manifold Ranking. Experimental results reveal that traditional Chinese patent medicines can be differentiated. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain high accuracy of aid decision.

  15. Caribbean Equal Access Program: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nancy Dancy, NLM, and Wilma Templin-Branner, ORISE

    2009-01-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine, of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  16. American College of Nuclear Physics 1991 DOE day symposium: Aids and nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-31

    Since first described in 1981, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has become the medical dilemma of the century. AIDS retrovirus, and the economic consequences of this exposure are staggering. AIDS has been the topic of conferences and symposia worldwide. This symposium, to be held on January 25, 1991, at the 17th Annual Meeting and Scientific Sessions of the American College of Nuclear Physicians, will expose the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists to their role in the diagnosis of AIDS, and will educate them on the socio-economic and ethical issues related to this problem. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine Physicians/Radiologists must be aware of their role in the management of their departments in order to adequately protect the health care professionals working in their laboratories. Strategies are currently being developed to control the spread of bloodborne diseases within the health care setting, and it is incumbent upon the Nuclear Medicine community to be aware of such strategies.

  17. Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AIDS, were demonstrated to have positive effects. Study of peripheral leukocytes, which are a side effect of antiretroviral drugs, suggested that an integrated treatment approach may be of benefit. The overall methodological quality of the trials was adequate; however, randomization methods should be clearly described and fully reported in these trials according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT.

  18. HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine-STOP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W. and N. Dancy

    2010-06-15

    The HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the UNCFSP HBCU Screening, Testing, Outreach, and Prevention (STOP) HIV/AIDS Program project members to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based organizations

  19. Alternative Medicines for HIV/AIDS in Resource-Poor Settings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To document the utilization of traditional medicines in managing human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) opportunistic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: This study is based on a review of literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, ...

  20. Equilibrium Decision Method for Earthquake First-Aid Medicine Allocation Based on Demand Information Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of rescue resources after an earthquake has become a popular research topic in the field of emergency management. The allocation of first-aid medicine for earthquake rescue has stronger time sensitivity than that of general rescue materials. This study focuses on the problem of first-aid medicine allocation in earthquake response. First, we consider the incompleteness and renewal of decision information in an emergency environment, as well as the balance between the risk of decision error and delay. Second, we propose an equilibrium decision method for the allocation of first-aid medicine in earthquake rescue based on information update. This method attempts to realize a fair allocation to all disaster places and minimize total transport time loss. Third, a simulation analysis is performed in which the proposed method is applied to the first-aid medicine allocation problem in the Wenchuan earthquake response. Results show that the method can be used to create a good allocation plan in an earthquake rescue situation.

  1. Medicine use among HIV/Aids patients in public hospitals, Kwara State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: This study was conducted in seven public hospitals in six local government areas, Kwara State. Exit interviews of 780 eligible HIV/AIDS patients were conducted through use of structured questionnaire. Additionally, there were exit observational checks of medicines dispensed to these patients. Descriptive statistics ...

  2. Unproven stem cell-based interventions & physicians' professional obligations; a qualitative study with medical regulatory authorities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzeczny, Amy; Clark, Marianne

    2014-10-14

    The pursuit of unproven stem cell-based interventions ("stem cell tourism") is an emerging issue that raises various concerns. Physicians play different roles in this market, many of which engage their legal, ethical and professional obligations. In Canada, physicians are members of a self-regulated profession and their professional regulatory bodies are responsible for regulating the practice of medicine and protecting the public interest. They also provide policy guidance to their members and discipline members for unprofessional conduct. We conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with representatives from six different provincial Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons in Canada to discuss their experiences and perspectives regarding stem cell tourism. Our focus was on exploring how different types of physician involvement in this market would be viewed by physicians' professional regulatory bodies in Canada. When considering physicians' professional obligations, participants drew analogies between stem cell tourism and other areas of medical tourism as well as with some aspects of complementary alternative medicine where existing policies, codes of ethics and regulations provide some guidance. Canadian physicians are required to act in the best interests of their patients, respect patient autonomy, avoid conflicts of interest and pursue evidence-based practice in accordance with accepted standards of care. Physicians who provide unproven treatments falling outside the standard of care, not in the context of an approved research protocol, could be subject to professional discipline. Other types of problematic conduct include referrals involving financial conflict of interest and failure to provide urgent medically necessary care. Areas of ambiguity include physicians' obligations when asked for information and advice about seeking unproven medical treatments, in terms of providing non-urgent follow-up care, and when asked to support efforts to go abroad by

  3. 77 FR 38177 - TRICARE; Off-Label Uses of Devices; Partial List of Examples of Unproven Drugs, Devices, Medical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... TRICARE; Off-Label Uses of Devices; Partial List of Examples of Unproven Drugs, Devices, Medical... removes the partial list of examples of unproven drugs, devices, and medical treatments or procedures... partial list of examples of unproven drugs, devices, and medical treatments or procedures proscribed under...

  4. Industry Responsibilities in Tackling Direct-to-Consumer Marketing of Unproven Stem Cell Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Z; Fu, W; Paciulli, D; Sipp, D

    2017-08-01

    The direct-to-consumer marketing of unproven stem cell interventions (SCIs) is a serious public health concern. Regulations and education have had modest impact, indicating that different actors must play a role to stop this unfettered market. We consider the role of the biotech industry in tackling unproven SCIs. Grounded in the concept of corporate social responsibility, we argue that biotech companies should screen consumers to ensure that products and services are being used appropriately and educate employees about unproven SCIs. © 2017 ASCPT.

  5. Traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: Herbal medicine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and the scarcity of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in many ... increasingly used in the international literature to distinguish between different uses of ... disinfectants and other chemicals, oxygen therapy, electric shock therapy and immune.

  6. [Study of traditional Chinese medicine syndrome features of AIDS-related chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Liang; Wang, Rong-Bing; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Hui; Tan, Xing-Hua; Wang, Cui-Fang; Li, Feng

    2013-08-01

    To study the AIDS-related chronic diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical manifestations and syndrome factors, explore the characteristics of syndrome. A multicenter, prospective collection of 311 cases of AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea, study the characteristics of TCM syndrome by using the method of descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The common clinical manifestation of TCM: fatigue (229 cases, 73.63%), bowel (229 cases, 68.81%), diarrhea (194 cases, 62.38%), thin fur (201 cases, 64.63%), pink tongue (166 cases, 53.38%), greasy fur, thready pulse (126 cases, 40.51%), sink vein (64 cases, 20.58%), slippery pulse. 17 common factors were extracted, common disease syndrome factor as the spleen, stomach, liver, gallbladder and colon syndrome factors of disease, Qi, Yang deficiency, Qi stagnation, dampness and heat evil. AIDS-related chronic diarrhea symptoms involving multiple organs, the disease belongs to deficiency and excess.

  7. Medical pluralism on Mfangano Island: use of medicinal plants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Suba District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Jason M; Jew, Alan R; Kimeu, John M; Salmen, Charles R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R

    2011-05-17

    Given the increasing coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS treatment as well as the high utilization of herbal medicine, many persons living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are thought to practice medical pluralism, or the adoption of more than one medical system for their care and treatment. Using a cross-sectional study we sought to document and identify the herbal medicines used by persons living with HIV/AIDS on Mfangano Island, Suba District, Nyanza Province, Kenya. We interviewed herbalists and knowledgeable mothers to obtain information regarding medicinal plants, particularly for HIV/AIDS-related symptoms, HIV/AIDS, and chira (an illness concept with similarities to HIV/AIDS regarding sexual transmission and wasting symptoms). Using systematic sampling, 67 persons living with HIV/AIDS (49 of whom were receiving ART) were selected from an Mfangano Island health clinic and participated in semi-structured interviews. Interviews with herbalists and mothers identified 40 plant species in 37 genera and 29 families that a person with HIV/AIDS or chira could use for herbal remedies. Overall, 70.1% of persons living with HIV/AIDS had used medicinal plants after HIV diagnosis, most commonly to treat symptoms related to HIV/AIDS. In addition to common vegetables and fruits that can serve medicinal purposes, Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae), Carissa edulis (Forssk.) Vahl (Apocynaceae), and Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae) were the most frequently cited medicinal plants used by persons living with HIV/AIDS. Collaboration and communication between biomedical clinicians and herbalists should be encouraged given high rates of concomitant ART-herb usage. Pharmacological, toxicological, and ART-herb interaction studies based on the plants identified in this study and their constituent ingredients should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Ellen 't; Berger, Jonathan; Calmy, Alexandra; Moon, Suerie

    2011-03-27

    Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines.Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale.Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required.One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism. However, the Pool is just one of a

  9. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines. Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale. Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required. One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism. However, the Pool is just one of

  10. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardon, A.; Desclaux, A.; Egrot, M.; Simon, E.; Micollier, E.; Kyakuwa, M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and

  11. Undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine using computer-aided learning improves student performance in examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunt, Laura A; Umeonusulu, Patience I; Gladman, John R F; Blundell, Adrian G; Conroy, Simon P; Gordon, Adam L

    2013-07-01

    computer-aided learning (CAL) is increasingly used to deliver teaching, but few studies have evaluated its impact on learning within geriatric medicine. We developed and implemented CAL packages on falls and continence, and evaluated their effect on student performance in two medical schools. traditional ward based and didactic teaching was replaced by blended learning (CAL package combined with traditional teaching methods). Examination scores were compared for cohorts of medical students receiving traditional learning and those receiving blended learning. Control questions were included to provide data on cohort differences. in both medical schools, there was a trend towards improved scores following blended learning, with a smaller number of students achieving low scores (P learning was associated with improvement in student examination performance, regardless of the setting or the methods adopted, and without increasing teaching time. Our findings support the use of CAL in teaching geriatric medicine, and this method has been adopted for teaching other topics in the undergraduate curriculum.

  12. Traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy for HIV/AIDS: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas WB

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allopathic practitioners in India are outnumbered by practitioners of traditional Indian medicine and homeopathy (TIMH, which is used by up to two-thirds of its population to help meet primary health care needs, particularly in rural areas. India has an estimated 2.5 million HIV infected persons. However, little is known about TIMH use, safety or efficacy in HIV/AIDS management in India, which has one of the largest indigenous medical systems in the world. The purpose of this review was to assess the quality of peer-reviewed, published literature on TIMH for HIV/AIDS care and treatment. Results Of 206 original articles reviewed, 21 laboratory studies, 17 clinical studies, and 6 previous reviews of the literature were identified that covered at least one system of TIMH, which includes Ayurveda, Unani medicine, Siddha medicine, homeopathy, yoga and naturopathy. Most studies examined either Ayurvedic or homeopathic treatments. Only 4 of these studies were randomized controlled trials, and only 10 were published in MEDLINE-indexed journals. Overall, the studies reported positive effects and even "cure" and reversal of HIV infection, but frequent methodological flaws call into question their internal and external validity. Common reasons for poor quality included small sample sizes, high drop-out rates, design flaws such as selection of inappropriate or weak outcome measures, flaws in statistical analysis, and reporting flaws such as lack of details on products and their standardization, poor or no description of randomization, and incomplete reporting of study results. Conclusion This review exposes a broad gap between the widespread use of TIMH therapies for HIV/AIDS, and the dearth of high-quality data supporting their effectiveness and safety. In light of the suboptimal effectiveness of vaccines, barrier methods and behavior change strategies for prevention of HIV infection and the cost and side effects of antiretroviral

  13. The use of sleep aids among Emergency Medicine residents: a web based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ali

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleepiness is a significant problem among residents due to chronic sleep deprivation. Recent studies have highlighted medical errors due to resident sleep deprivation. We hypothesized residents routinely use pharmacologic sleep aids to manage their sleep deprivation and reduce sleepiness. Methods A web-based survey of US allopathic Emergency Medicine (EM residents was conducted during September 2004. All EM residency program directors were asked to invite their residents to participate. E-mail with reminders was used to solicit participation. Direct questions about use of alcohol and medications to facilitate sleep, and questions requesting details of sleep aids were included. Results Of 3,971 EM residents, 602 (16% replied to the survey. Respondents were 71% male, 78% white, and mean (SD age was 30 (4 years, which is similar to the entire EM resident population reported by the ACGME. There were 32% 1st year, 32% 2nd year, 28% 3rd year, and 8% 4th year residents. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS showed 38% of residents were excessively sleepy (ESS 11–16 and 7% were severely sleepy (ESS>16. 46% (95 CI 42%–50% regularly used alcohol, antihistamines, sleep adjuncts, benzodiazepines, or muscle relaxants to help them fall or stay asleep. Study limitations include low response and self-report. Conclusion Even with a low response rate, sleep aid use among EM residents may be common. How this affects performance, well-being, and health remains unknown.

  14. The AIDS Epidemic and the Mozambican Society of Medicines: an analysis of Brazilian cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedatto, Maíra da Silva

    2017-07-01

    This article analyzes the Brazilian South South Cooperation in Health in Mozambique, specifically the fight against the AIDS Epidemic through the Antiretroviral Factory, in light of the concept of Structural Cooperation in Health, and with a basis in the literature on Cooperation for Development and Global Health. Thus, the article is divided into four parts: (i) a historical-bibliographic review of health as an International Relations issue; (ii) an overview of the field of health in Mozambique; (iii) an historical-political-conceptual debate about both types of International Cooperation for Development: North-South Cooperation and South-South Cooperation; (iv) a study about the antiretroviral factory, better known as the Mozambican Society of Medicines (Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos). Through a case study, our goal is to verify if the Brazilian actions in Mozambique are in accordance with the concepts defended by the Structural Cooperation in Health, as well as to create new inquiries for academic debate.

  15. The "first digit law" - A hypothesis on its possible impact on medicine and development aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollach, Gregor; Brunkhorst, Frank; Mipando, Mwapatsa; Namboya, Felix; Mndolo, Samson; Luiz, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    The "first digit law" or "Benford's law" is a mathematical distribution discovered by Simon Newcomb and Frank Benford. It states, that the probability of the leading number d (d∈{1,…,9}) in many natural datasets follows: P (d)=log 10 (d+1)-log 10 (d)=log 10 (1+1/d). It was successfully used through tax authorities and "forensic accounting" in order to detect fraud and other irregularities. Benfords law was almost neglected for its use outside financial accounting. The planning for health care systems in developing countries is extremely dependant on good, valid data. Whether you plan the catchment area for the future district hospitals, the number of health posts, the staff establishment for the central hospital or the drug budget in the Ministry. The "first digit law" can be used in medicine, public health, physiology and development aid to unmask questionable data, to discover unexpected challenges, difficulties in the data collection process, loss through corruption and criminal fraud. Our hypothesis suggests, that the "first digit law" is a cost effective tool, which is easy to use for most people in the medical profession, which does not really needs complicated statistical software and can be used on the spot, even in the resource restricted conditions of developing countries. Several preconditions (like the size of the data set and its reach over more than two dimensions) have to be fulfilled, but then Benfords law can be used by any clinician, physiologist, public health specialist or aid consultant without difficulties and without deeper statistical knowledge in the four steps, we suggest in this article. The consequences will be different depending on the level (local regional, national, continental, international) on which you will use the law. All levels will be enabled to get insight into the validity of the data-challenges for the other levels without the help of trained statisticians or accountants. We believe that the "first digit law" is a

  16. Unproven (questionable) dietary and nutritional methods in cancer prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, V

    1986-10-15

    "Unproven" is a euphemism for questionable. The definition of a questionable method is that it has not successfully answered the two basic consumer protection questions of efficacy and safety, to wit: Has it been responsibly, objectively, reproducibly, and reliably demonstrated in humans in the responsible (peer-reviewed) literature accepted for the shelves of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland, to be: More effective than suggestion or doing nothing? and in addition, either As safe as doing nothing? or, in the alternative, If there is any question with respect to safety, to have a reasonably and objectively clear potential for benefit which exceeds its potential for harm? Any proposed cancer prevention or treatment modality which has not successfully answered the above efficacy question plus one of the two safety questions is by definition questionable. It is experimental if it is new, and very probably quackery if it is old. Experimental therapy may be either ethical and responsible or unethical and irresponsible. It is unethical and irresponsible to not tell the patient experiments are being conducted on him, to charge the patient to perform research on him, or to ask the patient to sign an informed consent aimed at exculpating the doctor rather than protecting the patient. Ethical and responsible informed consents clearly delineate that what is being done is experimental, and that efficacy and safety have not been determined. Products promoted for profit to the public without passing peer process are almost without exception ineffective, often harmful, and sometimes lethal. This includes Laetrile, immunoaugmentative therapy, chelation therapy, macrobiotic diets, and other alternative therapies. Anecdotal and testimonial claims of cure, on investigation, almost invariably prove due to coincidence, suggestibility, and/or the natural history of the disorder, and fall into one of the five categories of "cures that are not": The patient never had

  17. Marketing of unproven stem cell-based interventions: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipp, Douglas; Caulfield, Timothy; Kaye, Jane; Barfoot, Jan; Blackburn, Clare; Chan, Sarah; De Luca, Michele; Kent, Alastair; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Sugarman, Jeremy; van Zimmeren, Esther; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rasko, John E J

    2017-07-05

    Commercial promotion of unsupported therapeutic uses of stem cells is a global problem that has proven resistant to regulatory efforts. Here, we suggest a coordinated approach at the national and international levels focused on engagement, harmonization, and enforcement to reduce the risks associated with direct-to-consumer marketing of unproven stem cell treatments. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  18. U.S. National Football League athletes seeking unproven stem cell treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Cuchiara, Maude L

    2014-12-01

    From professionals to weekend warriors, many athletes seek unproven stem cell (SC) treatments in an effort to heal injuries nonsurgically and/or to accelerate recovery times after surgery. Among the elite athletes opting for these treatments are high-profile U.S. National Football League (NFL) players. Over the past 5 years, several NFL players have publicly advocated for SC types of treatments and credit them as a major reason they could continue their careers after injuries. In this article, we describe the current problems associated with unproven SC treatments, focusing on treatments without U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval undertaken by NFL players in the past 5 years. Specifically, we highlight the types of treatments obtained and how the clinics advertise specifically to athletes. We also review the intended and unintended consequences of high-profile players receiving and advocating for these types of therapies. Our findings suggest that NFL players increasingly seek out unproven SC therapies to help accelerate recoveries from injuries. While most seem to receive treatment within the United States, several have traveled abroad for therapies unavailable domestically.

  19. Positive psychology in cancer care: bad science, exaggerated claims, and unproven medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; Tennen, Howard

    2010-02-01

    Claims of positive psychology about people with cancer enjoy great popularity because they seem to offer scientific confirmation of strongly held cultural beliefs and values. Our goal is to examine critically four widely accepted claims in the positive psychology literature regarding adaptational outcomes among individuals living with cancer. We examine: (1) the role of positive factors, such as a "fighting spirit" in extending the life of persons with cancer; (2) effects of interventions cultivating positive psychological states on immune functioning and cancer progression and mortality; and evidence concerning (3) benefit finding and (4) post-traumatic growth following serious illness such as cancer and other highly threatening experiences. Claims about these areas of research routinely made in the positive psychology literature do not fit with available evidence. We note in particular the incoherence of claims about the adaptational value of benefit finding and post-traumatic growth among cancer patients, and the implausibility of claims that interventions that enhance benefit finding improve the prognosis of cancer patients by strengthening the immune system. We urge positive psychologists to rededicate themselves to a positive psychology based on scientific evidence rather than wishful thinking.

  20. Traditional herbal medicine use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Gondar, Ethiopia: Do their health care providers know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Kaleab Taye; Ayele, Asnakew Achaw; Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Demeke, Chilot Abiyu; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2017-12-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the chronic nature of the disease, the complexities of treatment modalities and the difficulty in adhering to the therapeutic regimens. Yet, research on herbal medicine use in this patient population is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at investigating the prevalence and factors associated with the use of traditional herbal medicine among PLWHA in Gondar, Ethiopia. A cross sectional survey was conducted on 360 PLWHA attending the outpatient clinic of University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital from September 1 to 30, 2016. A questionnaire about the socio-demographic, disease characteristics as well as traditional herbal medicine use was filled by the respondents. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use. Out of 360 respondents, 255 (70.8%) used traditional herbal medicine. The most common herbal preparations used by PLWHA were Ginger (Zingiber officinale) (47%), Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (40.8%) and Moringa (Moringa stenopetala) (31.4%). Majority of herbal medicine users rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers (61.2%). Only lower educational status was found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use in the multivariate logistic regression. The use of herbal medicine among PLWHA is a routine practice and associated with a lower educational status. Patients also rarely disclose their use of herbal medicines to their health care providers. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, health care providers should often consult patients regarding herbal medicine use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrative Medicine: In With the New

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany A. Mullen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Integrative medicine is not "alternative," which implies the substitution of conventional medicine with often unproven natural treatments. Rather, integrative medicine is defined as the combination of conventional biomedicine with nontraditional and holistic practices to help patients on their journey to health.

  2. Integrative Medicine: In With the New

    OpenAIRE

    Tiffany A. Mullen

    2015-01-01

    Integrative medicine is not "alternative," which implies the substitution of conventional medicine with often unproven natural treatments. Rather, integrative medicine is defined as the combination of conventional biomedicine with nontraditional and holistic practices to help patients on their journey to health.

  3. Computer-aided biomarker discovery for precision medicine: data resources, models and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuxin; Qian, Fuliang; Shen, Li; Chen, Feifei; Chen, Jiajia; Shen, Bairong

    2017-11-29

    Biomarkers are a class of measurable and evaluable indicators with the potential to predict disease initiation and progression. In contrast to disease-associated factors, biomarkers hold the promise to capture the changeable signatures of biological states. With methodological advances, computer-aided biomarker discovery has now become a burgeoning paradigm in the field of biomedical science. In recent years, the 'big data' term has accumulated for the systematical investigation of complex biological phenomena and promoted the flourishing of computational methods for systems-level biomarker screening. Compared with routine wet-lab experiments, bioinformatics approaches are more efficient to decode disease pathogenesis under a holistic framework, which is propitious to identify biomarkers ranging from single molecules to molecular networks for disease diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. In this review, the concept and characteristics of typical biomarker types, e.g. single molecular biomarkers, module/network biomarkers, cross-level biomarkers, etc., are explicated on the guidance of systems biology. Then, publicly available data resources together with some well-constructed biomarker databases and knowledge bases are introduced. Biomarker identification models using mathematical, network and machine learning theories are sequentially discussed. Based on network substructural and functional evidences, a novel bioinformatics model is particularly highlighted for microRNA biomarker discovery. This article aims to give deep insights into the advantages and challenges of current computational approaches for biomarker detection, and to light up the future wisdom toward precision medicine and nation-wide healthcare. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. AIDS (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  5. Medical societies, patient education initiatives, public debate and marketing of unproven stem cell interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Daniel J; Turner, Leigh; Levine, Aaron D; Ikonomou, Laertis

    2018-02-01

    Businesses marketing unproven stem cell interventions proliferate within the U.S. and in the larger global marketplace. There have been global efforts by scientists, patient advocacy groups, bioethicists, and public policy experts to counteract the uncontrolled and premature commercialization of stem cell interventions. In this commentary, we posit that medical societies and associations of health care professionals have a particular responsibility to be an active partner in such efforts. We review the role medical societies can and should play in this area through patient advocacy and awareness initiatives. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutri-medicinal plants used in the management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in western Uganda : documentation, phytochemistry and bioactivity evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Asiimwe, Savina

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the AIDS epidemic, many people are immunocompromised and opportunistic infections are common. Medicinal plants constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment and are commonly used in management of HIV–related ailments, and also to counteract the side effects of antiretroviral therapy. This study documents and evaluates nutri-medicinal plants traditionally used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda. A six-stage process of doc...

  7. Knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers attending pediatric emergency medicine departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomar, Mohammed; Rouqi, Faisal Al; Eldali, Abdelmoneim

    2016-06-01

    Emergency departments witness many cases of burns that can be prevented with various first-aid measures. Immediate and effective burn first aid reduces morbidity and determines the outcome. Thus, it is imperative that measures of primary burn prevention and first-aid knowledge be improved. This descriptive study determines the current level of knowledge, attitude, and belief regarding burn first aid among caregivers. Caregivers attending four pediatric emergency departments answered a structured questionnaire for demographic information, knowledge, and the burn first aid they provide including two case scenarios. Applying cold water for 15-20min, smothering burning clothes, and covering the pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth were considered appropriate responses. The main outcome measure was the proportion of caregivers who were aware of burn first aid and did not use inappropriate remedies. Additional questions regarding the best means of educating the public on burn first aid were included. Individual chi-squared tests and univariate logistic regressions were performed to correlate knowledge with demographic features, history of burns, and first-aid training. The 408 interviewed caregivers (55% women) reflected a wide range of age, occupation, and educational level. Sixty percent (60%) of respondents had a large family, with 52% reporting a history of burns. Overall, 41% treated burns with cool or cold water, although 97% had inappropriate or no knowledge of the duration. Further, 32% treated burns with nonscientific remedies alone or in combination, including honey, egg white, toothpaste, white flour, tomato paste, yogurt, tea, sliced potato, butter, or ice. Only 15% had first-aid training. While 65% of caregivers covered a pot of oil on fire with a wet cloth, only 24% reported smothering burning clothes. Participants preferred learning more of first aid for burns via social media (41%), hospital visits (30%), and television (TV) (16%). No significant

  8. The role of nuclear medicine in the evaluation of the patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mali, Mrinal; Freeman, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first recognized in the spring of 1981 in New York and California by the centers for Disease Control (CDC). Subsequently there have been numerous invasive and non-invasive methods proposed for the early diagnosis and treatment of this usually fatal disorder. This article reviews the ongoing role of nuclear medicine in the diagnosis of HIV infection and HIV related diseases over the last decade as well as some recently introduced radionuclide investigations that are still in the realm of 'work in progress'. (author). 49 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. HIV/AIDS and its implications – a global threat that medicine alone cannot cure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Liljestrand, Jerker; Barnett, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    with HIV/AIDS. There are some 4.1 million new cases every year, and though the recent rapid expansion of antiretroviral treatment will prolong the lives of millions, there is no immediate prospect of a vaccine or cure. Thus, though still at an early stage, the pandemic is often described as ‘a long......During the last twenty-five years we have learned how the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it spreads and how it does not. We have also watched as AIDS has destroyed whole populations, and observed which responses appear most efficacious. One of the most alarming characteristics...... of HIV is that it typically strikes healthy young people. Yet most of the people who have HIV still do not know it. Efforts to confront the epidemic are further stymied by contentious differences about how best do so, compounded by a persistent stigmatisation of and discrimination against people living...

  10. Can civil lawsuits stem the tide of direct-to-consumer marketing of unproven stem cell interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Claire; Tenenbaum, Evelyn; Sipp, Douglas; Master, Zubin

    2018-01-01

    The sale of unproven stem cell interventions (SCIs) by commercial entities has proliferated in highly developed countries, most notably in the USA. Yet, there have been few criminal prosecutions and regulatory enforcement actions against providers who have violated laws and best practice standards due to the lack of resources and legal ambiguity. While the stem cell research community has invested much in protecting patients and preventing the growth of this industry, some patients are seeking remedies under civil law to hold stem cell clinics responsible for fraudulent practices. Several patients have filed lawsuits against providers demanding compensation for physical injuries caused by unproven treatments and financial losses due to fraud and false advertising. Lawsuits can be used as a tool not only to compensate plaintiffs but also to achieve positive public health and policy outcomes. In this paper, we explore the value of a public health litigation strategy as a countermeasure against the exploitative practices of the unproven SCI industry by analyzing stem cell lawsuits and comparing them with other major public health litigation efforts. We argue that stem cell lawsuits complement other approaches to reining in unsafe practices. In particular, stem cell lawsuits could intensify publicity and raise awareness of the harms of unproven treatments, set legal precedent, reshape the media narrative from one focused on the right to try or practice to one highlighting the need for adequate safety and efficacy standards, and encourage authorities to turn their attention to policy reform and enforcement.

  11. Alternative Medicines for HIV/AIDS in Resource-Poor Settings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Medicinal Plants and Economic Development (MPED) Research Centre; Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Private. Bag X1314, Alice 5700, ... oral/oesopharyngeal candidiasis, skin infections/rash, tuberculosis and wounds. More than three- ..... Backache, cold, chicken pox, diabetes, flu, physical and mental ...

  12. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all

    OpenAIRE

    Hoen, Ellen 't; Berger, Jonathan; Calmy, Alexandra; Moon, Suerie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines. Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medic...

  13. Reasons, perceived efficacy, and factors associated with complementary and alternative medicine use among Malaysian patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Syed Shahzad; See, Choon Keong; Choong, Christopher Lee Kwok; Ahmed, Syed Imran; Ahmadi, Keivan; Anwar, Mudassir

    2010-11-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of use, reasons for use, and perceived effect of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), accompanied by identification and comparison of the factors that are potentially associated with CAM use. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 325 randomly sampled patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), at HIV/AIDS referral clinics in the Hospital Sungai Buloh, Malaysia. Simple random sampling was used, where randomization was done using patients' medical record numbers. Semistructured face-to-face interviews were conducted using 38 questions pertaining to type, pattern, perceived efficacy, adverse effects, and influential factors associated with CAM use. In addition, CD4 count and viral load readings were recorded. Of 325 randomly sampled patients with HIV/AIDS, 254 of them were using some forms of CAM, resulting in a utilization rate of 78.2%. Vitamins and supplements (52.6%), herbal products (33.8%), and massage (16.6%) were the top three most frequently used CAM modalities. Sociodemographic factors including education level (p = 0.021, r(s) = 0.148), monthly income (p = 0.001, r(s) = 0.260), and family history of CAM use (p = 0.001, r(s) = 0.231) were significantly associated and positively correlated with CAM use. However, the majority of these patients (68%) did not disclose CAM use to health care professionals. About half of those who rated their health as good or very good perceived it as a result of CAM use. This study confirmed the range of 30%-100% CAM use among individuals infected with HIV/AIDS. Although, on the one hand some types of CAM reduced viral load and enhanced the immune system, on the other hand some forms of CAM produced a detrimental effect on the virological suppression, opening this platform to more research and investigation in order to optimize the use of CAM among patients with HIV/AIDS.

  14. Matched molecular pair-based data sets for computer-aided medicinal chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajorath, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Matched molecular pairs (MMPs) are widely used in medicinal chemistry to study changes in compound properties including biological activity, which are associated with well-defined structural modifications. Herein we describe up-to-date versions of three MMP-based data sets that have originated from in-house research projects. These data sets include activity cliffs, structure-activity relationship (SAR) transfer series, and second generation MMPs based upon retrosynthetic rules. The data sets have in common that they have been derived from compounds included in the ChEMBL database (release 17) for which high-confidence activity data are available. Thus, the activity data associated with MMP-based activity cliffs, SAR transfer series, and retrosynthetic MMPs cover the entire spectrum of current pharmaceutical targets. Our data sets are made freely available to the scientific community. PMID:24627802

  15. Chemoproteomics-Aided Medicinal Chemistry for the Discovery of EPHA2 Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzlmeir, Stephanie; Lohse, Jonas; Treiber, Tobias; Kudlinzki, Denis; Linhard, Verena; Gande, Santosh Lakshmi; Sreeramulu, Sridhar; Saxena, Krishna; Liu, Xiaofeng; Wilhelm, Mathias; Schwalbe, Harald; Kuster, Bernhard; Médard, Guillaume

    2017-06-21

    The receptor tyrosine kinase EPHA2 has gained attention as a therapeutic drug target for cancer and infectious diseases. However, EPHA2 research and EPHA2-based therapies have been hampered by the lack of selective small-molecule inhibitors. Herein we report the synthesis and evaluation of dedicated EPHA2 inhibitors based on the clinical BCR-ABL/SRC inhibitor dasatinib as a lead structure. We designed hybrid structures of dasatinib and the previously known EPHA2 binders CHEMBL249097, PD-173955, and a known EPHB4 inhibitor in order to exploit both the ATP pocket entrance as well as the ribose pocket as binding epitopes in the kinase EPHA2. Medicinal chemistry and inhibitor design were guided by a chemical proteomics approach, allowing early selectivity profiling of the newly synthesized inhibitor candidates. Concomitant protein crystallography of 17 inhibitor co-crystals delivered detailed insight into the atomic interactions that underlie the structure-affinity relationship. Finally, the anti-proliferative effect of the inhibitor candidates was confirmed in the glioblastoma cell line SF-268. In this work, we thus discovered a novel EPHA2 inhibitor candidate that features an improved selectivity profile while maintaining potency against EPHA2 and anticancer activity in SF-268 cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. “HealthOmeter”: An Aid in Advancing Preventive Medicine Media Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Trell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective wellbeing is an important issue on the preventive medicine and political agenda and for mutual communication, information, and interaction in society and its individuals “requires new tools for measuring phenomena previously believed unmeasurable, as well as conceptual frameworks for interpreting such measurements…considering both happiness and misery.” The task is difficult, however, due to the great span of parameters and variables of age and gender, settings, socioeconomic conditions, wellness and illness, activities and functions, roles and habits, thoughts and feelings, and experiences and expectations involved over the panorama. HealthOmeter is a clinically tested and validated instrument with design and capacity in distinct coherent chapters to meet the new measurement and interpretation demands both contentwise and operationwise. Over the range of subjective and objective health it enables, in a uniform normalized layout in quintile balance between positive and negative, an all-round self-assessment and counsel in multimedia, preferably computer/mobile app distribution including storage, collation, and follow-up in full integrity and secrecy on the individual and aggregated level.

  17. TCM grammar systems: an approach to aid the interpretation of the molecular interactions in Chinese herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jing; Wang, Yun; Luo, Si-Jun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2011-09-01

    Interpreting the molecular interactions in Chinese herbal medicine will help to understand the molecular mechanisms of Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. Yet, we still lack a method which could integrate the concerned pieces of parsed knowledge about TCM. To solve the problem, a new method named TCM grammar systems was proposed in the present article. The possibility to study the interactions of TCM at the molecular level using TCM grammar systems was explored using Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) as an example. A platform was established based on the formalism of TCM grammar systems. The related molecular network of Herba Ephedrae Decoction (HED) can be extracted automatically. The molecular network indicates that Beta2 adrenergic receptor, Glucocorticoid receptor and Interleukin12 are the relatively important targets for the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED. Moreover, the anti-anaphylaxis asthma function of HED is also related with suppressing inflammation process. The results show the feasibility using TCM grammar systems to interpret the molecular mechanism of TCM. Although the results obtained depend on the database absolutely, recombination of existing knowledge in this method provides new insight for interpreting the molecular mechanism of TCM. TCM grammar systems could aid the interpretation of the molecular interactions in TCM to some extent. Moreover, it might be useful to predict the new pharmacological effects of TCM. The method is an in silico technology. In association with the experimental techniques, this method will play an important role in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TCM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Unproven stem cell-based interventions and achieving a compromise policy among the multiple stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Iltis, Ana S

    2015-11-04

    In 2004, patient advocate groups were major players in helping pass and implement significant public policy and funding initiatives in stem cells and regenerative medicine. In the following years, advocates were also actively engaged in Washington DC, encouraging policy makers to broaden embryonic stem cell research funding, which was ultimately passed after President Barack Obama came into office. Many advocates did this because they were told stem cell research would lead to cures. After waiting more than 10 years, many of these same patients are now approaching clinics around the world offering experimental stem cell-based interventions instead of waiting for scientists in the US to complete clinical trials. How did the same groups who were once (and often still are) the strongest supporters of stem cell research become stem cell tourists? And how can scientists, clinicians, and regulators work to bring stem cell patients back home to the US and into the clinical trial process? In this paper, we argue that the continued marketing and use of experimental stem cell-based interventions is problematic and unsustainable. Central problems include the lack of patient protection, US liability standards, regulation of clinical sites, and clinician licensing. These interventions have insufficient evidence of safety and efficacy; patients may be wasting money and time, and they may be forgoing other opportunities for an intervention that has not been shown to be safe and effective. Current practices do not contribute to scientific progress because the data from the procedures are unsuitable for follow-up research to measure outcomes. In addition, there is no assurance for patients that they are receiving the interventions promised or of what dosage they are receiving. Furthermore, there is inconsistent or non-existent follow-up care. Public policy should be developed to correct the current situation. The current landscape of stem cell tourism should prompt a re

  19. The human dimension of AIDS in Cuba: Jorge Pérez MD MS, Director, Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute. Interviewed by Gail Reed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Except for the people living with the disease, no others have so immersed themselves in Cuba's world of HIV/AIDS as Dr Jorge Pérez. It is a world of Cuban returnees from Angola's war against apartheid South Africa, gay and bisexual men, housewives, transactional sex workers, rebellious teenagers, and infected surgeons and scientists-a cultural kaleidoscope reflecting all the faces of AIDS. To more than one international author, he is simply "Cuba's AIDS doctor." Speaking to his patients at the Pedro Kourí Tropical Medicine Institute in Havana, it is easy to see why, but also to appreciate the courage, compassion, and persistent search for new knowledge that characterize the Institute's staff as a whole. Dr Pérez's story-now told in two books based on his diaries-is not his alone. MEDICC Review held two interview sessions with Jorge Pérez just days apart at the beginning of April: one before and one after his designation as the new Director of the Tropical Medicine Institute, where he previously served as Deputy Director and Chief of Hospital Services. More than strictly medical matters, the conversation turned to the human dimension of HIV/AIDS, the depth to which it has touched many directly and affected Cuban society as a whole, and the challenges ahead for Cuba's flagship institution for research and treatment of infectious diseases.

  20. Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine emergency basic relief and medical aid mission project (November 2013-February 2014): the role of physiatrists in Super Typhoon Haiyan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganchoon, Filipinas; Bugho, Rommel; Calina, Liezel; Dy, Rochelle; Gosney, James

    2017-06-09

    Physiatrists have provided humanitarian assistance in recent large-scale global natural disasters. Super Typhoon Haiyan, the deadliest and most costly typhoon in modern Philippine history, made landfall on 8 November 2013 resulting in significant humanitarian needs. Philippine Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine physiatrists conducted a project of 23 emergency basic relief and medical aid missions in response to Super Typhoon Haiyan from November 2013 to February 2014. The final mission was a medical aid mission to the inland rural community of Burauen, Leyte. Summary data were collected, collated, and tabulated; project and mission evaluation was performed. During the humanitarian assistance project, 31,254 basic relief kits containing a variety of food and non-food items were distributed and medical services including consultation, treatment, and medicines were provided to 7255 patients. Of the 344 conditions evaluated in the medical aid mission to Burauen, Leyte 85 (59%) were physical and rehabilitation medicine conditions comprised of musculoskeletal (62 [73%]), neurological (17 [20%]), and dermatological (6 [7%]) diagnoses. Post-mission and project analysis resulted in recommendations and programmatic changes to strengthen response in future disasters. Physiatrists functioned as medical providers, mission team leaders, community advocates, and in other roles. This physiatrist-led humanitarian assistance project met critical basic relief and medical aid needs of persons impacted by Super Typhoon Haiyan, demonstrating significant roles performed by physiatrists in response to a large-scale natural disaster. Resulting disaster programing changes and recommendations may inform a more effective response by PARM mission teams in the Philippines as well as by other South-Eastern Asia teams comprising rehabilitation professionals to large-scale, regional natural disasters. Implications for rehabilitation Large-scale natural disasters including tropical cyclones can

  1. Clinical observations associated with proven and unproven cases in the ESCRS study of prophylaxis of postoperative endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, Peter

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To describe cases of postoperative endophthalmitis in the European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) study of the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis, compare characteristics of unproven cases and cases proven by culture or polymerase chain reaction, and compare the characteristics with those in other reported series. SETTING: Twenty-four ophthalmology units in Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. METHODS: Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to analyze data for statistical association of signs and symptoms in cases with proven or unproven endophthalmitis. Specific data describing characteristics of the cases were compared between the 2 types of cases. RESULTS: Data from 29 endophthalmitis cases were analyzed. Swollen lids and pain were statistically associated with proven cases of endophthalmitis on univariable regression analysis. Multivariable analysis indicated that swollen lids and an opaque vitreous were associated with proven cases. Five cases of endophthalmitis occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. No case of streptococcal infection occurred in the cefuroxime-treated groups. However, cases of infection due to streptococci showed striking differences in visual acuity and were associated with earlier onset. Characteristics in the 29 cases parallel results in previous studies, such as the Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study, although the addition of a control group in the ESCRS study elicited additional findings. CONCLUSION: Swollen lids, pain, and an opaque vitreous were statistically associated with proven endophthalmitis cases in the ESCRS study.

  2. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  3. Prevalence and predictors of traditional medicine utilization among persons living with AIDS (PLWA) on antiretroviral (ARV) and prophylaxis treatment in both rural and urban areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G D; Puoane, T R; Clark, B L; Wondwossen, T L; Johnson, Q; Folk, W

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that majority of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naïve patients use traditional medicine (TM). Given that TM use is ubiquitous in South Africa especially for chronic conditions, there is a potential for ARV non-adherence and serious drug interactions among patients with HIV/AIDs who use TM. The motivating factors for TM use in HIV/AIDS patients on ARV and prophylaxis treatment have not been well defined in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, facilitators, predictors, and types of TM used among persons living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment. The study was a cross-sectional survey which involved 100 participants enrolled at ARV clinics in two South African provinces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationships between variables and potential predictors of TM. Sixteen percent of participants on ARV reported TM use. Seventy-nine percent used TM prior to a diagnosis of HIV. Participants were more likely to use TM if they were from a rural province, female, older, unmarried, employed, had limited education, or were HIV-positive for less than five years. TM users reported utilizing herbal or medicinal mixtures that were claimed to heal all conditions. This study provides insights into the treatment modalities selected by patients with HIV/AIDS in South Africa who are receiving ARV. This study revealed that less than 20% of participants co-used TM and ARV. However, close to 80% of participants utilize TM before contracting HIV, which is in keeping with approximate estimates by the WHO.

  4. Student′s preference of various audiovisual aids used in teaching pre- and para-clinical areas of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navatha Vangala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The formal lecture is among the oldest teaching methods that have been widely used in medical education. Delivering a lecture is made easy and better by use of audiovisual aids (AV aids such as blackboard or whiteboard, an overhead projector, and PowerPoint presentation (PPT. Objective: To know the students preference of various AV aids and their use in medical education with an aim to improve their use in didactic lectures. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out among 230 undergraduate medical students of first and second M.B.B.S studying at Malla Reddy Medical College for Women, Hyderabad, Telangana, India during the month of November 2014. Students were asked to answer a questionnaire on the use of AV aids for various aspects of learning. Results: This study indicates that students preferred PPT, the most for a didactic lecture, for better perception of diagrams and flowcharts. Ninety-five percent of the students (first and second M.B.B.S were stimulated for further reading if they attended a lecture augmented by the use of visual aids. Teacher with good teaching skills and AV aids (58% was preferred most than a teacher with only good teaching skills (42%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that lecture delivered using PPT was more appreciated and preferred by the students. Furthermore, teachers with a proper lesson plan, good interactive and communicating skills are needed for an effective presentation of lecture.

  5. Use of Platelet Preparations in Facial Rejuvenation and Wound Healing Remains Unproven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, William; Langridge, Benjamin; Patel, Nakul; Waterhouse, Norman

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in the use of platelet derivatives in facial aesthetic surgery and wound healing. Sclafani et al. have concluded from their review of the literature that the vast majority of studies show a significant and measurable effect on facial aesthetic outcomes with the use of these platelet preparations. We suggest that an alternative review of the same literature may well have produced a different set of conclusions. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  6. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACCESS TO PATENTED HIV/AIDS PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINES THROUGH THE CANADIAN AND EU TRIPS FLEXIBILITIES MEASURES: ARE THEY EFFICACIOUS OR OVERLY BURDENSOME AND INEFFECTIVE MEASURES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omphemetse S Sibanda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the Canadian and the European Union's (EU implementation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO General Council Decision of 2003, which resolved that developed nations could export patented pharmaceutical drugs to member states in order to address public health challenges such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, such states including Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The author makes a primarily textual appraisal of how and to what extent the Canada Access to Medicine Regime (CAMR and European Union (EU Regulations benefit, for instance, SSA countries in the WTO in their quest to make essential medicine more accessible. The author argues that although there are identifiable complexities inherent in the Canadian and the EU's access to pharmaceutical product regimes, there are far more important incentives and benefits that can be reaped in taking advantage of the respective systems. The author recommends that countries facing public health crises/emergencies, such as SSA countries, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs take advantage of the regulatory flexibilities of Canada and the EU in their efforts to provide their communities with essential HIV/AIDS treatment, and treatment for other diseases such as malaria. The author dismisses the arguments against TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property flexibilities-inspired legislation and similar measures as mostly mere rhetoric and hair-splitting, because they sometimes unwarrantedly dismiss a workable solution to public-health problems.

  7. Responding to Requests of Families for Unproven Interventions in Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Hyperbaric Oxygen "Treatment" and Stem Cell "Therapy" in Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Emily; Wallace, Tessa; Chouinard, Isabelle; Shevell, Michael; Racine, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the limitations of currently available mainstream medical treatments and interventions, parents of children with neurodevelopmental disorders often seek information about unproven interventions. These interventions frequently have undetermined efficacy and uncertain safety profiles. In this article, we present a general background and…

  8. AccessMedicine – eine perfekte Lernunterlage für das Medizinstudium / AccessMedicine – a perfect learning aid for the medical curriculum (Product Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmalstieg, Burhard

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available AccessMedicine (http://www.accessmedicine.com/features.aspx is an innovative online resource that provides students, residents, clinicians, researchers, and other health professionals with access to more than 50 medical book titles, updated content, thousands of photos and illustrations, interactive self-assessment, case files, diagnostic tools, a comprehensive search platform, and the possibility to download content to mobile devices. Updated frequently and expanded continuously, AccessMedicine provides fast and direct access to the information necessary for completing evaluations, diagnoses and case management decisions, as well as pursuing research or medical education. The newly designed homepage reflects the diversity of AccessMedicine users, allowing individuals to customize their own view of the site through their personal profile. Now users can decide whether they prefer a rich view of available features, a comprehensive list of McGraw-Hill's leading medical textbooks or a powerful advanced search interface as their homepage with a top-level tabbed navigation, semantic search engine, and recent updates and enhancements available on all views. Following an interview with university professor Dr. Richard März from the Medical University Vienna, department for Research and International Relations and Special Unit for Medical Education. Interview was carried out by Mr. Burkhard Schmalstieg, Senior Sales Executive for McGraw-Hill.

  9. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okatch, Harriet, E-mail: okatchh@mopipi.ub.bw [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Ngwenya, Barbara [Okavango Research Institute, University of Botswana, Maun (Botswana); Raletamo, Keleabetswe M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Botswana, Private Bag UB 00704, Gaborone (Botswana); Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, Gaborone (Botswana); Centre for Scientific Research, Indigenous Knowledge and Innovation (CESRIKI), P.O. Box 758, Gaborone (Botswana)

    2012-06-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cr > Pb > As > Ni. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 {mu}g g{sup -1}, chromium 0.15-1.27 {mu}g g{sup -1}, lead 0.12-0.23 {mu}g g{sup -1} and nickel 0.09-0.21 {mu}g g{sup -1} of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  10. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Determine As, Cr, Ni and Pb in traditional plants used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. ► Metal levels and provisional tolerable weekly intake levels lower than WHO permissive maximum levels. ► Cr > Pb > As > Ni. ► Consumption of traditional medicinal plants are not health-comprising with respect to metals. - Abstract: The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19–0.54 μg g −1 , chromium 0.15–1.27 μg g −1 , lead 0.12–0.23 μg g −1 and nickel 0.09–0.21 μg g −1 of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits.

  11. Computer aided design of medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients - An R&D approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siontorou, Christina G.

    2012-12-01

    Herbal products have gained increasing popularity in the last decades, and are now broadly used to treat illness and improve health. Notwithstanding the public opinion, both, safety and efficacy, are major sources of dispute among the scientific community, mainly due to lack of (or scarcity or scattered) conclusive data linking a herbal constituent to pharmacological action in vivo, in a way that benefit overrides risk. This paper presents a methodological framework for addressing natural medicine in a systematic and holistic way with a view to providing medicinal products based on interactive chemical/herbal ingredients.

  12. [Consensus statement of the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine and AIDS Study Group of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology on Emergency and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Supporting non-HIV specialist professionals in the treatment of patients with urgent diseases resulting from HIV infection. These recommendations have been agreed by an expert panel from the National AIDS Plan Secretariat, the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine, and the AIDS Study Group. A review has been made of the safety and efficacy results of clinical trials and cohort studies published in biomedical journals (PubMed and Embase) or presented at conferences. The strength of each recommendation (A, B, C) and the level of supporting evidence (I, II, III) are based on a modification of the criteria of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The data to be collected from the emergency medical history in order to recognize the patient at risk of HIV infection were specified. It stressed the basic knowledge of ART principles and its importance in terms of decline in morbidity and mortality of HIV+ patients and referring to the HIV specialist for follow-up, where appropriate, including drug interactions. Management of different emergency situations that may occur in patients with HIV infection is also mentioned. The non-HIV specialist professional, will find the necessary tools to approach HIV patients with an emergency disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. A Study on Virtual Operating Crew and Test Commander For the Experience Accumulating Test of Unproven MMIS Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yeong Cheol; Kang, Sung Kon

    2007-01-01

    New MMIS (Man Machine Interface System) technology is rapidly advanced as digital technology provides opportunity for more functionality and better cost effectiveness. Also, NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) operators are inclined to use the new technology for the construction of new plant and for the upgrade of existing plants. However, this new technology may include risks at the same time. These risks are mainly due to the poor reliability of newly developed technology. According to the user requirement (KURD: Korean Utility Requirement Document), advanced MMIS technology may be applied if it could be apparently needed to obtain a defined gain in simplicity or performance. For applying new MMIS technology, reliability needs to be verified on the basis of the requirements of proven technology. KURD suggests two methods for verifying satisfaction of the requirement of proven technology. These methods are to verity whether or not unproven MMIS technology has adequate reliability. First method is that it has at least three years of documented, satisfactory service as modules of subsystems in power plant applications similar to that in LWRs or in other than power plant applications which are similar to the use in the APR1400 M-MIS. Second method is that it has satisfactorily completed a defined program of prototype testing which has been designed to verify its performance in the APR1400 M-MIS application. But, new MMIS technology had not yet opportunity to apply in the Nuclear Power Plant. Therefore, we think that second method is the effective method to demonstrate reliability and performance of new technology through the experience accumulation test. In here, Experience accumulation test means that we emulate the process of nuclear power plant such as installation after shipping, trial operation, operation, and maintenance with MMIS facility and verify reliability and performance through various test method under the circumstance of emulation and if any problem occurs

  14. Determination of potentially toxic heavy metals in traditionally used medicinal plants for HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatch, Harriet; Ngwenya, Barbara; Raletamo, Keleabetswe M; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2012-06-12

    The determination of four potentially toxic heavy metals, arsenic, chromium, lead and nickel in twelve plant species used for the treatment of perceived HIV and AIDS-associated opportunistic infections by traditional healers in Ngamiland District in Northern Botswana, a metal mining area, was carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicinal plants; Dichrostachys cinerea, Maerua angolensis, Mimusops zeyheri, Albizia anthelmintica, Plumbago zeylanica, Combretum imberbe, Indigofera flavicans, Clerodendrum ternatum, Solanum panduriforme, Capparis tomentosa, Terminalia sericea and Maytenus senegalensis contained heavy metals in varying quantities: arsenic 0.19-0.54 μg g(-1), chromium 0.15-1.27 μg g(-1), lead 0.12-0.23 μg g(-1) and nickel 0.09-0.21 μg g(-1) of dry weight. Chromium was found to be the most abundant followed by arsenic and lead. Nickel was undetectable in nine plant species. M. senegalensis contained the largest amounts of arsenic, chromium and lead. All metals determined were below the WHO permissive maximum levels. The possible maximum weekly intakes of the heavy metals following treatment regimes were insignificant compared to the provisional tolerable weekly intake levels recommended by WHO and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This suggests that heavy metal exposure to patients originating from consumption of traditional medicinal plant preparations is within non health-compromising limits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waning, Brenda; Kyle, Margaret; Diedrichsen, Ellen; Soucy, Lyne; Hochstadt, Jenny; Bärnighausen, Till; Moon, Suerie

    2010-05-25

    Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC) products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO) HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal) and United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM), US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and UNITAID. WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year) with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year) or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year) regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir) increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Global initiatives facilitated the creation of fairly efficient markets

  16. Intervening in global markets to improve access to HIV/AIDS treatment: an analysis of international policies and the dynamics of global antiretroviral medicines markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochstadt Jenny

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Universal access to antiretroviral therapy (ART in low- and middle-income countries faces numerous challenges: increasing numbers of people needing ART, new guidelines recommending more expensive antiretroviral (ARV medicines, limited financing, and few fixed-dose combination (FDC products. Global initiatives aim to promote efficient global ARV markets, yet little is known about market dynamics and the impact of global policy interventions. Methods We utilize several data sources, including 12,958 donor-funded, adult first-line ARV purchase transactions, to describe the market from 2002-2008. We examine relationships between market trends and: World Health Organization (WHO HIV/AIDS treatment guidelines; WHO Prequalification Programme (WHO Prequal and United States (US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approvals; and procurement policies of the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM, US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR and UNITAID. Results WHO recommended 7, 4, 24, and 6 first-line regimens in 2002, 2003, 2006 and 2009 guidelines, respectively. 2009 guidelines replaced a stavudine-based regimen ($88/person/year with more expensive zidovudine- ($154-260/person/year or tenofovir-based ($244-465/person/year regimens. Purchase volumes for ARVs newly-recommended in 2006 (emtricitabine, tenofovir increased >15-fold from 2006 to 2008. Twenty-four generic FDCs were quality-approved for older regimens but only four for newer regimens. Generic FDCs were available to GFATM recipients in 2004 but to PEPFAR recipients only after FDA approval in 2006. Price trends for single-component generic medicines mirrored generic FDC prices. Two large-scale purchasers, PEPFAR and UNITAID, together accounted for 53%, 84%, and 77% of market volume for abacavir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir, respectively, in 2008. PEPFAR and UNITAID purchases were often split across two manufacturers. Conclusions Global initiatives

  17. Concurrent use of Antiretroviral and African traditional medicines amongst people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) in the eThekwini Metropolitan area of KwaZulu Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mncengeli, Sibanda; Manimbulu, Nlooto M; Panjasaram, Naidoo

    2016-12-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) often use African Traditional Medicines (ATM) either alone or in combination with Western medicines including Antiretrovirals (ARV). To explore the prevalence of concurrent Antiretrovirals (ARV) and African Traditional medicines (ATM) use and determine the effects of any concurrent use on the CD4+ Lymphocyte count and Viral Load (VL) of PLWA in the eThekwini Metropolitan area. A descriptive and exploratory study was carried out on 360 patients. Information was gathered on patients socioeconomic characteristics, ATM usage, outcome measures of HIV disease progression (CD4+ Count, VL). The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analyses. 4.98% (14/281) of the patients used ATM and ARV concurrently during the study period. Over 65% (185/281) reported ATM use before diagnosis with HIV whilst 77.6% (218/281) reported previous ATM use after their HIV diagnosis but before initiation with ARV. Place of residence (p=0.004), age (p<0.001) and education level (P=0.041) were found to be significantly and positively correlated with ATM use. There were no statistically significant changes in mean plasma CD4+ Count and inconclusive effects on VL during the period of the study in the group taking ARV alone when compared with the group using ARV and ATM concomitantly. Concurrent ARV and ATM use is quite low (4.98%) when compared to ATM use before HIV diagnosis and after HIV diagnosis but before initiation with ARV. This may point to efficient pre-counselling efforts before ARV initiation by health care professionals. This study also demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the CD4+ and inconclusive effects on VL, between patients taking both ARV and ATM concomitantly and those using ARV alone.

  18. Thoughts of unproven hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penyu Mihajlov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present a philosophical point of view for accounting. The philosophical approach of both the classics in philosophy and the modern point of view has been used. The accounting problems are described through the prism of the philosophical view point. Empirical research in accounting is discussed through observation and summary. There are some philosophical views on mathematical links with economics, mathematics and econometrics.

  19. The role of South African traditional health practitioners in the treatment of HIV/AIDS; A study of their practices and use of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Walwyn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background A large proportion of HIV positive South Africans regularly consult Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs for their healthcare needs, despite some evidence of negative interactions with antiretrovirals (ARVs and no published peer-reviewed clinical evidence for the efficacy of traditional medicines in the treatment of HIV. In this study, we investigated the dominant practices of THPs towards HIV positive patients and whether these practices have changed following widespread public awareness campaigns covering HIV and its treatment. Method The study used a semi-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire in the home language of the interviewee. A total of 52 THPs from four provinces (Gauteng, Limpopo, Kwazulu Natal and Eastern Cape were interviewed. 38% of the respondents were based in the rural areas, and 69% classified themselves as inyangas, with the remainder being sangomas. Findings All of the THPs in the survey offered treatment for HIV, although only 20% claimed to be able to cure the disease. 88% prepared their own medication, mostly from plant material, and sold their products as aqueous extracts in labelled bottles. None of these products had been systematically evaluated, and there was mostly no record keeping, either of the patient, or of the medicine itself. Quality control practices such as expiry dates, controlled storage conditions and batch records were totally unknown in our sample. Only 38% of the THPs had received training on HIV/AIDS although 75% believed that they were well informed about the disease. Our own assessment was that only 50% had a working knowledge of HIV; more disturbingly 37% believe that only traditional medicines should be used for the treatment of HIV and a further 50% believe that both traditional medicines and ARVs can be taken simultaneously. Interpretation Despite ongoing public educational campaigns on HIV, some of which have specifically targeted THPs, the care of HIV positive

  20. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  1. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apps skip to content Side Effects of HIV Medicines Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV Medicines ... p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Medicines and Side Effects Last Reviewed: October 9, 2017 ...

  2. [Thread-moxa in Zhuang folk medicine combined with acupuncture and external application drugs on AIDS patients with herpes zoster: a clinical observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen-wei; Mo, Jin-hua; Pang, Jun; Deng, Xin

    2013-08-01

    To observe the efficacy of thread-moxa in Zhuang folk medicine (TM) combined with acupuncture and external application drugs for AIDS patients with herpes zoster (AHZ). A randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted in 60 patients with AHZ. They were randomly assigned to the treatment group (treated with TM combined with acupuncture and Jingwanhong Scald Ointment) and the control group (treated with Famciclovir Tablet, nimesulide dispersible tablet, vitamin B1, ribavirin ointment). The treatment course was 14 days for both groups.The clinical efficacy, significant efficiency visual analog scale score (VAS), sleep quality score (QS), the postherpetic neuralgia rate in 1 year after treatment were observed. The markedly effective rate was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (86.7% vs. 53.3%, P vs. 80.0%, P > 0.05). The post-treatment VAS, QS, the time for pain disappearance, skin repair, crusting, and 1-year postherpetic neuralgia incidence rate were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (P acupuncture and Jingwanhong Scald Ointment was effective for treating AHZ patients. It relieved pain quickly, shortened their course of disease, and improved their quality of sleep.

  3. HIV / AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... As the leading U.S. government institute for HIV/AIDS research, NIAID is committed to conducting the research necessary ... Budget & Planning Mission and Planning Overview Councils & Committees AIDS Research Advisory Committee AIDS Research Advisory Committee Agenda AIDS ...

  4. Abstracts reporting of HIV/AIDS randomized controlled trials in general medicine and infectious diseases journals: completeness to date and improvement in the quality since CONSORT extension for abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigna, Jean Joel R; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Um, Lewis N; Sime, Paule Sandra D; Temfack, Elvis; Tejiokem, Mathurin Cyrille

    2016-10-13

    Sufficiently detailed abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are important, because readers often base their assessment of a trial solely on information in the abstract. We aimed at comparing reporting quality of RCTs in HIV/AIDS medicine before and after the publication of the 2008 CONSORT extension for abstracts and to investigate factors associated with better reporting quality. We searched PubMed/Medline for HIV/AIDS RCTs published between 2006-07 (Pre-CONSORT) and 2014-15 (Post-CONSORT) in 40 leading general medicine and infectious diseases journals. Two investigators extracted data and scored abstracts. The primary outcome was the adjusted mean number of items reported among the 17 required. Proportions of abstracts reporting each of 17 items were considered as secondary outcome. The adjustment was done for journal field, CONSORT endorsement, abstract format, type of intervention, journal impact factor and authorship. This study received no funding. The adjusted mean number of reported items was 7.2 (95 % CI 6.6-7.7) in pre-CONSORT (n = 159) and 7.8 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 7.3-8.4) in post-CONSORT (n = 153) (mean difference 0.7; 95 % CI 0.1-1.2). Journal high impact factor (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2.16; 95 % CI 1.83-2.54), abstract with 13 authors or more (1.39; 95 % CI 1.07-1.79) and non-pharmacological intervention (1.19; 95 % CI 1.03-1.37) were independent factors for better reporting quality. There were significant improvements in reporting on participants, randomization, outcome results, registration and funding; regression for author contact; and no change for other items: title, design, interventions, objective, primary outcome, blinding, number randomized, recruitment, number analyzed, harms and conclusions. After the publication of the CONSORT extension for abstracts, the reporting quality of HIV/AIDS RCT abstracts in general medicine and infectious diseases journals has suboptimally improved. Thus, stricter adherence

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...

  6. Educational aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkeit, S.

    1989-01-01

    Educational aids include printed matter, aural media, visual media, audiovisual media and objects. A distinction is made between learning aids, which include blackboards, overhead projectors, flipcharts, wallcharts and pinboards, and learning aids, which include textbooks, worksheets, documentation and experimental equipment. The various aids are described and their use explained. The aids available at the School for Nuclear Technology of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre are described

  7. The Croton megalobotrys Müll Arg. traditional medicine in HIV/AIDS management: Documentation of patient use, in vitro activation of latent HIV-1 provirus, and isolation of active phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Ian; Ngwenya, Barbara N; Fotso, Ghislain; Williams, David E; Simonambango, Sundana; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T; Andersen, Raymond J; Brockman, Mark A; Brumme, Zabrina L; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin

    2018-01-30

    Current HIV therapies do not act on latent cellular HIV reservoirs; hence they are not curative. While experimental latency reversal agents (LRAs) can promote HIV expression in these cells, thereby exposing them to immune recognition, existing LRAs exhibit limited clinical efficacy and high toxicity. We previously described a traditional 3-step medicinal plant regimen used for HIV/AIDS management in Northern Botswana that inhibits HIV replication in vitro. Here we describe use of one component of the regimen that additionally contains novel phorbol esters possessing HIV latency-reversal properties. We sought to document experiences of traditional medicine users, assess the ability of traditional medicine components to reverse HIV latency in vitro, and identify pure compounds that conferred these activities. Experiences of two HIV-positive traditional medicine users (patients) were documented using qualitative interview techniques. Latency reversal activity was assessed using a cell-based model (J-Lat, clone 9.2). Crude plant extracts were fractionated by open column chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Compound structures were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Patients using the 3-step regimen reported improved health over several years despite no reported use of standard HIV therapies. Crude extracts from Croton megalobotrys Müll Arg. ("Mukungulu"), the third component of the 3-step regimen, induced HIV expression in J-lat cells to levels comparable to the known LRA prostratin. Co-incubation with known LRAs and pharmacological inhibitors indicated that the active agent(s) in C. megalobotrys were likely to be protein kinase C (PKC) activator(s). Consistent with these results, two novel phorbol esters (Namushen 1 and 2) were isolated as abundant components of C. megalobotrys and were sufficient to confer HIV latency reversal in vitro. We have identified novel LRAs of the phorbol ester class from a medicinal plant used in HIV/AIDS management

  8. HIV/AIDS treatment and physicochemical quality control of medicines: evaluation of non-generic lamivudine + zidovudine tablets manufactured in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Carlos Ruver Beck

    Full Text Available In this work it was evaluated the physicochemical quality of lamivudine + zidovudine tablets, whose association belongs to the list of drugs distributed by the Brazil's National Program on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS. Four non-generic products (lamivudine + zidovudine tablets were analyzed. They were obtained from different Brazilian manufacturers, besides a reference product. The quality was evaluated by physicochemical tests described in the official codes. A validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used for the assay of the active substances. All samples were in accordance to the requisites in relation to their physicochemical characteristics. Dissolution studies showed similar drug percentual dissolved among all samples. The results reflect the interest of the national pharmaceutical industry to ensure the delivery of safer and cheaper drugs to the Brazilian people, with particular importance in the National Program on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS.

  9. HIV/AIDS treatment and physicochemical quality control of medicines: evaluation of non-generic lamivudine + zidovudine tablets manufactured in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Cardoso, Simone Gonçalves

    2007-12-01

    In this work it was evaluated the physicochemical quality of lamivudine + zidovudine tablets, whose association belongs to the list of drugs distributed by the Brazil's National Program on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS. Four non-generic products (lamivudine + zidovudine tablets) were analyzed. They were obtained from different Brazilian manufacturers, besides a reference product. The quality was evaluated by physicochemical tests described in the official codes. A validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for the assay of the active substances. All samples were in accordance to the requisites in relation to their physicochemical characteristics. Dissolution studies showed similar drug percentual dissolved among all samples. The results reflect the interest of the national pharmaceutical industry to ensure the delivery of safer and cheaper drugs to the Brazilian people, with particular importance in the National Program on Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS.

  10. maXImum medical aid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-08-04

    Aug 4, 1990 ... exclude the patient's contribution in the form of co-payments and, in respect of many medical aid schemes, also exclude expenditure on medicines for hospitalised patients. An accurate estimate of aggregate expenditure on medicines in the private sector would be closer to 30% of total expenditure. This ...

  11. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model...... of the main relationships; (ii) estimating the impact of aid on a range of final and intermediate outcomes; and (iii) quantifying a simplied representation of the full structural form, where aid impacts on growth through key intermediate outcomes. A coherent picture emerges: aid stimulates growth and reduces...

  12. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  13. Living with HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Viviendo con VIH/SIDA: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine The stages of HIV/AIDS - HIV/AIDS 101, part 6 - English PDF The ...

  14. [Alternative medicine: really an alternative to academic medicine?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happle, R

    2000-06-01

    Numerous courses on alternative medicine are regularly advertised in Deutsches Arzteblatt, the organ of the German Medical Association. The present German legislation likewise supports this form of medicine, and this explains why Iscador, an extract of the mistletoe, is found in the Rote Liste, a directory of commercially available medical drugs, under the heading "cytostatic and antimetastatic drugs" although such beneficial effect is unproven. To give another example, a German health insurance fund was sentenced to pay for acupuncture as a treatment for hepatic failure. This judgement is characteristic of the present German judicial system and represents a victory of "oracling irrationalism" (Popper). The astonishing popularity of alternative medicine can be explained by a revival of romanticism. An intellectually fair opposite position has been delineated by Karl Popper in the form of critical rationalism. It is important to realize, however, that our decision to adhere to rational thinking is made in the innermost depth of our heart but not on the basis of rational arguing. Rather, the decision in favor of reason has a moral dimension.

  15. Matched molecular pair-based data sets for computer-aided medicinal chemistry [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/309

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Matched molecular pairs (MMPs are widely used in medicinal chemistry to study changes in compound properties including biological activity, which are associated with well-defined structural modifications. Herein we describe up-to-date versions of three MMP-based data sets that have originated from in-house research projects. These data sets include activity cliffs, structure-activity relationship (SAR transfer series, and second generation MMPs based upon retrosynthetic rules. The data sets have in common that they have been derived from compounds included in the ChEMBL database (release 17 for which high-confidence activity data are available. Thus, the activity data associated with MMP-based activity cliffs, SAR transfer series, and retrosynthetic MMPs cover the entire spectrum of current pharmaceutical targets. Our data sets are made freely available to the scientific community.

  16. Matched molecular pair-based data sets for computer-aided medicinal chemistry [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2w9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Hu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Matched molecular pairs (MMPs are widely used in medicinal chemistry to study changes in compound properties including biological activity, which are associated with well-defined structural modifications. Herein we describe up-to-date versions of three MMP-based data sets that have originated from in-house research projects. These data sets include activity cliffs, structure-activity relationship (SAR transfer series, and second generation MMPs based upon retrosynthetic rules. The data sets have in common that they have been derived from compounds included in the latest release of the ChEMBL database for which high-confidence activity data are available. Thus, the activity data associated with MMP-based activity cliffs, SAR transfer series, and retrosynthetic MMPs cover the entire spectrum of current pharmaceutical targets. Our data sets are made freely available to the scientific community.

  17. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  18. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content Side Effects of HIV Medicines Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact ... and Immunizations What is a Drug Interaction? Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects ...

  19. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  20. Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prefer the open-fit hearing aid because their perception of their voice does not sound “plugged up.” ... My voice sounds too loud. The “plugged-up” sensation that causes a hearing aid user’s voice to ...

  1. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  2. Comparative analysis of access to patented HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of access to patented HIV/AIDS pharmaceutical medicines through the Canadian and EU TRIPS flexibilities measures: are they efficacious or overly burdensome and ineffective measures?

  3. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  4. ATHENA AIDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, R.K.; Callow, R.A.; Larson, T.K.; Ransom, V.H.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system called the ATHENA AIDE that assists in the preparation of input models for the ATHENA thermal-hydraulics code has been developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The ATHENA AIDE uses a menu driven graphics interface and rule-based and object-oriented programming techniques to assist users of the ATHENA code in performing the tasks involved in preparing the card image input files required to run ATHENA calculations. The ATENA AIDE was developed and currently runs on single-user Xerox artificial intelligence workstations. Experience has shown that the intelligent modeling environment provided by the ATHENA AIDE expert system helps ease the modeling task by relieving the analyst of many mundane, repetitive, and error prone procedures involved in the construction of an input model. This reduces errors in the resulting models, helps promote standardized modeling practices, and allows models to be constructed more quickly than was previously possible

  5. Academic Medicine Meets Traditional African Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…

  6. [Clinical aspects of AIDS at the Calmette hospital in Phnom Penh, Kingdom of Cambodia A report on 356 patients hospitalized in the Medicine "B" Department of the Calmette Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichith, K; Chanroeun, H; Bunna, P; Nyvanny, N; Thavary, S; Kosal, S; Crepin, P

    2001-01-01

    A study on AIDS subjects carried out at the Calmette Hospital in Phnom-Penh between the 1st January 97 and the 30th December 98. The objective of this study was to describe the most frequent clinical manifestations as well as the opportunistic infections according to the 1993 CDC classification (purely clinical classification). Three hundred and fifty six AIDS patients hospitalized in medicine B were included in our study. A complete file was prepared for each subject, specifying his/her social and family situation, profession, sexual behavior and history. The clinical condition was specified and the paraclinical examinations were recorded. The average age was 35 years with 250 men and 106 women, i.e. a M/F sex ratio of 2.4. The majority of male contaminations were due to sexual relationships with multiple partners, 82%, and women with a single partner was of 78%. The use of condoms was of 60% (versus 40% occasional); the extent of drug-addiction was 1.12% (4 cases). A history of STD was found in 56% of cases. The presenting symptoms most frequently found were asthenia, anorexia, fever and weight-loss. In decreasing order, the clinical manifestations often associated were: weight-loss > 10% or a catechetic condition 58.70% (209/356), fever > 38 degrees C >1 month 53% (189/356), diarrhea (> one month) 41.60% (148/356). The most frequent opportunistic infections were: oral candidiasis 51.40% (183/356) and 40% are oro-oesophageal (oral candidiasis + dysphagia or odynphagia), pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculoses (TB) 43.50% (155/356) (pulmonary TB in 65.16%, TB of the lymph nodes 23.22% and disseminated TB and cerebral TB 11.61%), cryptococcal meningitis 11.80% (42/356) and pneumocystosis 6.50% (23/356), CMV retinitis 1.12% (4/356). The other opportunistic manifestations such as toxoplasmosis and Kaposis sarcoma are much more rarely encountered due to the difficulties of the paraclinical diagnosis. The mortality in the department was of 17.40% (62/356). In

  7. Integrative medicine in allergy and immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2013-06-01

    Integrative medicine is a relatively new discipline which attempts to combine allopathic medicine with alternative or complementary medicine, to reap the benefits of both forms of medicine in optimizing the care of patients. Integrative medicine concentrates on treating the patient as a whole, both in body and mind. While the scientific method and "evidence-based" clinical research drives the management and treatment of diseases in conventional Western medicine, alternative or complementary medicine is based on unproven yet potentially beneficial techniques that have been developed throughout history, dating back to the ancient cultures in the Middle East, Africa, and China. In spite of the lack of evidence of most alternative medicine techniques, these methodologies have been practiced for centuries with great acceptance in many countries. It is in the Western world, where "modern" medicine is dictated by the scientific method, that the most controversy in the use of these alternative modes of therapy exists. Since the science behind alternative medicine is incomplete or non-existent, it is difficult for those trained in Western medicine to accept or adopt this approach. But perhaps it is the failure of Western medicine to adequately guarantee our well being and good health that have led to the ongoing debate between the medical profession and the general public as to the benefits of these alternative treatments. In one sense, integrative medicine may be a futile attempt to coin a new term in the hope of legitimizing alternative medicine. On the other hand, there is a wealth of historical experience in the use of the techniques. Studies to evaluate the scientific basis behind ancient medical techniques are ongoing, and it is to be expected that the results will neither be uniformly positive nor negative. Of particular interest is the effect of traditional medicine, herbal formulations, and manipulative techniques on the immune system, and its application in the

  8. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and

  9. Computer aided drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A.

    2017-08-01

    Computer based method can help in discovery of leads and can potentially eliminate chemical synthesis and screening of many irrelevant compounds, and in this way, it save time as well as cost. Molecular modeling systems are powerful tools for building, visualizing, analyzing and storing models of complex molecular structure that can help to interpretate structure activity relationship. The use of various techniques of molecular mechanics and dynamics and software in Computer aided drug design along with statistics analysis is powerful tool for the medicinal chemistry to synthesis therapeutic and effective drugs with minimum side effect.

  10. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented......This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...

  11. HIV and AIDS workplace interventions; Gaps between policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction This study set out to identify gaps between policy and practice of HIV and AIDS workplace interventions in the University of Malawi, in particular College of Medicine in line with the UNIMA HIV and AIDS policy. Objectives The main objective was to establish whether the HIV and AIDS workplace interventions at ...

  12. Treating AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Whyte, Michael A.; Meinert, Lotte

    2004-01-01

    reviews, we seek to map out the channels through which ARVs are being made available to people and to describe and assess the social implications of the present system of distribution. Four channels of access to ARV medicines were common in mid-2003: (i) Medicines were provided free in structured research...... regularly. Health workers must consider whether patients will be able to purchase the drugs or not. In a kind of popular social pharmacy, people assess who can and should and does get access to ARVs. Further research should examine the whole range of ARV access channels in different countries...

  13. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  14. [Military medicine and medicine of accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, I M

    2010-09-01

    The article presents an observe of such parts of military medicine as intensive aid and operative treatment on the place of case, contestation against infectious diseases, preservation of psychic health, medical and social rehabilitation. Were lighted successful activity of military physicians during liquidation of Chernobyl accident (1986), earthquakes in Armenia (1988), railway accident in Bashkiria (1989) and other accidents. Experience of military medicine (particularly using medical units of special purposes) was used in proving of conception of medicine of accidents, and in organization of medical supply of troops in armed conflicts of restricted scale--in effectuating of antiterrorist operations in Northern Caucasus (1994-1996, 1999-2002), in effectuating of peacemaking operation in Kosovo (1999-2003), natural disasters.

  15. Treating AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whyte, Susan Reynolds; Whyte, Michael A.; Meinert, Lotte

    2004-01-01

    The price of antiretroviral (ARV) medicines in Uganda has fallen dramatically in recent years and more people are under treatment. By mid-2003 it was estimated that 10 000 people were taking ARVs. Drawing on participant observation, qualitative interviews, work with key informants and document re...

  16. Occupational medicine and toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Axel

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This editorial is to announce the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, a new Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal published by BioMed Central. Occupational medicine and toxicology belong to the most wide ranging disciplines of all medical specialties. The field is devoted to the diagnosis, prevention, management and scientific analysis of diseases from the fields of occupational and environmental medicine and toxicology. It also covers the promotion of occupational and environmental health. The complexity of modern industrial processes has dramatically changed over the past years and today's areas include effects of atmospheric pollution, carcinogenesis, biological monitoring, ergonomics, epidemiology, product safety and health promotion. We hope that the launch of the Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology will aid in the advance of these important areas of research bringing together multi-disciplinary research findings.

  17. [AIDS and Aids: anthropological observations apropos the AIDS phenomenon in Lobaye, Central African Republic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epelboin, A

    1989-01-01

    Human infestation by retrolentivirus which are incriminated in human disease called AIDS turns to be a "serious endemic". Once adequate medicine and vaccine discovered, it could perhaps be jugulated or eradicated in ethno-ecosystems combining a high socioeconomic level and a heavy attendance of efficient biomedicine. These criteria fit in neither with Quarter, nor with Third World, nor with worlds which do not think or live Health, Illness, Death, Misfortune in the same terms than those inspired by biomedical philosophies. Native logic apprehends AIDS as any form of sequence of misfortune, without taking care of its physiopathologic and epidemiologic specificity.

  18. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  19. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  20. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  1. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Apps skip to content Side Effects of HIV Medicines Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV and ... Latent HIV Reservoir? HIV Testing FDA-Approved HIV Medicines What is an Investigational HIV Drug? What is ...

  2. [Comment on the misappropriation of bibliographical references in science. The example of anti-aging medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, E

    2015-01-01

    This work constitutes a argued analysis of the publication of the article of Hertoghe et al. "Anti aging medicine, a science based, essential medicine " whose full and unreviewed publication was forced in the framework of the Belgian law on the right of reply to an earlier publication entitled " Anti-Aging Medicine: Science or Marketing? ". We confirm the absence of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of hormonal treatments used in this approach by highlighting the different techniques allowing doctors who promote this approach to make believe in their effectiveness. This is clearly to mix in one sentence established truths and unproven facts, use references inappropriately especially by misappropriation of studies on groups of patients with hormone deficiency in order to justify treatment in healthy subjects, to ignore recent references undermining ancient literature, to betray the authors' conclusions. Our critical analysis is also considering compliance with the guidelines for integrity in scientific publications.

  3. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have opened up a new and exciting field of research. But despite the pharmaceutical potential of cannabis, its classifi...

  4. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  5. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken once ...

  6. Bibliography on HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia and Ethiopians in the Diaspora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    AIDS and related health conditions ...... pattern of supply chain management of HIV/AIDS related commodities in Addis Ababa, while a PhD ...... logistics data, health facilities improve access to medicines: Success story. Arlington, Virginia, JSI.

  7. HIV/AIDS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - HIV/AIDS ... information on AIDS : AIDS.gov -- www.aids.gov AIDS Info -- aidsinfo.nih.gov The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation -- www.kff.org/hivaids US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/hiv

  8. Animal Bites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Animal bites: First aid Animal bites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff These guidelines can help you care for a minor animal bite, such ... 26, 2017 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-animal-bites/basics/ART-20056591 . Mayo ...

  9. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  10. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español HIV and AIDS KidsHealth / For Kids / HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  11. Heart attack first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes ...

  12. Breathing difficulties - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  13. Gastroenteritis: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid Gastroenteritis: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of your stomach and intestines. Common causes are: Viruses. Food or water contaminated by ...

  14. Snakebites: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Snakebites: First aid Snakebites: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff Most North American snakes aren't dangerous to humans. Some exceptions include the rattlesnake, coral snake, water moccasin ...

  15. Migration and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

    1995-09-23

    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  16. Aid and AIDS: a delicate cocktail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Reuser, M.

    2008-01-01

    Development assistance targeting health overwhelmingly concentrates on HIV/AIDS. This column argues that that focus neglects critical demographic issues and degrades health infrastructure, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. The prime rule for AIDS aid should be “First, do no harm”.

  17. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  18. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  19. DICOM standard in computer-aided medical technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnikov, A.V.; Prilutskij, D.A.; Selishchev, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper outlines one of the promising standards to transmit images in medicine, in radiology in particular. the essence of the standard DICOM is disclosed and promises of its introduction into computer-aided medical technologies

  20. OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE APPLICATIONS IN ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner AYDIN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteopathic medicine is among the fastest-growing sectors of health care. From its beginning, it has undertaken an active role in promoting athletic participation at all levels, as a means of healthy lifestyle. Its role in athletes may be of particular importance for performance improvement, prevention of and recovery from injury, and ultimately for successful competition outcomes. It is projected that by 2020, approximately 100,000 physicians of osteopathic medicine will be practicing in the United States. Despite its growing popularity, osteopathic medicine is not as widely understood as traditional medicine, also known as allopathic medicine. Manipulation, a component of osteopathic medicine, is often a subject of debate, especially concerning evidence-based medicine. Questions as such are raised: What is the purpose of osteopathic manipulation? Who would benefit from it? What harm may cause the practice? This article attempts to answer these questions by discussing the philosophy of osteopathic medicine, to delineate the differences between osteopathic physicians and other performers of manual medicine, by reviewing some of the current literature. The article particularly focuses on the use of manipulation in the athletic setting. Implementation of osteopathic principles and practices, which may include manual medicine, can then be applied to aid in the prevention of or recovery from illnesses or sports injuries.

  1. & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE COMMUNITY MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS among traders in model markets in Lagos State. Methodology: ... traders, Pre- intervention and post- intervention. JOURNAL OF COMMUNITY MEDICINE AND PRIMARY HEALTH CARE VOL. 24, NO 1&2, MARCH 2013. 34 ..... Oladele J, Adeiga ZA, Ricketts F, Goodluck H.

  2. Diagnostic aids: the Surgical Sieve revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Jason; Evans, Lloyd; Hughes, Tom

    2017-08-01

    Diagnostic errors are well documented in the literature and emphasise the need to teach diagnostic skills at an early stage in medical school to create effective and safe clinicians. Hence, there may be a place for diagnostic aids (such as the Surgical Sieve) that provide a framework for generating ideas about diagnoses. With repeated use of the Surgical Sieve in teaching sessions with students, and prompted by the traditional handheld wheels used in antenatal clinics, we developed the Compass Medicine, a handheld diagnostic wheel comprising three concentric discs attached at the centre. We report a preliminary study comparing the Surgical Sieve and the Compass Medicine in generating differential diagnoses. A total of 48 third-year medical students from Cardiff University participated in a study aimed at measuring the efficacy of diagnostic aids (Surgical Sieve and Compass Medicine) in generating diagnoses. We quantified the effect each aid had on the number of diagnoses generated, and compared the size of the effect between the two diagnostic aids. There may be a place for diagnostic aids that provide a framework for generating ideas about diagnoses RESULTS: The study suggests that both diagnostic aids prompted users to generate a greater number of diagnoses, but there was no significant difference in the size of effect between the two diagnostic aids. We hope that our study with diagnostic aids will encourage the use of robust tools to teach medical students an easily visualised framework for diagnostic thinking. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  3. The First Sports Medicine Books in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    The modern history of sports medicine is chronicled in a discussion of the first writings in English on sports medicine. What may have been the first writing in English is a section on first aid in the ENCYCLOPEDIA OF SPORT, published in England in 1898. It describes injuries commonly sustained in angling, boxing, cricket, cycling, football,…

  4. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine is a medical journal focused on HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention and related topics relevant to clinical and public health practice. The purpose of the journal is to disseminate original research results and to support high-level learning related to HIV Medicine. It publishes original ...

  5. Knowledge Of AIDS Among Rural Adolescents in Kwara State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    32% and 29% favour provision of Health Education and use of disposable skin piercing instruments respectively as ways of controlling AIDS. The study therefore recommended public enlightenment and counselling for the containment of AIDS in rural areas. Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine Vol. 9, No.

  6. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  7. HIV-AIDS Information Resources from the NLM - ACIO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner, W.

    2010-10-01

    As the treatment and management of HIV/AIDS continues to evolve with new scientific breakthroughs, treatment discoveries, and management challenges, it is difficult for people living with HIV/AIDS and those who care for them to keep up with the latest information on HIV/AIDS screening and testing, prevention, treatment, and research. The National Library of Medicine (NLM), of the National Institutes of Health, has a wealth of health information resources freely available on the Internet to address these needs.

  8. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  9. The Master Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  10. How to Get Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Products Hearing Aids How to get Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... my hearing aids? How do I get hearing aids? Before getting a hearing aid, you should consider ...

  11. Moving Mountains, the Race to Treat Global AIDS | Nkomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The book is divided into four parts.The first part has three chapters. Chapter 1 outlines what the book is about. Chapter ... She argues that the debate over patents and generic medicines for HIV/AIDS could potentially spill over to other medicines. The book provides accounts of global prevention, care and support, as well as ...

  12. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  13. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  14. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  15. Standardization of tests of quality control with the aid of quality tools used in management systems of processes at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine of the University Hospital of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cas, E.V.; Weis, G.L.; Bahunhardt, T.; Shuch, L.A.; Lopes, L.F.D.

    2009-01-01

    This work tries to standardize the tests of quality control at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, using tools of the quality used in systems of management of processes such as, PDCA, brainstorming, diagram of cause and effect (Ishikawa), 5W2H, verifying list and fluxogram. The tests of quality control refer to the scintillation camera (center of rotation, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic spatial resolution and linearity, energy resolution for each radionuclide), to the dose calibrator (accuracy, reproducibility and linearity), to the Geiger-Mueller detector (reproducibility of the detector). (author)

  16. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  17. First aid kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001958.htm First aid kit To use the sharing features on this ... ahead, you can create a well-stocked home first aid kit. Keep all of your supplies in one ...

  18. Poisoning first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... burns Stupor Unconsciousness (coma) Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing ...

  19. First Aid and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid & Safety Keeping your child safe is your top ... do in an emergency, how to stock a first-aid kit, where to call for help, and more. ...

  20. Head injury - first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  1. Electrical Shock: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows ... org/first-aid/first-aid-electrical-shock/basics/art-20056695 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  2. Electrical Burns: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a dry, nonconducting object made of cardboard, plastic or wood. Begin CPR if the person shows ... org/first-aid/first-aid-electrical-burns/basics/ART-20056687 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  3. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  4. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicines Safely Print This Topic En español Use Medicines Safely Browse Sections The Basics Overview Prescription Medicines ... Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ...

  5. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn

    2001-01-01

    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  6. Maintaining professionalism in today's business environment: ethical challenges for the pain medicine specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovits, Allen

    2012-09-01

    There are many external influences in today's market force that impair the relationship between the pain medicine specialist and the patient, and ultimately prevent optimal quality of care. This article explores the ethical challenges facing the pain medicine specialist in today's increasingly "business" environment and will offer solutions for maintaining the professionalism of pain medicine. Four commonly encountered bioethical principles in the practice of pain medicine are reviewed: beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. The following ethical challenges of the pain medicine specialist are reviewed: practicing outside ones specialty area, practice characteristics, the consultant role, the economic lure of aggressive intervention, not evaluating for and treating comorbid psychopathology, reimbursement pressures, workers' compensation, and use of unproven methods. Solutions offered include collegial associations, social responsibility, legislative initiatives, pain education, interdisciplinary evaluation and treatment, improved relationships with third-party payers, reduced racial disparities, and ethics education. Ethics is the "roadmap" that enables the pain medicine specialist to navigate the increasingly murky waters of practicing pain management today by maintaining the professionalism necessary to combat today's "business" pressures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Limited use of medicinal cannabis but for labeled indications after legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, J A; Janse, A F C; Herings, R M C

    2005-11-01

    Since September 2003, cannabis is available for medicinal purposes in Dutch pharmacies to. It was anticipated that the medicinal cannabis use via illegal ways would decrease. The objective of this study was to get insight in the use of medicinal cannabis in daily practise as dispensed by community pharmacies and to characterize the users as well as the symptoms and conditions cannabis is prescribed for.A prospective follow-up study among 200 patients who filled a prescription for medicinal cannabis was performed in the period between September 2003 and January 2004. The patients filled out a structured questionnaire concerning symptoms and conditions and their experience with cannabis. Of all patients, 42% suffered from multiple sclerosis, 11% suffered from rheumatic diseases, and 60% of respondents already used cannabis before the legalization. Cannabis was mainly used for chronic pain and muscle cramp/stiffness.The indication of medicinal cannabis use was in accordance with the labeled indications. However, more than 80% of the patients still obtained cannabis for medicinal purpose from the illegal circuit. Because of the higher prices in pharmacies, ongoing debate on the unproven effectiveness of the drug and the hesitation by physicians to prescribe cannabis. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Stroke: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when blood flow to your ... cells start dying. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  9. Genomic applications in forensic medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, advances in DNA technology have revolutionized the scope and practice of forensic medicine. From the days of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) to short tandem repeats (STRs), the current focus is on the next generation genome sequencing. It has been almost a decade...... sequence information may aid mixture interpretation and will increase the statistical weight of the evidence. In this chapter, we provide an overview on conventional DNA diagnostics and the possible applications of single cell sequencing and NGS in forensic medicine....

  10. Medicine and ionizing rays: a help sheet in analysing risks in radiotherapy and applicable texts; Medecine et rayonnements ionisants: fiche d'aide a l'analyse des risques en radiotherapie et textes applicables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, INRS, Dept. Etudes et Assistance Medicales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-07-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of useful knowledge for radioprotection in the case of external radiotherapy. In the first part, several aspects are considered: the concerned personnel, the course of treatment procedures, the hazards, the identification of the risk associated with ionizing radiation, the risk assessment and the exposure level determination, the strategy to control the risks (reduction of risks, technical measures concerning the installation or the personnel, teaching and information, prevention and medical monitoring), and risk control assessment. A second part indicates the various applicable legal and regulatory texts (European directives, law and decrees published by public authorities, and texts concerning the general principles in radioprotection, worker protection, specialists, medical devices, nuclear medicine and radiology)

  11. Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valid therapies, delaying proven treatment for serious conditions. Holistic Treatments Holistic medicine is a system of health care ... techniques including meditation, biofeedback and relaxation training. While holistic treatments can be part of a good physical regimen, ...

  12. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  13. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  15. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  16. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  17. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  18. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  19. Fractures (Broken Bones): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Fractures (broken bones) Fractures (broken bones): First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fracture is a ... 10, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/ART-20056641 . Mayo Clinic ...

  20. Alternative therapies for the holistic care of the HIV / AIDS patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative therapies that can be used for the holistic nursing care of HIV / AIDS infection include psychological, mental and emotional therapies, therapeutic touch, nutrition, vitamins, minerals and nutritional supplements, herbal medicine, Chinese medicine and homeopathy, traditional medicine, lifestyle changes and ...

  1. AIDS: the global challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J

    1987-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic that affects all countries, developing and industrialized. The impacts of AIDS range from social, cultural, psychological to the economic and political. The World Health Organization (WHO) has mobilized international and national interest and resources to work on AIDS control and prevention. AIDS spreads in 3 ways mother to child, through blood, and sexually. Screening blood supplies can prevent the spread of AIDS. In 1987, 105 countries reported 49,132 cases to WHO, and estimated indicated over 100,000 cases. WHO estimate that by 1991 there will be over 1 million cases worldwide. Infant mortality rates due to AIDS may be 10-20/1000 births where 10% of pregnant women are infected. Homosexual, or bisexual men and intravenous drug users from 20 to 49 year old make up most of the cases of AIDS in North and South America, Europe, and Australia. It is estimated that Africa has over 1 million AIDS infected people but accurate counts are not available. There have been a small number of cases reported in Asia, and most of these have resulted from contaminated blood. It is currently estimated that 10- 30% of HIV infected persons will develop AIDS, and 25-50% will develop an AIDS related disease within 5 years. The majority of HIV infected persons will develop AIDS within 10 years and the rest, AIDS related diseases. The cost of a patient can run for $50,000-150,000 in direct medical care in industrialized countries. Since most of the people infected are from 20-49 years of age, their most productive years, a country's social and economic development is threatened. Education is presently the only way to prevent the spread of AIDS, and therefore all governments, as well as health and medical professional must make a extraordinary commitment.

  2. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  3. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  4. Representing AIDS in Comics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiec, M K

    2018-02-01

    Matthew P. McAllister wrote: "Comic books can and have contributed positively to the discourse about AIDS: images that encourage true education, understanding and compassion can help cope with a biomedical condition which has more than a biomedical relevance" [1]. With this in mind, I combined a 23-narrator oral history and my personal memoir about an inpatient Chicago AIDS hospital unit in my book, Taking Turns: Stories from HIV/AIDS Care Unit 371. In doing so, I built upon the existing rich history of HIV/AIDS in comics, which this article will briefly describe. Although not a comprehensive review of the intersection of AIDS and comics, the book is a tour through influences that proved useful to me. In addition, in making my book, I faced a distinct ethical issue with regard to representing patient experiences with HIV/AIDS, and I describe here how I addressed it. © 2018 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  10. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  12. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B

    2002-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  13. Radiographic imaging of aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Mohammed Bashir

    2002-07-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists

  14. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  15. Medicinal smokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes

    2006-11-24

    All through time, humans have used smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. To the best of our knowledge, the ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care have not been studied. Mono- and multi-ingredient herbal and non-herbal remedies administered as smoke from 50 countries across the 5 continents are reviewed. Most of the 265 plant species of mono-ingredient remedies studied belong to Asteraceae (10.6%), followed by Solanaceae (10.2%), Fabaceae (9.8%) and Apiaceae (5.3%). The most frequent medical indications for medicinal smoke are pulmonary (23.5%), neurological (21.8%) and dermatological (8.1%). Other uses of smoke are not exactly medical but beneficial to health, and include smoke as a preservative or a repellent and the social use of smoke. The three main methods for administering smoke are inhalation, which accounts for 71.5% of the indications; smoke directed at a specific organ or body part, which accounts for 24.5%; ambient smoke (passive smoking), which makes up the remaining 4.0%. Whereas inhalation is typically used in the treatment of pulmonary and neurological disorders and directed smoke in localized situations, such as dermatological and genito-urinary disorders, ambient smoke is not directed at the body at all but used as an air purifier. The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about medicinal smoke and that a lot of natural products have potential for use as medicine in the smoke form. Furthermore, this review argues in favor of medicinal smoke extended use in modern medicine as a form of drug delivery and as a promising source of new active natural ingredients.

  16. Music and Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  17. Music and Hearing Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. K. Madsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  18. Music and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-10-31

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Toward a New Natural Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckel, Peter

    Treatments summarized under the term "natural medicine," i.e., those offered as an alternative or in addition to conventional medicine, have enjoyed a surge in popularity in recent years. The "natural" descriptor employed in connection with these healing methods is frequently misunderstood, leading to underestimation of the risks arising from incorrect use. However, the essential principle underlying traditional natural medicine, mobilization of the body's own forces against disease, is increasingly being employed in a new, rational form of medicine: molecular medicine. A range of natural endogenous substances for medical use are already available. Human proteins such as erythropoietin can now be produced as medicines in highly pure form with the aid of genetic engineering techniques. Our increasing understanding of the function of our genes and the resulting descriptions of molecular mechanisms underlying disease are also helping us to utilize the body's own construction set. New techniques such as gene therapy will in future enable us to reproduce the natural conditions in the healthy body with increasing specificity in our attempts to cure illnesses. One such application will be the activation of the immune system to combat cancer. The complete decoding of the human genome will not only allow illnesses to be described, and possibly prevented, at an earlier stage. Illnesses will also be able to described more precisely and individually at the molecular level, opening up the possibility of targeted, patient-specific cures.

  20. AIDS is your business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense.

  1. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  2. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  3. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; ten Have, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health

  4. Bioenergetic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, Russell H

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss a specific therapeutic strategy we call ‘bioenergetic medicine’. Bioenergetic medicine refers to the manipulation of bioenergetic fluxes to positively affect health. Bioenergetic medicine approaches rely heavily on the law of mass action, and impact systems that monitor and respond to the manipulated flux. Since classically defined energy metabolism pathways intersect and intertwine, targeting one flux also tends to change other fluxes, which complicates treatment design. Such indirect effects, fortunately, are to some extent predictable, and from a therapeutic perspective may also be desirable. Bioenergetic medicine-based interventions already exist for some diseases, and because bioenergetic medicine interventions are presently feasible, new approaches to treat certain conditions, including some neurodegenerative conditions and cancers, are beginning to transition from the laboratory to the clinic. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-8 PMID:24004341

  5. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  6. New teaching aid “Physical Methods of Medical Introscopy”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulin, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Description of a new teaching aid, in which new methods of reconstruction of hidden images by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, X-gamma-ray, and ultrasonic tomography, is presented. The diagnostics and therapy methods of various oncological diseases with the use of medicine proton and ions beams, as well as neutron capture therapy, are considered. The new teaching aid is intended for senior students and postgraduates.

  7. Search for a cure: narratives of Thai family caregivers living with a person with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Street, Annette

    2004-09-01

    Facing an incurable prognosis Thai families search for a cure for AIDS using all possible means available to them. This paper reports a longitudinal narrative case study of eight family caregivers caring for a relative with AIDS in rural Southern Thailand. The paper demonstrates how the caregivers living with a person with AIDS made sense of illness episodes, and how they chose and evaluated particular treatments and care. Caregivers moved between modern medicine, traditional/folk medicine, supernatural healing rites, religious performances, and home remedies in their search for a cure. The findings indicate that a more holistic and palliative approach is needed toward AIDS care.

  8. computer-aided root aided root aided root aided root-locus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    equation are the same as the poles of the close loop system. Ideally, a desired performance can be achieved a control system by adjusting the location of roots in the s-plane by varying one or mo system parameters. Root-locus Method is a line. 8023278605. AIDED ROOT. AIDED ROOT-LOCUS NUMERICAL TECHNIQUE.

  9. First Aid: Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Warts ... / First Aid: Warts Print Warts are common skin infections that can affect any area of the body, ...

  10. Neurological Complications of AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Patient Organizations amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research 120 Wall Street 13th Floor New York NY New York, ... Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). Patient Organizations amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research 120 Wall Street 13th Floor New York NY New York, ...

  11. AIDS Epidemiological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  12. AIDS and economic disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G S

    1996-10-01

    Child and adult mortality increases in Cameroon due to AIDS will cause life expectancy to fall by as many as 8 years, from just over 50 to just over 40 years. The social consequences of AIDS include grieving, stigmatizing, and the large-scale disruption of family and community structures. Widows and widowers due to AIDS mortality are affected differently from each other, with the widows of men who have died from AIDS facing potential sociocultural and economic hardship. The economic consequences of AIDS in Bamenda and elsewhere in Cameroon will occur mainly through the epidemic's impact upon the size and quality of the labor force. By killing a significant number of male and female workers aged 15-60 years, AIDS will reduce the size and growth rate of the labor force. Despite, rapid population growth, labor is a relatively scarce factor of agricultural production in Cameroon. The spread of HIV in rural areas, combined with the intensity and scarcity of agricultural labor, suggests that AIDS will have an impact upon production and per capita incomes, and increase the already high rates of hunger and absolute poverty. In the context of HIV/AIDS, young people must be empowered to make informed decisions about sex. Adolescents are most at risk because they tend to experiment more than married couples and have many sex partners. Sexual activity begins as early as age 8 years and penetrative sex at age 13 or earlier. The author considers the factors which encourage adolescents to engage in sexual activities.

  13. [Oral lymphomas in AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, F; López, G; Asenjo, J A; Martín, C

    1989-05-01

    We present two cases of AIDS in drug-addicts, with mouth lymphoma. The diagnosis was established by a gum biopsy which gave high-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma lymphoblastic "B" type. It is very rare that the oral mucous is affected by lymphomas, but in AIDS and immunodeficiencies it is more common.

  14. First Aid: Croup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español First Aid: Croup KidsHealth / For Parents / First Aid: Croup Print Croup is a viral infection in the upper airway, around the vocal ...

  15. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 More on this topic for: ... Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? View more Partner ...

  16. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i) sign...

  17. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  18. Equal Access Initiative HIV/AIDS Information Resources from NLM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templin-Branner W. and N. Dancy

    2010-09-11

    The Equal Access Initiative: HIV/AIDS Information Resources from the National Library of Medicine training is designed specifically for the National Minority AIDS Council 2010 Equal Access Initiative (EAI) Computer Grants Program awardees to provide valuable health information resources from the National Library of Medicine and other reliable sources to increase awareness of the wealth of treatment information and educational materials that are available on the Internet and to improve prevention and treatment education for their clients. These resources will also meet the needs of community-based

  19. Puppetry and AIDS education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, G

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of puppet theater in communicating information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been demonstrated in a project launched in 1988 by the African Research and Education Puppetry Program (AREPP). Puppetry is a vital part of the Bambara, Bozo, and Yoruba cultures. "Puppets Against AIDS" tells the story of a condom refuser who transmits the AIDS virus to his wife and their infant. An evaluation conducted by social epidemiologists in 1989 found the production to be comprehensive in its educational messages and effective in contributing to the audiences' knowledge and intended behavioral changes. A discussion period follows the production. The show was subsequently incorporated into an existing community-based AIDS education program. Because AIDS touches upon sensitive and often taboo areas of social life, the dissemination of information through puppets is not perceived as threatening as interpersonal interaction.

  20. Implementing AIDS Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace C. Huerta

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available The world has been challenged by the AIDS epidemic for 15 years. In 1985, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control, allocated funds to all state departments of education to assist schools in the development of AIDS education policies and programs. Yet, these policies do not ensure that all students receive effective AIDS education. On September 21, 1991, the Arizona Legislature passed Senate Bill 1396, which requires public schools to annually provide AIDS education in grades K-12. The bill was rescinded in 1995. With prohibitive curriculum guidelines, limited teacher training opportunities and tremendous instructional demands, this educational policy was implemented in disparate forms. By examining the perspectives of the Arizona educators (representing three school districts, this qualitative study reveals how teachers ultimately controlled the delivery and nature of AIDS instruction based upon personal values, views of teacher roles, and their interpretation of the mandate itself.

  1. Comparative studies on the antiallergic effects of kampo medicines used for the therapy of respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, A K; Takeuchi, Y; Yokomuro, K; Miyanaga, Y

    1995-04-01

    Eight kinds of kampo medicines mainly used for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases, whose comparative effects were still unproven, were selected for comparison of their antiallergic activity in the present study. 1) In an experiment on 48-hr PCA reaction in rats passively sensitized with anti egg albumin IgE antisera, inhibitory effects were observed in those groups orally administered with the tested kampo medicines. Among the drugs tested, TJ-19 showed a potent inhibitory activity as effective as that of tranilast (TL). 2) In the study of extraction method, the effects of kampo drugs varied widely according to the extraction method by which they were prepared. This suggests that the routine methods for preparing these extracts should be reconsidered to achieve the optimal efficacy. 3) In the study of histamine release from rat peritoneal cells stimulated with compound 48/80, TJ-55, TJ-19 and TL exerted a strong inhibition, but TJ-119, TJ-29 and TJ-96 had a weak inhibition. 4) TJ-96, TJ-19 and TL exerted a strong inhibitory effect on LTC, release from rat peritoneal mast cells induced by calcium (Ca) ionophore A23187, but TJ-95, TJ-55 and TJ-119 exerted only a weak inhibition. To sum up of the results, any of these kampo medicines have unique pharmacological action and antiallergic effects. Besides, the method for extraction affects the efficacy of kampo medicine in vitro.

  2. Knowledge, attitude, and skills regarding sports medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-06-11

    Jun 11, 2005 ... The football super league is semi professional. A study was conducted with the aims determining the demographic characteristics of football players and team doctors ... knowledge, skills and attitude in sports medicine among football ... more worrying is the fact that not all had done basic first aid courses ...

  3. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  4. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  5. ENERGY MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T. M.

    1987-01-01

    Energy medicine is the most comprehensive concept introduced in medical diagnostics and therapy to account for a whole range of phenomena and methods available to help an individual proceed from sickness to health. The modern medical theories do not account for, much less accept many traditional therapies due to deep suspicion that the older methods are not scientific. However, the Holistic Health groups around the world have now created an environment for therapies which work at subtle energ...

  6. Transfusion medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application

  7. Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine in the management of symptoms of opportunistic fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Eastern ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... More than one-third (39.6%, 40/101) was reported to be using herbal medicine for treating signs/symptoms of OFIs.

  8. Documentation on Medicinal Plants Sold in Markets in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To document the medicinal values, local names, method of preparation, dosage forms and parts of common medicinal plants sold in some markets in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Ethnobotanical data were collected by oral interview and with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to men, women and ...

  9. Further screening of Venda medicinal plants for activity against HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of medicinal plants for AIDS-related conditions is common in South Africa. In order to establish an antiviral rationale for the use of these plants we screened fractions of the methanol extracts of medicinal plants for activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN). The n-butanol fraction obtained ...

  10. HIV / AIDS and tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, S

    1999-01-01

    Since it tends to be significantly affected by HIV/AIDS, the tourism sector is a likely target for HIV/AIDS interventions in many countries. The tourist industry is at particular risk from the pandemic because of the mobility of the work force, the presence of sex tourists, and the heavy reliance of many countries upon tourism revenues. Indeed, tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing industries in many countries. Some people have speculated that potential tourists' fear of AIDS could discourage them from visiting certain countries, while others have even suggested that tourism should be discouraged because the industry contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. When traveling, tourists often take risks that they would not take at home. They tend to drink more, use drugs more, and be generally more adventurous while on holiday. Such adventures often include taking sexual risks. When tourists have sex with prostitutes, hotel staff, and others in the local population, a bridge can be created for HIV to cross back and forth between the tourist's home country and the tourist destination. The author reviews selected studies on the relationship between HIV/AIDS and tourism. Overall, the existing literature offers no definitive evidence that AIDS has had any lasting impact upon the tourism industry anywhere in the world. Rather, promoting a healthy tourism industry and HIV/AIDS prevention are likely complementary in many ways.

  11. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  12. Women and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS email updates Enter email Submit HIV and AIDS The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a sexually ... health Pregnancy and HIV View more HIV and AIDS resources Related information Birth control methods Caregiver stress ...

  13. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Minority Research at the NIH Office of AIDS Research (OAR). Of adults and adolescents diagnosed with AIDS ... Dr. Victoria Cargill of the NIH Office of AIDS Research. Summer 2009 Issue: Volume 4 Number 3 Pages ...

  14. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  15. Hearing Aid and children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Fatahi

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop oral communication, hearing impaired infants and young children must be able to hear speech comfortably and consistently. To day children with all degrees of hearing loss may be condidates for some kinds of amlification. As children differ from adults, many Factors should be consider in hearing aid selection, evaluation and fitting. For example the child age when he or she is candidate for custom instruments? Do we consider programmable Hearing aid? Are multi memory instruments appropriate for them? What about directional microphones? What style of hearing aid do we select? In this paper such questions are Answered.

  16. The Macroeconomics of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Morrissey, Oliver; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    This Special Issue explores macroeconomic effects of aid from various perspectives through a blend of studies, both conceptual and empirical in nature. The overall aim is to enhance the understanding of the macroeconomic dimensions of aid in the policy and research communities, and to inspire...... further innovative work in this important area. This opening article provides a scene setting summary of five generations of aid research, with a particular focus on how the JDS has contributed to this literature, and ends with an overview of the papers included in this Issue....

  17. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh

    2013-01-01

    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  18. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  19. Some thoughts on phenomenology and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottow, Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Phenomenology in medicine's main contribution is to present a first-person narrative of illness, in an effort to aid medicine in reaching an accurate disease diagnosis and establishing a personal relationship with patients whose lived experience changes dramatically when severe disease and disabling condition is confirmed. Once disease is diagnosed, the lived experience of illness is reconstructed into a living-with-disease narrative that medicine's biological approach has widely neglected. Key concepts like health, sickness, illness, disease and the clinical encounter are being diversely and ambiguously used, leading to distortions in socio-medical practices such as medicalization, pharmaceuticalization, emphasis on surveillance medicine. Current definitions of these concepts as employed in phenomenology of medicine are revised, concluding that more stringent semantics ought to reinforce an empirical phenomenological or postphenomenological approach.

  20. Pregnancy and Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not all medicines are safe to take when you are pregnant. Some medicines can harm your baby. That includes over-the- ... care provider before you start or stop any medicine. Not using medicine that you need may be ...

  1. Buying & Using Medicine Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health professionals to make the best medicine choices, buy safely, and use medicine so it's as safe ... Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Buying Medicines Over the Internet BeSafeRx: Know Your Online Pharmacy Buying Medicine from ...

  2. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  3. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain Fatigue HIV/AIDS Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  4. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  5. Toothache: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017. What causes a toothache? Academy of General Dentistry. http://www.knowyourteeth.com/infobites/abc/article/?abc=T&iid=337&aid=1362. Accessed Oct. 5, 2017. FDA drug safety communication: Reports of a rare, but serious and potentially ...

  6. First Aid Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » First Aid Tips Listen All About Vision About the Eye ...

  7. Choking: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Heimlich maneuver and CPR in a certified first-aid training course. Choking (Heimlich maneuver). American College of Emergency ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  8. Types of Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain situations (for example, background noise and whistle reduction). They also have greater flexibility in hearing aid programming so that the sound they transmit can be matched to the needs ...

  9. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... first signs of HIV infection Diarrhea Weight loss Oral yeast infection (thrush) Shingles (herpes zoster) Progression to AIDS Thanks ... eyes, digestive tract, lungs or other organs. Candidiasis. Candidiasis ... tongue, esophagus or vagina. Cryptococcal meningitis. Meningitis is ...

  10. House OK's Russian aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothstein, L.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the 2.5 Billion dollar aid package to Russia which House Appropriations Foreign Operations Subcommittee Chairman David Obey successfully defended on the House floor last June. Arizona Republican Jon Kyl offered an admendment that would cut 700 million from the package and was defeated with a 118 to 140 vote. The bill is currently in the hands of the Senate. The controversy over the bill and details concerning the aid package are discussed. The aid deal includes 250 million dollars for nuclear reactor safety and energy as well as environmental technical assistance, 655 million dollars to aid private sector development, and 704 million dollars for additional technical and economic assistance

  11. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  12. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest...... is crowded out by a fall in savings. Studies of the effect on growth show an insignificant positive effect. Studies of the effect on growth, conditional on something else, have till now shown weak results. The Dutch Disease effect of aid has been ignored. The best aggregate estimate is that since its start...... in the early 1960s aid has increased the standard of living in the poor countries by 20%....

  13. AidData

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  14. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casier, Ph.; Lepage, B.

    1998-01-01

    Except for dedicated devices for mobile nuclear cardiology for instance, the market is set on variable angulation dual heads cameras. These cameras are suited for all general applications and their cost effectiveness is optimized. Now, all major companies have such a camera in their of products. But, the big question in nuclear medicine is about the future of coincidence imaging for the monitoring of treatments in oncology. Many companies are focused on WIP assessments to find out the right crustal thickness to perform both high energy FDG procedures and low energy Tc procedures, with the same SPECT camera. The classic thickness is 3/8''. Assessments are made with 1/2'', 5/8'' or 3/4'' crystals. If FDG procedures proved to be of great interest in oncology, it may lead to the design of a dedicated SPECT camera with a 1'' crustal. Due to the short half of FDG, it may be the dawning of slip ring technology. (e.g. Varicam from Elscint). The three small heads camera market seems to be depressed. Will the new three large heads camera unveiled by Picker, reverse that trend? The last important topic in nuclear medicine is the emergence of new flat digital detectors to get rid of the old bulky ones. Digirad is the first company to manufacture a commercial product based on that technology. Bichron, Siemens and General Electric are working on that development, too. But that technology is very expensive and the market for digital detection in nuclear medicine is not as large as the market in digital detection in radiology. (author)

  15. Hearing aid adjustment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Matthews, Ben; Raudaskoski, Pirkko

    2012-01-01

    to the interaction during hearing aid fitting. This report of a Danish pilot study describes two such problems. The first problem arises from the requirement that the audiologist needs to ‘translate’ the patient’s subjective hearing description for making technological decisions. The second problem is the way...... in which the hearing aid user’s implicit and often unrealistic expectations are handled. This kind of research has potential application for developing a model of best practices....

  16. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...... of TNF antagonists as this allows therapies tailored according to individual requirements rather than the current universal approach to diagnosis. The objective of the present review is to discuss the reasons for recommending theranostics to implement an individualized use of TNF antagonists...

  17. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    Travelling to high altitudes is an increasingly popular form of recreational holiday. Individual medical advice may be essential for certain groups of individuals such as patients with chronic disorders, pregnant women or children. This is the second part in a series of two articles on mountain...... medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women...

  18. Deadly medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the methods the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum used to make an exhibition on the complex history of Nazi eugenics accessible to the museum's mass public and at the same time, provocative for special audiences consisting of professionals and students from the biomedical fields. Deadly Medicine: Creating the Master Race showed how both eugenics and related "euthanasia" programs in Nazi Germany helped pave the road to the Holocaust. The exhibition implicitly evoked the present-day appeal of biological explanations for human behavior and of new visions of human perfection. Educational programs used the exhibition as a springboard for discussions of bioethics and medical ethics.

  19. AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D; Armstrong, M; Lavelle, S

    1991-01-01

    Works on epidemiological, and social and behavioral science aspects of AIDS prevention and support in Africa are reviewed from the 7th Conference on AIDS. Participants were especially concerned with why AIDS spreads at disparate rates in different countries and regions of the world. Research on the casual factors of the spread of HIV generally focused upon patterns of sex behavior, the presence of other STDs, and the effect of circumcision. The roles of certain vaginal tightening agents used by Zairian prostitutes, vaginal bruising and bleeding, sex during menses, and oral contraception were also considered. Further, participants explored the possibility of a more coordinated, integrated approach to research and intervention development between the medical and social disciplines, and expressed the overall need for concurrent mass education interventions. In the face of ever increasing rates of HIV infection, including vertical transmission, making condoms ubiquitous, affordable, and highly publicized should garner higher general acceptance and use rates in these populations. Papers and models on the micro- and macro-socioeconomic impact of AIDS were finally discussed, followed by recommendations for a complete reassessment and reworking of policy for AIDS prevention. AIDS activities should, in fact, be integrated into the daily fabric of society, with prevention measures considered an ultimate necessity for social survival.

  20. THE AIDS HANDBOOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de

  2. mortality after clinical management of aids-associated cryptococcal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 91 No. 5 May 2014. MORTALITY AFTER CLINICAL MANAGEMENT OF AIDS-ASSOCIATED CRYPTOCOCCAL MENINGITIS IN KENYA. R.Baldassarre, MD, University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine, R. Mdodo, Mphil, MS, DrPH, University of Alabama at ...

  3. Kaposi's sarcoma involving the thyroid in a patient with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauth, P.H.; Katz, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    A 30-year-old man with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and Kaposi's sarcoma had a palpable thyroid mass and cervical lymphadenopathy. Nuclear medicine and ultrasound scans revealed multiple thyroid nodules. Results of biopsy showed Kaposi's sarcoma metastatic to the thyroid

  4. Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma. Marie Claire Gasanganwa1, Rebecca L White1. 1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda. Background. Epidemiological studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a lifetime prevalence rate of up to. 6.8%.

  5. Microscopy 'AIDS' in diagnosing a febrile infant | Crous | Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 12, No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Microscopy 'AIDS' in diagnosing a febrile infant.

  6. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices on HIV/AIDS, its Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Data from family life education KAP survey in 1999 involving 18,564 primary school pupils from 20 regions of Tanzania mainland showed that boys were more aware than girls in many aspects of family life education. Regarding HIV/AIDS and .... medicine and MUCHS for organizing and funding this research program. This.

  7. Medicine measurements; Mesures en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemin, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1995-12-31

    This twentieth chapter on measurements in medicine is made of two separate states of the art: imaging (p. 570-592) and treatment (p. 593-624). The first one explains nuclear imaging (gamma camera), NMR and SMR, bio electric impedance imaging, induced fluorescence detection. The second one explains radiotherapy (external radiotherapy, stereotaxic irradiations, proton irradiation), heart stimulation and defibrillation, tomodensitometry for computer aided conception of prothesis, corneal curvature measurement and keratometry, biological analysis. Then a conclusion is given on the reasonableness of such instrumentation in the present context of harsh economic limitations. (D.L.). Refs., tabs., figs.

  8. An observational study of the prevalence of anaemia in clinical AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To deterime the prevalence of anaemia in patients with clinical AIDS. Methodology: A retrospective small observational study of the prevalence of anaemia in 114 patients with confirmed HIV/AIDS seen at the department of medicine of the university of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between January, 2002 and June, ...

  9. Firebase medicine: extending the Role I aid station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ramey L; Truesdell, A G

    2014-09-01

    The unique nature of counterinsurgency warfare in Afghanistan highlights the tactical and technical challenges of the non-contiguous battlefield. Although remote military outposts distant from their support hubs help project NATO power, they also operate without the advantages of a secure rear area or interior lines of communication. Commonly referred to as 'firebases', these outposts typically house a platoon or company-sized element and present numerous challenges to the delivery of medical care and support. Medical planners and providers can mitigate many of these inherent risks through targeted interventions designed to increase the capabilities of these remote outposts. These interventions include focused higher-level trauma and non-trauma medical training for both medical and non-medical personnel, expanded equipment lists, ongoing medical education, training and rehearsals, and a proven and redundant communications plan. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  11. The First Aid Training Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ian

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the history of first aid training provisions in the United Kingdom with respect to the outdoor industry, what to look for in a first aid training provider, an experiential model of first aid training, and the current National Governing Body requirements for first aid training for various types of coaches and instructors. (TD)

  12. Mommy, Daddy--What's AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates and Practitioners, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    This brochure is designed to help parents answer the questions that their children may ask them about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. It provides basic information about AIDS and HIV, as well as sources for further information, such as the National AIDS Hotline. It…

  13. Marketing medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellsop, G

    1988-02-10

    Medical etiquette has always discouraged advertising. Indeed, the profession as a whole has tended to view the idea of marketing medicine as at best, a trifle infra dig. Maintenance of this attitude has been helped by an ostrich like approach to the realities of private practice, and to the activities of drug companies, which have contributed significantly to our therapeutic abilities. The moves to corporatise and privatise institutions have raised the level of concern of our New Zealand medical profession. It is not self evident that the marketing concept as currently understood by the business community and by politicians is familiar to the medical profession. There must also be at least a level of suspicion that the business and financial world is insufficiently sensitive to the nuances and complexities of health service delivery. This paper will briefly explore those two viewpoints and consider the feasibility of any attempt to marry them.

  14. Narrativ medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte; Getz, Linn

    2015-01-01

    Dagens allmänmedicin påverkas av ett växande managementtänkandetillsammans med fragmenterande ekonomiska incitament.Vårdens kvaliteter evalueras med nya metoder som ”värdebaseradvård” där värde räknas i kronor och ören. Produktion går före etik,och det intersubjektiva mötet mellan patient och läk...... läkare håller påatt nedvärderas. Perspektiven från narrativ medicin kan bidra tillatt visa vad som står på spel. Vilken blir annars berättelsen omallmänmedicinen?...

  15. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood.

  16. Women and AIDS: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G

    1991-01-01

    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  17. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoid medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P J

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis was extensively used as a medicine throughout the developed world in the nineteenth century but went into decline early in the twentieth century ahead of its emergence as the most widely used illicit recreational drug later that century. Recent advances in cannabinoid pharmacology alongside the discovery of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) have re-ignited interest in cannabis-based medicines. The ECS has emerged as an important physiological system and plausible target for new medicines. Its receptors and endogenous ligands play a vital modulatory role in diverse functions including immune response, food intake, cognition, emotion, perception, behavioural reinforcement, motor co-ordination, body temperature, wake/sleep cycle, bone formation and resorption, and various aspects of hormonal control. In disease it may act as part of the physiological response or as a component of the underlying pathology. In the forefront of clinical research are the cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, and their contrasting pharmacology will be briefly outlined. The therapeutic potential and possible risks of drugs that inhibit the ECS will also be considered. This paper will then go on to review clinical research exploring the potential of cannabinoid medicines in the following indications: symptomatic relief in multiple sclerosis, chronic neuropathic pain, intractable nausea and vomiting, loss of appetite and weight in the context of cancer or AIDS, psychosis, epilepsy, addiction, and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  19. Early AIDS dementia complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountz, J.M.; Speed, N.M.; Adams, K.; Schwartz, J.A.; Gross, M.D.; Ostrow, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    A frequent complication of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is AIDS dementia complex (ADC). The authors evaluated seven patients with AIDS (aged 28-55 years, all male) for ADC by psychiatric evaluation, neuropsychological testing, CT scanning, and IMP-SPECT. Six of seven patients exhibited cognitive or behavioral abnormalities. Neuropsychological testing showed general deficits but no cases of explicit dementia. SPECT showed marked abnormalities in two cases: posterior temporal-parietal diminution of tracer uptake in one case (posterior/anterior=0.81) and marked right/left subcortical asymmetry (1.17) in the other. In three additional cases there was asymmetric tracer uptake in the subcortical and parietal regions. CT findings were normal in all seven cases. The authors conclude that functional imaging with the use of IMP-SPECT may be a useful method to follow ADC progression and response to therapy

  20. Aids : A Rampant Intruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The HIV/AIDS epidemic represents the most serious public health problem in India. There is no denial of the enormity of the problem. The prevalence of infection in all parts of the world highlights the spread from urban to rural areas and from high risk to general population. It is esti­mated that as on end of year 2004, 39.4 million people were infected with the virus. Migration of labour, low lit­eracy levels leading to low awareness, gender disparities, prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and reproduc­tive tract infections are some of the factors attributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS.4.9 million ( 4.3 million - 6.4 million people have aquired HIV infection only in one year of span - 2004. The global AIDS epidemic killed 3.1 million ( 2,8 million- 3.5 million people in the past year.

  1. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    The recent financial crisis has rekindled interest in the foreign aid supply behaviour of bilateral donors. Using the latest data covering the period 1960-2009, this paper examines how such behaviour is related to domestic factors. Based on a simple empirical model, a distinction is made between ...... substantial heterogeneity between countries. There is also good evidence that donor behaviour continues to evolve over time. As such, past trends in aid supplies are unlikely to provide a good guide to those of the future....

  2. Acute abdomen in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlman, J.E.; Fishman, E.K.

    1989-01-01

    The CT scans of 80 patients with both AIDS and acute abdominal pain were reviewed. CT identifiable causes of pain included perforation (four); colitides (15); septic infarctions (six); abscesses (10); bowel obstruction due to tumor (four); ascending cholangitis (two); enterovesical fistula (one); and sacral osteomyelitis (one). CT affected management in 40% of patients by narrowing diagnostic possibilities, triaging between surgical versus nonsurgical emergencies, and directing diagnostic procedures. CT was an expeditious triage modality for evaluating the critically ill patient with AIDS and acute abdominal pain

  3. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2015-01-01

    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...

  4. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2013-01-01

    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper......, an interactive personalization system based on Gaussian process regression and active learning is proposed, which personalize the hearing aids based directly on what the user perceives. Preliminary results demonstrate a significant difference between a truly personalized setting obtained with the proposed system...

  5. Pulmonary manifestation of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Dinkel, E.; Laaff, H.; Wuertemberger, G.; Senn, H.; Vaith, P.; Kroepelin, T.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We reviewed retrospectively the clinical records of 28 patients with AIDS staged group IV according to CDC-criteria. Among these, 19 had pulmonary disease: most of them (n=17) had pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (Pcp). 12/17 patients with proven Pcp displayed typical X-ray findings with diffuse perihilar interstitial infiltration sparing lung periphery. 3/17 had atypical features and 2 normal chest x-ray findings. These data are important to identify patients with pulmonary complications of AIDS. (orig.) [de

  6. Computerized operator decision aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, A.B.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the potential benefits associated with the use of computers in nuclear plants by the operating crew as an aid in making decisions. Pertinent findings are presented from recently completed projects to establish the context in which operating decisions have to be made. Key factors influencing the decision-making process itself are also identified. Safety parameter display systems, which are being implemented in various forms by the nuclear industry, are described within the context of decision making. In addition, relevant worldwide research and development activities are examined as potential enhancements to computerized operator decision aids to further improve plant safety and availability

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  8. Research medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    In Section I of this annual report, a brief summary of work is presented by the Research Medicine Group. The major emphasis has been the study of the blood system in man with a special emphasis on the examination of platelet abnormalities in human disease. New programs of major importance include the study of aging or dementia of the Alzheimer's type. A differential diagnosis technique has been perfected using positron emission tomography. Studies on the biochemical basis of schizophrenia have proceeded using radioisotope studies which image physiological and biochemical processes. In the investigation of atherosclerosis, techniques have been developed to measure blood perfusion of the heart muscle by labelling platelets and lipoproteins. Progress is reported in a new program which uses NMR for both imaging and spectroscopic studies in humans. The group has determined through an epidemiological study that bubble chamber and cyclotron workers who have been exposed to high electromagnetic fields for two decades have no significant increases in the prevalence of 21 diseases as compared with controls

  9. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...

  10. Machine Aids to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  11. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  12. Agglomeration and aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA key issue in development economics is the explanation of core-periphery patterns around the world. Combining this issue with that of analyzing unilateral transfers (e.g. foreign aid) points in the direction of the use of New Economic Geography (NEG) models which, so far, has not been

  13. 1 HIV AND AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    It presents a situation analysis for HIV/AIDS infection including a range of prevention and treatment activities. The spread of the infection and disease would have damaging consequences if not controlled. The country's experience suggests that there are certain aspects of this development problem which require urgent and ...

  14. First Aid Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a challenge wherein students will be asked to design a portable first aid kit that is normally carried in a recreational vehicle (RV), but can also be hand-carried or backpacked off road for distances of approximately 1-2 miles. This can be a very practical challenge for the students because it touches everyone. Everybody…

  15. More than First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoessler, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The school nurse is an important member of the school team since school health services keep students in school, in the classroom, and ready to learn. Although school nurses are often seen as the people who deliver first aid at school, their role is much deeper and has such breadth that only a registered, professional nurse has the skill set to…

  16. Gender, HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassoff, C

    1994-07-01

    Gender refers to differences in behavior, cultural expectations, and the social roles of males and females within particular social structures. A gender approach to health and illness includes not only biological aspects, but also the social, cultural, and economic contexts of those affected. A gender approach to the impact of HIV and AIDS therefore must take into account female and male roles in terms of factors which affect the risk of exposure and infection, responsibility for preventive actions, responsibility for caring for people with AIDS, and access to health care and treatment. A gender analysis of health is concerned with the well-being of individuals as human beings with personal needs, priorities, and preferences within the context of everyday experience. The gender and tropical diseases framework incorporates the three following principal dimensions: economic/production, social reproduction, and personal. This framework applies to the impact of HIV and AIDS on men and women as described in the case presented in the text of a man and woman in Africa infected with HIV. The man became ill with what clinically appeared to be AIDS. He refused, however, to have his blood tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV and would not tell anyone, especially his family, about his condition. The ongoing illness crippled the man and his family financially, and ultimately killed him. After his death, his wife was confirmed HIV-seropositive. She now travels by bus to work and lies in bed despondent at night.

  17. CitizenAID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    CitizenAID is an easy-to-use app that informs users how to provide care in mass casualty situations, including shootings, knife attacks and bomb incidents. The authors are well known and respected specialists in trauma care and disaster management.

  18. Computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barache, J.M.; Beltranda, G.; Blanc, P.

    1987-01-01

    In order to ensure that the data transmitted to the managment system is of the required quality and consistent with the general control command protocols, computer aided design (CAD) was employed for level N4. One describes the use of CAD for the control system of N4 [fr

  19. AIDS, haemophiliacs and, Haitians

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    19 Feb 1983 ... Vieira er at. hint that cytomegalovirus (CMV) might have played a part in the immunosuppression, and there have been other reports of CMV infection preceding disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma, another manifestation of. AIDS in homosexual men in San Francisco. In this series, reported by Drew er al., 5 all ...

  20. Performance Aided Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario

    2014-01-01

    in the design process, and use it as a source of inspiration for developing unique, innovative, adapted to the context design solutions. The paper will describe the roots of Performance Aided Design, the outline of its development, and the tools being developed as plugin for Grasshopper, the parametric design...

  1. Leishmaniasis and AIDS coinfection*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozannah, Adriana; Santos, Monica; Chrusciak-Talhari, Anette; Talhari, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection has been reported in Brazil since the initial description of AIDS in the country. We report an HIV-positive patient under antiretroviral treatment who presented with cutaneous leishmaniasis which was successfully treated with meglumine antimoniate. PMID:24474115

  2. Fighting AIDS with evidence

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    In South Africa's health system, basic informa- tion on patients' health status and treatment history is not routinely captured in the form of patient profiles. This poses risks ... slums that ring South Africa's cities. This leaves the poorest and most AIDS-affected popula- tions with limited access to transportation to treatment sites.

  3. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... of tropical diseases interconnected to fuel the communication of HIV-1 in the 1960s, as the country struggled to adapt to its newfound independence. With a unique synthesis of historical, political and medical elements, this book adds a coherent and necessary historical perspective to recent molecular studies of the chronology of the HIV/AIDS pandemic"--Provided by publisher.

  4. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  5. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Search the NIGMS Website Search the NIGMS Website NIGMS Home Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A ...

  6. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...

  8. Taking multiple medicines safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why You May Need More Than One Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  9. Managing Your Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Your Medicines Updated:Mar 8,2018 If you have heart ... Weight • Tools & Resources Heart Insight Supplement: Know Your Medicines Keeping track of your medicines can be overwhelming. ...

  10. Cold medicines and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000942.htm Cold medicines and children To use the sharing features on ... children younger than age 4. About OTC Cold Medicines Cold medicines do not cure or shorten a ...

  11. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drain. Also, DO NOT toss medicines in the trash. DO NOT take your medicine in front of ... Accessed January 13, 2017. US Food and Drug Administration. How to dispose of unused medicines. FDA.gov. ...

  12. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  13. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  14. AIDS: there's hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    In 1993, 10 years after realizing that AIDS posed a threat to the future of mankind, social mobilization will improve the odds against AIDS. The objective is to create awareness about the virus, and to affect positive behavioral change through advocacy, communication, and grass-roots actions. The first goal is to change the societal attitude about the status of youth and women in order to understand that gender inequality fuels the pandemic. They are the most vulnerable groups, therefore their economic and social power must be improved. The Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women constitute a platform for broader action by governmental, nongovernmental, and religious institutions. In addition, these organizations need strong allies in society: 1) the media, which can communicate the importance of youth, women, and attitudes in the epidemic; 2) religious leaders, who can be powerful sources of advocacy for change in attitudes as well as support and care for AIDS-affected individuals and families; 3) policy makers, who can be crucial in changing existing policies and altering the allocation of government resources to youth and women; 4) human rights organizations, which play an important role in promoting the concept of health as a human right and for enhancing the understanding of AIDS in the context of discrimination and poverty; 5) the private sector, including commerce and industry, which can promote changes in attitude within the work force and AIDS prevention initiatives; and 6) parent-teacher groups and models for youth, who can educate them about socially acceptable and unacceptable behavior and can empower them to make responsible behavior choices.

  15. [Will AIDS overtake them?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhari, S

    UNICEF estimates that the streets are now the home of some 5 million African children aged 7-15 who are victims of rapid population growth and urbanization as well as the disintegration of traditional family structure. These children, deprived of a home and of all parental control, are potentially very vulnerable to the threat of AIDS. Prostitution, which is almost institutionalized in the most impoverished urban areas, represents for young girls the most immediate means of survival and occasionally even of helping their families. Male prostitution is highly tabu and marginal in sub-Saharan Africa, and is only slightly developed around the tourist hotels. Homeless children are somewhat protected against contamination through the blood by their lack of access to health care. Intravenous drugs are rare in Africa, and drug use is at most an indirect risk factor for AIDS to the extent that in increases the need for money and weakens the immune system. The frequency of sexually transmitted diseases, deplorable hygienic conditions, and poor general health of homeless children increase their risk of contracting the virus. Many homeless children do not even know of the existence of condoms and in any event condoms are usually inaccessible or too costly for them. Homeless children, like the general population, have false ideas about AIDS that discourage self-protective behaviors. In addition they are cut off from the activities of existing prevention programs. In a context of permanent daily insecurity, AIDS appears as just 1 more menace among others. According to an anthropologist working with the UNESCO program to help homeless children, the only way of making such children aware of the threat of AIDS in the large African cities will be to increase the number of prevention programs targeted at them. At the same time, the children need to be educated and taught an income-generating skill; in short, they need to be given a reason to believe in the future.

  16. Ethnoveterinary Medicine: The prospects of integrating medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants products are part of the natural products that have been in use in traditional medicine and also a source of novel drugs. Therefore, the use of medicinal plant products would be a rational alternative to synthetic drugs. Ethnobotanical surveys carried out in many parts of Kenya have revealed a lot of plants ...

  17. Obstetric medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Balbi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Obstetric assistance made major advances in the last 20 years: improved surgical technique allows quicker caesarean sections, anaesthesiology procedures such as peripheral anaesthesia and epidural analgesia made safer operative assistance, remarkably reducing perioperative morbidity and mortality, neonatology greatly improved the results of assistance to low birth weight newborns. A new branch of medicine called “obstetric medicine” gained interest and experience after the lessons of distinguished physicians like Michael De Swiet in England. All together these advances are making successful pregnancies that 20 years ago would have been discouraged or even interrupted: that’s what we call high risk pregnancy. High risk of what? Either complications of pregnancy on pre-existing disease or complications of pre-existing disease on pregnancy. Nowadays, mortality in pregnancy has a medical cause in 80% of cases in Western countries (Confidential Enquiry on Maternal Deaths, UK, 2004. DISCUSSION The background is always changing and we have to take in account of: increase of maternal age; widespread use of assisted fertilization techniques for treatment of infertility; social feelings about maternity desire with increasing expectations from medical assistance; immigration of medically “naive” patients who don’t know to have a chronic disease, but apt and ready to conceive; limited knowledge of feasibility of drug use in pregnancy which may induce both patients and doctors to stopping appropriate drug therapy in condition of severe disease. Preconception counseling, planning the pregnancy, wise use of drugs, regular follow-up throughout the pregnancy and, in selected cases, preterm elective termination of pregnancy may result in excellent outcome both for mother and foetus. CONCLUSIONS Highly committed and specifically trained physicians are required to counsel these patients and to plan their treatment before and during pregnancy.

  18. Problems of pharmacological supply of disaster medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabaev, V.V.; Il'ina, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper reviews a number of pharmacological problems, being important for the disaster medicine, of theoretical and practical nature, the settlement of which would promote more efficient rendering emergency medical aid to the injured persons in the conditions of emergency situations and further expert medical care. On the example of radiation accidents there are studied methodical approaches to organization of drug prophylaxis and therapy of the injured persons in emergency situations. The authors have proved the necessity of arranging proper pharmacological supply of disaster medicine which is to settle the whole complex of scientific-applied and organizational questions relating to the competence of pharmacology and pharmacy. 17 refs

  19. Medicines for osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... when: A bone density test shows you have osteoporosis, even if you have not had a fracture ...

  20. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having HIV/AIDS weakens your body's immune system. It destroys the white blood cells that fight infection. This puts ... such as crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis) Having HIV/AIDS can make infections harder to treat. People ...

  1. Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... destroying the white blood cells that fight infection. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. Infection with HIV is serious. But thanks to ...

  2. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Grants Countdown to a Cure for AIDS amfAR Institute for HIV Cure Research amfAR Research Consortium on HIV Eradication: (ARCHE) Publications ...

  3. Does Corruption Cause Aid Fatigue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauhr, Monika; Charron, Nicholas; Nasiritousi, Naghmeh

    2013-01-01

    Does perceived corruption in recipient countries reduce support for foreign aid in donor countries? This under-explored yet salient question is examined using the 2009 Eurobarometer survey for the 27 EU countries. We suggest that perceived corruption can cause aid fatigue but that this relationship...... is highly contextualized. The results show that perceptions about corruption in developing countries reduce overall support for aid among respondents in donor countries. However, this effect is mitigated by country and contextual-level effects and different understandings of what we call the “aid-corruption...... paradox,” namely that the need for foreign aid is often the greatest in corrupt environments. Three different dynamics of the aid-corruption paradox influence support for aid: moral, pragmatic, and strategic understandings. In EU-15 countries, the effect of perceived corruption in recipient states on aid...

  4. Aid and the environment: Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kateregga, Eseza

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to (i) establish the areas in which aid from the major donors is concentrated; (ii) examine how aid has been allocated to the environmental sectors, and (iii) review the factors behind the success of environmental projects. Using data from the Aiddata.org database, the distribution of environment-related aid, commitments and disbursements from the major donors over the period 2005 - 11 is examined. Recipients of aid and donors were interviewed to learn their perceptions on ai...

  5. Clinical aromatherapy and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Clinical aromatherapy is the use of essential oils for expected outcomes that are measurable and is a therapy that is used as part of nursing care in Switzerland, Germany, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom, and, more recently, the United States. Essential oils are steam distillates obtained from aromatic plants. These volatile extracts have been used for many years by French hospitals against airborne bacteria and fungi. As antimicrobial agents, essential oils may be appropriate in HIV/AIDS for specific opportunistic infections. Aromatherapy can also alter perceptions of chronic pain, help maintain skin integrity, and is useful in stress management. Methods of application vary depending on the site of infection and the psychological profile of the patient and can include inhalation, compresses, baths, massage, and the "m" technique. This article will explore the potential use of essential oils in HIV/AIDS focusing on four opportunistic infections: Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and herpes simplex types I and II.

  6. Mutual aid fund commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the Board of the Mutual Aid Fund for 2011 is as follows: President: Pascal Droux Vice-president: Connie Potter Treasurer: Louis Pereira Deputy treasurer: Barbara Brugger Secretary: Sonia Casenove Deputy secretary: Isabelle Mardirossian Members: Christopher David Thomas   Jean-Claude Vialis (GAC member)   Marie-Luce Falipou   Gunilla Santiard (Jean-Claude Vialis’s alternate) The role of the Fund is to provide financial help to members of personnel and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund who are in need of exceptional financial assistance. All requests are treated in the strictest confidence. Should you wish to apply for aid from the Fund, kindly contact any member of the Board as given above or Social Services, tel.74479 – 73867.

  7. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de

  8. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  9. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thereby achieve a true cure for the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This Research Report is designed to highlight the state of ... Style AMA Style NIDA. (2012, July 1). HIV/AIDS. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/hivaids NIDA. "HIV/AIDS." National Institute on ...

  10. How Do People Get AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Do People Get AIDS? Print en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  11. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Office of Adolescent Health OAR NIH Office of AIDS Research OCR HHS Office for Civil Rights OFBNP HHS ... Personal Stories Photos PLWHA People Living with HIV/AIDS Podcasts PrEP Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prevention PWID People Who Inject Drugs Research Research Agenda Ryan White Ryan White HIV/AIDS ...

  12. AIDS in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, M P

    1991-02-18

    The reasons for the rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand, and the impact of the unique non-governmental agency Population and Community Development Association (PDA) directed by the charismatic Dr. Mechai are described. The rapid spread of AIDS in Thailand is due to presence of all possible factors facilitating HIV transmission, a large population of injecting drug addicts, an extensive mobile domestic and tourist sex industry, and an active gay community. The number of HIV-positive persons rose from 179 in 1988 to 16,359 in 1989, and is now estimated at 100,000. 1% of the Thai population works in prostitution, and from 16% of the high-income to 72% of the low-income prostitutes are infected, with their infection rates rising 10% per month. 75% of Thai men use cheap prostitutes. While the government was ignoring the AIDS threat in the early '80s, Dr. Mechai, whose name translated as "condom," was organizing the grass-roots community-based condom distribution system PDA, said to be responsible for the fall in annual population growth from 3.4% in 1968 to 1.5% in 1990. His organization now distributes contraceptives to 16,000 villages by 12,000 volunteers. He uses booklets, cards, cassettes, slide shows, videos and appearances with condom-inflating contests and costumes to de-mystify condoms with humor. Now AIDS messages are heard in taxis, on military TV and radio, and in remote villages. Converting knowledge into practice is more difficult, requiring tactful convincing of brothel operators and finding some way to reach their clients, who exert economic control over young female prostitutes.

  13. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  14. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-06

    after developing symptoms. According to a recent survey, about 200 Buddhist monks Official figures released by the Thai Public Health Min- have...34bourgeois ideas" and "bourgeois China, another more fearsome sexually transmitted fatal lifestyles ," which caused the appearance in China of illness-AIDS...protected from urban ways-but this seems to be totally sively the details of patients’ lifestyles . But of the 51 false. positive cases the hospital

  15. Towards an integrated approach to health and medicine in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batisai, Kezia

    2016-12-01

    This article frames the intersections of medicine and humanities as intrinsic to understanding the practice of health care in Africa. Central to this manuscript, which draws on empirical findings on the interplay between HIV and AIDS and alternative medicine in Zimbabwe is the realisation that very limited research has been undertaken to examine 'HIV/AIDS patient behaviour' with respect to choice of therapy on the continent [Bene, M. & Darkoh, M. B. K. (2014). The Constraints of Antiretroviral Uptake in Rural Areas: The Case of Thamaga and Surrounding Villages, Botswana. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 167-177. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.972057 ; Chavunduka, G. (1998). Professionalisation of Traditional Medicine in Zimbabwe, Harare, Jongwe Printers; O'Brien, S. & Broom, A. (2014). HIV in (and out of) the Clinic: Biomedicine, Traditional Medicine and Spiritual Healing in Harare. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 11(1), 94-104. doi: 10.1080/17290376.2014.938102 ]. As such, a social approach to health-seeking behaviour questions how decisions about alternative therapies including herbal remedies, traditional healing and faith healing are made. The paper unpacks the realities around how people living with HIV and AIDS - who span different age groups and profess various religious backgrounds, faced with an insurmountable health challenge against a background of limited resources and no cure for the virus - often experience shifts in health-seeking behaviour. Grappling with seemingly simple questions about 'when, where and how to seek medical attention', the paper provides pointers to therapy choices and health-seeking behaviour; and it serves as a route into deeper and intense healthcare practice explorations. In conclusion, the paper proposes that medicine and the humanities should engage seriously with those social aspects of HIV and AIDS which call for an integrated approach to healthcare practice in Africa. If combined, medicine and the humanities

  16. Band-Aid Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lave, Judith R.

    1989-01-01

    Written by one of three members of Institute of Medicine's Committee on Health Care for Homeless who did not sign "Health Care for the Homeless," controversial supplementary statement to Committee's report, "Homelessness, Health and Human Needs." Explains reasons for not signing and argues that health care problems of homeless…

  17. Pulmonary infection in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seog Joon; Im, Jung Gi; Seong, Chang Kyu; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Song, Jae Woo

    1998-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and radiological manifestations of pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS. We reviewed the medical records and analyzed retrospectively analysed the chest radiographs(n=3D24) and CT scans(n=3D11) of 26 patients with AIDS who had been followed up at our institute from 1987 to June 1998. Pulmonary infections were confirmed by sputum smear and culture(n=3D18), pleural examination(n=3D3), bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D3), autopsy(n=3D4), transbronchial lung biopsy(n=3D1) or clinical history(n=3D9). The study group included 23 men and three women aged 25-54(average 35.2) years. We correlated the radiologic findings with CD4 lymphocyte counts. Pulmonary infections included tuberculosis(n=3D22), pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(n=3D9), cytomegalovirus(n=3D3), and unidentified bacterial pneumonia(n=3D2). Radiologically pulmonary tuberculosis was classified as primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:41.3 cells/mm 3 ) and post-primary tuberculosis(n=3D11;mean CD4 counts:251.3cells/mm 3 ). CT findings of tuberculosis included lymphadenitis(n=3D6), bronchogenic spread(n=3D5), large consolidation(n=3D4), esophago-mediastinal fistula(n=3D2), and cavity(n=3D1). Tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-TB medication with complete or marked resolution of lesions within three months. Radiologic findings of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia included diffuse ground glass opacities, cysts, and reticular opacities. Tuberculosis was the most common infection in patients with AIDS in Korea, and this is attributed to the high prevalence of tuberculosis. Radiological findings varied with CD4+cell count, showing those of primary tuberculosis as a patient's CD4+ cell count decreased. Pulmonary tuberculosis in AIDS responded rapidly to anti-Tb medication. =20

  18. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  19. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  20. [AIDS prevention in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, E

    2007-04-01

    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  1. Polyurethane - positioning aids in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de

  2. Personalized laboratory medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Mancini, I.

    2015-01-01

    Developments in "omics" are creating a paradigm shift in Laboratory Medicine leading to Personalised Medicine. This allows the increasing in diagnostics and therapeutics focused on individuals rather than populations. In order to investigate whether Laboratory Medicine is able to implement new...... diagnostic tools and expertise and commands proper state-of-the-art knowledge about Personalized Medicine and Laboratory Medicine in Europe, the joint Working Group "Personalized Laboratory Medicine" of the EFLM and ESPT societies compiled and conducted the Questionnaire "Is Laboratory Medicine ready...... for the era of Personalized Medicine?". 48 laboratories from 18 European countries participated at this survey. The answers of the participating Laboratory Medicine professionals indicate that they are aware that Personalized Medicine can represent a new and promising health model. Whereas they are aware...

  3. Filling a gap in transfusion medicine education and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibinga, Cees Th Smit

    2009-10-01

    After the outbreak of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, attention was focused on the restructuring and reorganization of nationally supported safe and sustainable blood supply systems. Networking and human capacity building in transfusion medicine were developed through World Health Organization initiatives. Educational materials were created for the core elements of the blood transfusion chain. However, the management aspects of transfusion medicine as well as applied health science research in transfusion medicine were not addressed. In 2000, the World Health Organization initiated the creation of the Academic Institute for International Development of Transfusion Medicine (IDTM). This would focus on the development of a postgraduate master's course in management of transfusion medicine (MMTM) and the development of research programs for transfusion medicine-related health sciences. The Academic Institute IDTM was created at the University of Groningen Faculty of Medical Sciences, The Netherlands. The MMTM course was thus established, and since September 2007 fourteen fellows from economically restricted countries have entered the course.

  4. Improvements for international medicine donations: a review of the World Health Organization Guidelines for Medicine Donations, 3rd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañigueral-Vila, Nuria; Chen, Jennifer C; Frenkel-Rorden, Lindsey; Laing, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Some humanitarian and development organizations respond to major natural disasters and emergencies by donating medicines. Many provide medicines on a routine basis to support health systems, particularly those run by Faith-Based Organizations. Although such donations can provide essential medicines to populations in great need, inappropriate donations also take place, with burdensome consequences. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed the interagency Guidelines for Medicine Donations for use by donors and recipients in the context of emergency aid and international development assistance. Although comprehensive in nature and transferable to various emergency situations, adjustments to both content and formatting would improve this resource. Recommendations for the next version of these guidelines include: specific wording and consistent formatting; definition of who is a recipient, clear distinction between acute and long-term emergencies, and proper donation procedures pertaining to each; inclusion of visual aides such as flowcharts, checklists, and photos; and improving the citations system.

  5. [No remedy for AIDS?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, M M

    1993-01-01

    Vila Mimosa, a site of street prostitution in Rio de Janeiro since the 1930s, is the place of work for over 2000 prostitution who charge an average of $3-4 per client. Several years ago the Association of Prostitutes of Rio de Janeiro (APRJ) was founded by Eunice Coelho Reis. APRJ membership has increased steadily and its list of accomplishments is impressive. A state hospital performs free medical examinations of APRJ members, and the Brazilian family planning association BEMFAM provides 180,000 condoms each month. AIDS control projects have also been successful, and no APRJ members have contracted HIV infection. In the country with the 4th highest rate of infection, the rigid norm of condom use adopted by the prostitutes of Vila Mimosa has led to effective prevention of sexually transmitted diseases. The prostitutes report however that a large proportion of their clients resist condom use, sometimes violently. The proportion of seropositive individuals who are women has been rising steadily. Family Health International estimates that the proportion of new cases among women has risen from 25% in 1990 to 40% at present. AIDS prevention campaigns are attempting to persuade women to "negotiate" condom use during sex. But power relations between the sexes place women at a disadvantage. Men often make the sexual decisions. Socialization patterns of females in Latin America are oriented to maternity. Passive sexual behavior has become a primary obstacle to adoption of safer sex practices. The World Health Organization estimates that currently 9-11 million persons are latent carriers of the HIV virus. Prostitution originating in poverty and unemployment, the vulnerability of adolescents who begin their sexual lives with little knowledge of contraception or sexually transmitted diseases, and the lack of sex education that transcends the biological to consider interpersonal relations are all factors that hinder AIDS prevention.

  6. AIDS and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, an HIV prevention program advisor and a research/evaluation specialist for family planning programs discussed problems that affected HIV prevention and family planning services in Haiti before and after the coup of the Aristide government. Population activities began aimlessly in 1974 and HIV prevention efforts only began in 1988. After the coup, Haitians lost their newly found hope for meaningful development. All foreign assistance ended and they did not trust the army. In fact, other than essential child survival activities, no health and family planning services operated for several weeks. The situation grew worse after the economic embargo. 3 months after the coup, the US considered adding family planning assistance. Still little movement of condom, family planning, and health supplies left Port-au-Prince for the provinces which adversely affected all health related efforts. Condoms could no longer be distributed easily either in the socially marketed or US supplied condom distribution programs. Before the coup, HIV prevention and family planning programs depended on peer educators to educate the public (this approach made these programs quite successful), but the 2 experts feared that they would not return to those roles and that these programs would need to completely rebuild. Another concern was the large scale urban-rural migration making it difficult for them to continue care. Early in the AIDS epidemic, the Haitian government was on the defensive because the US considered Haitians as a high risk group so it did little to prevent HIV transmission. After 1988, HIV prevention activities in Haiti centered on raising awareness and personalizing the epidemic. The AIDS specialist noted, however, that a major obstacle to increasing knowledge is that AIDS is just 1 of many fatal diseases in Haiti. Moreover few health professionals in Haiti have ever had public health training.

  7. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines.

  8. First aid in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sulley, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Achieve the best possible standard with this bestselling book of traditional practice and guidance - now in colour!. First Aid in Mathematics provides all the help and support needed for learning and practising Mathematics. It offers comprehensive coverage of core mathematical topics in clear and accessible language. It is suitable for both native English speakers and students of English as a second language and can be used in class, or as a reference and revision book. - Develops a strong basis of understanding with core topics covered in clear and accessible language. - Improves student's ab

  9. [Adolescence and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The myths and prejudices that distort the reality and hide the true causes and effects of natural and social phenomena related to sexuality have a fertile ground in AIDS, given its obvious link to sex. The alarming spread of AIDS has been 1 result of these myths and prejudices. Human beings are sexual by nature; genital organs determine sex and also induce sexual behavior. It is by not fairly well accepted that an individual's sexuality exists from birth. Puberty usually begins at 12-16 years for both sexes. The physical changes of puberty terminate in the ability of the female to conceive and the male to procreate. The sexual excitation of adolescents resulting from production of various hormones can only be eliminated by some type of sexual satisfaction or sublimation. Sexuality, according to Freud, is an organizing principle of the personality. The sexual organs exist not merely for reproduction but to provide pleasure. Puberty signifies entry into active sex life. But the ideological structure of society, perpetuated by the family, schools, religion, the mass media, and other social institutions, sends confused signals to adolescents, requiring abstinence and virginity until marriage for women while encouraging sexual adventures for men. Adolescents are confronted by their new sexual feelings in the midst of a virtual bombardment of visual sexual stimuli from the mass media. It becomes impossible for adolescents to satisfy the requirements of appearances while also resolving the problems and pressures of their newly gained sexual maturity. Many adolescents become sexually active, and the problem is not to prevent sexual activity but to improve the conditions under which it occurs. Adolescents, lacking education and information about sex, begin their sex lives without protection. AIDS has now been added to the list of dire consequences that can result. A true sex education beginning in the home is needed to enable young people to develop healthy and full sex

  10. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction...... impacted by hearing loss and (non-) use of hearing technologies. The researchers report on pilot studies from Australia, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Switzerland and the USA. Using Conversation Analysis, the studies identify problems and serve as points of departure for possible solutions. Researchers...

  11. The paradox of non-evidence based, publicly funded complementary alternative medicine in the English National Health Service: An explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Maria K

    2015-10-01

    Despite the unproven effectiveness of many practices that are under the umbrella term 'complementary alternative medicine' (CAM), there is provision of CAM within the English National Health Service (NHS). Moreover, although the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence was established to promote scientifically validated medicine in the NHS, the paradox of publicly funded, non-evidence based CAM can be explained as linked with government policy of patient choice and specifically patient treatment choice. Patient choice is useful in the political and policy discourse as it is open to different interpretations and can be justified by policy-makers who rely on the traditional NHS values of equity and universality. Treatment choice finds expression in the policy of personalised healthcare linked with patient responsibilisation which finds resonance in the emphasis CAM places on self-care and self-management. More importantly, however, policy-makers also use patient choice and treatment choice as a policy initiative with the objective of encouraging destabilisation of the entrenched healthcare institutions and practices considered resistant to change. This political strategy of system reform has the unintended, paradoxical consequence of allowing for the emergence of non-evidence based, publicly funded CAM in the NHS. The political and policy discourse of patient choice thus trumps evidence based medicine, with patients that demand access to CAM becoming the unwitting beneficiaries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    , and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over......This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility...... heated” debate on aid needs redirecting toward more rigorous analysis, in which the advantages—and disadvantages—of using aid for development can be evaluated in a calmer manner....

  13. A study on NMI report generation with computer aid diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaona; Li Zhimin; Zhao Xiangjun; Qiu Jinping

    1994-01-01

    An expert system of intelligent diagnosis, computer aid diagnosis and computerized report generation and management for an nuclear medicine imaging (NMI) was performed. The mathematic model with finite set mapping for the diagnosis was evaluated. The clinical application shows, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of it was 85.7% ∼ 93.4% and 92% ∼ 95.6% respectively. Therefore, its application may be extended

  14. Bone Anchored Hearing Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this health technology policy assessment was to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) in improving the hearing of people with conduction or mixed hearing loss. The Technology The (BAHA) is a bone conduction hearing device that includes a titanium fixture permanently implanted into the mastoid bone of the skull and an external percutaneous sound processor. The sound processor is attached to the fixture by means of a skin penetrating abutment. Because the device bypasses the middle ear and directly stimulates the cochlea, it has been recommended for individuals with conduction hearing loss or discharging middle ear infection. The titanium implant is expected to last a lifetime while the external sound processor is expected to last 5 years. The total initial device cost is approximately $5,300 and the external sound processor costs approximately $3,500. Review of BAHA by the Medical Advisory Secretariat The Medical Advisory Secretariat’s review is a descriptive synthesis of findings from 36 research articles published between January 1990 and May 2002. Summary of Findings No randomized controlled studies were found. The evidence was derived from level 4 case series with relative small sample sizes (ranging from 30-188). The majority of the studies have follow-up periods of eight years or longer. All except one study were based on monaural BAHA implant on the side with the best bone conduction threshold. Safety Level 4 evidence showed that BAHA has been be implanted safely in adults and children with success rates of 90% or higher in most studies. No mortality or life threatening morbidity has been reported. Revision rates for tissue reduction or resiting were generally under 10% for adults but have been reported to be as high as 25% in pediatric studies. Adverse skin reaction around the skin penetration site was the most common complication reported. Most of these

  15. Emerging nanotechnology approaches for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Tewodros; Moseman, E Ashley; Kolishetti, Nagesh; Salvador-Morales, Carolina; Shi, Jinjun; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Langer, Robert; von Andrian, Ulrich

    2010-01-01

    Currently, there is no cure and no preventive vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved treatment, but it has to be taken for a lifetime, has major side effects and is ineffective in patients in whom the virus develops resistance. Nanotechnology is an emerging multidisciplinary field that is revolutionizing medicine in the 21st century. It has a vast potential to radically advance the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS. In this review, we discuss the challenges with the current treatment of the disease and shed light on the remarkable potential of nanotechnology to provide more effective treatment and prevention for HIV/AIDS by advancing antiretroviral therapy, gene therapy, immunotherapy, vaccinology and microbicides. PMID:20148638

  16. HIV/AIDS - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resistance - HIV medicines, part 4 - English MP4 Drug resistance - HIV medicines, part 4 - 日本語 (Japanese) MP4 Healthy Roads Media Find Support - Newly diagnosed with HIV, part 7 - English PDF ...

  17. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  18. [AIDS and social justice: pharmaceutical industry and economics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Guzmán, José

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a broad look at the complicated framework of relationships between the third world and pharmaceutical companies. In the first part of the work reference is made to the poverty of these countries, their lack of education in terms of health, the scarcity of basic hygiene, and their greatly limited access to medicines, especially those for treating AIDS. The article then proceeds to the issue of the pharmaceutical companies' degree of responsibility for the reduced availability of medicines in certain areas of the world. One of the factors that most limits access to medicines is their price, and many sectors of society propose taking action on the patents of drugs (rescinding or limiting them) in order to lower their price. However, the problem of patent exemption is more complicated than it seems at first glance, and comes with its own risks. If, for lack of funds or the uncertainty concerning a return on the capital invested, pharmaceutical companies discontinue research and development of new drugs, AIDS therapy would worsen. It is imperative and urgent to develop new drugs against the AIDS because of its resistance to the drugs currently available. The article concludes with the pharmaceutical industry's effort to look for possible forms of collaboration with developing countries.

  19. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  20. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  1. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  2. National Latino AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-08

    This podcast highlights National Latino AIDS Awareness Day, to increase awareness of the disproportionate impact of HIV on the Hispanic or Latino population in the United States and dependent territories. The podcast reminds Hispanics or Latinos that they have the power to take control of their health and protect themselves against HIV.  Created: 10/8/2014 by Office of Health Equity, Office of the Director, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 10/14/2014.

  3. Sports Medicine Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  4. Giving Medicine to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Share Tweet ... right medicine and the right amount More in Articulos en Espanol Alimentos y Bebidas Cosméticos Dispositivos ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) ... molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can be superimposed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... otherwise, your child may resume his/her normal activities after the nuclear medicine scan. If the child ...

  7. National Farm Medicine Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ROPS Rebate Skin Cancer Screening Zika Virus National Farm Medicine Center The National Farm Medicine Center was established in 1981 in response to occupational health problems seen in farm patients coming to Marshfield Clinic. The center continues ...

  8. Cold and Cough Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patient story here Images × Image Gallery Radiologist and patient consultation. View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop ... Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to help ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... referring physician. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits The information provided by nuclear medicine examinations is ... risk is very low compared with the potential benefits. Nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures have been used for ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including the: kidneys and bladder. bones. liver and ... medicine will interpret the images and send a report to your referring physician. top of page What ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary ... area of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  19. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine imaging is performed to help diagnose childhood disorders that are congenital (present at birth) or that develop during ... Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to ... a radiologist or other physician. To locate a medical imaging or radiation oncology provider in your community, you ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  4. Pharmacometabolomics-aided Pharmacogenomics in Autoimmune Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Katsila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual variability has been a major hurdle to optimize disease management. Precision medicine holds promise for improving health and healthcare via tailor-made therapeutic strategies. Herein, we outline the paradigm of “pharmacometabolomics-aided pharmacogenomics” in autoimmune diseases. We envisage merging pharmacometabolomic and pharmacogenomic data (to address the interplay of genomic and environmental influences with information technologies to facilitate data analysis as well as sense- and decision-making on the basis of synergy between artificial and human intelligence. Humans can detect patterns, which computer algorithms may fail to do so, whereas data-intensive and cognitively complex settings and processes limit human ability. We propose that better-informed, rapid and cost-effective omics studies need the implementation of holistic and multidisciplinary approaches.

  5. Computer aided design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, J.D.; Cowden, T.; Haenni, D.R.; Hargis, C.

    1985-01-01

    The research program at the Cyclotron Institute frequently requires special purpose printed circuit boards. These are used either in data acquisition equipment or for control of an experiment. Also during this period of building the new K500 machine, many special boards will be needed for the computerized control system. Due to the very tedious and time consuming process of producing a printed circuit board by the usual drawing techniques, an inexpensive computer aided design (CAD) system was sought. Such a system of software, called P-CAD EDA, was purchased from Personal CAD Systems Inc. and the required hardware to run it was assembled. This hardware consisted of equipping an IBM PC with 640 kilo-bytes of memory, a 20 Mbyte hard disk drive, 2 floppy disk drives, a color monitor, a Calcomp 1043 plotter, a mouse and an Epson FX-80 printer. A block diagram of the system is shown

  6. Ergogenic Aids and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Marisa; Del Boʼ, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Great interest is currently shown for the contribution of nutrition to optimize training and athletic performance, and a considerable debate exists about the potential ergogenic value of several dietary supplements. However, most of the products used by athletes do not provide sufficient scientific evidence regarding their efficacy in enhancing physical performance as well as their specificity of action and safety. For this reason, sport nutrition professionals need skills in evaluating the scientific value of papers and advertisements on ergogenic aids and supplements in order to support athletes in their choice. In the present chapter, the efficacy of some of the most popular supplements used by athletes and sport practitioners will be discussed. Particular attention will be devoted to amino acids and derivatives, caffeine and caffeinated energy drinks, and some antioxidants. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. [Buccal manifestations of AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlibaşa, C; Tovaru, S

    1989-01-01

    The disease determined by HIV, increasingly more frequent, is affecting certain groups of patients (homosexuals, drug addicts, polytransfused subjects). The clinical picture at the onset is not specific. Later on in the course of the disease the immunological capacity of defense of the organism is affected and a series of symptoms including fever, infections with bacteria, lymph-node inflammation, encephalopathies, Kaposi sarcoma will develop. Apparently buccal infections with fungi are the earliest manifestations, and they are followed, by order of frequency, by herpetic lesions, "hairy" leucoplasia, tumours. Transmission through the saliva from the patient to the stomatologist of the HIV infection is theoretically possible due to scratches on the physicians' hands. Prophylactic measures are described for the stomatologists treating AIDS patients, as well as for the sterilization of the instruments.

  8. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole

    1997-01-01

    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...... in CACE enhancing efficient flow of information between the tools supporting the following phases of the design process. In principle, this flow has to be two-way, and more or less automated, in order to enable the engineer to observe the propagation of the particular design decisions taken at various...... levels.The major conclusions of the paper are related with identifying the factors affecting the software tool integration in a way needed to facilitate design "inter-phase" communication. These are: standard application interfaces, dynamic data exchange mechanisms, code generation techniques and general...

  9. AIDS and sex tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Tourists traveling internationally lower their inhibitions and take greater risks than they would typically in their home cultures. Loneliness, boredom, and a sense of freedom contribute to this behavioral change. Some tourists travel internationally in search of sexual gratification. This motivation may be actively conscious or subconscious to the traveler. Billed as romantic with great natural beauty, Thailand, the Philippines, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Kenya are popular destinations of tourists seeking sex. The Netherlands and countries in eastern Europe are also popular. With most initial cases of HIV infection in Europe having histories of international travel, mass tourism is a major factor in the international transmission of AIDS. While abroad, tourists have sex with casual partners, sex workers, and/or other tourists. Far from all tourists, however, carry and consistently use condoms with these partners. One study found female and non white travelers to be less likely than Whites and males to carry condoms. The risk of HIV infection increases in circumstances where condoms are not readily available in the host country and/or are of poor quality. Regarding actual condom use, a study found only 34% of sex tourists from Switzerland to consistently use condoms while abroad. 28% of men in an STD clinic in Melbourne, Australia, reported consistent condom use in sexual relations while traveling in Asia; STDs were identified in 73% of men examined. The few studies of tourists suggest that a significant proportion engage in risky behavior while traveling. HIV prevalence is rapidly increasing in countries known as destinations for sex tourism. High infection rates are especially evident among teenage sex workers in Thailand. Simply documenting the prevalence of risky behavior among sex tourists will not suffice. More research is needed on travelers and AIDS with particular attention upon the motivating factors supporting persistent high-risk behavior.

  10. Aid and good governance: Examining aggregate unintended effects of aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Geske

    2017-09-18

    Although donors generally aim to improve governance in recipient countries by various means, critics claim that the aggregate effect of large aid flows is the deterioration of governance. Aid is said to weaken domestic accountability, sustain authoritarian regimes, increase political instability, weaken government capacities, and increase corruption. Conducting a systematic search in Web of Science, this paper reviews the empirical evidence for these unintended aggregate effects of aid on the political, administrative, and judicial dimensions of good governance. It finds that the negative effects of aid on governance are much exaggerated. The aggregate effect of aid on democracy has become more positive after the Cold War, and the effect of aid on government capacity and on reducing corruption has also improved over time. Furthermore, most studies show a positive effect of aid on political stability. These findings imply that donor intentions matter: donors that are serious about their intended effects on governance are able to mitigate the possible negative unintended effects of their aid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  12. Chemical composition of medicinal plants used as auxiliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find substances of pharmacological interest in a variety of medicinal plants, such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr. and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (Marmelinho), to aid in the treatment of ...

  13. Trends in clinical reproductive medicine research : 10 years of growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Simon, Carlos; Fauser, Bart C J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071281932

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the most important metrics of publication in the field of reproductive medicine over the decade 2003-2012 to aid in discerning the clinical, social, and epidemiologic implications of this relatively new but rapidly emerging area in medical sciences. Design Bibliometric analysis of

  14. 2008 Nobel prize in Medicine for discoverers of HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lever, Andrew M. L.; Berkhout, Ben

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Francoise Barre-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier, codiscoverers of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, have been awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. They share this prize with Harald zur Hausen who was responsible for establishing the link between human papilloma virus

  15. Knowledge, attitude and skills regarding sports medicine among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge, attitude and skills regarding sports medicine among football players and team doctors in the footbal super league in Malawi. ... Most team \\'doctors\\' were aware of the impact of HIV/AIDS on sports but few had good knowledge of the role of nutrition in sports and the effect of performance enhancing drugs in ...

  16. Cultivation and bromatological analysis of the medicinal mushroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-02-04

    Feb 4, 2015 ... medicinal power among their numerous properties, and they can also be used for preventing and treating various diseases, including cancer and AIDS .... in the flame of a Bunsen burner at every cut. 12 g of inoculum seed previously prepared was inserted in each substrate through these openings.

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Traditional Medicine Utilization among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Predictors of Traditional Medicine Utilization among Persons Living With AIDS (PLWA) on Antiretroviral (ARV) and Prophylaxis Treatment in both Rural and Urban Areas in South Africa. GD Hughes, TR Puoane, BL Clark, TL Wondwossen, Q Johnson, W Folk ...

  18. Recognition and respect for African traditional medicine | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... TRA conducts scientific and cultural research, and provides training to traditional practitioners of traditional medicine using a curriculum that is both scientifically based and culturally specific. It covers topics ranging from family planning to maternal and child health care to HIV/AIDS. Some 2500 traditional ...

  19. Concurrent use of Antiretroviral and African traditional medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concurrent use of Antiretroviral and African traditional medicines amongst people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) in the eThekwini Metropolitan area of KwaZulu Natal. Mncengeli Sibanda,Manimbulu Nlooto M, Panjasaram Naidoo. Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal ...

  20. 2008 Nobel prize in Medicine for discoverers of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier, codiscoverers of HIV, the causative agent of AIDS, have been awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. They share this prize with Harald zur Hausen who was responsible for establishing the link between human papilloma virus infection and cervical carcinoma.

  1. More about ... Emergency medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    11. More about ... Emergency medicine. Poisonous plants. Andreas Engelbrecht, MB ChB,. FCEM, MMed (Fam Med), Dip PEC,. DA, DTM&H. Adjunct Professor and Head, Division of. Emergency Medicine, Department of Family. Medicine, University of Pretoria and Steve Biko. Academic Hospital. A M Cilliers, MB ChB, DOH.

  2. Performing Narrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Kristin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author weaves narrative medicine and performance together to consider what might it mean to call narrative medicine a performance. To name narrative medicine as performance is to recognize the texts and bodies, the stories and selves, that participate in its practice--patients' and physicians' embodied stories as well as the…

  3. Annals of African Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...

  4. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Marijuana as Medicine Marijuana as Medicine Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2018 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  5. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY The concept that the mind is important ...

  6. Oral manifestations of AIDS: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, I; Schulten, E A; Pindborg, J J

    1991-02-01

    Infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may cause a variety of oral lesions, such as candidiasis, periodontal disease, hairy leukoplakia, Kaposi's sarcoma and a number of miscellaneous lesions and conditions. One hundred HIV-infected patients, including AIDS patients, referred to a University Hospital in Amsterdam, were examined orally. Most patients were initially seen by the Department of Internal Medicine, the oral examination by a well-trained dentist being part of the routine screening of all HIV-infected patients. In 80 per cent of all patients one or more HIV-related lesions of the oral mucosa was recorded. In 6 per cent of those patients the oral lesion was the first manifestation of the HIV infection. Hairy leukoplakia was observed in 15 per cent of all patients. Candidiasis proved to be the most common oral disease. In patients with full-blown AIDS the pseudomembranous form of candidiasis was the most common one, while in HIV-infected patients the erythematous type prevailed. These results emphasize the role of the dentist in making an early diagnosis of HIV infection.

  7. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Dev...

  8. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Dev...

  9. World AIDS Day PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    December 1 is World AIDS Day. In this PSA, communities are encouraged to get tested for HIV.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  10. Aids and the nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblum, M.L.; Levy, R.M.; Bredesen, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 19 chapters. Some of the titles are: Neuroradiology of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; The AIDS dementia complex; primary infection with human immunodeficiency virus; The biology of the human immunodeficiency virus and its role in neurological disease; and Algorithms for the treatment of AIDS patients with neurological disease

  11. Aid, Environment and Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Thomas Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    -income countries. Development aid, by itself, cannot “save the planet.” Nevertheless, development aid and development institutions do have the potential to become important catalytic actors in achieving developmental and global environmental objectives. This requires bold reforms and political action. Without...

  12. Aid and Sectoral Labour Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth of labour productivity. A sectoral decomposition shows...

  13. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and Angola, the book exposes shifting donor interests and rhetoric as well as the impact of foreign aid on military assistance, rural development, electoral processes and domestic politics. In the process, it raises an urgent and too often neglected question: to what extent are foreign aid programmes...

  14. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In addition, this chapter develops a microeconomic model to explore donors’ aid allocation decisions and their potential impact on aid effectiveness...the promotion of market-based principles to restructure macroeconomic policies in developing countries. The greater focus on...be explained by successful development 29 efforts of number of countries in the region, such as Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Singapore, and Peoples

  15. [Implantable middle ear hearing aids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    à Wengen, D F

    2004-01-01

    Conventional acoustic hearing aids are limited in their performance. Due to physical laws their amplification of sound is limited to within 5 kHz. However, the frequencies between 5 and 10 kHz are essential for understanding consonants. Words can only be understood correctly if their consonants can be understood. Furthermore noise amplification remains a problem with hearing aids. Other problems consist of recurrent infections of the external auditory canal, intolerance for occlusion of the ear canal, feedback noise, and resonances in speech or singing. Implantable middle ear hearing aids like the Soundbridge of Symphonix-Siemens and the MET of Otologics offer improved amplification and a more natural sound. Since the first implantation of a Soundbridge in Switzerland in 1996 almost one thousand patients have been implanted worldwide. The currents systems are semi-implantable. The external audio processor containing the microphone, computer chip, battery and radio system is worn in the hair bearing area behind the ear. Implantation is only considered after unsuccessful fitting of conventional hearing aids. In Switzerland the cost for these implantable hearing aids is covered by social insurances. Initially the cost for an implant is higher than for hearing aids. However, hearing aids need replacement every 5 or 6 years whereas implants will last 20 to 30 years. Due to the superior sound quality and the improved understanding of speech in noise, the number of patients with implantable hearing aids will certainly increase in the next years. Other middle ear implants are in clinical testing.

  16. From medicine to psychotherapy: the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2011-01-01

    If placebos have been squeezed out of medicine to the point where their official place in in clinical trials designed to identify their own confounding effect, the placebo effect nevertheless thrives in psychotherapy. Not only does psychotherapy dispose of placebo effects that are less available to medicine as it becomes increasingly technological and preoccupied with body parts, but factors of the sort inhibiting the use of placebos in medicine have no equivalent in psychology. Medicine today is disturbed by the placebo effect in a way psychotherapy is not. Psychotherapy does not have to grapple with such a disconcerting paradox as successful sham surgery, and unlike those physicians who once pretended to treat the patient's body while actually attempting to treat the mind, the psychotherapist can treat the mind in all frankness. Perhaps it is because psychotherapy is less burdened by doubts about the placebo effect that it was able to come to its aid when it was orphaned by medicine. It is vain to expect something with so long a history as the placebo effect to disappear from the practices of healing.

  17. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  18. The indirect cost of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A

    1996-01-01

    AIDS afflicts mainly people aged 15-45 years. The syndrome seriously threatens the social and economic development, and even political stability, of nations by depriving them of citizens in their most productive years. AIDS now dominates public health programs and health services in several countries and may eventually dominate in many more. As the number of AIDS cases rises steeply over the next few years, the economic, social, political, and cultural impact will be difficult to control. AIDS deserves special attention. The spread of AIDS, HIV, sex education, risk groups, desired interventions, and saving costs are discussed. Public health surveillance for HIV is critical in areas where an extensive spread of the virus has not yet occurred. Nongovernmental organizations can play a vital role in prevention, care, and community support programs.

  19. Essential travel medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Zuckerman, Jane N; Leggat, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This 1st edition of Essential Travel Medicine provides an excellent concise introduction to the specialty of Travel Medicine. This core text will enable health care practitioners particularly those new to the clinical practice of Travel Medicine, to gain a fundamental understanding of the diverse and complex issues which can potentially affect the health of the many millions of people who undertake international travel. Jane N Zuckerman is joined by Gary W Brunette from CDC and Peter A Leggat from Australia as Editors. Leading international specialists in their fields have contributed authoritative chapters reflecting current knowledge to facilitate best clinical practice in the different aspects of travel medicine. The aim of Essential Travel Medicine is to provide a comprehensive guide to Travel Medicine as well as a fundamental knowledge base to support international undergraduate and postgraduate specialty training programmes in the discipline of Travel Medicine. The 1st edition of Essential Travel ...

  20. Over-the-Counter Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are drugs you can buy without a prescription. Some OTC medicines relieve aches, pains and itches. ... medicine is safe enough to sell over-the-counter. Taking OTC medicines still has risks. Some interact ...

  1. Prescription Drugs and Cold Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Drugs and Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Drugs and Over-the-Counter Medicines Email Facebook Twitter What are Over-the-Counter Medicines? Over-the-counter (OTC) medicines are those that ...

  2. Gallium scintigraphy in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wall, Hans; Provan, I.; Murray, C.; Dwyer, M.; Jones, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Gallium-67 scanning, indicated either for the elucidation of symptoms or for the assessment of appropriate therapy, was performed in 56 AIDS patients who underwent a total of 77 scans from 1986 to 1988. The age range of the patients was 13-66 years with an average age of 39 years. The majority of patients (95%) were male homosexuals. Gallium scanning has been applied to a wide spectrum of malignancies and to the detection of occult infections. Several mechanisms of uptake have been postulated for the localization of gallium. In general, gallium-67 acts as an analogue of the ferric ion, binding to transferrin soon after intravenous injection. It is believed that it is bound to transferrin receptors on the surface of tumour cells with subsequent intracellular transport. In infection, the association is probably with lactoferrin elaborated by polymorphonuclear cells and siderophores elaborated by bacteria. Gallium-67 is normally distributed to bone and bone marrow, liver, spleen, breast and bowel. In particular, the concentration in the ascending and transverse colon necessitates adequate bowel preparation. Lacrimal, nasopharyngeal and genital activity may also be seen. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Computer-aided cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Jones, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1992, the remedial investigation of operable unit 2 at the Department of Energy (DOE) Superfund site in Fernald, Ohio was in trouble. Despite years of effort--including an EPA-approved field-investigation work plan, 123 soil borings, 51 ground-water-monitoring wells, analysis of more than 650 soil and ground-water samples, and preparation of a draft remedial-investigation (RI) report--it was not possible to conclude if contaminated material in the unit was related to ground-water contamination previously detected beneath and beyond the site boundary. Compounding the problem, the schedule for the RI, feasibility study and record of decision for operable unit 2 was governed by a DOE-EPA consent agreement stipulating penalties of up to $10,000 per week for not meeting scheduled milestones--and time was running out. An advanced three-dimensional computer model confirmed that radioactive wastes dumped at the Fernald, Ohio Superfund site had contaminated ground water, after years of previous testing has been inconclusive. The system is now being used to aid feasibility and design work on the more-than-$1 billion remediation project

  4. AIDS: "it's the bacteria, stupid!".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxmeyer, Lawrence; Cantwell, Alan

    2008-11-01

    Acid-fast tuberculous mycobacterial infections are common in AIDS and are regarded as secondary "opportunistic infections." According to the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, TB is the major attributable cause of death in AIDS patients. Could such bacteria play a primary or causative role in AIDS? Certainly, In screening tests for HIV, there is frequent, up to 70%, cross-reactivity, between the gag and pol proteins of HIV and patients with mycobacterial infections such as tuberculosis. By 1972, five years before gays started dying in the U.S., Rolland wrote Genital Tuberculosis, a Forgotten Disease? And ironically, in 1979, on the eve of AIDS recognition, Gondzik and Jasiewicz showed that even in the laboratory, genitally infected tubercular male guinea pigs could infect healthy females through their semen by an HIV-compatible ratio of 1 in 6 or 17%, prompting him to warn his patients that not only was tuberculosis a sexually transmitted disease, but also the necessity of the application of suitable contraceptives, such as condoms, to avoid it. Gondzik's solution and date of publication are chilling; his findings significant. Since 1982 Cantwell et al found acid-fast bacteria closely related to tuberculosis (TB) and atypical tuberculosis in AIDS tissue. On the other hand molecular biologist and virologist Duesberg, who originally defined retroviral ultrastructure, has made it clear that HIV is not the cause of AIDS and that the so-called AIDS retrovirus has never been isolated in its pure state. Dr. Etienne de Harven, first to examine retroviruses under the electron, agrees. In 1993 HIV co-discoverer Luc Montagnier reported on cell-wall-deficient (CWD) bacteria which he called "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. He suspected these as a necessary "co-factor" for AIDS. Remarkably, Montagnier remained silent on Cantwell's reports of acid-fast bacteria which could simulate "mycoplasma" in AIDS tissue. Mattman makes clear that the differentiation between

  5. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players like the medical fraternity. Aims The present study aimed to determine who holds the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the thinking and opinion on the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results Many more role players are active in today’s traditional medicines manufacturing industry than merely the traditional healer and the traditional fraternity. The literature on traditional medicines fails to show the public the true meaning of traditional medicine in modern-day South Africa and to whom it really belongs. An in-depth analysis and understanding of the Regulations of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007, and of the definitions traditional philosophy and traditional medicines as reflected by the Act are totally missing from the literature. Such an investigation will aid in uncovering the true ownership of traditional medicines. Conclusion There is a clear differentiation between the dominant (real traditional medicines and the inferior pre-modern traditional products of the traditional healer. The title deed or card and transport of traditional medicine are held by various public and private institutions and other

  6. Facilitating compulsory licensing under TRIPS in response to the AIDS crisis in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lidgard, Hans Henrik; Atik, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    The AIDS crisis in the developing world has become a priority for international collaboration. The challenge is to find a balance between the acknowledged need to protect large investments expended in developing new medicines and the goal of providing essential medicines to poor countries. Patent protection must prevent undue infringement yet at the same time allow solutions to humanitarian needs. Is compulsory licensing a way out? TRIPS originally restricted compulsory manufacturing licenses...

  7. HIV/AIDS Outreach: Curriculum Development and Skills Training to Health and Information Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Gretchen M; Schaefer, Nancy; Norton, Hannah F; Tennant, Michele R

    2018-01-01

    With funding from the National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Community Information Outreach Program (ACIOP), librarians at the University of Florida Health Sciences Libraries partnered with university and community groups to facilitate collaboration, develop new information resources, develop information-seeking skills, and raise general awareness surrounding HIV/AIDS risks, prevention, and treatment. This article describes the skills development elements of the project, including development and implementation of an HIV/AIDS information resource curriculum for health care providers, social services professionals, and public librarians within the project's partner organizations.

  8. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  9. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to aid selectivity practice.

  10. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  11. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shoffstall-Cone

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska’s Tribal Health Organizations (THO developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. Objectives. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. Results. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Conclusions. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  12. Alaska Dental Health Aide Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoffstall-Cone, Sarah; Williard, Mary

    2013-01-01

    In 1999, An Oral Health Survey of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) Dental Patients found that 79% of 2- to 5-year-olds had a history of tooth decay. The Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium in collaboration with Alaska's Tribal Health Organizations (THO) developed a new and diverse dental workforce model to address AI/AN oral health disparities. This paper describes the workforce model and some experience to date of the Dental Health Aide (DHA) Initiative that was introduced under the federally sanctioned Community Health Aide Program in Alaska. These new dental team members work with THO dentists and hygienists to provide education, prevention and basic restorative services in a culturally appropriate manner. The DHA Initiative introduced 4 new dental provider types to Alaska: the Primary Dental Health Aide, the Expanded Function Dental Health Aide, the Dental Health Aide Hygienist and the Dental Health Aide Therapist. The scope of practice between the 4 different DHA providers varies vastly along with the required training and education requirements. DHAs are certified, not licensed, providers. Recertification occurs every 2 years and requires the completion of 24 hours of continuing education and continual competency evaluation. Dental Health Aides provide evidence-based prevention programs and dental care that improve access to oral health care and help address well-documented oral health disparities.

  13. Pathogenesis and role of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N; Korowlay, N. A

    2002-01-01

    The means by which replication of viruses takes place is explained, as it helps in the understanding of how viruses spread in the blood and how antiretroviral drugs work. The most important viruses, from a health care workers point of view, are hepatitis B and C and human immunodefiency virus (HIV). Whether nuclear medicine has a role to play in the diagnosis of these viruses, and the oportunistic infections that go with them, is debatable. Several radiopharmaceuticals are extremely sensitive for infection and tumor imaging but lack specificity. Patients' treatment is often not based on the outcome of the investigation but rather on preset protocols. AIDS patients are put on prophylactic antibiotic treatment as protection against infections such as toxoplasmosis and pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and there is a poor prognosis for AIDS patients with tumors (Au)

  14. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-04

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh.

  15. Myths about AIDS in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nariddh, M C

    1994-08-01

    HIV has been reported in the capital city of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, as well as in the northwestern provinces of Banteay Meanchey, Battambang, Pursat, and Kompong Chhnang. Unofficial reports indicate the presence of HIV in three northeastern provinces. According to World Health Organization data, 382 people were infected with HIV in Cambodia as of March 1994, but the national AIDS program estimates that 2000-4000 Cambodians may be HIV-seropositive. Small surveys in 1992 identified HIV infection rates to be 4.5% among patients of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and 9.2% among prostitutes. A seroprevalence rate of 4.3% was found in 1993 among clients of STD clinics and others requesting HIV testing. These rather marked levels of infection exist in Cambodia even though HIV was first identified in the country as recently as 1991 among screened blood from volunteer donors. By December 1993, the rate of positive results from blood donors had increased to 1.97%.; the rate of infection among blood donors is expected to double to approximately 4% in 1994. People in Cambodia variously believe that AIDS is nonexistent, AIDS is a problem of other countries, can be transmitted by mosquitoes, healthy people do not have AIDS, a cure exists for AIDS, AIDS can be contracted only from prostitutes, AIDS is the most severe state of syphilis, and AIDS is only a propaganda ploy of condom producers to market their products. It is therefore proving extremely difficult to convince people that AIDS is a truly threatening disease against which they should protect themselves, especially when symptoms are rarely present during the early stage of infection. Health education campaigns, videos, posters, and accurate reporting in the media will, however, help change minds and hopefully induce HIV-preventive behaviors. Of interest, the article notes that virtually every prostitute in Cambodia has at least two-three STDs.

  16. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  17. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Overview Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV/ ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Last Reviewed: August 25, 2017 ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ( ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  19. Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid examines the question of how telecommunication related aid policies might be designed to support both United States trade and foreign aid goals...

  20. AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Researchers from the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program (ACVP) work to improve the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of HIV infection, AIDS, and AIDS-related tumors,...

  1. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the average rate of return on investments financed by aid and by domestic resource mobilisation, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a correlated random coefficients model to estimate the average returns. Across...... different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...

  2. TEACHING AIDS – CONTINUITY, INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABRUDAN Ovidiu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available For the authors of this paper, the teaching aids were and will always be a priority in their teaching activity. The contents of this paper is the result of a long strained period of efforts made to improve the teaching process, a period in which the teaching aids were permanently improved – as a result of attentively monitoring the students’ results. We can say that motivated students, who wanted to become mechanical engineers, used these teaching aids successfully in their learning activity.

  3. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  4. Computer aided surface representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhill, R.E.

    1989-02-09

    The central research problem of this project is the effective representation and display of surfaces, interpolating to given information, in three or more dimensions. In a typical problem, we wish to create a surface from some discrete information. If this information is itself on another surface, the problem is to determine a surface defined on a surface,'' which is discussed below. Often, properties of an already constructed surface are desired: such geometry processing'' is described below. The Summary of Proposed Research from our original proposal describes the aims of this research project. This Summary and the Table of Contents from the original proposal are enclosed as an Appendix to this Progress Report. The broad sweep from constructive mathematics through algorithms and computer graphics displays is utilized in the research. The wide range of activity, directed in both theory and applications, makes this project unique. Last month in the first Ardent Titan delivered in the State of Arizona came to our group, funded by the DOE and Arizona State University. Although the Titan is a commercial product, its newness requires our close collaboration with Ardent to maximize results. During the past year, four faculty members and several graduate research assistants have worked on this DOE project. The gaining of new professionals is an important aspect of this project. A listing of the students and their topics is given in the Appendix. The most significant publication during the past year is the book, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Aided Geometric Design, by Dr. Gerald Farin. This 300 page volume helps fill a considerable gap in the subject and includes many new results on Bernstein-Bezier curves and surfaces.

  5. Ergogenic aids in sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santesteban Moriones, Virginia; Ibáñez Santos, Javier

    2017-02-01

    Introduction: Very few nutritional supplements have scientifically demonstrated their effectiveness as an ergogenic aid. This review will examine creatine monohydrate (MC), the β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), sodium bicarbonate (BS), the β-alanine and caffeine. Objectives: To analyze the effi cacy, mechanisms of action, dose, side effects and some sports that can benefit from their consumption. Methods: Searching in PubMed bibliographic database reviews from the last 15 years and original articles from the last 5 years of the studied substances. Results: Doses of 20 mg/day for 4-7 days are effective in improving strength and muscular power and performance in short and repeated sprints. HMB at doses of 3 g/day for at least 2 weeks contributes to increased lean mass and fat-free mass. The intake of 0.3 g/kg of BS improves performance on tests of 400-1,500 meters in athletics and intermittent sprints. Meanwhile, doses of 80 mg/kg/day of β-alanine for 4-10 weeks may improve performance in high-intensity intermittent exercise. Finally, caffeine at doses of 2 mg/kg improves responsiveness and 3-6 mg/kg improves performance in endurance tests. Conclusions: The revised supplements have shown their efficacy in physical performance, but it is needed to keep in mind that most studies have been conducted with recreational-level athletes. Generally, the better the individual´s fitness level is the less improvement in physical performance the supplement shows. However, an increase of only 1% may sometimes allow the athlete to advance several positions in a final. Finally, we should draw attention to the importance of optimizing nutrition before considering the introduction of sports supplements, especially in children and youth. All analyzed substances have scientific basis supporting its ergogenic effect. All of them can be found in the market with Certificate of Quality and Purit

  6. Long-term health benefits of appetite suppressants remain unproven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increasing prevalence of obesity, prevention and treatment of overweight has become a major public health concern. In addition to diet and exercise, drugs are needed for patients who failed to lose weight with behavioral treatment. The current article aimed to summarize recent concerns on the safety and efficacy of appetite suppressants. Several appetite suppressants have been banned for safety reasons. In 2010, sibutramine was withdrawn from the market because a long-term study showed it increased the risks of cardiovascular events. So far no study with a sufficiently large sample size has demonstrated that appetite suppressants can reduce morbidity and mortality associated with overweight. The withdrawal of sibutramine highlights that guidelines for the evaluation of weight control drugs must be more stringent, and studies on their long-term health benefits are needed prior to their marketing.

  7. Chronic oxidative stress after irradiation: an unproven hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Samuel R; Cohen, Eric P

    2012-01-01

    Injury and organ failure after irradiation of late-responding tissues is a substantial problem in radiation oncology and a major threat after accidental or belligerent exposures. The mechanisms of injury may include death of clonogens, vascular injury, activation of cytokine networks, and/or chronic oxidative stress. Knowledge of mechanisms may guide optimal use of mitigators. The hypothesis of chronic oxidative stress as a mechanism of late radiation injury has received much attention. We re...

  8. Legal implications of translational promises of unproven stem cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The promise stem cell therapy holds for curing diseases for which no therapy currently exists is often translated as fact. Unfortunately, enforced misconceptions between fact and promise often also translate into exploitation and harming of patients. This article aims to clear up misconceptions about the biological promise ...

  9. Effects of Probiotics on Human Obesity Control: An Unproven Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amparo Arias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to review the different publications associated with probiotics and obesity, as well as to get some new insights regarding the role of the microbiome in diseases such as obesity. An extensive search for scientific publications (studies in animal models, cells, clinical trials and reviews was performed in the following specialist computer databases (PubMed central (PMC-NCBI, Elsevier Journal, Scielo Spain, Scirus, Science Direct to establish the current status of the potential effect of probiotics in the control of obesity in humans, as well as the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity. The intestinal microbiota and oral probiotics have a positive effect on human health, as they can regulate the immune functions and protect from infections and chronic inflammatory processes. Although divergent results have recently been reported, it has been shown but not confirmed that intestinal microbiota might play a role as a new factor associated with the regulation of body weight and obesity-related diseases. The international MetaHIT project has shown that human microbiome populations can be grouped into three different enterotypes. Two of these enterotypes (Bacteroides and Ruminococcus seem to encode functions related to obesity. Although the relationship between intestinal microbiota and obesity are not yet well established, the attempt to manipulate intestinal microbiota through diet is suggested as a new plausible approach to prevent, or modify the risk of, obesity and its related diseases.

  10. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  11. PET-Computed Tomography in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Elissa K

    2016-05-01

    PET/CT is an advanced imaging modality that is becoming more commonly used in veterinary medicine. It is most commonly used to image patients with cancer, and the most frequently used radiopharmaceutical is F-18 FDG. F-18 FDG is a glucose analog that highlights areas of increased glucose metabolism on the PET images. CT images provide excellent anatomic depiction and aid in interpretation of the PET data. Many types of cancer are hypermetabolic on PET/CT scans, but normal structures and areas of inflammation are also hypermetabolic, so knowledge of normal imaging and cytologic or histopathologic evaluation of lesions is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Maimonides? Appreciation for Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gesundheit, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A) The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for wi...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the doses of radiotracer administered are small, diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures result in low radiation exposure, acceptable for diagnostic exams. Thus, the radiation ...

  15. Traditional medicine and genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  16. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  17. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  18. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  19. Technologists for Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Huey D.

    1974-01-01

    Physicians need support personnel for work with radioisotopes in diagnosing dangerous diseases. The Nuclear Medicine Technology (NMT) Program at Hillsborough Community College in Tampa, Florida, is described. (MW)

  20. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV often ...

  1. AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Conferences Job Opportunities A Year in Review Social Media Twitter Feed Featured Content Newsletter Article A Message from the Future ACTG Network Chair Dr. Judith Currier Go to ACTG Newsletters » ...

  2. The Sobering Geography of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palca, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The rate at which the epidemic of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is spreading in North America, Asia, Latin America, and Africa is discussed. The number of people infected globally and in low-risk urban populations is presented. (KR)

  3. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR): First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes. To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an ... and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). All rights reserved.

  4. AIDS in the developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    Without a medical miracle, it seems inevitable that the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) pandemic will become not only the most serious public health problem of this generation but a dominating issue in 3rd world development. As a present-day killer, AIDS in developing countries is insignificant compared to malaria, tuberculosis, or infant diarrhea, but this number is misleading in 3 ways. First, it fails to reflect the per capita rate of AIDS cases. On this basis, Bermuda, French Guyana, and the Bahamas have much higher rates than the US. Second, there is extensive underreporting of AIDS cases in most developing nations. Finally, the number of AIDS cases indicates where the epidemic was 5-7 years ago, when these people became infected. Any such projections of the growth of 3rd world AIDS epidemics are at this time based on epidemiologic data from the industrialized rations of the north and on the assumption that the virus acts similarly in the south as it does in the US and Europe. Yet, 3rd world conditions differ. Sexually transmitted diseases usually are more prevalent, and people have a different burden of other diseases and of other stresses to the immune system. In Africa, AIDS already is heavily affecting the mainstream population in some nations. Some regions will approach net population declines over the next decade. How far their populations eventually could decline because of AIDS is unclear and will depend crucially on countermeasures taken or not taken over the next 1-2 years. In purely economic terms, AIDS will affect the direct costs of health care, expenses which are unrealistic for most 3rd world countries. Further, the vast majority of deaths from AIDS in developing countries will occur among those in the sexually active age groups -- the wage earners and food producers. Deaths in this age group also will reduce the labor available for farming and industry. AIDS epidemics also may have significant effects on foreign investment in the 3rd

  5. Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Visual Landing Aids (VLA) Laboratory serves to support fleet VLA systems by maintaining the latest service change configuration of currently deployed VLA...

  6. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery...... is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....

  7. WHERE2 Location Aided Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Armin; Agapiou, George; Brunel, Loïc

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of preliminary results of investigations within the WHERE2 Project on identifying promising avenues for location aided enhancements to wireless communication systems. The wide ranging contributions are organized according to the following targeted systems: cellular...

  8. Hearing Aid Fitting & Electrophysiologic Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Jalaei

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitation of deaf individual is one of the important subjects that has attracted attention of many researchers during past centuries. Different opinions have been established in this direction. Electrophysiologic tests were established and developed parallel to developments in rehabilitation. Therefore, opinion of using electrophysiologic test for evaluation and fitting of hearing aid became gradually popular. Ultimately, the electrophysiologic tests are used in evaluation and fitting of hearing aid in two ways: 1-Direct way 2- Indirect way "nIn direct way aided ABR is obtained and special attention is paid to wave V. This technique has many difficulties. Inindirect way, electrophysiologic tests such, ECochG, OAE and ABR, AMLR, ALR and P300 and other objective tests are used, especially in infants and neonates for evaluating the state of hearing. Researches are continuing in this field. It is probable to have aided electrophysiologic responses with speech stimuli in near future.

  9. Pakistan combats hidden AIDS menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-20

    The conservative Islamic society in Pakistan associates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with prostitution, homosexuality, and drug abuse, activities which are prohibited in Pakistan. There are 1000 reported cases of HIV, 55 with advanced AIDS (53 have died) in Pakistan. Birjees Mazhar Kazi, head of the National AIDS Program, believes that, based on the computer model of the World Health Organization (WHO), the number of HIV cases in Pakistan can be 50,000 to 80,000. Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government has allocated $2 million for AIDS prevention. Although some officials argue that Islamic strictures and traditional social pressures discourage sexual license, the poor public health and education standards in Pakistan make it vulnerable to AIDS. Drug abuse has risen in the last 20 years; there are an estimated 1.5 million heroin users among an estimated 3 million addicts. According to Health Ministry Director General Naik Muhammad Shaikh, the government has established 30 HIV/AIDS screening centers and is sponsoring a law that would require all blood banks to provide only safe blood and blood products for transfusion. Marvi states that the reuse and poor disposal of needles, a common practice in Pakistan, could be responsible for most of the transmission there of AIDS and hepatitis C. Health experts acknowledge the obstacles placed in the way of AIDS awareness campaigns by sex taboos and religious sensitivities; condoms cannot be mentioned or displayed in shops, or used in electronic or print media campaigns. They can be mentioned in a recorded message on a 24-hr AIDS hotline. Community-based and nongovernmental organizations are being used to reach segments of society who cannot use the hotline. Eunuchs (hijras), who are much in demand as "female" entertainers at weddings, are particularly resistant to safe sex messages, according to Abid Atiq, head of the information and education section of the

  10. Can You Give First Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontrager, Frances M.

    This pamphlet is a guide for first aid. Areas discussed are: (1) the first-aid box; (2) how to call a doctor; (3) what to do before the doctor comes; (4) how to stop bleeding; (5) what to do for shock; (6) when breathing stops; (7) how to treat an unconscious person; (8) what to do for broken bones; (9) what to do for burns; (10) minor wounds and…

  11. Complementary alternative medicine and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werneke, Ursula; McCready, V.Ralph

    2004-01-01

    Complementary alternative medicines (CAMs), including food supplements, are taken widely by patients, especially those with cancer. Others take CAMs hoping to improve fitness or prevent disease. Physicians (and patients) may not be aware of the potential side-effects and interactions of CAMs with conventional treatment. Likewise, their known physiological effects could interfere with radiopharmaceutical kinetics, producing abnormal treatment responses and diagnostic results. Nuclear medicine physicians are encouraged to question patients on their intake of CAMs when taking their history prior to radionuclide therapy or diagnosis. The potential effect of CAMs should be considered when unexpected therapeutic or diagnostic results are found. (orig.)

  12. Exploiting science? A systematic analysis of complementary and alternative medicine clinic websites' marketing of stem cell therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Blake; Zarzeczny, Amy; Caulfield, Timothy

    2018-02-28

    To identify the frequency and qualitative characteristics of stem cell-related marketing claims made on websites of clinics featuring common types of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. The involvement of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners in the marketing of stem cell therapies and stem cell-related interventions is understudied. This research explores the extent to which they are involved and collaborate with medical professionals. This knowledge will help with identifying and evaluating potential policy responses to this growing market. Systematic website analysis. Global. US and English-language bias due to methodology. Representations made on clinic websites in relation to practitioner types, stem cell therapies and their targets, stem cell-related interventions. Statements about stem cell therapies relating to evidence of inefficacy, limited evidence of efficacy, general procedural risks, risks specific to the mode of therapy, regulatory status, experimental or unproven nature of therapy. Use of hype language (eg, language that exaggerates potential benefits). 243 websites offered stem cell therapies. Many websites advertised stem cell transplantation from multiple sources, such as adipose-derived (112), bone marrow-derived (100), blood-derived (28), umbilical cord-derived (26) and others. Plant stem cell-based treatments and products (20) were also advertised. Purposes for and targets of treatment included pain, physical injury, a wide range of diseases and illnesses, cosmetic concerns, non-cosmetic ageing, sexual enhancement and others. Medical doctors (130), chiropractors (53) and naturopaths (44) commonly work in the clinics we found to be offering stem cell therapies. Few clinic websites advertising stem cell therapies included important additional information, including statements about evidence of inefficacy (present on only 12.76% of websites), statements about limited evidence of efficacy (18.93%), statements of

  13. Do Visual Aids Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Fish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational webcasts or video lectures as a teaching tool and a form of visual aid have become widely used with the rising prevalence of online and blended courses and with the increase of web-based video materials. Thus, research pertaining to factors enhancing the effectiveness of video lectures, such as number of visual aids, is critical. This study compared student evaluations before and after embedding additional visual aids throughout video lectures in an online course. Slide transitions occurred on average every 40 seconds for the pre-treatment group with approximately 600 visuals total, compared to slide transitions every 10 seconds for the post-treatment group with approximately 2,000 visuals total. All students received the same audio recordings. Research questions addressed are: (1 Are student perceptions of the effectiveness of examples used to illustrate concepts affected by number of visual aids? (2 Is the extent to which students feel engaged during the lectures affected by number of visual aids? (3 Are students’ perceived overall learning experiences affected by number of visual aids? Surprisingly, results indicate that for questions #1 and #3, student ratings of those who viewed videos with fewer visuals rated their experiences higher than students who viewed more visuals. There was no significant difference found for question #2. Conclusion: Although some visuals have been shown to enhance learning, too many visuals may be a deterrent to learning.

  14. DINAMIKA DEPRESI PADA PENDERITA AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imadduddin Parhani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a major mental health problem today. This is very important because people with depression productivity will decrease and this is very bad for a society and a country that is building. There are at least four chronic diseases that allow the depression sufferer, one of which is HIV and AIDS. Given the uncertainty over the fate of people living with HIV and AIDS had the potential to give rise to feelings of anxiety and depression. Someone who is infected with HIV and AIDS will be overcome by a feeling of dying, guilt about the behavior that makes infection, and taste sequestered by others.The cause of depression in people with HIV and AIDS by cognitive approach that is the mindset of people who deviate from the pattern of the logical interpretation or misinterprets an event or events, focusing on the negative situations that happened to him, and hope that pessimistic and negative about the future. Symptoms are raised is their depressed mood, decreased interest or pleasure in absolute terms, average of worthlessness or excessive guilt, thoughts of death. Response or reaction that occurs is refused, angry, and depressed when he learned he was infected with HIV and AIDS, and eventually be able to accept his situation. Efforts are being made to reduce depression are manifold. One is through social support to colleagues who also have HIV and AIDS.

  15. Nuclear Medicine in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, H.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is a medical specialty that uses radionuclides for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and it is one of the most important peaceful applications of nuclear sciences. Nuclear Medicine has a short history both in Turkey and in the world. The first use of I-131 for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis in Turkey was in 1958 at the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. In 1962, Radiobiological Institute in Ankara University Medical School was established equipped with well-type counters, radiometers, scalers, external counters and a rectilinear scanner. In 1965, multi-probe external detection systems, color dot scanners and in 1967, anger scintillation camera had arrived. In 1962, wet lab procedures and organ scanning, in 1965 color dot scanning, dynamic studies (blood flow - renograms) and in 1967 analogue scintillation camera and dynamic camera studies have started. In 1974, nuclear medicine was established as independent medical specialty. Nuclear medicine departments have started to get established in 1978. In 1974, The Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine (TSNM) was established with 10 members. The first president of TSNM was Prof. Dr. Yavuz Renda. Now, in the year 2000, TSNM has 349 members. Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine is a member of European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) and WFNMB Asia-Oceania. Since 1974, TSNM has organized 13 national Nuclear Medicine congresses, 4 international Nuclear Oncology congresses and 13 nuclear medicine symposiums. In 1-5 October 2000, 'The VII th Asia and Oceania Congress of Nuclear Medicine and Biology' was held in Istanbul, Turkey. Since 1992, Turkish Journal of Nuclear Medicine is published quarterly and it is the official publication of TSNM. There are a total of 112 Nuclear Medicine centers in Turkey. There are 146 gamma cameras. (52 Siemens, 35 GE, 16 Elscint, 14 Toshiba, 10 Sopha, 12 MIE, 8 Philips, 9 Others) Two cyclotrons are

  16. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  17. Collaborative environment for nuclear medicine training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Claudia Regio; Dalpiaz, Gabriel Goulart; Giraffa, Lucia Maria, E-mail: claudinharb@gmail.co [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Ana Maria Marques da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Silva Junior, Neivo da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (HSL-PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas; Ferreto, Tiago Coelho; Rose, Cesar Augusto Fonticielha de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Informatica; Silva, Vinicius Duval da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (FAMED/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Medicina. Dept. de Patologia e Radiacoes

    2011-05-15

    Objective: To validate the proposal for development of a virtual collaborative environment for training of nuclear medicine personnel. Materials and Methods: Organizational assumptions, constraints and functionalities that should be offered to the professionals in this field were raised early in the development of the environment. The prototype was developed in the Moodle environment, including data storage and interaction functionalities. A pilot interaction study was developed with a sample of specialists in nuclear medicine. Users' opinions collected by means of semi-structured questionnaire were submitted to quantitative and content analysis. Results: The proposal of a collaborative environment was validated by a learning courses of nuclear medicine professionals and considered as an aid in the training in this field. Suggestions for improvements and new functionalities were made. There is a need to establish a program for education of moderators specifically for this environment, considering the different interaction characteristics as the online and conventional teaching methods are compared. Conclusion: The collaborative environment will allow the exchange of experiences and case discussions among professionals from institutions located in different regions all over the country, enhancing the collaboration among them. Thus, the environment can contribute in the early and continued education of nuclear medicine professionals. (author)

  18. After the forest. AIDs as ecological collapse in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, A D

    1992-01-01

    Numerous parallels can be drawn between the systematic destruction of Thailand's forests and the emergence, in the same time period, of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) as an irreversible societal crisis. Both the disintegration of the body's defense system implicit in AIDS and the erosion of Thailand's ecosystem provoked by deforestation policies are examples of assaults by capitalist economic policies on previously self-regulating systems. Centralization and industrial development have driven a substantial proportion of young Thai villagers to the cities, where they sell their labor as sex workers (there may be as many as 2 million prostitutes in Thailand) or become heroin users. Conservative estimates project 1.6 million AIDS-infected Thais by the end of 1995. Just as generally benign conditions such as the common cold can annihilate a body ravaged by the AIDS virus, Thailand's ecosystem, degraded by unregulated logging and state-subsidized, for-profit rubber planting, is no longer able to absorb natural occurrences such as heavy rainfall. The loss of forestland--the traditional source of food, shelter, tools, and medicine and the repository of cultural icons--has forced villagers to obtain cash to meet their needs, and Thailand's sex industry offers one of the highest rates of remuneration. Legislation enacted in response to AIDS and deforestation shares an emphasis on the victims (e.g., the prostitutes and not their clients or the owners of sex establishments, and impoverished forest squatters rather than plantation companies and land speculators). A powerful, combative environmental movement is successfully resisting government attempts to destroy living communities. Needed as well is resistance on the part of women growing up in the age of AIDS to societal definitions that polarize females (virgins and prostitutes) and uphold one-sided monogamy.

  19. Trends in clinical reproductive medicine research: 10 years of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Simon, Carlos; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2015-07-01

    To study the most important metrics of publication in the field of reproductive medicine over the decade 2003-2012 to aid in discerning the clinical, social, and epidemiologic implications of this relatively new but rapidly emerging area in medical sciences. Bibliometric analysis of most-cited publications from Web of Science databases. Not applicable. None. None. Most productive and frequently cited investigators, institutions, and countries and specific areas of research, scientific collaborations, and comparison of the growth of reproductive medicine research compared with other areas of medical investigation such as obstetrics and gynecology and related science categories. We found that 90 investigators with more than 1,000 citations had jointly published 4,010 articles. A continued rise in the impact factor of reproductive medicine journals was seen. The number of publications in reproductive medicine grew more rapidly compared with other science categories. Presently 22% of highly cited articles in reproductive medicine research are published in journals belonging to science categories outside reproductive medicine. The most-cited study groups are situated in the Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, the United States, and the United Kingdom, and collaborative studies have been increasing. Reproductive medicine research and subsequent clinical development have attained scientific growth and maturity. High-quality research is increasingly being published in high-impact journals. The increase in (inter)national collaborations seems to be key to the field's success. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radioisotopes in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A number of advances in diverse fields of science and technology and the fruitful synchronization of many a new development to address the issues related to health care in terms of prognosis and diagnosis resulted in the availability of host of modern diagnostic tools in medicine. Nuclear medicine, a unique discipline in medicine is one such development, which during the last four decades has seen exponential growth. The unique contribution of this specialty is the ability to examine the dynamic state of every organ of the body with the help of radioactive tracers. This tracer application in nuclear medicine to monitor the biological molecules that participate in the dynamic state of body constituents has led to a whole new approach to biology and medicine. No other technique has the same level of sensitivity and specificity as obtained in radiotracer technique in the study of in-situ chemistry of body organs. As modem medicine becomes oriented towards molecules rather than organs, nuclear medicine will be in the forefront and will become an integral part of a curative process for regular and routine application. Advances in nuclear medicine will proceed along two principal lines: (i) the development of improved sensitive detectors of radiation, powerful and interpretable data processing, image analysis and display techniques, and (ii) the production of exotic and new but useful radiopharmaceuticals. All these aspects are dealt with in detail in this talk

  1. Radiation and medicine: introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.; Singh, H.

    1984-01-01

    A brief historical review is given of the development of the various nuclear medicine techniques which have been evolved since the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity. The role of various disciplines, such as radiobiology, radiation chemistry, radiation physics and computers in the application of radiation in medicine is discussed. (U.K.)

  2. Immoral behaviour in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, P; Tabak, N

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.

  3. Medicines from Marine Invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Coleman, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Few of us realise that the oceans of the world are a relatively untapped reservoir of new natural product-derived medicines to combat the many diseases that plague humanity. We explore the role that an unremarkable sea snail and sea squirt are playing in providing us with new medicines for the alleviation of chronic pain and cancer respectively.…

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in the body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. ... General Nuclear Medicine Children's (Pediatric) CT (Computed Tomography) Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) ...

  5. Diversity in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, David

    2018-01-08

    The wide world of medicinal chemistry: We look back at our activities in 2017, particularly the expansion of the journal's scope to nanomedicine and why we need a more inclusive medicinal chemistry journal. Additionally, we look at upcoming special issues and developments for ChemPubSoc Europe in 2018. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. PACS in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Keon Wook

    2000-01-01

    PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is being rapidly spread and installed in many hospitals, but most of the system do not include nuclear medicine field. Although additional costs of hardware for nuclear medicine PACS is low, the complexity in developing viewing software and little market have made the nuclear medicine PACS not popular. Most PACS utilize DICOM 3.0 as standard format, but standard format in nuclear medicine has been Interfile. Interfile should be converted into DICOM format if nuclear images are to be stored and visualized in most PACS. Nowadays, many vendors supply the DICOM option in gamma camera and PET. Several hospitals in Korea have already installed nucler PACS with DICOM, but only the screen captured images are supplied. Software for visualizing pseudo-color with color lookup tables and expressing with volume view should be developed to fulfill the demand of referring physicians and nuclear medicine physicians. PACS is going to integrate not only radiologic images but also endoscopic and pathologic images. Web and PC based PACS is now a trend and is much compatible with nuclear medicine PACS. Most important barrier for nuclear medicine PACS that we encounter is not a technical problem, but indifference of investor such as administrator of hospital or PACS. Now it is time to support and invest for the development of nuclear medicine PACS

  7. [Translational dental medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2011-06-01

    Over the last decade, as tremendous innovations have been achieved in scientific technology, translational medicine has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The concept of translational medicine is described as the transfer of new understandings of disease mechanisms gained in the laboratory into the development of new methods for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention and their first testing in humans, meanwhile, translational medicine also is described as a patient-oriented population research and the translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making. Translational medicine is a hot spot in recent academic field, and it is crucial for improving the living standard of population and renewing the research idea and technology. It has, however, significant obstacles during the approach of translational medicine. We here review the background, concept, current situation of translational dental medicine, key components and obstacles of translational medicine.

  8. Technology in respiratory medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Repro

    Respiratory medicine is the subspecialty in medicine which requires the most regu- lar and precise evaluation of physiological function for complete assessment of the patient. The very nature of respiratory physiology requires the availability of a range of technological devices. Physiological measurements that may be.

  9. Football emergency medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the planning and preparation for effective and efficient medical service provision during the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa, the collaboration between the disciplines of sports and emergency medicine has resulted in the dawning of the subspecialty of football emergency medicine. Sports physicians and related ...

  10. Nuclear energy and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The applications of nuclear energy on medicine, as well as the basic principles of these applications, are presented. The radiological diagnosis, the radiotherapy, the nuclear medicine, the radiological protection and the production of radioisotopes are studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. [Medicine in sports or sport medicine?] ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, S; Tonković-Lojović, M

    2001-01-01

    Sports medicine is a profession pertaining to primary health care of sport population (competitors, coaches, referees, participants in sports recreation). It embraces the physical and mental health protection and promotion of participants in relation to a particular sport activity and sport environment, directing athletes to a sport and adapting them to sport and the sport to them. Sports medicine takes part in selection procedure, training process planning and programming, and cares for epidemiological, hygienic, nutritional and other problems in sport. The Republic of Croatia belongs to those world states in which the field of sports medicine is regulated neither by a law or by profession. A consequence is that wide circle of physicians and paramedics work in clubs and various medical units without any legal or/and professional control not being adequately educated nor having licence for it. This review is an appeal to the Croatian Medical Chamber and the Ministry of Health to make efforts to promote the education and medical profession in sports medicine.

  12. Integrative medicine is a future medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samosyuk, I.Z.; Chukhraev, N.V.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis is given of the modern integrative medicine basis which is the synthesis of: 1. Theology, philosophy and sociology; 2. Physico-mathematical sciences, cybernetics, chemistry and astrology; 3. Medico-biological and clinical experience; 4. Traditional and scientific medicine; 5. Use of traditional and new medical technologies. Problems of 'holistic' medicine which considers Man as a unity of biological, emotional, psychological and social phenomena are exposed. Advantages in combining the drug therapy with modern physiotherapy and physioacupuncture methods seem to be obvious. All visible effects of a disease can de represented in the following forms of changes: information-energy - biochemical - ultrastructure - tissue - clinical diseases. Self-regulation of functional systems has a multilevel structure and needs application of different methods for body recovery. Short-wave irradiation (lasers, magnetotherapy) can be used for energy restoration in functional systems or meridians, and acupuncture plays the role of a 'trigger' which activises the body recovery. Integration of Western and Oriental medicines is the way for achieving the qualitative new level of health protection

  13. Personalized medicine: Striding from genes to medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita R Nair

    2010-01-01

    Personalized medicine has the potential of revolutionizing patient care. This treatment modality prescribes therapies specific to individual patients based on pharmacogenetic and pharmacogenomic information. The mapping of the human genome has been an important milestone in understanding the interindividual differences in response to therapy. These differences are attributed to genotypic differences, with consequent phenotypic expression. It is important to note that targeted therapies should...

  14. audit of referral of aids patients from hospital to an integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laura Campbell, .I."IB GliB, MFamMed, Dip PalllvIed, Dip MH. HQnorary ucturer, Department of Family Medicine, U"iversity ofNatal, Durban. AUDIT OF REFERRAL OF AIDS PATIENTS. FROM HOSPITAL TO AN INTEGRATED. COMMUNITY-BASED HOME CARE. PROGRAMME IN KWAZULU-NATAL,. SOUTH AFRICA.

  15. Male Circumcision and HIV/AIDS Risk – Analysis of the Scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ra

    Male Circumcision and HIV/AIDS Risk – Analysis of the Scientific Evidence. J. N. Krieger1 and C. F. Heyns2. 1Department of Urology, University of Washington School of Medicine,. Seattle, Washington, USA and 2Department of Urology, University of. Stellenbosch and Tygerberg Hospital, Tygerberg, South Africa.

  16. unusual urological presentations of hiv/aids at king edward viii hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extensive scrotal and lower abdominal Fournier's gangrene. FIG. 1. erscon showing bilateral renal abscesses. THE SOUTHEIlN AFRICAN JOUIlNAL Of HIV MEDICINE -----------HBIlUAIlY 200 I. DIAGNOSIS OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS. DIAGNOSIS OF UTI IN AIDS. TREATMENT OF UTls. • A high index of suspicion ...

  17. Maimonides’ Appreciation for Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesundheit, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A) The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B) medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C) as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man’s relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides’ writings are discussed. PMID:23908790

  18. Maimonides’ Appreciation for Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Gesundheit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Moses Maimonides, the illustrious medieval rabbi and philosopher, dedicated the last decade of his life primarily to medicine. His strong interest in medicine was an integral component of his religious-philosophical teachings and world view. In this paper various sources from his rabbinic writings are presented that explain Maimonides’ motivation regarding and deep appreciation for medicine: (A The physician fulfills the basic biblical obligation to return lost objects to their owner, for with his knowledge and experience the physician can restore good health to his sick fellow human being; (B medicine provides a unique opportunity to practice imitatio dei, as it reflects the religious duty to maintain a healthy life-style; (C as an important natural science, medicine offers tools to recognize, love, and fear God. These three aspects address man’s relationship and obligation towards his fellow-man, himself and God. Biographical insights supported by additional sources from Maimonides’ writings are discussed.

  19. [Complementary medicine in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Moshe; Gamus, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    Over the past two decades there has been an increase in the use and popularity of complementary medicine in Israel. Currently, there are over 100 complementary medicine clinics in the public health sector supported by the four health funds and most hospitals in Israel. The number of visits to those clinics reaches close to 3 million visits annually. This reflects an extensive system of care that Israelis utilize in addition to the conventional heaLthcare system. However, the communication between the two systems is still Limited and the education of complementary medicine providers is not regulated by the Ministry of Health. Concurrently, there are a growing number of physicians who expand the knowledge on these therapies and actually integrate them in patients' care. This issue describes experiences and knowledge related to the integration of complementary medicine in the Israeli healthcare system and provides additional research data in support of further integration of complementary medicine within conventional healthcare.

  20. AID SELECTIVITY PRACTICE AND AID EFFECTIVENESS IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Adedokun, Adeniyi Jimmy; Abiodun O. Folawewo, Abiodun O.

    2017-01-01

    Foreign aid strategies have undergone restructuring as donors adopt aid selectivity practice to improve aid effectiveness. This study investigates the impact of aid selectivity practice on aid effectiveness (aid-growth relationship) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and several groups of countries within SSA from 1980 to 2012. Employing system generalized methods of moments (system GMM) technique; the study produces strong evidence that there is significant improvement in aid effectiveness due to a...