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Sample records for medicines study prevalence

  1. Comparative study of the prevalence of sepsis in patients admitted to dermatology and internal medicine wards*

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    Almeida, Luiz Maurício Costa; Diniz, Michelle dos Santos; Diniz, Lorena dos Santos; Machado-Pinto, Jackson; Silva, Francisco Chagas Lima

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sepsis is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients. The prevalence of this condition has increased significantly in different parts of the world. Patients admitted to dermatology wards often have severe loss of skin barrier and use systemic corticosteroids, which favor the development of sepsis. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the prevalence of sepsis among patients admitted to a dermatology ward compared to that among patients admitted to an internal medicine ward. METHODS It is a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study that was conducted at Hospital Santa Casa de Belo Horizonte. Data were collected from all patients admitted to four hospital beds at the dermatology and internal medicine wards between July 2008 and July 2009. Medical records were analyzed for the occurrence of sepsis, dermatologic diagnoses, comorbidities, types of pathogens and most commonly used antibiotics. RESULTS We analyzed 185 medical records. The prevalence of sepsis was 7.6% among patients admitted to the dermatology ward and 2.2% (p = 0.10) among those admitted to the internal medicine ward. Patients with comorbidities, diabetes mellitus and cancer did not show a higher incidence of sepsis. The main agent found was Staphylococcus aureus, and the most commonly used antibiotics were ciprofloxacin and oxacillin. There was a significant association between sepsis and the use of systemic corticosteroids (p <0.001). CONCLUSION It becomes clear that epidemiological studies on sepsis should be performed more extensively and accurately in Brazil so that efforts to prevent and treat this serious disease can be made more effectively. PMID:24173179

  2. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV patients: a descriptive study.

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    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-08-23

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among different patient populations despite the availability of evidence-based conventional medicine and lack of supporting evidence for the claims of most CAM types. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between November 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of attendees of the HIV clinic of a public tertiary health care institution. Face-to-face interviews using a 34-item questionnaire were conducted. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. CAM was used by 113 (32.8%) of a total of 343 HIV patients, but Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM used (n = 110, 97.3%) followed by spiritual therapy (n = 56, 49.6%), including faith healing/prayer and meditation. The most used medicinal herbs were Aloe vera (n = 54, 49.1%), ginger (n = 33, 30.0%), and garlic (n = 23, 20.9%). The most used vitamins were complex B vitamins (n = 70, 61.9%), followed by vitamin A (n = 58, 51.3%), vitamin E (n = 51, 45.1%), and vitamin D (n = 42, 37.1%). Most CAM users continued using conventional medicine in addition to CAM and were willing to use CAM without supervision and without informing their health care provider. Patients were generally satisfied with CAM therapy (n = 91, 80.5%). The main reasons for CAM use were the desire to take control of their treatment (8.8%) or just trying anything that could help (18.8%). Main influences were the mass media (32.7%) and non-hospital health personnel (19.5%). Predictors of CAM use were being 30-50 years, married and having a secondary school education. About one-third of HIV patients used CAM, but virtually none informed their healthcare provider. Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM, followed by spiritual

  3. Prevalence and patterns of prenatal use of traditional medicine among women at selected harare clinics: a cross-sectional study

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    Mureyi Dudzai D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal use of traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine is widespread globally despite the lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these therapeutic options. Documentation on the prevalence and patterns of this maternal practice in the Zimbabwean setting was also lacking. Methods A cross sectional survey of 248 women at selected health centres in Harare was carried out to address the need for such data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results Fifty-two (52% (95% C.I. 44%-60% of the participants reported to have used at least one traditional medicine intervention during the third trimester of their most recent pregnancy to induce labour, avoid perineal tearing and improve the safety of their delivery process. The study found prenatal use of traditional medicine to be significantly associated with nulliparity and nulligravidity. Such practice was also significant among participants residing in a particular high density suburb located in close proximity to informal traders of traditional medicines. Prenatal traditional medicine use was not significantly linked to experiencing an obstetrics-related adverse event. Instead, participants who reported not using any traditional medicine during pregnancy reported experiencing significantly more adverse events, mainly perineal tearing during delivery. Conclusions The practice of prenatal use of traditional medicine was significant in the study setting, with a prevalence of 52%. A variety of products were used in various dosage forms for differing indications. Nulliparity, nulligavidity and possible accessibility of these products were the factors significantly associated with prenatal use of traditional medicine. Prenatal use of traditional medicine was not significantly associated with any obstetric adverse event.

  4. Prevalence and patterns of prenatal use of traditional medicine among women at selected harare clinics: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mureyi, Dudzai D; Monera, Tsitsi G; Maponga, Charles C

    2012-09-27

    Prenatal use of traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine is widespread globally despite the lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these therapeutic options. Documentation on the prevalence and patterns of this maternal practice in the Zimbabwean setting was also lacking. A cross sectional survey of 248 women at selected health centres in Harare was carried out to address the need for such data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Fifty-two (52%) (95% C.I. 44%-60%) of the participants reported to have used at least one traditional medicine intervention during the third trimester of their most recent pregnancy to induce labour, avoid perineal tearing and improve the safety of their delivery process. The study found prenatal use of traditional medicine to be significantly associated with nulliparity and nulligravidity. Such practice was also significant among participants residing in a particular high density suburb located in close proximity to informal traders of traditional medicines. Prenatal traditional medicine use was not significantly linked to experiencing an obstetrics-related adverse event. Instead, participants who reported not using any traditional medicine during pregnancy reported experiencing significantly more adverse events, mainly perineal tearing during delivery. The practice of prenatal use of traditional medicine was significant in the study setting, with a prevalence of 52%. A variety of products were used in various dosage forms for differing indications. Nulliparity, nulligavidity and possible accessibility of these products were the factors significantly associated with prenatal use of traditional medicine. Prenatal use of traditional medicine was not significantly associated with any obstetric adverse event.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among type 2 diabetic patients in Teaching Hospital in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Belachew, Sewunet Admasu; Tegegn, Henok Getachew; Ali, Dawit Simegnew; Netere, Adeladlew Kassie; Lemlemu, Eskedar; Erku, Daniel Asfaw

    2018-03-09

    Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients are increasingly using herbal remedies due to the fact that sticking to the therapeutic regimens is becoming awkward. However, studies towards herbal medicine use by diabetic patients is scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use with different sociodemographic variables among type 2 diabetes patients visiting the diabetic follow-up clinic of University of Gondar comprehensive specialized hospital (UOGCSH), Ethiopia. A hospital-based cross sectional study was employed on 387 T2DM patients visiting the diabetes illness follow-up care clinic of UOGCSH from October 1 to November 30, 2016. An interviewer-administered questionnaire regarding the demographic and disease characteristics as well as herbal medicine use was completed by the study subjects. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate logistic regression statistics were performed to determine prevalence and come up with correlates of herbal medicine use. From 387 participants, 62% were reported to be herbal medicine users. The most prevalent herbal preparations used were Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (41.7%), Giesilla (Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) (39.6%), Tinjute (Otostegia integrifolia Benth) (27.2%), and Kosso (Hagenia abyssinicaa) (26.9%). Most of herbal medicine users (87.1%) didn't consult their physicians about their herbal medicine use. Families and friends (51.9%) were the frontline sources of information about herbal medicine followed by other DM patients who used herbal medicines (28.9%). The present study revealed a high rate of herbal medicine use along with a very low rate use disclosure to the health care professionals. Higher educational status, a family history of DM, duration of T2DM and presence of DM complications were identified to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, it is imperative for health

  6. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients: a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

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    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-06-30

    Sophisticated conventional medicine (CM) has brought significant advances to cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. However, many cancer patients still turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among cancer patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between March 1, 2015, and July 31, 2015, among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of patients from the Oncology Department of San Fernando General Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the oncology clinic and treatment suite after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of CAM use among a sample of 350 cancer patients was 39.1% (39.6% for breast cancer, 44.4% for prostate cancer, 37% for ovarian cancer, and 38.7% for colon cancer patients). Herbs were the most common type of CAM used (93.4%), followed by spiritual therapy (73.7%). CAM use was more prevalent among females (68.6%), Indo-Trinidadians (63.5%), and patients aged 41-50 years (37.2%). The majority (70%-80%) rated CAM efficacy on perceived value. CAM was used mainly because of a desire to try anything that might help (67.6%), followed by it being congruent with the patients' beliefs (59.1%). Patients knew about CAM mainly through friends (69.3%) and family (69.3%). Most patients were generally satisfied (93.6%) and considered CAM helpful (89.8%), but the majority never informed their health care provider of CAM use (78.8%). Patients reported the simultaneous use of more than one type of CAM, without considering or knowing of possible side-effects. The perceived value of CAM included empowerment, control, cure, and improved quality of life. CAM use was associated with age, but no predictors of CAM use could be identified. Medicinal herbs and spiritual therapy are commonly used among cancer patients

  7. Prevalence and patterns of prenatal use of traditional medicine among women at selected harare clinics: a cross-sectional study

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    Mureyi, Dudzai D; Monera, Tsitsi G; Maponga, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Prenatal use of traditional medicine or complementary and alternative medicine is widespread globally despite the lack of evidence of the effectiveness of these therapeutic options. Documentation on the prevalence and patterns of this maternal practice in the Zimbabwean setting was also lacking. Methods A cross sectional survey of 248 women at selected health centres in Harare was carried out to address the need for such data using an interviewer-administered questionnaire...

  8. The prevalence, types and effects of traditional eye medicine use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on ...

  9. Prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care at public health facilities in Hossana Town, Southern Ethiopia: facility based cross sectional study.

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    Laelago, Tariku; Yohannes, Tadele; Lemango, Fiseha

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal medicine has been on increase in many developing and industrialized countries. More pregnant women use herbal remedies to treat pregnancy related problems due to cost-effectiveness of therapy and easy access of these products. We sought to assess the prevalence of herbal medicine use and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of public health facilities. Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 363 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from May to June 2015 at public health facilities in Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia. Pretested structured questionnaire was used to collect data from each study subject. Bivariate logistic regression analysis was used to see significance of association between the outcome and independent variables. Odds ratios at 95 % CI were computed to measure the strength of the association between the outcome and the independent variables. P-value herbal medicine during current pregnancy . The herbal medicines commonly taken during current pregnancy were ginger (55.8 %), garlic (69.8 %), eucalyptus (11.6 %), tenaadam (rutachalenssis) (26.4 %), damakesse (ocimumlamiifolium) (22.8 %), feto (3.5 %) and omore (3.1 %). Being students (AOR: (5.68, 95 % CI: (1.53, 21.13), second trimester of pregnancy (AOR: 0.22, 95 % CI: (0.08, 0.76), sufficient knowledge on herbal medicine (AOR: 0.37, 95 % CI: (0.19, 0.79), no formal education (AOR: 4.41, 95 % CI: (1.11, 17.56), primary education (AOR: 4.15, 95 % CI: (1.51, 11.45) and secondary education (AOR: 2.55, 95 % CI: (1.08,6.03) were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. The findings of this study showed that herbal medicine use during pregnancy is a common experience. Commonly used herbal medicines during current pregnancy were garlic, ginger, tenaadam, damakasse and eucalyptus. Educational status, occupation, knowledge on herbal medicine and second trimester of pregnancy were the major factors

  10. Prevalence of medicine use among Brazilian adults: a systematic review.

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    Gomes, Vanessa Pereira; Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Galvão, Taís Freire

    2017-08-01

    The use of medicine in adults has been assessed by some population-based studies in Brazil, but to date there has been no overall estimate of the prevalence of drug consumption. We therefore aimed to estimate the prevalence of medicine use as measured in previously reported cross-sectional studies among Brazilian adults. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, searching in MEDLINE, Embase among others to a date ending January 2017. Two researchers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed methodological quality of those chosen for inclusion. The consumption prevalence were combined in meta-analyses, the heterogeneity measured by I2 and investigated by subgroup analyses and meta-regression. The search identified 4,005 publications, of which 14 were ultimately included in the study. Most studies (12/14) measured the consumption over the previous 15 days, finding a consumption prevalence of 49.1% (95% CI: 48.5-49.6%, I2 = 100%). The recall period explains part of the heterogeneity found (R2 = 23%, p = 0.048), however the subgroup analysis did not allow for more homogeneous results. The use of medications occurs among almost half of all Brazilian adults. Appropriate pharmaceutical assistance and care are necessary to ensure the rational use of these technologies.

  11. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Herbal Remedy Use in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: Results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

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    Green, Robin R; Santoro, Nanette; Allshouse, Amanda A; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Derby, Carol

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, including botanical/herbal remedies, among Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), New Jersey site. We also examined whether attitudes toward CAM and communication of its use to providers differed for Hispanic and non-Hispanic women. SWAN is a community-based, multiethnic cohort study of midlife women. At the 13th SWAN follow-up, women at the New Jersey site completed both a general CAM questionnaire and a culturally sensitive CAM questionnaire designed to capture herbal products commonly used in Hispanic/Latina communities. Prevalence of and attitudes toward CAM use were compared by race/ethnicity and demographic characteristics. Among 171 women (average age 61.8 years), the overall prevalence of herbal remedy use was high in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women (88.8% Hispanic and 81.3% non-Hispanic white), and prayer and herbal teas were the most common modalities used. Women reported the use of multiple herbal modalities (mean 6.6 for Hispanic and 4.0 for non-Hispanic white women; p = 0.001). Hispanic women were less likely to consider herbal treatment drugs (16% vs. 37.5%; p = 0.005) and were less likely to report sharing the use of herbal remedies with their doctors (14.4% Hispanic vs. 34% non-Hispanic white; p = 0.001). The number of modalities used was similar regardless of the number of prescription medications used. High prevalence of herbal CAM use was observed for both Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. Results highlight the need for healthcare providers to query women regarding CAM use to identify potential interactions with traditional treatments and to determine whether CAM is used in lieu of traditional medications.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Patients with Lung Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Beirut, Lebanon.

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    Naja, Farah; Anouti, Bilal; Shatila, Hibeh; Akel, Reem; Haibe, Yolla; Tfayli, Arafat

    2017-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer are increasingly seeking complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to improve their physiological and psychological well-being. This study aimed to assess CAM use among lung cancer patients in Lebanon. Using a cross-sectional design, 150 lung cancer patients attending the Basile Cancer Institute at the American University of Beirut Medical Center were interviewed. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic characteristics, lung cancer condition, and use of CAM. The main outcome of interest was "use of any CAM therapy since diagnosis." Prevalence of CAM use was 41%. The most commonly used CAM modality among study participants was "dietary supplements/special foods." Results of the multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CAM use was positively associated with Lebanese nationality and paying for treatment out of pocket and was negatively associated with unemployment and having other chronic diseases. About 10% of patients used CAM on an alternative base, 58% did not disclose CAM use to their physician, and only 2% cited health professionals as influencing their choice of CAM. This study revealed a prevalent CAM use among lung cancer patients in Lebanon, with a marginal role for physicians in guiding this use. Promoting an open-communication and a patient-centered approach regarding CAM use is warranted.

  13. Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, perceived benefits and effectiveness of herbal medicine in the management of symptoms of opportunistic fungal infections in HIV/AIDS patients in the Eastern ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... More than one-third (39.6%, 40/101) was reported to be using herbal medicine for treating signs/symptoms of OFIs.

  14. [Prevalence of obesity in hospitalized internal medicine patients].

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    Carrasco Sánchez, F J; Díaz Alcaide, F; Marín Fernández, Y; Chaparro Moreno, I; Pujol de la Llave, E

    2002-09-01

    We describe the weight's distribution in a sample of medical patients in hospital. We estimate the global prevalence and the presence between other different clinical variables. A prevalence cross-sectional study was carried out. We determine weight, stature and several clinical variables in 101 patients admit in the internal medicine department of Juan Ramón Jiménez hospital in Huelva. The patients were admitted from 6th to 7th of june in 2000. The Body Mass Index (BMI) > or = 30 Kg/m2 was used to define the obesity. The prevalence of obesity was 32.2% [0.236-0.416]. In the study we find an association with female (prevalente rate -PR- 3.22), HTA (PR 4.72), dislipemia (RP 4.40) and hyperuricacemia (RP 4.28). The prevalence of obesity in our patients was between 23.41%, it was greater than others estimations in general people. We find association with women and classic cardiovascular risk factors.

  15. Prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care follow-up at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

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    Mekuria, Abebe Basazn; Erku, Daniel Asfaw; Gebresillassie, Begashaw Melaku; Birru, Eshetie Melese; Tizazu, Balem; Ahmedin, Alima

    2017-02-01

    Improving maternal and child health is one of the public health priorities in several African countries including Ethiopia. However, research on herbal medicine use during pregnancy is scarce in Ethiopia. The present study aimed at assessing the prevalence and correlates of herbal medicine use among pregnant women on antenatal care (ANC) follow-up at Gondar university referral hospital, Ethiopia METHODS: An institutional-based cross sectional study was conducted on 364 pregnant women attending ANC clinic from March to May 2016 at University of Gondar referral and teaching hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Data on socio-demography, pregnancy related information as well as herbal medicine use was collected through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to determine prevalence and associated factors of herbal medicine use. From 364 respondents, 48.6% used herbal medicine during current pregnancy. ginger (40.7%) and garlic (19%) were the two most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. Common cold (66%) and inflammation (31.6%) were the most common reasons for herbal use. Majority of herbal medicine users (89.8%) had not consulted their doctors about their herbal medicine use. Rural residency (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 3.15, Confidence interval (CI): 1.17-6.14), illiteracy (AOR: 4.05, CI: 2.47-6.62) and average monthly income less than 100 USD (AOR: 3.08CI: 1.221-7.77) were found to be strong predictors of herbal medicine use. The use of herbal medicine during pregnancy is a common practice and associated with residency, level of education and average monthly income. From the stand point of high prevalence and low disclosure rate, the health care providers should often consult pregnant women regarding herbal medicine use.

  16. SMOKING PREVALENCE AMONG GAZI UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF MEDICINE

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    Fatma ILHAN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This is a cross-sectional study aimed to determine the smoking prevalence among students of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, and conducted via face to face interview technique. 1032 students are reached. The prevalence of smoking is found as 24.0%. The smoking prevalence significantly higher among male students, students not residing with their parents, and students who have smokers among their family or friends. While the reason for starting smoking is questioned; 36.7% of the smokers declared the reason as ?friends?. Fifty-eight point nine percent gave a history of quitting and 64.4% declared that they want to quit. Ninety five point six percent of non-smokers stated the reason for non-smoking as ?I know that it is hazardous to my health?. Physicians have the potential to influence the community and there fore they should have a mission and responsibility for decreasing the prevalence of smoking. For the combat against tobacco, informing the medical students about the hazards of tobacco and conduct in-service trainings after graduation are essential. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 188-198

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of Traditional Medicine Utilization among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Predictors of Traditional Medicine Utilization among Persons Living With AIDS (PLWA) on Antiretroviral (ARV) and Prophylaxis Treatment in both Rural and Urban Areas in South Africa. GD Hughes, TR Puoane, BL Clark, TL Wondwossen, Q Johnson, W Folk ...

  18. Risk factors and disease prevalence in 3331 personal check-ups performed in preventive medicine between 2006 and 2011. cross-sectional and follow-up study.

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    Keipes, M; Bellucci, A; Hansen, E

    2012-01-01

    The present data results from a retrospective analysis of 3331 check-ups made in the preventive medicine department of the "ZithaKlinik", named "ZithaGesondheetsZentrum". These check-ups are done for the employee's of several firm's and institutions. According to gender and age, several tests and examinations are performed and the results are given to the person's general practitioner or another doctor of his choice. We will present a global synthesis of all the results but also a follow-up study of persons having performed 2 check-ups or more over a 5-year period. In the cross-sectional part, the analysis is done on 3331 individual check-ups (1447 woman, 1884 men). The average age is 50.3 years +/- 11.4. In the follow-up study, 478 persons (191 women, 287 men) had at least 2 (maximum 5) check-ups in the 5-year period of our observation. Initial age was 54.1 +/- 10.9 years for woman and 51.4 +/- 11.4 for men, respectively 56.4 +/- 10.9 and 53.7+/- 11.2 at their last check-up. An alarming number of persons present with a weight or obesity problem (according to age ranging from 22.0% overweight and 7.3% obese from 18-29 years, respectively 37.5% and 11.3% from 30-49 years, finally 44.0% and 20.6% in the range 50-69 years). Associated risk factors and pathologies (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, NASH, diabetes type 2 and complete metabolic syndromes) are extremely frequent and getting more so with growing age. Furthermore, physical activity is insufficient in grossly 2/3 of the studied population. The only positive point is a tendency of decreasing tobacco use in all age groups. The follow-up study is frustrating because most of the examined criteria get worse in-between check-ups instead of getting better with changes in lifestyle in an informed population. Asymptomatic diseases or risk factors for non-communicable diseases are extremely frequent in the population examined. The follow-up data shows that huge parts of this group are not sufficiently conscientious of their

  19. Prevalence and determinants of use of complementary and alternative medicine by hypertensive patients attending primary health care facilities in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo: a cross-sectional study.

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    Lulebo, Aimée M; Mapatano, Mala A; Mutombo, Paulin B; Mafuta, Eric M; Samba, Gédéon; Coppieters, Yves

    2017-04-08

    In the Democratic Republic of the Congo the control of hypertension is poor, characterized by an increasing number of reported cases of hypertension related complications. Poor control of hypertension is associated with non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. It is well established that the use of complementary and alternative medicine is one of the main factors of non-adherence to antihypertensive medication. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors associated with the use of complementary and alternative medicine. A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Kinshasa Primary Health-care (KPHC) facilities network in November 2014. A structured interview questionnaire was administrated to a total of 280hypertensive patients. Complementary and alternative medicine were defined according to the National Institute of Health classification as a group of diverse medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. Data were summarized using proportion and mean (with standard deviation). The student's t test and χ 2 test were used respectively for mean and proportion comparison. Logistic regression analysis identified determinants of the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine was 26.1% (95% CI: 20.7% - 31.8%).Determinants of use of complementary and alternative medicine included misperception about hypertension curability (OR = 2.1; 95%CI: 1.1-3.7) and experience of medication side effects (OR = 2.9; 95%CI: 1.7-5.1). The use of CAM for hypertensive patients is a major problem; antihypertensives with fewer side effects must be emphasized. Religious leaders must become involved in the communication for behavioral change activities to improve the quality of life for hypertensive patients.

  20. Non-Prescription Medicine Usage Prevalence in College Students Receiving Education in Branch of Medical Sciences

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    Filiz Kaplan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: The objective of this survey was to determine the non-prescription medicine usage prevalence in collegestudents receiving education in branch of Medical Sciences.METHODOLOGY: The study has been conducted on 418 students (349 females, 69 males in the age group17-38 (average 20.26 ± 2 receiving education in Health College and Health Services Vocational College ofÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. The data of the survey was collected through questionnaire prepared by thesurveyors. Before commencing the survey, permission was received from the institution and verbal consent wasreceived from the students. The data was assessed with mean, percentage and chi-square test in SPSS Windows10.0 package program.RESULTS: Non-prescription medicine usage prevalence in the students is 74.9 % within the past one year. 49.2% of the students showed the fact that they do not need to see a doctor in diseases widely seen as the justificationfor non-prescription medicine usage. Non-prescription medicine was found to be used mostly in headache (53.6%. Non-prescription medicine usage prevalence is higher in the second grade students and students who stay athome with their friends (p<0.05.CONCLUSION: The tendency of using non-prescription medicine is prevalent in students receiving educationin branch of medical sciences. It is necessary to develop the sensitivity of students towards rational medicineusage.

  1. Nuclear medicine technology study guide

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    Patel, Dee

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine Technology Study Guide presents a comprehensive review of nuclear medicine principles and concepts necessary for technologists to pass board examinations. The practice questions and content follow the guidelines of the Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB) and American Registry of Radiological Technologists (ARRT), allowing test takers to maximize their success in passing the examinations. The book is organized by sections of increasing difficulty, with over 600 multiple-choice questions covering all areas of nuclear medicine, including radiation safety; radi

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Lebanese College Students

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    Jizi, Lama

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, estimates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) use among college students are not available. CAM practices are not well regulated and some products contain unsafe substances. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and predictors of CAM use among Lebanese college students using the health belief model. A…

  3. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

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    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  4. The Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Dermatology Outpatients in Shiraz, Iran.

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    Dastgheib, Ladan; Farahangiz, Saman; Adelpour, Zeinab; Salehi, Alireza

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess complementary and alternative medicine use and its related factors among Iranian dermatology outpatients. In this cross-sectional study, a self-structured questionnaire was administered to 600 dermatology outpatients. Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square test, and binary logistic regression test were used. A total of 188 (31.3%) patients had used one of complementary and alternative medicine methods. The most frequent method used was herbal medicine (89.9%). The mean years of duration of the skin condition were significantly higher in complementary and alternative medicine users compared with nonusers ( P = .037). Patients with acne and alopecia significantly used more complementary and alternative medicine (odds ratio: 2.48 and 3.19, respectively). There was a significant relationship between education and using complementary and alternative medicine ( P Complementary and alternative medicine use is prevalent among our patients and we should think of ways of educating general population about complementary and alternative medicine methods and their potential risks and benefits and encourage our health care workers to communicate these materials with their patients.

  5. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cardiac Surgery: Prevalence and Modality of use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmayrac, Emilie; Quignon, Anne; Baufreton, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Complementary and alternative medicines are developing at a growing rate but their use in the hospital setting is little known, ignoring risk or benefit in practice. The objectives of the study were to quantify the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicines used by patients admitted to a cardiac surgery department. Patients and staff at the Cardiac Surgery unit of Angers University Hospital (France) were surveyed regarding their modality of complementary and alternative medicines use, between April 01, 2013, and April 18, 2014, by means of an anonymous questionnaire. Of 154 patients included in the study, 58% used a complementary and alternative medicine at least once in their lifetime, 38% during the preceding year, and 14% between the consultation and surgery. In all, 71% used them as a complement to their conventional medical treatment. Of those who used a complementary and alternative medicine during the year of their surgery procedure, only 29% informed their physicians and paramedical staff about it. Complementary and alternative medicines use among patients admitted to cardiac surgery units is common. Yet there is a real lack of knowledge regarding these health practices among physicians and paramedical staff. Copyright © 2016 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. STARTING A NEW MEDICINE STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, Jeff; Wilson, Keith; Terry, David

    2016-09-01

    To identify the experiences of patients, parents or carers when a child/young person is prescribed a new long-term medicine. Patients' prescribed a new long-term (>6 weeks) medicine were recruited from a single UK paediatric hospital out-patient pharmacy.A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to participants, via telephone, 6 weeks after the dispensing of their medicine. The questionnaire included the following themes: information requirements, resources used to seek further information, medicine administration issues, new concerns or questions that have arisen, adverse effects, arranging repeat supplies and an assessment of adherence.The results were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2013 and NVivo Version 10. Fifty patients consented and were included in the study. Eighteen (36%) participants had undertaken further research prior to taking/administering their new medicine. 13 (72%) of these used the internet for further information. Participants had further concerns/questions in 18 (36%) cases with 7 (38.9%) contacting the hospital team for further advice. Thirteen (26%) participants experienced difficulty administering/taking the medicine. Sixteen (36%) believed that they had experienced an adverse effect. Eight (16%) participants experienced difficulties when obtaining further supplies. With regard to adherence, 17 (34%) participants had forgotten a dose on at least one occasion and 4 (8%) found it difficult to keep to the medication regimen. This research has demonstrated that paediatric patients, parents and carers experience a wide range of issues during the first few weeks after starting a new medicine. This is in accordance with a recent review of non-adherence in paediatric long-term medical conditions.1 The New Medicines Service (NMS) offered through community pharmacists is designed to support patients' who have recently been prescribed a medicine to manage a long-term condition.2 However, this is not readily available to children/young people or

  7. [Prevalence in birth defects diagnosed by ultrasound: three years experience in university maternal fetal medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Giraldo, Saulo; Alfonso-Ospina, Luis; Parra-Meza, Carolina; Lancheros-García, Eder Ariel; Rojas-Arias, José Luis; Acuña-Osorio, Edgar

    2015-11-01

    To establish the prevalence of congenital malformations diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit of Hospital de San José, Bogotá-Colombia and comparing them to national and international reports. Retrospective, descriptive observational where the quantification of all malformed fetuses diagnosed in Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit from June 2010 to June 2013 was performed. 236 malformed fetuses, a total of 11,914 births, for a prevalence of 1.98% were included at a mean gestational age at diagnosis of 26.7 weeks (SD 7.1 weeks). The most common congenital malformations were at the level of Central Nervous System (CNS) 88 (37%) in total and within them, the most prevalent was ventriculomegaly 16 (7%). Of the 236 malformed fetuses, 165 fetuses (70.2%) had only one affected system 29 (12.3%) 2 compromised systems and 42 (17.5%) over 3 affected systems. Karyotyping was offered to all antenatal patients, however, accepted only 63 (26.7%), and 39 (62%) with normal results and the other aneuploidies were found, having Trisomy 21 as the most common. It was possible to establish a concordance of 86% between the antenatal and postnatal diagnosis. The perinatal mortality found in this study was 34.7%, mainly in fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia 16 cases (88.8%), fetal non-immune hydrops 8 cases (80%), cardiovascular abnormalities 31 cases (46.2%) genitourinary and 13 cases (24%), and fetuses with CNS malformations such as sequence acranea-anencefalia, holoprosencephaly and encephalocele mortality occurred in 100%. In this study the prevalence of congenital anomalies was found comparable to that reported at local and global levels, which were diagnosed and adequately characterized by more than two-thirds by obstetrical ultrasound performed by trained personnel in prenatal diagnosis. Perinatal morbidity and mortality remain high thoracic, cardiovascular, renal and non-immune hydrops congenital anomalies.

  8. Prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in a community-based population in South Korea: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyun-Ju; Baek, Seung-Min; Kim, Sul Gi; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Sun Mi

    2013-06-01

    To examine the prevalence of the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the Republic of Korea and identify the factors responsible for variations in the reported prevalence, the socio-demographic factors associated with CAM use, and the relationship between CAM use and study methodological quality. Two international and 6 representative Korean medical databases were searched to identify cross-sectional studies that had surveyed the general Korean population in community settings to determine prevalence of CAM use. Data collection and assessment of the methodological quality of the studies were conducted by 3 independent reviewers. The prevalence of CAM use reported by the 11 studies that met the selection criteria ranged from 29% to 83%. Inclusion of Korean medicine within the definition of CAM was not found to be a significant factor in the heterogeneity, but several factors that may have contributed to it, namely, inconsistency in CAM taxonomies, recall bias, use of unrepresentative sampling strategies, and lack of pilot testing, were identified. Higher CAM use was found to be associated with female sex, high level of education, and advanced age. The inclusion of Korean medicine within the definition of CAM does not explain the heterogeneity in the reported prevalence of CAM use among the South Korean population. A standard questionnaire appropriate for the Korean context should be developed to define and classify the common CAM modalities and control for confounding factors. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines: a cross-sectional survey in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohiuddin Hussain; Okumura, Junko; Sovannarith, Tey; Nivanna, Nam; Akazawa, Manabu; Kimura, Kazuko

    2010-05-01

    To assess the prevalence of counterfeit anthelminthic medicines in Cambodia, and to determine influential factors. Commonly used anthelminthic medicines were collected from private drug outlets. Medicines were carefully observed including their registration labelling, and their authenticity was investigated with the manufacturers and the Medicines Regulatory Authorities. Samples were analysed by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography at the National Health Product Quality Control Centre, Cambodia. Two hundred and three samples of anthelminthics were collected from 137 drug stores. Domestic products constituted 36.9%. Of 196 samples which were verified for registration, 15.8% were not registered. Of 165 samples successfully investigated for their authenticity, 7 (4.2%) were identified as counterfeit. All of these medicines were purchased in open packs or containers, and most of them were foreign manufactured and/or without registration. The results of our survey urge strict implementation of drug registration and vigilance on the availability of unregistered medicines to combat counterfeit medicines in Cambodia.

  10. Profile of Diseases Prevalent in a Tribal Locality in Jharkhand, India: A Family Medicine Practitioner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Majority of Indian population is dependent on general practitioners (GPs) for medical services at primary care level in India. They are most preferred and considered to be first contact person for medical services at primary care level. But advances in medical science has put more emphasis on specialist culture and average Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) graduates who are working as general physician are gradually feeling themselves less competent because they are less exposed to latest advances in treatment of diseases. Amidst such scenario, Christian Medical College (CMC) has come up with an idea: “The refer less and resolve more initiative”. It has started a decentralized 2-year family medicine distance diploma course (Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine (PGDFM)) now accredited by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, that trains the GPs to become family medicine specialist. Materials and Methods: As component of PGDFM course, this study was conducted to provide better understanding of prevalent ailments and common treatment provided by the GPs in the community at present giving key insight of current practice in rural area by a registered family medicine practitioner. Results: As part of study, among 500 patients evaluated, three most common diagnosis were upper respiratory infections (URIs; 18%), acute gastroenteritis including water-borne diseases (15.8%), and anemia (10.4%). Treatment given to these patients comprised of mostly of antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agents. Most common drug prescribed was paracetamol for fever. Other common drugs prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloroquine, artemisin derivative, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, miltefosine, cephalexin, ceftriaxone sodium, cefixime, oral rehydration salts, ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, metronidazole, albendazole, ondansetron, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam, ibuprofen, diphenhydramine, codeine-sulfate, amlodipine, ramipril

  11. [Cross-sectional study of heart failure of patients intaked in an internal medicine service in the third level hospital in mixed area. Part II: prevalence and hypertension control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinza Sanjurjo, S; Cabarcos Ortiz de Barrón, A; Nieto Pol, E; Torre Carballada, J A

    2007-07-01

    To know the arterial hypertension prevalencia and hypertension control in the patients income by heart failure. A cross-sectional study of the intaked patients in the Internal Medicine Service in the Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago de Compostela between 1999 to 2003. The variables analysed were: sex, age, days of hospital stay, number of intaked by failure cardiac, reason for admission (guide symptom), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cardiac disease, fibrillation atrium, previous treatment with beta-blockers, blood pressure in the admission moment, to make echocardiography, disfunction systolic, etiology, deceased, treatment at the end. The statistical analysis was performed with qualitative and quantitative measures, chi-cuadrado and t-student, and multivariant analyses. 248 patients were accepted for the study, and 100 were hypertensive patients (41.8%). We observed more women than men in hypertensive group (63.0%) and in non hypertensive group (51.1%). The median age was 77 years old in both groups. The median income was 11 days. The number of patients with diabetes mellitus and ischemic cardiopathy was bigger in hypertension group (43.0 vs. 22.3%), p < 0.001; (38 vs. 21.6%), p = 0.005. The most frequent symptom was the dyspnea (66,9%), in both groups, p = 0.62. The 62.6% of the patients were bad control of blood pressures. The prevalence of bad control in hypertensive patients was bigger tha non-hypertensive patients (76.9 vs. 59.4%, p = 0.01). The pharmacologic treatment more prescribed in hypertensive patients ECAI or AAR-II (62.6 vs. 26.8%, p < 0.001). And the diuretics wee more prescribed in non-hypertensive patients (91.1 vs. 81.1%, p = 0.03). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is associated with hypertension in the patients. The ECAI prescription was acceptable. The number of echocardiograms practiced to the patients is smaller that the number advised by international associations and smaller to the cardiologist registers. The beta

  12. Prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine use among people with coronary heart disease or at risk for this in the sixth Tromsø study: a comparative analysis using protection motivation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Sirois, Fuschia M; Stub, Trine; Hansen, Anne Helen

    2017-06-19

    Engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as healthy diet and regular physical activity, are known to reduce the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is known to be associated with having a healthy lifestyle. The primary aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of CAM use in CHD patients, and in those without CHD but at risk for developing CHD, using Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) as a guiding conceptual framework. Questionnaire data were collected from 12,981 adult participants in the cross-sectional sixth Tromsø Study (2007-8). Eligible for analyses were 11,103 participants who reported whether they had used CAM or not. Of those, 830 participants reported to have or have had CHD (CHD group), 4830 reported to have parents, children or siblings with CHD (no CHD but family risk), while 5443 reported no CHD nor family risk of CHD. We first compared the patterns of CAM use in each group, and then examined the PMT predictors of CAM use. Health vulnerability from the threat appraisal process of PMT was assessed by self-rated health and expectations for future health. Response efficacy from the coping appraisal process of PMT was assessed as preventive health beliefs and health behavior frequency. Use of CAM was most commonly seen in people with no CHD themselves, but family risk of developing CHD (35.8%), compared to people already diagnosed with CHD (30.2%) and people with no CHD nor family risk (32.1%). All four of the PMT factors; self-rated health, expectations for future health, preventive health beliefs, and the health behavior index - were predictors for CAM use in the no CHD but family risk group. These findings suggest that people use CAM in response to a perceived risk of developing CHD, and to prevent disease and to maintain health.

  13. Prevalence and associations for use of a traditional medicine provider in the SAMINOR 1 Survey: a population-based study on Health and Living Conditions in Regions with Sami and Norwegian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Agnete Egilsdatter; Stub, Trine; Melhus, Marita; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

    2017-12-12

    In Northern Norway, traditional medicine (TM) is shaped by both Christianity and traditional Sami nature worship. The healing rituals may include prayer and the use of tools such as moss, water, stones, wool and soil. Examples of TM modalities offered is cupping, blood-stemming, laying on of hands, healing prayers, and rituals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of the use of TM in areas with predominantly Sami and Norwegian populations, and the influence of ethnicity, geography, gender, age, education, household income, religiosity and self-reported health on such use. The study is based on data collected in the first SAMINOR Survey (SAMINOR 1) conducted in 2003/2004, including three self-administered questionnaires, clinical measures, and blood analyses. Data was collected in 24 municipalities in Norway known to have a substantial population of Sami. All residents aged 30 and 36-78/79 years in the predefined regions were invited regardless of ethnic background (N = 27,987). Of these, 16,865 (60.3%) accepted to participate and gave their consent to medical research. Of the 16,544 people responding to the question about TM use, 2276 (13.8%) reported to have used TM once or more during their lifetime. The most outstanding characteristic of the TM users was the affiliation to the Laestadian church, where 34.3% (n = 273) reported such use, followed by an inner Finnmark residence (31.1%, n = 481) and a Sami ethnicity (25.7%, n = 1014). Women were slightly more likely to use TM compared to men (15.9% and 11.5% accordingly, p < 0.001), and the TM users were slightly younger than the non-TM users (mean age 52.3 versus 54.3 years, p < 0.001). The TM users also had lower income (p < 0.001) than the non-TM users. We found no significant differences between the TM users and the non-TM users concerning years of education, and whether the participants were living with a spouse/partner or not. Further studies are necessary

  14. Prevalence of Migraine Among Medical Students in Zahedan Faculty of Medicine (Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Shahrakai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Migraine is a refer pain which is common in adults and children. Migraine and its frequently limits the daily life activities. Since medical students are subjected to stresses regarding lots of tests and the implicit responsibility to the courses, the purpose of the present study carried out to evaluate the prevalence of migraine among medical students in Zahedan University. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was performed on 210 (male 94 and female 116 medical students in Zahedan faculty of Medicine during an academic year (2005 to 2006. The questionnaire was specified on demographic data and headache questions based on International Headache Society (IHS. Students’ Migraine was confirmed by clinical interviews, general physical and neurological examinations then the data obtained were analyzed using v 11 of SPSS, Chi square. Afterward the percentage and the mean (±SD along with the statistical difference (P<0.05 of the T-tests were calculated. Results and Discussion: The present study showed that the rate of headache during recent academic years was 90.5% in males and 88.8 % in females. The prevalence of migraine was 7.14 % in both sex (migraine without aura 4.29% and migraine with aura 2.86%. The most common of migraine triggers was stress, (73% sleeplessness (52.5%, too much reading (39.25% and fasting (39.55%. In this sense the moderate light and severe incidence were 52.27%, 38.18% and 9.09%. The prevalence of migraine did not have any relations with gender but there was a relation between having migraine and number of studying years.

  15. Prevalence of Migraine Among Medical Students in Zahedan Faculty of Medicine (Southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Shahrakai

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Migraine is a refer pain which is common in adults and children. Migraine and its frequently limits the daily life activities. Since medical students are subjected to stresses regarding lots of tests and the implicit responsibility to the courses, the purpose of the present study carried out to evaluate the prevalence of migraine among medical students in Zahedan University. Methods: This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was performed on 210 (male 94 and female 116 medical students in Zahedan faculty of Medicine during an academic year (2005 to 2006. The questionnaire was specified on demographic data and headache questions based on International Headache Society (IHS. Students’ Migraine was confirmed by clinical interviews, general physical and neurological examinations then the data obtained were analyzed using v 11 of SPSS, Chi square. Afterward the percentage and the mean (±SD along with the statistical difference (P<0.05 of the T-tests were calculated. Results and Discussion: The present study showed that the rate of headache during recent academic years was 90.5% in males and 88.8 % in females. The prevalence of migraine was 7.14 % in both sex (migraine without aura 4.29% and migraine with aura 2.86%. The most common of migraine triggers was stress, (73% sleeplessness (52.5%, too much reading (39.25% and fasting (39.55%. In this sense the moderate light and severe incidence were 52.27%, 38.18% and 9.09%. The prevalence of migraine did not have any relations with gender but there was a relation between having migraine and number of studying years.

  16. [Why medicine? Analyzing students' motives for studying medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J C; Burghaus, D; Kappes, K; Heue, M; Liebelt, A; Kindler Röhrborn, A; Pfleiderer, B

    2015-10-01

    Despite increasing numbers of physicians, shortage of doctors is a predominant problem in the German health care system. AIM of the present study is a detailed and gendered analysis of current motives to study medicine in order to deduce implications for securing medical care in the future. Study motives of medical students from Duisburg-Essen and Muenster were assessed using an online questionnaire. 13 given motives had to be rated on a 5 point Likert-scale according to their relevance for the decision to study medicine. Descriptive analysis regarding age, gender, location and study period was performed and a dichotomization of data (agreement vs. disagreement) was undertaken for logistic regression analysis. 1545 medical students took part in the survey (64.5% female). "Many-faceted workspaces", "varied tasks", "helping patients", "scientific interest" and "good career prospects" - backward-sorted - were the most frequent study motives indicated by medical students. The aspect "helping patients" was more important to female than to male students, the latter rated career-associated motives e. g. income, reputation etc. as more relevant. Only for about 8% of the respondents - independently of gender - compatibility of job and family was a motive to study medicine. Perspectively, results of this study could help to shape medicine in a way that will appeal to the growing up generation of doctors: a sophisticated, demanding and fulfilling occupation compatible with family with options to carve out a career for those who want to - regardless of gender. Furthermore, coaching programs paralleling either medical studies or work as clinician should be considered to improve the matching of gender-specific study motives and careers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Herbal medicine use in pregnancy: results of a multinational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is growing in the general population. Herbal medicines are used in all countries of the world and are included in the top CAM therapies used. Methods A multinational study on how women treat disease and pregnancy-related health ailments was conducted between October 2011 and February 2012 in Europe, North and South America and Australia. In this study, the primary aim was to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine use in pregnancy and factors related to such use across participating countries and regions. The secondary aim was to investigate who recommended the use of herbal medication in pregnancy. Results There were 9,459 women from 23 countries participating in the study. Of these, 28.9% reported the use of herbal medicines in pregnancy. Most herbal medicines were used for pregnancy-related health ailments such as cold and nausea. Ginger, cranberry, valerian and raspberry were the most commonly used herbs in pregnancy. The highest reported rate of herbal use medicines was in Russia (69%). Women from Eastern Europe (51.8%) and Australia (43.8%) were twice as likely to use an herbal medicine versus other regions. Women using herbal medicines were characteristically having their first child, non-smokers, using folic acid and consuming some alcohol in pregnancy. Also, women who were currently students and women with an education other than a high school degree were more likely to use herbal medicines than other women. Although 1 out of 5 women stated that a physician had recommended the herbal use, most women used herbal medicine in pregnancy on their own initiative. Conclusions In this multinational study herbal medicine use in pregnancy was high although there were distinct differences in the herbs and users of herbal medicines across regions. Most commonly the women self-medicated with herbal medicine to treat pregnancy-related health ailments. More knowledge regarding the efficacy and safety

  18. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.

  19. Prevalence and risk of injury in Europe by driving with alcohol, illicit drugs and medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Hels, Tove; Lyckegaard, Allan

    2012-01-01

    and gender. The alcohol prevalence (concentrations ≥ 0.1 g/L) was much higher than the prevalence of other drugs, with highest alcohol prevalence in all three study samples in the southern and western European countries. Combined alcohol/drug use and multiple drug use were far more common in accident...

  20. Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Richardson, Erica; Roberts, Bayard; Balabanova, Dina; McKee, Martin

    2013-04-11

    Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use. Data were obtained from the Living Conditions, Lifestyles and Health (LLH) survey undertaken in eight former Soviet countries (Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine) in 2001. In this nationally representative cross-sectional survey, 18428 respondents were asked about how they treated 10 symptoms, with options including the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with the treatment of differing symptoms by such practitioners in these countries. The prevalence of using an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner for symptom treatment varied widely between countries, ranging from 3.5% in Armenia to 25.0% in Kyrgyzstan. For nearly every symptom, respondents living in rural locations were more likely to use an alternative (folk) medicine practitioner than urban residents. Greater wealth was also associated with using these practitioners, while distrust of doctors played a role in the treatment of some symptoms. The widespread use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in some fSU countries and the growth of this form of health care provision in the post-Soviet period in conditions of variable licensing and regulation, highlights the urgent need for more research on this phenomenon and its potential effects on population health in the countries in this region.

  1. Prevalence of orthorexia nervosa in resident medical doctors in the faculty of medicine (Ankara, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bağci Bosi, A Tülay; Camur, Derya; Güler, Cağatay

    2007-11-01

    This study has been carried out to "identify highly sensitive behavior on healthy nutrition (orthorexia nervosa-ON)" in residence medical doctors (MD) in the Faculty of Medicine. Diagnoses of ON was based on the presence of a disorder with obsessive-compulsive personality. The study is a cross-sectional research, which reached out to the entire 318 MD. The ORTO-15 test was used to propose a diagnostic proceeding and to try verify the prevalence of ON. Those subjects who were classified below 40 from the ORTO-15 test are accepted to have ON. Chi-square test, ANOVA (univariate) analysis and logistic regression were used for analyses of the data. Mean score of the participants from the ORTO-15 test is 39.8+/-0.22, and there is no statistical difference between women and men. A total of 45.5% of the residence MD involved in the research scored below 40 in the ORTO-15 test. Those who do their food shopping themselves, skip a meal with a salad/fruit, care about the quality of the things they eat, think that eating outside is healthy, look at the content of what they eat and the content of food is important in selection of a product score lower in their average marks in ORTO-15 and the difference among the groups is statistically significant. Food selection of 20.1% of the male participants and 38.9% of the female participants among the residence MD is influenced by the programs on nutrition/health in mass-media. The difference between the groups is statistically significant (p<0.05). Female medical doctors are more careful than men of their physical appearance and weight control and consume less caloric food, which is statistically significant. Since those who exhibit "healthy fanatic" eating habits may have a risk of ON in the future, it would be useful to conduct studies that identify the prevalence of ON in the public.

  2. Dynamic functional studies in nuclear medicine in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Proceedings document some of the trials and tribulations involved in setting up nuclear medicine facilities in general and specifically as regards nuclear medicine applications for the diagnosis of the diseases prevalent in the less developed countries. Most of the 51 papers deal with various clinical applications of dynamic functional studies. However, there was also a session on quality control of the equipment used, and a panel discussion critically looked at the problems and potential of dynamic studies in developing countries. This book will be of interest and use not only to those practising nuclear medicine in the developing countries, but it may also bring home to users in developed countries how ''more can be done with less''. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Prevalence of Complementary Medicine Use in Patients With Cancer: A Turkish Comprehensive Cancer Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suayib Yalcin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has been popular among patients with cancer for several decades. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of CAM use and to identify the factors affecting CAM use in a large patient cohort seen at a comprehensive cancer center in Turkey. Patients and Methods: An investigator-designed survey was completed by volunteer patients who visited the outpatient clinic in the medical oncology department. CAM use encompassed pharmacologic agents including vitamins, dietary supplements, and herbal products or nonpharmacologic methods like prayer, meditation, hypnosis, massage, or acupuncture. Results: Of 1,499 patients who answered the survey, 1,433 (96% used nonpharmacologic CAM and 60 (4% used pharmacologic CAM (pCAM. The most frequent types of CAM used were prayer (n = 1,433 followed by herbal products (n = 42. pCAM use was not significantly associated with age (P = .63, sex (P = .15, diagnosis (P = .15, or income level (P = .09. However, it was significantly associated with the level of education (P = .0067 and employment status (P < .001. Patients with higher education levels used more pCAM products (P = .025. Among 60 pCAM users, six patients (10% used pCAM for more than 2 years and 22 (36% did not consult their physicians about their pCAM use. Only nine patients (15% reported unpleasant adverse effects related to pCAM. Conclusion: Although CAM use was high among our patients, prevalence of pCAM use was lower than expected. Patients with higher education levels tended to use more pCAM.

  4. High prevalence but limited evidence in complementary and alternative medicine: guidelines for future research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Helle

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative Medicine (CAM) has increased over the past two decades in Europe. Nonetheless, research investigating the evidence to support its use remains limited. The CAMbrella project funded by the European Commission aimed to develop a strategic research agenda...... care challenges. Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine, Research strategy, Randomized clinical trials, Safety, Qualitative studies, Comparative effectiveness research...

  5. Prevalence and correlates of use of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autism spectrum disorder in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Erica; Charman, Tony; McConachie, Helen; Warreyn, Petra

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) Europe reported significantly higher rates of CAM use. In the total sample, children with lower verbal ability and children using prescribed medications were more likely to be receiving diets or supplements. Concurrent use of high levels of conventional psychosocial intervention was significantly associated with use of mind-body practices. Higher parental educational level also increased the likelihood of both use of diets and supplements and use of mind-body practices. The high prevalence of CAM use among a sample of young children with ASD is an indication that parents need to be supported in the choice of treatments early on in the assessment process, particularly in some parts of Europe. • Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in children with autism spectrum disorder is common. • In non-EU samples, parents with higher educational level and parents of low functioning children are more likely to use CAM with their children. What is New: • This study provides the first data on prevalence and correlates of use of CAM approaches in a large sample of young children with autism in Europe (N = 1,680). • Rates of CAM use were particularly high in Eastern Europe and correlates of use varied by type of CAM across Europe.

  6. Burnout among Slovenian family medicine trainees: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Selič

    2012-03-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of burnout syndrome among family medicine trainees is high and consistent with data from other studies among the physicians worldwide using the same instrument. Family medicine trainees are at risk of burnout regardless of their demographic characteristics. Increased workload affects EE and D.

  7. An observational study of the prevalence of anaemia in clinical AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To deterime the prevalence of anaemia in patients with clinical AIDS. Methodology: A retrospective small observational study of the prevalence of anaemia in 114 patients with confirmed HIV/AIDS seen at the department of medicine of the university of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital between January, 2002 and June, ...

  8. Study of business ethics in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, R; Goodman, G; Harling, K; Beattie, B

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the views of specialists in occupational medicine about business ethics in occupational medicine. METHOD: A qualitative study with face to face focus groups and successive reviews of the draft consensus was undertaken of all accredited specialists in occupational medicine who were members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and of all regional specialty advisers and deputies from the Faculty of Occupational Medicine. RESULTS: There was widespread agreement for the need of a code of business ethics. In all, during the four draft stages of preparing a consensus, 72% (28/39) of members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and 31% (20/64) of regional specialty advisers and deputies provided detailed comment for inclusion in it. CONCLUSIONS: Consensus of their views was reached among study participants for issues of business ethics involving advertising, competence, qualifications, fees, commitment, changes in provider contracts, regulation, and supervision of trainees. It provides a basis for further debate. PMID:9196458

  9. Study of business ethics in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, R; Goodman, G; Harling, K; Beattie, B

    1997-05-01

    To investigate the views of specialists in occupational medicine about business ethics in occupational medicine. A qualitative study with face to face focus groups and successive reviews of the draft consensus was undertaken of all accredited specialists in occupational medicine who were members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and of all regional specialty advisers and deputies from the Faculty of Occupational Medicine. There was widespread agreement for the need of a code of business ethics. In all, during the four draft stages of preparing a consensus, 72% (28/39) of members of the south Wales and west of England group of the Society of Occupational Medicine, and 31% (20/64) of regional specialty advisers and deputies provided detailed comment for inclusion in it. Consensus of their views was reached among study participants for issues of business ethics involving advertising, competence, qualifications, fees, commitment, changes in provider contracts, regulation, and supervision of trainees. It provides a basis for further debate.

  10. Critical review of complementary and alternative medicine use in menopause: focus on prevalence, motivation, decision-making, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Sibbritt, David W; Frawley, Jane E

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to undertake the first critical review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among menopausal women (a term here used to include premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women) by focusing on the prevalence of CAM use and CAM users' characteristics, motivation, decision-making, and communication with healthcare providers. A comprehensive search of 2002-2012 international literature in the Medline, CINAHL, AMED, and SCOPUS databases was conducted. The search was confined to peer-reviewed articles published in English with abstracts and reporting new empirical research findings regarding CAM use and menopause. A considerable level of CAM use was observed among women in menopause. Many menopausal women use CAM concurrently with their conventional medicine. However, communication regarding CAM between menopausal women and healthcare providers seems less than optimal, with a demand for further information on the safety and efficacy of medicines. Existing literature is of variable methodological rigor, often presenting small sample sizes and low-quality data collection. Further rigorous research on this topic-including quantitative and qualitative methods using large national samples, where relevant-is required. The findings of this critical review provide insights for those practicing and managing health care in this area of women's health. Healthcare providers should prepare to inform menopausal women about all treatment options, including CAM, and should be aware of the possible adverse effects of CAM and potential interactions between CAM and conventional medicine among women in menopause who are under their care.

  11. Prevalence of potential drug–drug interactions among internal medicine ward in University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2014-05-01

    Conclusion: We have recorded a high rate of prevalence of potential DDI in the internal medicine ward of UOG hospital and a high number of clinically significant DDIs which the most prevalent DDI were of moderate severity. Careful selection of drugs and active pharmaceutical care is encouraged in order to avoid negative consequences of these interactions.

  12. Secondary hyperparathyroidism prevalence and profile, between diabetic and non-diabetic patients with stage 3 to 4 chronic kidney disease attended in internal medicine wards. MiPTH study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana; García-Sánchez, Francisco; Maciá-Botejara, Enrique; Ramiro-Lozano, José Manuel; Masero-Carretero, Antonio; Robles, Nicolás Roberto; Bureo-Dacal, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH) is a leading cause of renal osteodystrophy, and an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim is to establish differences in prevalence and profile of SHPTH, regarding diabetics or non-diabetics with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional multicenter study which included patients with stages 3 to 4 CKD. SHPTH was considered when the intact PTH levels (iPTH) were equal or higher than 70pg/ml. We divided the sample into two groups (diabetics and non-diabetics). We used robust statistical methods. 409 patients (214 diabetics) were studied. HPTH was found in 60.4% of diabetics vs 65% of non-diabetics (P=0.42). Diabetics with HPTH were younger (79.5 vs 82.3 years-old, P=0.005), and had more hypertension (P=0.0014), dyslipidemia (P=0.0001) and comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant relationship in case of diabetics, with age (OR: 1.04, 95%CI 1.005-1.09 P=0.02 ), and with statins treatment (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.17-4.54, P=0.01). The prevalence of SHPTH between the groups was similar, however, diabetics had more presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and SHPTH in this case was also related with moderate microalbuminuria and lower levels of vitamin D. An association with statins was also found in this group. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prevalence of toxigenic fungi in common medicinal herbs and spices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of food grains, feeds, medicinal herbs, and spices, posing as health threat to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to screen medicinal herbs and spices for fungi and mycotoxin contamination and evaluate their safety. Sixty-three samples were examined for fungal contamination and fungal load determined using standard microbiological method. Aflatoxin and citrinin were detected using thin layer chromatography and high-performance chromatog...

  14. Patient preparation for nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathis, V.J.; Cantrell, D.W.; Cantrell, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter are described methods of patient preparation that can favorably affect the outcome of nuclear medicine studies in specific situations. Some of these practices may be considered essential to the success of the nuclear medicine procedure, whereas others may be thought of simply as a means of obtaining more valid or reliable information. Regardless of relative importance, each of the preparatory methods discussed can contribute to the quality of the respective study and can serve as a means of maximizing the value of nuclear medicine procedures. The specific patient preparation techniques discussed in this chapter may not be readily applicable to every practice setting or situation. These or similar procedures can be used or modified as necessary. It is important, however, that when new protocols are developed, the rationale and theoretical basis of each technique be considered

  15. Profile of diseases prevalent in a tribal locality in Jharkhand, India: A family medicine practitioner′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of Indian population is dependent on general practitioners (GPs for medical services at primary care level in India. They are most preferred and considered to be first contact person for medical services at primary care level. But advances in medical science has put more emphasis on specialist culture and average Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS graduates who are working as general physician are gradually feeling themselves less competent because they are less exposed to latest advances in treatment of diseases. Amidst such scenario, Christian Medical College (CMC has come up with an idea: "The refer less and resolve more initiative". It has started a decentralized 2-year family medicine distance diploma course (Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine (PGDFM now accredited by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, that trains the GPs to become family medicine specialist. Materials and Methods: As component of PGDFM course, this study was conducted to provide better understanding of prevalent ailments and common treatment provided by the GPs in the community at present giving key insight of current practice in rural area by a registered family medicine practitioner. Results: As part of study, among 500 patients evaluated, three most common diagnosis were upper respiratory infections (URIs; 18%, acute gastroenteritis including water-borne diseases (15.8%, and anemia (10.4%. Treatment given to these patients comprised of mostly of antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agents. Most common drug prescribed was paracetamol for fever. Other common drugs prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloroquine, artemisin derivative, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, miltefosine, cephalexin, ceftriaxone sodium, cefixime, oral rehydration salts, ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, metronidazole, albendazole, ondansetron, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam, ibuprofen, diphenhydramine, codeine-sulfate, amlodipine

  16. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  17. [A study on medical history and historiography of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen-Rui

    2011-09-01

    Medical history is the objective process of the development of medicine. Medicine historiography is the recording, interpretation and comments of this process. Historiography of medicine is often called medical history. By subject attribute, historiography of medicine belongs to history and could be divided into study on specific medical historiography (the objective ibeing medical history), historical materials on medicine (the objective is to offer reliable materials for specific medical historiography) and study on medical historiography (the objective being mthe historiography of medicine itself).

  18. Prevalence and Predictors of Herbal Medicine Use Among Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashrash, Mohamed; Schommer, Jon C; Brown, Lawrence M

    2017-09-01

    To describe the prevalence of herbal medicine use among US adults and to assess factors associated with and predictors of herbal use. The data for herbal products use were collected from the 2015 National Consumer Survey on the Medication Experience and Pharmacists' Roles. Chi-square test was used to analyz factors associated with herbal use, and predictors of herbal use were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Factors associated with herbal supplement use include age older than 70, having a higher than high school education, using prescription medications or over-the-counter (OTC) medications, and using a mail-order pharmacy." All Disease state associated significantly with herbal use. Approximately thirty-eight percent of those who used herbals used prescription medications and 42% of those who used herbals also used an OTC medication. The most frequent conditions associated with herbal supplement use were a stroke (48.7%), cancer (43.1%), and arthritis (43.0%). Among herbal product users, factors that predicted use included having higher than school education, using OTC medications, using mail-order pharmacy, stroke, obesity, arthritis, and breathing problems. More than one-third of respondents reported using herbal supplements. Older age and higher education were associated with a higher use of herbal supplements. People with chronic diseases are more likely to use herbal medicines than others. OTC drug users and patients with stroke are more likely to use herbal medicines than others.

  19. Benzoxazoles and oxazolopyridines in medicinal chemistry studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demmer, Charles S; Bunch, Lennart

    2015-01-01

    and the use of benzoxazole as a bioisostere are discussed. The review is extended to cover structure-activity relationship studies of 2-substituted benzoxazoles, 2-substituted oxazolopyridines, and in perspective, application of the recently published novel heterocycle oxazolopyrazine in medicinal chemistry...

  20. Prevalence ofStaphylococcusspp. nasal colonization among doctors of podiatric medicine and associated risk factors in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benito, Sheila; Alou, Luis; Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Ricardo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Gómez-Lus, María Luisa; Collado, Luis; Sevillano, David

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) nasopharyngeal carriage among Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (Podiatrists) and to determine the potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016-2017 among 239 podiatrists in Spain. The presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was determined by microbiological analysis of nasal exudate and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Each podiatrist completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised various parameters such as sex, age, podiatry experience duration, underlying diseases, prior antibiotic treatment, hospitalization during the last year, and use of a protective mask, an aspiration system, or gloves. The prevalence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was 23.0%, 1.3%, and 23.8%, respectively. The MSSA prevalence was higher among podiatrists who did not use an aspiration system (32.3%) compared to those who did (19.3%; p  = 0.0305), and among podiatrists with respiratory diseases (36.8%) compared to those without (20.8%; p  = 0.0272). The MRSE prevalence was higher among men (33.7%) compared to women (8.6%; p  = 0.0089), podiatrists aged ≥50 (38.5%) compared to ≤35 (17.8%; p  = 0.0101), and podiatrists with ≥15 (39.3%) compared to ≤5 years of podiatry experience (12.5%; p  = 0.0015). Among the S. aureus strains, 84.5% were resistant to penicillin, 22.4% to erythromycin, 20.7% to clindamycin, and 12.7% to mupirocin. The MRSE strains were resistant to penicillin (93.0%), erythromycin (78.9%), and mupirocin (73.7%). The prevalence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis nasal carriage is low among Spanish podiatrists compared to other health professionals.

  1. Prevalence and pattern of use of indigenous medicines in diabetic patients attending a tertiary care centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Ankur; Srivastava, Saurabh; Madhu, S V

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to see the pattern of use of indigenous medicines in diabetic patients and to find out its correlation with various demographic variables in patients of type 2 diabetes. A sample of 113 patients with diabetes (type 1 and type 2) was interviewed using a structured questionnaire by trained medical personnel about the intake of indigenous medicines. Correlation of intake of indigenous medicines with various demographic variables was assessed using appropriate statistical tests. Male to female ratio in the present study was 1:3. Mean duration of diabetes was 5.2 +/- 2 years. It was found that majority of patients 101/113 (89.4%) attending diabetic clinic were using indigenous medicines in one form or the other. Most common drugs used were karela (78.8%), jamun (65.5%), methi (38.9%) and neem (28.3%). Majority were taking on advice from fellow diabetics (41.6%) and were not sure (39.8%) about the effect. No significant correlation was found with their intake and demographic variables as age, sex, per capita income, duration of diabtes, occupation, cultural background and antidiabetic medicine used. There is a high percentage of indigenous drug use in patients with diabetes which is often not reported. Treating physicians need to be alert to this possibility while managing diabetic patients in order to correctly interpret glycaemic control, hypoglycaemic episodes and other unexplained comorbidities that might arise in them.

  2. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The roles of causative factors responsible for prevalence of malaria in the village of Solana, India, were studied. Mosquitoes and larvae density in and around the area were measured by process of random sampling and counting their numbers under microscopy. Malaria in population of the village was diagnosed by ...

  3. [Studies on Yakushi Buddha and its medicinal container].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, there are about 250 Yakushi Buddha (i.e., Buddha of Healing) statues in Buddhist temples. They are listed as Important Cultural Properties and 14 of them are National Treasures. Belief in Yakushi Buddha was especially prevalent from the 7th to the 13th centuries in Japan. The oldest wooden Yakushi Buddha statue is in Horin-ji Temple in Nara. Among the approximately 250 Yakushi Buddha statues, about 200 have medicinal containers-or rarely, a bowl-in the palm of the left hand. However, these medicinal containers are wooden blocks. Very recently, it was found that the Yakushi Buddha statue in the Suho-Kokubun-ji Temple in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan has a medicinal container in the palm of his left hand, in which an offering (i.e., 220 g of materials) was found. The date on the reverse side of the lid places the offering at October 12, 1699. The offering is composed of five cereals (rice, barley, wheat, soybean and azuki bean), five medicinal plants (Acori graminei, Acori calami, Ginseng, Flos caryophylli and Lignum santali albi) and six minerals (rock crystals, purple and blue lead glass, CaCO3 particles, and silver and golden foils). Recently, the pharmacy educational program was extended from four to six years in order to meet clinical pharmacy requirements for patients. From studying the Buddha of Healing and its medicinal container described above, the author suggests that, in addition to pharmaceutical bioscience, philosophical concept be studied as part of the history of pharmacy in the future.

  4. Ethnobotanical study and conservation status of local medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plants are important sources of medicines. Herbal medicines in Lesotho are exposed to excessive exploitation and habitat destruction. Comprehensive information to promote proper use and conservation of these herbal medicines is lacking. This study described the uses of medicinal plants in Lesotho with ...

  5. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with genetically proven mitochondrial disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Sebastian; Huidekoper, Hidde H; Visser, Gepke; de Vries, Maaike; de Boer, Lonneke; Hermans-Peters, Marion; Rodenburg, Richard; Verhaak, Chris; Vlieger, Arine M; Smeitink, Jan A M; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wortmann, Saskia B

    2015-05-01

    Despite major advances in understanding the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases, clinical management of these conditions remains largely supportive, and no effective treatment is available. We therefore assumed that the burden of disease combined with the lack of adequate treatment leaves open a big market for complementary and alternative medicine use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use and perceived effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine in children and adults with genetically proven mitochondrial disease. The reported use was surprisingly high, with 88% of children and 91% of adults having used some kind of complementary and alternative medicine in the last 2 years. Also, the mean cost of these treatments was impressive, being 489/year for children and 359/year for adult patients. Over-the-counter remedies (e.g., food supplements, homeopathy) and self-help techniques (e.g., Reiki, yoga) were the most frequently used complementary and alternative therapies in our cohort: 54% of children and 60% of adults reported the various complementary and alternative medicine therapies to be effective. Given the fact that currently no effective treatment exists, further research toward the different therapies is needed, as our study clearly demonstrates that such therapies are highly sought after by affected patients.

  6. Prevalence of Self-Medication among Students of Pharmacy and Medicine Colleges of a Public Sector University in Dammam City, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Ali Albusalih

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacy and medical students are expected to be more knowledgeable regarding rational use of medications as compared to the general public. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of pharmacy and medicine colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia using a survey questionnaire. The duration of the study was six months. The aim was to report self-medication prevalence of prescription and non-prescription drugs among pharmacy and medical students. The prevalence of self-medication in the pharmacy college was reported at 19.61%. Prevalence of self-medication at the medical college was documented at 49.3%. The prevalence of multivitamin use was reported at 30.53%, analgesics; 72.35%, antihistamines; 39.16%, and antibiotic use at 16.59%. The prevalence of anti-diarrheal medicines and antacids use among students was found to be 8.63% and 6.64%, respectively. The variable of college and study year was statistically associated with the nature of the medicines. The most common justifications given by students indulging in self-medication were ‘mild problems’ and ‘previous experience with medicines’. Our study reported that prevalence of self-medication in the College of Clinical Pharmacy was low, i.e., 19.61%. The figure has been reported for the first time. Students were mostly observed self-medicating with OTC drugs, however, some reported using corticosteroids and isotretenoin, which are quite dangerous if self-medicated. Students have a positive outlook towards pharmacists as drug information experts.

  7. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  8. Prevalence of toxigenic fungi in common medicinal herbs and spices in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiko, Visenuo; Mehta, Alka

    2016-12-01

    Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of food grains, feeds, medicinal herbs, and spices, posing as health threat to animals and humans. The objective of this study was to screen medicinal herbs and spices for fungi and mycotoxin contamination and evaluate their safety. Sixty-three samples were examined for fungal contamination and fungal load determined using standard microbiological method. Aflatoxin and citrinin were detected using thin layer chromatography and high-performance chromatography technique. Fifty-eight out of the 63 samples were contaminated, while five were free from fungal contamination. Analysis revealed that 47 % of the samples had a fungal load above 1 × 10 3 cfu/g which is the permissible limit set by World Health Organization. The samples Mesua ferrea-II and Terminalia chebula-III had the highest fungal load, i.e., 5.0 × 10 4 cfu/g. A total of 187 fungi were isolated, out of which 28 were toxigenic which included 19 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus and 9 citrinin-producing Penicillium citrinum. The natural contamination with aflatoxin B 1 was detected only in one sample, i.e., Arachis hypogaea (groundnut) which was present beyond the permissible limit. Though toxigenic fungi were isolated, mycotoxins were not detected from any of the medicinal herbs and spices. Medicinal herbs and spices are susceptible to toxigenic fungi; however, they also possess intrinsic factors that inhibit mycotoxin contamination. This study provides a basis in assessing the degree of fungal and potential mycotoxin contamination in medicinal herbs and spices.

  9. Prevalence of and factors associated with utilization of herbal medicines among outpatients in primary health centers in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Hattie; Fleming, Tyler; Chhoun, Pheak; Tuot, Sovannary; Brody, Carinne; Yi, Siyan

    2018-04-02

    Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) is seen as a way to provide healthcare in both developed and developing countries across the world. In Cambodia, there is a long tradition of using TCAM. However, scant studies have been conducted on the extent of Cambodian TCAM use and how it interacts with allopathic health care to date. In this study, we examined the prevalence of and factors associated with utilization of herbal medicines among patients with chronic diseases in primary health care settings in Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2015 with outpatients receiving treatment and care for chronic diseases in two urban and two rural primary health centers purposively selected from Phnom Penh, Kampong Cham and Siem Reap. Every eligible patient was randomly selected at the health centers using a systematic sampling procedure. I-CAM-Q was used to measure TCAM use. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with herbal medicine use. In total, 1602 patients were included in this study, of whom 77.7% were female, and 51.2% were recruited from urban primary health centers with a mean age of 46.5 years (SD = 15.2). Of total, 27.0% reported at least one consultation with a TCAM provider in the past 12 months. The most common modality of TCAM used was herbal medicine (89%). Herbs were obtained at drug or folk stores (36.9%), from herbalists directly (28.5%) or from their own gardens (18.6%). Of herb users, 55.2% reported that herbs were somewhat helpful. After adjustment, herb users were significantly more likely to be female (AOR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.12-2.67), have completed less schooling (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.45-0.96), were unemployed or homemakers (AOR = 0.23, 95% CI = 0.13-0.52) and have a gastrointestinal illness (AOR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.39-0.62). Herbal medicines are broadly used among chronic disease patients in Cambodia. Understanding TCAM use in

  10. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in the Dutch pediatric oncology population: a multicenter survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singendonk, Maartje; Kaspers, Gert-Jan; Naafs-Wilstra, Marianne; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette; Loeffen, Jan; Vlieger, Arine

    2013-01-01

    Although complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used in the pediatric population, research on the use of these therapies in the pediatric oncology population is of mixed quality. In this multicenter survey, we investigated the prevalence of CAM use, possible determinants of use, and

  11. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use among Ivy League College Students: Implications for Student Health Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L.; DeGise, Joe; Daugherty, Amanda; O'Keefe, Richard; Seward, Samuel, Jr.; Setty, Suma; Tang, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Determine prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used and test the significance of demographics and social cognitive constructs as predictors of CAM use in a college sample. Secondary purpose was to guide the integration of CAM therapies into college health services. Participants: Random,…

  12. Prevalence of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease seen in internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureo, Juan Carlos; Arévalo, Jose Carlos; Antón, Joaquín; Adrados, Gaspar; Jiménez Morales, Jose Luis; Robles, Nicolás Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the elderly population, few data are available on the frequency of secondary hyperparathyroidism in the Spanish population affected by this problem. We undertook a study on this issue in patients attending the internal medicine departments in our area. An observational, cross-sectional survey performed at internal medicine departments on 415 patients with stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease. Clinical history and risk factors were collected using a standardized protocol. Serum creatinine, phosphate, calcium, intact parathormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxy-cholecalciferol (25-OH-vitD) levels were measured in all patients. Among stage 3 patients, 62.9% had PTH levels ≥70pg/mL and 32.7% levels ≥110pg/mL. Median PTH level in stage 4 patients was 120pg/mL (p Hyperparathyroidism is a common complication of stage 3 and 4 chronic kidney disease which is not associated to detectable changes in serum calcium and phosphate levels. It is therefore advisable to measure PTH levels in all patients with decreased glomerular filtration rate. Copyright © 2015 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  14. Prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanesse Scerri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a major nosocomial pathogen worldwide. Malta is one of the countries with the highest MRSA prevalence in Europe, as identified from hospital blood cultures [1]. However, community prevalence of MRSA has never previously been investigated. This study aimed at establishing the prevalence of community MRSA nasal colonization in Maltese individuals and identifying the clonal characteristics of the detected isolates. Nasal swabs were collected from 329 healthy individuals who were also asked to complete a brief questionnaire about risk factors commonly associated with MRSA carriage and infection. The swabs were transported and enriched in a nutrient broth supplemented with NaCl. The presence of MRSA was then determined by culturing on MRSA Select chromogenic agar and then confirming by several assays, including catalase, coagulase and PBP2a agglutination tests. The isolates were assayed for antibiotic susceptibilities and typed by microarray analysis to determine the clonal characteristics of each strain. The prevalence of MRSA nasal colonization in the healthy Maltese population was found to be 8.81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.75–11.87%, much higher than that found in other studies carried out in several countries. No statistical association was found between MRSA carriage and demographics or risk factors; however, this was hindered by the small sample size. Almost all the isolates were fusidic-acid resistant. The majority were found to belong to a local endemic clone (CC5 which seems to be replacing the previously prevalent European clone UK-EMRSA-15 in the country. A new clone (CC50-MRSA-V was also characterized. The presence of such a significant community reservoir of MRSA increases the burdens already faced by the local healthcare system to control the MRSA epidemic. Colonization of MRSA in otherwise healthy individuals may represent a risk for endogenous infection and transmission to

  15. Prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. nasal colonization among doctors of podiatric medicine and associated risk factors in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila de Benito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE nasopharyngeal carriage among Doctors of Podiatric Medicine (Podiatrists and to determine the potential risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2016–2017 among 239 podiatrists in Spain. The presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was determined by microbiological analysis of nasal exudate and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined. Each podiatrist completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised various parameters such as sex, age, podiatry experience duration, underlying diseases, prior antibiotic treatment, hospitalization during the last year, and use of a protective mask, an aspiration system, or gloves. Results The prevalence of MSSA, MRSA, and MRSE was 23.0%, 1.3%, and 23.8%, respectively. The MSSA prevalence was higher among podiatrists who did not use an aspiration system (32.3% compared to those who did (19.3%; p = 0.0305, and among podiatrists with respiratory diseases (36.8% compared to those without (20.8%; p = 0.0272. The MRSE prevalence was higher among men (33.7% compared to women (8.6%; p = 0.0089, podiatrists aged ≥50 (38.5% compared to ≤35 (17.8%; p = 0.0101, and podiatrists with ≥15 (39.3% compared to ≤5 years of podiatry experience (12.5%; p = 0.0015. Among the S. aureus strains, 84.5% were resistant to penicillin, 22.4% to erythromycin, 20.7% to clindamycin, and 12.7% to mupirocin. The MRSE strains were resistant to penicillin (93.0%, erythromycin (78.9%, and mupirocin (73.7%. Conclusions The prevalence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis nasal carriage is low among Spanish podiatrists compared to other health professionals.

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in a Large Insured Sample of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Bent, Stephen; Lynch, Frances L; Coleman, Karen J; Yau, Vincent M; Pearson, Kathryn A; Massolo, Maria L; Quinn, Virginia; Croen, Lisa A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use as well as parental perceptions of CAM efficacy in a large, geographically diverse sample of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Data were obtained from a web-based survey administered to parents of children with ASD at four sites participating in the Mental Health Research Network (MHRN). The web survey obtained information about services and treatments received by children with ASD as well as the caregivers' experiences with having a child with ASD. Approximately 88% of the sample had either used CAM in the past or had recently used some type of CAM. The following characteristics were associated with CAM use: greater parental education, younger child age, a mix of regular and special classroom settings and prescription drug use in the past three months. The use of CAM was very prevalent in this large, geographically diverse sample of children with ASD. It is critical that providers be prepared to discuss the advantages and potential side effects with families to help them make well-informed health care decisions and prevent possible CAM-drug interactions.

  17. Incidence and Prevalence of Sexual Dysfunction in Women and Men: A Consensus Statement from the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Sharlip, Ira D; Lewis, Ron; Atalla, Elham; Balon, Richard; Fisher, Alessandra D; Laumann, Edward; Lee, Sun Won; Segraves, Robert T

    2016-02-01

    The incidence and prevalence of various sexual dysfunctions in women and men are important to understand to designate priorities for epidemiologic and clinical research. This manuscript was designed to conduct a review of the literature to determine the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women and men. Members of Committee 1 of the Fourth International Consultation on Sexual Medicine (2015) searched and reviewed epidemiologic literature on the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunctions. Key older studies and most studies published after 2009 were included in the text of this article. The outcome measures were the reports in the various studies of the incidence and prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women and men. There are more studies on incidence and prevalence for men than for women and many more studies on prevalence than incidence for women and men. The data indicate that the most frequent sexual dysfunctions for women are desire and arousal dysfunctions. In addition, there is a large proportion of women who experience multiple sexual dysfunctions. For men, premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction are the most common sexual dysfunctions, with less comorbidity across sexual dysfunctions for men compared with women. These data need to be treated with caution, because there is a high level of variability across studies caused by methodologic differences in the instruments used to assess presence of sexual dysfunction, ages of samples, nature of samples, methodology used to gather the data, and cultural differences. Future research needs to use well-validated tools to gather data and ensure that the data collection strategy is clearly described. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Adolf Lorenz's decision to study medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Gerold

    2017-04-01

    The childhood and adolescence years are decisive in life. It was the aim of this study to analyze the pubertal years of Adolf Lorenz, the founder of Austrian orthopedics who left his mark in all parts of the world, with respect to his choice of profession. As the son of poor people from the former frontier region of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy with Poland, then known as Austrian-Silesia, he was provided with a scholarship in a boys' choir at a Carinthian monastery and then continued his studies at a college in Klagenfurt, capital of Carinthia. He spent the last year at college as a private teacher in Transylvania and passed his maturity examination as an extraordinary pupil. During this time he decided to study medicine. The people he then met and the events leading to this decision are illustrated in this article.

  19. Herbal medicine use behaviour in Australian adults who experience anxiety: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Erica; Saliba, Anthony J; Wiener, Karl K; Sarris, Jerome

    2016-02-11

    Anxiety disorders are the most prevalent mental health condition in Australia. In addition, there are many people who experience problematic anxiety symptoms who do not receive an anxiety disorder diagnosis but require treatment. As herbal medicine use is popular in Australia, and little is known about how adults experiencing anxiety are using these medicines, this study aimed to identify how Australian adults who experience anxiety are using herbal medicines. An online cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using purposive convenience sampling to recruit Australian adults who have experienced anxiety symptoms and have used herbal medicines (N = 400). Descriptive statistics, chi-square test of contingency, analysis of variance, and simple logistic regression was used to analyse the data. Eighty two percent of participants experienced anxiety symptoms in the previous 12 months, with 47% reporting having previously been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. In addition, 72.8% had used herbal medicines specifically for anxiety symptoms in their lifetime, while 55.3% had used prescribed pharmaceuticals, with 27.5% having used herbal medicines concurrently with prescribed pharmaceuticals. The Internet and family and friends were the most frequently used sources of information about herbal medicines. Forty eight percent of participants did not disclose their herbal medicine use to their doctor. Herbal medicines are being used by adults with anxiety and are commonly self-prescribed for anxiety symptoms. Health practitioners who are experts in herbal medicine prescribing are consulted infrequently. In addition, herbal medicine use is often not disclosed to health practitioners. These behaviours are concerning as people may not be receiving the most suitable treatments, and their use of herbal medicines may even be dangerous. It is critical we develop a better understanding of why people are using these medicines, and how we can develop improved health literacy

  20. Prevalence of atypical swallowing: a kinesiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Cattaneo, R; Spadaro, A; Marchetti, E; Barone, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of kinesiographic coincidence between the most cranial position during deglutition of mandible and habitual occlusal position and to evaluate the distribution of clinical diagnosis according to the kinesiographic pattern of deglutition. 201 random patients in waiting list for dental treatment and classified as orthodontic patients, prosthetic patients, TMD patients and control patients, were evaluated. Kinesiographic records were acquired using K7I and positioning a magnetic sensor frame integral with the head and with the sensory field balanced on an artificial magnet adhering to the mucosa covering the roots of the lower mandibular incisors. The kinesiographic occlusal position was compared to the kinesiographic most cranial position of the mandible during swallowing. 99 patients displayed a discrepancy between the most cranial position during swallowing and the occlusal position. 102 patients did not show any discrepancy. In this group the kinesiographic most cranial position during swallowing coincided with the occlusal position. The finding suggests that computerised kinesiography could be useful to study deglutition, detecting in a reliable way the movement pattern. Atypical deglutition seems to be less atypical than previously though in dental patient population and, despite these data confirm its correlation with malocclusion, we noted an inverse correlation with necessity of prosthetic treatment and no higher prevalence in TMD patients.

  1. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Kataria, S.K.; Samuel, A.M.

    2002-08-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Display of album of user selected coronal/ sagital/ transverse orthogonal slices, 3) Display of three orthogonal slices through user selected point, 4) Display of a set of orthogonal slices generated in the user-selected volume, 5) Generation and display of 3-D shaded surface. 6) Generation of volume data and display along with the 3-D shaded surface, 7) Side by side display orthogonal slices of two 3-D objects. Displaying a set of two-dimensional slices of a 3-D reconstructed object through shows all the defects but lacks the 3-D perspective. Display of shaded surface lacks the ability to show the embedded defects. Volume display -combining the 3-D surface and gray level volume data is perhaps the best form of display. This report describes these forms of display along with the theory. (author)

  2. Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Tunisia and in Italy. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Results: Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used ...

  3. Epidemiological Study of Smoking Prevalence among Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Fialkovskaia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and status of smoking among today’s teenagers according to the survey. Materials and methods. There was carried out the study of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in the Dnipro (n = 2299 individuals. Results. According to the results of the survey, there were 20.8 % active smokers among adolescents, among them 89.1 % adolescents smoked every day, including 24.9 % boys and 14.6 % girls. On average, adolescents begin smoking regularly at the age of 14.4 ± 0.1 year. The average length of smoking in adolescents was to 3.4 ± 0.1. The average number of cigarettes adolescents smoked per day made up of 9.1 ± 0.3 units. Studying the type of tobacco products 48.6 % of adolescents were found to smoke light cigarettes. The average index of smoker was 109.1 ± 3.3 and was significantly higher in boys (125.5 ± 4.9 than in girls (91.9 ± 4.0 (p < 0.001. Study of the motivation to quit smoking found that only 20.3 % of teenagers are highly motivated to quit, whereas about 31.7 % of adolescents have no motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions. The study showed that the problem of tobacco use remains highly relevant: in the city every fifth teenager smokes. The findings necessitate widespread introduction of antismoking programs among adolescents, which should be directed first to reduce the intensity of smoking and increase motivation to quit smoking, promote healthy lifestyles, as well as thorough clinical examination of adolescent smokers with the aim of identifying risk groups for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  4. [Enlightenment of drug application and evaluation procedures of medicines registered (listed) in Australia on studies of new traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Xun; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2014-11-01

    Modern and international studies on new traditional Chinese medicines are the main trend of the development of traditional Chinese medicines at present. In Australia, new traditional Chinese medicines refer to complementary medicines, which are mainly registered and launched as listed medicines. The application documents of registered (listed) medicines in Australia mainly cover detailed description of active pharmaceutical ingredients, pharmacological and toxicological studies, dosage form and adverse effects. Each part has detailed specifications and instructions, which helps ensure that applicants could accurately understand the requirements in application for registering (listing) medicines, and provides very important reference to the studies and development of new traditional Chinese medicines in China.

  5. A Study of Prevalence of Psychoactive Substance Use And Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . While there is continued efforts to determine factors associated, there would be need to examine if birth order influences its prevalence. Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of psychoactive substance use among ...

  6. Prevalence, socio-demographic and clinical predictors of post-diagnostic utilisation of different types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide cohort of Danish women treated for primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christina Gundgaard; Christensen, Søren; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM.......This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a nationwide inception cohort of Danish women treated for early-stage breast cancer as well as differences in user patterns for individual types of CAM....

  7. Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study in Pediatric Inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhankar, Mukesh

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to study the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in acutely sick hospitalized children and factors associated with it. This is a cross-sectional, hospital-based study in a tertiary care center of Delhi, India. Children admitted to a pediatric unit during the study period were assessed using a specially designed questionnaire. Out of the total 887 admitted children, 161 (18.1%) were using complementary and alternate medicine in one form or another. Of these, 113 (70.2%) were using complementary and alternate medicine for the current illness directly leading to admission and the remaining 48 (29.8%) had used complementary and alternate medicine in past. The common complementary and alternate medicine use observed in our study was combined ayurveda and spiritual approach (25.5%), ayurveda (24.8%), spiritual (21.7%), homeopathic (13%), and 47.2% of children were using spiritual approach in form of Jhada (tying piece of cloth on arm or leg or keeping a knife by the side of child). The significant factors associated with complementary and alternate medicine use were younger age, female gender, and father being employed. Complementary and alternate medicine is commonly used even in acutely sick children.

  8. Veterans' fall risk profile: a prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Patricia A; Palacios, Polly; Spehar, Andrea M

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves the health care needs of an adult, predominantly male, and aging population. The aging profile of VHA patients is 25% greater than the civilian sector (DVA 2001). Aged patients are at higher risk for falls. In February 2002, 6 VHA medical centers profiled their inpatients' fall risk profile as one aspect of program initiatives targeted at reducing veterans' fall risk and fall-related injuries, participating in a one-day collection of fall risk measurement using the Morse Fall Scale (MFS) for all inpatients (n = 1819), acute and long-term care units. Data results are reported for age, MFS score, and the relationship between age and score, and by type of ward/unit, ie, predominately acute and critical care or long-term care. The results of this prevalence study documented that the veteran inpatient population are at high-risk for anticipated physiological falls. This Veteran Integrated Services Network-wide Deployment of an Evidence-based Program to Prevent Patient Falls study was completed as part of a nationally funded clinical initiative, National Program Initiative 20-006-1.

  9. Prevalência e fatores determinantes do consumo de medicamentos no Município de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Prevalence and determinants of medicines consumption in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Dourado Arrais

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem por finalidade investigar a prevalência e os determinantes do consumo de medicamentos pela população de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. Com base em um delineamento transversal de base populacional, estudou-se uma amostra representativa de 331 domicílios, onde foram entrevistadas 1.370 pessoas, no período de outubro/2002 a janeiro/2003. Foram consideradas consumidoras de medicamentos todas as pessoas que nos 15 dias anteriores à entrevista tenham consumido pelo menos um medicamento. Para análise estatística foram incluídas 1.366 pessoas. A prevalência do consumo de medicamentos foi de 49,7%. Os fatores preditores do consumo na análise multivariada, por regressão logística, foram: renda familiar mensal maior que três salários mínimos, idade igual ou maior que 50 anos, sexo feminino, três ou menos pessoas por domicílio, doente crônico, ter plano de saúde e ter se consultado uma ou mais vezes nos últimos três meses. A prevalência do consumo de medicamentos em Fortaleza é elevada, mas encontra-se dentro dos parâmetros encontrados no Brasil e no exterior. No entanto, sugere que existe uma iniqüidade no acesso aos medicamentos.The objective of this work was to investigate the prevalence and determinants of medicines consumption in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in a representative sample of 331 households. A total of 1,370 persons living in Fortaleza were interviewed from October 2002 to January 2003, and 1,366 were selected for this study. Consumers were defined as all persons having used one or more drugs during the preceding 15 days. The prevalence of medicine consumption was 49.7%. The following were the predictive factors for medicines consumption according to the multivariate logistic regression analysis: family income > 3 minimum wages, older age ( > or = 50, female gender, > or = 3 persons living in household, chronic disease, having a health

  10. Evidence Based Studies in Clinical Transfusion Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.G. Jansen (Gerard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAfter the introduction of blood component therapy in the 1960s, more and more attention is given to clinical transfusion medicine. Although blood transfusion is an important treatment in different clinical settings, there are still lack of much randomized clinical trials. Nowadays

  11. Parkinson's disease prevalence in Fabry disease: A survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Adina H; Yang, Amy; Naik, Hetanshi; Stauffer, Chanan; Zeid, Natasha; Liong, Christopher; Balwani, Manisha; Desnick, Robert J; Alcalay, Roy N

    2018-03-01

    Recent research has suggested a possible link between Parkinson's disease (PD) and Fabry disease. To test this relationship, we administered a self-report and family history questionnaire to determine the prevalence of PD in Fabry disease patients and family members with likely pathogenic alpha-galactosidase A (GLA) mutations. A total of 90 Fabry patients (77 from the online survey and 13 from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (ISMMS)) were included in the analysis. Two of the Fabry disease patients who completed the online survey were diagnosed with PD (2/90, 2.2%). Among probands older than 60, 8.3% (2/24) were diagnosed with PD. Using Kaplan Meier survival analysis, the age-specific risk of PD by age 70 was 11.1%. Family history was available on 72 Fabry families from the online study and 9 Fabry families from ISMMS. Among these 81 families, 6 (7.4%) had one first degree relative who fit the criteria for a conservative diagnosis of PD. The results of this study suggest that there may be an increased risk of developing PD in individuals with GLA mutations, but these findings should be interpreted with caution given the limitations of the study design.

  12. Phytochemical and Anticancer Studies on Ten Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten medicinal plants used in Nigerian ethno medicine were subjected to phytochemical and anticancer studies using established standard procedures. The result of the study revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anona muricata, Andrographis paniculata ...

  13. Traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicines, both plant and animal products, have been used to cure various diseases since time immemorial especially in rural areas worldwide. Many studies have focused on traditional plant products, but little research has been conducted on animal traditional medicines. This study investigated the use of ...

  14. Core principles of evolutionary medicine: A Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E

    2018-01-01

    Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further.

  15. [DIFFERENCE IN THE PREVALENCE OF BURNOUT SYNDROME IN PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL TEACHING DOCTORS OF MOSTAR SCHOOL OF MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukojevič, Mladenka; Antunovič, Andelka; Petrov, Božo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the difference in the prevalence of burnout syndrome in preclinical and clinical teaching doctors of Mostar School of Medicine in the academic year 2011/2012. Special attention was also focused on finding out the possible difference between the syndrome incidence that was correlated to gender and years of service. The main hypothesis was that the probability of burnout syndrome incidence was higher in the group of female clinical teaching doctors having more years of service. The study involved 62 people with high academic education employed at Mostar School of Medicine who were surveyed during a randomly selected consecutive 3-month period (February to May) of the academic year 2011/2012. The data were prospectively collected through a standardized questionnaire survey. The studied parameters were gender, years of work experience and the engagement in preclinical or clinical departments of the Medical School. The survey showed that 43 out of 62 (69.4%) respondents did not suffer the burnout syndrome, while moderate syndrome was recodred in 19 (30.6%) of them. No person had serious symptoms of the syndrome. The difference between the respondents who suffered the syndrome and those who did not was not statistically significant (P=0.002). Considering the gender of respondents, statistically significant differences were not confirmed (P=0.444). Considering the years of service, the highest incidence of the syndrome was found in people with more work experience (in the group of 21-25 years), but the difference between the groups was not statistically significant (P=0.271). Observing the work in preclinical and clinical departments, because of the limited number of patients we could not confirm the hypothesis. The syndrome had affected 13 (21%) clinical teaching doctors and 6 (9,7%) preclinical doctors, while the differenece between them was not statistically significant (P=0.054). Considering the results of this research, it has

  16. Study on quality control of Chinese herb medicine irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dongqing; En Lihua; Deng Wenmin

    2010-01-01

    6-8 kGy γ-ray irradiation dosage treatment can reduce the bacteria, mildew effectively from 105 CFU/g to 102 CFU/g and eliminate the parasite in 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine, enhance their quality of sanitation observably. In the other hand, irradiation doesn't influence the medicinal component and therapy effect. Storage study has improved that the 4 kind of Chinese herb medicine treated by γ-ray irradiation can be preserved over one year in the room temperature with high quality of sanitation and steady medicinal component. (authors)

  17. Traditional and Complementary Medicine (TCM) among Study Population with Cardiovascular Risk; use and Substitution for Conventional Medicine in Pahang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Y; Chia, Y L; Lai, S M; Chong, K Y; Ho, X L; Liew, D W; Moy, F M; Selvarajah, S

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of morbidity and mortality in Malaysia. There is evidence of high traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) use among population with cardiovascular risk and there have been anecdotal reports about substitution of conventional medicines with TCM. We investigated the prevalence of TCM use, treatment preference and substitution of conventional medicines in study population with cardiovascular risk factors in Pahang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire in five districts of Pahang. A total of 1250 households were chosen through proportionate and systematic sampling. Respondents aged 18 years and above were selected. The study population with cardiovascular risk factors who used TCM was higher than the general population (31.7% versus 25.9%). There were no clear preferences in using TCM by gender, age groups, educational level and income even though other bumiputeras showed a slight inclination towards TCM use. Among the study population with cardiovascular risk factors who consumed TCM, 20-30% of them were using TCM as a substitute for their conventional medications. Respondents from the younger age group (18-40 years) (57.1%), highest educational level (43.2%), other bumiputeras (38.4%) and highest income group (31.4%) preferred the combination of both conventional and traditional medicine. TCM use among population with cardiovascular risk factors is high. The high preference for combination therapy of TCM and conventional medications among young adults and the use of TCM to substitute conventional medications show that much research is needed to provide proven TCM therapies to avoid self-mismanagement of cardiovascular risk in Malaysia.

  18. contributions to the study of some medicinal plants of ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many African countries offer a largely untapped source of potentially useful natural products with numerous species waiting to be documented and investigated. Contributions from our laboratory to the phytochemical study of medicinal and other plants of Ethiopia is presented here briefly. Key Words: Medicinal plants, ...

  19. Metabolic syndrome in Internal Medicine patients: the pilot NIMEC study (National Internal Medicine Equivalent/Complex C-V-@Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nardi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Metabolic Syndrome (MetS, currently defined as slight differences in the criteria of diagnosis – depending on which authority is quoted [i.e.: NCEP-ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III; WHO (World Health Organization; IDF (International Diabetes Federation; AACE (American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists], designates a cluster of metabolic risk factors that come together in a single individual, leading to cardiovascular disease. MetS is quite common, approximately 20-30% of the population in industrialized countries being affected. However, most of epidemiological data regarding MetS are derived from populations consisting mostly of middle-aged and younger subjects. AIM OF THE STUDY To assess the prevalence of the MetS in Internal Medicine wards and to determine its related comorbidities, including other clinical forms of atherosclerotic disease such as CHD risk equivalents. METHODS Our study was performed in patients admitted in Internal Medicine wards and selected as a randomization list in 12 Emilia Romagna-Marche FADOI centers. 1.316 patients were registered. According to explicit inclusion/exclusion criteria, we studied overall 902 participants (50.6% men, mean of age: 71-73 years. RESULTS According to NCEP-ATP III and IDF criteria the prevalence of MetS was 45.3% (IC 95%: 41.6-49.1 and 38.6% (IC 95%: 34.9-42.3, respectively. Patients with MetS presented a higher significant rate of ALT increase, syncope, atrial fibrillation, COPD, unstable angina, chronic kidney disease, cancer, valvular heart disease, peripheral arterial disease and carotid plaques. A strong association between IDF-MetS and congestive heart failure was observed, suggesting a role of central obesity as an independent risk factor in the elderly. DISCUSSION World-wide populations are becoming older. Aging and MetS are two conditions that represent an important part of health-care spending. Trunkal fatness increases in

  20. Interactions between traditional Chinese medicine and western drugs in Taiwan: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan Chen; Lu, Richard; Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Ko-Ching; Chen, Bi-Li; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Huang, Chih-Wei; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan; Tsai, Shin-Han

    2015-12-01

    Drug-drug interactions have long been an active research area in clinical medicine. In Taiwan, however, the widespread use of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) presents additional complexity to the topic. Therefore, it is important to see the interaction between traditional Chinese and western medicine. (1) To create a comprehensive database of multi-herb/western drug interactions indexed according to the ways in which physicians actually practice and (2) to measure this database's impact on the detection of adverse effects between traditional Chinese medicine compounds and western medicines. First, a multi-herb/western medicine drug interactions database was created by separating each TCM compound into its constituent herbs. Each individual herb was then checked against an existing single-herb/western drug interactions database. The data source comes from the National Health Insurance research database, which spans the years 1998-2011. This study estimated the interaction prevalence rate and further separated the rates according to patient characteristics, distribution by county, and hospital accreditation levels. Finally, this new database was integrated into a computer order entry module of the electronic medical records system of a regional teaching hospital. The effects it had were measured for two months. The most commonly interacting Chinese herbs were Ephedrae Herba and Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Ephedrae Herba contains active ingredients similar to in ephedrine. 15 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contain Ephedrae Herba. Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix contain ingredients similar to coumarin, a blood thinner. 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contained Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. In the period from 1998 to 2011, the prevalence of herb-drug interactions related to Ephedrae Herba was 0.18%. The most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese compounds were

  1. Burnout among female emergency medicine physicians: A nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanifar, Atefeh; Pishbin, Elham; Attaran Mashhadi, Negin; Najaf Najafi, Mona; Siahtir, Maryam

    2018-02-13

    The challenging and stressful nature of emergency medicine place the practitioners of this young branch of medicine at risk of burnout. In Iran, the number of women choosing the specialty of emergency medicine has been increasing in recent years. No studies have focused on burnout among female emergency medicine physicians. We conducted this study to evaluate the level of burnout in female emergency medicine physicians in Iran. In this cross-sectional study, all Iranian female emergency medicine physicians with more than 2 years of work experience as specialists, received a questionnaire containing 22-item Maslach Burnout Inventory scales and 7-item Cassidy social support scale, as well as questions about workload and career satisfaction. In total, 77 questionnaires were analysed (response rate: 75%; median age: 36 years, median for work experience = 3 years). A total of 34% of participants were academic faculties. The level of burnout in three subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and perceived low personal accomplishment was moderate to high in 84.5, 48.1 and 80.5% of participants respectively. A total of 94.8% of female emergency medicine physicians perceived their workload to be moderate to high and only 1.3% of them had high job satisfaction. Alarming high rate of burnout and job dissatisfaction among female emergency medicine physicians in our study requires careful attention. Further investigations are suggested to identify the contributory factors to burnout and the probability of some gender disparities in this field. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Prevalence of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among U.S. College Students: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Amy L. Versnik; Hale, Heidi M.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that Americans are using increasing amounts of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and that education is a significant predictor of CAM use. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize key research findings on CAM use rates among U.S. college students and recommend future actions for researchers and health…

  3. Prevalence of delirium in hospitalized internal medicine and surgical adult patients in Shohadaye ashayer hospital of Khoram abad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    raheleh Asaee

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Asaee R1, Nasari H2,Hoseini S3 1. Assistant professor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestanl University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 1. Assistant professor, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestanl University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. G.P, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Delirium is common in elderly persons and in hospitalized patients especially after surgical procedures. But many of them are undetected and don’t receive treatment so they involve with increased mortality and morbidity, adverse outcomes, length of hospital stay and mental disability sequels. Unfortunetly , despite the importance of this syndrom , physicians and staff are able to diagnose only one thirth of the patients. Material and methods: In this cross sectional study, 240 inpatiants (120 from surgery ward and 120 from miernal medicine ward from Shohadaye Ashayer hospital of Khorramabad were selected randomly. The diagnostic criteria for delirium were Mini-Mental state examination (MMSE questionnaire, and patients daily examination for 4 days by MMSE. Results: Delirium was observed in 37 (30.8% of the patients of internal medicine ward and 25 (20.8% of the patients of surgery ward. 27 (22.5% of the patients of internal medicine ward and 37 (30.8% of the patients of surgery ward were suspicious for delirium. In age group of 58-77 years in surgery ward and patients over 77 years in internal medicine ward had the most frequency of delirium. There was significant relationship (p=0.01 between two sex in surgery ward. But there was not significant difference (p=0.92 between two sex in internal medicine ward for delirium. Conclusion: Reading the results of this study and frequency of delirum in surgery and internal medicine wards, presence of a psychiatrist in mentioned wards is necessary of early diagnosis and control of delirium.

  4. The prevalence, types and effects of traditional eye medicine use among newly presenting patients at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, Y; Masanganise, R

    2014-01-01

    The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on the types ofTEM used and associated ocular complications. To evaluate the prevalence of TEM use among newly-presenting patients at SKHEU. To identify the ocular symptoms experienced by the new clinic-attendees who had used TEM for their current eye problem. To characterize the TEM used, in terms of type, source (provider) and routes of administration. To evaluate any association between TEM use and legal blindness at presentation, destructive eye procedures and other specific ocular complications among these patients. Hospital-based, cross-sectional analytic study. All new patients attending one randomly selected clinic per week were recruited for the study over a period of eight months. The patients had a full clinical examination and data collected. The prevalence of TEM use among new patients at SKHEU was 61.5%. The initial ocular symptoms prior to the use of TEM were mainly those of ocular surface inflammation: tearing (77.4%), redness (74.9%), itchiness (71.6%) and pain (70.3%). The most common category of TEM used was plants and plant products. Most TEMs (92.4%) were administered as topical eye drops. In ninety-five percent of cases, the provider of TEM was not a formal traditional healer but rather relatives, friends and the patients self-medicated. The use of TEM was associated with specific ocular complications in 58.6% of cases. There were significant associations between use of TEM and corneal ulceration, corneal vascularisation, endophthalmitis, evisceration, exenteration and legal blindness at presentation. This study has shown that the use of TEM is common among new clinic-attendees at SKHEU and is associated with specific ocular complications.

  5. Application of transcriptomics in Chinese herbal medicine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Hui-Chi; Lin, Li-Jen; Hsiang, Chien-Yun; Ho, Tin-Yun

    2012-04-01

    Transcriptomics using DNA microarray has become a practical and popular tool for herbal medicine study because of high throughput, sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and reproducibility. Therefore, this article focuses on the overview of DNA microarray technology and the application of DNA microarray in Chinese herbal medicine study. To understand the number and the objectives of articles utilizing DNA microarray for herbal medicine study, we surveyed 297 frequently used Chinese medicinal herbs listed in Pharmacopoeia Commission of People's Republic of China. We classified these medicinal herbs into 109 families and then applied PudMed search using "microarray" and individual herbal family as keywords. Although thousands of papers applying DNA microarray in Chinese herbal studies have been published since 1998, most of the articles focus on the elucidation of mechanisms of certain biological effects of herbs. Construction of the bioactivity database containing large-scaled gene expression profiles of quality control herbs can be applied in the future to analyze the biological events induced by herbs, predict the therapeutic potential of herbs, evaluate the safety of herbs, and identify the drug candidate of herbs. Moreover, the linkage of systems biology tools, such as functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics, will become a new translational platform between Western medicine and Chinese herbal medicine.

  6. Potentially inappropriate prescribing in elderly population: A study in medicine out-patient department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit Kumar Sah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Older individuals often suffer from multiple systemic diseases and are particularly more vulnerable to potentially inappropriate medicine prescribing. Inappropriate medication can cause serious medical problem for the elderly. The study was conducted with objectives to determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medicine (PIM prescribing in older Nepalese patients in a medicine outpatient department.Materials & Methods: A prospective observational analysis of drugs prescribed in medicine out-patient department (OPD of a tertiary hospital of central Nepal was conducted during November 2012 to October 2013 among 869 older adults aged 65 years and above. The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM in elderly patients was analysed using Beer’s Criteria updated to 2013. Results: In the 869 patients included, the average number of drugs prescribed per prescription was 5.56. The most commonly used drugs were atenolol (24.3%, amlodipine (23.16%, paracetamol (17.6%, salbutamol (15.72% and vitamin B complex (13.26%. The total number of medications prescribed was 4833. At least one instance of PIM was experienced by approximately 26.3% of patients when evaluated using the Beers criteria. Conclusion: Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older patients attending medical OPD and are associated with number of medications prescribed. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health related outcomes in these elderly.

  7. Prevalence studies in rheumatology: the methodology of the Chiavari study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Goals of epidemiological studies are the description of the measures of frequency of diseases, the attempt to clarify possible etiopathogenic mechanisms, and the provision of data to support health policy decisions. To increase the familiarity of rheumatologists toward epidemiology, we describe the methodology used in a prevalence study of musculoskeletal complaints performed in Chiavari, Italy. Methods: A questionnaire, originally developed by the Epidemiology Unit of the Arthitis Research Council in Manchester, UK, to investigate the prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis, was used after translation and validation. 4456 subjects aged 16 years or more listed in four general practices were invited to participate in the study and to fill the ARC questionnaire. The 3294 responders reported a any past occurrence of joint swelling lasting more than four weeks and the distribution of the swollen joints on a mannequin; b any joint pain lasting more than four weeks; c current joint pain or swelling; d morning stiffness; e whether they had been previously told by a doctor they had arthritis. Results: Four steps were necessary to obtain a 74% response, i.e. direct contact, two mailings and a phone interview. The performance of the different questions was good. The prevalence of the most common conditions among patients answering positively to the questions regarding morning stiffness and symmetrical swelling of joints was as follows: osteoarthritis 2.60%, fibromyalgia 1.30%, carpal tunnel syndrome 1.14%, rheumatoid arthritis 0.31%, and psoriatic arthritis 0.10%. Conclusions: Methodological issues regarding the selection of the population and sample to study, the development of a questionnaire, and the problems in obtaining valid informations are discussed.

  8. Healthcare databases in Europe for studying medicine use and safety during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Sue

    2014-01-01

    . The suitability of a particular database, however, will depend on the research question, the type of medicine to be evaluated, the prevalence of its use and any adverse outcomes of interest. © 2014 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a number of electronic healthcare databases in Europe in terms of the population covered, the source of the data captured and the availability of data on key variables required for evaluating medicine use and medicine safety during pregnancy. METHODS......: A sample of electronic healthcare databases that captured pregnancies and prescription data was selected on the basis of contacts within the EUROCAT network. For each participating database, a database inventory was completed. RESULTS: Eight databases were included, and the total population covered was 25...

  9. Study on the prevalence of ectoparasite infestation of ruminanats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This could be attributed to management and differences in the epidemiology of sampling sites. The prevalence of Amblyomma and. Boophilus in the cattle were 28.33% and 11.25% respectively. The higher prevalence of tick in cattle in this study was due to managemental and epidemiological factors. Ticks require moisture ...

  10. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under Jongilanga Tribal Council, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Boikanyo Calvin Mophuting, James Mahore, Stefan Winterboer, Namrita Lall ...

  11. Family Medicine needs assessment: Studying the clinical work of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family Medicine needs assessment: Studying the clinical work of general practitioners in Ethiopia. J Philpott, S Shiferaw, K Rouleau, D Cole, E Nicolle, K Bezanson, N Pimlott, C Meaney, G Nasmith, M Abbyad, M Derbew, A Mekasha ...

  12. Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study

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    Anthony Liwa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods. A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results. Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4% reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1% reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion. The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa.

  13. Herbal and Alternative Medicine Use in Tanzanian Adults Admitted with Hypertension-Related Diseases: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Rebecca; Jaka, Hyasinta; Bougaila, Amina; Smart, Luke; Langwick, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Background Hypertension is increasingly common in sub-Saharan Africa where traditional medicine use is also common. We conducted a hospital-based, mixed-methods study to determine prevalence, pattern, and correlates of herbal and alternative medicine use in Tanzanian adults hospitalized with hypertension. Methods A standardized questionnaire was administered. In-depth interviews were performed on a subset of participants. Factors associated with herbal medicine use were determined by logistic regression. The association between traditional medicine uses and allopathic medication adherence was determined using ordinal logistic regression. Qualitative data were analyzed according to grounded theory. Results Of 213 adults enrolled, 52 (24.4%) reported using herbs during the previous month and 47 (22.1%) reported concurrent use of herbs and allopathic medicines. Lower educational level, nonprofessional employment, and lack of health insurance were significantly associated with herbal medicine use. Alternative medicines use was not associated with lower medication adherence. Qualitative interviews identified several important themes including reasons for herbal medicine use. Conclusion The use of traditional medicines is very common among patients with hypertension. Adults from low socioeconomic status, those with misunderstandings about hypertension, and those without health insurance were more likely to take herbs. Open, nonjudgmental communication between healthcare workers and patients regarding use of traditional medicines must be encouraged in Africa. PMID:28634545

  14. The prevalence, patterns of usage and people's attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM among the Indian community in Chatsworth, South Africa

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    Raidoo Deshandra M

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine, among the Indian community of Chatsworth, South Africa, the prevalence and utilisation patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, attitudes associated with CAM use and communication patterns of CAM users with their primary care doctors. Methods Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted in Chatsworth, a suburb of Durban in which South Africans of Indian origin predominantly reside. Participants were 200 randomly selected adult English-speaking Indian residents. Results The prevalence of CAM usage for period 2000/2001 was 38.5% (95% confidence interval 31.7% to 45.6%. Spiritual healing and herbal/natural medicines, including vitamins were the most common types of CAM used, accounting for 42.8% and 48.1% respectively of overall CAM usage. People used CAM to treat conditions including diabetes mellitus, headaches, arthritis and joint pains, stress, skin disorders, backaches, hypertension and nasal disorders. Half of the CAM users used allopathic medicines concurrently. The cost of CAM utilization over this 1-year period, incurred by 80.5% of users for the duration of therapy for their most troublesome condition was below R500 (approximately US$50. Age, sex, marital status, religion, level of education and income were shown not to influence the use of CAM. Greater than half (51.9% of CAM users did so either upon the advice of someone they knew, or after noticing a CAM advertisement in the local press. Seventy-nine percent of CAM users indicated that they had positive outcomes with their treatments. Fifty four percent of CAM users (excluding those using spiritual healing only failed to inform their doctors that they used CAM. The main reason given by half of this group was that informing their doctors did not seem necessary. Conclusion The prevalence of CAM in Chatsworth is similar to findings in other parts of the world. Although CAM was used to treat many different

  15. A comparative study on cancer prevention principles between Iranian traditional medicine and classic medicine

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    Mehrdad Zeinalian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the three main causes of mortality in most human communities whose prevalence is being increased. A significant part of health budget in all countries has been allocated to treat the cancer, which is incurable in many cases. It has led the global health attitude to cancer prevention. Many cancer-related risk factors have been identified for which preventive recommendations have been offered by international organizations such as World Health Organization. Some of the most important of these risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption, hypercaloric and low-fiber diet, obesity, inactivity, environmental and industrial pollution, some viral infections, and hereditary factors. Exact reviewing of Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM resources determines that preventive rules, which named as six essential rules (Sitteh-e-Zarurieah are abundantly found, including all identified cancer-related risk factors. These preventive rules are: Air (Hava, body movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, food and drink, evacuation and retention, and mental movement and repose (A′raz-e-Nafsani. The associated risk factors in classic medicine are: Smoking and air pollution, sedentary life, sleep disturbance, improper nutrition and alcohol, chronic constipation, and psychoneurotic stresses. Moreover, these rules are comprehensive enough to include many of the other harmful health-related factors whose roles have been confirmed in the occurrence of different diseases, except cancer. Apparently, cancer prevention in Iran would be more successful if the sextet necessary rules of IITM are promoted among the populations and health policy makers.

  16. Prevalence and Predictors of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Use Among Ivy League College Students: Implications for Student Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versnik Nowak, Amy L; DeGise, Joe; Daugherty, Amanda; O'Keefe, Richard; Seward, Samuel; Setty, Suma; Tang, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Determine prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used and test the significance of demographics and social cognitive constructs as predictors of CAM use in a college sample. Secondary purpose was to guide the integration of CAM therapies into college health services. Random, stratified sample of 2,553 undergraduates and graduate students enrolled at Columbia University. Web-based survey e-mailed to a random sample of 6,482 students. Regression analyses used to determine predictors of CAM use. Nearly 82% of respondents reported using at least 1 form of CAM in the last 12 months, the most common being nonvitamin, nonmineral (NVNM) products, yoga, deep breathing exercises, massage therapy, and meditation. Sex, student home origin, outcome expectancies, observational learning, and attitude toward CAM were found as significant predictors of CAM use. Ongoing assessment of CAM use can assist administrators and providers to enhance college health services and programs.

  17. The prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization: evidence from 70 studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongdong; Dong, Bao; Yu, Dandan; Ren, Qiongqiong; Sun, Yehuan

    2018-03-01

    A growing number of studies have investigated the prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) around the world. The aim of this study was to systematically estimate the pooled prevalence of MIH. A comprehensive literature research was completed in English and Chinese databases. Random effect models were used to calculate the pooled prevalence. To address the heterogeneity, meta-regression, and sensitivity analyzes were conducted. Publication bias was estimated by trim and fill method. Seventy eligible studies were included. The pooled prevalence of MIH was 14.2% globally. In subgroup analysis, South America (18.0%, 95% CI: 13.8-22.2) and Spain (21.1%, 95% CI: 17.7-24.6) had the highest prevalence. There was no significant difference between males (14.3%, 95% CI: 12.0-16.6) and females (14.4%, 95% CI: 12.8-15.9). The prevalence of MIH among children 10 years of age or younger (15.1%, 95% CI: 12.1-18.2) was much higher than the prevalence of MIH among older children (12.1%, 95% CI: 8.0-16.3). Sample size explained 15.7% heterogeneity. MIH has a high incidence globally, especially among children <10 years old. It is, therefore, imperative to develop more appropriate dental healthcare strategies to care for these children and to identify the etiology of MIH to prevent it occurring. © 2017 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. A study of the relationship between eating disorders, stress level and selfesteem among medicine students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Nada; Trigui, Dorsaf; Ben Thabet, Jihène; Hajbi, Kaouthar; Zouari, Nasreddine; Zouari, Lobna; Maalej, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Stress of the higher studies leads to various disorders, especially eating ones. Such disorders, once present, may influence body image and self-esteem of young students. to assess the prevalence of eating disorders among a group of Medicine students and to study its links with stress level and selfesteem. It was a descriptive and analytic cross-sectional study, including 60 medicine students that were investigated during their revision for the final year exam. The participants had filled the perceived stress scale, the eating attitude test EAT-40 and The Rosenberg self-esteem scale. The eating disorders were found in 11% of the participants. Those had a low to a very low self-esteem in 40% of cases and a high perceived stress level in 36, 4% of cases. The eating disorders were significantlymore frequent among the female students (p=0, 03), the more sedentary (p=0,019), having a low to a very low self-esteem (p=0,032) and a high perceived stress level (p=0,001). Our study shows that the prevalence of eating disorders is not negligible among medicine students. Their presence depends on certain personal aspects (physical activities, body image satisfaction) and contextual aspects (period of exams, stress). If existing, they would affect negatively the self-esteem, especially of the girls. These various results pave the way for a multidisciplinary approach to students particularly vulnerable to eating disorders.

  19. Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C transmission in relation to salivary viral load among infected patients with and without chronic renal failure. H El Tayeb, NA El Nakeeb, MM Sayed, WA Yousry, SHA Agwa ...

  20. [Application of network biology on study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sai-Sai; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2018-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome project, people have gradually recognized that the functions of the biological system are fulfilled through network-type interaction between genes, proteins and small molecules, while complex diseases are caused by the imbalance of biological processes due to a number of gene expression disorders. These have contributed to the rise of the concept of the "multi-target" drug discovery. Treatment and diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine are based on holism and syndrome differentiation. At the molecular level, traditional Chinese medicine is characterized by multi-component and multi-target prescriptions, which is expected to provide a reference for the development of multi-target drugs. This paper reviews the application of network biology in traditional Chinese medicine in six aspects, in expectation to provide a reference to the modernized study of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Medicines access programs to cancer medicines in Australia and New Zealand: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Piyush; Babar, Zaheer-Ud-Din; Oehmen, Raoul; Vitry, Agnes

    2018-03-01

    Medicines Access Programs (MAP) offer access to publicly unfunded medicines at the discretion of pharmaceutical companies. Limited literature is available on their extent and scope in Australia and New Zealand. This study aims to identify MAPs for cancer medicines that were operational in 2014-15 in Australia and New Zealand and describe their characteristics. A preliminary list of MAPs was sent to hospital pharmacists in Australia and New Zealand to validate and collect further information. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted directly to provide information regarding MAPs offered. Key stakeholders were interviewed to identify issues with MAPs. Fifty-one MAPs were identified covering a range of indications. The majority of MAPs were provided free of charge to the patient for medicines that were registered or in the process of being registered but were not funded. Variability in the number of MAPs across institutions and characteristics was observed. Australia offered more MAPs than New Zealand. Only two of 17 pharmaceutical companies contacted agreed to provide information on their MAPs. Eight stakeholder interviews were conducted. This identified that while MAPs are widely operational there is lack of clinical monitoring, inequity to access, operational issues and lack of transparency. Our results suggest a need for a standardised and mandated policy to mitigate issues with MAPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and prediabetes in the adult Romanian population: PREDATORR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maria; Popa, Simona Georgiana; Mota, Eugen; Mitrea, Adina; Catrinoiu, Doina; Cheta, Dan Mircea; Guja, Cristian; Hancu, Nicolae; Ionescu-Tirgoviste, Constantin; Lichiardopol, Radu; Mihai, Bogdan Mircea; Popa, Amorin Remus; Zetu, Cornelia; Bala, Cornelia Gabriela; Roman, Gabriela; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Serban, Viorel; Timar, Romulus; Veresiu, Ioan Andrei; Vlad, Adrian Radu

    2016-05-01

    The PREDATORR (PREvalence of DiAbeTes mellitus, prediabetes, overweight, Obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperuricemia and chronic kidney disease in Romania) study is the first national study analyzing the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes, and their association with cardiometabolic, sociodemographic, and lifestyle risk factors in the Romanian population aged 20-79 years. This was an epidemiological study with a stratified, cross-sectional, cluster random sampling design. Sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anamnestic data were collected through self- and interviewer-administered questionnaires, and biochemical assays and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed. In all, 2728 participants from 101 clinics of general practitioners were randomly selected, with a probability proportional to population size according to the 2002 Romanian Census. The participation rate was 99.6%. Impaired glucose regulation (prediabetes, known and unknown DM) was found in 28.1% of the study population. The overall age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of DM was 11.6% (95% CI 9.6%-13.6%), of which 2.4% (95% CI 1.7%-3.1%) had unknown DM. The prevalence of DM increased with age and was higher in men than in women. The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence of prediabetes was 16.5% (95%CI 14.8%-18.2%), with the highest percentage in the 60-79 year age group and in women. Obesity, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, low education level, and a family history of diabetes were associated with glucose metabolism disorders. The PREDATORR study shows a high prevalence of impaired glucose regulation in the adult Romanian population, providing data on the prevalence of DM and prediabetes and their association with several risk factors. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley Sons & Australia, Ltd.

  3. PREVALENCE OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY IN PATIENT TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AT INTERNAL MEDICINE POLICLINIC SANGLAH HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Sintia Anggia Sari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE One of the complications that can occur in microvaskular diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy. This research was carried out to know the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in patients type 2 diabetes mellitus at internal divison of Sanglah Hospital. The method used is cross sectional by collecting data from the questionnaire and secondary data of medical record patient's type 2 DM. On this research acquired 111 patients (35.1% with diabetic retinopathy and (64,9% nonretinopathy. In the group with good level of HbA1c (<6.5% the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy obtained 53.2%, in the group of patients with moderate level of HbA1c (6.5-8% as much as 22.5%, and in the group of patients with HbA1c bad level (>8% as much as 24.3%. The prevalence of the occurrence of DM complications in the diabetic retinopathy is still high, and a good level of HbA1c does not guarantee a person can’t have complication because the complication can also happens are affected by hypertension, dyslipidemia, age, and duration of DM. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Liver enzyme abnormalities in taking traditional herbal medicine in Korea: A retrospective large sample cohort study of musculoskeletal disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Kim, Me-Riong; Byun, Jang-Hoon; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hyejin; Byung Park, Ki; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Lee, Myeong Soo; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study is to report the incidence of liver injury from herbal medicine in musculoskeletal disease patients as large-scale studies are scarce. Considering that herbal medicine is frequently used in patients irrespective of liver function in Korea, we investigated the prevalence of liver injury by liver function test results in musculoskeletal disease patients. Of 32675 inpatients taking herbal medicine at 7 locations of a Korean medicine hospital between 2005 and 2013, we screened for liver injury in 6894 patients with liver function tests (LFTs) at admission and discharge. LFTs included t-bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP. Liver injury at discharge was assessed by LFT result classifications at admission (liver injury, liver function abnormality, and normal liver function). In analyses for risk factors of liver injury at discharge, we adjusted for age, sex, length of stay, conventional medicine intake, HBs antigen/antibody, and liver function at admission. A total 354 patients (prevalence 5.1%) had liver injury at admission, and 217 (3.1%) at discharge. Of the 354 patients with liver injury at admission, only 9 showed a clinically significant increase after herbal medicine intake, and 225 returned to within normal range or showed significant liver function recovery. Out of 4769 patients with normal liver function at admission, 27 (0.6%) had liver injury at discharge. In multivariate analyses for risk factors, younger age, liver function abnormality at admission, and HBs antigen positive were associated with injury at discharge. The prevalence of liver injury in patients with normal liver function taking herbal medicine for musculoskeletal disease was low, and herbal medicine did not exacerbate liver injury in most patients with injury prior to intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Delirium in Critically Ill Children: An International Point Prevalence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Chani; Silver, Gabrielle; Reeder, Ron W; Doyle, Hannah; Hegel, Emily; Wolfe, Heather A; Schneller, Christopher; Chung, Melissa G; Dervan, Leslie A; DiGennaro, Jane L; Buttram, Sandra D W; Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Madden, Kate; Hartman, Mary E; deAlmeida, Mary L; Walson, Karen; Ista, Erwin; Baarslag, Manuel A; Salonia, Rosanne; Beca, John; Long, Debbie; Kawai, Yu; Cheifetz, Ira M; Gelvez, Javier; Truemper, Edward J; Smith, Rebecca L; Peters, Megan E; O'Meara, A M Iqbal; Murphy, Sarah; Bokhary, Abdulmohsen; Greenwald, Bruce M; Bell, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    To determine prevalence of delirium in critically ill children and explore associated risk factors. Multi-institutional point prevalence study. Twenty-five pediatric critical care units in the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, and Saudi Arabia. All children admitted to the pediatric critical care units on designated study days (n = 994). Children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the bedside nurse. Demographic and treatment-related variables were collected. Primary study outcome measure was prevalence of delirium. In 159 children, a final determination of mental status could not be ascertained. Of the 835 remaining subjects, 25% screened positive for delirium, 13% were classified as comatose, and 62% were delirium-free and coma-free. Delirium prevalence rates varied significantly with reason for ICU admission, with highest delirium rates found in children admitted with an infectious or inflammatory disorder. For children who were in the PICU for 6 or more days, delirium prevalence rate was 38%. In a multivariate model, risk factors independently associated with development of delirium included age less than 2 years, mechanical ventilation, benzodiazepines, narcotics, use of physical restraints, and exposure to vasopressors and antiepileptics. Delirium is a prevalent complication of critical illness in children, with identifiable risk factors. Further multi-institutional, longitudinal studies are required to investigate effect of delirium on long-term outcomes and possible preventive and treatment measures. Universal delirium screening is practical and can be implemented in pediatric critical care units.

  6. Sparking Thinking: Studying Modern Precision Medicine Will Accelerate the Progression of Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bao-Cheng; Ji, Guang

    2017-07-01

    Incorporating "-omics" studies with environmental interactions could help elucidate the biological mechanisms responsible for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) patterns. Based on the authors' own experiences, this review outlines a model of an ideal combination of "-omics" biomarkers, environmental factors, and TCM pattern classifications; provides a narrative review of the relevant genetic and TCM studies; and lists several successful integrative examples. Two integration tools are briefly introduced. The first is the integration of modern devices into objective diagnostic methods of TCM patterning, which would improve current clinical decision-making and practice. The second is the use of biobanks and data platforms, which could broadly support biological and medical research. Such efforts will transform current medical management and accelerate the progression of precision medicine.

  7. Current status of allergy prevalence in Germany: Position paper of the Environmental Medicine Commission of the Robert Koch Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Heinrich, Joachim; Niemann, Hildegard

    The lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases in adults in Germany [self-reported doctor diagnosed allergic diseases, Study on Adult Health in Germany (Studie zur Gesundheit Erwachsener in Deutschland, DEGS1, 2008-2011) of the Robert Koch Institute] is 8.6 % for asthma, 14.8 % for hay fever, 3.5 % for atopic dermatitis, 8.1 % for contact dermatitis, 4.7 % for food allergies, and 2.8 % for insect venom allergies. Almost 20 % of German adults are currently affected by at least one allergy. In tests on 50 common single allergens and two mixtures comprising either inhalant allergens or grass pollen allergens, 48.6 % of participants exhibited at least one allergic sensitization (specific IgE antibody detection). Overall, 33.6 % of participants were sensitized to inhalant allergens, 25.5 % to at least one food allergens, and 22.6 % to at least one insect venom allergens. A comparison of data on adults from 1998 [Federal Health Survey 1998 (Bundes-Gesundheitssurvey 1998, BGS98) of the Robert Koch Institute] and 2008-2011 (DEGS1) shows an increase in prevalence over time of almost three percentage points, while the rate of sensitization to inhalant allergens has increased from 29.8 % to 33.6 %. The prevalence of doctor diagnosed hay fever, atopic dermatitis, and food allergies, on the other hand, has remained virtually unchanged over the last 15 years. The Germany-wide lifetime prevalence of allergic diseases in children and adolescents [Study on the Health of Children and Adolescents in Germany (Studie zur Gesundheit von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland, KiGGS initial survey, 2003-2006) of the Robert Koch Institute] was 4.7 % for asthma, 10.7 % for hay fever, and 13.2 % for atopic dermatitis. Altogether, 40.8 % of German children and adolescents were sensitized to at least one of the inhalant or food allergens measured, while 20.0 % were sensitized to at least one food allergen. A marked increase in hay fever prevalence among East German children in the 1990s has

  8. [Racism of "Blood" and colonial medicine - Blood group anthropology studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Joon Young

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to explore implications of Colonial medicine's Blood Type Studies, concerning the characteristics and tasks of racism in the Japanese Colonial Empire. Especially, it focuses on the Blood Group Anthropology Studies at Keijo Imperial University Department of Forensic Medicine. In Colonial Korea, the main stream of Blood Type Studies were Blood Group Anthropology Studies, which place Korean people who was inferior to Japanese people in the geography of the race on the one hand, but on the other, put Koreans as a missing link between the Mongolian and the Japanese for fulfillment of the Japanese colonialism, that is, assimilationist ideology. Then, Compared to the Western medicine and Metropole medicine of Japan, How differentiated was this tendency of Colonial Medicine from them? In this paper, main issues of Blood Group Anthropology Studies and its colonial implications are examined. The Korean Society for the History of Medicine.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  10. Hirschsprung's disease prevalence in Europe. A register based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Best, Kate E; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital gut motility disorder, characterised by the absence of the enteric ganglion cells along the distal gut. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of Hirschsprung's disease, including additional congenital anomalies, total prevalence......, trends, and association with maternal age. METHODS: Cases of Hirschsprung's disease delivered during 1980 to 2009 notified to 31 European Surveillance of Congenital Anomaly registers formed the population-based case-series. Prevalence rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as the number...... interval, 1.03-1.15) per 10,000 births and there was a small but significant increase in prevalence over time (relative risk = 1.01; 95% credible interval, 1.00-1.02; p = 0.004). There was evidence of geographical heterogeneity in prevalence (p chromosomal...

  11. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  12. Prevalence and parental perceptions of complementary and alternative medicine use by children with cancer in a multi-ethnic Southeast Asian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidah, Alias; Rustam, Zainudin A; Tamil, Azmi M; Zarina, Latiff A; Zulkifli, Zakaria S; Jamal, Rahman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the prevalence of use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by children with cancer and to compare the characteristics of CAM users and CAM nonusers. A cross-sectional study was performed at a pediatric oncology center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The parents of 97 children with cancer were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Overall, 84.5% of the respondents had used CAM, and most of them believed that CAM provided a boost to the immune system, and used CAM with the intention to complement conventional treatment. The most frequently used CAM was water therapy (78%), followed by spirulina (33%), vitamin C (27%), multivitamin (23%), visit to traditional healers (22%), sea cucumber (Stichopus horrens) (15%), and Chinese traditional medicine (12%). The Malay (n = 67) were using more often (93%) CAM than non-Malay (n = 30, use 67%, P = 0.001). CAM use is common among Malaysian children with cancer. Understanding the sociocultural dimension of patients' health beliefs is important to a successful treatment, and pediatric oncologists should ask for the use of CAM.

  13. Some notes on critical appraisal of prevalence studies: Comment on: "The development of a critical appraisal tool for use in systematic reviews addressing questions of prevalence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Decisions in healthcare should be based on information obtained according to the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM). An increasing number of systematic reviews are published which summarize the results of prevalence studies. Interpretation of the results of these reviews should be accompanied by an appraisal of the methodological quality of the included data and studies. The critical appraisal tool for prevalence studies developed and tested by Munn et al. comprises 10 items and aims at targeting all kinds of prevalence studies. This comment discusses the pros and cons of different designs of quality appraisal tools and highlights their importance for systematic reviews of prevalence studies. Beyond piloting, which has been performed in the study by Munn et al., it is suggested here that the validity of the tool should be tested, including reproducibility and inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that studies as the one by Munn et al. will help to establish a critical understanding of methodological quality and will support the use of systematic reviews of non-intervention studies for health policy making.

  14. Inflated medicine prices in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Mant, Andrea; Razee, Husna; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dang, Thu Ha; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen

    2017-06-01

    One third of the world's population lacks regular access to essential medicines partly because of the high cost of medicines. In Vietnam, the cost to patients of medicines was 47 times the international reference price for originator brands and 11 times the price for generic equivalents in the public sector. In this article, we report the results of a qualitative study conducted to identify the principal reasons for inflated medicine prices in Vietnam.Between April 2008 and December 2009, 29 semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from pharmaceutical companies, private pharmacies, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Finance of Vietnam. Study participants were recruited using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using NVivo8® software and analyzed using a framework of structure-conduct-performance (SCP).Participants attributed high prices of originator medicines to a monopoly of supply. The prices of generic medicines were also considered to be excessive, reportedly due to the need to recoup the cost of financial inducements paid to prescribers and procurement officers. These inducements constituted a dominant cost component of the end price of generic medicines. Poor market intelligence about current world prices, as well as failure to achieve economies of scale because of unwarranted duplication in pharmaceutical production and distribution system were also factors contributing to high prices. This was reported to be further compounded by multiple layers in the supply chain and unregulated retail mark-ups.To address these problems a multifaceted approach is needed encompassing policy and legislative responses. Policy options include establishing effective monitoring of medicine quality assurance, procurement, distribution and use. Rationalization of the domestic pharmaceutical production and distribution system to achieve economies of scale is also required. Appropriate

  15. Prevalence of Lebanese stroke survivors: A comparative pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Lahoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its late burden has mainly been attributable to developing countries. Lebanon is one of these countries where epidemiological studies on stroke burden are scarce but necessary. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of stroke survivors among Lebanese inhabitants. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using randomly selected landline phone numbers on all governorates to retrieve data on stroke survivors and their sociodemographic characteristics. Results were then standardized over the Lebanese and the World Health Organization (WHO world populations. A total of 6963 Lebanese inhabitants were included in the study; among these were 56 stroke survivors. This led to an adjusted stroke prevalence of 0.50% [95% confidence interval (CI = 0.33–0.66%] and a world-standardized prevalence of 0.60% (95% CI = 0.42–0.78%. A significantly higher stroke prevalence was found among older age groups and more socioeconomically privileged areas. Overall, the study showed a relatively higher prevalence of stroke in this sample of Lebanese inhabitants when compared to other developing countries. However, larger community-based studies with a clinical assessment of stroke cases are needed to confirm our findings.

  16. Antiepileptic drugs prescribed in pregnancy and prevalence of major congenital malformations: comparative prevalence studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen I

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Irene Petersen,1,2 Shuk-Li Collings,1,3 Rachel L McCrea,1 Irwin Nazareth,1 David P Osborn,4 Phil J Cowen,5 Cormac J Sammon1 1Department of Primary Care and Population Health, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus N, Denmark; 3OXON Epidemiology, London, UK; 4Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UK; 5University Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, UK Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of major congenital malformations associated with antiepileptic drug (AED treatment in pregnancy.Patients and methods: Using data from The Health Improvement Network, we identified women who have given live birth and their offspring. Four subgroups were selected based on the AED treatment in early pregnancy, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and women not receiving AED treatment. We compared the prevalence of major congenital malformations within children of these four groups and estimated prevalence ratios (PRs using Poisson regression adjusted for maternal age, sex of child, quintiles of Townsend deprivation score and indication for treatment.Results: In total, 240,071 women were included in the study. A total of 229 women were prescribed valproate in pregnancy, 357 were prescribed lamotrigine and 334 were prescribed carbamazepine and 239,151 women were not prescribed AEDs. Fifteen out of 229 (6.6% women prescribed valproate gave birth to a child with a major congenital malformation. The figures for lamotrigine, carbamazepine and women not prescribed AEDs were 2.7%, 3.3% and 2.2%, respectively. The prevalence of major congenital malformation was similar for women prescribed lamotrigine or carbamazepine compared to women with no AED treatment in pregnancy. For women prescribed valproate in polytherapy, the prevalence was fourfold higher. After adjustments, the effect of estimates attenuated, but the prevalence remained two- to

  17. [Historical studies and medicine. A study in Swedish doctoral thesis concerning history of medicine 1970-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarsell, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study in ninety doctoral thesis published in Sweden between 1970 and 2004 concerning history of the science of medicine and hospital care, patients and practicioners, causes of death and public health, doctors and nurses, health movements and lay medicine and other aspects of the history of medicine. A quantitative part of the study shows that most thesis have been written at departments of history or history of ideas, but sociological and mulitdisciplinary studies are also rather common. Only six of the thesis have been written at departments within the medical faculties. The second half of the 19th and the first half of the 20th centuries has been investigated more often than other historical periods. More than ninety percent of the thesis has been published in Swedish and concerns history of medicine in Sweden. A wide range of methods and theories has been used and history of medicine does not as a field deviate from historical research in general in this respect. A chronological bibliography of the ninety thesis ends the article.

  18. The prevalence and effectiveness of complementary and alternative medicine: what has been learned and what it may be telling us about our patients, ourselves, and conventional medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, M A

    2001-11-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been popular in numerous countries around the world. The fairly large range of prevalence may be partially due to different definitions of CAM from a variety of researchers, patients, and the general public. Beyond prevalence issues, few studies have specifically explored the reasons for the use of CAM. Studies that have attempted to answer this question have found that issues such as distress and quality of life issues are some partial reasons for its use. Despite the fact that few, if any, CAM therapies have prolonged survival, encouraging future research into potential benefits seems warranted because some CAM therapies have preliminary encouraging results, and overall, CAM therapies are just in need of more randomized trials. Perhaps, at this time, the central focus of studies should revolve around potential improvements in quality of life issues. Some therapies have been found to potentially improve this parameter. However, during the course of certain conventional medical treatments, many CAM therapies, such as dietary supplements, should be discouraged. These could theoretically reduce the oxidative stress caused by effective treatments, such as radiation or chemotherapy, thus reducing their efficacy. Other basic lifestyle changes, such as simple dietary changes and exercise, should be encouraged during the course of treatment because of the potential benefits already demonstrated. In addition, these simple lifestyle changes may improve overall health, which is a serious issue for many patients. The prevalence of CAM should provide a challenge to health care professionals as a call to improve already existing services and communication between patients. Rather than perceiving CAM as a potential hindrance to proper conventional treatment, the reality could be that CAM is providing a unique opportunity and insight to health care professionals on how to make our current system that much better.

  19. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. Methods The study employed an inductive exploratory qua...

  20. Comparative dissolution study on counterfeit medicines of PDE-5 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Deconinck

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Counterfeit medicines are a growing problem in both developing and industrialised countries. In general the evaluation of these medicines is limited to the identification and the dosage of the active ingredients. In this study in vitro dissolution tests were conducted on two sets of counterfeit medicines containing PDE-5 inhibitors (sildenafil citrate and tadalafil. The dissolution profiles were statistically compared to the ones of the genuine products using the f2-method and a comparison at each time point using the Cochran test.The results showed low equivalences between counterfeit and genuine products as well as higher variations around the mean dissolution value at the different time points for the counterfeit products. Keywords: Counterfeit, PDE-5 inhibitors, In vitro dissolution, f2-Method, Cochran test

  1. Prevalence of hand syndromes among patients with diabetes mellitus in Taiwan: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Li, Chung-Yi; Chen, Lu-Hsuan; Wang, Liang-Yi; Kuo, Ken N; Shen, Hsiu-Nien; Chang, Ming-Fong

    2017-06-01

    Population-based data for diabetic hand syndrome (DHS) are limited. The aim of the present epidemiological study was to estimate the overall and cause-specific prevalence and rate ratio (RR) of DHS in patients with diabetes. The present study was a cross-sectional study based on a random sample of 57 093 diabetics and matched controls, both identified from Taiwan National Health Insurance claims in 2010. The DHS analyzed in the present study included carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), stenosing flexor tenosynovitis (SFT), limited joint mobility (LJM), and Dupuytren's disease (DD). The prevalence of overall DHS was estimated at 2472 per 10 5 for the diabetics, compared with 1641 per 10 5 for the controls, representing a prevalence RR of 1.51 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.39-1.64). Stratified analyses further revealed that the significantly increased prevalence of overall DHS was more evident in females than males (1.59 vs 1.36) and was only noted in diabetics aged ≥35 years. Cause-specific analysis suggested that patients with diabetes had the highest prevalence of CTS (1244 per 10 5 ), followed by SFT (1209 per 10 5 ), LJM (39 per 10 5 ), and DD (6 per 10 5 ). In addition, diabetes was only significantly associated with CTS (RR 1.34; 95 % CI 1.20-1.51) and SFT (1.74; 95 % CI 1.54-1.97). The prevalence of overall and certain cause-specific DHS was significantly elevated in patients with diabetes in Taiwan. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Can Croatian Medicine do Without Palliative Medicine? – Study Investigating the Need for Formal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Čengić, Tomislav; Brkljačić, Morana; Sorta-Bilajac Turina, Iva; Ćorluka, Stipe; Mavrinac, Martina; Rotim, Ante; Kulundžić, Robert; Racz, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the public’s, i.e. citizens’ attitude on one hand, and health-care professionals’ attitude on the other, regarding the public education in palliative care. Also, the assessment of health-care professionals’ attitude regarding the need to establish a sub-specialty in palliative medicine in Croatia was performed. The study was carried out during 2007 and 2008 in the capitals of 7 Croatian counties, involving 2353 participants. Two types of anonymous questi...

  3. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shuai; He, Tian-Tian; Hu, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21-50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines.

  4. Popularity and customer preferences for over-the-counter Chinese medicines perceived by community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou: a questionnaire survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background This study interviewed community pharmacists in Shanghai and Guangzhou for their perception of the popular categories of over-the-counter (OTC) Chinese medicines and the factors affecting customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in six main administrative districts in Guangzhou and eight main administrative districts in Shanghai, China. Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted in this study. Results OTC Chinese medicines contributed 21–50% among all the pharmaceutical sales by the community pharmacies. The prevalent categories of OTC Chinese medicines were common cold medicines, respiratory system medicines, digestive system agents, gynecological medicines, health tonic medicines, and qing re (heat-clearing) and qu du (detoxifying) medicines. Customers were more concerned about medical factors of OTC Chinese medicines than business factors. Among the medical factors, the most important was drug safety, followed by efficacy, contraindications, indications, and side effects. Among the business factors, the most important were brand and price. Conclusions This study identified the top sales categories of OTC Chinese medicines in Shanghai and Guangzhou and the important factors such as drug safety, efficacy, period of validity, contraindications, and indications that are affecting the customer preferences for OTC Chinese medicines. PMID:25243017

  5. Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides against Alternaria solani. S Phalisteen, S Ishaq, K Amardeep, J Arif, S Sami. Abstract. Alternaria is a polyphagus fungus that occurs frequently on dead and decaying organic material and is responsible for causing leaf spot disease. In Indian subcontinent ...

  6. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  7. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though the majority of people in Kenya and at Kopsiro Division in species to manage human ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. Elgon District Kenya.

  8. A bibliometric study on Chinese herbal medicine treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aims of this study are to evaluate and summarize the scientific production in the field of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods: A systematic bibliometric search was performed based on the PubMed database covering relative publications between January 1, ...

  9. An abattoir study on the prevalence of some helminths among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main source of animal protein for humans is livestock and their products. Parasitism is one of the main constraints limiting livestock production. A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminths in slaughtered cattle, sheep and goats in Mwanza City, Tanzania. The period of study was from 2008 to 2011 ...

  10. Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis B Surface Antigen among Secondary School Students in North-central, Nigeria. ... high among the studied population. This suggests that public awareness on the virus be accorded urgent attention, while vaccination programme should be improved in the community.

  11. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Adolescents' medicine use for headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Fotiou, Anastasios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study reports secular trends in medicine use for headache among adolescents in 20 countries from 1986 to 2010. METHODS: The international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey includes self-reported data about medicine use for headaches among nationally...... representative samples of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds. We included 20 countries with data from at least three data collection waves, with a total of 380 129 participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches varied from 16.5% among Hungarian boys in 1994 to 62.9% among girls in Wales in 1998....... The prevalence was higher among girls than boys in every country and data collection year. The prevalence of medicine use for headaches increased in 12 of 20 countries, most notably in the Czech Republic, Poland, Russia, Sweden and Wales. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of medicine use for headaches among adolescents...

  13. Perception and prevalence of domestic violence in the study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep H; Rajani, Kajal; Kataria, Lakhan; Trivedi, Ashish; Patel, Sangita; Mehta, Kedar

    2012-07-01

    Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. 1) To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2) To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff). A cross-sectional study was conducted among married men and women coming to Dhiraj General Hospital. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Inquiry was done about their perception regarding domestic violence, own experience any time in their life, and about the form of violence. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. 42.7% of study participants had never heard the words domestic violence. The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was 32.3%. There was no significant difference found in the proportion of domestic violence among the three groups. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual and economic domestic violence was 16.3%, 25.3%, 2% and 11.3% respectively. Younger age group and female sex were significantly associated with the occurrence of domestic violence. Apart from the high prevalence of domestic violence in the present era, it is evident from the study that the participants' perception about domestic violence was low. Efforts should be made to raise public consciousness and reporting of domestic violence and its attendant consequences.

  14. A Scoping Review on Studies of Cyberbullying Prevalence Among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochado, Sandra; Soares, Sara; Fraga, Sílvia

    2017-12-01

    This descriptive scoping aims to understand how the prevalence of cyberbullying has been estimated across studies. A systematic scoping review of cyberbullying empirical studies was conducted by using three bibliographic databases to search for papers published between January 2004 and August 2014. A protocol was defined to identify the relevant papers. Papers selected were included in a data sheet developed by the authors to record specific findings. In total, 159 studies were included in the scoping review. Most of the prevalence studies were conducted in the last 4 years, mainly in North America ( n = 77) and in Europe ( n = 65). High methodological heterogeneity was found among the studies, which may contribute to explain variability in prevalence estimates. Cyberbullying experiences were assessed through several different perspectives: focused only on victims, focused only on perpetrators, or focused on both victims and perpetrators (without differentiating between if they are victims or perpetrators). Most of the studies tend to assess cybervictimization experiences. However, even considering the same perspective, the same country, and the same recall period, a high variability in the estimates was observed. As a main conclusion, the way in which the prevalence of cyberbullying is estimated is influenced by methodological research options.

  15. Medicines Education at Home--A Case Study in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokkanen, Johanna; Elorinne, Anna-Liisa; Hämeen-Anttila, Katri; Keinonen, Tuula

    2017-01-01

    Background: Educating children about medicines and medicine use is part of health education and is often seen as parents' responsibility. However, to date, little research has been conducted on medicines education as provided in the home. Objective: To explore (1) parents' attitudes towards medicines, (2) medicines education practices in the home…

  16. An Observational Study of 3 Different Transfusion Medicine Teaching Methods for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konia, Mojca Remskar; Richtsfeld, Martina; Johnson, Andrew D; Lougee, Michael; Cohn, Claudia; Morgan, Shanna

    2018-04-01

    Knowledge deficits of transfusion medicine are prevalent among learners and practicing physicians. In the past, the transfusion medicine community has thoughtfully defined the content of transfusion medicine curriculums through Transfusion Medicine Academic Award Group and The Academy of Clinical Laboratory Physicians and Scientists. The manner in which the curriculum should be delivered has been less carefully examined and defined. We completed an observational study in which we analyzed 3 different teaching techniques: in-person faculty-led simulation curriculum consisting of didactic session and simulation ("Simulation group"); hybrid education with a combination of online materials and short in-person simulation ("Hybrid group"); and online-only education module, which delivered the whole curricular content through a variety of online materials and videos ("Online-only group"). Knowledge acquisition was assessed with a 10-question multiple-choice questionnaire, and satisfaction was assessed by a 9-question online student satisfaction survey. A total of 276second-year medical students participated in the study. There was statistically significant difference between pre- and posttest results and in knowledge gain favoring the Simulation group as compared with the Online-only group (P=.03, P<.0001) and favoring the Simulation group as compared with the Hybrid group (P=.004, P<.0001). The Simulation group and Hybrid group medical students were also more satisfied with the education activity as compared with the Online-only group (P<.0001, P<.001). Our study demonstrated that a faculty-run transfusion medicine simulation curriculum consisting of an in-person didactic session and simulation session for the second-year medical students produced greater immediate knowledge acquisition compared with an online only or a hybrid curriculum. Furthermore, any curriculum that contained in-person teaching by faculty was preferred over the online only education. Copyright

  17. [Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along lung meridian based on medicinal property combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Medicinal properties are the basic attribute of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), while the medicinal property theory is the core theoretical foundation of TCM formula combination. In this particle, authors studied the characteristics of pharmacological effects of property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along meridians, with the aim to introduce the medicinal property combination regularity into the design and optimization process of compound TCMs, and bring the medicinal property theory into full play in guiding the formula combination. In this paper, TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" was taken for example. The medicinal property combinations of TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" recorded in Pharmacopeia (2010) was collected and processed. Besides, Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI) was used to collect all of pharmacological study literatures concerning the above TCMs that have been published since 1980. The pharmacological information was also supplemented by reference to Science of Chinese Materia Medica and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica. TCMs distributing along the lung meridian with different properties and tastes showed significant differences in pharmacological effects. For example, mild-sweet-lung medicines could lower blood sugar levels, decrease anoxia and enhance immunity; Mild-bitter-lung medicines showed anti-bacterial, anti-hypertension, anti-oxidation effects; Hot-sweet-lung medicines showed antibechic and anti-bacterial effects. And Hot-bitter-lung medicines showed phlegm eliminating and anti-inflammatory effects. Meanwhile, TCMs distributing along the lung meridian had similar pharmacological characteristics, such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, which is consistent with lung's feature in susceptibility to exogenous pathogenic factors. In this study, authors discovered pharmacological characteristics of different TCMs distributing along the lung meridian, which

  18. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of obesity in Egyptian children with nocturnal enuresis and the association between body mass index and ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... Response to the treatment was evaluated statistically and correlated with body mass index percentile.

  19. Sero-prevalence study of parasitic infections among HIV positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This was a cross-sectional study to determine the sero prevalence of serum antibodies to three parasitic infections namely Entamoeba histolytica, Schistosoma sp. and Toxoplasma gondii, which are opportunistic infections among HIV/AIDS patients. Methods: One thousand and eighty patients that attended three ...

  20. Comparative milk production and prevalence study of parasites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study on prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites, ticks and subclinical mastitis as well as milk yield was conducted on local zebu lactating dairy cows exposed to different feeding regimes in dry seasons at Sululta and Mukaturi districts of North Shewa zone, central Ethiopia. A total of 15 households at each ...

  1. Original Article Studies on Prevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-20

    Dec 20, 2011 ... Exposure/ sharing of sharp objects had a prevalence of 64.0% in males compared to. 36.0% in females. DISCUSSION. In this study, 35 (18.4%) of the participants were positive for HBsAg. This figure is alarming considering the future role of these youths in the economy of a developing country like Nigeria.

  2. Prevalence and predictors of traditional medicine utilization among persons living with AIDS (PLWA) on antiretroviral (ARV) and prophylaxis treatment in both rural and urban areas in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, G D; Puoane, T R; Clark, B L; Wondwossen, T L; Johnson, Q; Folk, W

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that majority of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-naïve patients use traditional medicine (TM). Given that TM use is ubiquitous in South Africa especially for chronic conditions, there is a potential for ARV non-adherence and serious drug interactions among patients with HIV/AIDs who use TM. The motivating factors for TM use in HIV/AIDS patients on ARV and prophylaxis treatment have not been well defined in South Africa. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, facilitators, predictors, and types of TM used among persons living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral treatment. The study was a cross-sectional survey which involved 100 participants enrolled at ARV clinics in two South African provinces. Univariate and bivariate analyses were performed to assess the relationships between variables and potential predictors of TM. Sixteen percent of participants on ARV reported TM use. Seventy-nine percent used TM prior to a diagnosis of HIV. Participants were more likely to use TM if they were from a rural province, female, older, unmarried, employed, had limited education, or were HIV-positive for less than five years. TM users reported utilizing herbal or medicinal mixtures that were claimed to heal all conditions. This study provides insights into the treatment modalities selected by patients with HIV/AIDS in South Africa who are receiving ARV. This study revealed that less than 20% of participants co-used TM and ARV. However, close to 80% of participants utilize TM before contracting HIV, which is in keeping with approximate estimates by the WHO.

  3. High prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use among patients with sickle cell disease in a tertiary hospital in Lagos, South West, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, A A; Mufutau, M A

    2017-06-07

    Attention and interest in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been reignited globally, most especially in patients with chronic diseases. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of such chronic diseases associated with devastating clinical and psychosocial consequences, thus leading those affected to seek alternative treatment apart from orthodox medicine. Hence, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, pattern and tolerability of the use of CAM in patients with SCD in the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH). This was a cross-sectional survey of 200 respondents with SCD attending the hematology clinics of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a period of 3 months. Data on socio-demographic characteristic, clinical profile, the types and sources of CAM used were collected using a well structured pretested questionnaire. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS®) version 17. Of the 200 patients who participated in the study, 113; 56.5% were males and 87; 43.5% were females. Majority of the SCD patients were 1-10 years old and their mean age was 18.8 ± 14.39 years. CAM was reportedly used by 88.5% of the respondents. Biological (herbal) products 156; 62.9% were the most commonly used CAM, followed by alternative medical systems 52; 20.9% and mind-body interventions 30; 12.1%. Relations, friends and neighbors influenced 85.2% of CAM users by recommending CAM to them. Tolerability of CAM was perceived to be excellent as only 33 (18.6%) of the respondents abandoned the use of CAM. Comparing CAM users and CAM non-users, there was no statistical significant difference in the proportion of those >18 years (45.76% vs 52.17%; p = 0.658), those who experienced two or more crises (51.41% vs 34.78%; p = 0.183), and those with stable haemoglobin concentration of >7 g/dL (15.81% vs 8.69%; p = 0.539) More patients among CAM non-users (91.30%) significantly spend over 3000 Naira (USD 15) per

  4. PREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS B IN TRIPURA: A COMMUNITY BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradip Bhaumik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B is a global health problem. Among the South East Asian countries India is in intermediate zone of prevalence I.e. 2 to 5 %. 1 In the state of Tripura the prevalence of Hepatitis B among hemodialysis patients is 7.3%2 and among voluntary blood donors it is 1.2%. 3 The present study is aimed to assess the prevalence of HBV infection in Tripura at community level in particular among the different ethnic communities prevailing in this region. METHODS: A cross sectional study at community level has been done. Total 6202 samples have been collected from healthy individual above 10 years of age and a 1:4 sampling of household done. Serological marker of HBs Ag was done by ELISA.RESULTS: Prevalence of HbsAg sero-positivity was 3.6% (95%CI 3.14 - 4.06 at community level of Tripura. A higher prevalence was found in males than females which was 4.5% (95%CI 3.77-5.23 & 2.65% (95%CI 2.08 – 3.22 respectively. The prevalence of Hepatitis B was found higher among tribal community than non-tribal community which was 5.3% (95%CI 4.49 – 6.10 and 1.97%(95%CI 1.49 – 2.45 respectively. Among tribal population highest prevalence was observed among Chakma community (11.41% which was followed by Reang (7.69%, Noatia (6.09%, Jamatia (5.7%, Murasing (5.15%, Tripuri (4.95%, Halam(4.21%, and Lusai (2.7% respectively. The study shows that HBsAgseropositivity increases with age in community level reaching peak between 61 to 80 years age group I.e. 4.8% which is statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Higher prevalence of Hepatitis B among tribal population is of paramount importance from public health point of view and early intervention by Hepatitis B vaccination will reduce the disease burden among Tribal population in Tripura.

  5. Potential risks associated with traditional herbal medicine use in cancer care: A study of Middle Eastern oncology health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Samuels, Noah; Goldstein, Lee Hilary; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Omran, Suha; Schiff, Elad; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Bar-Sela, Gil; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Saad, Bashar; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-02-15

    The authors assessed the use of herbal medicine by Middle Eastern patients with cancer, as reported by their oncology health care professionals (HCPs). Herbal products identified by the study HCPs were evaluated for potential negative effects. Oncology HCPs from 16 Middle Eastern countries received a 17-item questionnaire asking them to list 5 herbal products in use by their patients with cancer. A literature search (PubMed, Micromedex, AltMedDex, and the Natural Medicine Comprehensive Database) was conducted to identify safety-related concerns associated with the products listed. A total of 339 HCPs completed the study questionnaire (response rate of 80.3%), identifying 44 herbal and 3 nonherbal nutritional supplements. Safety-related concerns were associated with 29 products, including herb-drug interactions with altered pharmacodynamics (15 herbs), direct toxic effects (18 herbs), and increased in vitro response of cancer cells to chemotherapy (7 herbs). Herbal medicine use, which is prevalent in Middle Eastern countries, has several potentially negative effects that include direct toxic effects, negative interactions with anticancer drugs, and increased chemosensitivity of cancer cells, requiring a reduction in dose-density. Oncology HCPs working in countries in which herbal medicine use is prevalent need to better understand the implications of this practice. The presence of integrative physicians with training in complementary and traditional medicine can help patients and their HCPs reach an informed decision regarding the safety and effective use of these products. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-05-26

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. The study employed an inductive exploratory qualitative approach. It was conducted at a private herbal clinic in Accra. Purposive sampling was employed to recruit 16 participants. Data collection was through individual face-to-face interviews and these were transcribed and analysed using content analysis procedures. It was realized that the factors that enhanced the use of herbal medicine included use of convincing information to enhance the initiation of herbal medicine use, effectiveness of herbal medicine, personal preference for herbal medicine, perceived ineffectiveness of western medicine and integration of spirituality in herbal medicine. The factors that hindered herbal medicine use included negative perceptions and attitudes about herbal medicine, poor vending environment, poor knowledge of vendors, high cost of herbal products at credible herbal clinics and inconsistent effectiveness of some herbal products. Participants desired that the national health insurance scheme will cover the cost of herbal medicine to alleviate the financial burden associated with herbal medicine use. Although some Ghanaians patronize herbal medicine, the negative perceptions about herbal medicine resulting from deceitful producers and vendors call for enhanced education and monitoring to ensure that effective herbal products are used.

  7. [Prevalence and factors associated with frequent attendence in family medicine clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parejo Maestre, N; Lendínez-de la Cruz, J M; Bermúdez-Torres, F M; Gónzalez-Contero, L; Gutierrez-Espinosa de Los Monteros, M P; Espejo-Almazán María, T

    2016-01-01

    The use of health services has seen a steep rise. The frequent users are responsible for significant economic, human and social impact. The objective is to analyze the characteristics of frequent attenders in our Health Center, in order to evaluate the possibility of taking corrective measures to improve the quality of care and efficiency in the use of resources. Descriptive observational study of a sample of 379 patients over 18 years old. The dependent variables were attendance (number of visits to their family doctor during the previous year), frequent attendance (10 or more visits to the family doctor in the last year), and persistent frequent attenders (10 or more visits to the family doctor in each of the last two years). Data were collected from medical records and by telephone interview. The mean attendance was 6.83 (95%CI: 6.13-7.53), frequent attendance reached 25.4% (95%CI: 21.4-29.6), and persistent frequent attenders, 1.6% (95%CI: 0.5-2.9). Frequent attendance was associated with sex, age, marital status, educational level, family structure, existence of chronic disease, use of anxiolytic and antidepressants, request for additional tests, and referrals to other specialists, proximity to the health center, and level of satisfaction with their family doctor. The low persistent frequent attenders found suggests that frequent attendance could be largely due to factors related to professional and organization. Studies are required to address the high level of consumption of psychotropic drugs, and improving professional skills in dealing with mental problems. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and relationship between major depressive disorder and lung cancer: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneeton B

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Benchalak Maneeton,1 Narong Maneeton,1 Jirayu Reungyos,1 Suthi Intaprasert,1 Samornsri Leelarphat,1 Sumitra Thongprasert21Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandObjective: The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with major depressive disorder (MDD in lung cancer patients.Materials and methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the oncology clinic of the University Hospital, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. Patients with all stages of lung cancer were included in this study. Demographic data of eligible patients were gathered. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Thai version 5.0.0 was used to identify MDD. The Thai version of the Personal Health Questionnaire Depression Scale was used to assess depression severity.Results: A total of 146 lung cancer patients from the outpatient clinic from July to December 2012 were approached. The 104 patients were included and analyzed in this study. Based on the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, 14.4% of them were defined as having MDD. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that Chalder Fatigue Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy – Lung, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores were significantly correlated with MDD in lung cancer patients.Conclusion: The results suggest that MDD is more prevalent in lung cancer patients. In addition, fatigue, poor quality of life, and sleep disturbance may increase associated MDD. Because of the small sample size, further studies should be conducted to confirm these results.Keywords: lung cancer, major depressive disorder, prevalence

  9. Prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in hospitalized children: a point prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavare, Jana; Grope, Ilze; Gardovska, Dace

    2009-04-03

    In accordance with the 1st International pediatric sepsis consensus conference, where sepsis was defined as SIRS associated with suspected or proven infection, we have identified the need to assess the prevalence of SIRS and sepsis in children with abnormal temperatures hospitalized in The Children's Clinical University Hospital in Latvia. A descriptive prospective point prevalence study (using two time periods, each 24 h, randomly chosen) was conducted on all children (n = 943) treated in the hospital. All children with abnormal temperatures - fever or hypothermia (n = 92) - were included in the study. Questionnaires evaluating age-specific SIRS criteria were completed. The prevalence of SIRS was detected with 95% CI. Out of a total of 943 patients treated in the hospital, 10% (n = 92) had abnormal temperatures. In all these cases the abnormal temperature was a fever; hypothermia was not established in any patient. Of the children with fever, 72% (n = 66) had SIRS. Of the SIRS patients, 8% (n = 5) developed sepsis, 5% (n = 3) severe sepsis and 2% (n = 1) septic shock. Seventy-six percent (n = 50) of the SIRS patients had fever in combination with respiratory rate >2 SD above normal for age; 50% (n = 33) had fever with abnormal leukocyte count; 15% (n = 10) had fever with tachycardia >2 SD above normal for age. Most of the SIRS patients (39%, n = 25) were aged 2-5 years. Twenty-one percent (n = 14) of the children with SIRS and 50% (n = 2) of those with severe sepsis and septic shock had an underlying disease. In no case was SIRS and sepsis recognized by doctors and the diagnoses were not recorded on the patients' cards. Our results would indicate a high risk for sepsis development in children with SIRS. Early SIRS diagnosis and awareness of risk of developing sepsis could change the medical approach to the patient in everyday clinical practice, eventually leading to early, goal-directed therapy for sepsis.

  10. Disaster Education: A Survey Study to Analyze Disaster Medicine Training in Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarin, Ritu R; Cattamanchi, Srihari; Alqahtani, Abdulrahman; Aljohani, Majed; Keim, Mark; Ciottone, Gregory R

    2017-08-01

    The increase in natural and man-made disasters occurring worldwide places Emergency Medicine (EM) physicians at the forefront of responding to these crises. Despite the growing interest in Disaster Medicine, it is unclear if resident training has been able to include these educational goals. Hypothesis This study surveys EM residencies in the United States to assess the level of education in Disaster Medicine, to identify competencies least and most addressed, and to highlight effective educational models already in place. The authors distributed an online survey of multiple-choice and free-response questions to EM residency Program Directors in the United States between February 7 and September 24, 2014. Questions assessed residency background and details on specific Disaster Medicine competencies addressed during training. Out of 183 programs, 75 (41%) responded to the survey and completed all required questions. Almost all programs reported having some level of Disaster Medicine training in their residency. The most common Disaster Medicine educational competencies taught were patient triage and decontamination. The least commonly taught competencies were volunteer management, working with response teams, and special needs populations. The most commonly identified methods to teach Disaster Medicine were drills and lectures/seminars. There are a variety of educational tools used to teach Disaster Medicine in EM residencies today, with a larger focus on the use of lectures and hospital drills. There is no indication of a uniform educational approach across all residencies. The results of this survey demonstrate an opportunity for the creation of a standardized model for resident education in Disaster Medicine. Sarin RR , Cattamanchi S , Alqahtani A , Aljohani M , Keim M , Ciottone GR . Disaster education: a survey study to analyze disaster medicine training in emergency medicine residency programs in the United States. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):368-373.

  11. Systemic lupus erythematosus: the first italian prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manfredi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was the assessment of SLE prevalence in an adult population. The study was perfomed on a sample of more than 30.000 patients over 18 resident in the Florence sub-area of Scandicci- Le Signe (Italy on the basis of the register of general practitioners (GPs. Methods: Twenty GPs gave the Lupus Screening Questionnaire (LQS to their patients. The LQS has been completed by 32.521 patients resident in Scandicci, Lastra a Signa and Signa area. On the basis of the LQS analysis an SLE diagnosis was suspected in 30 patients. These 30 patients have been investigated by routine exams, antinuclear antibodies and have been refered to rheumatologist to assess the SLE diagnosis and disease activity (ECLAM Score. Results: The overall population aged >18 years was 71.204 ( 42.474 living in Scandicci, 15.368 in Lastra a Signa and 13.362 in Signa. The diagnosis was confirmed in 23 out of the 30 suspected SLE patients. Eleven out of the 23 SLE patients were from Scandicci, 6 from Lastra a Signa and the other 6 from Signa. The overall rate of SLE prevalence is 71/100.000 (1 case/1408 with a confidence interval of 95%, (confidence limits: 49-92. The rate of SLE prevalence in Scandicci is 81/100.000 (confidence limits: 42-121, in Lastra a Signa 62/100.000 (confidence limits: 32-92 and in Signa 65/100.000 (confidence limits: 36-94. Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study on SLE prevalence in Italy. The rate of SLE prevalence is similar to that of other European studies. LQS is confirmed as an easy and reliable tool to assess SLE diagnosis also in the Italian population too.

  12. [Prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women from 20 to 35 years in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Sánchez, Paulina; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela; Nuño-Donlucas, María Olimpia; Sahagún-Cuevas, Minerva Natalia; Hernández-Calderón, Jéssica; Ramírez-Ramos, Joana Kareli

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women is one of the most important health problems in recent times. In Mexico, it is reported a prevalence of 21.5% during pregnancy; however, it seems to be underdiagnosed. The objective is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women from 20 to 35 years at the Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMF) 171 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). It was performed a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 102 pregnant women to which we applied a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (ISVP). 19 women (18.6%) suffered violence; of these, 10.8% (n=11) experienced physical violence, 5.9% (n=6) psychological violence, and 4% (n=4) sexual violence. We used chi squared between the variable violence and each of the sociodemographic factors: 52.6% women (n=10) were married (p=0.005), 26.3% (n=5) had a bachelor's degree (p=0.074), 57.8% (n=11) had planned their pregnancy, 47.3% (n=9) were in the third trimester of pregnancy, and 78.95% (n=15) worked as laborers, shop-keepers or professionals (p=0.016). Among pregnant women belonging in UMF 171 of IMSS, domestic violence is a problem with a prevalence of 18.6%.

  13. Phytotoxic studies of medicinal plant species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.A.; Adnan, M.; Kikuchi, A.; Fujii, Y.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Kazuo, N.; Watanabe, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phyto chemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phyto toxic plants as compared to the other test species. Based on the current screening, three potential medicinal plants are recommended for future bioassay guided isolation of allelochemicals and for genetic diversity studies. It would also be interesting to see correlation between genetic markers and isolated allelochemicals. (author)

  14. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence in Lebanon: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waked M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirna Waked1, George Khayat2, Pascale Salameh31Saint George Hospital University Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Faculty of Medicine, Hotel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Faculties of Pharmacy and Public Health, Lebanese University, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continues to increase worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of COPD in Lebanese adults.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out using a multistage cluster sample from all over Lebanon. Residents aged 40 years and over were enrolled. Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and answered a questionnaire. After an albuterol + ipratropium bromide bronchodilator, a posttest was performed.Results: Of 2201 individuals, only 33.3% had never smoked. The prevalence of COPD by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease definition, was 9.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.5%–10.9%. According to the 5% lower limit of normal definition of COPD, the prevalence was 12.5% (95% CI: 11.2%–13.9%. A total of 20.2% were already diagnosed by a physician. No differences in symptoms across stages of COPD were found, but there was a significant trend for a higher number of visits to the emergency room and to the doctor (P < 0.001, and a higher number of hospitalizations (P < 0.001. Older individuals had an increased risk of COPD (adjusted odds ratio [ORa] = 1.05; so did “ever” cigarette smokers (ORa = 4.88 and water-pipe smokers (ORa = 2.53.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study in Lebanon that determined COPD prevalence and the link with water-pipe smoking.Keywords: COPD, prevalence, water-pipe smoking

  15. A School-Based Study of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Medical Students in Beijing, China: Prevalence and Some Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Yi; He, Yuxi; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Miao; Chen, Shuo; Yao, Shukun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and some related factors about irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in medical students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2014 to Jun 2014 in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. All participants were asked to completed self-administered questionnaires. Results. Seven hundred and sixty-seven medical students (23.26 ± 2.88 years, 25.6% males) completed the survey. The prevalence of IBS was 33.3%, with a high prev...

  16. [Violence during pregnancy: prevalence studies in OECD countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liepe, K; Blättner, B

    2013-08-01

    Violence during pregnancy can be associated with health consequences for both the pregnant woman und the unborn child. The available data on prevalence are insufficient in Germany, an underestimation of the problem is probable. Therefore data from other OECD countries are considered. Searching in the databases EMBASE (incl. Medline), CINAHL, PsycINFO and SSCI in English or German language, primary and secondary studies from OECD countries published from 2004 to 2011 were identified. Studies without a valid instrument were excluded. 20 studies using 6 different, partially modified instruments were identified. In OECD countries the prevalence data vary, depending on the instrument applied and the design of the studies. The majority of the studies underestimate the prevalence of violence during pregnancy. Study results from OECD countries are in the analysed range of the reviews. The data collected in Germany are at the bottom of the spectrum. This suggests an underestimation of the problem in Germany. Further research is needed using more valid instruments and better study designs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine/non-pharmacological interventions use for menopausal symptoms within the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentry-Maharaj, A; Karpinskyj, C; Glazer, C

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The negative publicity about menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has led to increased use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and non-pharmacological interventions (NPI) for menopausal symptom relief. We report on the prevalence and predictors of CAM/NPI among UK postmenopau......OBJECTIVES: The negative publicity about menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) has led to increased use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and non-pharmacological interventions (NPI) for menopausal symptom relief. We report on the prevalence and predictors of CAM/NPI among UK...... for herbal therapies (43.8%; 9725/22 206), vitamins (42.6%; 9458/22 206), lifestyle approaches (32.1%; 7137/22 206) and phytoestrogens (21.6%; 4802/22 206). Older women reported less ever-use of herbal therapies, vitamins and phytoestrogens. Lifestyle approaches, aromatherapy...

  19. Perception and prevalence of domestic violence in the study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep H Shah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Domestic violence is a major contributor to physical and mental ill health of the victim, and it is evident to some degree, in every society of the world. Objectives: 1 To study perception about domestic violence in the study population. 2 To compare prevalence of domestic violence within the three subgroups of the study population (i.e. spouses of psychotic patients, spouses of non-psychiatric patients and hospital staff. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among married men and women coming to Dhiraj General Hospital. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Inquiry was done about their perception regarding domestic violence, own experience any time in their life, and about the form of violence. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: 42.7% of study participants had never heard the words domestic violence. The overall prevalence of any form of violence in the study population as a whole was 32.3%. There was no significant difference found in the proportion of domestic violence among the three groups. The prevalence of physical, emotional, sexual and economic domestic violence was 16.3%, 25.3%, 2% and 11.3% respectively. Younger age group and female sex were significantly associated with the occurrence of domestic violence. Conclusion: Apart from the high prevalence of domestic violence in the present era, it is evident from the study that the participants′ perception about domestic violence was low. Efforts should be made to raise public consciousness and reporting of domestic violence and its attendant consequences.

  20. Is there a divide between local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine? a case study among native Amazonians in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet-Mir, Laura; Reyes-García, Victoria; Tanner, Susan

    2008-08-18

    Interest in ethnomedicine has grown in the last decades, with much research focusing on how local medicinal knowledge can contribute to Western medicine. Researchers have emphasized the divide between practices used by local medical practitioners and Western doctors. However, researchers have also suggested that merging concepts and practices from local medicinal knowledge and Western science have the potential to improve public health and support medical independence of local people. In this article we study the relations between local and Western medicinal knowledge within a native Amazonian population, the Tsimane'. We used the following methods: 1) participant observation and semi-structured interviews to gather background information, 2) free-listing and pile-sorting to assess whether Tsimane' integrate local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine at the conceptual level, 3) surveys to assess to what extent Tsimane' combine local medicinal knowledge with Western medicine in actual treatments, and 4) a participatory workshop to assess the willingness of Tsimane' and Western medical specialists to cooperate with each other. We found that when asked about medical treatments, Tsimane' do not include Western treatments in their lists, however on their daily practices, Tsimane' do use Western treatments in combination with ethnomedical treatments. We also found that Tsimane' healers and Western doctors express willingness to cooperate with each other and to promote synergy between local and Western medical systems. Our findings contrast with previous research emphasizing the divide between local medical practitioners and Western doctors and suggests that cooperation between both health systems might be possible.

  1. Issues of reporting in observational studies in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Jan M; O'Connor, Annette M

    2014-02-15

    Observational studies are common in veterinary medicine; the results may be used to inform decision-making, future research, or as inputs to systematic reviews or risk assessment. To be of use, the results must be published, all of the outcomes that were assessed must be included in the publication, and the research (methods and results) must be reported in sufficient detail that the reader can evaluate the internal and external validity. In human healthcare, concerns about the completeness of reporting - and evidence that poor reporting is associated with study results - have led to the creation of reporting guidelines; these include the STROBE statement for observational studies. There is evidence from a limited body of research that there also are reporting inadequacies in veterinary observational studies. There are differences between human and veterinary observational studies that might be relevant to recommendations for reporting. Such differences include: the use of observational studies in animal populations for simultaneously estimating disease frequency and risk-factor identification; the distinction between the animal owners who consent to participate and the animals that are the study subjects; and the complexity of organizational levels inherent in animal research (in particular, for studies in livestock species). In veterinary medicine, it is common to have clustering within outcomes (due to animal grouping) and clustering of predictor variables. We argue that there is a compelling need for the scientific community involved in veterinary observational studies to use the STROBE statement, use an amended version of STROBE, or to develop and use reporting guidelines that are specific to veterinary medicine to improve reporting of these studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. [Study on essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Lv, Ze-Liang; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. [Feasibility study for whole plant medicinal use of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Chunyu; Han, Meiw; Yang, Limin

    2009-09-01

    The content differences of leaf, plant and fruit of Tribulus terrestris was compared to study the feasibility of whole plant medicinal use. The samples were collected in three typical habitats and six different production areas of T. terrestris. The main medicinal ingredients saponins and flavonoids were determined in root, stem, leaf and fruit during the harvest time. The two ingredients were abounded in leaf and more than 2.61 times as in other parts of the plant. The results showed that there were no differences between the whole plant and the fruit. It should pay more attentions on the collection, preservation and utilization of the leaf of T. terrestris in the harvesting and processing stage. The whole plant for medical use was feasibility based on the content of the ingredients.

  4. Evaluation of Herbal Medicines: Value Addition to Traditional Medicines Through Metabolism, Pharmacokinetic and Safety Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelingwani, Roslyn; Masimirembwa, Collen

    2014-01-01

    The safety and efficacy of herbal medicines remain major issues of concern especially in the developing world where the use is high. The World Health Organisation estimates up to 80% of the population in Africa relies on herbal medicines for treatment of many diseases. Minimum safety evaluations need to be done for both the herbal and conventional drugs, in particular when there is a high likelihood of co-administration. This is particularly important in Africa where there is increased access to antiretrovirals in the treatment of HIV/AIDS, which are being used in a population background characterized by rampant use of herbal medicines. Many techniques used in the discovery and evaluation of conventional drugs can be adapted to herbal medicines. Such evaluations will add value to herbal medicines as doctors and patients will be better informed on which drugs and herbal medicines to take or not take together. This can also lead to the adoption of guidelines by regulatory agents such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and governmental agencies controlling the use of medicines. Of current interest is the evaluation of drug-herb interactions (DHI) involving the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of medicines where there is a promising possibility to adopt the current FDA and EMA guidelines on the evaluation of herbal medicines for drug-drug interactions (DDI). In this review we demonstrate progress made so far in DHI and point to possible future developments that will contribute to the safe use of herbal medicines.

  5. Prevalence study of genetically defined skeletal muscle channelopathies in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Alejandro; Raja Rayan, Dipa L; Matthews, Emma; Sud, Richa; Fialho, Doreen; Durran, Siobhan C M; Burge, James A; Portaro, Simona; Davis, Mary B; Haworth, Andrea; Hanna, Michael G

    2013-04-16

    To obtain minimum point prevalence rates for the skeletal muscle channelopathies and to evaluate the frequency distribution of mutations associated with these disorders. Analysis of demographic, clinical, electrophysiologic, and genetic data of all patients assessed at our national specialist channelopathy service. Only patients living in the United Kingdom with a genetically defined diagnosis of nondystrophic myotonia or periodic paralysis were eligible for the study. Prevalence rates were estimated for England, December 2011. A total of 665 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 593 were living in England, giving a minimum point prevalence of 1.12/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.21). Disease-specific prevalence figures were as follows: myotonia congenita 0.52/100,000 (95% CI 0.46-0.59), paramyotonia congenita 0.17/100,000 (95% CI 0.13-0.20), sodium channel myotonias 0.06/100,000 (95% CI 0.04-0.08), hyperkalemic periodic paralysis 0.17/100,000 (95% CI 0.13-0.20), hypokalemic periodic paralysis 0.13/100,000 (95% CI 0.10-0.17), and Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) 0.08/100,000 (95% CI 0.05-0.10). In the whole sample (665 patients), 15 out of 104 different CLCN1 mutations accounted for 60% of all patients with myotonia congenita, 11 out of 22 SCN4A mutations for 86% of paramyotonia congenita/sodium channel myotonia pedigrees, and 3 out of 17 KCNJ2 mutations for 42% of ATS pedigrees. We describe for the first time the overall prevalence of genetically defined skeletal muscle channelopathies in England. Despite the large variety of mutations observed in patients with nondystrophic myotonia and ATS, a limited number accounted for a large proportion of cases.

  6. A critical review of complementary and alternative medicine use among people with arthritis: a focus upon prevalence, cost, user profiles, motivation, decision-making, perceived benefits and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Sibbritt, David; Adams, Jon

    2017-03-01

    A critical review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among people with arthritis was conducted focusing upon prevalence and profile of CAM users as well as their motivation, decision-making, perceived benefits and communication with healthcare providers. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed literature published from 2008 to 2015 was undertaken via CINAHL, Medline and AMED databases. The initial search identified 4331 articles, of which 49 articles met selection criteria. The review shows a high prevalence of CAM use (often multiple types and concurrent to conventional medical care) among those with arthritis which is not restricted to any particular geographic or social-economic status. A large proportion of arthritis sufferers using CAM consider these medicines to be somewhat or very effective but almost half do not inform their healthcare provider about their CAM use. It is suggested that rheumatologists and others providing health care for patients with arthritis should be cognizant of the high prevalence of CAM use and the challenges associated with possible concurrent use of CAM and conventional medicine among their patients.

  7. Prevalence and Predictive Value of Dyspnea Ratings in Hospitalized Patients: Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jennifer P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea (breathing discomfort) can be as powerfully aversive as pain, yet is not routinely assessed and documented in the clinical environment. Routine identification and documentation of dyspnea is the first step to improved symptom management and it may also identify patients at risk of negative clinical outcomes. Objective To estimate the prevalence of dyspnea and of dyspnea-associated risk among hospitalized patients. Design Two pilot prospective cohort studies. Setting Single academic medical center. Patients Consecutive patients admitted to four inpatient units: cardiology, hematology/oncology, medicine, and bariatric surgery. Measurements In Study 1, nurses documented current and recent patient-reported dyspnea at the time of the Initial Patient Assessment in 581 inpatients. In Study 2, nurses documented current dyspnea at least once every nursing shift in 367 patients. We describe the prevalence of burdensome dyspnea, and compare it to pain. We also compared dyspnea ratings with a composite of adverse outcomes: 1) receipt of care from the hospital’s rapid response system, 2) transfer to the intensive care unit, or 3) death in hospital. We defined burdensome dyspnea as a rating of 4 or more on a 10-point scale. Results Prevalence of burdensome current dyspnea upon admission (Study 1) was 13% (77 of 581, 95% CI 11%-16%). Prevalence of burdensome dyspnea at some time during the hospitalization (Study 2) was 16% (57 of 367, 95% CI 12%-20%). Dyspnea was associated with higher odds of a negative outcome. Conclusions In two pilot studies, we identified a significant symptom burden of dyspnea in hospitalized patients. Patients reporting dyspnea may benefit from a more careful focus on symptom management and may represent a population at greater risk for negative outcomes. PMID:27070144

  8. A study of prevalence and distribution of tooth agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozga, A; Stanciu, R P; Mănuc, D

    2014-01-01

    Tooth agenesis is a phenomenon that occurs relatively commonly. The incidence of the missing teeth presented in the previous reports varies according to the studied population. The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of tooth agenesis in a population group in Bucharest. The prevalence and distribution of dental agenesis was determined in a sample of 518 patients, 285 females and 233 males, aged 6 to 41 years, who had been treated in the Clinic of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics in Bucharest. The tooth agenesis was diagnosed by using the orthodontic records and study casts for each patient. 35 of the patients, 17 males and 18 females, were diagnosed with at least one absent permanent tooth and 47 missing permanent teeth were reported. A prevalence of 6.757% was observed for tooth agenesis. The mandibular second premolar was found to be the most affected tooth, followed by the maxillary lateral incisor, maxillary second premolar, mandibular central incisors, mandibular second molar and mandibular lateral incisor. The incidence of dental agenesis, its pattern and distribution per tooth type are in accordance with the previous published studies.

  9. Prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among adults in India: the EuroPrevall INCO study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahesh, P. A.; Wong, Gary W. K.; Ogorodova, L.; Potts, J.; Leung, T. F.; Fedorova, O.; Holla, Amrutha D.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Clare Mills, E. N.; Kummeling, I.; Versteeg, S. A.; van Ree, R.; Yazdanbakhsh, M.; Burney, P.

    2016-01-01

    Data are lacking regarding the prevalence of food sensitization and probable food allergy among general population in India. We report the prevalence of sensitization and probable food allergy to 24 common foods among adults from general population in Karnataka, South India. The study was conducted

  10. Study on the irradiation decontamination of traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Shi, S.; Li, B.; Wang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60 Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)

  11. How knowledgeable are investigators studying therapies of traditional medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Saravu R; Aggithaya, Madhur G; Thamban, Chendalam; Muralidharan, Kunnathody; Kanjarpane, Aniruddha B

    2014-01-01

    Research methodology in traditional Indian system of medicine. To determine the knowledge level of investigators conducting clinical trials in traditional medicines (TMs) including Ayurveda. This was a questionnaire survey conducted for selected researchers trained in any specialty and working in TM. 2087 researchers were selected based on selection criteria. A validated and pretested questionnaire containing the questions regarding regulatory issues, literature search, evidence-based medicine, clinical trial design, patient selection, and study reporting were sent either through E-mail or post. The answered questionnaires were analyzed. The parameters were analyzed based on median and interquartile range (IQR). Forty two responses were received through E-mail and 21 researchers responded through post. Out of 63, six researchers sent incomplete responses. Among the remaining 57 respondents; 34 (59.6%) investigators had postdoctoral degree, 43 investigators (75.4%) did not receive any structured training on research methodology, 23 (40.4%) had two decades of research experience. Thirty three (74%) of investigators who received government funding didn't have any training on research methodology. Ayurveda experts group had better knowledge compared to pharmaceutical sciences and basic science group although they had a dilemma about conducting clinical evaluation of TM within the specific framework of rigorous clinical pharmacological principles without ignoring the Ayurvedic concepts such as Dosha, Prakruti etc., Investigators below 30 years possessed higher knowledge of research methodology when analyzed based on the age. The respondents working in research organizations, government organizations, and academic institutions had lower knowledge compared to those who were in private organizations/practice. It is recommend that investigators, peer reviewers, and fund managers involved in traditional medicine research need training especially in research methodology.

  12. Prevalence of medicines used by mentally-ill individuals of APAE, in Londrina Prevalência de medicamentos utilizados por portadores de retardo mental da APAE de Londrina-Pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Polacchine Da Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental retardation (MR, after years of mites and beliefs, finally was considered to be a neurological affection that should be treated by a medical intervention. Psychotropic drugs, if correctly prescribed, are able to improve the capacity of MR individuals to productively interact socially and reintegrate themselves to the society. This work has as an objective to quantify, by a descriptive study, the frequency of use of medicines by students of the APAE (Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais from Londrina-PR, characterize those drugs and relate them to mental pathologies of major prevalence in the institution. To accomplish the objectives, a pool was conducted on a population of 147 students registered during the period from January/1989 to May/ 2003. The results shown the following medicines: antiepiletic (52.4%, neuroleptics (3.4%, hematopoietics (2.7%, anticolinergics and pro-kinetics agents (0.7% each. Fenobarbital was the most evident among the antiepiletic (29.8%. The prevalence of those drugs was higher among individuals with cerebral palsy (62.1% and lower for the Down syndrome group (17,24%. As a conclusion, we consider necessary to conduct research projects focusing on the dynamic of the personnel affected by MR, as well as to provide social assistance to destitute families. O retardo mental (RM, após anos de crenças e misticismos, finalmente passou a ser considerado uma afecção neurológica que deve ser tratada com intervenção médica. As drogas psicotrópicas, se administradas corretamente, podem permitir que os acometidos de RM recuperem a capacidade de interação social produtiva e reintegrem-se à sociedade. Este trabalho teve como objetivo verificar, por meio de estudo descritivo, a freqüência da utilização de medicamentos utilizados pelos alunos da APAE (Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais de Londrina-PR, caracterizar essas drogas e relacionálas com as patologias mentais de maior prevalência na

  13. Role of Stress in Burnout among Students of Medicine and Dentistry – A Study in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Faculty of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Krokter Kogoj, Tina; Čebašek Travnik, Zdenka; Zaletel Kragelj, Lijana

    2014-01-01

    Medical education is challenging, but for some students it can be very stressful. Studies suggest that stress during medical education can have a negative impact on students’ mental health and that burnout is frequent among medical school students. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among students of medicine/dentistry (M/D) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in relation to their perception of stress, so as to enable planning preventative activities for s...

  14. Prevalence of Burnout Among Pain Medicine Physicians and Its Potential Effect upon Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Oncologic Pain or Chronic Pain of Nononcologic Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riquelme, Irene; Chacón, José-Ignacio; Gándara, Alba-Violeta; Muro, Inmaculada; Traseira, Susana; Monsalve, Vicente; Soriano, José-Francisco

    2018-01-19

    To evaluate the prevalence of burnout among physicians treating patients with chronic pain and to assess the potential relationships between the presence of burnout and patients' clinical outcomes such as pain relief, satisfaction with pain control, and quality of life. An observational, prospective, and noncomparative study. Pain medicine clinics. Physicians from medical departments involved in the management of chronic pain. Patients aged ≥18 years who exhibited moderate chronic pain lasting at least three months. Physicians were evaluated with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS). Patients were evaluated with the Charlson Comorbidity Index, the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and ad hoc instruments for evaluating satisfaction with pain control, the extent to which the treatment met patients' expectations, and subjective impressions of improvement. Of the 301 physician participants, 22 (7.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.9 to 10.8) met the criteria of burnout. Burnout was higher among physicians from pain units, while none of the 35 primary care physicians reported burnout. The presence of burnout was positively associated with patients' pain relief (odds ratio [OR] = 1.423, 95% CI = 1.090 to 1.858) but not with satisfaction with pain control or quality of life. Of the remaining independent variables, being treated by pain unit physicians was significantly associated with worse pain relief (OR = 0.592, 95% CI = 0.507 to 0.691), lower satisfaction (β = -0.680, 95% CI = -0.834 to -0.525), and worse quality of life (β = -4.047, 95% CI = -5.509 to -2.585) compared with being treated by physicians from other specialties (e.g., traumatologists, oncologists, etc.). Our study shows a lack of negative or clinically relevant (as shown by the negligible to small effect sizes) impact of burnout on patient-reported outcomes (namely, pain relief, satisfaction, and quality of life) in patients with

  15. Knee osteoarthritis prevalence in hospitalized elderly patients: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke Qiang; Li, Chuan Silvia; Lin, Zhong Qiu; Feng, Guo Fei; Wang, Xiao Hui; Fu, Wen Zhe; Xie, Zhi Quan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and the risk factors for OA in hospitalized elderly patients. We conducted this retrospective study in elderly patients (aged 65 years and older) who were hospitalized in the Geriatric Ward of General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of the People's Liberation Army between January 2011 and June 2013, including general condition, present history, past history, physical examination, X-ray results, and disease diagnosis. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment rates of knee OA in hospitalized elderly patients were calculated. Risk factors were computed using multiple logistic regression analysis. Of a total of 267 (17.4%) hospitalized elderly patients diagnosed with knee OA, the prevalence rate of OA was 9.95% in males and 37.76% in females. The rate of awareness among those with OA was 51.68%; the rate of treatment was 83.33%; and the rate of control was 77.39%. The medical expenses for both females (1143±315 yuan month-1) and males (1192±357 yuan month-1) in knee OA patients are higher than that of the non-knee OA group (989±274 yuan month-1, 1038±295 yuan month-1). The risk factors for knee OA include gender (OR=2.448), age (OR=1.124), transportation mode (OR= 8.972), exercise (OR=7.374), bowel evacuation position (OR=5.767), family history of knee OA (OR=2.195), and body mass index (OR=2.469). The prevalence of knee OA is unexpectedly high in hospitalized elderly patients, and the rates of awareness and treatment are less than desirable. Prevention and control measures should be taken in patients with concomitant risk factors.

  16. Economic evaluation studies in reproductive medicine: a systematic review of methodologic quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenaar, Lobke M.; Vijgen, Sylvia M. C.; Hompes, Peter; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Opmeer, Brent C.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the methodologic quality of economic analyses published in the field of reproductive medicine. Systematic review. Centers for reproductive care. Infertility patients. We performed a Medline search to identify economic evaluation studies in reproductive medicine. We included studies that

  17. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Gamal M. H.; Abdl-Haleem, Mounir M.; Farghali, Haithem A. M.; Abdel-Saeed, Hitham

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females) and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females) were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (%) of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (%) respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05) on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools and medication

  18. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M. H. Rakha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools

  19. CROSSECTIONAL STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF DYSMENORRHEA AND PRE MENSTRUAL SYNDROME IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

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    Joylene Diana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea or pain during menstruation is the most common gynaecological complaint among adolescents and college students. A good majority of patients with dysmenorrhea also experience pre - menstrual symptoms ( PMS . The objective of this cross s ectional study was to assess prevalence of dysmennorhea , PMS , college absenteeism and knowledge attitudes and practices relating to the same among college going students between the age of 18 to 26 years. METHODS: A cross s ectional analysis of a total of 420 students using questionnaires related to dysmenorrhea was done . The questionnaire dealt with the regularity of menstrual cycles , occurrence of dysmenorrhea , college absenteeism , premenstrual symptoms and lifestyle attributes of the students. RESULTS: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea of varying degrees was found to be as high as 97 percent . Dysmennorhea was seen in 45.8 percent of students with regular cycles and 97.7 percent of students with irregular cycles. 47.5 percentage of students missed their college working days due to menstruation related complaints. Among the students who had pre - menstrual syndrome , majority of them revealed life style attributes like eating fast food and also consuming over the counter pain medicines. Also psychological and emotional changes were commonly seen during the premenstrual phase. CONCLUSION: This study showed that though dysmennorhea of varying degrees is widely prevalent among college going students , the prevalence of pre - menstrual syndrome was higher. The study suggests that adequate counseling and education about menstrual symptoms and abuse of OTC analgesics if made a part of college curriculum as well as lifestyle modifications could come a long way in helping to alleviate the problems college students face due to dysmennorhea and PMS.

  20. The CONFINE (Comorbidities and Outcome iN patients with chronic heart Failure: a study in INternal mEdicine units study: a new epidemiologic observational study on heart failure in the internal medicine departments in Italy

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    P. Biagi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The burden of heart failure (HF is enormous and its prevalence increases sharply with age. It has been estimated that heart failure affects up to 3% of the general population and 10% of the elderly. It contributes to hospital admission for most of them, mainly elder adults (admitted in internal medicine units with more than one comorbidity, cognitive disorders, impairment and so on. Despite the increasing prevalence of heart failure, its exact incidence and prevalence remain largely unknown and probably underestimated due to a lack of accurate epidemiological data and difficulties associated with comorbidities and correct diagnosis: over 40% of recurrent hospitalization causes, either cardiac or extracardiac, cannot be determined due to the lack of data. AIM OF THE STUDY The objective of this study estimated the prevalence and the primary care burden associated with comorbidities in internal medicine units. METHOD The design: a longitudinal multicentric observational study using spot analysis three data sheets were filled in during the hospital stay according to three crucial moments: enrolment (“the index day”, admission and discharge. Will be analyzed the following primary outcomes: total and cardiovascular mortality, intensive unit care admission, recurrent cardiovascular disorders, length of stay, hospital readmission, changes in activities of daily living, need for care. Second outcomes: clinical, therapeutic, instrumental and laboratory changes during the admission process. Deep analysis of the following comorbidities will be also taken into account: acute and chronic kidney failure, anaemia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, muscle loss, nutritional status, cirrhosis of the liver, neoplasms, blood cell disorders, chronic inflammatory diseases. Further evalutation items: cognitive impairment, self-sufficiency and perception of quality life.

  1. [Study on characteristics of pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along stomach meridian based on medicinal property combination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bai-Xia; Gu, Hao; Guo, Hong-Ling; Ma, Li; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    At present, studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) properties are mostly restricted to a single or two kinds of medicinal properties, but deviated from the holism of the theoretical system of TCMs. In this paper, the characteristics of pharmacological effects of different property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian were take as the study objective. The data of properties of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005). The data of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from all of literatures recorded in Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI) since 1980, Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Yan Zhenghua, People's Medical Publishing House, 2006) and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Gao Xuemin, Zhong Gansheng, Hebei Science and Technology Publishing House, 2005). The corresponding pharmacological effects of property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was mined by the method of association rules. The results of the association rules were consistent with the empirical knowledge, and showed that different medicinal property combinations had respective pharmacological characteristics, including differences and similarities in pharmacological effects of different medicinal property combinations. Medicinal property combinations with identical four properties or five tastes showed similar pharmacological effects; whereas medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes showed differentiated pharmacological effects. However, medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes could also show similar pharmacological effects. In this study, the medicinal property theory and the pharmacological effects of TCMs were combined to reveal the main characteristics and regularity of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian

  2. [A new change in studies of ophthalmology: translational medicine-from basic to clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Tang, Luo-sheng

    2009-03-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept in the field of international medicine that aims to reduce barriers and build relationships between clinical and basic research, and to translate scientific knowledge and research production into practical applications. Recently, the developments in the study of translational medicine in many fields have been reported abroad. However, the development of translational medicine is in the initial stage in China. A turning point will be brought to ophthalmic research by improving the development of translational research. This review introduces the concept and development of translational medicine as well as the recent advances in the studies of translational medicine in ophthalmology.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of community pharmacists on generic medicines in Palestine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shraim, Naser Y; Al Taha, Tasneem A; Qawasmeh, Rawan F; Jarrar, Hiba N; Shtaya, Maram A N; Shayeb, Lama A; Sweileh, Waleed M

    2017-12-28

    Generic substitution in several countries has become a common practice. Besides, it is considered as a major cost minimizing strategy meant to contain pharmaceutical expenditure without compromising healthcare quality. However, the safety and quality issues of generic products are of top concerns of general practitioners and health work professionals. This study aimed to investigate community pharmacist's knowledge, attitudes and practices toward generic medicines in Palestine. This study was a cross-sectional observational study employing a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was of four main sections: demographic and practice details of the participants, knowledge, attitudes and the influencing factors related to selection and dispensing of generic medicines. A convenience sampling technique was implemented in this study in which the data collection form was distributed in West Bank- Palestine among a set of practicing pharmacists. Mann-Whitney-U or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to comparison of different issues as appropriate. P-values of medicines was (5.91 ± 1.27) where the highest score was 8 of 10. Knowledge score was not significantly influenced by any of the socio-demographic characteristics. Our data showed that most of included pharmacists in the study (95.4%) agreed that health authorities should implement bioequivalence policies prior to marketing approval of generics, while 87.4% of participants agreed that they should be given the right to substitute generics and the majority (62.3%) support generic substitution for brand name drugs in all cases when a generic is available The main two factors affect pharmacists' selection and dispensing of generic medicines are personal faith in the product (86.1%) and cost effectiveness of generic medicines (84.1%). Generic medicines substitution among pharmacists is widespread and prevalent. Our data found that participant pharmacists in Palestine had basic knowledge with regards to generic

  4. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Northern Jordan: Endoscopy based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bani-Hani, Kamal E.; Hammouri, Shadi M.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is considered the most common infection worldwide and is associated with many other disorders. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of this infection among patients undergoing endoscopy in Northern Jordan. Between November 1998 and September 2000, all patients referred from the Gastro-esophageal Clinic to the Endoscopy Unit at Princess Basma Teaching Hospital, Irbid, Northern Jordan were enrolled in this prospective study. For each patient clinical and epidemiological data was collected and endoscopy was performed. At least 3 antral biopsies were obtained from each patient, and these were examined histologically for the presence of gastritis and stained for Helicobacter pylori using modified Giemsa stain. A total of 197 consecutive patients (113 females) with a mean age of 40.2 years (range 15-91 years) were studied. Abdominal pain was the highest presenting symptom. Gastritis 91% and esophagitis 42% were the most frequent endoscopic findings. Gastritis was documented histologically in 183 (93%) of patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 161 patients (82%), with all of these having histological gastritis. The 11 patients with gastric ulcer, compared to the 51 out of the 59 (86%) patients with duodenal ulcer, showed Helicobacter pylori in their biopsies. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients subjected to an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Jordan is high. This study confirms that Helicobacter pylori is significantly associated with gastritis and peptic ulcer. Further studies are needed to determine the types of Helicobacter pylori strains present in Jordan. (author)

  5. Review of prevalence studies of tic disorders: methodological caveats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Tic disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood associated with psychiatric comorbidity and academic problems. Estimating the prevalence and understanding the epidemiology of tic disorders is more complex than was once thought. Until fairly recently, tic disorders were thought to be rare, but today tics are believed to be the most common movement disorder, with 0.2-46.3% of schoolchildren experiencing tics during their lifetime. Tentative explanations for differing prevalence estimates include the multidimensional nature of tics with a varied and heterogeneous presentation, and the use of different epidemiological methods and study designs. Literature review and analysis of methodological issues pertinent to epidemiological studies of tic disorders. Epidemiological studies of tic disorders were reviewed, and the main elements of epidemiological studies, including sample selection, case ascertainment strategy, definition of tic disorders, and the degree of coverage of the eligible population (i.e., the response rate) were examined. In order to improve the quality of epidemiological studies of tic disorders, a number of recommendations were made, including but not limited to a review of the diagnostic criteria for tic disorders, and inclusion of new tic disorder categories for those with tics of secondary etiology.

  6. Review of Prevalence Studies of Tic Disorders: Methodological Caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cubo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tic disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood associated with psychiatric comorbidity and academic problems. Estimating the prevalence and understanding the epidemiology of tic disorders is more complex than was once thought. Until fairly recently, tic disorders were thought to be rare, but today tics are believed to be the most common movement disorder, with 0.2–46.3% of schoolchildren experiencing tics during their lifetime. Tentative explanations for differing prevalence estimates include the multidimensional nature of tics with a varied and heterogeneous presentation, and the use of different epidemiological methods and study designs. Methods: Literature review and analysis of methodological issues pertinent to epidemiological studies of tic disorders. Results: Epidemiological studies of tic disorders were reviewed, and the main elements of epidemiological studies, including sample selection, case ascertainment strategy, definition of tic disorders, and the degree of coverage of the eligible population (i.e., the response rate were examined. Discussion: In order to improve the quality of epidemiological studies of tic disorders, a number of recommendations were made, including but not limited to a review of the diagnostic criteria for tic disorders, and inclusion of new tic disorder categories for those with tics of secondary etiology.

  7. Prevalence of obesity and associated cardiovascular risk: the DARIOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Grau, María; Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Dégano, Irene R; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Guembe, Maria Jesús; Alzamora, María Teresa; Vega-Alonso, Tomás; Robles, Nicolás R; Ortiz, Honorato; Rigo, Fernando; Mayoral-Sanchez, Eduardo; Tormo, Maria José; Segura-Fragoso, Antonio; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2013-06-05

    To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Spanish population as measured with body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) and to determine the associated cardiovascular risk factors. Pooled analysis with individual data from 11 studies conducted in the first decade of the 21st century. Participants aged 35-74 years were asked about the history of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Height, weight, WC, blood pressure, glycaemia, total cholesterol, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary risk were measured. The prevalence of overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)), general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), suboptimal WC (≥ 80 cm and population. We included 28,743 individuals. The prevalence of overweight and suboptimal WC was 51% and 30% in men and 36% and 22% in women, respectively; general obesity was 28% in both sexes and abdominal obesity 36% in men and 55% in women. The prevalence of WHtR ≥0.5 was 89% and 77% in men and women, respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were significantly associated with abnormal increased values of BMI, WC and WHtR. Hypertension showed the strongest association with overweight [OR = 1.99 (95% confidence interval 1.81-2.21) and OR = 2.10 (1.91-2.31)]; suboptimal WC [OR = 1.78 (1.60-1.97) and OR = 1.45 (1.26-1.66)], with general obesity [OR = 4.50 (4.02-5.04), and OR = 5.20 (4.70-5.75)] and with WHtR ≥0.5 [OR = 2.94 (2.52-3.43), and OR = 3.02 (2.66-3.42)] in men and women respectively, besides abdominal obesity in men only [OR = 3.51 (3.18-3.88)]. Diabetes showed the strongest association with abdominal obesity in women [OR = 3,86 (3,09-4,89). The prevalence of obesity in Spain was high. Overweight, suboptimal WC, general, abdominal obesity and WHtR ≥0.5 was significantly associated with diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and coronary risk. The use of lower cut-off points for both BMI and particularly WC

  8. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Winijchaiyanan, Piyawan; Sukkho, Treetip; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Pongamornkul, Wittaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-10-28

    We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of medicines authentication technology to detect counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines: a two-stage quantitative secondary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Bernard; Roberts, Lindsey; Dopson, Sue; Chapman, Stephen; Brindley, David

    2016-12-09

    To identify the authentication and detection rate of serialised medicines using medicines authentication technology. 4192 serialised medicines were entered into a hospital dispensary over two separate 8-week stages in 2015. Medicines were authenticated using secure external database cross-checking, triggered by the scanning of a two-dimensional data matrix with a unit specific 12-digit serial code. 4% of medicines included were preprogrammed with a message to identify the product as either expired, pack recalled, product recalled or counterfeit. A site within a large UK National Health Service teaching hospital trust. Accredited checking staff, pharmacists and dispensers in a pharmacy department. Authentication and detection rate of counterfeit expired and recalled medicines. The operational detection rate of counterfeit, recalled and expired medicines scanned as a combined group was 81.4% (stage 1 (S1)) and 87% (stage 2 (S2)). The technology's technical detection rate (TDR) was 100%; however, not all medicines were scanned and of those that were scanned not all that generated a warning message were quarantined. Owing to an operational authentication rate (OAR) of 66.3% (over both stages), only 31.8% of counterfeit medicines, 58% of recalled drugs and 64% of expired medicines were detected as a proportion of those entered into the study. Response times (RTs) of 152 ms (S1) and 165 ms (S2) were recorded, meeting the falsified medicines directive-mandated 300 ms limit. TDRs and RTs were not a limiting factor in this study. The suboptimal OAR poses significant quality and safety issues with this detection approach. Authentication at the checking stage, however, demonstrated higher OARs. There is a need for further qualitative research to establish the reasons for less than absolute authentication and detection rates in the hospital environment to improve this technology in preparation for the incumbent European Union regulative deadline. Published by the BMJ

  10. Studies on ethno medicinal plant diversity in an urban area – a case study

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    Sudipta Biswas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the Ethno-medicinal plants used by the local communities in Santragachhi area, under Howrah Municipal Corporation, ward no. 38, District Howrah, West Bengal, India. An ethno medicinal survey was carried out the use of medicinal plants in Santragachi region. The information was gathered from the local community people using an integrated approach botanical collections, group discussion and interview with questionnaire during 2012-2013. Among 50 informants interviewed, 10 were tribal practitioners. A total of 53 genera and 33 families are documented. In most of case, fresh parts of the plants were used for the preparation of medicine. The results further revealed that the natives of this area are not very much practiced in using the medicinal plants in the treatment of human illness. The study area is delimited by number of wetlands and the people collect the aquatic plants by their habitual knowledge as food resources. But due to expansion of city area, road construction causes loss of plant diversity and random exploitation of natural resources many valuable medicinal plants are at the stage of extinction. The present study documented ethno medicinal plants were mostly used for treatment of various diseases.

  11. A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY TO DETECT THE PREVALENCE OF HYPERHOMOCYSTEINEMIA IN PATIENTS OF MIGRAINE

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    Nidhi Kharb

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Migraine is a common, disabling primary headache disorder. It is a constellation of symptoms like headache, nausea, vomiting, photophobia and other similar neurological dysfunction in varying admixtures. Since, migraine is a neurovascular disease, the highly reactive amino acid, homocysteine has been postulated to play a role in migraine pathophysiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 30 migraine patients participated in the present study including 22 females and 8 males. The study was directed towards the aim of finding out the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in migraine patients, which came out to be 13.3% and other aim is to show association if any between homocysteine level and severity of migraine in which we found no direct relationship between serum homocysteine level and severity of migraine. RESULTS The study was carried out from May to June, 2017, among consecutive patient attending the OPD of Medicine and Psychiatry Department. In all, 30 migraine patients and 30 controls were interviewed during this phase. The result of the present study has been analysed and tabulated. CONCLUSION Prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in migraine was found to be 13.3% and there was no significant relation found between serum homocysteine levels and severity of migraine. Mean serum homocysteine level was found to be higher in migraine patient as compared to control, but the association did not came out to be statistically significant.

  12. Pharmacokinetic study with computational tools in the medicinal chemistry course

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    Monique Araújo de Brito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To improve the teaching-learning process in the Medicinal Chemistry course, new strategies have been incorporated into practical classes of this fundamental discipline of the pharmaceutical curriculum. Many changes and improvements have been made in the area of medicinal chemistry so far, and students should be prepared for these new approaches with the use of technological resources in this field. Practical activities using computational techniques have been directed to the evaluation of chemical and physicochemical properties that affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Their objectives were to allow students to know these tools, to learn how to access them, to search for the structures of drugs and to analyze results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in Brazil to demonstrate the use of computational practices in teaching pharmacokinetics. Practical classes using Osiris and Molinspiration were attractive to students, who developed the activities easily and acquired better theoretical knowledge.Para melhorar o processo ensino-aprendizagem no curso de Química Medicinal novas estratégias estão sendo incorporadas às aulas práticas desta disciplina fundamental do currículo farmacêutico. Muitas mudanças e melhorias vêm marcando a área de química medicinal e por isso é importante que os alunos sejam colocados nestas novas abordagens na área, com a utilização de recursos tecnológicos. As atividades práticas foram direcionadas para a avaliação dos dados químicos e físico-químicos de fármacos que influenciam as propriedades farmacocinéticas com o auxílio de técnicas computacionais. Os objetivos foram permitir aos alunos conhecer essas ferramentas, saber como acessá-las, procurar as estruturas de fármacos e analisar os resultados. Este é o primeiro estudo publicado no Brasil que apresenta aula prática computacional sobre o tema farmacocinética. As aulas práticas utilizando os servidores Osiris e

  13. Evaluation of routine telephone transmission of nuclear medicine studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlin, J.A.; Tal, I.; Parker, J.A.; Front, D.; Israel, O.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Rapid and reliable transmission of nuclear medicine studies using conventional telephone lines and commercially available modems and computer systems has been accomplished through use of software developed within the authors' hospital. Original digital images of all-night and weekend studies, acquired on any of the acquisition computers from different manufacturers, are now routinely sent for remote reading at the physician's home. Data, software, and letters are routinely exchanged using modems and standard telephone lines with a sister institution in Haifa, Israel. The software has been designed to achieve no loss data compression and minimal turnaround time loss. Thus, an average lung perfusion image or gallbladder study requires about 1-3 minutes of transmission time. Full analysis and display software is available on the remote computer

  14. Is there a divide between local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine? a case study among native Amazonians in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvet-Mir Laura

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in ethnomedicine has grown in the last decades, with much research focusing on how local medicinal knowledge can contribute to Western medicine. Researchers have emphasized the divide between practices used by local medical practitioners and Western doctors. However, researchers have also suggested that merging concepts and practices from local medicinal knowledge and Western science have the potential to improve public health and support medical independence of local people. In this article we study the relations between local and Western medicinal knowledge within a native Amazonian population, the Tsimane'. Methods We used the following methods: 1 participant observation and semi-structured interviews to gather background information, 2 free-listing and pile-sorting to assess whether Tsimane' integrate local medicinal knowledge and Western medicine at the conceptual level, 3 surveys to assess to what extent Tsimane' combine local medicinal knowledge with Western medicine in actual treatments, and 4 a participatory workshop to assess the willingness of Tsimane' and Western medical specialists to cooperate with each other. Results We found that when asked about medical treatments, Tsimane' do not include Western treatments in their lists, however on their daily practices, Tsimane' do use Western treatments in combination with ethnomedical treatments. We also found that Tsimane' healers and Western doctors express willingness to cooperate with each other and to promote synergy between local and Western medical systems. Conclusion Our findings contrast with previous research emphasizing the divide between local medical practitioners and Western doctors and suggests that cooperation between both health systems might be possible.

  15. Predictors of dyspnea prevalence: Results from the BOLD study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønseth, Rune; Vollmer, William M.; Hardie, Jon A.; Ólafsdóttir, Inga Sif; Lamprecht, Bernd; Buist, A. Sonia; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Gulsvik, Amund; Johannessen, Ane; Enright, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Dyspnea is a cardinal symptom for cardiorespiratory diseases. No study has assessed worldwide variation in dyspnea prevalence or predictors of dyspnea. We used cross-sectional data from population-based samples in 15 countries of the BOLD study to estimate prevalence of dyspnea in the full sample as well as in an a priori defined low-risk group (few risk factors or dyspnea-associated diseases). Dyspnea was defined by the modified Medical Research Council questions. We used ordered logistic regression analysis to study the association of dyspnea with site, sex, age, education, smoking habits, low/high BMI, self-reported disease, and spirometry results. Of the 9,484 participants, 27% reported any dyspnea. In the low-risk subsample (N=4,329), 16% reported some dyspnea. In multivariate analyses, all covariates were correlated to dyspnea, but only 13% of dyspnea variation was explained. Women reported more dyspnea than men (odds ratio ≈ 2.1). When forced vital capacity (FVC) fell below 60% of predicted, dyspnea was much more likely. There was considerable geographical variation in dyspnea, even when we adjusted for known risk factors and spirometry results. We were only able to explain 13% of dyspnea variation. PMID:24176991

  16. Clinical nuclear medicine applications in Turkey and specific renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology, nuclear oncology, pediatric nuclear medicine and nuclear endocrinology are the main application areas of clinical nuclear medicine in Turkey. Not only imaging studies, but also therapeutic application of radiopharmaceuticals is also performed at many institutes, such as hyperthyroidism treatment with radioiodine, thyroid cancer ablation and metastases treatment with radioiodine, radio synovectomy, metastatic pain therapy, and recently radioimmunotherapy of lymphomas. Almost all radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals are obtained commercially from European countries, except 18-FDG which is obtained from two cyclotrons in Turkey. More than 30.000 renal procedures are performed at the University hospitals in a year. Pediatric age groups is approximately % 55 of patients. 99m Tc-DTPA (%44), 99m Tc-DMSA (%37), 99m Tc-MAG3 (%17) and 99m Tc-EC (%2) are the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for renal imaging. More than 6.000 vials of several pharmaceuticals are used for renal cortical scintigraphy (%35), dynamic renal imaging (%34), renal scintigraphy with diuretic (%27) and captopril scintigraphy (%4). Most common indication for renal cortical scintigraphy is detection of cortical scarring (%53). In addition, using single plasma sample method or gamma-camera method renal clearance measurements with 99m Tc-MAG3 99m Tc-DTPA have been used at some institutions. (author)

  17. Clinical nuclear medicine applications in Turkey and specific renal studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbas, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear cardiology, nuclear oncology, pediatric nuclear medicine and nuclear endocrinology are the main application areas of clinical nuclear medicine in Turkey. Not only imaging studies, but also therapeutic application of radiopharmaceuticals is also performed at many institutes, such as hyperthyroidism treatment with radioiodine, thyroid cancer ablation and metastases treatment with radioiodine, radio synovectomy, metastatic pain therapy, and recently radioimmunotherapy of lymphomas. Almost all radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals are obtained commercially from European countries, except 18-FDG which is obtained from two cyclotrons in Turkey. More than 30.000 renal procedures are performed at the University hospitals in a year. Pediatric age groups is approximately % 55 of patients. 99mTc-DTPA (%44), 99mTc-DMSA (%37), 99mTc-MAG3 (%17) and 99mTc-EC (%2) are the most commonly used radiopharmaceuticals for renal imaging. More than 6.000 vials of several pharmaceuticals are used for renal cortical scintigraphy (%35), dynamic renal imaging (%34), renal scintigraphy with diuretic (%27) and captopril scintigraphy (%4). Most common indication for renal cortical scintigraphy is detection of cortical scarring (%53). In addition, using single plasma sample method or gamma-camera method renal clearance measurements with 99mTc-MAG3 99mTc-DTPA have been used at some institutions

  18. Case studies in occupational medicine for medical undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, D; Chia, K S; Jeyaratnam, J; Chia, S E; Singh, J

    1995-02-01

    Medical undergraduate tutorials in occupational medicine were introduced in 1993 in Singapore. The tutorials discuss three case studies of patients likely to be encountered in primary health care practice--occupational dermatitis, tinnitus in a noise-exposed worker, and the finding of anaemia in a pre-employment examination. The cases are used to illustrate the importance of identification of occupational factors in the causation of disease; consideration of occupational factors in the management of disease; and measures for prevention of occupational and work-related diseases and promotion of health at work. Staff and student responses to the case studies have been positive. All five staff members involved in the teaching enjoyed the experience, and over 90% of the 105 students who participated in the tutorial felt that the material was well prepared, the time was well spent, and that the tutorials had thrown new light on and overcome difficulties encountered during the course.

  19. Complementary and alternative medicine use for constipation: a critical review focusing upon prevalence, type, cost, and users' profile, perception and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W; Liang, H; Sibbritt, D; Adams, J

    2016-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly used by those suffering from constipation. This paper reports the first critical integrative review of CAM use for people with constipation focusing upon the prevalence, type and cost of CAM use, as well as CAM users' profile, perception and motivations. A comprehensive search of international literature was conducted in MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), and Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED). The search was limited to original research peer-reviewed English language articles concerning CAM use for constipation published with an abstract and full text between 2005 and 2015. A total of 35 papers met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The review shows approximately one in every three people suffering from constipation use CAM with herbal medicine the most commonly used CAM treatment for constipation and a large proportion of CAM use occurring concurrent with or in addition to conventional medical treatments. While early investigation suggests the cost of herbal medicine use in constipation care may be lower than that associated with the use other CAM modalities and conventional medications, this issue requires further research. Although a high percentage of people with constipation using CAM consider these treatments effective, there remains a need for further in-depth examination of both patient and provider perspectives as well as communication and decision-making around CAM use for constipation to inform safe, effective and coordinated care for patients with constipation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Avoiding diagnostic errors in psychosomatic medicine: a case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Ohtake, Yoichi; Yasuda, Kanae; Sakai, Kiyohiro; Sakamoto, Ryo; Matsuoka, Hiromichi; Okumi, Hirokuni; Yasuda, Toshiko

    2018-01-01

    Non-organic lesions or diseases of unknown origin are sometimes misdiagnosed as "psychogenic" disorders or "psychosomatic" diseases. For the quality of life and safety of patients, recent attention has focused on diagnostic error. The aim of this study was to clarify the factors that affected misdiagnoses in psychosomatic medicine by examining typical cases and to explore strategies that reduce diagnostic errors. The study period was from January 2001 to August 2017. The data of patients who had visited the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Kindai University Hospital and its branches, Sakai Hospital and Nihonbashi Clinic, were collected. All patients were aged 16 years or over. Multiple factors, such as age, sex, presenting symptoms, initial diagnosis, final diagnosis, sources of re-diagnosis and types of diagnostic errors were retrospectively analyzed from the medical charts of 20 patients. Among them, four typical cases can be described as follows. Case 1; a 79-year-old woman, initially diagnosed with psychogenic vomiting due to depression that was changed to gastric torsion as the final diagnosis. Case 2; a 24-year-old man, diagnosed with an eating disorder that was later changed to esophageal achalasia. Case 10; a 60-year-old woman's diagnosis changed from conversion disorder to localized muscle atrophy. Case 19; a 68-year-old man, appetite loss from depression due to cancer changed to secondary adrenal insufficiency, isolated ACTH deficiency (IAD). This study showed that multiple factors related to misdiagnoses were combined and had a mutual influence. However, they can be summarized into two important clinical observations, diagnostic system-related problems and provider issues. Provider issues contain mainly cognitive biases such as Anchoring, Availability, Confirmation bias, Delayed diagnosis, and Representativeness. In order to avoid diagnostic errors, both a diagnostic system approach and the reduction of cognitive biases are needed. Psychosomatic

  1. Prevalence of intravenous medication administration errors: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekadu T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tezeta Fekadu,1 Mebrahtu Teweldemedhin,2 Eyerusalem Esrael,1 Solomon Weldegebreal Asgedom1 1School of Pharmacy, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, 2Unit of Biomedical Science, School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences and Referral Hospital, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia Background: Intravenous medication administration errors (MAEs may be accompanied by avoidable undesirable effects, which might result in clinical complications.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of MAEs and to identify the factors associated with such errors.Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2015. Data were collected by direct observation using a pretested data collection tool. Simple random sampling was used, and bivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with MAEs. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: A total of 134 patients were found to be eligible for the study. More than half of the study participants were males (76 [56.7%]. The rate of MAE was 46.1%, with the missed dose (n=162, 95.8% being reported as the most common error. The age groups of 60–79 years (adjusted odds ratio = 2.166, confidence interval = 1.532–8.799 and 80–101 years (adjusted odds ratio = 1.52, confidence interval = 1.198–5.584 were the determinants of MAEs.Conclusion: A high prevalence of MAEs was found. Enhancing the knowledge and practical skills of clinical nurses might minimize such errors. Keywords: prevalence, medication, administration, error

  2. Ethnic differences of medicines-taking in older adults: a cross cultural study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Clarke, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata

    2012-04-01

    The literature identifies many barriers to medicines use, including bio-psycho-social issues, but less is known regarding ethno-cultural barriers, which are important in culturally diverse nations. The aim of this study was to explore ethnic differences in attitudes to medicines and medicines-taking, focusing on the main constituents of the New Zealand (NZ) population: NZ European, Māori (the indigenous people of NZ), Pacific and Asian peoples. A qualitative study involving a series of focus groups was conducted. Participants (>50 years old) taking medicines were recruited from various community-based groups. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed for key themes via manual inductive coding and constant comparison. Twenty focus groups (n=100 participants) were conducted. Three key common themes emerged: (1) conception of a medicine; (2) self-management of medication; and (3) seeking further medicines information. In general, NZ European participants had a very narrow view of what a medicine is, were motivated to source medicines information independently and were very proactive in medicines management. At the other end of the spectrum, Pacific peoples expressed a broad view of what constitutes a medicine, were not motivated to source medicines information independently and were not proactive in medicines management, tending to instead rely on healthcare professionals for answers. The findings from the various ethnic groups highlight differences in attitudes to medicines per se and medicines-taking; these influences on medication-taking behaviour need to be considered in the provision of pharmaceutical care. Ethnic differences in attitudes to medicines and medicines-taking are apparent, although there are some commonalities in terms of needs regarding support and advice around medicines' use. This will help inform the development of resources and communication tools to assist pharmacists in providing pharmaceutical care to diverse patient

  3. Researches on Transcriptome Sequencing in the Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jie; Zhang, Rong-chao; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Due to its incomparable advantages, the application of transcriptome sequencing in the study of traditional Chinese medicine attracts more and more attention of researchers, which greatly promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the applications of transcriptome sequencing in traditional Chinese medicine were summarized by reviewing recent related papers. PMID:28900463

  4. STUDY OF PREVALENCE OF EOSINOPHILIA IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis is a common condition, though not life threatening, causes significant morbidity in terms of quality of life. Confirmation of allergen as etiological agent is cumbersome. Hence need for a simple test is vital and eosinophil parameters were looked at to answer the quest. AIM: To find out the prevalence of e osinophilia in Allergic rhinitis . To assess the value of nasal cytogram as an alternative investigation in diagnosing allergic rhinitis . MATERIALS & METHODS: Prospective study of 200 cases divided into two groups of 100 each was done. One group clinically with allergic rhinitis and other without. All cases had clinical examination after history was taken, Blood Absolute eosinophil count, Nasal smear for eosinophils done and assessed. RESULTS: Of the 200 patients examined in two groups of 100 each, mean age of allergic rhinitis patients was 26.22 years . Allergic rhinitis was more common in males than females. Prevalence of nasal eosinophilia was 61%.and blood eosinophilia was 57% in allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal smear sensitivity was 61% and specificity w as 87% . CONCLUSION: Nasal smear eosinophilia is a valid test, can be quickly and easily performed and read. Being an in - expensive test can be used to screen the patients of allergic rhinitis

  5. Study Gaps Relevant to Use of Complementary Medicine in Patients With Leukemia: A Review Study

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    Miladinia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Context A review of the literature of recent decades has shown that few studies have been conducted on the effects of various types of complementary medicine on patients with leukemia. Therefore, the present study aimed to find research gaps in the use of different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia to be applied in future studies. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a review-type design based on a review of the literature on different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia, up to 2015. The search was conducted through electronic databases and search engines. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies which had been conducted on the use of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia were selected for the identification of gaps. Results The overall results showed that few studies have been conducted on the use of exercise, massage therapy, music therapy, acupressure, and healing touch in patients with leukemia, and these subjects are potential research areas for many different studies. However, no studies have been carried out on the effects of acupuncture, relaxation, and yoga on these patients. Conclusions The results of this review showed that the number of studies on the use of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is very limited (especially in Iran, and it can be the subject of numerous studies in the future.

  6. Biological Actions of Artemisinin: Insights from Medicinal Chemistry Studies

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    Jian Li

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinins have become essential antimalarial drugs for increasingly widespread drug-resistant malaria strains. Although tremendous efforts have been devoted to decipher how this class of molecules works, their exact antimalarial mechanism is still an enigma. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain their actions, including alkylation of heme by carbon-centered free radicals, interference with proteins such as the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic calcium ATPase (SERCA, as well as damaging of normal mitochondrial functions. Besides artemisinins, other endoperoxides with various backbones have also been synthesized, some of which showed comparable or even higher antimalarial effects. It is noteworthy that among these artemisinin derivatives, some enantiomers displayed similar in vitro malaria killing efficacy. In this article, the proposed mechanisms of action of artemisinins are reviewed in light of medicinal chemistry findings characterized by efficacy-structure studies, with the hope of gaining more insight into how these potent drugs work.

  7. Hospitalist involvement in family medicine residency training: A CERA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldor, Robert; Savageau, Judith A; Shokar, Navkiran; Potts, Stacy; Gravel, Joseph; Eisenstock, Kimberly; Ledwith, James

    2014-02-01

    Little is known about the impact of hospitalists on family medicine residencies. We surveyed family medicine residency directors to assess attitudes about hospitalists and their involvement in residency teaching. Questions were included in the 2012 Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) survey of family medicine residency directors. Univariate statistics were used to describe programs, directors, and our questions on the use of hospitalists. Bivariate statistics were used to examine relationships between the use of hospitalists to teach and program characteristics. Forty-one percent (n=175) of residency directors completed the hospitalist section of the CERA survey. Sixty-six percent of residency programs were community based/university affiliated. The majority of directors who have, or are planning to develop, a hospitalist service currently use an internal medicine service (92.5%), followed by family medicine (39.1%), pediatrics (35.4%), OB/laborists (18.0%), and combined services (8.7%). The majority of programs with a hospitalist training track (or plans to develop one) indicated that this was for a family medicine service. Sixty percent of programs that have a hospitalist service involve hospitalists in teaching. Twenty percent of directors reported that hospitalists serve as family medicine faculty, and 63% viewed them as "good educators." However, 85% reported no reduction in inpatient teaching by family medicine faculty despite using hospitalist teaching services. Hospitalists have a significant educational role in family medicine resident training. Further research is needed to explore how hospitalists and family medicine faculty can collaborate to promote enhanced efficiency and effectiveness as residency teachers.

  8. A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inta, A.; Shengji, P.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study : The survey aims to study the effect of geographic separation of ethnic groups on local knowledge of medicinal plants used by Akha people in Thailand and China, who were separated 100-120 years ago, to see how different the two geographically distinct but culturally similar groups...... were in this respect. Materials and methods : Interviewing 10 villagers in each of five Akha villages, three in Thailand and two in China, about which plants they used and how they used them. Results : A total of 95 medicinal plants registered in the five villages only 16 were shared between China...... and Thailand. Otherwise the use patterns were quite similar with respect to which plant families and plant growth forms were used and also in terms of in which habitats the Akha found their medicinal plants. Conclusions : The moving to a different site has forced the Akha to find a new set of species...

  9. Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Medicine. Proceedings of the Symposium on Dynamics Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-01-01

    Observations on the temporal patterns of uptake, metabolism, clearance or excretion of administered radioactive materials form the basis of many important applications of radioisotopes in clinical medicine and research. Such applications include studies of organ function, of regional blood flow and of the turnover of various substances in the human body. Newly available radioisotopes, new instruments such as gamma came ras, new techniques and new methods of data analysis based on the use of analogue and digital computers are continually enlarging the scope of the applications. Progress in these matters was discussed at the Symposium on Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research, organized by the lnternational Atomic Energy Agency and held in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, from 31 August to 4 September 1970. A total of 315 participants nominated by 39 countries and 4 international organizations attended, and the 70 papers presented cove r the theoretical aspects of dynamic studies, the development of techniques and instruments for such studies, and specific applications in studies of thyroid, renal, hepatic and splenic function, mineral metabolism, regional blood flow, and cardiac and pulmonary function. The proceedings include the full texts of all the papers presented together with the edited discussions. Invited review papers deal with the general aspects of the various main groups of applications covered. Many of the applications described have already reached the stage of routine use; others are still in the developmental stage. Of particular note in the latter connection are applications based on the quantitative analysis of scintillation camera data. The many papers presented on these topics and the ensuing discussions indicate the great interest now shown in this promising area of development. It is hoped that the proceedings will provide a valuable guide to the present status of the subject

  10. Prevalence and reasons for intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine as an adjunct to future visits to a medical doctor for chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Stub, Trine; Musial, Frauke; Fønnebø, Vinjar; Lillenes, Ola; Norheim, Arne Johan

    2018-03-27

    Intentional use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has previously only been researched in small, possibly biased, samples. There seems to be a lack of scientific information regarding healthy individual's attitudes and presumed use of CAM. The aim of this study is to describe prevalence and characteristics of participants who intend to see a CAM provider compared to participants who intend to see a medical doctor (MD) only when suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and in the need of treatment. Further to describe differences between the groups regarding expected reasons for CAM use and expected skills of CAM providers. The survey was conducted in January 2016 as part of the "TNS Gallup Health policy Barometer". In total, 1728 individuals aged 16-92 years participated in the study, constituting an overall response rate of 47%. The survey included questions regarding opinions and attitudes towards health, health services and health politics in Norway. The majority of the participants (90.2%) would see a MD only if they were suffering from a chronic, non- life-threatening disease and were in the need of treatment. Men over the age of 60 with a university education tended to see a MD only. Only 9.8% of all respondents would in addition visit a CAM provider. Being an intentional user of a MD + CAM provider was associated with being a woman under the age of 60. The respondents believed that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in CAM. They also believed that individuals seeing a CAM provider have poor health and are driven by the hope of being cured. Further, that they have heard that others have good experience with such treatment. Intentional use of CAM is associated with positive attitudes, trustworthiness, and presumed positive experiences in the CAM-patient-setting. Intentional CAM users also have the impression that CAM providers have professional competence based on formal training in alternative

  11. Prevalence and correlates of coronary heart disease: first population-based study in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeidan RK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rouba Karen Zeidan,1 Rita Farah,2 Mirna N Chahine,3 Roland Asmar,3 Hassan Hosseini,4,5 Pascale Salameh,6,7 Atul Pathak8 1Doctoral School of Biology Health and Biotechnologies, Toulouse III University, Toulouse, 2Doctoral School of Life and Health Sciences, Paris-Est University, Creteil, France; 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, F-MRI®, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Department of Neurology, Henri Mondor Hospital AP-HP, 5EA 4391, Nerve Excitability and Therapeutics, Université Paris-Est, Creteil, France; 6School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, Byblos, 7Laboratory of Clinical and Epidemiology Research, Faculty of Pharmacy, Lebanese University, Hadath, Lebanon; 8Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hypertension, Risk Factors and Heart Failure Unit, Clinique Pasteur, Toulouse, France Background: Lebanon is experiencing a growing epidemic of coronary heart diseases (CHDs, as most low- and middle-income countries currently are. However, this growth can be attenuated if effective preventive strategies are adopted. Purpose: To provide the first national population-based prevalence of CHD and to describe the profile of Lebanese adults with prevalent CHD. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study using a multistage cluster sample across Lebanon. We interviewed residents aged 40 years and older using a questionnaire that captured the presence of CHDs and their risk factors (RFs. Results: Our study showed that 13.4% of the Lebanese population aged ≥40 years suffer from a prevalent CHD. CHD seemed to appear more prematurely than in developed countries, and males seemed to be more subject to CHD than females until a certain age. CHD was associated with older age, male sex, a lower economic situation, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, having a family history of premature cardiovascular diseases, and suffering from diabetes. However, smoking and waist circumference did not seem to have an independent effect on CHD, but rather an effect

  12. Prevalence and associations of respiratory-related leg movements: the MrOS sleep study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritake, Sayaka; Blackwell, Terri; Peters, Katherine W; Rueschman, Michael; Mobley, Daniel; Morrical, Michael G; Platt, Samuel F; Dam, Thuy-Tien L; Redline, Susan; Winkelman, John W

    2015-10-01

    Obstructive respiratory events often terminate with an associated respiratory-related leg movement (RRLM). Such leg movements are not scored as periodic leg movements (periodic limb movements during sleep, PLMS), although the criteria for distinguishing RRLM from PLMS differ between the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and the World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM)/ International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG) scoring manuals. Such LMs may be clinically significant in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The prevalence and correlation of RRLM in men with OSA were examined. A case-control sample of 575 men was selected from all men with an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, ≥3% desaturation criteria) ≥ 10 and good data from piezoelectric leg movement sensors at the first in-home sleep study in the MrOS cohort (mean age = 76.8 years). Sleep studies were rescored for RRLMs using five different RRLM definitions varying in both latency of leg movement onset from respiratory event termination and duration of the leg movement. The quartile of RRLM% (the number of RRLM/the number of hypopneas + apneas) was derived. The nonparametric densities of RRLM% were most influenced by alterations in the latency rather than the duration of the LM. The most liberal RRLM definition (latency 0-5 s, duration 0.5-10 s) led to a median RRLM% of 23.4 (interquartile range 12.41, 37.12) in this sample. The average AHI and arousal index increased as the quartile of RRLM% increased, as well as the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The prevalence of those with a history of hypertension decreased as RRLM% increased. The non-Caucasian race was associated with lower RRLM%. Within an elderly sample with moderate to severe OSA, piezoelectric-defined RRLM% is associated with a number of sleep-related and demographic factors. Further study of the optimal definition, predictors, and consequences of RRLM is warranted. Copyright

  13. Issues potentially affecting quality of life arising from long-term medicines use: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Janet; Morecroft, Charles W; Poole, Helen; Rowe, Philip H

    2013-12-01

    Polypharmacy is increasing and managing large number of medicines may create a burden for patients. Many patients have negative views of medicines and their use can adversely affect quality of life. No studies have specifically explored the impact of general long-term medicines use on quality of life. To determine the issues which patients taking long-term medicines consider affect their day-to-day lives, including quality of life. Four primary care general practices in North West England. Face-to-face interviews with adults living at home, prescribed four or more regular medicines for at least 1 year. Interviewees were identified from primary care medical records and purposively selected to ensure different types of medicines use. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Twenty-one interviews were conducted and analysed. Patients used an average of 7.8 medicines, 51 % were preventive, 40 % for symptom relief and 9 % treatment. Eight themes emerged: relationships with health professionals, practicalities, information, efficacy, side effects, attitudes, impact and control. Ability to discuss medicines with health professionals varied and many views were coloured by negative experiences, mainly with doctors. All interviewees had developed routines for using multiple medicines, some requiring considerable effort. Few felt able to exert control over medicines routines specified by health professionals. Over half sought additional information about medicines whereas others avoided this, trusting in doctors to guide their medicines use. Patients recognised their inability to assess efficacy for many medicines, notably those used for prophylaxis. All were concerned about possible side effects and some had poor experiences of discussing concerns with doctors. Medicines led to restrictions on social activities and personal life to the extent that, for some, life can revolve around medicines. There is a multiplicity and complexity of issues

  14. Burnout among nursing staff in accident and emergency and acute medicine: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Mark; Melby, Vidar

    2003-11-01

    This study was designed to identify the prevalence of burnout among nurses working in Accident and Emergency (A & E) and acute medicine, to establish factors that contribute to stress and burnout, to determine the experiences of nurses affected by it and highlight its effects on patient care and to determine if stress and burnout have any effects on individuals outside the clinical setting. A triangulated research design was used incorporating quantitative and qualitative methods. Maslach Burnout Inventory was used. Nurses working in acute medicine experienced higher levels of emotional exhaustion than their A & E counterparts. The overall level of depersonalization was low. High levels of personal accomplishment were experienced less by junior members of staff. Stress and burnout have far reaching effects both for nurses in their clinical practice and personal lives. If nurses continue to work in their current environment without issues being tackled, then burnout will result. The science of nursing does not have to be painful, but by recognition of the existence of stress and burnout we can take the first steps towards their prevention.

  15. A preliminary study on cognitive enhancer consumption behaviors and motives of French Medicine and Pharmacology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micoulaud-Franchi, J-A; MacGregor, A; Fond, G

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical neuroenhancer consumption in college students is a rather unknown phenomenon in Europe and particularly in France, where surprisingly only one study was conducted in 1988. Our objective is to assess prevalence and motivations for licit (use inside medical indication) and illicit pharmaceutical neuroenhancer consumption (tablet form) in a non-selected French sample of Medicine and Pharmacology students. A validated questionnaire was send to French sample of Medicine and Pharmacology students using email. The questionnaire investigate motives for use of pharmaceutical licit (vitamin C and caffeine tablets) and illicit (methylphenidate, amphetamines, modafinil, piracetam). Among 206 undergraduate students, 139 students (67.4%) declared to have consumed at least one cognitive enhancer in the past 12 months. Twelve students (8.6% of cognitive enhancers users and 5.8% of our total sample) used illicit pharmaceutical neuroenhancer. The motivations were first to improve their academic performances, second to improve their wakefulness/ vigilance, and third to improve their attention/concentration. Neuroenhancement is a widespread means of using pharmaceutical drugs in French as well as in US college campuses. Despites some limitations, these preliminary results highlight the need to boost the interest of professionals for the neuroenhancement issue in French and European students.

  16. Comparison of Leiomyoma of Modern Medicine and Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh

    2016-04-01

    Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. An ethnopharmacological study of aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Tian, Shuge; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart

    2017-12-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was completed in a remote village and surrounding country of Xinjiang, where most Uyghur medicinal plants could be collected. This work clarifies and increases ethnobotanical data. We surveyed and organized aromatic medicinal plants that are commonly used in clinical settings to provide a significant reference for studying new medical activities. In the survey, informants who have traditional knowledge on aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants were interviewed between March 2014 and September 2014. Aromatic medicinal plant species and pertinent information were collected. Some therapeutic methods and modes of preparation of traditional aromatic medicinal plants were found. A total of 86 aromatic medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were included in our study. We identified 34 plant species introduced from different regions such as Europe, India and Mediterranean areas. Fruits and whole plants were the most commonly used parts of plant, and most aromatic medicinal plants could be applied as medicine and food. We assigned the medicinal plants a use value (UV). Knowing the UV of species is useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of related plants. Xinjiang is an area in which indigenous aromatic medicinal plants are diversely used and has therefore established a sound dimensional medical healthcare treatment system. Some aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. Hence, further strategies for the conservation of these aromatic medicinal plants should be prioritized.

  18. What Color Are Newborns’ Eyes? Prevalence of Iris Color in the Newborn Eye Screening Test (NEST) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Cassie A.; Callaway, Natalia F.; Fredrick, Douglas R.; Blumenkranz, Mark S.; Moshfeghi, Darius M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The birth prevalence of iris color among newborns has not been assessed in a prospective, healthy, full-term newborn cohort. Methods The Newborn Eye Screening Test (NEST) study is a prospective cohort study conducted at Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital at Stanford University School of Medicine. A pediatric vitreoretinal specialist (DMM) reviewed images sent to the Byers Eye Institute telemedicine reading center and recorded eye color for every infant screened. Variables were graphed to assess for normality, and frequencies per subject were reported for eye color, sex, ethnicity, and race. Results Among 192 subjects screened in the first year of the NEST study with external images of appropriate quality for visualization of the irides, the birth prevalence of iris color was 63.0% brown, 20.8% blue, 5.7% green/hazel, 9.9% indeterminate and 0.5% partial heterochromia. The study population was derived from a quaternary care children’s hospital. We report the birth prevalence of iris color among full-term newborns in a diverse prospective cohort. Conclusion The study demonstrates a broad range of iris color prevalence at birth with a predominance of brown iris coloration. Future studies with the NEST cohort will assess the change in iris color over time and whether the frequencies of eye color change as the child ages. PMID:27061128

  19. [Discussion about traditional Chinese medicine pharmacokinetics study based on first botanical drug approved by FDA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fanghua

    2010-04-01

    Pharmacokinetics study is one of main components of pharmaceuticals development. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Veregen as the first botanical drug in 2006. This article introduced FDA's requirement on pharmacokinetics study of botanical drug and pharmacokinetics studies of Veregen, summarized current requirement and status quo of pharmacokinetics study on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural medicine in China, and discussed about pharmacokinetics study strategy for TCM and natural medicine.

  20. Quid-Induced Lichenoid Reactions: A Prevalence Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Dang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available White lesions of the oral mucosa are of concern to the dental surgeon in view of the fact that some of these may be potentially malignant. Oral lichen plane: (OLP and oral lichenoid reactions (OLR share similar clinical appearances but need to be carefully distinguished because of their different etiologies and clinical behaviour. This study screened 5.017 population, in a house-to-house field survey, for tobacco use and investigated the prevalence of oral lichenoid reactions in the 98 quid users. Six subjects with clinical/clinical and histopathological criteria compatible with the diagnosis of OLR were identified. All these subjects were users of ′Gutka′, a unique chewable variant of tobacco quid containing areca nut and catechu. Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between quid habit and lesion occurrence (p < 0.005.

  1. Historic images in nuclear medicine: 1976: the first issue of clinical nuclear medicine and the first human FDG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-08-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone of this evolving and exciting discipline.

  2. Prevalence of Hypertensive Phenotypes After Preeclampsia: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditisheim, Agnès; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Ponte, Belen; Vial, Yvan; Irion, Olivier; Burnier, Michel; Boulvain, Michel; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2018-01-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with increased cardiovascular and renal risk. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to characterize the early postpartum blood pressure (BP) profile after preeclampsia. We enrolled 115 women with preeclampsia and 41 women with a normal pregnancy in a prospective cohort study. At 6 to 12 week postpartum, we assessed the prevalence of different hypertensive phenotypes using 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as well as the risk of salt sensitivity and the variability of BP derived from ABPM parameters. Among patients with preeclampsia, 57.4% were still hypertensive at the office. Daytime ABP was significantly higher in the preeclampsia group (118.9±15.0/83.2±10.4 mm Hg) than in controls (104.8±7.9/71.6±5.3 mm Hg; P preeclampsia women remained hypertensive on ABPM in the postpartum, of whom 24.3% were still under antihypertensive treatment; 17.9% displayed a white-coat hypertension and 11.6% had masked hypertension. In controls, 2.8% had white-coat hypertension; none had masked hypertension or needed hypertensive treatment. The prevalence of nondippers was similar 59.8% in the preeclampsia group versus 51.4% in controls. High-risk class of salt sensitivity of BP was increased in preeclampsia women (48.6%) compared with controls (17.1%); P preeclampsia. This finding may help identify women who should be included in a postpartum cardiovascular risk management program. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01095939. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. [The trend and prospect of studies in the modern history of medicine in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yunjae

    2010-06-30

    The Korean Journal of Medical History published in 1992 provides spaces for publication to medical historians who have been growing increasingly since the 1990s, thereby stimulating studies in the modern history of medicine in Korea. Through research published in the Korean Journal of Medical History and other journals, the course through which medicine in Korea in the modern times has been formed and the content of medicine that composed that course are elucidated. This article concludes that the various research tend to posit the view that the modern history of medicine in Korea evolves through a process of accommodation with Western medicine rather than being a complete transplantation of Western medicine, and describes medicine as it is viewed by consumers rather than the operators of medicine. How government power or colonial power utilized medicine in order to stabilize their rule is also a common theme. Now, it is come time to interrogate the viewpoints and analytical methods of medical history studies. Given that medicine is one area that drives changes in Korea in contemporary times, the outcomes obtained through this field can be sufficiently utilized when studying other areas. For instance, agony over the modernity of missionary medicine being studied recently provides meaningful implications in understanding the modernity of Korea. However, the importance of substantiation should not be overlooked as theories not supported by thorough documentary evidence are weak.

  4. The Australian Defence Force Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study: design and methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooff, M.V.; McFarlane, A.C.; Davies, C.E.; Searle, A.K.; Fairweather-Schmidt, A.K.; Verhagen, A.F.; Benassi, H.; Hodson, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian Defence Force (ADF) Mental Health Prevalence and Wellbeing Study (MHPWS) is the first study of mental disorder prevalence in an entire military population. OBJECTIVE: The MHPWS aims to establish mental disorder prevalence, refine current ADF mental health screening

  5. The localised aggressive periodontitis prevalence in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaissi, F E; Cherkaoui, A; Laporte, C; Miquel, J L

    2004-03-01

    This work concerns a retrospective study of prevalence records and the clinical characteristics of localised aggressive periodontitis in the breast of consultants in the periodontitis service in Dental Medicine Faculty of Rabat (Morocco) from 1997 to 1999.

  6. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-15

    protozoa in Toledo district, southern Beli ze . . . 18 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris Lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...selected by the forward stepwise methods. . . 20 Results of logistic regression analyses of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in 5 villages of Toledo...are listed) .................•................. 47 Summary of risk factors for being positive for Ascaris lumbricoides infection. Data from contingency

  7. A retrospective study of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB) prevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples were smeared on glass slides, stained using Ziehl Neelsen Stain and later observed under light (oil immersion) microscopy. The results showed that were positive for tuberculosis had prevalence of 541 (14.7%) out of 3679 subjects. The age group 30-43 years had the highest prevalence of 145 (17.0%) out of 858 ...

  8. Twenty Six Years Retrospective Studies Of The Prevalence Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms or eggs recovered from these necropsied animals were used to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths. The prevalences of different helminths identified are as follows: Spirocerca lupi, 25 (4.64%), Haemonchus contortus, 223 (41.37%), Toxocara canis, 17 (3.13%), Ancylostoma caninum, 24 (4.45%), ...

  9. Studies on prevalence of malaria and management practices of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prevalence survey of malaria was carried out in Azia, a rural community in Ihiala Local Government Area of Anambra State, southeast Nigeria. Thick blood films of 1000 individuals attending local hospitals in the community were used to determine the prevalence. Also, structured questionnaire was administered to 1000 ...

  10. Prevalence, incidence burden, and clinical impact of healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial resistance: a national prevalent cohort study in acute care hospitals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsotakis EI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Evangelos I Kritsotakis,1 Flora Kontopidou,2 Eirini Astrinaki,3 Maria Roumbelaki,4 Eleni Ioannidou,5 Achilles Gikas6 1School of Health and Related Research, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 2Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance Office, Hellenic Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Athens, 3Infection Control Committee, University Hospital of Heraklion, 4Department of Nursing, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, Heraklion, 5Department of Internal Medicine, Rethymnon General Hospital, Rethymnon, 6Department of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, Greece Background: Assessing the overall burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs is challenging, but imperative in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of infection control programs. This study aimed to estimate the point prevalence and annual incidence of HAIs in Greece and assess the excess length of stay (LOS and mortality attributable to HAIs, overall and for main infection sites and tracer antimicrobial resistance (AMR phenotypes and pathogens.Patients and methods: This prevalent cohort study used a nationally representative cross-section of 8,247 inpatients in 37 acute care hospitals to record active HAIs of all types at baseline and overall LOS and in-hospital mortality up to 90 days following hospital admission. HAI incidence was estimated using prevalence-to-incidence conversion methods. Excess mortality and LOS were assessed by Cox regression and multistate models correcting for confounding and time-dependent biases.Results: HAIs were encountered with daily prevalence of 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.8%–10.6%. The estimated annual HAI incidence was 5.2% (95% CI 4.4%–5.3%, corresponding to approximately 121,000 (95% CI 103,500–123,700 affected patients each year in the country. Ninety-day mortality risk was increased by 80% in patients

  11. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Kunhui; Wei, Shanjun; Liu, Bo; Meng, Shaowu; Long, Chunlin

    2015-04-30

    This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals. A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants' knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest. The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts

  12. Study on international standard multilingual nomenclature of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kui; Liu, Lu; Li, Wei; Shi, Da-zhuo; Zeng, Wen-ying; Zhu, Mian-sheng; Angles, Michel; Attali, Jean-Raymond; Choy, Pedro; Choy, Joao; Wu, Chi-haur; Zhai, Fu-han; Ramon, Maria Calduch; Chung, Ching

    2010-04-01

    The International Standard Chinese-English Basic Nomenclature of Chinese medicine (ISN) was released in 2007, a nomenclature list consisting of 6 500 Chinese medical terms. ISN was the culmination of several years of collaborative diligent work of over 200 specialists who represent Chinese medicine in 68 countries. The overall goal for devising standard English nomenclature for Chinese medicine is to develop a practical international standard nomenclature for Chinese medical basic terms, to make it compatible with contemporary research and educational standards in the globalized health care service. In this article, provided is an overview of principles and methods for the multilingual translations, the processes behind the particular content of the Chinese-English ISN and an introduction to the ongoing new projects, i.e. the multilingual versions of ISN (International Standards of Chinese-Spanish, Chinese-French and Chinese-Portuguese Basic Nomenclature of Chinese Medicine).

  13. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  14. A study on pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines in Lagos West Senatorial District, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Daniel, A; Popoola, T D; Salami, E F

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing use of herbal products and herbal medicines globally with the belief that herbal medicines are always 'safe' and carry no risk because they are from natural sources. However, there are concerns regarding medicinal plants and their ability to produce adverse effects. The growing herbal medicine usage has increased the need to monitor the safety of herbal medicines. Thus, the recommended approach by the World Health Organization (WHO) is to include herbal medicines in existing national pharmacovigilance systems. This study aimed to determine the knowledge of pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines amongst herbal medicine practitioners. The study was carried out in Lagos West Senatorial District of Lagos State, Nigeria. Three categories of practitioners (378 respondents) were engaged and they include Traditional Herbal Sellers, Natural Health Practitioners and Pharmacists. The results showed that herbal medicines are commonly recommended for malaria, typhoid, diabetes and fever. 281 (74.3%) of the respondents claimed that herbal medicines have no adverse effects and only 91 (24.1%) of the respondents said there were some adverse effects reported by the users. Adverse effects reported include nausea, diarrhoea and weight loss. Amongst those that received reports of adverse effects, only 19 (20.9%) documented these reported adverse effects; none of these documentations were forwarded to the regulatory bodies or national pharmacovigilance centre in Nigeria. These results showed inadequate adverse effects monitoring (Pharmacovigilance) amongst the practitioners and underscore the necessity to educate and enlighten herbal medicine practitioners on the need for pharmacovigilance activity of herbal products.

  15. [HCV and HBV prevalence in hemodialyzed pediatric patients. Multicenter study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañero-Velasco, M C; Mutti, J E; Gonzalez, J E; Alonso, A; Otegui, L; Adragna, M; Antonuccio, M; Laso, M; Montenegro, M; Repetto, L; Brandi, M; Canepa, J; Baimberg, E

    1998-01-01

    Hemodialized pediatric patients are a risk population for the hepatitis B and C virus infection. The aim of this paper was to study the serum prevalence of HBV and HCV infection in hemodialized children. We study 61 pediatric patients at hemodialisis, 12 on renal transplant, range between 2 and 20 years old (mean: 12.9 years), 23 male and 38 female. The specific anti-HCV IgC were measured by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA Abbott) and confirmed by LIA-TEK (Organon). The anti-HBV were measured by ELISA Abbott and transaminases by cinetic method (ASAT: 29 UI/L and ALT: 33 UI/L). The 19.7% of studied children were HCV (+) and 29.5% were HBV (+), 38.9% of them were HbsAg (+) and 50% anti-HBs (+). The HCV and HBV infection was more elevated in relation to the transfusion number and the hemodilisis time. The elevation of ALT/ASAT activity isn't a right infection index for HCV and HBV in this children.

  16. Prevalence and related factors of psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baş, Yalçın; Seçkin, Havva Yıldız; Kalkan, Göknur; Takci, Zennure; Çitil, Rıza; Önder, Yalçın; Şahin, Şafak; Demir, Ayşe Kevser

    2016-02-17

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of psoriasis (PS) and seborrheic dermatitis (SD) (erythematous-squamous diseases) in our region and reveal the frequently encountered associated factors to aid in planning appropriate healthcare. A community-based study was conducted with 85 sample groups that reflected the population rate and demography of Tokat Province in northern Anatolia. In this community, the prevalence of PS in people older than 20 years of age was 1.2% and the prevalence of SD was 5.2%. SD rates were higher in patients who used tobacco and especially alcohol. SD prevalence was also higher in patients treated for depression and epilepsy. Furthermore, as education levels increased, SD prevalence increased proportionally. In general, PS prevalence in this region was higher than in Asia and Africa but lower than in Europe and the United States. Whereas SD prevalence varies between 2% and 12% throughout the world, the average SD prevalence was 5.2% in this study.

  17. Abdominal pain in a 70-year-old Danish population. An epidemiological study of the prevalence and importance of abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, L; Jørgensen, Torben; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the prevalence and importance of abdominal pain in the elderly, an epidemiological study of a 70-year-old Danish population was carried out. Seventy two percent of 1119 randomly selected persons answered a questionnaire concerning abdominal pain. One year prevalence of abdomina...... in a 70 year old population and influences the well-being of the subjects. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether subjects with abdominal pain have a poorer prognosis than subjects without.......In order to assess the prevalence and importance of abdominal pain in the elderly, an epidemiological study of a 70-year-old Danish population was carried out. Seventy two percent of 1119 randomly selected persons answered a questionnaire concerning abdominal pain. One year prevalence of abdominal...... to their well-being in terms of frequency, severity, or need of medicine (sex difference: chi 2 = 10.18, df = 2, p

  18. [Preliminary study on main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian

    2013-05-01

    The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.

  19. [Study on the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicines in promoting gastrointestinal peristalsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mu-Xin; Wei, Lan-Fu; Zhou, Bai-Cang; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2004-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine has accumulated rich experience in treating dysfunction of gastrointestinal peristalsis. In recent years, a large number of studies have been made on the mechanism and effects of traditional Chinese medicines on the gastrointestinal peristalsis, and the concept of "gastrointestinal promoting Chinese medicine" has been advocated. These traditional Chinese medicines can be divided into three types: promoting the gastrointestinal peristalsis, inhibiting the gastrointestinal peristalsis, and bi-directional modulating. The in vivo and/or in vitro experiments showed that some of the traditional Chinese medicines for activating blood or regulating qi could promote the stomach peristalsis, and the traditional Chinese medicines for moistening intestines to relieve constipation or invigorating spleen to promote digestion could accelerate the intestinal peristalsis. The mechanism lies in the neuroregulation and gut-peptide regulation. Further research on multi-regulation and of multi-target should be done, for the mechanism of the traditional Chinese medicines in regulating the gastrointestinal peristalsis is far more complicated.

  20. Reasons for the study of medicine and dental medicine in the first year students of the Faculty of medicine in Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janja Omejec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In addition to clinical knowledge, communication skills and sovereign decision making, a good doctor is also expected to posses Aim: In addition to clinical knowledge, communication skills and sovereign decision making, a good doctor is also expected to posses professional values, including the ability to establish empathic relationships with patients.The purpose of the study was to identify the reasons that lead students to choose the study of dental medicine/medicine, and determine the level of emphaty in relation to the choice of study in the first year students of the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana.Methods: For the needs of the research we developed a questionnaire, which included basic data on students, their reasons for choosing the study of medicine or dental medicine and the Jefferson scale of empathy–version for students (JSE-S version with a modified scale with 16 arguments. The questionnaire was forwarded to all 227 first-year students in the academic year 2014/15 at the completion of the Communication course.Results: The study involved a total of 216 (response 95.2 % students; 158 medical students and 58 students of dental medicine. Among the reasons for enrollment to the Medical Faculty, the highest proportion of medical students indicated a desire to help people (85.3 %, a desire to improve human health (78.8 % and a desire to work with people (64.7 %; 28.8 % of the medical students chose the argument „because employment is guarantee”, while 14.1 % of medical students believed the argument „because it is well paid“ was the reason to choose the study of medicine.The students of dental medicine most often choose the following answers: a desire to help people (87.9 %, a desire to improve human health (74.1 %, followed by a desire to work with people (65.5 %. The argument “because employment is guaranteed” convinced 50 % of the students, and the argument “because the pay is good” convinced

  1. Prevalence of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran; an Epidemiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazirianzadeh B.* PhD,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a prevalent parasitological disease with diverse clinical manifestations in Iran. Therefore, the present retrospective study carried out to describe the demographic features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir, Iran. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was performed on 136 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients whose data were recorded in the Ramshir health center during 2006-9. Demographic information of patients including age, sex, habitat and sites of lesions, month and years of incidence were recorded. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software. Findings Totally 79 patients (58.1% resided in urban areas and the born to 9 years (49.3% was recognized as the most infected age group. Hands (41.2% had the highest rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions followed by face (36.0% and foot (22.8%. The maximum number of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions was reported in March. Conclusion As cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ramshir seemed to be an endemic rural type, the appropriate preventing measures regarding to the rural cutaneous leishmaniasis should be considered to decrease incidence of the disease in the region.

  2. A Prevalence Study of Intestinal Parasites in Southern Belize

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aimpun, Pote

    2000-01-01

    A biomedical survey of stool specimens from 82% of the population (n=672) of S villages in Toledo District, Belize were examined by the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique for the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections...

  3. Prevalence of Female Sexual Dysfunction Among Premenopausal Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Megan E; Zuelke, Andrea; Theurich, Melissa A; Knuettel, Helge; Ricci, Cristian; Apfelbacher, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiologic research in female sexual dysfunction (FSD) has gained momentum in recent years, particularly in clinical populations and in menopausal women. However, sexual dysfunction also affects premenopausal women in general populations. Previous literature reviews have been unable to quantify the burden of FSD in general populations. This has been due in part to different definitions of dysfunction, heterogeneous study design, and the wide variety of measurement tools used. To provide a meta-analytical estimate of the prevalence of FSD in premenopausal women. Observational studies that assessed the prevalence of FSD in premenopausal women were systematically sought in relevant databases (January 2000 through July 2014). Publications that reported the prevalence rate for at least one domain of FSD were included. A meta-analysis of prevalence rates was performed and a meta-regression was used to analyze factors of study design. Estimated prevalence rates of FSD and its domains (hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual aversion disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, lubrication difficulties, female orgasmic disorder, and pain disorders). After screening 9,292 results, 440 publications were retrieved for full-text review. Of these, 135 studies were included in the systematic review. Ninety-five of these studies were assessed further in a meta-analysis. There was substantial heterogeneity among studies. The prevalence of FSD in premenopausal women was estimated to be 40.9% (95% CI = 37.1-44.7, I 2  = 99.0%). Prevalence rates of individual sexual disorders ranged from 20.6% (lubrication difficulties) to 28.2% (hypoactive sexual desire disorder). Further analyses showed significantly higher rates of FSD in studies in Africa, studies that used non-validated assessment tools, and studies without pharmaceutical funding. Prevalence estimates of FSD vary substantially. Nonetheless, results show that FSD is a significant public health problem that affects 41% of

  4. Folk medicinal plant mixtures: Establishing a protocol for further studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Airy; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan; Garnatje, Teresa

    2018-03-25

    Most ethnobotanical research bases its analyses on individual taxa catalogues and their uses, rather than on mixtures. However, mixtures constitute an important chapter of our different lines of research and they represent a large volume of information. The relevance of these data in folk medicine could be explained as a response to the cure of multicausal etiology diseases or by a possible polyvalent effect of the mixture as opposed to the effect of each taxon alone. The main goals are: i) to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of these mixtures; ii) to carry out a comparison among the mixtures in two Catalan territories and their floristic composition; iii) to assess the worth of families association; and, iv) to evaluate whether the plants claimed to be used in mixtures have contraindications or possible negative interactions according to phytopharmaceutical literature. The ultimate goal is to test a protocol that can be implemented in similar studies. We have used data on medicinal plant mixtures obtained from two extensive ethnobotanical field studies carried out in two Catalan districts, Alt Empordà and Ripollès. The quantitative analyses by means of descriptive statistics were carried out with Excel. New contributions like the implementation of the Shannon index to quantify the diversity of families in plant combinations, the creation of a new index to calculate the taxon importance in mixtures, or the use of a social network analysis to study the connection between botanical families have been employed in this work. In total, a set of 484 mixtures from Alt Empordà and Ripollès (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) have been analysed: 462 for human use and 22 for veterinary. Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis are among the most commonly used species in mixtures. The aerial part of the plant is the most used, and the anticatarrhal usage is the most frequent in both territories. A wide diversity of families has been observed in mixtures and

  5. Medicine Use among Warsaw Ninth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarska, Agnieszka; Ostaszewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study examined the prevalence of medicine use for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, nervousness, depression and lack of energy among 15- to 16-year-old students; the relationship between medicine use and students' health status; and the relationship between medicine and nicotine, illegal drug, and alcohol use.…

  6. [Study of changes in Chinese herbal medicine distribution channel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Hua; Yang, Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Distribution channel of Chinese herbal medicines has been changing. From Han to Ming Dynasty, Chinese herbal medicine were mainly trafficked to urban by dealers or farmers; From the Ming Dynasty to the foundation of new China, distribution channels are primarily intermediated with township "bazaar" and national distribution center with fixed place and regularly trading hours. In the planned economy period, the state-owned herbal medicine company was the sole medium with monopoly nature. From the mid1980s to the end of last century, planned economy and market economy have been co-existing. Stepping into 21st century, producing area highlighted in the distribution channels. Presence or absence and rise or fall of different types of distribution market went throughout the changing process of distribution channels, which became an important clue. Changes were motivated by economical consideration of channel subject, which originated from commodity characteristic and social environment changes.

  7. Exploring Scholarship and the Emergency Medicine Educator: A Workforce Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jaime; Coates, Wendy C; Clarke, Samuel; Runde, Daniel P; Fowlkes, Emilie; Kurth, Jacqueline; Yarris, Lalena M

    2017-01-01

    Recent literature calls for initiatives to improve the quality of education studies and support faculty in approaching educational problems in a scholarly manner. Understanding the emergency medicine (EM) educator workforce is a crucial precursor to developing policies to support educators and promote education scholarship in EM. This study aims to illuminate the current workforce model for the academic EM educator. Program leadership at EM training programs completed an online survey consisting of multiple choice, completion, and free-response type items. We calculated and reported descriptive statistics. 112 programs participated. Mean number of core faculty/program: 16.02 ± 7.83 [14.53-17.5]. Mean number of faculty full-time equivalents (FTEs)/program dedicated to education is 6.92 ± 4.92 [5.87-7.98], including (mean FTE): Vice chair for education (0.25); director of medical education (0.13); education fellowship director (0.2); residency program director (0.83); associate residency director (0.94); assistant residency director (1.1); medical student clerkship director (0.8); assistant/associate clerkship director (0.28); simulation fellowship director (0.11); simulation director (0.42); director of faculty development (0.13). Mean number of FTEs/program for education administrative support is 2.34 ± 1.1 [2.13-2.61]. Determination of clinical hours varied; 38.75% of programs had personnel with education research expertise. Education faculty represent about 43% of the core faculty workforce. Many programs do not have the full spectrum of education leadership roles and educational faculty divide their time among multiple important academic roles. Clinical requirements vary. Many departments lack personnel with expertise in education research. This information may inform interventions to promote education scholarship.

  8. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Dawn M.; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001–2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups. PMID:23869288

  9. Number of patients studied prior to approval of new medicines: a database analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben G Duijnhoven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: At the time of approval of a new medicine, there are few long-term data on the medicine's benefit-risk balance. Clinical trials are designed to demonstrate efficacy, but have major limitations with regard to safety in terms of patient exposure and length of follow-up. This study of the number of patients who had been administered medicines at the time of medicine approval by the European Medicines Agency aimed to determine the total number of patients studied, as well as the number of patients studied long term for chronic medication use, compared with the International Conference on Harmonisation's E1 guideline recommendations. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All medicines containing new molecular entities approved between 2000 and 2010 were included in the study, including orphan medicines as a separate category. The total number of patients studied before approval was extracted (main outcome. In addition, the number of patients with long-term use (6 or 12 mo was determined for chronic medication. 200 unique new medicines were identified: 161 standard and 39 orphan medicines. The median total number of patients studied before approval was 1,708 (interquartile range [IQR] 968-3,195 for standard medicines and 438 (IQR 132-915 for orphan medicines. On average, chronic medication was studied in a larger number of patients (median 2,338, IQR 1,462-4,135 than medication for intermediate (878, IQR 513-1,559 or short-term use (1,315, IQR 609-2,420. Safety and efficacy of chronic use was studied in fewer than 1,000 patients for at least 6 and 12 mo in 46.4% and 58.3% of new medicines, respectively. Among the 84 medicines intended for chronic use, 68 (82.1% met the guideline recommendations for 6-mo use (at least 300 participants studied for 6 mo and at least 1,000 participants studied for any length of time, whereas 67 (79.8% of the medicines met the criteria for 12-mo patient exposure (at least 100 participants studied for 12 mo. CONCLUSIONS: For

  10. Study on Chinese herbal medicine active ingredients labelled with tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Mo; Bao Guangliang

    2008-01-01

    Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients was labeled with triteium by using exchange of new synthesized tritiated water or exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. The active ingredients was Genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid .The radiochemical purity of the three labeled compounds were more than 95% after TLC and HPLC purification. The specific activities of tritium labeled-genipin, acetylalkannin and chlorogenic acid were 5.97, 3.24 and 470 GBq/g, respectively. The results indicated that the unstable Chinese medicinal herb active ingredients could be labeled with tritium by the methods of exchange of new synthesized tritiated water and exchange of low-pressure gas-liquid. (authors)

  11. Analysis of herbal medicine prescriptions for patients in an academic Korean medical hospital: A cross sectional study of electronic medical records (2010-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Wook; Lee, Hyeon-Yeop; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Hwang, Man-Suk; Heo, In; Shin, Byung-Cheul; Hwang, Eui-Hyoung

    2017-10-06

    To obtain fundamental information for the standardization of herbal medicine in Korea. We analyzed the herbal medicine prescription data of patients at the Pusan National University Korean Medicine Hospital from March 2010 to February 2013. We used the Dongui-Bogam (Dong Yi Bao Jian) to classify prescribed herbal medicines. The study revealed that the most frequently prescribed herbal medicine was 'Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LWDHP, )' which was used for invigorating 'Shen (Kidndy)-yin'. 'LWDHP' was most frequently prescribed to male patients aged 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and 80-89 years, and 'Xionggui Tiaoxue Decoction (XGTXD, )' was most frequently prescribed to female patients aged 30-39 and 40-49 years. According to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes, 'Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue' showed the highest prevalence. 'LWDHP' and 'XGTXD' was the most frequently prescribed in categories 5 and 3, respectively. Based on the percentage of prescriptions for each sex, 'Ziyin Jianghuo Decoction ()' was prescribed to mainly male patients, and 'XGTXD' with 'Guima Geban Decoction ()' were prescribed to mainly female patients. This study analysis successfully determined the frequency of a variety of herbal medicines, and many restorative herbal medicines were identified and frequently administered.

  12. Haemoglobin genotypes: a prevalence study and implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Withmany children with sickle cell disease now surviving to adulthood due to advances in medicine, a larger number of women with sickle cell disease in pregnancy with all the attendant challenges it poses should be expected in our environment. It is necessary therefore, to keep abreast with developments in the area of its ...

  13. Study on the prevalence of donkey trypanosomosis in Awi zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Veterinary medicine. A text book the disease of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horse. 10th ed Saunders. Edinburgh, London. Pp 1012-1029. Secka, B., 2003. Husbandry and Health Constraint for Equines, NARI/ITC/DLS. Collaborative Equine ...

  14. Attitude toward learning of community medicine: A cross-sectional study among medical school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugavel, Japhereena; Chellaiyan, Vinoth Gnana; Krishnamoorthy, Dhivyatharani

    2017-01-01

    Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.

  15. Attitude toward learning of community medicine: A cross-sectional study among medical school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhereena Murugavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community medicine strives to protect and promote the health and well-being of the community through primary health care approach. However the preference of community medicine as career among medical school students and curriculum of community medicine is pivotal. Aim: The study intended to find the attitude towards learning of community medicine and also to assess the preference of post graduation specialty among medical school students. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study conducted at a teaching hospital located in Tamil Nadu, South India. The study questionnaire was administered to a total of 500 study participants and the data collected were analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21.0. Results: Almost 97% were of the opinion that community medicine subject is mandatory. Eighty three percent were interested in learning the principles. Only 21.8% students wanted to pursue post graduation in community medicine. Lack of attraction in terms of scientific technical interest, workplace conditions, and research potential has been reported for being not interested. Conclusion: Majority enjoyed to learn principles of community medicine at undergraduate curriculum but only few preferred to opt community medicine as post graduate specialty. Therefore there is a room to influence the medical students positively towards learning community medicine in curriculum.

  16. The prevalence of amblyopia in Germany: data from the prospective, population-based Gutenberg Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elflein, Heike M; Fresenius, Susanne; Lamparter, Julia; Pitz, Susanne; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Binder, Harald; Wild, Philipp; Mirshahi, Alireza

    2015-05-08

    Amblyopia is due to insufficient development of the visual system in early childhood and is a major source of lifelong impairment of visual acuity. Too little is known about the prevalence of amblyopia in Germany and the frequency of its various causes. The Gutenberg Health Study of the University of Mainz Faculty of Medicine is an ongoing population-based, prospective, monocentric cohort study with 15 010 participants aged 35 to 74. All participants are examined for the presence of ocular, cardiovascular, neoplastic, metabolic, immunologic, and mental diseases. 3227 participants aged 35 to 44 underwent ophthalmological examination from 2007 to 2012. Amblyopia was defined as impaired visual acuity in the absence of any organic pathology capable of explaining the condition, and in the presence of a known risk factor for amblyopia. Amblyopia, when defined as a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.63, was present in 182 participants (5.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9-6.5%), 120 of whom had a visual acuity less than or equal to 0.5 (3.7%, 95% CI 3.3-5.2%). A narrower definition of amblyopia requiring, in addition, an interocular difference in acuity of at least two lines yielded slightly lower prevalence figures: 5.0% (95% CI 4.2-5.8%) and 3.7% (95% CI 3.1-4.4%), respectively. The causes of amblyopia (visual acuity ≤ 0.63) were anisometropia (different refractive strengths of the two eyes) in 49% of participants, strabismus (a squint) in 23%, both of these factors in 17%, and visual deprivation in 2%. 3 patients (2%) had relative amblyopia due to a traumatic cataract sustained in early childhood. 7% of the participants with amblyopia had binocular amblyopia. This study yielded a prevalence figure of 5.6% for amblyopia in Germany-a higher figure than in other, comparable population-based studies, which have generally yielded figures of ca. 3% for visual acuity ≤ 0.63. The distribution of the causes of amblyopia is similar across studies.

  17. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Glind, Geurt; van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP

  18. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study : background, methods and study population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Glind, Geurt Van; Oortmerssen, Katelijne Van Emmerik-Van; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatseas, Melina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitany-Foeveny, Mate; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A.; Grp, Iasp Res; Van den Brink, Wim

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP

  19. A study of prevalence of nutritional anaemia and its correlates among the students of g.s.v.m. Medical college, kanpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kawan

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available To find out the prevalence of nutritional anaemia and to know the dietary factors and socio-demographic characteristics associated with nutritional anaemia.Design : Cross sectional studySetting : Deptt. of Community Medicine. G.S.V.M. Medical College. KanpurParticipants: Undergraduate Students of G.S. V.M. Medical College, KanpurStudy variable : Age. Sex. Social class. Dietary habits and Body Mass IndexStatistical Analysis : Percentage and Chi-square test

  20. STUDY OF PREVALENCE ON CORAL BLEACHING AND DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGHBERT ELVAN AMPOU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring nilai prevalence karang yang mengalarni pemutihan clan penyakit sangat perlu dilakukan secara intensiv di Indonesia yang juga masuk dalam kawasan CTI, informasi tentang hal ini boleh dikatakan relatif belum banyak dilakukan orang. Metode yang dipakai selama survey adalah time swim dimana dibagi pada 2 kedalaman ( 5 dan 10 meter selama 30 menit, untuk analisis data digunakan rum us prevalence. Nilai Prevalence karang yang mengalarni pemutihan dan penyakit di Raja Ampat pada kedalaman 5m=30,67%; 10m=23,50% di bulan November 2009. Taman Nasional Bunaken kedalaman 5m=55,47%; 10m=83,73% di bulan Agustus 2009 clan di Pulau Runduma-Taman Nasional kedalaman 5m=23,55%; 10m=50,94% di bulan Oktober 2009.Jenis karang yang dominan mengalami pemutihan clan penyakit adalah genus Porites clan Acropora, sedangkan tidak dominan adalah genus Pocillopora dan Montipora.

  1. Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria is a polyphagus fungus that occurs frequently on dead and decaying organic material and is responsible for causing leaf spot disease. In Indian subcontinent, there are different varieties of plants showing antimicrobial and other medicinal properties which can be employed in plant disease management to reduce ...

  2. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in Dehloran and Abdanan districts, Ilam ...

  3. Phytochemical Studies And Antioxidant Properties Of Four Medicinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the method used. The presence of active phytochemical substances with antioxidant activities may provide substantial basis for the use of these plants in ethnomedicine. Keywords: Phytochemicals, Antioxidant, Folin, FRAP, DPPH. African Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine Vol. 4 (4) 2007: pp. 495-500 ...

  4. Interdisciplinarity in Translational Medicine: A Bibliometric Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Translational research (TR) is the process of bringing innovations from basic science into applied science, usually referring to the practice of medicine. It has been assumed that cross-disciplinary collaboration, or interdisciplinarity research (IDR), is essential to translation. Yet there is a gap in the literature regarding the interaction…

  5. True prevalence of COPD and its association with peripheral arterial disease in the internal medicine ward of a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, Jonathan; Dumont, Philippe; Hayoz, Daniel

    2017-07-19

    The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in patients aged 45 years or more who were admitted to the internal medicine ward of our tertiary care hospital (HFR Fribourg, Switzerland), and were either "tagged" as having COPD or at risk for COPD. The secondary objective was to determine the prevalence of the association of COPD with peripheral artery disease (PAD) in this population. We evaluated all consecutive patients aged 45 years, admitted to our internal medicine ward between November 2013 and March 2014. All patients with a diagnosis of COPD, chronic bronchitis and/or lung emphysema in their electronic medical record ("tagged" as COPD) were evaluated for inclusion, as well as patients with at least one classic symptom and one classic risk factor for COPD identified by them on a check-list (patients at risk for COPD). Spirometry, and measurement of ankle-brachial index (ABI) and toe-brachial index when necessary, were performed in each patient once they were clinically stable. One hundred and seventy-two of 888 consecutive patients were included. COPD was found in 81 patients. Amongst the 75 patients tagged as COPD, 65 (87%) were actually suffering from COPD and 10 (13%) carried a false diagnosis. COPD was diagnosed in 16 (16%) of the 97 at-risk patients. PAD was identified in 35 (43%) of patients suffering from confirmed COPD and in 22 (24%) of patients without COPD. There was a significant association between COPD and PAD (p <0.01). COPD was identified in 9% of the 888 patients evaluated. The majority of patients tagged as COPD were accurately diagnosed and a substantial proportion of at-risk patients were underdiagnosed. A significant association between COPD and PAD was found. In smokers, spirometry showing COPD is a useful test to detect patients at higher cardiovascular risk. Thus, we suggest that screening for PAD using an ABI should be proposed to every smoker with confirmed COPD.

  6. Studying use and risks of medicines in children: a European approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. de Bie (Sandra)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years there has been increasing awareness on the gap in knowledge on the safety and efficacy of medicines used in children. The work as described in this thesis is based on large observational studies across Europe and aimed to study the use and risks of medicines in children

  7. The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dielissen, P.; Verdonk, P.; Waard, M.W.; Bottema, B.J.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP

  8. SelfMED: Self-Administration of Medication in Hospital: A Prevalence Study in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwesemael, Toke; Van Rompaey, Bart; Petrovic, Mirko; Boussery, Koen; Dilles, Tinne

    2017-05-01

    Self-management is a key element in regaining and maintaining health. However, during hospitalization it becomes less obvious. Patient self-administration of medication during hospitalization is suggested to be beneficial to patient satisfaction, adherence to pharmacotherapy, and self-care competence. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of self-administration of medication during hospitalization, and possible contributing factors. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 12 Belgian hospitals from February 2015 until June 2015. Data were collected on all hospitalized patients at 57 wards, based in 12 hospitals. A structured questionnaire at ward level and patient level on medication management, self-administration of medication, and rationale for prohibiting or allowing patients to self-administer their medication was conducted in consultation with the head nurse. Of the 1,269 patients participating in this study, 22% self-administered at least one medicine during hospitalization and 13.8% self-administered at least 50% of their total amount of medication. In the opinion of the head nurse, 40.9% of the hospitalized patients would have been able to self-administer their medication during hospitalization. Only a few wards had an available procedure and screening tool to assess the competence of the patients to self-administer their medication. This did not affect the prevalence of self-administration. Self-administration occurred significantly more at surgical short-stay wards, compared to other wards. The self-administering patients were on average younger and female and had a lower number of different medications per day before and during hospitalization. These patients had a good health status and were independent to mildly dependent on nurses on the ward. Related factors were used to provide a multivariate logistic regression model. Sometimes self-administration of medication was allowed. According to the surveyed nurses, however, more

  9. Treatment of deep vein thrombosis from Iranian traditional medicine and modern medicine points of view: comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Recently, deep vein thrombosis (DVT has remained a major cause of morbidity and death. DVT is a serious public health issue and can be complicated by pulmonary embolism and stroke leading to high economic burden. Disease etiologies may include protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, factor V Leiden gene mutation, prothrombin gene 20210A mutation, antithrombin III deficiency, immobilization, malignancy, nephrotic syndrome, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, estrogen use, pregnancy and hyperhomocystinemia. From Iranian traditional medicine (ITM point of view, increased blood viscosity is the main cause of DVT. In this study, treatment of DVT has been investigated in ITM comparing with modern medicine. Methods: All data for this review were obtained by search engines such as Google Scholar, Pub Med, SID, and Iranmedex using key words including “deep vein thrombosis” and “treatment”. Results: At present, there is no definite cure for the treatment of DVT in modern medicine and usually anticoagulant drugs such as, low-molecular-weight heparin, unfractionated heparin and warfarin, inferior vena cava filters, catheter-directed thrombolytic therapy and hybrid operative thrombectomy, are recommended; however, herbal remedies have attracted lots of attention and in this regard, sumac (Rhus coriaria, garlic (Allium sativum, turmeric (Curcuma longa and barberry Berberis vulgaris (have been found effective for the treatment of DVT which have been frequently recommended in ITM. Conclusion: In this study, some useful dietary strategies have been presented for the management of DVT which can be helpful for further drug discovery developments.

  10. Visualization studies on evidence-based medicine domain knowledge (series 3): visualization for dissemination of evidence based medicine information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiantong; Yao, Leye; Li, Youping; Clarke, Mike; Gan, Qi; Li, Yifei; Fan, Yi; Gou, Yongchao; Wang, Li

    2011-05-01

    To identify patterns in information sharing between a series of Chinese evidence based medicine (EBM) journals and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, to determine key evidence dissemination areas for EBM and to provide a scientific basis for improving the dissemination of EBM research. Data were collected on citing and cited from the Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine (CJEBM), Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine (JEBMc), Chinese Journal of Evidence Based Pediatrics (CJEBP), and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Relationships between citations were visualized. High-frequency key words from these sources were identified, to build a word co-occurrence matrix and to map research subjects. CDSR contains a large collection of information of relevance to EBM and its contents are widely cited across many journals, suggesting a well-developed citation environment. The content and citation of the Chinese journals have been increasing in recent years. However, their citation environments are much less developed, and there is a wide variation in the breadth and strength of their knowledge communication, with the ranking from highest to lowest being CJEBM, JEBMc and CJEBP. The content of CDSR is almost exclusively Cochrane intervention reviews examining the effects of healthcare interventions, so it's contribution to EBM is mostly in disease control and treatment. On the other hand, the Chinese journals on evidence-based medicine and practice focused more on areas such as education and research, design and quality of clinical trials, evidence based policymaking, evidence based clinical practice, tumor treatment, and pediatrics. Knowledge and findings of EBM are widely communicated and disseminated. However, citation environments and range of knowledge communication differ greatly between the journals examined in this study. This finds that Chinese EBM has focused mainly on clinical medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine, pediatrics, tumor

  11. Studies on the Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ogun State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: The assessment of the extent and distribution of Schistosoma infection in every region in Nigeria is important and required for formulating intervention strategies suitable for each endemic area. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis in Ogun State, South-West Nigeria. METHODS: ...

  12. A longitudinal study of the prevalence of gingival bleeding among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of gingival bleeding following gentle periodontal probing during pregnancy as compared to after child birth in the same set of women. Method: Three hundred and eighty-four consecutive pregnant women in third trimester were selected at the antenatal clinics of Adeoyo Maternity ...

  13. A retrospective study on prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    emergence of drug resistant pathogens now. Objective: To determine the prevalence and drug susceptibility patterns of bacterial pathogens involved in urinary tract infections within the last three years, January 1st 2008 to December 30th 2010 in Tikur Anbesa Specialized. Teaching Hospital of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

  14. Studies on the Prevalence of Trichomoniasis among Women in Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Under occupation, business women recorded highest, 19(6.3%)prevalence rate, students rated 4(1.3%) among others. Vaginal discharge rated highest, (81%) among other observable clinical symptoms associated with the disease as recorded in the survey. The findings regarding the disease deserve some quick response ...

  15. Strategies parents use to give children oral medicine: a qualitative study of online discussion forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergene, Elin Høien; Rø, Torstein Baade; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe strategies parents use to give oral medicine to children. We conducted an Internet-based qualitative study of posts from online forums where parents discussed how to give children oral medicine. The posts were analyzed using systematic text condensation. The investigators coded and developed groups iteratively, ending up with a consensus on final themes. We included 4581 posts. Parents utilized three main strategies to give oral medicine to children: (1) Open administration give medicine to the child knowingly by changing the palatability, actively involve the child in play or use persuasion; (2) Hidden administration give medicine to the child unknowingly by camouflaging it in food, while sleeping or distracted by another activity; (3) Forced administration force children to take medicine with the use of restraint. Parents expressed three perspectives towards using force: Finding it unproblematic, using force despite not liking it or refusing to use force. No single strategy was described as the obvious first choice, and the strategies were not used in any particular order. Parents who gave up getting their child to ingest the medicine reported to contact the prescriber for a different medication, or stopped the treatment completely. The three strategies are a robust and precise way to categorize techniques used by parents to give children oral medicine. We suggest that health professionals use the strategies to talk to parents and children about administration of oral medicines.

  16. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M.; Noori, Hamid R.; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S.; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M.

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents

  17. Worldwide prevalence of hypospadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, A; van den Heijkant, M; Baumann, S

    2016-06-01

    Hypospadias is a common congenital malformation. Surgical repair and management of the long-term consequences require a substantial amount of socioeconomic resources. It is generally accepted that genetic and environmental factors play a major role in the etiology of hypospadias. There have been contradictory reports on rising hypospadias rates, and regional and ethnical differences. The exact prevalence of hypospadias is of major interest for healthcare providers, clinical medicine, and research. To review the literature regarding the worldwide prevalence of hypospadias. Pubmed, EMBASE and Google were systematically screened for: hypospadias, congenital malformation, anomaly, incidence, prevalence, and epidemiology. Exclusion criteria were surgical and risk-factor studies. To give an additional comprehensive overview, prevalence data were harvested from the Annual Report of the International Clearinghouse Centre for Birth Defects Surveillance and Research. Prevalence was reported as per 10,000 live births. Data were available from 1910 to 2013. The median study period was 9 years (range: 1-36 years). Approximately 90,255,200 births have been screened in all studies. The mean prevalence were: Europe 19.9 (range: 1-464), North America 34.2 (6-129.8), South America 5.2 (2.8-110), Asia 0.6-69, Africa 5.9 (1.9-110), and Australia 17.1-34.8. There were major geographical, regional, and ethnical differences, with an extreme heterogeneity of published studies. Numerous studies showed an increasing prevalence; on the other hand, there were a lot of contradictory data on the prevalence of hypospadias. The summary table shows contradictory data from the five largest international studies available. There was huge literature available on the prevalence of hypospadias. Most data derived from Europe and North America. Many methodological factors influenced the calculation of an accurate prevalence, and even more of the true changes in prevalence over time (no generally accepted

  18. Prevalence of bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment among trainees and Fellows of the College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Bala; Corke, Charlie; Raper, Raymond; Pinder, Mary; Stephens, Dianne; Joynt, Gavin; Morley, Peter; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Bevan, Rob; Freebairn, Ross; Varghese, Benoj; Ashbolt, Michael; Hawker, Felicity; Jacobe, Stephen; Yong, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    Anecdotal reports about bullying behaviour in intensive care emerged during College of Intensive Care Medicine (CICM) hospital accreditation visits. Bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment (BDSH) in the medical profession, particularly in surgery, were widely reported in the media recently. This prompted the College to formally survey its Fellows and trainees to identify the prevalence of these behaviours in the intensive care workplace. An online survey of all trainees (n = 951) and Fellows (n = 970) of the CICM. The survey response rate was 51% (Fellows, 60%; trainees, 41%). The overall prevalences of bullying, discrimination and sexual harassment were 32%, 12% and 3%, respectively. The proportions of Fellows and trainees who reported being bullied and discriminated against were similar across all age groups. Women reported a greater prevalence of sexual harassment (odds ratio [OR], 2.97 [95% CI, 1.35-6.51]; P = 0.006) and discrimination (OR, 2.10 [95% CI, 1.39-3.17]; P = 0.0004) than men. Respondents who obtained their primary medical qualification in Asia or Africa appeared to have been at increased risk of discrimination (OR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.15-3.05]; P = 0.03). Respondents who obtained their degree in Australia, New Zealand or Hong Kong may have been at increased risk of being bullied. In all three domains of unprofessional behaviour, the perpetrators were predominantly consultants (70% overall), and the highest proportion of these was ICU consultants. The occurrence of BDSH appears to be common in the intensive care environment in Australia and New Zealand.

  19. [Quality standard study on Tibetan medicine Gentianae Urnulae Herba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Liu-liu; Luo, Gui-fa; Wu, Li-hong; Wang, Zheng-tao; Chou, Gui-xin; Liu, Hai-qing

    2015-10-01

    Gentianae Urnulae Herba, dried whole herb of Gentiana urnula,is a commonly used Tibetan medicine. However, only the character identification is used as quality control standard officially at present. As a part of project for the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2015 edition), the quality standard of this species was established in this study. The tests of water content, total ash, acid-insoluble ash and ethanol-soluble extractives of the crude drugs were carried out following the methods recorded in appendix of Chinese Pharmacopeia (2010 edition, volume 1). The TLC identification method was established by using gentiournoside A as reference substance, and a mixture of ethyl acetate-methanol-water-formic acid(7:1. 5:1: 0. 2) as the developing solvent system on silica gel G TLC plate. The content of gentiournoside A was assayed by HPLC on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm,5 μm) column, using acetonitrile-water (0.1% phosphoric acid) (26:74) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The column temperature is at 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength is at 240 nm. As a result, gentiournoside A and the other constituents were separated and presented the same fluorescence light comparing with the reference substance on TLC detected under the UV light(366 nm). The methodology validation for the assay of gentiournoside A showed that it was in a good linear correlation in the range of 0.009 95-0.398 g x L(-1) with the regression equation of Y = 1 467.1X +41.407(r = 0.999 9), and the average recovery was 98. 3% (RSD 2.2%). The mass fractions of gentiournoside A, water content, ethanol-soluble extractives of 15 batches samples were varied in the ranges of 0.175% -1.83%, 8.60% - 9.93% and 29.2% - 35.2%, respectively. Total ash and acid-insoluble ash were 10.2% - 17.2% and 5.26% - 10.8% detected from 10 batches samples. The recommended standards of quantitative indexes are that the mass fractions of gentiournoside A and extractives are not less than 0.80% and 26

  20. PREVALENCE OF DENTAL FLUOROSIS: A CASE STUDY OF THE GOVERNMENT SECONDARY SCHHOOL, OGBIA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ephraim-Emmanuel, Benson Chukwunweike; Dotimi, Doris Atibinye; Kei, Bodisere Opuowei; Joshua, Respect Isaiah

    2013-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in certain parts of the globe has been found to be increasing. In contrast to these prevalence reports in these areas, there is little or no systematic epidemiological study evaluating dental fluorosis in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. We thus studied the prevalence of dental fluorosis among school children in Ogbia town, Ogbia local government of Bayelsa state, Nigeria and evaluated the role played by potential risk factors. Method: A cross-section...

  1. Observations of veterinary medicine students' approaches to study in pre-clinical years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Marion T; Irwin, Jane A; Bannon, Finian J; Mulholland, Clive W; Baird, Alan W

    2004-01-01

    This study has two purposes. The first is to explore an instrument of evaluation of the approaches to study (deep, strategic, and surface) adopted by students in the pre-clinical years of their veterinary degree program. The second is to examine relationships between these approaches and a broad range of further factors deemed relevant to the veterinary medicine context. We envisage that a greater knowledge of how these students learn will aid curriculum reform in a way that will enrich the learning experience of veterinary students. A questionnaire consisting of the 52-question Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI) and an additional 49 questions relating mainly to teaching, assessment, and study skills was distributed to 215 veterinary medicine (MVB) students in their pre-clinical years of study. Factor analysis was used to ensure that the ASI section of the questionnaire maintained previously reported structure. The internal reliability of the approaches measured was tested using Cronbach alpha analysis. The approaches were described as frequency distributions. Associations between the parameters (deep, strategic, and surface) and 49 additional context-specific factors were investigated using loglinear analysis. (1) Factor analysis revealed that the integrity and structure of the instrument in this context was generally comparable to previous studies. (2) The impact of a high workload was evident in the surface approach, with fear of failure becoming a strong motivating factor and syllabus boundness a widely used strategy. (3) Associations made between the approaches and 49 context-specific factors showed strong associations between both workload and lack of prior knowledge with the surface approach. (4) Grades were associated positively with both the deep and strategic approaches but negatively with the surface approach. (5) A range of learning and study skills were associated positively with the deep and strategic approaches and negatively with the surface

  2. Herbal medicine for hospitalized patients with severe depressive episode: a retrospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan-Ying; Feng, Bin; Chen, Jiong; Tan, Qing-Rong; Chen, Zheng-Xin; Chen, Wen-Song; Wang, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicine is increasingly used in depressed patients. The purpose of this retrospective controlled study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of herbal medicine treatment of severe depressive episode. A total of 146 severely depressed subjects were selected from patients who were admitted to the Department of Psychosomatics of Tongde Hospital at Hangzhou, China between 1st September 2009 and 30th November 2013. While all were medicated with psychotropic drugs, 78 received additional individualized herbal medicine. The severity of depressive symptoms was measured using 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-24) at admission and thereafter once weekly during hospital stay. The proportion of patients achieving clinical response and remission and incidence of adverse events were compared. The two groups had similar average length of hospital stay for approximately 28 days and were not different in the use of psychotropic medications. Survival analysis revealed that patients with herbal medicine had significantly higher chance of achieving clinical response [relative risk (RR)=2.179, Pherbal medicine. Patients with herbal medicine experienced remarkably fewer incidences of physical tiredness, headache, palpitation, dry mouth and constipation, but had a significantly higher incidence of digestive discomfort compared to patients without herbal medicine. These results indicate that additional treatment with individualized herbal medicine enhances antidepressant response and reduces certain side effects associated with psychotropic medications. Herbal medicine is an effective and relatively safe therapy for severe depressive episode (Trial Registration: ChiCTR-OCH-13003864). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Research studies on patients' illness experience using the Narrative Medicine approach: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Chiara; Mazzocco, Ketti; Riva, Silvia; Oliveri, Serena; Masiero, Marianna; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-07-14

    Since its birth about 30 years ago, Narrative Medicine approach has increased in popularity in the medical context as well as in other disciplines. This paper aims to review Narrative Medicine research studies on patients' and their caregivers' illness experience. MEDLINE, Psycinfo, EBSCO Psychological and Behavioural Science, The Cochrane Library and CINAHL databases were searched to identify all the research studies which focused on the Narrative Medicine approach reported in the title, in the abstract and in the keywords the words 'Narrative Medicine' or 'Narrative-based Medicine'. number of participants, type of disease, race and age of participants, type of study, dependent variables, intervention methods, assessment. Of the 325 titles screened, we identified 10 research articles fitting the inclusion criteria. Our systematic review showed that research on Narrative Medicine has no common specific methodology: narrative in Medicine is used as an intervention protocol as well as an assessment tool. Patients' characteristics, types of disease and data analysis procedures differ among the screened studies. Narrative Medicine research in medical practice needs to find clear and specific protocols to deepen the impact of narrative on medical practice and on patients' lives. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of the Agadir Ida Ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The collected data may help to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants detained in the study area, and represent the preliminary information required in view of a future phytochemical investigation on the most used plants. Key words: Ethnobotanical survey, medicinal plants, phytotherapy, ...

  5. Practical Indication-Based Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Studies: Update and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, Neha S; Sarma, Asha; Lee, Edward Y

    2017-07-01

    Pediatric nuclear medicine imaging presents unique challenges and requires a thorough understanding of the patients' developmental stages and physiology to optimize study protocols. This article provides an overview of the current practice of diagnostic pediatric nuclear medicine, including the common clinical applications and imaging protocol considerations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of Prevalence Studies of Tic Disorders: Methodological Caveats

    OpenAIRE

    Cubo, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tic disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood associated with psychiatric comorbidity and academic problems. Estimating the prevalence and understanding the epidemiology of tic disorders is more complex than was once thought. Until fairly recently, tic disorders were thought to be rare, but today tics are believed to be the most common movement disorder, with 0.2–46.3% of schoolchildren experiencing tics during their lifetime. Tentative explanations fo...

  7. Prevalence and molecular study of G6PD deficiency in Malaysian Orang Asli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, F; Ismail, E; Zilfalil, B-A

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to define the prevalence and the molecular basis of G6PD deficiency in the Negrito tribe of the Malaysian Orang Asli. Four hundred and eighty seven consenting Negrito volunteers were screened for G6PD deficiency through the use of a fluorescent spot test. DNA from deficient individuals underwent PCR-RFLP analysis using thirteen recognized G6PD mutations. In the instances when the mutation could not be identified by PCR-RFLP, the entire coding region of the G6PD gene was subjected to DNA sequencing. In total, 9% (44/486) of the sample were found to be G6PD-deficient. However, only 25 samples were subjected to PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing. Of these, three were found to carry Viangchan, one Coimbra and 16, a combination of C1311T in exon 11 and IVS11 T93C. Mutation(s) for the five remaining samples are unknown. The mean G6PD enzyme activity ranged 5.7 IU/gHb in deficient individuals. Our results demonstrate that the frequency of G6PD deficiency is higher among the Negrito Orang Asli than other Malaysian races. The dual presence of C1311T and IVS11 T93C in 64% of the deficient individuals (16/44) could well be a result of genetic drift within this isolated group. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  8. Why people use herbal medicine: insights from a focus-group study in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welz, Alexandra N; Emberger-Klein, Agnes; Menrad, Klaus

    2018-03-15

    The use of herbal medicine, as one element of complementary and alternative medicine, is increasing worldwide. Little is known about the reasons for and factors associated with its use. This study derives insights for the use of herbal medicine in Germany regarding the usage aims, role played by the type of illness, reasons for preferred usage and sources of information. Using a qualitative methodological approach, six focus groups (n = 46) were conducted. Two groups with young, middle-aged and elderly participants, respectively. After audiotaping and verbatim transcription, the data were analysed with a qualitative content analysis. We found that treating illnesses was the most frequently discussed aim for using herbal medicine over all age groups. Preventing illnesses and promoting health were less frequently mentioned overall, but were important for elderly people. Discussions on herbal medicine were associated with either mild/moderate diseases or using herbal medicine as a starting treatment before applying conventional medicine. In this context, participants emphasized the limits of herbal medicine for severe illnesses. Dissatisfaction with conventional treatment, past good experiences, positive aspects associated with herbal medicine, as well as family traditions were the most commonly-mentioned reasons why herbal medicine was preferred as treatment. Concerning information sources, independent reading and family traditions were found to be equally or even more important than consulting medicinal experts. Although herbal medicine is used mostly for treating mild to moderate illnesses and participants were aware of its limits, the combination of self-medication, non-expert consultation and missing risk awareness of herbal medicine is potentially harmful. This is particularly relevant for elderly users as, even though they appeared to be more aware of health-related issues, they generally use more medicine compared to younger ones. In light of our finding

  9. Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma. The aim of this Canadian study was to describe users’ perceptions of and responses to the stigma attached to using CTP. Methods Twenty-three individuals who were using CTP for a range of health problems took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcribed data were analyzed using an inductive approach and comparative strategies to explore participants’ perceptions of CTP and identify themes. Results Participant experiences of stigma were related to negative views of cannabis as a recreational drug, the current criminal sanctions associated with cannabis use, and using cannabis in the context of stigmatizing vulnerability (related to existing illness and disability. Strategies for managing the resulting stigma of using CTP included: keeping CTP ‘undercover’; educating those who did not approve of or understand CTP use; and using cannabis responsibly. Conclusions Understanding how individuals perceive and respond to stigma can inform the development of strategies aimed at reducing stigma associated with the use of CTP and thereby address barriers faced by those using this medicine.

  10. Role of stress in burnout among students of medicine and dentistry--a study in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Faculty of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogoj, Tina Krokter; Cebašek-Travnik, Zdenka; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana

    2014-09-01

    Medical education is challenging, but for some students it can be very stressful. Studies suggest that stress during medical education can have a negative impact on students' mental health and that burnout is frequent among medical school students. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among students of medicine/dentistry (M/D) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in relation to their perception of stress, so as to enable planning preventative activities for students at risk. The data were collected in a cross-sectional study, carried out in spring 2008 among the total population of MID students of 1St, 3rd, 4th and 6th year, using a self-administered online questionnaire. Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (OLBI) instrument was used. Separate burnout scores were calculated for the exhaustion and disengagement dimensions of burnout, and related to students'perception of stress. Multiple linear regression method was carried out to adjust the association estimates for several potential confounders (gender, study program, relationship status, and grade). The overall response rate was 47.2%, and a total of 476 students participated. Students scored higher on exhaustion than on disengagement dimension--the mean value of burnout scores on the exhaustion dimension scale was -1.68, while it was -4.58 on the disengagement dimension scale. The results showed a statistically significant difference between high and low risk-for-stress groups of students in both burnout dimensions (average value of burnout scores on the exhaustion scale: high risk-for-stress group -3.69, low risk-for-stress group 0.19, pburnout scores on the disengagement scale: high risk-for-stress group -5.57, low risk-for-stress group -3.65, pburnout subscales remained almost unchanged. Results confirmed our hypothesis that M/D students of Ljubljana Faculty of Medicine who frequently experience stress (especially those with poor coping mechanisms), exhibit higher degree of burnout.

  11. [Study on pharmacologic action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian based on medicinal properties combinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong-Ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties. By collecting data about traditional Chinese medicinal properties recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005 Edition), literature and data about pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines recorded in the Chinese Materia Medica, by using the method of association rules, the authors dug pharmacological effect rules corresponds to relevant medicinal property combinations, with the medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian as the target. It was found that either obvious different pharmacological effects or identical pharmacological characteristics existed in traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian. With the aim to explore the correlations between traditional Chinese medicine medicinal properties and pharmacological effects, the authors linked the traditional Chinese medicine theory with modern research achievements, in order to provide the ideas and methods for interpreting mechanisms of medicinal properties.

  12. Factors affecting nebulised medicine adherence in adult patients with cystic fibrosis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Alice; Bonney, Mary-Ann; Brien, Jo-Anne; Karamy, Rita; Aslani, Parisa

    2015-02-01

    Nebulised medicines contribute to the high treatment burden experienced by patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This study explored experiences of adult patients with CF when using nebulised medicines, factors impacting on their adherence to nebulised therapy and strategies they used to facilitate adherence. Community setting, in Sydney, Australia. Ten patients with CF were recruited through a CF patient organisation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted, addressing the study objectives. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and content analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. Experiences with using nebulised medicines; and barriers and facilitators of adherence to nebulised medicines. Participants' age ranged from 22 to 45 years, with half being male. Four broad themes (with more specific sub-themes) were identified from the interviews: experiences with using nebulised medicines (cleaning nebuliser, time taken to use nebuliser medicine, flexibility in use of nebuliser); feelings about using nebulised medicines (necessary/important, dislike, part of life); factors impacting non-adherence (time consuming therapy, side effects/effects of medicine, work/social demands, lack of perceived importance); factors and strategies facilitating adherence (perceived medicine importance, habit/routine, support, health benefits, technology/medicine dose form, timetabling). Nebulised therapy for cystic fibrosis patients takes a substantial amount of time, with patients trying to alter their routine to incorporate nebulising into their daily lives. However there are still many factors that lead to low adherence, including work/social demands and travelling. Patients balance the necessity for nebulised therapy against the barriers, and engage in intentional non-adherence at times. Future strategies and resources should target and address specific factors identified by patients with CF as being important and impacting their adherence to nebulised

  13. Associations between subspecialty fellowship interest and knowledge of internal medicine: A hypothesis-generating study of internal medicine residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidet Paul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about whether and how medical knowledge relates to interest in subspecialty fellowship training. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between residents' interest in subspecialty fellowship training and their knowledge of internal medicine (IM. Methods A questionnaire was emailed to 48 categorical postgraduate-year (PGY two and three residents at a New York university-affiliated IM residency program in 2007 using the Survey Monkey online survey instrument. Overall and content area-specific percentile scores from the IM in-training examination (IM-ITE for the same year was used to determine objective knowledge. Results Forty-five of 48 residents (response rate was 93.8% completed the survey. Twenty-two (49% were PG2 residents and 23(51% were PGY3 residents. Sixty percent of respondents were male. Six (13% residents were graduates of U.S. medical schools. Eight (18% reported formal clinical training prior to starting internal medicine residency in the U.S. Of this latter group, 6 (75% had training in IM and 6 (75 % reported a training length of 3 years or less. Thirty-seven of 45 (82% residents had a subspecialty fellowship interest. Residents with a fellowship interest had a greater mean overall objective knowledge percentile score (56.44 vs. 31.67; p = 0.04 as well as greater mean percentile scores in all content areas of IM. The adjusted mean difference was statistically significant (p Conclusions More than half of surveyed residents indicated interest in pursuing a subspecialty fellowship. Fellowship interest appears positively associated with general medical knowledge in this study population. Further work is needed to explore motivation and study patterns among internal medicine residents.

  14. A school-based study of irritable bowel syndrome in medical students in beijing, china: prevalence and some related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Yi; He, Yuxi; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Miao; Chen, Shuo; Yao, Shukun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and some related factors about irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in medical students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2014 to Jun 2014 in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. All participants were asked to completed self-administered questionnaires. Results. Seven hundred and sixty-seven medical students (23.26 ± 2.88 years, 25.6% males) completed the survey. The prevalence of IBS was 33.3%, with a high prevalence in women (36.1%). Among the IBS patients, 112 cases were IBS-M (43.9%) and 77.6% had moderately severe IBS. There were no statistical differences between control group and IBS patients in anxiety and depression scores (P > 0.05). The total score of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was significantly higher for medical students with IBS and 35.5% of IBS patients had severe sleep disorder; the scores of child trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and student-life stress inventory (SLSI) were also higher in IBS patients. Sex and sleep disorder were independently associated with IBS (OR, 1.914, 95%CI, 1.281-2.860; OR, 1.143, 95%CI, 1.074-1.216). Conclusion. Our study has many valuable findings and they may provide valuable suggestions for the necessary intervention and treatment measures towards medical students.

  15. A School-Based Study of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Medical Students in Beijing, China: Prevalence and Some Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and some related factors about irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in medical students. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2014 to Jun 2014 in Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China. All participants were asked to completed self-administered questionnaires. Results. Seven hundred and sixty-seven medical students (23.26±2.88 years, 25.6% males completed the survey. The prevalence of IBS was 33.3%, with a high prevalence in women (36.1%. Among the IBS patients, 112 cases were IBS-M (43.9% and 77.6% had moderately severe IBS. There were no statistical differences between control group and IBS patients in anxiety and depression scores (P>0.05. The total score of Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI was significantly higher for medical students with IBS and 35.5% of IBS patients had severe sleep disorder; the scores of child trauma questionnaire (CTQ and student-life stress inventory (SLSI were also higher in IBS patients. Sex and sleep disorder were independently associated with IBS (OR, 1.914, 95%CI, 1.281–2.860; OR, 1.143, 95%CI, 1.074–1.216. Conclusion. Our study has many valuable findings and they may provide valuable suggestions for the necessary intervention and treatment measures towards medical students.

  16. Prevalence and incidence of epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiest, Kirsten M; Sauro, Khara M; Wiebe, Samuel; Patten, Scott B; Kwon, Churl-Su; Dykeman, Jonathan; Pringsheim, Tamara; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Jetté, Nathalie

    2017-01-17

    To review population-based studies of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy worldwide and use meta-analytic techniques to explore factors that may explain heterogeneity between estimates. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses standards were followed. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles published on the prevalence or incidence of epilepsy since 1985. Abstract, full-text review, and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate. Meta-analyses and meta-regressions were used to explore the association between prevalence or incidence, age group, sex, country level income, and study quality. A total of 222 studies were included (197 on prevalence, 48 on incidence). The point prevalence of active epilepsy was 6.38 per 1,000 persons (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 5.57-7.30), while the lifetime prevalence was 7.60 per 1,000 persons (95% CI 6.17-9.38). The annual cumulative incidence of epilepsy was 67.77 per 100,000 persons (95% CI 56.69-81.03) while the incidence rate was 61.44 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 50.75-74.38). The prevalence of epilepsy did not differ by age group, sex, or study quality. The active annual period prevalence, lifetime prevalence, and incidence rate of epilepsy were higher in low to middle income countries. Epilepsies of unknown etiology and those with generalized seizures had the highest prevalence. This study provides a comprehensive synthesis of the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy from published international studies and offers insight into factors that contribute to heterogeneity between estimates. Significant gaps (e.g., lack of incidence studies, stratification by age groups) were identified. Standardized reporting of future epidemiologic studies of epilepsy is needed. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Snake bites in Nigeria: A study of the prevalence and treatment in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Although snake bites occur frequently in Benin City, the prevalence has not been documented. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and the orthodox treatment of victims. Methods: The study was retrospective and data on victims of snake bite covering a period of twenty ...

  18. Social disparities in the prevalence of multimorbidity - A register-based population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Michaela L; Stockmarr, Anders; Høst, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Prevalences of multimorbidity vary between European studies and several methods and definitions are used. In this study we examine the prevalence of multimorbidity in relation to age, gender and educational attainment and the association between physical and mental health conditions and educational...

  19. Change in the prevalence of obesity and use of health care in Denmark: an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cathrine Wildenschild; Kjøller, Mette; Sabroe, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the increasing prevalence of obesity on the development of health care utilization in Denmark in the period 1987-2005.......The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the increasing prevalence of obesity on the development of health care utilization in Denmark in the period 1987-2005....

  20. Use of complementary and alternative medicines by a sample of Turkish women for infertility enhancement: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolusari Ali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infertility patients are a vulnerable group that often seeks a non-medical solution for their failure to conceive. World-wide, women use CAM for productive health, but only a limited number of studies report on CAM use to enhance fertility. Little is known about traditional and religious forms of therapies that are used in relation to conventional medicine in Turkey. We investigated the prevalence and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM used by infertile Turkish women for fertility enhancement. Methods A face-to-face questionnaire inquiring demographic information and types of CAM used for fertility enhancement were completed by hundred infertility patients admitted to a primary care family planning centre in Van, Turkey between January and July 2009. Results The vast majority of infertile women had used CAM at least once for infertility. CAM use included religious interventions, herbal products and recommendations of traditional "hodja's" (faith healers. Of these women, 87.8% were abused in the last 12 months, 36.6% felt not being supported by her partner and 80.5% had never spoken with a physician about CAM. Conclusions Infertile Turkish women use complementary medicine frequently for fertility enhancement and are in need of information about CAM. Religious and traditional therapies are used as an adjunct to, rather than a substitute for, conventional medical therapy. Physicians need to approach fertility patients with sensitivity and should be able to council their patients about CAM accordingly.

  1. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mina; Moles, Rebekah; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty

    2018-01-01

    Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements". We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. Adoption and

  2. Medicine procurement in hospital pharmacies of Nepal: A qualitative study based on the Basel Statements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Shrestha

    Full Text Available Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements".We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements.Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none.Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal

  3. Complementary and alternative medicines and childhood eczema: a US population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lee-Wong, Mary; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in US children with eczema is unknown. Furthermore, it is unknown whether CAM use in the United States is associated with higher eczema prevalence. We sought to determine the eczema prevalence in association with CAM usage. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey that included a nationally representative sample of 9417 children ages 0 to 17 years. Overall, 46.9% (95% confidence interval, 45.6%-48.2%) of children in the United States used 1 or more CAM, of which 0.99% (0.28%-1.71%) used CAM specifically to treat their eczema, including herbal therapy (0.46%), vitamins (0.33%), Ayurveda (0.28%), naturopathy (0.24%), homeopathy (0.20%), and traditional healing (0.12%). Several CAMs used for other purposes were associated with increased eczema prevalence, including herbal therapy (survey logistic regression; adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval], 2.07 [1.40-3.06]), vitamins (1.45 [1.21-1.74]), homeopathic therapy (2.94 [1.43-6.00]), movement techniques (3.66 [1.62-8.30]), and diet (2.24 [1.10-4.58]), particularly vegan diet (2.53 [1.17-5.51]). In conclusion, multiple CAMs are commonly used for the treatment of eczema in US children. However, some CAMs may actually be harmful to the skin and be associated with higher eczema prevalence in the United States.

  4. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  5. Comparative study of heavy metals in some selected medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chigbogu MADUBUIKE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like Pb, Co, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ca, Mg, and Mn were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such Asam paya, Okoubaka aubrevellei, Clove and Vitex doniana leaves by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The results showed differences in metal concentrations in the investigated medicinal plants. The concentration of Pb ranged from 0.05 -0.29mg/kg on dry wet basis, where as that of Co ranged from 0.04-0.05mg/kg. Fe concentration ranged from 0.11-0.52mg/kg, Zn from 0.03-0.48mg/kg, Cu from 0.32-0.98mg/kg, Cd from 0.30-0.46mg/kg, Cr from 0.02-0.09mg/kg, Ca from 0.21-0.81mg/kg, Mg from 0.12-1.40mg/kg, while Mn from 0.02-0.95 mg/kg respectively. The results indicated that all the investigated heavy metals were below the WHO permissible limit except in Okoubaka sample which showed higher concentration of Mg that is above permissible limit of WHO.

  6. A Review Study on the Effect of Iranian Herbal Medicines on Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimie, Marzieh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh

    2015-10-01

    Addiction is a chronic and recurring disease that recurrence phenomenon is the most important challenge in treatment of this disease. Recent experiences have shown that synthetic drugs have undesirable side effects. Recent studies on medicinal plants have shown that they might be effective in treatment of different stages of addiction with lower side effects and costs. The aim of this study was to review the effects of medicinal plants in the treatment of morphine addiction in experimental animals. In this review article, by using keywords of morphine, withdrawal, and plants or herbal medicine in databases of indexing cites, desired articles were obtained since 1994. Inclusion criteria for selecting articles were the articles related to application of medicinal plants in decreasing symptoms resulting from morphine withdrawal were selected. Results of this study on experimental studies have shown that medicinal plants such as Trachyspermum copticum L and Melissa officinalis decrease the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in a dose-dependent. Also, medicinal plants like Avena sativa, Hypericum perforatu, Passiflora incarnate, Valeriana officinalis, Satureja hortensis L, and Mentha piperita can have effects on behavior, emotions, and other problems of addicts, decreasing withdrawal symptoms. Results of this study showed that medicinal plants can be effective in controlling deprivation, decreasing dependency creation, and possibly DETOXIFICATION: of opioid addicts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Prevalence of otologic symptoms in temperomandibular disorders: 126 case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Pascoal, Maria I. N.; Rapoport, Abrão; Chagas, José F. S.; Pascoal, Maria B.N.; Costa, Claudiney C.; Magna, Luis Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Introdução: A presença de sintomas otológicos associados à desordem temporomandibular (DTM) é discutida há seis décadas; entretanto, sua etiologia ainda permanece obscura. Forma de estudo: Prospectivo clínico randomizado. Objetivo: Neste estudo foram avaliadas a prevalência de sintomas otológicos na DTM, sua correlação com a dor muscular e a ausência de dentes posteriores. Material e Método: Foram avaliados 126 pacientes portadores de DTM, através de questionário subjetivo dos sintomas, palpa...

  8. Characteristics of Herbal Medicine Users and Adverse Events Experienced in South Korea: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Soobin; Kim, Kyeong Han; Sun, Seung-Ho; Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Jang, Bo-Hyoung; Shin, Yong-Cheol; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    Background. This survey aimed to investigate the characteristics of users and nonusers of herbal medicine and the adverse events experienced due to herbal medicines in South Korea. Methods. The questionnaire consisted of safety, using experience, using type, usage and nonusage reason, purchase location, and adverse events of herbal medicine. The survey was administered by online. Results. Of the total 1,134 respondents, 726 (64.0%) considered herbal medicine safe, and 693 (61.1%) answered that they have taken herbal medicines within the past year. Most common place to purchase them was "TKM hospital or clinic" (63.6%), and most participants (72.2%) took a decoction from a TKM institution. The biggest reason for taking them was for "health improvement" (57.3%), and the reasons for not using them was "medication not necessary" (63.7%). Among those who took herbal medicines, 46 experienced adverse events, and the most frequently reported symptoms were digestive disorders (52.2%). Of the 46 participants who experienced adverse events, 20 (43.5%) were treated by TKM doctors. Conclusions. This study suggests that regulation of herbal medicines is needed in order to resolve problems related to the safety of herbal medicines.

  9. Prevalence and complications of hypouricemia in a general population: A large-scale cross-sectional study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Masanari; Niwa, Koichiro; Ohtahara, Akira; Hamada, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Mizuta, Einosuke; Ogino, Kazuhide; Hisatome, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Hypouricemia was reported as a risk factor for exercise-induced acute renal injury (EIAKI) and urinary stones. However, the prevalence of kidney diseases among hypouricemic subjects has not been evaluated. This study was conducted to clarify the prevalence of hypouricemia and the association of hypouricemia with kidney diseases by using a large-scale Japanese population data. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study at the Center for Preventive Medicine, St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, and Sanin Rousai Hospital, Yonago, Japan. We analyzed the medical records of 90,143 Japanese subjects at the center in St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, and 4,837 subjects in Sanin Rousai Hospital, Yonago, who underwent annual regular health check-up between January 2004 and June 2010. We defined hypouricemia as serum uric acid level of ≤2.0 mg/dL. We checked the medical history of all the study subjects and compared the rates of complications including urinary stones and kidney diseases among those with or without hypouricemia. The prevalence of hypouricemia was 0.19% in St. Luke's International Hospital, Tokyo, and 0.58% in Sanin Rousai Hospital, Yonago. The prevalence of hypouricemia in women was larger than that in men both in Tokyo (0.31% vs 0.068%, p<0.001) and in Yonago (1.237% vs 0.318%, p<0.001). Among 172 hypouricemic subjects (30 men), the rates of previous urinary stones and kidney diseases (including nephritis/nephrosis) were 1.2% (3.3% men, 0.7% women) and 2.3% (10% men, 0.7% women), respectively. Hypouricemic men had a 9-fold higher rate of previously having kidney diseases compared to non-hypouricemic men (p<0.001). However, the rates of other diseases including urinary stones were not significantly different between the two groups. Hypouricemia was associated with a history of kidney disease especially in men.

  10. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its risk factors in urban communities of north Sudan: Population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Noor, Sufian K; Ibrahim, Abd Alaziz A; Bushara, Sarra O; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem in Africa and worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase at alarming rate in Africa. Its estimated that around 20 million Africans are now living with diabetes, comprising a challenge for health systems at present and in the future. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed and diagnosed DM and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in adult urban communities of the River Nile State (RNS), north Sudan. The present study was a cross-sectional community-based study in which participants were randomly selected from the four main cities of the RNS, on a house-to-house basis. Blood glucose was tested and all participants completed a questionnaire to obtain demographic, clinical and social data. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were also recorded. In all, 954 adults (518 females; 54.3%; mean [±SD] age 39.5 ± 16.7 years; range 18-90 years) participated in the survey. The overall prevalence of DM was 19.1% (182/954), whereas that of IGT was 9.5% (91/954). Among the diabetic group, 125 (68.7%) had known diabetes, whereas 57 (31.3%) were newly diagnosed during the study. Increasing age, a family history of diabetes, central obesity, abnormal body mass index, and hypertension were significant risk factors for DM. There is high prevalence of DM and glucose intolerance in the urban population of the RNS. Screening for diabetes in individuals with any feature of metabolic syndrome is recommended. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with localized prostate carcinoma. Study at a single institute in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Koji; Ichioka, Kentaro; Terada, Naoki; Terai, Akito; Arai, Yoichi

    2003-01-01

    The use of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) has recently received considerable attention throughout the world. We evaluated the prevalence and predictors of CAM use among Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer. A total of 177 patients with localized prostate carcinoma underwent radical retropubic prostatecotomy or external beam radiation therapy between January 1994 and January 2001. Of them, 138 (78%) answered a self-administered questionnaire on CAM use and were eligible for this study. The overall prevalence, types of CAM used, and costs of CAM were assessed. The effects of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, pretreatment Gleason score, patients' income, patients' final educational status, and general health-related quality of life at baseline and 1 year after treatment, as estimated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Prostate Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire on the prevalence of CAM use, were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients (20%) had once used or had been using some types of CAM. Herbal medicine and vitamins were the most common types of CAM used. Preoperative Gleason score was significantly associated with CAM use, as determined by the χ''2 test (P0.0198), and PSA level and posttreatment physical function domain were marginally associated with CAM use, as determined by the Mann-Whitney U-test (P=0.0734 and P=0.0597, respectively). Patient age, income, and final educational status had no impact on CAM use. A relatively small proportion of Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer have tried CAM compared with the proportions of patients described in previous reports from Western countries. (author)

  12. Awareness and prevalence of acute mountain sickness and prevalence of obstructive airflow limitation among Nepalese porters: A cross-sectional study in Khumbu Valley, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Parajuli, Ranjan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acute mountain sickness is a major public health problem in high altitudes. Similarly, anecdotal evidence suggests that there is high prevalence of tobacco smoking among this group though prevalence of obstructive airflow limitation is not known. Objectives: The main aims of the study were to measure the awareness of AMS and report the prevalence of AMS and obstructive lung diseases in high altitude Nepalese porters. Setting: This study was done with bases in Namche Bazaar (...

  13. Exploring the implications of a fixed budget for new medicines: a study of reimbursement of new medicines in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Colman; Wonder, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Spending on medicines under the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) represents the ninth largest expense to the Federal Government. A recent report by the Commission of Audit to the Federal Government suggested spending on the PBS is unsustainable and a capped budget, similar to New Zealand's PHARMAC model, may be required to contain costs. The objective of the present study was to compare listing outcomes between Australia and New Zealand, thereby exploring the opportunity cost of a capped budget for new medicines. Listing outcomes in Australia and New Zealand were compared through published research and an updated search of listing outcomes from publicly available information. Previous research has demonstrated that New Zealand listed less than half of the new medicines listed in Australia over a 10-year period (2000-09). Our research shows that most of the new medicines not listed in New Zealand during this period remain unlisted today. In the previous 12 months, Australia listed 17 new medicines on the PBS, whereas New Zealand listed only one new medicine that was not already listed in Australia. The discrepancy in the number of new medicines listed in New Zealand compared with Australia raises questions regarding the consequences of implementing a capped budget for new medicines. However, further research is needed to understand the relationship between listing outcomes, access to medicines and health benefits for the community.

  14. [A preliminary epidemiological study and discussion on traditional Chinese medicine pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome in Hong Kong].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Yan-Mun; Qiu, Ming-Yi

    2005-09-01

    Our purpose is to conduct an epidemiological study of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and its syndrome types and symptoms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) among adults (20-50 years old) in Hong Kong, and to discuss the TCM pathogenesis. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Demographic data, CDC (1994) CFS diagnostic criteria, Trudie Chalder fatigue scale, and China national standard for TCM syndrome types criteria. Twenty to fifty years old adults by convenient sampling. One thousand and thirteen subjects were successfully interviewed. Five hundred and eighty-five subjects (57.8%) had different levels of fatigue. Sixty-five subjects (6.4%) met CFS diagnostic criteria. In terms of TCM syndrome types, blood stasis due to qi deficiency had the highest prevalence (35.7%) among CFS. In the 54 symptoms investigated in total, the first eight symptoms in order of appearing rates were soreness of loins and weakness in knees, poor spirit, lassitude, pain, insomnia, forgetting, vessels blood stasis, vertigo and dazzle. The mostly appeared tongue figures were pale and corpulent or pale dim tongue proper, white and white greasy tongue coating, and the mostly appeared pulse figure was sunken-thin. The point prevalence of CFS among adults of 20 to 50 years old was found to be 6.4%. The most prevalent TCM syndrome type was blood stasis due to qi deficiency. The TCM pathogenesis of CFS was deficiency of origin, mainly deficiency of qi and kidney, with excess of superficiality.

  15. Full text publication rates of studies presented at an international emergency medicine scientific meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jannet W M; Graham, Colin A

    2011-09-01

    The publication rate of full text papers following an abstract presentation at a medical conference is variable, and few studies have examined the situation with respect to international emergency medicine conferences. This retrospective study aimed to identify the publication rate of abstracts presented at the 2006 International Conference on Emergency Medicine (ICEM) held in Halifax, Canada. The full text publication rate was 33.2%, similar to previous emergency medicine meetings. English language barriers may play a role in the low publication rate seen.

  16. Prevalence of Depression in Medical Students at the Lebanese University and Exploring its Correlation With Facebook Relevance: A Questionnaire Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Wadih J; Kansoun, Alaa H; Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-05-31

    The prevalence of major depression is particularly high in medical students, affecting around one-third of this population. Moreover, online social media, in particular Facebook, is becoming an intrinsic part in the life of a growing proportion of individuals worldwide. Our primary objective is to identify the prevalence of depression in medical students at the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine, a unique state university in Lebanon, its correlation with the utilization of the interactive features of Facebook, and the way students may resort to these features. Students of the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine were assessed for (1) depression and (2) Facebook activity. To screen for major depression, we used the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) scale. To test for Facebook activity, we developed the Facebook Resorting Questionnaire (FbRQ), which measures the degree to which students resort to Facebook. A total of 365 out of 480 students (76.0%) participated in the survey. A total of 25 students were excluded, hence 340 students were included in the final analysis. Current depression was reported in 117 students out of 340 (34.4%) and t tests showed female predominance. Moreover, PHQ-9 score multiple regression analysis showed that feeling depressed is explained 63.5% of the time by specific independent variables studied from the PHQ-9 and the FbRQ. Depression varied significantly among the different academic years (PFacebook had a positive and significant relationship (P=.003) and the different FbRQ categories had significant differences in resorting-to-Facebook power. The like, add friend, and check-in features students used when resorting to Facebook were significantly associated with depression. This study showed that depression was highly prevalent among students of the Faculty of Medicine at the Lebanese University. Moreover, Facebook may be a promising, helpful, psychological tool for optimizing the management of depression. Our study brought

  17. A study on expelling lead with a traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Aizhen; Guo Ruixin; Zhou Jieyan; Wang Dongfeng; Wang Huifang

    1993-01-01

    The rat model poisoned by lead acetate was treated with either EDTA or a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the ability of 'relieving toxin and strengthening spleen'. In EDTA group, lead contents in blood fell to normal; the other parameters apparently improved but did not return to normal(p 0.05). But in TCM group, all the parameters returned to normal (p > 0.05) and the contents of essential trace elements in urine did not obviously change (p < 0.05). The curative effect of TCM is therefore better than that of EDTA. The mechanism probably lies in following points: (1) TCM can expedite excretion of lead in feces and decrease the lead accumulation in liver; (2) FEP returns to normal, showing that the lead expelling effect of TCM is relatively complete; (3) TCM does not disturb the interior equilibrium of essential trace elements while expelling lead

  18. The Amsterdam Cohort of Gender Dysphoria Study (1972-2015): Trends in Prevalence, Treatment, and Regrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiepjes, Chantal M; Nota, Nienke M; de Blok, Christel J M; Klaver, Maartje; de Vries, Annelou L C; Wensing-Kruger, S Annelijn; de Jongh, Renate T; Bouman, Mark-Bram; Steensma, Thomas D; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy; Gooren, Louis J G; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P C; den Heijer, Martin

    2018-04-01

    treatment approach, special attention should be given to those who choose less common forms of treatment. This study was performed in the largest Dutch gender identity clinic, which treats more than 95% of the transgender population in the Netherlands. Because of the retrospective design, some data could be missing. The number of people with gender identity issues seeking professional help increased dramatically in recent decades. The percentage of people who regretted gonadectomy remained small and did not show a tendency to increase. Wiepjes CM, Nota NM, de Blok CJM, et al. The Amsterdam Cohort of Gender Dysphoria Study (1972-2015): Trends in Prevalence, Treatment, and Regrets. J Sex Med 2018;15:582-590. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of childhood atopic dermatitis: an urban and rural community-based study in Shanghai, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common inflammatory and chronically relapsing disorder with increasing prevalence. However, little is known about its prevalence in Shanghai, the top metropolitan of China. This study will estimate and compare the prevalence of AD in urban and rural areas in representative samples of 3 to 6-year-old children in Shanghai. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed. Pre-school children were obtained by cluster sampling from 8 communities in different districts in Shanghai. The main instrument was the core questionnaire module for AD used in the U.K. Working Party's study. All the data were statistically analyzed by EpiData 3.1 and SPSS16.0. A total of 10,436 children completed the study satisfactorily, with a response rate of 95.8%. The prevalence of AD in 3 to 6-year-old children was 8.3% (Male: 8.5%, Female: 8.2%. The prevalence in urban areas of Shanghai was gradiently and significantly higher than that in rural areas. The highest prevalence was in the core urban area (10.2% in Xuhui Tianping vs. the lowest far from the urban areas (4.6% in Chongming Baozhen. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of AD was 8.3% (95%CI: 7.6%-9.1% in children aged 3 to 6 in Shanghai. The prevalence of AD decreased from the center to the rural areas in Shanghai.

  20. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Nurseries in Lebanon: A Cross Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaya, Monique; Saab, Dahlia; Maalouf, Fadi T.; Boustany, Rose-Mary

    2016-01-01

    In Lebanon, no estimate for autism prevalence exists. This cross-sectional study examines the prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in toddlers in nurseries in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon. The final sample included 998 toddlers (16-48 months) from 177 nurseries. We sent parents the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) for…

  1. HIV prevalence and behavioral studies in female sex workers in Togo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: We determined the sero-prevalence of HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Togo identified their sexual risk behaviors. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from 17 to 27 December, 2011 on 1106 FSWs in Togo. Venous sample were collected to estimate HIV prevalence as per national ...

  2. Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Ecuador: A Pilot Study in Quito

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekkers, Laura M.; Groot, Norbert A.; Díaz Mosquera, Elena N.; Andrade Zúñiga, Ivonne P.; Delfos, Martine F.

    2015-01-01

    This research presents the results of the first phase of the study on the prevalence of pupils with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in regular education in Quito, Ecuador. One-hundred-and-sixty-one regular schools in Quito were selected with a total of 51,453 pupils. Prevalence of ASD was assessed by an interview with the rector of the school or…

  3. Adult Prevalence of Epilepsy in Spain: EPIBERIA, a Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Serrano-Castro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study assesses the lifetime and active prevalence of epilepsy in Spain in people older than 18 years. Methods. EPIBERIA is a population-based epidemiological study of epilepsy prevalence using data from three representative Spanish regions (health districts in Zaragoza, Almería, and Seville between 2012 and 2013. The study consisted of two phases: screening and confirmation. Participants completed a previously validated questionnaire (EPIBERIA questionnaire over the telephone. Results. A total of 1741 valid questionnaires were obtained, including 261 (14.99% raising a suspicion of epilepsy. Of these suspected cases, 216 (82.75% agreed to participate in phase 2. Of the phase 2 participants, 22 met the International League Against Epilepsy’s diagnostic criteria for epilepsy. The estimated lifetime prevalence, adjusted by age and sex per 1,000 people, was 14.87 (95% CI: 9.8–21.9. Active prevalence was 5.79 (95% CI: 2.8–10.6. No significant age, sex, or regional differences in prevalence were detected. Conclusions. EPIBERIA provides the most accurate estimate of epilepsy prevalence in the Mediterranean region based on its original methodology and its adherence to ILAE recommendations. We highlight that the lifetime prevalence and inactive epilepsy prevalence figures observed here were compared to other epidemiological studies.

  4. Social disparities in the prevalence of multimorbidity - A register-based population study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøtz, Michaela L; Stockmarr, Anders; Høst, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Prevalences of multimorbidity vary between European studies and several methods and definitions are used. In this study we examine the prevalence of multimorbidity in relation to age, gender and educational attainment and the association between physical and mental health conditions and educational.......3-3.4) and approximately 50 times more prevalent among older persons than younger ones. Physical and mental health comorbidity was also twice as prevalent among people with lower secondary education than among those with postgraduate education. The presence of a mental health condition was strongly associated...... attainment in a Danish population. A cross-sectional design was used to study the prevalence of multimorbidity, defined as two or more chronic conditions, and of comorbid physical and mental health conditions across age groups and educational attainment levels among 1,397,173 individuals aged 16 years...

  5. [Applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng-Qin; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing

    2014-08-01

    Thrombotic diseases in different forms become a great threat to human health. Such anti-platelet aggregation drugs as aspirin and clopidogrel are common drugs in clinic. However, along with the appearance of resistance and side effects of western anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anti-platelet aggregation traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have gradually become an important study orientation. Platelet is one of major participant in thrombosis, and plays an important role as a bioactive material in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, mainly involving two aspects--the evaluation for the anti-platelet aggregation activity of traditional Chinese medicines and the screening of their active components. This paper summarized the applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, so as to provide basis for further studies.

  6. Physician staffing for the practice of psychosomatic medicine in general hospitals: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Elisabeth J S; Del Busto, Elena; Kathol, Roger; Stern, Theodore A; Wise, Thomas N; Stoddard, Frederick R; Straus, Joshua; Saravay, Stephen M; Muskin, Philip R; Dresner, Nehama; Harrington, Colin J; Weiner, Joseph; Barnhill, John; Becker, Madeleine; Joseph, Robert C; Oyesanmi, Olugbenga; Fann, Jesse R; Colon, Eduardo; Epstein, Steven; Weinrieb, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of psychiatric illnesses, prevalent in the general hospital, requires broadly trained providers with expertise at the interface of psychiatry and medicine. Since each hospital operates under different economic constraints, it is difficult to establish an appropriate ratio of such providers to patients. The authors sought to determine the current staffing patterns and ratios of Psychosomatic Medicine practitioners in general hospitals, to better align manpower with clinical service and educational requirements on consultation-liaison psychiatry services. Program directors of seven academic Psychosomatic Medicine (PM) programs in the Northeast were surveyed to establish current staffing patterns and patient volumes. Survey data were reviewed and analyzed along with data from the literature and The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine (APM) fellowship directory. Staffing patterns varied widely, both in terms of the number and disciplines of staff providing care for medical and surgical inpatients. The ratio of initial consultations performed per hospital bed varied from 1.6 to 4.6. Although staffing patterns vary, below a minimum staffing level, there is likely to be significant human and financial cost. Efficient sizing of a PM staff must be accomplished in the context of a given institution's patient population, the experience of providers, the presence/absence and needs of trainees, and the financial constraints of the department and institution. National survey data are needed to provide benchmarks for both academic and nonacademic PM services.

  7. A pilot study of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall GC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS is a complex disorder, with primary symptoms of sleep disturbances, pain, and fatigue. FMS is one of the most common reasons for patient visits to a rheumatologist. Previous studies have suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM use in patients with rheumatic diseases is common, but such data specific to FMS patients is limited. Objective: The following study sought to describe the prevalence of CAM use in a primary care practice of patients with FMS and assess whether these patients discuss CAM use with their physician, physician-extender, and/or pharmacist. Methods: A one-group cross-sectional survey design was implemented in a large, community-based, private physician practice of patients diagnosed with FMS. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed during clinic visits. It solicited information related to demographic characteristics; FMS-specific health background; whether CAM use had been discussed with a health care provider; and the “ever-use” of common types of CAM. Respondents returned the questionnaire via US mail in a postage-paid, self-addressed envelope. Results: A total of 115 surveys were distributed with 54 returned for analysis (47% completion rate. The sample was predominantly female, well educated and had a mean age of 55.6 years. All respondents were White. Most respondents (92.6% reported using some type of CAM. Exercise (92.2%, chiropractic treatment (48.1%, lifestyle and diet (45.8%, relaxation therapy (44.9%, and dietary and herbal supplements (36.5% were most commonly reported CAM therapies “ever-used” by respondents. Dietary and herbal supplements with the highest prevalence of “ever-use” were magnesium (19.2%, guaifenesin (11.5%, and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM (9.6%. Respondents most commonly discussed CAM with the clinic rheumatologist and the primary care physician (53.7% and 38.9%, respectively. Only 14.8% of respondents discussed CAM with a pharmacist

  8. Prevalence of new psychoactive substances: A retrospective study in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Kristina Yasmin; Baumgartner, Markus R; Dally, Annika M; Kraemer, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    New psychoactive substances are conquering the drug scene. Police seize different colourful packages with exceptional names. They are declared as 'bath salts', 'plant food', or 'research chemical powders'. Little is known about the actual prevalence of these drugs. Reanalysis of hair samples from routine cases concerning the presence of new psychoactive substances or 'smart drugs' should provide insight into changing patterns of designer drugs. All hair samples from 2009 and 2010 that originally tested positive for amphetamines or MDMA (N = 325) were reanalyzed for new or smart drugs such as 4-fluoroamphetamine, piperazines (BZP, mCPP and TFMPP), cathinones (4-MMC (mephedrone), methylone, butylone, ethylone, MDPV, methcathinone and cathinone), methylphenidate and ketamine. Hair snippets were extracted using a two-step extraction procedure. The analytes were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (electrospray ionization; multiple-reaction-monitoring mode - information dependent acquisition - enhanced product ion scan). New psychoactive substances were found in 120 cases (37%). Concerning the piperazine drugs, mCPP was positive in 34 (10.5%) cases and TFMPP in one case. Five mCPP cases were also positive for trazodone, an antidepressant which is metabolized to mCPP. In 11 (3%) cases, 4-MMC was detected. Concerning the smart drugs, methylphenidate was found in 16 (5%). Ketamine was found in 45 (14%) cases. 4-Fluoroamphetamine was identified in 12 (4%) cases and methylone in one case.In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of these drugs. Consequently, at least the most common ones (e.g. mCPP, KET, 4-MMC and 4-FA) should be included in screening procedures in clinical and forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Using field notes to evaluate competencies in family medicine training: a study of predictors of intention

    OpenAIRE

    Lacasse, Miriam; Douville, Frédéric; Desrosiers, Émilie; Côté, Luc; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France

    2013-01-01

    Background: Documenting feedback during clinical supervision using field notes (FN) is a recommended competency-based evaluation strategy that will require changes in the culture of medical education. This study identified factors influencing the intention to adopt FN in family medicine training, using the theory of planned behaviour. Methods: This mixed-methods study involved clinical teachers (CT) and residents from two family medicine units. Main outcomes were: 1) intention (and its pre...

  10. Shaping the use of psychotropic medicines in nursing homes: A qualitative study on organisational culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawan, Mouna; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Chen, Timothy F

    2018-04-01

    Psychotropic medicines have limited efficacy in the management of behavioural and psychological disturbances, yet they are commonly used in nursing homes. Organisational culture is an important consideration influencing use of psychotropic medicines. Schein's theory elucidates that organisational culture is underpinned by basic assumptions, which are the taken for granted beliefs driving organisational members' behaviour and practices. By exploring the basic assumptions of culture we are able to find explanations for why psychotropic medicines are prescribed contrary to standards. A qualitative study guided by Schein's theory was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 40 staff representing a broad range of roles from eight nursing homes. Findings from the study suggest two basic assumptions influenced the use of psychotropic medicines: locus of control and necessity for efficiency or comprehensiveness. Locus of control pertained to whether staff believed they could control decisions when facing negative work experiences. Necessity for efficiency or comprehensiveness concerned how much time and effort was spent on a given task. Participants' arrived at decisions to use psychotropic medicines that were inconsistent with ideal standards when they believed they were helpless to do the right thing by the resident and it was necessary to restrict time on a given task. Basic assumptions tended to provide the rationale for staff to use psychotropic medicines when it was not compatible with standards. Organisational culture is an important factor that should be addressed to optimise psychotropic medicine use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternative medicine in Paris and Rio de Janeiro: a study on transformative health experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Eglem

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore the practice of alternative medicine as an experience capable of modifying the very perception of the body and body feeling, based in a two-field research in France (Paris and Brazil (Rio de Janeiro. In this research, the resort to alternative medicines was considered as urban practice and a possible response to emotional needs, beyond the curative specificities of these medicines. The two countries were chosen for their supposed complementarity concerning the perception of spirituality and therefore, the perception of holistic health concepts. The study relies on an inductive approach and a qualitative methodology: introspective interviews with consumers and professionals, as well as participant observations. After a review of the theoretical aspects on the subject — concepts related to health, alternative medicine, transformative experience —, empirical results are presented. They show that the experience of alternative medicine tends to modify body perception, understood as how individuals define their own body. It also tends to modify body internal feeling, literally how people feel their body. The second conclusion that can be drawn from our study is that, beyond cultural specificities, some similarities appear in the way the practice of alternative medicine impacts on body perception and individual values. In that sense, alternative medicine practices in big urban centers appear to be related to a global consumer culture. However, alternative health behaviors rely on a subjective quest of sense which can be expressed through a variety of practices related to better health, not necessarily involving consumption.

  12. Health, healthcare access, and use of traditional versus modern medicine in remote Peruvian Amazon communities: a descriptive study of knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jonathan; Ramirez, Ronald; Wingfield, Tom

    2015-04-01

    There is an urgent need for healthcare research, funding, and infrastructure in the Peruvian Amazon. We performed a descriptive study of health, health knowledge and practice, and healthcare access of 13 remote communities of the Manatí and Amazon Rivers in northeastern Peru. Eighty-five adults attending a medical boat service were interviewed to collect data on socioeconomic position, health, diagnosed illnesses, pain, healthcare access, and traditional versus modern medicine use. In this setting, poverty and gender inequality were prevalent, and healthcare access was limited by long distances to the health post and long waiting times. There was a high burden of reported pain (mainly head and musculoskeletal) and chronic non-communicable diseases, such as hypertension (19%). Nearly all participants felt that they did not completely understand their diagnosed illnesses and wanted to know more. Participants preferred modern over traditional medicine, predominantly because of mistrust or lack of belief in traditional medicine. Our findings provide novel evidence concerning transitional health beliefs, hidden pain, and chronic non-communicable disease prevalence in marginalized communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Healthcare provision was limited by a breach between health education, knowledge, and access. Additional participatory research with similar rural populations is required to inform regional healthcare policy and decision-making. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Nuclear medicine technologists are able to accurately determine when a myocardial perfusion rest study is necessary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Johansson, Liselott; Olofsson, Camilla; Valind, Sven; Edenbrandt, Lars

    2012-09-04

    In myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), typically a stress and a rest study is performed. If the stress study is considered normal, there is no need for a subsequent rest study. The aim of the study was to determine whether nuclear medicine technologists are able to assess the necessity of a rest study. Gated MPS using a 2-day 99mTc protocol for 121 consecutive patients were studied. Visual interpretation by 3 physicians was used as gold standard for determining the need for a rest study based on the stress images. All nuclear medicine technologists performing MPS had to review 82 training cases of stress MPS images with comments regarding the need for rest studies, and thereafter a test consisting of 20 stress MPS images. After passing this test, the nuclear medicine technologists in charge of a stress MPS study assessed whether a rest study was needed or not or if he/she was uncertain and wanted to consult a physician. After that, the physician in charge interpreted the images and decided whether a rest study was required or not. The nuclear medicine technologists and the physicians in clinical routine agreed in 103 of the 107 cases (96%) for which the technologists felt certain regarding the need for a rest study. In the remaining 14 cases the technologists were uncertain, i.e. wanted to consult a physician. The agreement between the technologists and the physicians in clinical routine was very good, resulting in a kappa value of 0.92. There was no statistically significant difference in the evaluations made by technicians and physicians (P = 0.617). The nuclear medicine technologists were able to accurately determine whether a rest study was necessary. There was very good agreement between nuclear medicine technologists and physicians in the assessment of the need for a rest study. If the technologists can make this decision, the effectiveness of the nuclear medicine department will improve.

  14. Prevalence of Depression in Medical Students at the Lebanese University and Exploring its Correlation With Facebook Relevance: A Questionnaire Study

    OpenAIRE

    Naja, Wadih J; Kansoun, Alaa H; Haddad, Ramzi S

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of major depression is particularly high in medical students, affecting around one-third of this population. Moreover, online social media, in particular Facebook, is becoming an intrinsic part in the life of a growing proportion of individuals worldwide. Objective Our primary objective is to identify the prevalence of depression in medical students at the Lebanese University Faculty of Medicine, a unique state university in Lebanon, its correlation with the utilizat...

  15. Prevalence of adverse food reactions in 130 dogs in Italy with dermatological signs: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Perego, R; Spada, E; Ferro, E

    2010-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of adverse food reactions (AFRs) in dogs with dermatological signs presented to the referral dermatological clinic of the University of Milan. The medical records of dogs with dermatological signs were reviewed. Prevalence of AFRs was calculated. Owner and clinician pruritus scores were compared. Breed, sex and age predisposition were statistically tested, as was the association between AFR and selected clinical features. The prevalence of AFRs in dogs with dermatological signs was 12% (16 of 130). AFR was diagnosed in 26% of dogs with allergic disease and 48% of those subjected to a dietary trial. There was a significant association between AFRs and early onset of clinical signs (dogs with perianal fistulas were German shepherd dogs. The prevalence of AFRs in the study population was higher than most reported values. Further studies are warranted to investigate the true prevalence of AFR and its possible association with perianal fistula and other potential markers.

  16. False positive seroreactivity to brucellosis in tuberculosis patients: a prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Varshochi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Mojtaba Varshochi1,2, Jafar Majidi2, Marjan Amini1, Kamyar Ghabili3, Mohammadali M Shoja31Department of Infectious Disease, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Infectious Disease and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: The rising worldwide incidence of tuberculosis (TB increases the demand for knowledge about its potential seroreactivity with other microbial agents. A few reports and the authors’ experiences indicate that tuberculosis may result in a false-positive brucellosis serology. This may cause a diagnostic challenge because of the close clinical resemblance of these two infections.Objective: The aim of the present prevalence study was to elucidate brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Methods: Ninety-eight patients with newly diagnosed and active TB were studied using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and Wright’s and Coombs–Wright’s tests. Seventy-five healthy individuals were used as controls. The patients showed signs of recovery after starting a standard anti-TB regimen and had no clinical evidence of brucellosis at a subsequent 6-month follow-up. The data were analyzed statistically by Fisher’s exact test using SPSS 11.0.Results: We found that 9.2% of TB patients versus 1.3% of healthy controls had positive results on the anti-Brucella IgG ELISA (P = 0.04. Five TB patients were found to have agglutination on Wright’s tests, while none of the controls showed agglutination.Conclusion: Active TB patients may have some seroreactivity with Brucella antigens, and Brucella IgG ELISA may give a false positive in these patients. Clinicians should consider false positive brucellosis seroreactivity in patients with active TB.Keywords: false positive serology, ELISA, diagnosis

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of pharmacists regarding sugar content in medicine in Bengaluru city: A questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitendra Ramesh Jain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Most pediatric medicines are prescribed in a liquid form that includes sugar in the formulation. Accumulating evidence, on a clinical and experimental basis, shows a significant association between the intake of sucrose-based medication and an increased incidence of dental caries. Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge and attitude of pharmacists regarding sugar content in medicine in Bengaluru city. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted among a sample of the pharmacists in Bengaluru city. A sample of 140 retail pharmacist shops were selected randomly from the total list of retail pharmacist shop registered at the Drug Control Department, Bengaluru. Data regarding their knowledge and attitude in relation to sugar content in medicine was obtained using a questionnaire. Results: Around 67.9% of the pharmacists agreed that sugar-containing medicines taken long-term could lead to dental problems. Only 12.9% of pharmacists believed that patient prefer sugar-free medicine. Most of the pharmacists (72.9% felt that they themselves have an important role in educating people about sugar containing medicine. Conclusions: Pharmacists requires further knowledge about sugar-free medicine. The expansion of the pharmacist role in oral health promotion would be of value to patients/customers. Various methods should be adopted to increase pharmacist knowledge about dental health.

  18. Young adolescents' use of medicine for headache:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Use of medicines for headache is common among young adolescents but little is known about their sources of supply and access to medicines. The purpose was to describe sources of supply, availability and accessibility at home and to examine if supply, availability and accessibility were...... associated with medicine use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in eight schools where all fifth and seventh grade students (11- and 13-year-olds) answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic factors, health and medicine use. Response rate: 84.0%, n = 595. RESULTS: The reported prevalence of headache...... at least monthly was 45.0%, and 42.5% had used medicines for headache during the past month. 68.2% reported that medicines for headache were always available at home, and 22.2% were allowed to use these without asking for permission. Most pupils received medicine from their parents (73.1%) and physicians...

  19. The clinical study on the cased of Herpes Zoster Treated with Korean Oriental Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Wook Kim

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : These case study were made to evaluate and observe the treatment for the Herpes-Zoster through the korean oriental medicine. Method : Clinical observation and analysis about 4 cases of Herpes-zoster including the Ramsay's-hunt syndrome had been done the patients of the Sang-Ji Oriental Medicine Hospital. These cases were mainly treated with oriental medicine using the Herb medication, Korean Bee-Venom therapy, Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture therapy. Acupuncture technic was mainly used Sa-Am acupuncture(Four needle technique. Result : After treatment, all of cases were completely cured without any complication. Conclusion : Based on the clinical results, Korean Oriental Medicine is believed to be effective for treating Herpes-zoster, and further studies should be conducted to provide more valuable information.

  20. AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN VILLAGES UNDER JONGILANGA TRIBAL COUNCIL, MPUMALANGA, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mophuting, Boikanyo Calvin; Mahore, James; Winterboer, Stefan; Lall, Namrita

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire with 15 traditional healers as informants; one of them also served as a field guide during data collection. Results were analysed by using various quantitative indices of information consensus factor (ICF), use report (UR), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). The study reported 86 medicinal plants used in villages for the treatment of various ailments, the majority (25 species) of which were used for urino-genital disorders. The Fabaceae family was the most represented family (17 species) of all the medicinal plants recorded in this study. The roots were the most frequently used plant part, accounting for 56% of the plants reported, and decoctions were often used in the preparation of herbal remedies. Respiratory diseases had the highest ICF value recorded among the 8 categories of ailments. The highest use report was reported for Combretum collinum (4), while the FC and RFC values (15) were highest in 12 plant species. The study revealed that medicinal plants are still widely used in rural areas and this documentation can serve as an ethno pharmacological basis for selecting plants with potential pharmaceutical properties.

  1. Burnout prevalence in New Zealand's public hospital senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Christopher M A; Barclay, Murray; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of, and associated factors contributing to burnout among senior doctors and dentists working in the New Zealand's public health system. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand's 20 district health boards (DHBs). Participants A total of 1487 of 3740 senior doctors and dentists who are members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists working in DHBs were recruited (response rate 40%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Gender, age, self-rated health status, vocation and hours of work per week were obtained from an electronic questionnaire. Burnout was measured using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Qualitative data taken from an open-ended comments section was coded using grounded theory and used for contextual data. Results The overall prevalence of high personal burnout was 50%. Women aged burnout. Prevalence of high work-related burnout and patient-related burnout was 42% and 16%, respectively. Those working in emergency medicine and psychiatry had significantly higher mean work-related burnout than other specialties (pburnout. Personal burnout rates decreased with age (age 30–39 OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.59, age 40–49 OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.55, age 50–59 OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.46, compared with age>60). Qualitative data emphasised intense and unrelenting workloads, under-staffing, onerous on-call duties and frustrations with management as factors contributing to burnout. Conclusions High burnout appears prevalent in New Zealand's senior doctors and dentists. Many attribute their feelings of burnout to work conditions. These findings may assist with understanding contributors to burnout and with developing strategies to ameliorate the high burnout found across this cohort. PMID:27881531

  2. Medicine administration errors in patients with dysphagia in secondary care: a multi-centre observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jennifer; Wright, David; Wood, John

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the interventions used by nurses when administering oral medicines to patients with and without dysphagia, to quantify the appropriateness of these interventions and the medicine administration error rate. The administration of medicines to patients with dysphagia is complex and potentially more error prone because of the need to match the medication's formulation to the swallowing ability of the patient. Data was collected on the preparation and administration of oral medicines to patients with and without dysphagia, including those with enteral feeding tubes, using undisguised direct observation of 65 nurse-led medicine administration rounds on stroke and care-of-the-elderly wards at four acute general hospitals in East of England between 1 March and 30 June 2008. Of the 2129 medicine administrations observed, 817 involved an error, and of these 313 involved patients with dysphagia. Excluding time errors, the normalized frequency of medicine administration errors for patients with dysphagia was 21.1% compared with 5.9% for patients without. Using a mixed effects model and excluding time errors, there is a higher risk of errors for patients with dysphagia (excluding patients with enteral tubes) compared with those without (P < 0.001) and a further increase in risk of error for patients with enteral tubes compared with dysphagic patients without tubes (P < 0.001). The increased medicine administration error rate in patients with dysphagia requires healthcare professionals to take extra care when prescribing, dispensing and administering medicines to this group. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Understanding of family medicine in Africa: a qualitative study of leaders' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosa, Shabir; Downing, Raymond; Mash, Bob; Reid, Steve; Pentz, Stephen; Essuman, Akye

    2013-03-01

    The World Health Organization encourages comprehensive primary care within an ongoing personalised relationship, including family physicians in the primary healthcare team, but family medicine is new in Africa, with doctors mostly being hospital based. African family physicians are trying to define family medicine in Africa, however, there is little clarity on the views of African country leadership and their understanding of family medicine and its place in Africa. To understand leaders' views on family medicine in Africa. Qualitative study with in-depth interviews in nine sub-Saharan African countries. Key academic and government leaders were purposively selected. In-depth interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and thematically analysed. Twenty-seven interviews were conducted with government and academic leaders. Responders saw considerable benefits but also had concerns regarding family medicine in Africa. The benefits mentioned were: having a clinically skilled all-rounder at the district hospital; mentoring team-based care in the community; a strong role in leadership and even management in the district healthcare system; and developing a holistic practice of medicine. The concerns were that family medicine is: unknown or poorly understood by broader leadership; poorly recognised by officials; and struggling with policy ambivalence, requiring policy advocacy championed by family medicine itself. The strong district-level clinical and leadership expectations of family physicians are consistent with African research and consensus. However, leaders' understanding of family medicine is couched in terms of specialties and hospital care. African family physicians should be concerned by high expectations without adequate human resource and implementation policies.

  4. A Comparative Study of Allium Hirtifolium in Traditional and Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdehvand, Laleh Zaheri; Soleymani, Samaneh

    2016-05-01

    Shallots (wild garlic/Osghordion) with the scientific name of Allium hertifolium, is one of the most famous plants from the Alliaceae family. For a long time, shallots have been used as a source of food and medicine in Iran. The active ingredients of the plant could be referred to agapentagenin, allicin, omega-3, omega-6, and minerals such as potassium, sodium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese. This study was conducted to compare shallots in the traditional and modern medicine in order to make a better use of this precious plant. To collect appropriate data, resources and articles in trustworthy databases (e.g. Cochrane library, PubMed, Google Scholar) and traditional literature (e.g. Makhzan-ul-Adwiah, Canon, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazmshahi) were studied. Subsequently, the findings were reviewed, classified, and reported in a tabular format. Shallots are rich in fatty acids and minerals with many pharmacological effects such as its effect on the respiratory and nervous system and blood dilution, as reflected in the modern medicine. However, certain effects as mentioned in traditional medicine (e.g. anti-warts, anti-lipoma, anti-kidney stone, and its diuretic effects) are not covered in research studies of the modern medicine. Depending on its natural habitats, shallots have different pharmacological effects for which many usages are mentioned in traditional medicine. Some of these effects have been investigated in modern medicine; however, further evaluation of its safety and dosages for clinical use is necessary. Furthermore, some cases have not been studied in modern medicine, which could be the basis for future research.

  5. Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Elfahmi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis phytochemical and biosynthetic studies of lignans are described. The focus is on the Indonesian medicinal plants Phyllanthus niruri and Piper cubeba and on two Linum species, Linum flavum and L. leonii, native to European countries. Both Indonesian plants are used in jamu. Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine, practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. The manufacturing of jamu is shifting more and more ...

  6. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines in Africa: Questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalli, Souad; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulaymani

    2015-08-02

    In order to describe and evaluate Herbal Medicine (HM) pharmacovigilance in African countries who are members of the WHO International Programme for Drug Monitoring a survey questionnaire was sent to the national centres and national drug regulatory agencies of these countries. Data collection was carried out from October 1st to 31st December, 2014. Among the total of 39 African countries, 34 (87.2%) answered the questionnaire and 25 (64.1%) accepted to share their data in this publication. Spontaneous adverse reaction reporting for HM is voluntary in 7 (43.7%) countries. HM pharmacovigilance programmes covered suspected adverse HM reactions in 14 (87.5%) countries; HM information in 7 (43.7%) countries; HM dependence or abuse in 6 (37.5%) countries; medication errors in 5 (31.2%) countries; falsification and adulteration in 2 (each 12.5%) countries and HM-drug interactions in 1 (6.3%) country. Groups in countries encouraged to submit herbal reports were pharmacists and physicians (both n=15); nurses (n=13); herbal therapists (n=12); patients (n=11) and local manufacturers (n=8). The number of herbal reports received by most countries was very low or even insignificant. VigiFlow is used by 10 countries. Information from pharmacovigilance activities is disseminated using many means. Only five countries have regulatory status and quality control of their HM products. The participants identified a need for HM regulation, technical and training assistance, and funding as being major challenges to HM pharmacovigilance in countries. Particular attention to the development of pharmacovigilance of HM is required in Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A study of trace elements in some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, A.; Biswas, S.K.; Akhter, S.

    1995-05-01

    Twenty one medicinal plants (herbal) have been investigated for major, minor and trace elements using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method. The samples were collected from the local market in Dhaka city and they were analysed by the thick-target external beam technique of the PIXE method. The samples were exposed to the proton beam as 1-mm thick pellet 0 f 7 mm dia. and irradiated with 2.0 MeV proton having 10 nA beam intensity. for 10-20 μC irradiation, the concentration of 15 elements,K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr and Pb were measured by comparison with calibration factors obtained from a curve constructed on the basis of the NBS orchard leaf standard (SRM-1571) irradiated under identical experimental condition. The concentration of K and Ca observed in the samples were in the range of 0.34-5.96% and .11-3.98% respectively. For Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, As and Pb the concentration ranges were 4.1-1100, 60-7600, 1.1-276, 7-164, 1.2-48, 1.1-31, and 3.1-128 mg/kg respectively. Ti, Br, Rb, Sr and Zr were also determined with variable accuracy. The validity of the procedure was established by analysing a NIST standard (tomato leaf). The results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. 17 refs.,3 tables, 3 figs

  8. Emergency Medicine Residency Boot Camp Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataya, Ramsey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishing a boot camp curriculum is pertinent for emergency medicine (EM residents in order to develop proficiency in a large scope of procedures and leadership skills.  In this article, we describe our program’s EM boot camp curriculum as well as measure the confidence levels of resident physicians through a pre- and post-boot camp survey. Methods: We designed a one-month boot camp curriculum with the intention of improving the confidence, procedural performance, leadership, communication and resource management of EM interns. Our curriculum consisted of 12 hours of initial training and culminated in a two-day boot camp. The initial day consisted of clinical skill training and the second day included code drill scenarios followed by interprofessional debriefing.   Results: Twelve EM interns entered residency with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale across all surveyed skills. Interns reported the highest pre-survey confidence scores in suturing (4.3 and genitourinary exams (3.9. The lowest pre-survey confidence score was in thoracostomy (2.4. Following the capstone experience, overall confidence scores increased to 4.0. Confidence increased the most in defibrillation and thoracostomy. Additionally, all interns reported post-survey confidence scores of at least 3.0 in all skills, representing an internal anchor of “moderately confident/need guidance at times to perform procedure.” Conclusion: At the completion of the boot camp curriculum, EM interns had improvement in self-reported confidence across all surveyed skills and procedures. The described EM boot camp curriculum was effective, feasible and provided a foundation to our trainees during their first month of residency. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:356–361.

  9. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  10. Prevalence of diagnosed temporomandibular disorders: A cross-sectional study in Brazilian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mara de Paiva Bertoli

    Full Text Available The prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD increases during adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have examined TMD prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.To investigate the prevalence of TMD in Brazilian adolescents.A representative population-based sample of 934 adolescents (10-14-years-old was examined. TMD screening was performed using a questionnaire by the American Academy of Orofacial Pain. TMD diagnoses used research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD-Axis-I. Examinations were performed by a single calibrated examiner (kappa > 0.80.The prevalence of TMD symptoms was 34.9%; the most frequently reported symptoms were headache and neck ache (20.9%, followed by joint sounds (18.5%. Myofascial pain was the most prevalent type (10.3%, followed by disc displacement with reduction (8.0% and arthralgia (3.5%. There was a significant association between sex and TMD symptoms; prevalence was significantly higher in girls (RP = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.14-1.65; p = 0.001. Myofascial pain of TMD and displacement with reduction were more prevalent in girls (RP = 1.76; p = 0.007 and RP = 2.06; p = 0.004, respectively.TMD symptoms were present in 34.9% of adolescents, with myofascial pain being the most prevalent type (10.3%. TMD was significantly more common in girls. Routine pediatric dental care should include a TMD screening.

  11. [Evidence-based medicine and real world study in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ronglin; Hu, Ling; Wu, Zijian

    2015-09-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been widely applied in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion, and the real-world study (RWS) has gradually become an important way of clinical research in the world in recent years. It is worthy of our in-depth study and discussion that how to evaluate the advantages and limitations of EBM and RWS as well as their reasonable application in clinical study of acupuncture and moxibustion. The characteristics and difference between RWS and EBM, and the situation of acupuncture clinical research methods are discussed in this paper. It is proposed that we should understand the advantages of RWS in acupuncture clinical research, fully realize the limitations of EBM and RWS, recognize the complexity and particularity of RWS, and apply EBM and RWS into acupuncture clinical research. Meanwhile acupuncture clinical manipulation standardization should be further promoted, which is benefit to develop clinical study, improve clinical efficacy and promote the popularization of acupuncture and moxibustion.

  12. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants with narcotic, sedative and analgesic effects in west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, K; Bahmani, M; Rafieianb-Kopaei, M D; Asadollahi, K; Emaneini, M; Taherikalani, M

    2016-01-01

    The first step for identification of medicinal plants and their therapeutic effects is to determine their use by local people, traditional medicine books and personal experiences. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used as analgesic, sedative or narcotic agents by local residents of Dehloran, Iran. Interviews conducted with 53 informants (38 male and 15 female) revealed that a total of 32 medicinal plants belonging to 22 families are used in Dehloran as narcotic, sedative and analgesic agents. The most utilized plant families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae. Approximately 74% of the utilized plants was attributed to herbs, followed by trees (13%) and shrubs (13%). Sixty-six percent of the medicinal plants used in the study area were perennial and the rest were annual or biannual. The most widely used plant parts were flowers (34%) followed by leaves (24%) and fruits (14%). Thirty-nine percent of the medicinal plants were used as sedatives, 39% as analgesics, and 24% as narcotics. Recommended plants in this study can be good candidates for further clinical and laboratory trials on diseases that are associated with pain, suffering, stress and depression. They also can be used to develop new sedative, narcotic and analgesic drugs.

  13. Ethnopharmacological studies of indigenous medicinal plants in the south of Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Hosseini, Mohammad; Farajpour, Mostafa; Boroomand, Naser; Solaimani-Sardou, Farshad

    2017-03-06

    The aim of this study was to collect and document information concerning the medicinal plants used by indigenous people and traditional healers in the south of Kerman Province, Iran. Overall, 64 informants between the ages of 30 and 89 were interviewed about the modes of application and consumption of medicinal plants in the region. Quantitative analysis was conducted that included informant consensus factor (ICF), use value (UV), relative frequency of citation (RFC) and cultural importance index (CI). In the current study, a total of 115 medicinal plants in 41 families were reported in the south of the Kerman region. Apiaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae (with 14 species each) were the families with the most medicinal plants. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves at 26.17% and aerial parts (23.49%). Decoction (53%), liniment (23%) and infusion (9%) were the most common preparation methods. The highest UVs were obtained from the following medicinal plants: Amygdalus eburnea Spach, Genista tinctoria L., Calotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand., Fortuynia garcinii (Burm.f.) Shuttlew. and Cerasus mahaleb (L.) Mill. The ICF results indicated that cold-flu and fever were the most common diseases (0.67) in the south of Kerman. Based on the current study, the south of Kerman has many potential medicinal plants, and these plants should be the focus of future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland: Scottish Heart Health Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, W C; Kenicer, M B; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Clark, E C; Crombie, I K

    1990-01-01

    Data from 10,359 men and women aged 40-59 years from 22 districts in the Scottish Heart Health Study were used to describe the prevalence rates of coronary heart disease in Scotland in 1984-1986 and their relation to the geographical variation in mortality in these districts. Prevalence was measured by previous history, Rose chest pain questionnaire, and the Minnesota code of a 12 lead resting electrocardiogram. The prevalence of coronary heart disease in Scotland was high compared with studi...

  15. "It's just routine." A qualitative study of medicine-taking amongst older people in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordoff, June; Simonsen, Kirsten; Thomson, W Murray; Norris, Pauline T

    2010-04-01

    To explore how New Zealanders aged 65 years and older manage their medicines in their own homes, and determine the problems and concerns they might have with taking them. Urban setting, Dunedin (population 120,000), New Zealand. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken of community-dwelling people 65 years and older. Sixty people, from a random sample of 80 from the electoral roll, met the recruitment criteria and were invited to participate. The first ten men and ten women agreeing to participate were interviewed. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcriptions were thematically coded and analysed using grounded theory and constant comparison. Emerging themes were explored under the topics: accessing medicines, remembering to take medicines, following instructions, practical problems, adverse effects, concerns about medicines, and beliefs about medicines. Ten of thirteen men and 10/20 women contacted (61%) agreed to participate. The men were aged 71, 67-82 years (median, range) and women 77, 69-87 years. They were using 140 prescription medicines (median 7, range 3-16) and 34 non-prescription medicines (1, 0-6); mainly for the nervous system (28%), or the cardiovascular system (22%). Participants felt that they had good access to medicines, could afford them, managed them well, and had systems and routines to help them remember to take them. Occasional doses were missed following a change in routine. Practical problems were found such as difficulty swallowing or halving tablets. Three-quarters of participants had experienced adverse effects during their lives. These were managed by dose or drug changes or by taking practical measures. People were worried about adverse effects occurring whether or not they had experienced them previously. Beliefs about medicines were mainly positive, although some people disliked taking them. The people 65 years and over in this study felt that they could access, afford and manage their medicines

  16. Research medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    In Section I of this annual report, a brief summary of work is presented by the Research Medicine Group. The major emphasis has been the study of the blood system in man with a special emphasis on the examination of platelet abnormalities in human disease. New programs of major importance include the study of aging or dementia of the Alzheimer's type. A differential diagnosis technique has been perfected using positron emission tomography. Studies on the biochemical basis of schizophrenia have proceeded using radioisotope studies which image physiological and biochemical processes. In the investigation of atherosclerosis, techniques have been developed to measure blood perfusion of the heart muscle by labelling platelets and lipoproteins. Progress is reported in a new program which uses NMR for both imaging and spectroscopic studies in humans. The group has determined through an epidemiological study that bubble chamber and cyclotron workers who have been exposed to high electromagnetic fields for two decades have no significant increases in the prevalence of 21 diseases as compared with controls

  17. Prevalence of mental distress and associated factors among Hawassa University medical students, Southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Biniam; Bayu, Birhanu; Wondwossen, Fikir; Tilahun, Kalkidan; Lema, Seti; Ayehu, Moges; Loha, Eskindir

    2016-11-08

    Mental distress is a mental health problem expressed with variable levels of depressive, anxiety, panic or somatic symptoms. Owing to several factors tertiary level students are among the population with higher prevalence of mental distress and an even more higher prevalence has been reported in medical students. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of mental distress among medical students, and to evaluate contextually relevant associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students attending Hawassa University College of Medicine and Health Sciences in 2013/2014 academic year. Stratified random sampling was implemented with each strata representing the year of study of the students. Data on mental distress was collected using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). Data was entered into and analyzed using IBM SPSS statistics 21. A cut-off point of 8 and above was used to classify students as having mental distress. Among 240 students included in the study, 72 (30%) of them were found to have mental distress. There was no significant difference in mental distress between males and females (COR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.62-2.25). On bivariate analysis, students with age less than or equal to 21 years showed higher odds of having mental distress (COR = 2.3, 95% CI: 1.26-4.22), but because of having high correlation with students' year of study, age was excluded from the multivariate model. In this study being a pre-medicine student (AOR = 3.61, 95% CI: 1.45-8.97), perceiving medical school as very stressful (AOR = 3.89, 95% CI: 1.52-9.94), perceiving living environment as very crowded (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.24-4.77) and having a feeling of insecurity about one's safety (AOR = 2.93, 95% CI: 1.51-5.68) had statistically significant association with mental distress. In this study one-third of medical students were found to have mental distress. Designing prevention and treatment programs to address contextually

  18. A Study On Correlation Between Fertility And Contraceptive Prevalence In Rural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Verma

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:(1    To find the contraceptive prevalence in different reproductive age group females.(2    What is the correlation between fertility pattern and contraceptive prevalence.Study Design : Cross sectional descriptive study.Setting : Community Development block Sarojini Nagar, Lucknow district.Study universe : Married females in reproductive age group (15-49 Years.Study variables : Age, fertility, contraceptive prevalence, education and social class.Statistical analysis : Chi Square test.Result : Contraceptive prevalence was 29.7%. It was 6.5% for women aged 15-19 year to 45.2% for women aged 35­39 years. The acceptors were analyzed based on the number of living children. 74% of the acceptors had 3 or more children as against 26% with 0 to 2 living children.

  19. Prevalence of adhesions and associated postoperative complications after cesarean section in Ghana : a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuamah, Mercy A; Browne, Joyce L; Öry, Alexander V; Damale, Nelson K R; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Rijken, Marcus J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The global increase in Cesarean section rate is associated with short- and long-term complications, including adhesions with potential serious maternal and fetal consequences. This study investigated the prevalence of adhesions and association between adhesions and postoperative

  20. Listeriosis Phytotherapy: A Review Study on the Effectiveness of Iranian Medicinal Plants in Treatment of Listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Saki, Kourosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Ghafourian, Sobhan; Sadeghifard, Nourkhoda; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-12-17

    Listeria monocytogenes can be found in many processed foods, raw milk, dairy products, meat and meat products such as sausages, beef and fish products, seafoods, eggs, fruits, and vegetables such as radish and cabbage. This article is a review study on the Iranian medicinal plants applied for treatment of listeriosis. Information of this review article was obtained by searching various key words such as Listeria monocytogenes, medicinal plants, plant extracts and essential oils among scientific articles published in databases of Google scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Thyme, German chamomile, great chamomile, yarrow, onion, oregano, nutmeg, sage, sagebrush, hyssop, rosemary, St John's wort, safflower, ajowan, cumin, peppermint, shallot, anise, and parsnip are known antilisteriosis medicinal plants. Bioactive phytochemicals, antioxidants and monoterpenes, sesquiterpene, coumarin, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, and terpenoids are the main ingredients of antilisteriosis medicinal plants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekole, Getnet

    2017-10-04

    Traditional medicinal plant species documentation is very crucial in Ethiopia for biodiversity conservation, bioactive chemical extractions and indigenous knowledge retention. Having first observed the inhabitants of Gubalafto District (Northern Ethiopia), the author gathered, recorded, and documented the human traditional medicinal plant species and the associated indigenous knowledge. The study was conducted from February 2013 to January 2015 and used descriptive field survey design. Eighty-four informants were selected from seven study kebeles (sub-districts) in the District through purposive, snowball, and random sampling techniques. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews, guided field walks, demonstrations, and focus group discussions with the help of guided questions. Data were organized and analyzed by descriptive statistics with SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A total of 135 medicinal plant species within 120 genera and 64 families were documented. Among the species, Ocimum lamiifolium and Rhamnus prinoides scored the highest informant citations and fidelity level value, respectively. In the study area, Asteraceae with 8.1% and herbs with 50.4% plant species were the most used sources for their medicinal uses. A total of 65 ailments were identified as being treated by traditional medicinal plants, among which stomachache (abdominal health problems) was frequently reported. Solanum incanum was reported for the treatment of many of the reported diseases. The leaf, fresh parts, and crushed forms of the medicinal plants were the most preferred in remedy preparations. Oral application was the highest reported administration for 110 preparations. A majority of medicinal plant species existed in the wild without any particular conservation effort. Few informants (about 5%) had only brief notes about the traditional medicinal plants. Ninety percent of the respondents have learned indigenous

  2. Integrating biomedical and herbal medicine in Ghana - experiences from the Kumasi South Hospital: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Millicent Addai; Danso-Appiah, Anthony; Turkson, Bernard Kofi; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2016-07-07

    Over the past decade there has been growing interest in the use of herbal medicine both in developed and developing countries. Given the high proportion of patients using herbal medicine in Ghana, some health facilities have initiated implementation of herbal medicine as a component of their healthcare delivery. However, the extent to which herbal medicine has been integrated in Ghanaian health facilities, how integration is implemented and perceived by different stakeholders has not been documented. The study sought to explore these critical issues at the Kumasi South Hospital (KSH) and outline the challenges and motivations of the integration process. Qualitative phenomenological exploratory study design involving fieldwork observations, focus group discussion, in-depth interviews and key informants' interviews was employed to collect data. Policies and protocols outlining the definition, process and goals of integration were lacking, with respondents sharing different views about the purpose and value of integration of herbal medicine within public health facilities. Key informants were supportive of the initiative. Whilst biomedical health workers perceived the system to be parallel than integrated, health personnel providing herbal medicine perceived the system as integrated. Most patients were not aware of the herbal clinic in the hospital but those who had utilized services of the herbal clinic viewed the clinic as part of the hospital. The lack of a regulatory policy and protocol for the integration seemed to have led to the different perception of the integration. Policy and protocol to guide the integration are key recommendations.

  3. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Sirjan in Kerman Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajoei Nasab, F; Khosravi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-28

    From ancient time human beings have used different plants, animals and minerals to prevent and treat various diseases. In this respect, plants have been of particular importance. Ethnobotany is the science of reviewing how indigenous people and local tribes have used their regional plants for particular purposes such as treating diseases in the past. The information gathered from such studies can help to improve national health systems and even lead to the discovery of new medicines. Keeping this in mind, in this study a survey of Sirjan area ethnobotany was conducted during 2011-2012. At the beginning, thirteen local people were interviewed about their region׳s medicinal plants and their consumptions. These plants were collected and identified using identification keys. The data collected was analyzed using quantitative value indices FIC, RFC and CI. Many plants collected have medicinal properties and have been used by local people to treat various ailments. Of these plants, nineteen families, 37 genera and 43 species belonged to medicinal plants. Among them, Lamiaceae with 8 species and Malva L. with 3 species were the largest medicinal plant families and genera, respectively. These plants are often used as decoction (28%) and as powder (21%). Also, the fruit of these plants are used most often. Besides being used as medicinal plants, they have other uses such as food, fuel, etc. Malva sylvestris has the largest value of relative frequency of citation and cultural importance indices. The most ailment categories have the highest level of informant agreement (mean FIC=0.92). Despite the semi-desert climate and lack of rich vegetation, many medicinal and economic plants are found in Sirjan region. Uncontrolled harvesting of the medicinal plants such as Bunium persicum, Cuminum cyminum, Zataria multiflora and Satureja bachtiarica in this region by local people has increased the risk of their extinction and calls for a restrict control over their protection by the

  4. Evidence of a higher prevalence of HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Sampaio Lôpo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:HTLV-1 infection increases susceptibility to other infections. Few studies have addressed the co-infection between HPV and HTLV-1 and the immune response involved in this interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women and to establish the risk factors involved in this co-infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, between September 2005 and December 2008, involving 50 HTLV-1-infected women from the HTLV Reference Center and 40 uninfected patients from gynecological clinic, both at the Bahiana School of Medicine. HPV infection was assessed using hybrid capture. HTLV-1 proviral load was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The mean age of HTLV-1-infected women (38 ± 10 years was similar to that of the control group (36 ± 13 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 44% in the HTLV-1-infected group and 22.5% in uninfected women (p = 0.03. HTLV-1-infected women had lower mean age at onset of sexual life (17 ± 3 years versus 19 ± 3 years; p = 0.03 and greater number of lifetime partners compared with the control group (4 ± 3 versus 2 ± 1; p < 0.01. In the group of HTLV-1-infected patients, there was neither difference in HTLV-1 proviral load between HPV-infected women and the uninfected. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in HTLV-1-infected women. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the progression of this co-infection.

  5. [Motivation and support provided on training: a longitudinal study of a cohort of family medicine residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Dina; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Cruz, José Pestana

    2011-12-01

    Having as main goal the development of a culture of professional excellence, the Family Medicine residency currently intends to correspond to the principles of adult learning approach, in which motivation for practicing is essential. (1) To analyze the variability of Family Medicine residentes professional motivation, throughout the residency training; (2) To characterize Family Medicine residents perception about the support provided on training, during the residency; (3) To analyze the variability of Family Medicine residents perception about the support provided by the supervisor, throughout the residency. Observational, quantitative and longitudinal study (2005-2008) of Family Medicine residents who participated in a survey on professional motivation. At the beginning of the residency in 2005 (N = 109) in Portugal, they were submitted to three assessment moments (n = 69) by a postal survey using a questionnaire with 57 Likert scale items, representing motivational variables--professional project, professional commitment, initial motivation, intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy expectations, self-control expectations, assertiveness and perception of the support provided on training program. Descriptive statistics and analytic tests (ANOVA--GLM repeated measures) were used to study the variability of the cognitive dimensions (a = 0,05). Although motivated to Family Medicine practice (response rate = 47.8%, at the study entry), the physicians professional motivation variability along the residency has presented slightly positive, at the end of the study, but not statistically significant. The physicians of our cohort responded by assigning a relatively high average levels in almost all items of the scale support provided on training during the residency, and its variation showed a positive trend, at the end of the study. This study produced results of an important phenomenon on which there is no published information in Portugal. It provides substantial evidence on

  6. The International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study: background, methods and study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Glind, Geurt; Van Emmerik-van Oortmerssen, Katelijne; Carpentier, Pieter Jan; Levin, Frances R; Koeter, Maarten W J; Barta, Csaba; Kaye, Sharlene; Skutle, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Konstenius, Maija; Bu, Eli-Torild; Moggi, Franz; Dom, Geert; Demetrovics, Zolt; Fatséas, Mélina; Schillinger, Arild; Kapitány-Fövény, Máté; Verspreet, Sofie; Seitz, Andrea; Johnson, Brian; Faraone, Stephen V; Ramos-Quiroga, J Antoni; Allsop, Steve; Carruthers, Susan; Schoevers, Robert A; van den Brink, Wim

    2013-09-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an increasingly recognized comorbid condition in subjects with substance use disorders (SUDs). This paper describes the methods and study population of the International ADHD in Substance Use Disorders Prevalence (IASP) study. Objectives of the IASP are to determine the prevalence of ADHD in adult treatment seeking patients with SUD in different countries and SUD populations, determine the reliability and validity of the Adult ADHD Self-report Scale V 1.1 (ASRS) as ADHD screening instrument in SUD populations, investigate the comorbidity profile of SUD patients with and without ADHD, compare risk factors and protective factors in SUD patients with and without a comorbid diagnosis of ADHD, and increase our knowledge about the relationship between ADHD and the onset and course of SUD. In this cross-sectional, multi-centre two stage study, subjects were screened for ADHD with the ASRS, diagnosed with the Conner's Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID), and evaluated for SUD, major depression, bipolar disorder, anti social personality disorder and borderline personality disorder. Three thousand five hundred and fifty-eight subjects from 10 countries were included. Of these 40.9% screened positive for ADHD. This is the largest international study on this population evaluating ADHD and comorbid disorders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. ORGANIZATIONAL AND LEGAL STUDY OF THE CIRCULATION OF THE COMBINED MEDICINES CONTAINING DEXTROPROPOXYPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalov VV

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Scientific studies in recent years in the field of pharmaceutical law and forensic pharmacy indicate the existence of cause-effect relationships of various kinds of addictive dependence and illegal circulation of certain groups of combined medicines containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredients. Illegal production of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances from the combined drugs containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredients is of particular concern because these medicines are in legal trade in the pharmaceutical sector of Ukraine and used by patients in the treatment of pain of various etiologies, with colds, dry cough and others. Purpose of the work is to carry out organizational and legal studies of the legal circulation of combined medicines containing controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient – dextropropoxyphene. Materials and methods. Research material were legal documents, instructions for medical use of combined medicines, forensic and pharmaceutical practice, scientific literature sources and Internet sites. In carrying out organizational and legal studies were used conventional regulatory, documentary, retrospective, forensic and pharmaceutical comparative graphical analysis methods. Results and discussion. In the course of the organizational and legal research on the characteristics of the legal handling controlled drugs that contain controlled active pharmaceutical ingredient - dekstropropoksyfen found that to date its circulation is regulated by the Order of the Ministry of healthcare of Ukraine from 19.07.2005. №360 «On approval of the rules of writing prescriptions and requirements, orders for drugs and medical products, the Procedure for sale of drugs and medical supplies from pharmacies and their structural subdivisions and Instruction on storage, accounting and disposal of prescription forms and claims-orders» According to the requirements of this order all combined

  8. "Delirium Day": a nationwide point prevalence study of delirium in older hospitalized patients using an easy standardized diagnostic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, Giuseppe; Morandi, Alessandro; Di Santo, Simona G; Mazzone, Andrea; Cherubini, Antonio; Mossello, Enrico; Bo, Mario; Bianchetti, Angelo; Rozzini, Renzo; Zanetti, Ermellina; Musicco, Massimo; Ferrari, Alberto; Ferrara, Nicola; Trabucchi, Marco

    2016-07-18

    To date, delirium prevalence in adult acute hospital populations has been estimated generally from pooled findings of single-center studies and/or among specific patient populations. Furthermore, the number of participants in these studies has not exceeded a few hundred. To overcome these limitations, we have determined, in a multicenter study, the prevalence of delirium over a single day among a large population of patients admitted to acute and rehabilitation hospital wards in Italy. This is a point prevalence study (called "Delirium Day") including 1867 older patients (aged 65 years or more) across 108 acute and 12 rehabilitation wards in Italian hospitals. Delirium was assessed on the same day in all patients using the 4AT, a validated and briefly administered tool which does not require training. We also collected data regarding motoric subtypes of delirium, functional and nutritional status, dementia, comorbidity, medications, feeding tubes, peripheral venous and urinary catheters, and physical restraints. The mean sample age was 82.0 ± 7.5 years (58 % female). Overall, 429 patients (22.9 %) had delirium. Hypoactive was the commonest subtype (132/344 patients, 38.5 %), followed by mixed, hyperactive, and nonmotoric delirium. The prevalence was highest in Neurology (28.5 %) and Geriatrics (24.7 %), lowest in Rehabilitation (14.0 %), and intermediate in Orthopedic (20.6 %) and Internal Medicine wards (21.4 %). In a multivariable logistic regression, age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.05), Activities of Daily Living dependence (OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.12-1.27), dementia (OR 3.25, 95 % CI 2.41-4.38), malnutrition (OR 2.01, 95 % CI 1.29-3.14), and use of antipsychotics (OR 2.03, 95 % CI 1.45-2.82), feeding tubes (OR 2.51, 95 % CI 1.11-5.66), peripheral venous catheters (OR 1.41, 95 % CI 1.06-1.87), urinary catheters (OR 1.73, 95 % CI 1.30-2.29), and physical restraints (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.40-2.40) were associated with delirium. Admission

  9. Prevalence and correlates of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases in Botswana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letamo, Gobopamang; Keetile, Mpho; Navaneetham, Kannan; Phatsimo, Mpho

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the prevalence of self-reported chronic non-communicable diseases and their correlates in Botswana. This is a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey. This is a cross-sectional study of respondents aged 10-64 years using data from the Botswana AIDS Impact Survey IV conducted in 2013. Three self-reported non-communicable diseases, namely, hypertension, diabetes and asthma were used. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify their correlates. Out of the 2153 participants, the prevalence rates of hypertension, diabetes and asthma were 14.2%, 3.3% and 5.3%, respectively. The study found that among other factors, older populations are at a much higher risk of having more than one non-communicable disease. After controlling for other covariates, the ORs of self-reported non-communicable disease was highest among older respondents aged 50 years and over (AOR=12.01, pnon-communicable diseases are likely to increase in the future due to the rise in the old age population resulting from fertility transition and improvement in life expectancy in Botswana. Therefore urgent and holistic intervention programmes are required to halt the problem. Failure to act now is likely to result in high morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Some Notes on Critical Appraisal of Prevalence Studies; Comment on: “The Development of a Critical Appraisal Tool for Use in Systematic Reviews Addressing Questions of Prevalence”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Harder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions in healthcare should be based on information obtained according to the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM. An increasing number of systematic reviews are published which summarize the results of prevalence studies. Interpretation of the results of these reviews should be accompanied by an appraisal of the methodological quality of the included data and studies. The critical appraisal tool for prevalence studies developed and tested by Munn et al. comprises 10 items and aims at targeting all kinds of prevalence studies. This comment discusses the pros and cons of different designs of quality appraisal tools and highlights their importance for systematic reviews of prevalence studies. Beyond piloting, which has been performed in the study by Munn et al., it is suggested here that the validity of the tool should be tested, including reproducibility and inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that studies as the one by Munn et al. will help to establish a critical understanding of methodological quality and will support the use of systematic reviews of non-intervention studies for health policy making.

  11. Barriers and facilitators to implementing addiction medicine fellowships: a qualitative study with fellows, medical students, residents and preceptors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Klimas, J

    2017-01-01

    Although progress in science has driven advances in addiction medicine, this subject has not been adequately taught to medical trainees and physicians. As a result, there has been poor integration of evidence-based practices in addiction medicine into physician training which has impeded addiction treatment and care. Recently, a number of training initiatives have emerged internationally, including the addiction medicine fellowships in Vancouver, Canada. This study was undertaken to examine barriers and facilitators of implementing addiction medicine fellowships.

  12. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study is to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the local Hoklos people on Hainan Island, and compare medicinal traditions in the study area with Li medicines (LM) and traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). Ethnobotanical data were collected by 3 means: semi-structured interviews, personal conversation and guided field trips. There were 27 informants from 9 towns and 14 villages who were visited. Quantitative indices (Informant Consensus Factor - FIC, Use Value - UV, and Fidelity Level - FL) were calculated. In the present study, 264 species from 92 families and 233 genera were recorded, with Compositae (20 species), Leguminosae (19 species), Rubiaceae (12 species) and Gramineae (11 species) as predominate families. Leaves were the most frequently used parts in the preparation of local medicines. The most common preparation method was decoction (452 mentions). The plant with the highest values was Eclipta prostrata (0.46). The 6 plant species with the maximum FL (100%) were Atalantia buxifolia (Poir.) Oliv., Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth., Hypericum japonicum Thunb. ex Murray, Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv., Microcos paniculata L., and Psidium guajava L. In addition, 120 investigated human ailments were grouped into 10 categories, within which symptoms and signs (184 mentions), diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue (139 mentions) and diseases of the digestive system (94 mentions) were the most mentioned in our investigation. The informant consensus about using medicinal plants ranged from 0.27 to 0.48, which showed a high level of agreement among the informants on symptoms and signs (0.48) and certain infectious and parasitic diseases (0.43). In comparison with TCM and LM, the results reflected a closer connection between local medicine and TCM. The information reported by Hoklos people is of great value to ethnic medicinal culture. However, this precious medicinal knowledge is at risk of being lost due to rapid

  13. Integrative medicine for subacute stroke rehabilitation: a study protocol for a multicentre, randomised, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianqiao; Chen, Lifang; Chen, Luni; Wang, Chao; Keeler, Crystal Lynn; Ma, Ruijie; Xu, Shouyu; Shen, Laihua; Bao, Yehua; Ji, Conghua

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many patients with stroke receive integrative medicine in China, which includes the basic treatment of Western medicine and routine rehabilitation, in conjunction with acupuncture and Chinese medicine. The question of whether integrative medicine is efficacious for stroke rehabilitation is still controversial and very little research currently exists on the integrated approach for this condition. Consequently, we will conduct a multicentre, randomised, controlled, assessor-blinded clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of integrative medicine on stroke rehabilitation. Methods and analysis 360 participants recruited from three large Chinese medical hospitals in Zhejiang Province will be randomly divided into the integrative medicine rehabilitation (IMR) group and the conventional rehabilitation (CR) group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants in the IMR group will receive acupuncture and Chinese herbs in addition to basic Western medicine and rehabilitation treatment. The CR group will not receive acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine. The assessment data will be collected at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks postrandomisation, and then at 12 weeks’ follow-up. The primary outcome is measured by the Modified Barthel Index. The secondary outcomes are the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), Fugl-Meyer Assessment, the mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive, Hamilton's Depression Scale and Self-Rating Depression Scale, and the incidence of adverse events. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from ethics committees of three hospitals. The results will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at international congresses. The results will also be disseminated to patients by telephone, during follow-up calls inquiring on patient's post-study health status. Trial registration number Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR-TRC-12001972, http://www.chictr.org/en/proj/show.aspx?proj=2561 PMID:25475247

  14. [Comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine intervention for perimenopausal syndrome in women: a community study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin; Li, Ji; Song, Lin-Yi; Ni, Shuang; Chen, Ying-Chao; Huang, Shan-di

    2011-03-01

    As perimenopausal syndrome is a particularly disturbing condition to the patient, it is practical and necessary to establish a program of comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for women with perimenopausal syndrome. To observe the therapeutic effects of a comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for women with perimenopausal syndrome in the community. Women with perimenopausal syndrome who met the inclusion criteria in 3 communities of Shanghai were selected for this study. Comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy, including administration of Chinese herbs, auricular point therapy, psychological counseling and the practice of Tai Chi, was applied for these women. The modified Kupperman index was measured once every 4 weeks for 12 weeks; the indexes of menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire were measured before and after the treatment. There was no significant difference in 4 groups of negative conversion ratio of the modified Kupperman index at the 4th, 8th and 12th week, respectively. The indexes of the MENQOL questionnaire showed significant differences in 4 groups before and after the treatment. The overall efficacy rate of the comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy in women with perimenopausal syndrome achieved 97.84% at the 8th and the 12th week. The comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy can achieve significant improvements in women with perimenopausal syndrome who exhibit both physical and psychological symptoms. With such significant clinical effects, the comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy should be promoted in the community.

  15. Study of Herbal Medicine in Zirrah (Touz /Dashtestan/Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ali Ziraee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 23 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 131 medicinal plants belonging to 62 families were identified. Malva sylvestris, Zataria multiflora, Terminalia chebula, Cuminum cyminum, Foenicum vulgare, Olivera decumbens, Echium amoenum, Teucriuma polium, Cannabis sativa and Papaver somniferum had the highest cultural importance indices. Ducrosia anethifolia Bioss, Nigella sativa, Capparis spinosa and Urtica dioica had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynecological diseases and dermatological uses, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Zirrah (Touz/Dashtestan/Bushehr province are the same as Iran’s traditional medicine, but the people of this region use some of these plants for some diseases which are unique for this area. Thus, investigation about these plants should be initiated to discover novel drugs for clinical applications.

  16. The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: background and study methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Mills, E. N. C.; Clausen, M.; Dubakiene, R.; Pérez, C. Farnãndez; Fernández-Rivas, M.; Knulst, A. C.; Kowalski, M. L.; Lidholm, J.; Le, T.-M.; Metzler, C.; Mustakov, T.; Popov, T.; Potts, J.; van Ree, R.; Sakellariou, A.; Töndury, B.; Tzannis, K.; Burney, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological surveys in children and adults of the EU-funded multidisciplinary Integrated Project EuroPrevall, launched in June 2005, were designed to estimate the currently unknown prevalence of food allergy and exposure to known or suspected risk factors for food allergy across

  17. Number of patients studied prior to approval of new medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duijnhoven, Ruben G; Straus, Sabine M J M; Raine, June M

    2013-01-01

    . Both safety and efficacy require continued study after approval. New epidemiologic tools and legislative actions necessitate a review of the requirements for the number of patients studied prior to approval, particularly for chronic use, and adequate use of post-marketing studies. Please see later...

  18. Evaluation of the National Return of unwanted medicines (RUM) program in Australia: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Amanda J; Spinks, Jean; Bettington, Emilie; Kelly, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    The National Return of Unwanted Medicines (NatRUM) program in Australia is one of the few nationally coordinated, free-to-consumer schemes to dispose of unwanted medicines globally. This scheme has been in operation since 1996, however, little is known about public awareness of the scheme and its effectiveness in reducing unsafe disposal practices. The study objectives are to undertake a review of (1) the current use of the NatRUM scheme by consumers; and (11) to investigate disposal practices and beliefs of the general population. A two-stage, mixed-methods study will be undertaken. Stage One will include a nation-wide audit of a representative sample of unwanted medicine bins, collected by community pharmacies, for incineration. The audit will detail the type and amount of unwanted medicines collected and if they are subsidised on the national formulary (Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme). Stage Two will include: (i) a large, representative, general population survey; and (ii) more detailed interviews with a sub-set of this sample, who take five or more medications. Results will quantitatively describe the awareness of the NatRUM scheme, disposal practices and the volume of unwanted medicines stored in the home. It will qualitatively describe beliefs and perceptions about storage and disposal practices. It is anticipated that this study will provide valuable insights about how Australians dispose of unwanted medicines, their awareness of the NatRUM scheme and how the scheme might be strengthened. Results will inform the Federal Department of Health and NatRUM Ltd. Board at a local level, as well as other countries who are yet to develop or implement coordinated disposal schemes. A number of challenges are expected, including ensuring the consistency of medicines terminology during the bin audit and recruiting a representative sample of Australians for the general population survey. Results of this study will be widely disseminated to support the translation of

  19. A slaughterhouse study on prevalence of some helminths of cattle in Lorestan provience, west Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Ezatpour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate and provide data on the prevalence, epidemiological pattern zoonotic impact of helminth parasites in cattle slaughtered at abattoir in Khorramabad, Lorestan province, southwestern Iran from April 2010 to April 2013. Methods: A total of 1 50 869 livers of cattle were examined. The total prevalence rate of distomatosis and hydaditidosis in different seasons were calculated. Results: The overall prevalence rate of infection was 23.3%. The prevalence rate of hydatid cyst (9.4% infection was significantly higher than the prevalence of fasciolosis (7.6% and dicrocoeliosis (6.3% (P<0.001. Data showed significant seasonal pattern for three parasitic infections (P<0.001. The highest prevalence rate of Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infection were seen in spring, while the highest rate of hydatidosis was seen in winter. The highest and lowest of overall infection were recorded during winter 2012 and autumn 2011, respectively. Conclusions: According to this study, it can be concluded that Khorramabad as an endemic region for distomatosis and hydatidosis infection. More surveys are suggested to be carried out to collect more data about the internal organs infection prevalence and risk factors for developing a prediction model in ruminants in southwestern Iran.

  20. Prevalence of peri-implant disease on platform switching implants: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Duque DUQUE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of mucositis and peri-implantitis associated with the use of two types of implants—conventional versus platform switching after one year of loading. A longitudinal study of 64 implants in 25 patients was performed. Clinical variables, such as clinical pocket depth and bleeding upon probing, plaque, mobility, gingival recession, clinical attachment loss, and radiographic bone loss, were analyzed. The case definition for peri-implantitis was established as pockets of ≥ 5 mm with bleeding and bone loss ≥ 2 mm. One year after implant loading, the prevalence of mucositis and peri-implantitis with conventional implants (CIs was 81.2% and 15.6%, respectively. For platform switching implants (PSIs the prevalence was 90% and 6.6%, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.5375. However, there was a trend towards a lower prevalence of peri-implantitis with platform switching Implants.

  1. Prevalence of chronic pancreatitis: Results of a primary care physician-based population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Pasquali, Piera; Aceti, Alessandro; Balducci, Paolo; Bianchi, Patrizia; Buono, Francesco; Camerucci, Stefano; Cantarini, Rosanna; Centofanti, Sergio; Colantonio, Patrizia; Cremaschi, Riccarda; Crescenzi, Sergio; Di Mauro, Caterina; Di Renzi, Davide; Filabozzi, Andrea; Fiorillo, Alfonso; Giancaspro, Giuseppe; Giovannetti, Paola; Lanna, Giuseppe; Medori, Claudio; Merletti, Emilio; Nunnari, Enzo; Paris, Francesca; Pavone, Marco; Piacenti, Angela; Rossi, Almerindo; Scamuffa, Maria Cristina; Spinelli, Giovanni; Taborchi, Marco; Valente, Biagio; Villanova, Antonella; Chiriatti, Alberto; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2017-05-01

    Data on chronic pancreatitis prevalence are scanty and usually limited to hospital-based studies. Investigating chronic pancreatitis prevalence in primary care. Participating primary care physicians reported the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis among their registered patients, environmental factors and disease characteristics. The data were centrally reviewed and chronic pancreatitis cases defined according to M-ANNHEIM criteria for diagnosis and severity and TIGAR-O classification for etiology. Twenty-three primary care physicians participated in the study. According to their judgment, 51 of 36.401 patients had chronic pancreatitis. After reviewing each patient data, 11 turned out to have definite, 5 probable, 19 borderline and 16 uncertain disease. Prevalence was 30.2/100.000 for definite cases and 44.0/100.000 for definite plus probable cases. Of the 16 patients with definite/probable diagnosis, 8 were male, with mean age of 55.6 (±16.7). Four patients had alcoholic etiology, 5 post-acute/recurrent pancreatitis, 6 were deemed to be idiopathic. Four had pancreatic exocrine insufficiency, 10 were receiving pancreatic enzymes, and six had pain. Most patients had initial stage and non-severe disease. This is the first study investigating the prevalence of chronic pancreatitis in primary care. Results suggest that the prevalence in this context is higher than in hospital-based studies, with specific features, possibly representing an earlier disease stage. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of inherited ichthyosis in France: a study using capture-recapture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfus, Isabelle; Chouquet, Cécile; Ezzedine, Khaled; Henner, Sophie; Chiavérini, Christine; Maza, Aude; Pascal, Sandrine; Rodriguez, Lauriane; Vabres, Pierre; Martin, Ludovic; Mallet, Stéphanie; Barbarot, Sébastien; Dupuis, Jérôme; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette

    2014-01-06

    Inherited ichthyoses represent a group of rare skin disorders characterized by scaling, hyperkeratosis and inconstant erythema, involving most of the tegument. Epidemiology remains poorly described. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of inherited ichthyosis (excluding very mild forms) and its different clinical forms in France. Capture - recapture method was used for this study. According to statistical requirements, 3 different lists (reference/competence centres, French association of patients with ichthyosis and internet network) were used to record such patients. The study was conducted in 5 areas during a closed period. The prevalence was estimated at 13.3 per million people (/M) (CI95%, [10.9 - 17.6]). With regard to autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, the prevalence was estimated at 7/M (CI 95% [5.7 - 9.2]), with a prevalence of lamellar ichthyosis and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma of 4.5/M (CI 95% [3.7 - 5.9]) and 1.9/M (CI 95% [1.6 - 2.6]), respectively. Prevalence of keratinopathic forms was estimated at 1.1/M (CI 95% [0.9 - 1.5]). Prevalence of syndromic forms (all clinical forms together) was estimated at 1.9/M (CI 95% [1.6 - 2.6]). Our results constitute a crucial basis to properly size the necessary health measures that are required to improve patient care and design further clinical studies.

  3. Study of aqueous extract of three medicinal plants on cell membrane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of three medicinal plants, Artemisia dracunculus L, Cuminum cyminum L and Heracleum persicum Desf, which contain saponins on biological membrane. Also in this study, some of their physicochemical properties were studied. At the first step, the aqueous ...

  4. Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such...... diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction...... to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda....

  5. Results of prevalence study regarding comorbilities for various patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capisizu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that health problem represents an object of permanent study. The study to prevent chronic diseases, factors involved to keep the health status, means to improve the effect of various diseases/affections have been and are appreciated.

  6. Economic evaluation studies in nuclear medicine. A methodological review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, S.S.; Schwimmer, J.

    2000-01-01

    The growing need for evaluation of the utility of new nuclear medicine technologies has spawned a few economic studies ranging from preliminary indications of cost savings to complete decision analysis models incorporating costs and quality of life. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the methodological quality of economic analyses of nuclear medicine procedures which targeted cost-effectiveness or cost-utility issues published in the medical literature during the years 1985-1999. A computerized literature search was used to identify original investigations from the medical literature which included an economic analysis of a nuclear medicine procedure. Each economic analysis article was evaluated by two independent reviewers for adherence to ten accepted methodological criteria. Of the 29 articles meeting the search criteria, only six (21%) conformed to all ten methodological criteria. Published economic analyses of nuclear medicine procedures usually do not meet accepted methodological standards and could be significantly improved to achieve overall better quality relative to similar analyses in the literature from other medical fields. Continued improvement in the number and quality of economic studies is critically needed for the future competitiveness of nuclear medicine studies

  7. Usefulness of patient studies in learning family medicine at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These problems arise from difficult student-facilitator relations and from the logistics of doing patient studies, such as a lack of orientation and difficulty in obtaining literature. Conclusion: Patient studies are appropriate assignments for the M Fam Med programme at Medunsa. The problems, such as strained facilitator-student ...

  8. Ethnopharmacobotanical study on the medicinal plants used by herbalists in Sulaymaniyah Province, Kurdistan, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hiwa M

    2016-01-28

    Medicinal plants still play an important role in the Kurdish community. Sulaymaniyah Province in South Kurdistan (Iraq) has a great diversity of plants, including medicinal plants, yet very few scattered ethnobotanical studies conducted in Kurdistan are available in the scientific literature. Thus the study of Kurdish ethnobotany may be crucial for understanding local medicinal plant uses and their relationships to surrounding areas. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to document traditional medicinal plant uses among healers of southern Kurdistan. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document traditional knowledge on medicinal plants uses among traditional healers in the Province of Sulaymaniyah during 2014 and 2015. The data were collected by interviewing 45 traditional healers (36 males and 9 females between the ages of 25 and 80 years) who retain traditional knowledge on medicinal plants. Furthermore, the use value (UV) of taxa was determined and informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Further analysis was carried out to compare the field data with the Kurdish ethnobotanical literature. The present study found a total of sixty-six plant species, belonging to sixty-three genera within thirty-four plant families, used to treat ninghty-nine different types of ailments and diseases. The most important family was Lamiaceae (7 species), followed by Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Fabaceae (6 species each). The most frequently used parts were leaves (46 %), followed by flowers (15 %), and seeds (10 %). The most common preparation method was decoction (68 %), whereas few taxa were consumed as a vegetable (13 %) or ingested in powder form (10 %). The respiratory issues category had the highest ICF value (0.68), followed by inflammations and women's diseases (0.58 and 0.54, respectively). The highest UVs were recorded for the species Zingiber officinale (0.48), Matricaria chamomilla (0

  9. BODY COMPOSITION AND MORTALITY IN PREVALENT HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS: HEMO STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Filipowicz, Rebecca; Greene, Tom H.; Wei, Guo; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Both higher body size (as indicated by body mass index- BMI) and higher muscle mass (as indicated by serum creatinine- (SCr)) are associated with better survival in HD patients (pts) but the relative importance of muscle vs. body size is not established. In the current study, the associations of SCr, BMI and the ratio of Scr to BMI with time to death were examined in Cox proportional hazards models using HEMO study data. Details of HEMO Study have been published elsewhere. In the current stud...

  10. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Bangladesh: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Ziaul Islam; Anik, Ataul Mustufa; Farhana, Zaki; Bristi, Piali Dey; Abu Al Mamun, B M; Uddin, Mohammad Jasim; Fatema, Jain; Akter, Tanjila; Tani, Tania Akhter; Rahman, Meshbahur; Turin, Tanvir C

    2018-03-02

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of health problems that set the stage for serious health conditions and places individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and stroke. The worldwide prevalence of MS in the adult population is on the rise and Bangladesh is no exception. According to some epidemiological study, MS is highly prevalent in Bangladesh and has increased dramatically in last few decades. To provide a clear picture of the current situation, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with an objective to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the Bangladeshi population using data already published in the scientific literature. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and PubMed and manually checked references of all identified relevant publications that described the prevalence of MS in Bangladesh. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool the prevalence. Heterogeneity was explored using formal tests and subgroup analyses. Study quality and publication bias was also explored. Electronic and grey literature search retrieved 491 potentially relevant papers. After removing duplicates, reviewing titles and abstracts and screening full texts, 10 studies were finally selected. Most of the studies were conducted in rural populations and study participants were mostly females. The weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome regardless of gender and criteria used to define metabolic syndrome, was 30.0% with high heterogeneity observed. Weighted pooled prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher in females (32%) compared to males (25%) though not statistically significant (p = 0.434). Prevalence was highest (37%) when Modified NCEP ATP III criteria was used to define MS, while it was lowest (20%) when WHO criteria was used. In most cases, geographical area (urban/rural) was identified as a source of heterogeneity between the studies. Most of the studies met study quality assessment criteria's except adequate sample size

  11. Epidemiologic Studies of the Prevalence of Arterial Hypertension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An epidemiologic study was carried out in the dry season on 250 male commercial motor bike riders from five different parks. 69% of the bike riders were in the (year) 31– 40 and 41–50 age range while 31% were in 21–30, 51– 60 and 61 – 70 age range. Half of the population studied were normotensive. Arterial ...

  12. Study of Prevalence of Depression in Afghanian Refugees in Bardsir\\'s Camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hadi Mo'tamedi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The need for immigration usually depends on complicated relations between economical, social, familial and political factors. Unavailability to education, occupation, services and respecting to primary human rights are the most important factors in immigration. Materials & Methods: This study designed and performed for detection of frequency of depression in Afghan refugees in Bardsir’s camp. In this survey 300 persons (162 female, 138 male of that camp were selected. They filled out Beck's depression inventory and demographic questionnaire. The method of sampling was cluster sampling and the study was cross-sectional. Results: Total prevalence of depression in these refugees was 53%. The most severity of depression was in age group 20-29 years. Statistically there was no significant difference between depression and age. The relation between the prevalence of depression and sex was studied (57% in female and 47.8% in male. Statistically there was a significant between the prevalence of depression and sex (P<0.04. Depression rate among single people was more than married people, but the relation between the prevalence of depression and marital status was not significant. The most severity of depression in relation with refuges duration was found in the people with refuges period of 141-150 months. Conclusion: Generally the prevalence of depression among refugees except sex doesn't relate with demographic factors and mainly the factors after migration affected the prevalence of depression.

  13. Prevalence of self-medication among university students in Baghdad: a cross-sectional study from Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ameri, Rawa J K; Abd Al-Badri, Husham J; Lafta, Riyadh K

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study is to find out the prevalence and determinants of self-medication among college students in Baghdad, Iraq. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Al-Mustansiriyah and Al-Nahrain universities, Baghdad, from January to April 2015. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to collect data from 1435 college students using a questionnaire form. The mean age of the joining students was 19.8 years. Females form 53% of the sample. Self-medications use was prevalent among 92.4% of students. Antipyretics and antibiotics were the most used medicines. Self-medication was higher among urban residents (OR= 7.99, P self-medication more than others (OR= 2.501, P = 0.037). Students at health-related colleges showed greater resilience to self-medication (OR=0.455, P = 0.001). Despite free access to healthcare institutions, nine out of ten college students from Baghdad universities have practiced self-medication. Education of students about the safe use of medications and supervision of pharmacies are effective ways to control this malpractice.

  14. Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety amongst Cancer Patients in a Hospital Setting: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The biomedical care for cancer has not been complemented by psychosocial progressions in cancer care. Objectives. To find the prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients in a hospital setting. Design and Setting. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the tertiary care hospitals Shifa International Hospital Islamabad and Nuclear Medicine, Oncology, and Radiotherapy Institute [NORI]. Patients and Methods. 300 patients were interviewed from both the outpatient and inpatient department using The Aga Khan University Anxiety and Depression Scale (AKUADS. Main Outcome Measures. Using a score of 20 and above on the AKUADS, 146 (48.7% patients were suffering from anxiety and depression. Results. When cross tabulation was done between different factors and the cancer patients with anxiety and depression, the following factors were found out to be significant with associated p value < 0.05: education of the patient, presence of cancer in the family, the severity of pain, and the patient’s awareness of his anxiety and depression. Out of 143 (47.7% uneducated patients, 85 (59.4% were depressed, hence making it the highest educational category suffering from depression and anxiety. Conclusion. The prevalence of anxiety and depression amongst cancer patients was high showing that importance should be given to screening and counseling cancer patients for anxiety and depression, to help them cope with cancer as a disease and its impact on their mental wellbeing. Limitations. The frequency of female patients in our research was higher than those of male patients.

  15. Social class variation in medicine use among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Due, Pernille

    2004-01-01

    -sectional study of 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds, a Danish contribution to the WHO international collaborative study Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 1998. The study population comprised students from a national random sample of schools who answered a standardized questionnaire in the classroom......, participation rate 88%, n=5,205. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that medicine use for all four symptoms increased by decreasing social class, controlled for age and prevalence of the specific symptom for which the medicine was taken. Adjusted OR (95% CI) for medicine use among students from lower...... social classes were: medicine for headache 1.35 (1.11-1.65), medicine for stomachache 1.41 (1.08-1.84), medicine for difficulties in getting to sleep 2.00 (1.30-3.08), and medicine for nervousness 3.22 (1.87-5.56). CONCLUSION: Symptom-adjusted medicine use in a representative sample of Danish adolescents...

  16. Patients with COPD have low adherence to inhaled medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Peter; Toettenborg, Sandra; Topp, Marie

    2014-01-01

    describe results of previous studies on prevalence of adherence to inhaled medicine in COPD, and define characteristics of the patients and treatment associated with degree of adherence. We conclude that health professionals should always consider non-adherence, strive to simplify regiments......Medicine adherence in patients with obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), has not been studied in Denmark. Studies from other countries, however, unequivocally report low prevalence of patients who follow their doctor's advice and have sufficient adherence to inhaled medicine. In this review we......, and that there is an urgent need of studies aiming at improving adherence in patients with COPD....

  17. [Medical novels as a supplement to medical literature in the (postgraduate) study of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landex, Nadia Lander

    2011-12-05

    Medically relevant fiction and biographies are thought to possibly improve the reader's emotional competences, thus contributing to the (postgraduate) study of medicine. This paper evaluates whether medical novels might be relevant in the (postgraduate) study of medicine. The contents of four medical novels were evaluated qualitatively as regard to the professional and cultural contents and relevance. The medical novels were composed uniformly and considered to be both professional and cultural subjects. The professional subjects were mostly described correctly, and milieu and cultural subjects were realistic. The contents of the medical novels were relevant, but briefly described. Students of medicine and junior doctors may identify with the environment and the cultural subjects. It is not ruled out that medical novels can be used to acquire cultural competences, but - as regards professional knowledge - the study of professional literature will be more time-effective.

  18. Why Do Emergency Medicine Residents Experience Burn Out? A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Kamaloo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Emergency medicine residents are a high–risk group for burnout syndrome. This was a qualitative study with content analysis on emergency medical residents with 2 aims: evaluating the incidence of occupational burnout syndrome and identifying the points of view and attitudes of emergency medical residents about factors related to occupational burnout syndrome.Method: For this study, 2 sessions of focus group discussions were set up at Imam Khomeini hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Each session took 90 minutes, and 20 emergency medicine residents in their first or second year of emergency medicine residency participated in the sessions. Data were coded   by MAXQDA10 software.Results: Data were categorized in 4 themes as follow: (1 the characteristics of emergency medicine; (2 ambiguity in residents’ duties; (3 educational planning; and (4 careers.Data on the proposed solutions by residents were analyzed and coded in 3 groups including (1 changes in personal life; (2 arrangement in shifts; and  (3 educational issues.Conclusion: According to findings of this qualitative study, most of emergency medicine residents have experienced exhaustion sometime during the course of their residency. Psychological supports may help the residents to cope with their career difficulties and probable burn out.

  19. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Masaai people of Losho, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mutiso Chalo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species in Losho, Narok County, Kenya was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants.Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2012. Information was gathered from traditional practitioners who lived and practised in Losho, Narok County, Kenya using semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of taxonomist and voucher specimens deposited at the University of Nairobi Herbarium.Results: Twenty six (26 herbalists between the ages 20-69 years (10 men and 16 women were purposively selected and interviewed. The present investigation reported medicinal information for 33 species, belonging to 21 plant families. The most represented plant family was Asteraceae followed by Oleaceae and Rhamnaceae. 36 % of the species were used to manage stomach ache and stomach related ailments while 30% of the plant species were used to treat malaria.Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facility Losho Dispensary but a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  20. Why don't girls choose technological studies? Adolescents' stereotypes and attitudes towards studies related to medicine or engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sáez, Mercedes; Puertas, Susana; Sáinz, Milagros

    2011-05-01

    Gender differences in choice of studies emerge already in adolescence. Two studies with adolescents are presented, the goal of which is to explore the influence of gender by assessing males and females who choose studies related to Medicine or Engineering. Study 1, correlational (N = 330, mean age 15.9, 56.7% girls), shows that girls who choose technology are more poorly appraised than girls who choose other studies. Study 2 (N = 130; mean age 16.77, 56.2% girls), experimental, measures implicit attitudes (using the IAT) towards males and females from Medicine and Engineering. Implicit attitudes are more favorable towards women if they are studying Medicine and towards men if they study Engineering. The results are analyzed with relation to the percentages of boys and girls in the different fields of study.

  1. An Epidemiological Study of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Rate and a Comparison with Other Poisonings Recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and poisonous gas. Since there is currently no information on the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Mazandaran, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning and compare its prevalence with other poisonings recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, from 2009 to 2011. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study, in which the information was received from Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine. Results: Among the 2446 human deaths in 2009, 2010, 2011, 237 deaths were due to poisoning and 27 (11.4% were due to carbon monoxide poisoning, which ranked third after narcotic and Aluminum phosphide intoxication. Poisoning in males was 1.7 times more than females. Co was the most common cause of deaths among people aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusion: Considering the fact that in most cases of poisoning deaths caused by CO (silent killer come by quietly and in a hidden manner, CO actually makes any defense and escape impossible for the person and despite seeing the shadow of death, that person will inevitably surrender and will be defeated. Therefore, it is necessary to educate and inform the public through media and educational institutions about the risks and sources of CO poisoning.

  2. Provision of a Medicines Information Service to Consumers on Facebook: An Australian Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Spagnardi, Sarah; Beer, Troy; Aslani, Parisa

    2015-11-23

    Social networking sites (SNSs) have changed the way people communicate. They may also change the way people seek health advice. This study describes the provision of a medicines information service on Facebook to individual consumers. It aimed to discuss the pros and cons, and inform health and pharmacy stakeholders and researchers about the opportunities and challenges of providing such a service. We adopted an exploratory approach using a case study method. NPS MedicineWise, an independent, not-for-profit Australian organization, runs a public question-and-answer service on Facebook, dubbed Pharmacist Hour. Consumers following the organization's Facebook page are invited to post medication-related questions often with a suggested health topic. A wide range of questions and comments are posted related to medication usage. The pharmacist answers the queries, providing evidence-based medicines information and using consumer-friendly language, during the specific 1-hour period. The most popular questions in the past 12 months were related to adverse effects, treatment options for conditions, and drug interactions. The service had a mean number of engagements (defined as a like or share of the Pharmacy Hour post) of 38 (SD 19) people and a mean 5 (SD 3) questions per session. The Pharmacist Hour Facebook service addresses the medicines information needs of consumers and indirectly promotes other appropriate and relevant NPS MedicineWise products and services to further assist consumers. The service offers a new medium for a quality use of medicines organization committed to promoting awareness about the correct and safe use of medicines in Australia.

  3. Studies on detection and analysis of proteases in leaf extract of medicinally important plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Krishnan, Sivakumar; Perumal, Palani

    2018-02-01

    The whole plant or the extracts obtained from them have long been used as medicine to treat various human diseases and disorders. Notably, those plants endowed with protease activity have been traditionally used as the agents for treating tumors, digestion disorders, swelling, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis and also for immune-modulation. Proteases occupy a pivotal position in enzyme based industries. Plant proteases have been increasingly exploited for pharmaceutical, food, leather and textile processing industries. Earlier investigations have focused on the occurrence of proteases in medicinally unimportant plants. Therefore it has been aimed to study the occurrence of proteolytic enzymes from medicinally important plants establish any correlation exists between protease activity and medicinal use of individual plants. Crude extract were obtained from the leaves of 80 different medicinal plants. Tris-HCl buffer was used as the extraction buffer and the supernatants obtained were used for determination of total protein and protease activity using spectrophotometric methods. Qualitative screening for the presence of protease was carried out with agar diffusion method by incorporating the substrate. SDS-PAGE was used to analyse the isoforms of protease and for determination of relative molecular mass. Relatively higher protease activities were observed in the extracts of leaves of Pongamia pinnata (Fabaceae), Wrightia tinctoria (Apocyanaceae) Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae), Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae) and Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae). No correlation was found between the total protein content and protease activity in individual plant species. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the presence of multiple forms of protease of higher molecular weight range in several plant species. We found a strong correlation between the protease activity and medicinal application of the plant CONCLUSION: The present study has unequivocally revealed that the leaves of medicinal plants

  4. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Made Malini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge and usage of plant as medicinal remedy by current generation are not as extensive as previous; therefore, many rural communities with restricted modern medical access still rely on traditional medicine. This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Karangwangi Village of Cianjur District, West Java Indonesia. This study aimed to identify plants collected for medical purposes by the local people as well as to document the local names, uses, preparation, and location of these plants. Ethno botanical data was recorded by opting people participation and key informant approach involving semi-structured interviews, group discussions and filling of questionnaires. The results showed a total of 114 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified. Zingiberaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species, followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae (seven species each. The most-used plant parts were leaves (51.8%, followed by stems (22.9% and the most common preparations were decoction, poultice and squeezed. Most of the plants were obtained from the house-yard and total of 30 medicinal uses were recorded. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study showed that this area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. Ethnobotanical heritage should be preserved, however, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. Further, the findings can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation for analyzing phytochemical, pharmaceutical and other biological activities for future drug discovery.

  5. Study of Medical Students’ Malpractice Fear and Defensive Medicine: A “Hidden Curriculum?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Johnston

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Defensive medicine is a medical practice in which health care providers’ primary intent is to avoid criticism and lawsuits, rather than providing for patients’ medical needs. The purpose of this study was to characterize medical students’ exposure to defensive medicine during medical school rotations. Methods: We performed a cross- sectional survey study of medical students at the beginning of their third year. We gave students Likert scale questionnaires, and their responses were tabulated as a percent with 95% confidence interval (CI. Results: Of the 124 eligible third-year students,102 (82% responded. Most stated they rarely worried about being sued (85.3% [95% CI=77.1% to 90.9%]. A majority felt that faculty were concerned about malpractice (55.9% [95% CI=46.2% to 65.1%], and a smaller percentage stated that faculty taught defensive medicine (32.4% [95% CI=24.1% to 41.9%]. Many students believed their satisfaction would be decreased by MC and lawsuits (51.0% [95% CI=41.4% to 60.5%]. Some believed their choice of medical specialty would be influenced by MC (21.6% [95% CI=14.7% to 30.5%], and a modest number felt their enjoyment of learning medicine was lessened by MC (23.5% [95% CI=16.4% to 32.6%]. Finally, a minority of students worried about practicing and learning procedures because of MC (16.7% [95% CI=10.7% to 25.1%]. Conclusion: Although third-year medical students have little concern about being sued, they are exposed to malpractice concerns and taught considerable defensive medicine from faculty. Most students believe that fear of lawsuits will decrease their future enjoyment of medicine. However, less than a quarter of students felt their specialty choice would be influenced by malpractice worries and that malpractice concerns lessened their enjoyment of learning medicine.

  6. Study of medical students' malpractice fear and defensive medicine: a "hidden curriculum?".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William F; Rodriguez, Robert M; Suarez, David; Fortman, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Defensive medicine is a medical practice in which health care providers' primary intent is to avoid criticism and lawsuits, rather than providing for patients' medical needs. The purpose of this study was to characterize medical students' exposure to defensive medicine during medical school rotations. We performed a cross-sectional survey study of medical students at the beginning of their third year. We gave students Likert scale questionnaires, and their responses were tabulated as a percent with 95% confidence interval (CI). Of the 124 eligible third-year students, 102 (82%) responded. Most stated they rarely worried about being sued (85.3% [95% CI=77.1% to 90.9%]). A majority felt that faculty were concerned about malpractice (55.9% [95% CI=46.2% to 65.1%]), and a smaller percentage stated that faculty taught defensive medicine (32.4% [95% CI=24.1% to 41.9%]). Many students believed their satisfaction would be decreased by MC and lawsuits (51.0% [95% CI=41.4% to 60.5%]). Some believed their choice of medical specialty would be influenced by MC (21.6% [95% CI=14.7% to 30.5%]), and a modest number felt their enjoyment of learning medicine was lessened by MC (23.5% [95% CI=16.4% to 32.6%]). Finally, a minority of students worried about practicing and learning procedures because of MC (16.7% [95% CI=10.7% to 25.1%]). Although third-year medical students have little concern about being sued, they are exposed to malpractice concerns and taught considerable defensive medicine from faculty. Most students believe that fear of lawsuits will decrease their future enjoyment of medicine. However, less than a quarter of students felt their specialty choice would be influenced by malpractice worries and that malpractice concerns lessened their enjoyment of learning medicine. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(3):293-298.].

  7. Prevalence of hypertension in Indian tribes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S A Rizwan

    Full Text Available In India there is an increasing trend in hypertension prevalence among the general population. Studies have shown that tribal populations in India are also experiencing this burden.The aim was to estimate the pooled prevalence of primary hypertension among adult tribal populations of India.A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, IndMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and major journals for studies published between 1981 and 2011. Two authors independently reviewed the studies, did quality assessment and extracted data in pre-coded spread-sheets. Pooled estimates of prevalence of hypertension were calculated using DerSimonian-Laird random effects model. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses and meta-regression were performed.Twenty studies or 53 subpopulations with 64 674 subjects were included in final review. The pooled estimate of hypertension prevalence was 16.1% (95% CI: 13.5, 19.2. There was significant heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 99% and Q = 4624.0, df  = 53, p<0.001. Subgroup analyses showed that year of study, acculturation status, special features, and BP measurement techniques significantly influenced prevalence, but after meta-regression analyses, 'decade of study' remained the only covariate that significantly and independently influenced prevalence (R2 = 0.57, Q = 119.2, df  = 49, p value <0.001.An increasing trend was found in the prevalence of hypertension in adult tribal populations across three decades. Although acculturation was probably the underlying agent that caused this increase, other unmeasured factors that need further research were also important. Concerned policy makers should focus on the changing health needs of tribal communities.

  8. A prospective longitudinal study to estimate the prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sally S. Zahra

    2016-05-13

    May 13, 2016 ... Abstract Purpose: Nocturnal enuresis is defined as the involuntary voiding of urine in bed beyond the age at which bladder control is normally obtained. Previous studies have suggested a high rate of obesity in children with nocturnal enuresis. We evaluated this hypothesis and investi- gated the correlation ...

  9. Studies on the Prevalence, Knowledge, and Practices Toward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... used in the study. Malaria parasitemia was determined using rapid diagnostic test kit ((ICT. COMBO, Core Diagnostic, U.K). Other data was collected using .... Vomiting Loss of Diarrhea. Pale eyes Seizure/ Dizziness. Headache Joint/ Don't know. House- cold weakness appetite convulsion body pains holds ...

  10. A study on Prevalence of Drug Resistance in Drug Default ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), and particularly multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), has become a significant public health problem in a number of countries and an obstacle to effective global TB control. Method: This is a prospective randomized cross sectional study to ...

  11. Prevalence and morphometric studies on porcine cysticercosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    ±8.7(5-11) by 4.4±8.8(3-6) while those from the ... they ingest Taenia solium eggs through the contamination of their food or water with human ... is of free range with poor environmental and personal sanitation. This study was conducted to.

  12. Pilot study for assessment of prevalence of intrafamilial hepatitis C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hoda El Tayeb

    2012-03-02

    Mar 2, 2012 ... Duration of hemodialysis, past history of blood transfu- sions, and alanine ... nal failure and its effect on intrafamilial transmission of the virus. 3. Subjects and methods. Twenty patients with HCV were enrolled in this study. They ... Analysis of data was done by IBM computer using SPSS. (statistical program ...

  13. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of (F18)fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), (F18)fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of (F18)-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks.

  14. Nuclear medicine and imaging research (quantitative studies in radiopharmaceutical science)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.; Beck, R.N.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes three studies aimed at using radiolabeled pharmaceuticals to explore brain function and anatomy. The first section describes the chemical preparation of [F18]fluorinated benzamides (dopamine D-2 receptor tracers), [F18]fluorinated benzazepines (dopamine D-1 receptor tracers), and tissue distribution of [F18]-fluoxetine (serotonin reuptake site tracer). The second section relates pharmacological and behavioral studies of amphetamines. The third section reports on progress made with processing of brain images from CT, MRI and PET/SPECT with regards to brain metabolism of glucose during mental tasks

  15. Karyological study of the medicinal plant Papaver rhoeas from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The karyotype consisted of seven pairs of submetacentric chromosomes with one pairs of SAT chromosome (chromosome 2) having a secondary constriction at the end of its short arm. Karyological characteristics of all the materials studied were similar to each other; however, there were some variations on chromosome ...

  16. Innovative medicine of a modern healer a case.study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . 1 JUN 1991. 677. Summary. African healing is widely regarded as inflexible and unchang- ing. By way of a case study, it is ... innovative in his quest to attract a steady clientele. .... modes of treatment refer less to the individual healer than to.

  17. Preliminary study on the effect of medicinal mushroom extract and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mushrooms are like mannas and their water heal eye diseases. To determine if aqueous mushroom extract has an effect on ocular hypertension, 8 cats with baseline intra ocular pressure (IOP) of 14.94 ± 0.153mmHg were used in the first phase of this study. The second phase consisted of 2 groups, the experimental and ...

  18. Usefulness of patient studies in learning family medicine at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    first-hand experience of the learner as a major source of learning.2 .... possible bias. Ethical approval of the research was obtained in ad- vance from the Research, Ethics and. Publication Committee of Medunsa. Analysis. All the interviews were .... tions about patient studies. The general impression gained by this research ...

  19. Innovative medicine of a modern healer a case.study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-01

    Jun 1, 1991 ... African healing is widely regarded as inflexible and unchang- ing. By way of a case study, it is suggested that this is no longer the reality. Instead, the healer emerges as highly innovative in his quest to attract a steady clientele. A Xhosa healer, who borrows numerous medical items and symbols from his ...

  20. [Expedition medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlagić, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Expedition and wildeness medicine is a term that combines rescue medicine, sport medicine as well as more specific branches as polar or high altitude medicine. It is being intensively studied both at the reaserch institutes and on expeditions. Ophtalmologists are concentrated on the reaserch of HARH (High Altitude Retinal Hemorrhage), neurologists on HACE reaserch (High Altitude Cerebral Edema), psychologists are developing tests to decsribe cognitive functions and many physicians are being trained to work in extreme enviroment. The result of all this effort are numerous new findings in pathophysiology and therapy of altitude illness, increased security on expedition and further development of expeditionism.

  1. Psycho-socioeconomic factors affecting complementary and alternative medicine use among selected rural communities in Malaysia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Rajendran, Anantha Kumar; Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman

    2014-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as a source of cure has gained much spectrum worldwide, despite skeptics and advocates of evidence-based practice conceptualized such therapies as human nostrum. This study aimed to explore the factors affecting CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 288 occupants across four rural villages within the District of Selama, Perak, Malaysia. A survey that consisted of socio-economic characteristics, history of CAM use and the validated Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) were used. The prevalence of self-reported CAM use over the past one year was 53.1%. Multiple logistic regression analyses yielded three significant predictors of CAM use: monthly household income of less than MYR 2500, higher education level, and positive attitude towards CAM. Psycho-socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with CAM use among rural communities in Malaysia.

  2. Nutrition and the prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Grant, William B; Prina, A Matthew; Lee, Hsin-yi; Brayne, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Western diets are associated with obesity, vascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome and might increase dementia risk in later life. If these associations are causal, those low- and middle-income countries experiencing major changes in diet might also see an increasing prevalence of dementia. To investigate the relationship of dietary supply and the prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan over time using existing data and taking diagnostic criteria into account. Estimated total energy supply and animal fat from the United Nations was linked to the 70 prevalence studies in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan from 1980 to 2012 according to the current, 10 years, and 20 years before starting year of investigation. Studies using newer and older diagnostic criteria were separated into two groups. Spearman's rank correlation was calculated to investigate whether trends in total energy, animal fat supply, and prevalence of dementia were monotonically related. The supply of total energy and animal fat per capita per day in China increased considerably over the last 50 years. The original positive relationship of dietary supply and dementia prevalence disappeared after stratifying by newer and older diagnostic criteria and there was no clear time lag effect. Taking diagnostic criteria into account, there is no cross-sectional or time lag relationship between the dietary trends and changes in dementia prevalence. It may be too early to detect any such changes because current cohorts of older people did not experience these dietary changes in their early to mid-life.

  3. Prevalence of Patent Foramen Ovale in the Japanese Population- Autopsy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, Junko; Kawamura, Akio; Dembo, Tomohisa; Kimura, Tokuhiro; Fukuda, Keiichi; Okada, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) can cause ischemic stroke because of paradoxical embolism. Autopsy studies have shown that the prevalence of PFO is 25% in whites or blacks. However, there is a paucity of data on the prevalence of PFO in Asians. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence of PFO in the Japanese population. We reviewed 52,717 autopsy reports, which were collected and edited by the Japanese Society of Pathology from 2009 to 2012. Next, we inspected consecutive 103 formalin-fixed specimens that had already been examined by certified pathologists from 2009 to 2013 to find PFO and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA). ASA was defined as ≥10 mm protrusion of the septum into the left or the right atrium. In the database of the Japanese Society of Pathology, the incidence of PFO was 0.08% (43/52,717). Inspection of heart specimens disclosed that the prevalence of PFO was 13.6% (14/103). None of the PFO cases was reported at the original autopsy. PFO was more frequently found in the subjects with ASA (50%) than in those without ASA (9.7%) (P=0.004). PFO is under-reported in autopsy reports. Re-evaluation of heart specimens disclosed that the prevalence of PFO was 13.6%. The prevalence was lower than reported in the past.

  4. Prevalence of toothache and associated factors: a population-based study in southeast iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakoei, Shahla; Parirokh, Masoud; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Jamshidshirazi, Forogh; Rad, Maryam; Kakooei, Sina

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to estimate toothache prevalence among adult residents in Kerman. This cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted among individuals aged over 18 years (n=1800). The relevant data on the prevalence of toothache and associated factors were collected by interviewing the individuals in their homes and filling out a questionnaire designed by the examiners. Prevalence of toothache and associated factors that patients recalled previous to their interview were analyzed by chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Nine hundred ninety-one individuals (55.1%) reported toothache during the 6 months before the interview. The participants who flossed daily, had regular dental visits, and had higher education showed a significantly lower prevalence of toothache (Pdental floss (OR=1.5), or having a mental or psychological illness (OR=1.5) were more likely to have a history of toothache. High prevalence of toothache (more than half) among residents of Kerman shows a serious and major public health problem. Toothache prevalence in middle aged adults, lower education, bigger family size, lower dental hygiene habit and/or those having mental or psychological illness were more common in the city of Kerman.

  5. A study on the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis in Korean malocclusion patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Youp; Park, In Woo; Jang, In San; Choi, Dong Soon; Cha, Bong Kuen

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the idiopathic osteosclerosis (IO) in Korean malocclusion patients according to age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. This study consisted of 2,001 randomly selected patients from the Department of Orthodontics at the Gangneung-Wonju National University Dental Hospital, Korea. The prevalence of IO in Korean malocclusion patients was recorded using their panoramic radiographs, and the following parameters were surveyed; age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The chi-square test was analyzed to determine the statistical significance of differences in the prevalence of IO between age, sex, and the Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in the jaws was 6.7% in a total of 2,001 examined orthodontic patients. The majority of IO was found in the mandible (96.58%). The 30-39 age group showed the highest prevalence of IO (9.60%). There was a higher prevalence in females (6.89%) than in males (6.45%). The prevalence of IO in Angle Class I group (7.07%) was the most frequent, followed by Angle Class II group (6.72%), and Angle Class III group (6.40%). However, there was no statistical significance in sex and Angle's classification of malocclusion. The prevalence of IO in malocclusion patients showed the differences between various age groups and most of them were found in the mandibular posterior area. However, sex and the type of malocclusion are not to be considered as a contributing factor of IO.

  6. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Cross-Sectional Study Demonstrating Rising Prevalence in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Victoria Ping-Yi; Wong, Benjamin ChunYu; Wong, Wai Man; Leung, Wai Keung; Tong, Daniel; Yuen, Man Fung; Fass, Ronnie

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is consistently lower in the Chinese than in white populations. Population-based data tracking the time trend of GERD prevalence in Chinese subjects is conflicting. This study examines the population prevalence, risk factors, and time trend associated with GERD in a Chinese population. A population-based cross-sectional study utilizing a validated GERD questionnaire administered by a telephone survey was performed on 3360 Chinese subjects from Hong Kong. GERD prevalence rates in 2011 were compared with prevalence rates in 2002 and 2006. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to determine the risk factors associated with weekly GERD. A total of 2074 subjects (mean age, 48.1±18.2 y; range 18 to 94; 63.1% female) completed the survey (response rate 61.7%). The prevalence of GERD as defined by the Montreal definition was 3.8%. The prevalence of weekly GERD had increased by 1.3% between 2002 and 2011, which represents an at least 50% relative increase (PGERD was associated with noncardiac chest pain [odds ratio (OR), 1.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.034-2.9; P=0.037], dyspepsia (OR, 5.1; 95% CI, 3.0-8.8; PGERD rates in the ethnic Chinese have risen over the last decade. Despite this, variables associated with a survey diagnosis of GERD remain ostensibly unchanged. GERD research in East Asia should focus on the factors driving the rapid rise in prevalence rates and the association with more atypical symptoms of GERD.

  7. [Clinical study of integrative medicine in treatment of nephropathy: strategy and innovation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ping

    2008-05-01

    The author analyzed the main issues in current clinical study of integrative medicine in treatment of renal diseases, and proposed the target-oriented strategy for clinical study of different renal diseases, emphasizing the importance of method improvement for academic innovation.

  8. Paramedics' experiences of financial medicine practices in the pre-hospital environment. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Vincent-Lambert

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study are concerning as the actions of service providers described by the participants constitute gross violations of the ethical and professional guidelines for health care professionals. The authors recommend additional studies be conducted to further explore these findings and to establish the reasons for, and ways of, limiting financial medicine practices in the South African emergency care environment.

  9. Medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives: a comparative study in Australia and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Shaiful B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmaceutical representatives provide medicines information on their promoted products to doctors. However, studies have shown that the quality of this information is often low. No study has assessed the medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Malaysia and no recent evidence in Australia is present. We aimed to compare the provision of medicines information by pharmaceutical representatives to doctors in Australia and Malaysia. Methods Following a pharmaceutical representative's visit, general practitioners in Australia and Malaysia who had agreed to participate, were asked to fill out a questionnaire on the main product and claims discussed during the encounter. The questionnaire focused on provision of product information including indications, adverse effects, precautions, contraindications and the provision of information on the Pharmaceutical Benefit Scheme (PBS listings and restrictions (in Australia only. Descriptive statistics were produced. Chi-square analysis and clustered linear regression were used to assess differences in Australia and Malaysia. Results Significantly more approved product information sheets were provided in Malaysia (78% than in Australia (53% (P Conclusions Information on indications and dosages were usually provided by pharmaceutical representatives in Australia and Malaysia. However, risk and harmful effects of medicines were often missing in their presentations. Effective control of medicines information provided by pharmaceutical representatives is needed.

  10. Drinking alcohol for medicinal purposes by people aged over 75: a community-based interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Marja; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Sulkava, Raimo

    2008-12-01

    Physicians often encounter patients using alcohol as self-medication, but studies on community level are scarce. Because of alcohol-medicine interactions, it is important to know also all self-medication used. To describe alcohol use as self-medication by people aged over 75 years. The home-dwelling elderly (n = 699) among a random sample of 1000 subjects from the total population of individuals aged 75 years or more in the city of Kuopio, Finland, were interviewed about their alcohol consumption and use as self-medication and also about their lifestyle habits, medicaments and diseases. A geriatrician checked their medical records for medical conditions. Half of the subjects consumed alcohol, and 40% of them used alcohol for medicinal purposes. This was equally common in females and males. The quantity used was half a unit or less in 68% of cases. Brandy and other spirits were the most commonly used beverages, and heart and vascular disorders (38%), sleep disorders (26%) and mental problems (23%) were the commonest reasons for use. The study found altogether 84 persons who responded negatively to the question about alcohol consumption but later reported using alcohol as self-medication. Drinking alcohol for medicinal purposes is common among the aged in Finland. Some people, especially older women, may find it easier to discuss their alcohol consumption in the context of medicinal use. Physicians have to consider the possible risks of alcohol associated with concomitant medical conditions and interactions of alcohol with medicines.

  11. The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues.

  12. Specialist Physicians' Attitude towards Emergency Medicine; a Semi-Structured Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Shahrooz; Nejati, Amir; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aghili, Seyed Mojtaba

    2018-01-01

    The present study is a survey to assess the pros and cons of emergency medicine (EM) from the viewpoint of the scholars from other medicine disciplines to improve the efficiency of EM in the healthcare system. This is a semi-structured qualitative study. Face-to-face interviews with various physicians with different specialties were performed to gather information on their viewpoints. Study population was selected mainly based on their history of collaboration with emergency medicine specialists in several educational hospitals in Tehran, Iran. All interviews were recorded and then transcribed to paper. Data were mainly categorized and reported into four themes: 1) general aspects of emergency medicine, goals and policies 2) Management of emergency department 3) Educational aspects 4) therapeutic aspects. 22 specialist physicians with the mean age of 47.3±7.6 years were studied (77.3% male). The average of their work experience as a specialist was 13.6±7.5 years. From the viewpoint of other experts, the establishment of EM and training of EM specialists is accompanied with relative disadvantages and advantages regarding goals and policies, patient management, therapeutic interventions and student education in the emergency department. Initiating resuscitation and maintaining hemodynamic stability and appropriate triage of the patients can add to the benefits of EM by preventing unreasonable hospitalization, and reducing the workload and difficulty of the work of other professionals working in the hospital. Based on the results of the current study, it seems that most Iranian specialist physicians have a positive attitude towards emergency medicine and think that emergency medicine could have beneficial effects for the health system and hospital management system.

  13. Pharmacokinetic study of medicinal polymers: models based on dextrans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakov, V.N.; Pimenova, G.N.; Matveev, V.A.; Sedov, V.V.; Vasil'ev, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the pharmacokinetics of dextrans with various molecular masses modified by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) using a radioisotope method. The radionuclide 125 I was selectively bound to a FITC residue attached to the polysaccharide by electrochemical iodination under potentiostatic conditions. In the experiments, dextrans modified by FITC were labeled with 125 I (DF- 125 I) by electrochemical iodination. The separation of DF- 125 I and FITC from ionic forms of the radionuclide not bound to the polymer was carried out. The properties of the samples obtained are presented. The radioactivity accumulated in the rate organs and urine studied are shown. The features of DF- 125 I behavior in the blood and liver are examined

  14. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa: Perceptions versus Reality – A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Aarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines must be addressed to ensure that people use them with confidence. Campaigns to increase the uptake of generic medicines by consumers and providers of healthcare need to be informed by local norms and practices. This study sought to compare South African consumers’ and healthcare providers’ perceptions of quality of generics to the actual quality of selected products. Methods The study was conducted at the local level in three cities of South Africa: Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town. Purposive sampling was used to recruit consumer participants (n = 73 and random sampling used to recruit healthcare providers from public and private sectors (n = 15. Data were obtained through twelve focus group discussions with consumers and semi-structured interviews (n = 15 with healthcare providers in order to gain familiarity with perceptions of quality. One hundred and thirty five products comprising paracetamol tablets (n = 47, amoxicillin capsules (n = 45 and hydrochlorothiazide tablets (n = 43 were sourced from public and private sector healthcare providers. These products were subjected to in vitro dissolution, uniformity of weight and identity (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy tests using prescribed methods from the British (2005 and United States Pharmacopeias (2006. Results Respondents described drug quality in relation to the effect on symptoms. Procurement and use behavior of healthcare providers was influenced by prior experience, manufacturers’ names and consumers’ ability to pay. All formulations passed the in vitro tests for quality. Conclusions This study showed clear differences between

  15. A study of medicinal plants used as ethnoveterinary: harnessing potential phytotherapy in Bheri, District Muzaffarabad (Pakistan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil Ahmed, Muhammad; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-15

    Medicinal plants are utilized for handling health care system and in preventing a variety of diseases. A survey was conducted to document the rapidly disappearing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in union council Bheri, District Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Questionnaire format was used to collect the medicinal uses of plants. The 180 informants were interviewed from six villages in total, 30 from each village (20 male and 10 female) regarding the ethnoveterinary uses of plants in several ailments. For the reliability of ethnoveterinary knowledge, the informant consensus factor (FIC), and fidelity level (FL) were calculated and the literature cited was surveyed. The medicinal information was gathered from local inhabitants, healers, shepherds and old men and women of different age groups. A total of 24 medicinal plant species used as ethnoveterinary were found belonging to 22 genera and 19 families. The most dominant family was Polygonaceae (3 species) followed by Araceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae each with 2 species and remaining families having one species. The important medicinal plant species showed the highest fidelity level (FL) such as: Rumex nepalensis, Primula denticulata, (100%) used for dysuria, red urination, Skimmia laureola (100%), Swertia paniculata (99%), and Angelica glauca (97%), used for ague, cold, shivering, gastric ailments, Melia azedarach (100%), used to reduce intestinal worm load in cattle showing the conformity of knowledge on these species. Highest FIC was recorded for foot and mouth diseases and ectoparasite (1) followed by ague (0.98) and dysuria (0.99) depicting that a few species were used to cure various animals׳ ailments. The findings of the research revealed that merely a few species are used as ethnoveterinary medicine supported by pharmacology study. Due to anthropogenic pressure the extinction of each species from the areas could result in disappearing knowledge regarding century׳s old traditional methods of

  16. A study of technetium-99m wastage in selected private sector nuclear medicine imaging departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathurine, Germaine; Bresser, Philippa; Teixeira, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    South African nuclear medicine imaging departments have been fortunate in being able to receive an uninterrupted supply of molybdenum-99 (99Mo)/technetium-99m (99mTc) generators. Nuclear medicine radiographers practising in private sector services in the northern Gauteng region indicated a possible problem with the quantities of wasted and unused 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals returned to the radiopharmaceutical supply laboratory. Daily radiopharmaceutical deliveries are a combination of ordered packages and standard packages. The purpose of the standard package is to accommodate emergency and after-hours nuclear medicine services. The purpose of the study was to interrogate the unconfirmed reports of 99mTc radiopharmaceutical wastage. A descriptive quantitative research design was conducted in six private sector nuclear medicine imaging practices in the northern Gauteng region. Overt observations of the quantities of radiopharmaceutical supply, usage and wastage were conducted over 2 days in each of these practices. Ordered packages comprised 14% of the total 99mTc radiopharmaceutical deliveries to these six nuclear medicine imaging departments. It was identified that:(1) a total of 83.2% of ordered packages and 35.1% of standard packages of preprepared syringes were utilized;(2) a total of 36% of ordered packages and 22.6% of standard packages of bulk 99mTc were utilized; and (3) a total of 70.6% of the total quantity of radiopharmaceuticals was returned to the radiopharmaceutical laboratory. The total wastage represented 45.5% of the ordered packages and 75.8% of the standard packages. Wastage of 74 GBq of 99mTc from six sites over 12 days should raise concerns for the nuclear medicine industry. A review of the system framework that supports communication between the radiopharmaceutical supplier/s and the nuclear medicine imaging practices is recommended.

  17. The Impact of a Cultural Immersion Study Abroad Experience in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Shelley F; Taggart, Helen M

    2016-09-01

    Study abroad programs have increased dramatically. Most programs are short-term and include a cultural immersion as well as classroom and/or service learning. In this article, the authors discuss a study abroad program to China that included cultural immersion and classroom learning specific to traditional Chinese medicine. Participants kept journals with specific writing assignments and reflections about their experiences during the trip. At the conclusion of the trip, a qualitative survey was administered to the participants. Outcomes included the benefits of cultural immersion and a greater appreciation of cultural diversity, complementary and alternative medicine and holistic health care. Participants were able to describe transformational experiences of living in and learning from the Chinese culture and peoples. They intended to incorporate their experiences and enhanced understanding of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative therapies to provide culturally competent holistic health care in their nursing practice. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. The prevalence of diagnosed tourette syndrome in Canada: A national population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jaeun; Hirsch, Lauren; Martino, Davide; Jette, Nathalie; Roberts, Jodie; Pringsheim, Tamara

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine: (1) the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome in Canada by sex in youth (aged 12-17) and adults and (2) socioeconomic factors in this population. The majority of epidemiological studies of tics have focused on children and youth, with few studies describing the prevalence of tics in adult populations. Canadian data on Tourette syndrome prevalence were derived from the Canadian Community Health Survey 2010 and 2011 cycles, a Statistics Canada population-based cross-sectional survey that collects information related to health status. We determined the prevalence of diagnosed Tourette syndrome and examined sociodemographic factors, including age, sex, education, income, employment, and birthplace. Overall, 122,884 Canadians participated in the surveys, with 122 participants diagnosed with Tourette syndrome. The prevalence of Tourette syndrome was higher in males in youth: 6.03 per 1000 (95% confidence interval: 3.24-8.81) in males versus 0.48 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.05-0.91) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 5.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.38-11.81). In adults, the prevalence of Tourette syndrome was 0.89 per 1,000 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-1.29) in males versus 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.16.0-0.71) in females, with a prevalence risk ratio of 1.93 (95% confidence interval: 1.21-3.08). After adjusting for age and sex, adults with Tourette syndrome had lower odds of receiving postsecondary education or being employed and higher odds of having income lower than the median and receiving governmental support. Data on the prevalence of Tourette syndrome in adults are scarce because most studies focus on children. Our data demonstrate a decreasing prevalence risk ratio for sex in adults compared to children. A diagnosis of Tourette syndrome is associated with lower education, income, and employment in adulthood. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016

  19. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnancy: An epidemiological study from 11 cities in 9 states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Dhanwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A previous hospital based study from Delhi revealed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women. Several other studies with small sample size also indicate a rising trend of prevalence of hypothyroidism during pregnancy in India. Objective: To assess prevalence of hypothyroidism in pregnant women from various states/cities across India. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted at Allahabad (Uttar Pradesh, Bengaluru (Karnataka, Chennai (Tamil Nadu, Kolkata (West Bengal, Hyderabad (Telangana, Nasik (Maharashtra, Rohtak (Haryana, Pune (Maharashtra, New Delhi (Delhi, Srinagar (Kashmir, and Vizag (Andhra Pradesh enrolling 2599 pregnant women. Estimation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, free T4, and antithyroid peroxidase (TPO antibodies was carried out using Roche modular kit using ECLIA technology in a central laboratory. Results: We found in our study population that 13.13% of pregnant women have hypothyroidism (n = 388, using a cutoff TSH level of 4.5 μIU/ml. This prevalence was much higher using the American Thyroid Association criteria. Anti-TPO antibodies were positive in 20.74% of all pregnant women (n = 613, whereas 40% (n = 155 of hypothyroid pregnant women were positive for anti-TPO antibodies. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is a high prevalence of hypothyroidism (13.13%, majority being subclinical in pregnant women during the first trimester from India and universal screening of hypothyroidism may be desirable in our country.

  20. Geographical variations in the prevalence of atopic sensitization in six study sites across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Yeung, M; Anthonisen, N R; Becklake, M R; Bowie, D; Sonia Buist, A; Dimich-Ward, H; Ernst, P; Sears, M R; Siersted, H C; Sweet, L; Van Til, L; Manfreda, J

    2010-11-01

    Geographical variations in atopic sensitization in Canada have not been described previously. This study used the standardized protocol of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey-1 (ECRHS-1) to investigate the distribution and predictors of atopic sensitization in six sites across Canada and to compare the results with some ECRHS-1 centers. Adults aged 20-44 years in six study sites across Canada underwent allergy skin testing using 14 allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) cat, cockroach, grasses (Timothy grass, Kentucky grass), molds (Cladosporium herbarium, Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium), trees (tree mix, birch, Olea europea), and common ragweed. The overall prevalence of atopy (skin test over 0 mm to any allergen) was 62.7%. There was significant geographical variation in the prevalence of atopy in the six study sites (lowest 55.6% [95% C.I.51.3-59.9] in Prince Edward Island, highest 66.0 [61.7-70.3] in Montreal) and of sensitization to each of the allergens tested even after adjustment for confounders. When the first eight of the nine allergens in the ECRHS were used to estimate the prevalence of atopic sensitization, the prevalence of atopy in Canada was 57% compared with 35.2% overall for centers in the ECRHS. The prevalence of atopy in Vancouver (57% [52.3-61.8]) was close to that of Portland, Oregon (52.1% [46.2-58.0]). There was a significant variation in atopic sensitization among different study sites across Canada. The prevalence of atopic sensitization is relatively high in Canada compared with sites in the ECRHS and this may, in part, account for the high prevalence of asthma and asthma symptoms in Canada. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Dong Woo

    Full Text Available The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016. A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005. The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  2. Dietary patterns of Korean adults and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants' dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the 'traditional' pattern, the 'meat' pattern, and the 'snack' pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00-2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10-4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults.

  3. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. Design: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment

  4. High prevalence of eating disorders in narcolepsy with cataplexy: a case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.; Swinkels, S.H.N.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Renier, W.O.; Furer, J.W.; Rijnders, C.A.T.; Hodiamont, P.P.G.; Overeem, S.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of and symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy. DESIGN: We performed a case-control study comparing symptoms of eating disorders in patients with narcolepsy versus healthy population controls, using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in

  5. Prevalence and pattern of vitreo-retinal diseases in Nepal: the Bhaktapur glaucoma study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thapa, S.S.; Thapa, R.; Paudyal, I.; Khanal, S.; Aujla, J.; Paudyal, G.; van Rens, G.H.M.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vitreo-retinal diseases are among the leading causes of visual impairment and blindness worldwide. This study reports the prevalence and pattern of vitreo-retinal diseases in the Bhaktapur Glaucoma Study (BGS), a population based study conducted in Nepal. Methods. BGS was a population

  6. The prevalence of clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis and its clinical manifestations: a nationwide register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exarchou, Sofia; Lindström, Ulf; Askling, Johan; Eriksson, Jonas K; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Neovius, Martin; Turesson, Carl; Kristensen, Lars Erik; Jacobsson, Lennart T H

    2015-05-09

    Prevalence estimates of ankylosing spondylitis vary considerably, and there are few nationwide estimates. The present study aimed to describe the national prevalence of clinically diagnosed ankylosing spondylitis in Sweden, stratified according to age, sex, geographical, and socio-economic factors, and according to subgroups with ankylosing spondylitis-related clinical manifestations and pharmacological treatment. All individuals diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the World Health Organization International Classification of Disease codes, between 1967 and 2009, were identified from the National Patient Register. Data regarding disease manifestations, patient demographics, level of education, pharmacological treatment, and geographical region were retrieved from the National Patient Register and other national registers. A total of 11,030 cases with an ankylosing spondylitis diagnosis (alive, living in Sweden, and 16 to 64 years old in December 2009) were identified in the National Patient Register, giving a point prevalence of 0.18% in 2009. The prevalence was higher in northern Sweden, and lower in those with a higher level of education. Men had a higher prevalence of ankylosing spondylitis (0.23% versus 0.14%, P ankylosing spondylitis of 0.18%. It revealed phenotypical and treatment differences between the sexes, as well as geographical and socio-economic differences in disease prevalence.

  7. Maintenance fluid therapy in a tertiary hospital: A prevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uña Orejón, R; Gisbert de la Cuadra, L; Garríguez Pérez, D; Díez Sebastián, J; Ureta Tolsada, M P

    To assess the types of maintenance fluids used in our hospital, comparing their volume and composition to the standards recommended by the guidelines. Observational, cross-sectional study. Volume and type of fluid therapy administered during 24h to patients admitted to various hospital departments were recorded. Patients receiving fluid therapy because of water-electrolyte imbalance were excluded. Out of 198 patients registered, 74 (37.4%) were excluded because they did not meet the criteria for inclusion. Mean administered volume was 2,500cc/day. Mean daily glucose dose was 36g per 24h (SD: 31.4). The most frequent combination included normal saline solution (NSS) and glucose 5% (64.4%). Mean daily dose of sodium and chlorine was, respectively, 173mEq (SD: 74.8) and 168mEq (SD: 75), representing a surplus daily dose of +87.4mEq and +85mEq. Potassium, magnesium and calcium daily deficit was, respectively, -50mEq, -22mEq and -21mEq per day. Buffer administration was exceptional, bicarbonate (2.29%), acetate (1.29%), lactate (1.15%) and gluconate (1.10%) being the buffering agents most frequently used. NNS is the most frequently used solution. In contrast to excess doses of sodium and chlorine, there is a great deficit of other ions, buffering agents and caloric intake in the fluid therapy regimens that are usually prescribed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Finkelhor, David; Jones, Lisa M; Wolak, Janis

    2012-01-01

    To obtain national estimates of youth involved in sexting in the past year (the transmission via cell phone, the Internet, and other electronic media of sexual images), as well as provide details of the youth involved and the nature of the sexual images. The study was based on a cross-sectional national telephone survey of 1560 youth Internet users, ages 10 through 17. Estimates varied considerably depending on the nature of the images or videos and the role of the youth involved. Two and one-half percent of youth had appeared in or created nude or nearly nude pictures or videos. However, this percentage is reduced to 1.0% when the definition is restricted to only include images that were sexually explicit (ie, showed naked breasts, genitals, or bottoms). Of the youth who participated in the survey, 7.1% said they had received nude or nearly nude images of others; 5.9% of youth reported receiving sexually explicit images. Few youth distributed these images. Because policy debates on youth sexting behavior focus on concerns about the production and possession of illegal child pornography, it is important to have research that collects details about the nature of the sexual images rather than using ambiguous screening questions without follow-ups. The rate of youth exposure to sexting highlights a need to provide them with information about legal consequences of sexting and advice about what to do if they receive a sexting image. However, the data suggest that appearing in, creating, or receiving sexual images is far from being a normative behavior for youth.

  9. Family Medicine Education with Virtual Patients: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocan, Monika; Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika

    2015-08-01

    Virtual patients (VP) have been present within the medical education process for some time. Although they are assumed to be of great benefit for student learning, very little is know about student perception and outcomes of learning, especially during the pre-clerkship years. Therefore we have decided to investigate the use of VPs during lectures, which has never been analyzed before, but could present an opportunity for more effective and holistic learning. This was a qualitative study among the 4th year undergraduate medical students at the Medical Faculty, University of Maribor, Slovenia. Students, after completing 4 virtual patient cases during the semester, were asked to participate in focus groups. Using these focus groups we asked students to provide information about their perceptions of VP cases, their learning, and suggestions for educational improvements. Data was transcribed and analyzed using the grounded theory-based coding method (open coding). Medical students reported having a positive attitude towards virtual patient learning. They perceived them as helpful for filling in knowledge gaps, learning appropriate patient care and clinical reasoning. However, especially within the setting of early clinical learning, students felt the need to discuss their questions with their tutors in order to achieve better learning outcomes. Students on teaching courses feel the need for structured instructor sessions and the integration of VP