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Sample records for medicine historical perspective

  1. Evolution of nuclear medicine: a historical perspective

    Ahmed, A.; Kamal, S.

    1996-01-01

    The field Nuclear Medicine has Completed its 100 yeas in 1996. Nuclear medicine began with physics, expanded into chemistry and instrumentation, and then greatly influenced various fields of medicine. The chronology of the events that formulated the present status of nuclear medicine involves some of the great pioneers of yesterday like Becquerel, Curie, Joliot, Hevesy, Anger, Berson and Yallow. The field of nuclear medicine has been regarded as the bridge builder between various aspects of health care and within next 20 years, nuclear medicine enters a new age of certainty, in which surgery, radiation and chemotherapy will only be used when a benefit in certain to result from the treatment. (author)

  2. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation.

  3. Physics and medicine: a historical perspective.

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2012-04-21

    Nowadays, the term medical physics usually refers to the work of physicists employed in hospitals, who are concerned mainly with medical applications of radiation, diagnostic imaging, and clinical measurement. This involvement in clinical work began barely 100 years ago, but the relation between physics and medicine has a much longer history. In this report, I have traced this history from the earliest recorded period, when physical agents such as heat and light began to be used to diagnose and treat disease. Later, great polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci and Alhazen used physical principles to begin the quest to understand the function of the body. After the scientific revolution in the 17th century, early medical physicists developed a purely mechanistic approach to physiology, whereas others applied ideas derived from physics in an effort to comprehend the nature of life itself. These early investigations led directly to the development of specialties such as electrophysiology, biomechanics, and ophthalmology. Physics-based medical technology developed rapidly during the 19th century, but it was the revolutionary discoveries about radiation and radioactivity at the end of the century that ushered in a new era of radiation-based medical diagnosis and treatment, thereby giving rise to the modern medical physics profession. Subsequent developments in imaging in particular have revolutionised the practice of medicine. We now stand on the brink of a new revolution in post-genomic personalised medicine, with physics-based techniques again at the forefront. As before, these techniques are often the unpredictable fruits of earlier investment in basic physics research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise is medicine: a historical perspective.

    Berryman, Jack W

    2010-01-01

    Much of the early information about exercise and medicine appeared in the ancient, medieval, and Renaissance medical literature in the context of the "six things nonnatural." These were the things that were under everyone's own control, directly influenced health, and became the central part of the new "physical education" movement in the early 19 century in the United States. They were known then as the "Laws of Health." Until the early 1900s, "physical education" was dominated by physicians who specialized in health and exercise. However, physical education changed to a games and sports curriculum led by coaches who introduced competition and athletic achievement into the classroom. As that happened, physicians disappeared from the profession. Through the last half of the twentieth century, as exercise became more central to public health, the medical community began to view exercise as part of lifestyle, a concept embracing what was once called the "six things nonnatural."

  5. Systems Approaches: A Global and Historical Perspective on Integrative Medicine

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of healing systems is a dance of cultural awareness and cultural dominance that has arisen throughout history. With the development of greater communication and interest in whole-systems approaches to healing, the opportunity for the development of a global perspective on healing has emerged with new life force. The birth of integrative holistic healing systems in the West, such as naturopathic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, integral and functional medicine, and others, echoes the ocean of wisdom present in traditional healing systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. In working to integrate the lessons from these systems, we see the inextricable link between man and the natural world, we work to understand the root cause of disease, we focus on the whole person to return balance, and we use empiric observation in large populations over time to grasp the interrelationships inherent in the whole-systems view of illness and wellness. PMID:24278794

  6. Medical dominance in Canada in historical perspective: the rise and fall of medicine?

    Coburn, D; Torrance, G M; Kaufert, J M

    1983-01-01

    Freidson's concept of medical dominance is compared to the alternative conceptions of neo-Marxist writers. Dominance is then examined in historical perspective, using medicine in Canada (mainly Ontario) as a case study. Medicine emerged as the dominant health occupation in Canada in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, consolidating its power between World War I and the Saskatchewan doctors' strike of 1962. The authors argue that medical dominance has declined since that time due to such factors as the involvement of the state in health insurance, the rise of other health occupations, increasing public or at least elite skepticism, and possible internal fragmentation. The underlying social explanation for this historical process is sought in changes in the Canadian class structure, specifically the spread of the capitalist mode of production, the decline of the petite bourgeoisie, and the rise of the state. It is suggested that Freidson's specific accounts of the history of medicine must be incorporated for explanatory purposes within the broader neo-Marxist view of medicine as an intermediary rather than an ultimately determining institution.

  7. Historical perspective

    Davis, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    A historical perspective of the nuclear waste issue is presented, beginning from the Atoms for Peace Legislation which made nuclear technology available to private industry in 1953 to 1954. Once the nuclear process had been demonstrated to be a technically and economically feasible method to convert thermal energy for electric power generation, commercial application began. The issue of nuclear waste management did not keep up with higher priorities. As early as 1957, research into storing the waste in geological structures was conducted by the National Academy of Sciences, and considerable technical progress was made in the 60's. During the 60's and 70's, numerous legislative actions (e.g., Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, Environmental Policy Act) had a significant impact on nuclear waste dipsosal decisions. In 1971 to 1972 the Atomic Energy Commission authorized a nuclear waste repository in Kansas, a decision which was amended the following year and finally abandoned altogether in 1974. The OPEC oil embargo and ensuing price actions moved nuclear power into a more prominent position in the United States' plans for energy independence. This increased the stress between environmental concerns and economic need. The Carter Administration indefinitely deferred reprocessing of spent fuel and initiated a government-wide review of nuclear policy issues. The Congress did not actively begin to fashion a nuclear waste program until February 1980. The legislation which passed the Senate in the Spring of '82, and a compromise version pending before the House, may resolve the issue by establishing a long-term stable policy which will contain milestones, goals and specific decision making processes; it will include a mechanism for the public and the states to be involved; and it will insure adequate financing provisions

  8. Historical perspective

    Landsberg, H. E.

    It was a pleasure to learn, from a recent (May 4) issue of Eos, of the formation of a permanent Committee on History of Geophysics. There is a dire need for reference material, books, and articles on geophysical history.Let me recommend to them that they take a good look at the Dictionary of the History of Science (W.F. Bynum, E.J. Browne, Roy Porter (Eds.), Princeton University Press, 494 pp., 1981). What follows is not a book review, although it may appear so. It is meant to be a challenge to place geophysics on the map in historical context. In this book, hydrology is dealt with in one sentence under the heading ‘cycle,’ geomagnetism under ‘declination and dip,’ and its history ends with Edward Sabine. Seismology appears under earthquakes. No important seismologist is mentioned. In the biographical index, Wiechert is included only for a contribution to physics. Where are Sir Harold Jeffreys, Galitzin, Gutenberg, Mohorovičić, Lehman, and many others? Meteorology ends with V. Bjerknes and Solberg; Köppen, Richardson, Rossby, and other notables [of] the last century do not seem to exist.

  9. Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions.

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems.

  10. Einstein: A Historical Perspective

    Kormos-Buchwald, Diana

    2015-04-01

    In late 1915, Albert Einstein (1879-1955) completed as series of papers on a generalized theory of gravitation that were to constitute a major conceptual change in the history of modern physics and the crowning achievement of his scientific career. But this accomplishment came after a decade of intense intellectual struggle and was received with muted enthusiasm. Einstein's previously unpublished writings and massive correspondence, edited by the Einstein Papers Project, provide vivid insights into the historical, personal, and scientific context of the formulation, completion, and reception of GR during the first decades of the 20th century.

  11. Basavarajeeyam: A historical perspective.

    Nishteswar, K

    2011-10-01

    Basavarajeeyam is an important handbook for an Ayurvedic physician of Andhra region. It is a bilingual work and the content was presented in Sanskrit and Telugu languages. With regard to the place and date of Basavarajeeyam there is no common opinion among the present day scholars. Pt Govardhana Sharma Changani in his introduction to the Sanskrit version of Basavarajeeyam exposed a historical profile of Basavrajeeyam picturising him as Basava who was a staunch follower of Veerashaivism and a contemporary of king Bijjala (end of 12(th) cent. AD). The same statement is carried out in the works of Ayurvedic Itihasa written by Atredeva Vidyawalkan and Acharya Priyavrata Sharma. It appears that the historical evidence shown by these scholars is one sided and cannot stand any reason. Basavraju stated that he had started writing this work after a thorough study of many works such as Charaka, Nithyanatheeyam (1360 AD), Revenakalpam, Pujyapadiyam, Bahatam, Kashikhandam (1435 AD) etc. Basavraju has faithfully reproduced certain chapter of Vaidyachintamani, which is considered to be a work of 15(th) century. Basavraju not only mentioned Phirangiroga in the index of diseases described by him at the end of the book, but also indicated Phirangichekka (Madhusnuhi) in the management of Meharoga and Granthi. By this evidence Basavarajiyam should be considered as the work of post Bhavaprakasha period. Basavraju indicates in the Gulmaroga Chikitsa that Sankhadravaka should be administered in the dose of 'Ekanni'. The name Ekanni was given for a copper coin which came in to circulation of money during British India produced from Madras mint (1794 AD). Based on these internal evidences, it can be safely concluded that Basavraju belong to 18(th)century.

  12. Historic images in nuclear medicine

    Hess, Søren; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Alavi, Abass

    2014-01-01

    In 1976, 2 major molecular imaging events coincidentally took place: Clinical Nuclear Medicine was first published in June, and in August researchers at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania created the first images in humans with F-FDG. FDG was initially developed as part of an evolution...... set in motion by fundamental research studies with positron-emitting tracers in the 1950s by Michel Ter-Pegossian and coworkers at the Washington University. Today, Clinical Nuclear Medicine is a valued scientific contributor to the molecular imaging community, and FDG PET is considered the backbone...

  13. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  14. The INIS Thesaurus: historical perspective

    Duresa, Bekele Negeri; Vakula, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The INIS Thesaurus is a controlled terminological knowledge base that has been developed over the years through the contribution of INIS Member States in all areas of peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology, which is also the subject scope of the INIS Collection. The thesaurus is primarily used for subject indexing of input into the INIS system and for retrieval of information from the database. Thanks to the vital support of INIS Member States, the thesaurus has been translated into eight languages (i.e. all IAEA official languages plus German and Japanese) and is available online to assist our global users as a tool for retrieval and for general reference. It is a dynamic information resource that is continually updated to cater to new developments of terminologies in nuclear science and technology. Since its inception in the 1960’s, it was decided that the subject analysis for INIS input preparation be based on its own subject categories, which also determines its scope, and keyword indexing using a thesaurus. This article briefly describes the development of the INIS Thesaurus from a historical perspective

  15. Radium in consumer products: an historical perspective

    Holm, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper demonstrates in historical and technical perspective how radium began to be used in consumer products and how changing conditions in technology and regulations have greatly modified the use of radium. In addition, the various uses of radium that have been tried or have been used in consumer products have been described, and whenever possible, the historical perspective has been used to show when devices were needed and when changing conditions caused the products to be no longer required. The historical perspective attitude is again used in the evaluation of the risks and benefits of radium in comparison to radium substitutes

  16. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    Nuvolari, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. From a historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what Robert C.

  17. Open source software development : some historical perspectives

    Nuvolari, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we suggest that historical studies of technology can help us to account for some, perplexing (at least for traditional economic reasoning) features of open source software development. When looked in historical perspective, open source software seems to be a particular case of what

  18. Stem cells and bone: a historical perspective.

    Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Bone physiology and stem cells were tightly intertwined with one another, both conceptually and experimentally, long before the current explosion of interest in stem cells and so-called regenerative medicine. Bone is home to the two best known and best characterized systems of postnatal stem cells, and it is the only organ in which two stem cells and their dependent lineages coordinate the overall adaptive responses of two major physiological systems. All along, the nature and the evolutionary significance of the interplay of bone and hematopoiesis have remained a major scientific challenge, but also allowed for some of the most spectacular developments in cell biology-based medicine, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This question recurs in novel forms at multiple turning points over time: today, it finds in the biology of the "niche" its popular phrasing. Entirely new avenues of investigation emerge as a new view of bone in physiology and medicine is progressively established. Looking at bone and stem cells in a historical perspective provides a unique case study to highlight the general evolution of science in biomedicine since the end of World War II to the present day. A paradigm shift in science and in its relation to society and policies occurred in the second half of the XXth century, with major implications thereof for health, industry, drug development, market and society. Current interest in stem cells in bone as in other fields is intertwined with that shift. New opportunities and also new challenges arise. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Stem cells and bone". Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. VARIETIES OF SOCIAL DISCIPLINING, HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES.

    Tomás A. Mantecón Movellán

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Historical thought has tended to explain social disciplining according to two main analytical perspectives: on one hand, German tradition about the so-called sozialdisziplinierung and, on the other hand, Foucault perspectives (focussed on disciplines practiced on the bodies-and/or-minds of people by the authorities. From these both viewpoints social disciplining was a dynamic ingredient of change, from traditional societies up to contemporary liberal societies; a machinery to provoke top-down changes (from above. On the bases of historical evidences, this research claims for a third viewpoint that stresses dynamics of social discipline and social disciplining from below; underlines the need of integrating this third perspective in the historical explanation of change in past societies throughout the analysis of social practices of everyday life; the values underneath them and, in the end, taking into account varieties of discipline and perspectives of social disciplining from below.

  20. A Historical Perspective on Gender.

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth A.

    1999-01-01

    Traces perspectives on gender and gender discrimination over the last several decades, as they affect schools and English classrooms. Discusses feminism/feminisms, "add women and stir," sex differences, resistance and backlash, intersections of identity categories, and multiculturalism. Argues that English teachers can be powerful agents in the…

  1. Japan 2006 in historical perspectives

    Michiko Tanaka Nishishima

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Readings of the current Japanese politics with the historic and social insight through analysis of four facts registered in 2006: the visit of the prime minister Koizumi to the Yasukuni shrine; the election of Abe Shinzo as the president of Liberal Democratic Party and the formation of Abe cabinet; the Atomic bomb experimentation by the North Corea; the publication of the book of feminist counteroffensive against the numerous rightist conservative harassment.

  2. Supporting Exploration of Historical Perspectives across Collections

    Odijk, Daan; Garbacea, Cristina; Schoegje, Thomas; Hollink, Laura; de Boer, Victor; Ribbens, Kees; van Ossenbruggen, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous

  3. Supporting Exploration of Historical Perspectives Across Collections

    Odijk, D.; Gârbacea, C.; Schoegje, T.; Hollink, L.; de Boer, V.; Ribbens, K.; van Ossenbruggen, J.; Kapidakis, S.; Mazurek, C.; Werla, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous

  4. Historical perspective of Indian neurology.

    Mishra, Shrikant; Trikamji, Bhavesh; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Parampreet; Nair, Rajasekharan

    2013-10-01

    To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. THE HISTORY OF NEUROLOGY IN INDIA IS DIVIDED INTO TWO PERIODS: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C.) during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20(th) century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation's first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835), Calcutta (1835) and Mumbai (1848). Prior to India's independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI). Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN). Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930's. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951) include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991). The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in the amount of basic, clinical and epidemiological research being

  5. Historical perspective of Indian neurology

    Shrikant Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To chronicle the history of medicine and neurology in India with a focus on its establishment and evolution. Background: The history of neurology in India is divided into two periods: ancient and modern. The ancient period dates back to the mid-second millennium Before Christ (B.C. during the creation of the Ayurvedic Indian system of Medicine, which detailed descriptions of neurological disorders called Vata Vyadhi. The early 20 th century witnessed the birth of modern Indian medicine with the onset of formal physician training at the nation′s first allopathic medical colleges located in Madras (1835, Calcutta (1835 and Mumbai (1848. Prior to India′s independence from Britain in 1947, only 25 medical schools existed in the entire country. Today, there are over 355. In 1951, physicians across the field of neurology and neurosurgery united to create the Neurological Society of India (NSI. Four decades later in 1991, neurologists branched out to establish a separate organization called the Indian Academy of Neurology (IAN. Design/Methods: Information was gathered through literature review using PubMed, MD Consult, OVID, primary texts and research at various academic institutions in India. Results: Neurological disorders were first described in ancient India under Ayurveda. The transition to modern medicine occurred more recently through formal training at medical schools beginning in the 1930′s. Early pioneers and founders of the NSI (1951 include Dr. Jacob Chandy, Dr. B Ramamurthi, Dr. S. T. Narasimhan and Dr. Baldev Singh. Later, Dr. J. S. Chopra, a prominent neurologist and visionary, recognized the need for primary centers of collaboration and subsequently established the IAN (1991. The future of Neurology in India is growing rapidly. Currently, there are 1100 practicing neurologists and more than 150 post-graduate trainees who join the ranks every year. As the number of neurologists rises across India, there is an increase in

  6. Dermatotoxicology: Historical perspective and advances

    Ngo, Mai A.; Maibach, Howard I.

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental principles underlying the study of dermatotoxicology were developed by Arnold Lehman and John Draize over a half century ago and remain applicable today. This discipline has proven indispensable for addressing the problems associated with skin exposure to chemicals. The 55th anniversary of Lehman's landmark publication on safety factors presents the opportunity to reflect upon the historical beginnings of dermatotoxicology and the role of regulatory policies on the development of this field over the years. The complexity and sheer volume of information that has been collected makes it difficult to comprehensively cover all aspects of this vast discipline. This overview will touch upon the general concepts of ADME, the various forms of contact dermatitis, and transdermal drug delivery systems. The traditional tests performed in animals and humans to identify allergic or irritant potential of chemicals, in addition to alternative methods such as QSAR modeling will be discussed. The subspecialties of infant and occupational dermatotoxicology, as well as dermatotoxicology of aged and ethnic skin, and skin of the vulva and vagina will also be noted.

  7. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  8. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Historical perspectives on evidence-based nursing.

    Beyea, Suzanne C; Slattery, Mary Jo

    2013-04-01

    The authors of this article offer a review and historical perspective on research utilization and evidence-based practice in nursing. They present the evolution of research utilization to the more contemporary framework of evidence-based nursing practice. The authors address the role of qualitative research in the context of evidence-based practice. Finally, some approaches and resources for learning more about the fundamentals of evidence-based healthcare are provided.

  10. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of scientific standards in parasitology was carried out from the perspective of anthropology of knowledge - a new discipline that emerged from non-classical history science in the 1990s. The history of parasitology, its development and limitations, are presented in a broad socio-cultural context, as the answers of scientists to different social needs in historical periods. In parasitological history there are some periods characteristic for all newly emerging disciplines of natural science. The first systematic account of natural phenomena and their interpretations was initiated in the 16th century and continued till the mid 18th century. It was a period when the phenomena could not be explained in a proper way by the existing and accepted theories. The epidemic diseases were one of these phenomena which were interpreted based on ancient ideas, mostly humoral pathology. In the 16th century a new contagium concept of material factors (pathogenes) that could be spread by contact among humans or close association was formed. This hypothesis, however, was not widely accepted because it contradicted the well-established normative concepts in the European academic naturalism. The development of parasitology was stopped because of theoretical barriers and interpretation difficulties (non-materialistic standard of naturalism, humoral pathology and spontaneous theory). In the second half of the 18th century, the theoretical crisis in natural sciences gave a new impulse for many disciplines; among others, parasitology entered in its second stage of development. The collected observations were classified in a new way and in the context of new interpretations. The progress in parasitology was prompted by the intensified urbanization, rapid increase of European population as well as by wars connected with infections and epidemics. It resulted in two competitive research programs (the French and the German). On the basis of the same observations, they advanced

  11. Trends and challenges towards integration of traditional medicine in formal health care system: Historical perspectives and An Appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Ester Innocent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The population residing Sub Sahara Africa (SSA continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, various Neglected Tropical as well as Non-Communicable Diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medicine and medical devices. Also, the population in most countries in this region still and has minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian traditional medicine system is one of the oldest documented form of traditional medicine practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health care system. Challenging issues that drags back integration is the development of education curricula for training Traditional medicine experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana has managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone and Tanzania have traditional medicine products being sold over the counters due to availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should taken in the integration process in order to safeguard the Sub-Sahara Africa population from disease burdens [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 312-316

  12. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana.

    Soelberg, J; Asase, A; Akwetey, G; Jäger, A K

    2015-02-03

    Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria. This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses the scale of change and loss of medicinal plant knowledge in Ghana over time. The study provides the foundation to reconstruct lost or discontinued Ghanaian plant uses in local or ethnopharmacological contexts. Historical botanical specimens were located in the herbaria of University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica were (re-)collected to aid in semi-structured interviews. The interviews aimed to document the contemporary uses and names of the plants among the Ga, and to determine to what extent the historical medicinal uses and names are extant. The study identified 100 species in historical medicinal use in Ghana, which could be linked to 134 unique uses and 105 vernacular names in Twi (Ashanti/Fante) and Ga. Most of the plants are common in Ghana. At least 52% of the historical vernacular names appear to still be in use today. Of the specific historical uses, 41 (31%) were traced among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal

  13. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358

  14. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world's medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens.

  15. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana

    Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A; Akwetey, G

    2015-01-01

    among contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana and represent some of the most important Ghanaian medicinal plant species. However, 93 (69%) of the historical uses could not be traced and appears to be discontinued or forgotten. Among the Ga, two medicinal plants species have become rare or locally......ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Three extraordinary, historical documents stemming from observations made in 1697, 1803 and 1817 quote medicinal plant uses among the Fante, Ga and Ashanti people of present-day Ghana, and can be linked to original botanical specimens in European herbaria....... This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses...

  16. Management of basilar invagination: A historical perspective

    Abhidha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the terms basilar invagination and platybasia were used interchangeably. Basilar invagination has been defined as a prolapse of the vertebral column into the spinal cord. Platybasia is defined as an abnormal obtuse angle between the anterior skull base and the clivus. The authors review the existing literature and summarize the historical and modern perspectives in the management of basilar invagination. From radiological curiosities, the subject of basilar invagination is now viewed as eminently treatable. The more pronounced understanding of the subject has taken place in the last three decades when on the basis of understanding of the biomechanical subtleties the treatment paradigm has remarkably altered. From surgery that involved decompression of the region, stabilization and realignment now form the basis of treatment.

  17. Universities' Engagement with Vocationalism: Historical Perspective

    Pericles 'asher' Rospigliosi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explore the historical context of vocationalism in universities. It is based on an analysis of the history of the university from a vocational perspective. It looks for evidence of vocational engagement in the activities of universities over time, taking a long view from the birth of the Western University in the Middle Ages to the 1980s with the emergence of current issues of vocationalism in university education. It adopts a chronological perspective initially and then a thematic one. The main findings are: (1 vocationalism in university education is as old as the Western University itself, (2 there is evidence from the start of the Western University of vocational engagement in terms of the provision of vocationally relevant subjects, vocationally relevant skills and the development of vocationally relevant attitudes, (3 whereas most graduate employers used to be concerned with the vocationally relevant knowledge, skills and attitudes students acquired on their degree courses, most are now more concerned with graduate capacity and disposition to learn within their employment after graduation and (4 subject-centred education is compatible with university education that supports the vocational aspirations of students.

  18. Neurophysiology of conversion disorders: a historical perspective.

    Crommelinck, M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a short historical perspective on the neurophysiological approach to hysteria and conversion disorders. The body of this paper will be constituted of three main parts. In the first part, we will present the significant progress due to some pioneers of neurology/psychiatry during the XIXth century. As we shall see, this period was particularly rich in personalities whose work gradually laid the foundations to a true medical approach to hysteria. In the first half of the XXth century, different factors have led to a long eclipse of the neurological approach to hysteria. In the second part, we will show how, by the 1960's-1970's, the conceptual and methodological advances in neurophysiology, as well as the turning point of cognitive sciences (and cognitive psychology in particular) allowed a gradual reinstatement of hysteria within the fields of neurology and clinical neurophysiology. Finally, and this is the third part of this paper, we will show how over the past three decades, an entirely new neurophysiological approach to hysteria and conversion disorders has emerged. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Technical writing in America: A historical perspective

    Connaughton, M. E.

    1981-01-01

    The standard distinction between poetic and referential language, the gulf between science and the humanities, and the distress many teachers of English feel when faced for the first time with the prospect of teaching technical writing are discussed. In the introduction of many technical writing textbooks. Technical communication is divorced from other forms of linguistic experience by making language limiting and reductive rather than creative and expansive. The emphasis on technical/scientific writing as radically different had blinded people to those traits it has in common with all species of composition and has led to a neglect of research, on fundamental rhetorical issues. A complete rhetorical theory of technical discourse should include information about the attitudes and motives of writers, the situations which motivate (or coerce) them to write, definitive features of technical style and form, interrelationship of expression and creativity, and functions of communication in shaping and preserving scientific networds and institutions. The previous areas should be explored with respect to contemporary practice and within an historical perspective.

  20. Multi-Infarct Dementia: A Historical Perspective

    Erin McKay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multi-infarct dementia (MID, a prominent subtype of vascular dementia (VaD, has only achieved recognition in the last 4 decades. Since its original description, the characterization, etiological understanding, and therapeutic direction of MID and other VaD subtypes has progressed at an astounding rate. Summary: This paper divides the landmark discoveries and emergence of new research strategies for MID into decade-defining patterns so that a condensed picture of the total history of MID and its eventual inclusion as a VaD subtype emerges. This paper follows the first descriptive decade, a shift to a preventative focus, a renewed interest coinciding with timely advances in research technology, and a hopeful return to treatment possibilities for VaD. Key Message: Concisely tracing the historical lineage of the modern understanding of MID, both as a singular entity and as part of the VaD con­stellation of disorders, provides a novel perspective on the foundation upon which future advances in combating vascular contributions to dementia will be based.

  1. Bioactive compounds: historical perspectives, opportunities, and challenges.

    Patil, Bhimanagouda S; Jayaprakasha, G K; Chidambara Murthy, K N; Vikram, Amit

    2009-09-23

    Mom's conventional wisdom of eating fruits and vegetables to lead a healthy life has evolved with scientific, fact-finding research during the past four decades due to advances in science of "Foods for Health". Epidemiological and prospective studies have demonstrated the vital role of fruits, vegetables, and nuts in reducing the risk of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. In recent years, several meta-analyses strongly suggested that by adding one serving of fruits and vegetables to daily diet, the risk of cardiovascular diseases will be decreased up to 7%. The multidisciplinary and partnership efforts of agriculture and medical scientists across the globe stimulated interest in establishing certain interdisciplinary centers and institutes focusing on "Foods for Health". While the consumption of various healthy foods continues, several questions about toxicity, bioavailability, and food-drug interactions of bioactive compounds are yet to be fully understood on the basis of scientific evidence. Recent research on elucidation of the molecular mechanisms to understand the "proof of the concept" will provide the perfect answer when consumers are ready for a "consumer-to-farm" rather than the current "farm-to-consumer" approach. The multidisciplinary research and educational efforts will address the role of healthy foods to improve eye, brain, and heart health while reducing the risk of cancer. Through this connection, this review is an attempt to provide insight and historical perspectives on some of the bioactive compounds from the day of discovery to their current status. The bioactive compounds discussed in this review are flavonoids, carotenoids, curcumin, ascorbic acid, and citrus limonoids.

  2. Military Policy toward Homosexuals: Scientific, Historic, and Legal Perspectives

    Davis, Jeffrey S

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines military policy toward homosexuals. Scientific, historic, and legal perspectives are reviewed as they relate to current policy and the distinction between homosexual acts and homosexual status...

  3. Library automation in Nigerian universities: a historical perspective ...

    Library automation in Nigerian universities: a historical perspective. ... Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2005) > ... others are making some progress along this line while the challenges of library automation are discussed and solutions proposed.

  4. Camelid Single-Domain Antibodies: Historical Perspective and Future Outlook

    Mehdi Arbabi-Ghahroudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tremendous effort has been expended over the past two and a half decades to understand many aspects of camelid heavy chain antibodies, from their biology, evolution, and immunogenetics to their potential applications in various fields of research and medicine. In this article, I present a historical perspective on the development of camelid single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHHs, also widely known as nanobodies since their discovery and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these unique molecules in various areas of research, industry, and medicine. Commercialization of camelid sdAbs exploded in 2001 with a flurry of patents issued to the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB and later taken on by the Vlaams Interuniversitair Instituut voor Biotechnologie (VIB and, after 2002, the VIB-founded spin-off company, Ablynx. While entrepreneurial spirit has certainly catalyzed the exploration of nanobodies as marketable products, IP restrictions may be partially responsible for the relatively long time span between the discovery of these biomolecules and their entry into the pharmaceutical market. It is now anticipated that the first VHH-based antibody drug, Caplacizumab, a bivalent anti-vWF antibody for treating rare blood clotting disorders, may be approved and commercialized in 2018 or shortly thereafter. This elusive first approval, along with the expiry of key patents, may substantially alter the scientific and biomedical landscape surrounding camelid sdAbs and pave the way for their emergence as mainstream biotherapeutics.

  5. Historical Perspectives in Marketing Education: Justification and Implementation

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a justification and an implementation plan for the establishment of a historical orientation across the undergraduate marketing curriculum. The justification for the historical perspective addresses three areas: tapping into the extensive body of knowledge in marketing history, practical implications, and critical thinking.…

  6. Perspectives: Using Historical Documents To Think about NIF Issues.

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of using historical documents in the classroom is to generate and enhance discussion by providing a historical perspective for issues. Five documents are included in this packet and are to be used as a supplemental material for the National Issues Forum (NIF) topics. Issues raised include (1) an analysis of the documents and (2)…

  7. Concerns for the Historical Profession: A Liberal Perspective.

    Jarausch, Konrad H.

    This paper contends that the debate over multiculturalism in the university is best understood from a broadened historical perspective. The experiences of educational reformers in Germany and the impact of fascism and communism are explored. Based on a historical approach to the multiculturalism debate, three areas of particular concern are…

  8. Teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

    von Engelhardt, D

    1999-03-01

    The current interest in philosophical questions and ethical aspects of medicine turns attention towards the past and obtains suggestions and perspectives from previous descriptions and interpretations of sickness, therapy, and the relation between the patient and physician. Culture as therapy and therapy as culture are fundamental challenges for the present; physician, patient, and society, i.e., humans and humane medicine, need this dialogue, which should also be constitutive for teaching history of medicine. Through the separation of the natural sciences and the humanities, modern progress of medicine has produced many benefits but has, at the same time, raised many problems. Negative consequences of this development exist not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician. In the course of modern history, there have been several reactions aimed at overcoming these one-sided tendencies: in the Renaissance, in the epoch of Romanticism and Idealism, and at the beginning and the end of the 19th century. This article outlines, with historical examples and contemporary reflections, the concept of teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

  9. Future Perspectives in Sleep Medicine.

    Huon, Leh-Kiong Anne; Guilleminault, Christian

    2017-01-01

    "Sleep Medicine" is now a specialty in its own right. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the very negative impact sleep disorders have on learning, education, safety, and quality of life. Technological advances will help us to break down diagnoses (e.g., narcolepsy has now been subdivided into types 1 and 2, depending upon the hypocretin levels in the spinal fluid) and to discover relationships to other bodily systems (e.g., type 1 narcolepsy potentially being an autoimmune disorder). The modern lifestyle of many, as characterized by a shortening of sleep periods, shift work, jet lag, and the need to be constantly available, means that advances in sleep medicine may result in a major understanding of more balanced "work-rest lifestyle" modifications. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Economic botany collections: A source of material evidence for exploring historical changes in Chinese medicinal materials.

    Brand, Eric; Leon, Christine; Nesbitt, Mark; Guo, Ping; Huang, Ran; Chen, Hubiao; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-03-22

    persistent issue over time. Additionally, historical changes in processing methods and the plant parts used were observed for some CMMs. In some cases, these changes have direct implications for the safe clinical practice of Chinese medicine. This preliminary assessment illustrated the significant potential of collections for clarifying historical changes in CMMs. More research is needed to investigate pre-modern collections of CMMs, including a more comprehensive assessment of the holdings in the Kew EBC and other European collections that have not yet been explored from the perspective of Chinese medicine. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Teaching Historical Memories in an Intercultural Perspective

    Scheibel, Katrine Vinther; Wrochem, Oliver

    How can we approach historical remembrance in history teaching? This question lies at the heart of the three-year, EU-funded project TeacMem,which involves partners from Denmark, Germany and Norway. The participants (teacher trainers, historians, teachers, memorial educators, disseminators...

  12. The Amazon Caboclo: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    Parker, Eugene Philip, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    This collection of papers provides a general sketch of the events and processes leading to the evolution and development of Caboclo culture in the Amazonia region of South America. Following the foreword and introduction, the book is divided into two parts. Part one contains historical background about the period from 1615 to 1920 within three…

  13. Indian Women: An Historical and Personal Perspective

    Christensen, Rosemary Ackley

    1975-01-01

    Several issues relating to Indian women are discussed. These include (1) the three types of people to whom we owe our historical perceptions of Indian women, (2) role delineation in Indian society; (3) differences between Indian women and white women, and (4) literary role models of Indian women. (Author/BW)

  14. Robotic Autonomous Observatories: A Historical Perspective

    Alberto Javier Castro-Tirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a historical introduction to the field of Robotic Astronomy, from the point of view of a scientist working in this field for more than a decade. The author discusses the basic definitions, the differing telescope control operating systems, observatory managers, as well as a few current scientific applications.

  15. Putting Barack Obama's Candidacy in Historical Perspective

    Rogers, Ibram

    2008-01-01

    Senator Barack Obama's historic candidacy for president of the United States has generated an intense and thoughtful national discussion within Black America. His campaign has brought several issues to the fore. Recently, the author spoke with five of the most preeminent Black scholars in the nation to search out some of their thoughts on five key…

  16. Ophthalmology's future in the next decade: a historical and comparative perspective.

    Day, S H

    1999-01-01

    To gain a historical and comparative perspective about the future of ophthalmology within the profession of medicine. A literature search is made of disciplines other than medicine (history, sociology, philosophy, economics, and ethics) in order to assess factors responsible for survival and healthiness of a profession. The "learned" professions (medicine, law, and theology) are assessed. Other "professional" careers valued by society (sports and classical music) are reviewed. From the perspective of other disciplines, the future of ophthalmology is seen as vulnerable and fragile. Survival of professions, be they classically or economically defined, is linked to societal needs, a profession's unique commitment and ability to provide services to society, and the profession's maintenance of knowledge as well as skill-based services. Historical evidence has shown erosion of a profession's power consequent to capitalist influences, government influences, access of skills by less trained individuals, and elitist posturing by a profession. Comparative evidence has shown societal acceptance of an escalation of salaries for designated superstars, increasing roles and influence of managerial personnel, and trivialization of values other than economic ones. Attention to historical and comparative trends by individual ophthalmologists as well as associations representing ophthalmologists is mandatory if ophthalmology as we know it is to survive within the profession of medicine.

  17. Artificial Heart Research: An Historical Perspective

    Joshi, Rayan

    2001-01-01

    This paper tracks the historical evolution of artificial heart technology, from its humble beginnings, to its relatively staggering current potential. While examining various milestones along this fascinating timeline, the paper attempts to shed light on some of the ethical, economic, and social dilemmas that have infused this history. In doing so, it strives to provide the reader with a sense of the various factors, some technical in nature and others purely societal, that have wielded influ...

  18. A Historical Perspective of Medical Education

    Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami

    2015-01-01

    Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…

  19. LWR control assembly designs: A historical perspective

    Kennard, M.W.; Harbottle, J.E.

    2000-01-01

    Control rod designs and materials have evolved in response to performance problems in both PWRs and BWRs. Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) due to absorber swelling has primarily affected BWR control rods with B 4 C absorbers, but has also occurred in PWRs with Ag-In-Cd absorbers. The primary problems for some designs of PWR control rods have been wear of the rodlets against upper internal components and swelling with tip wear and cracking. Competition amongst vendors for supplying control rod reloads has also resulted in design improvements. This paper provides an historical review of PWR and BWR control rod designs, their problems and remedies. (author)

  20. Radiation risk - historical perspective and current issues

    Kellerer, Albrecht M. [Strahlenbiologisches Institut, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Munich, Germany and Institute for Radiation Biology, GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Neuherberg (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The assessment of radiation risk needs to be seen against the background of a historical development that has reversed the initial belief in a general beneficial effect of radiation to apprehension and fear. Numerical risk estimates are, today, based on large epidemiological studies, and the observations on the A-bomb survivors are outlined as the primary source of information. Since the epidemiological findings are obtained from relatively high radiation exposures, extrapolations are required to the much lower doses that are relevant to radiation protection. The evolution of extrapolation procedures up to current attempts at mechanistic modelling is outlined, and some of the open issues are reviewed. (author)

  1. Radiation risk - historical perspective and current issues

    Kellerer, Albrecht M.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of radiation risk needs to be seen against the background of a historical development that has reversed the initial belief in a general beneficial effect of radiation to apprehension and fear. Numerical risk estimates are, today, based on large epidemiological studies, and the observations on the A-bomb survivors are outlined as the primary source of information. Since the epidemiological findings are obtained from relatively high radiation exposures, extrapolations are required to the much lower doses that are relevant to radiation protection. The evolution of extrapolation procedures up to current attempts at mechanistic modelling is outlined, and some of the open issues are reviewed. (author)

  2. Academic Entrepreneurship and Institutional Change in Historical Perspective

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Galvez-Behar, Gabriel; Mercelis, Joris

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on academic entrepreneurship and its role in institutional change, and serves as an introduction to a special issue devoted to the subject. Unlike approaches that define academic entrepreneurship narrowly as the commercialization of academic research...

  3. Learning Spiritual Dimensions of Care from a Historical Perspective.

    Narayanasamy, Aru

    1999-01-01

    Looks at the spiritual dimensions of nursing at various historical periods: ancient civilizations, the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and the 18th and 19th centuries. Reviews contemporary perspectives on spirituality and nursing and suggests how nurses can be equipped to deal with patients' spiritual needs. (SK)

  4. Biomolecular simulation: historical picture and future perspectives.

    van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Dolenc, Jozica

    2008-02-01

    Over the last 30 years, computation based on molecular models is playing an increasingly important role in biology, biological chemistry and biophysics. Since only a very limited number of properties of biomolecular systems are actually accessible to measurement by experimental means, computer simulation complements experiments by providing not only averages, but also distributions and time series of any definable, observable or non-observable, quantity. Biomolecular simulation may be used (i) to interpret experimental data, (ii) to provoke new experiments, (iii) to replace experiments and (iv) to protect intellectual property. Progress over the last 30 years is sketched and perspectives are outlined for the future.

  5. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    Marco eLeonti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  6. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  7. Women and drug addiction: a historical perspective.

    Kandall, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care.

  8. The population health approach in historical perspective.

    Szreter, Simon

    2003-03-01

    The origin of the population health approach is an historic debate over the relationship between economic growth and human health. In Britain and France, the Industrial Revolution disrupted population health and stimulated pioneering epidemiological studies, informing the early preventive public health movement. A century-long process of political adjustment between the forces of liberal democracy and propertied interests ensued. The 20th-century welfare states resulted as complex political mechanisms for converting economic growth into enhanced population health. However, the rise of a "neoliberal" agenda, denigrating the role of government, has once again brought to the fore the importance of prevention and a population health approach to map and publicize the health impacts of this new phase of "global" economic growth.

  9. Physician training in aerospace medicine--an historical review in the United States.

    Doarn, Charles R; Mohler, Stanley R

    2013-02-01

    The training of U.S. physicians in aviation medicine closely followed the development of reliable airplanes. This training has matured as aviation and space travel have become more routine over the past several decades. In the U.S., this training began in support of military pilots who were flying increasingly complex aircraft in the early part of the 20th century. As individuals reached into the stratosphere, low Earth orbit, and eventually to the Moon, physicians were trained not only through military efforts but in academic settings as well. This paper provides an historical summary of how physician training in aerospace medicine developed in the U.S., citing both the development of the military activities and, more importantly, the perspectives of the academic programs. This history is important as we move forward in the development of commercial space travel and the needs that such a business model will be required to meet.

  10. The AIDS pandemic in historic perspective.

    Kazanjian, Powel

    2014-07-01

    Potent antiretroviral drugs (ART) have changed the nature of AIDS, a once deadly disease, into a manageable illness and offer the promise of reducing the spread of HIV. But the pandemic continues to expand and cause significant morbidity and devastation to families and nations as ART cannot be distributed worldwide to all who need the drugs to treat their infections, prevent HIV transmission, or serve as prophylaxis. Furthermore, conventional behavioral prevention efforts based on theories that individuals can be taught to modify risky behaviors if they have the knowledge to do so have been ineffective. Noting behavioral strategies targeting individuals fail to address broader social and political structures that create environments vulnerable to HIV spread, social scientists and public health officials insist that HIV policies must be comprehensive and also target a variety of structures at the population and environmental level. Nineteenth-century public health programs that targeted environmental susceptibility are the historical analogues to today's comprehensive biomedical and structural strategies to handle AIDS. Current AIDS policies underscore that those fighting HIV using scientific advances in virology and molecular biology cannot isolate HIV from its broader environment and social context any more than their nineteenth-century predecessors who were driven by the filth theory of disease. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Europe of electricity. An historical perspective

    Bouttes, Jean-Paul; DASSA, Francois

    2016-11-01

    The authors propose a perspective on the history of electricity in Europe which notably illustrates both similarities and differences between models and policies in European countries. In a first part, they address the early years of electricity development, between 1880 and 1920, which drove the whole European society and economy. They analyse this success as based on three main issues: a common vision of the role of electricity in the society (a symbol of progress and modernity), a collective work on the technical and economic reality (a community of scientists and engineers working on technological breakthroughs), and propositions regarding institutions and the activity organisation (a common industrial model elaborated by contractors-managers of the electricity sector and proposed to governments). In a second part, the authors address the following period (1920-1980) which is characterized by a diversity of models for the electricity sectors and systems. They highlight the background of these differences, propose a focus on the three main European countries (France, Germany, Great-Britain), and discuss the relationship between this diversity of organisation modes and imageries. The next part addresses the Europe of electricity since the 1980's. The authors outline its technical characteristic, the adoption of a top-down approach since the 1990's, and the lack of consistency in these evolutions, and draw some lessons from the building up of a Europe of electricity since the 1990's. The authors finally question and comment how to build up the Europe of energy again

  12. Heart rate variability - a historical perspective.

    Billman, George E

    2011-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV), the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R-R interval - the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration - the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of HRV. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek physicians and scientists. However, it was not until the invention of the "Physician's Pulse Watch" (a watch with a second hand that could be stopped) in 1707 that changes in pulse rate could be accurately assessed. The Rev. Stephen Hales (1733) was the first to note that pulse varied with respiration and in 1847 Carl Ludwig was the first to record RSA. With the measurement of the ECG (1895) and advent of digital signal processing techniques in the 1960s, investigation of HRV and its relationship to health and disease has exploded. This essay will conclude with a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations) that are commonly used to measure HRV.

  13. Heart Rate Variability - A Historical Perspective

    George E Billman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV, the beat-to-beat variation in either heart rate or the duration of the R-R interval – the heart period, has become a popular clinical and investigational tool. The temporal fluctuations in heart rate exhibit a marked synchrony with respiration (increasing during inspiration and decreasing during expiration – the so called respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA and are widely believed to reflect changes in cardiac autonomic regulation. Although the exact contributions of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system to this variability are controversial and remain the subject of active investigation and debate, a number of time and frequency domain techniques have been developed to provide insight into cardiac autonomic regulation in both health and disease. It is the purpose of this essay to provide an historical overview of the evolution in the concept of heart rate variability. Briefly, pulse rate was first measured by ancient Greek physicians and scientists. However, it was not until the invention of the Physician’s Pulse Watch (a watch with a second hand that could be stopped in 1707 that changes in pulse rate could be accurately assessed. The Rev. Stephen Hales (1733 was the first to note that pulse varied with respiration and in 1847 Carl Ludwig was the first to record RSA. With the measurement of the ECG (1895 and advent of digital signal processing techniques in the 1960’s, investigation of HRV and its relationship to health and disease has exploded. This essay will conclude with a brief description of time domain, frequency domain, and non-linear dynamic analysis techniques (and their limitations that are commonly used to measure heart rate variability.

  14. A historical perspective on ventilator management.

    Shapiro, B A

    1994-02-01

    Paralysis via neuromuscular blockade in ICU patients requires mechanical ventilation. This review historically addresses the technological advances and scientific information upon which ventilatory management concepts are based, with special emphasis on the influence such concepts have had on the use of neuromuscular blocking agents. Specific reference is made to the scientific information and technological advances leading to the newer concepts of ventilatory management. Information from > 100 major studies in the peer-reviewed medical literature, along with the author's 25 yrs of clinical experience and academic involvement in acute respiratory care is presented. Nomenclature related to ventilatory management is specifically defined and consistently utilized to present and interpret the data. Pre-1970 ventilatory management is traced from the clinically unacceptable pressure-limited devices to the reliable performance of volume-limited ventilators. The scientific data and rationale that led to the concept of relatively large tidal volume delivery are reviewed in the light of today's concerns regarding alveolar overdistention, control-mode dyssynchrony, and auto-positive end-expiratory pressure. Also presented are the post-1970 scientific rationales for continuous positive airway pressure/positive end-expiratory pressure therapy, avoidance of alveolar hyperxia, and partial ventilatory support techniques (intermittent mandatory ventilation/synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation). The development of pressure-support devices is discussed and the capability of pressure-control techniques is presented. The rationale for more recent concepts of total ventilatory support to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury is presented. The traditional techniques utilizing volume-preset ventilators with relatively large tidal volumes remain valid and desirable for the vast majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation. Neuromuscular blockade is best avoided in these

  15. [Internet in medicine--development and perspectives].

    Dezelić, Gjuro

    2002-01-01

    Internet is one of information technologies marking the transition from the second to the third millennium. The present role and expansion of Internet in medicine and healthcare is reviewed together with the perspective of further development. The beginning and initial expansion of the use of Internet in medicine are described. The World Wide Web (WWW or Web) is recognized as a major reason for this expansion, reaching a state described as a Web-pandemic. The rapid increase of the number of papers dealing with Internet in medical literature is presented as well as the appearance of several journals dedicated to Internet in medicine. First specialized symposia, among them MEDNET world conferences, are noted. First uses of Internet in medicine comprised databases, discussion groups, electronic newsletters, software archives and online public access catalogues. The appearance of the Web has led to a significant improvement of the Internet use in medicine, which is reflected in an exponential increase in the number of publications. It is noted that Internet allows "to do old things in new ways", but also "to do new things". It has become clear that the information revolution evoked by the internet shall leave a deep trace in medicine, as health information has become accessible to the public and ceased to be in exclusive control of health professionals. New medical fields--telemedicine and cybermedicine--appeared as the result of the development and global expansion of information and communication technologies, with cybermedicine dealing more specifically with the use of Internet. The advantages and disadvantages of cybermedicine are discussed, and major problems related to the quality of health information are highlighted. Several systems for quality criteria of health related Web-sites are described, indicating that Websites have to conform with the quality criteria such as transparency and honesty, accountability, privacy and data protection, currency

  16. Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Seen in historical perspective the main economic predicaments of the present world (such as poverty, inequality, backwardness appear in a somewhat different light than in many current discussions, especially by sociologists, radical economists and political scientists. In the present paper the achievements of the modern age, and in particular of the post- World War II period, are considered in the perspective of economic and demographic history, and in their connection with the systems of production and of international relations. Some considerations concerning future possible developments conclude the paper.

  17. Physics Education Research in Perspective: An Historical and Conceptual Overview

    Meltzer, David E.

    2011-04-01

    I will discuss the evolution of physics education research (PER) within an historical perspective that begins in the 1860s, focuses on developments in the post-World War II period, and extends towards diverse future pathways. PER has incorporated a broad array of themes that resonate with past developments in science education; however, it also provides unique perspectives that offer promise of potential breakthroughs in areas previously underexplored. Nonetheless, there is a long road from promise to realization, and I will try to identify key aspects of past accomplishments as well as of present and future challenges. Supported in part by NSF PHY-0108787 and DUE-0817282.

  18. Science and technology from global and historical perspectives

    Karagözoğlu, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    This book provides science and technology ethos to a literate person. It starts with a rather detailed treatment of basic concepts in human values, educational status and domains of education, development of science and technology and their contributions to the welfare of society. It describes ways and means of scientific progresses and technological advancements with their historical perspectives including scientific viewpoints of contributing scientists and technologists. The technical, social, and cultural dimensions are surveyed in relation to acquisition and application of science, and advantages and hindrances of technological developments. Science and Technology is currently taught as a college course in many universities with the intention to introduce topics from a global historical perspective so that the reader shall stretch his/her vision by mapping the past to the future. The book can also serve as a primary reference for such courses.

  19. Human compulsivity: A perspective from evolutionary medicine.

    Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-05-01

    Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Is Exercise Really Medicine? An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    An evolutionary perspective helps evaluate the extent to which exercise is medicine and to explain the exercise paradox: why people tend to avoid exercise despite its benefits. Many lines of evidence indicate that humans evolved to be adapted for regular, moderate amounts of endurance physical activity into late age. However, because energy from food was limited, humans also were selected to avoid unnecessary exertion, and most anatomical and physiological systems evolved to require stimuli from physical activity to adjust capacity to demand. Consequently, selection never operated to cope with the long-term effects of chronic inactivity. However, because all adaptations involve trade-offs, there is no evolutionary-determined dose or type of physical activity that will optimize health. Furthermore, because humans evolved to be active for play or necessity, efforts to promote exercise will require altering environments in ways that nudge or even compel people to be active and to make exercise fun.

  1. Redefining medicine from an anticipatory perspective.

    Nadin, Mihai

    2018-04-13

    The meaning of the concept of anticipation escapes the majority of those concerned with change, in particular those who study health. To characterize only genetic disorders, such as conditions with progressively earlier symptoms and higher intensity of disease from generation to generation, in terms of anticipatory expression is rather limited and limiting. Practitioners of medical care could benefit from understanding anticipation as definitory of the living. This view explains why diminished anticipatory expression, in all forms of the living, results in conditions calling for medical attention. So far, medicine has opted for a deterministic-reductionist perspective that reduces the living to a machine. Medical care, stuck in the grey zone between success and failure, should overcome its reactive obsession. From an almost exclusively mechanistic activity, it should evolve into a holistic proactive practice of well-being that reflects awareness of anticipation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Historical perspective of thermal reactor safety in light water reactors

    Levy, S.

    1986-01-01

    A brief history of thermal reactor safety in U.S. light water reactors is provided in this paper. Important shortcomings in safety philosophy evolution versus time are identified and potential corrective actions are suggested. It should be recognized, that this analysis represents only one person's opinion and that most historical accountings reflect the author's biases and specific areas of knowledge. In that sense, many of the examples used in this paper are related to heat transfer and fluid flow safety issues, which explains why it has been included in a Thermal Hydraulics session. One additional note of caution: the value of hindsight and the selective nature of human memory when looking at the past cannot be overemphasized in any historical perspective

  3. Historical perspectives on theories of periodontal disease etiology

    Hujoel, Philippe; Zina, Lívia Guimarães; Cunha-Cruz, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the causes of periodontal disease have changed greatly over time. The aim of this review is to provide a critical and historical perspective, dating back over more than a century, on two competing paradigms. While we understand that this stark dichotomization may be viewed...... as extreme, and is legitimately open to challenge, it is our hope that this didactic approach will serve to stimulate debate. The distinction made focuses on whether the primary etiology involves local causes, such as dental plaque, or involves remote causes, such as nutrition, tobacco use or other systemic...... factors. We provide a brief historical overview of the local and remote cause hypotheses and discuss some key reasons why the local cause hypothesis has become dominant....

  4. Hospital and asylum visiting in historical perspective: themes and issues.

    Mooney, Graham; Reinarz, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Compared to doctors, patients and institutions, visitors are an understudied constituency in medical history. The collection of essays in this book situates the historical practice of hospital and asylum visiting in broad social, cultural and geographical perspectives. This introduction loosely categorises visitors into four groups: patient visitors, including family and friends; public visitors, such as entertainers, tourists and the clergy, who have no direct formal ties with the institution or the patients; house visitors involved with the management and government of the hospital; and official visitors, who have inspectorial responsibilities. Discussion of the wider historical significance of visiting draws attention to issues such as urban governance, philanthropy, the public sphere, civil society and citizenship.

  5. The concept of learning in cultural-historical perspective

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2015-01-01

    their implications for understanding learning. Brief comments are made about the notions of internalization and zone of proximal development. Subsequent theoretical developments are mentioned, with a special focus on the idea of learning activity and developmental teaching. The chapter concludes with three issues......A cultural-historical perspective on learning is presented. The key idea is to conceptualise learning as self-mastery of action, using existing psychological functions. The main part of the chapter provides an overview of Vygotsky’s theory of higher psychological functions, and discusses...

  6. Historic perspectives from anthropology. Reflections proposed to Transcultural Nursing.

    Rohrbach Viadas, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    History brings together meanings related to earlier periods, being aware of the past as a panorama to reread the present. Madeleine Leininger presented in 1970 an implicit and respectful message to the Nursing Profession when introducing Nursing and Anthropology. Two Worlds to Blend. Implicitly: Nursing you disregard culture. This article shows the absence of the history of anthropology and of nursing within Transcultural Nursing and it includes how education has influenced theoretic, methodological, and comparative approaches giving researchers the responsibility to decide their fundamentals. Berthoud (2001) has inspired the anthropological and historic perspectives of the author, thus universalism, relativism, and comparison are presented.

  7. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives; Radioterapia em medicina veterinaria: principios e perspectivas

    Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marco@cetea.com.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquisa Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Animal. Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-06-15

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  8. Traditional Medicine Through the Filter of Modernity: A brief historical analysis

    R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of  modern medicine – although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.

  9. Separations chemistry for f elements: Recent developments and historical perspective

    Nash, K.L.; Choppin, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    With the end of the cold war, the principal mission in actinide separations has changed from production of plutonium to cleanup of the immense volume of moderately radioactive mixed wastes which resulted from fifty years of processing activities. In order to approach the cleanup task from a proper perspective, it is necessary to understand the nature of the problem and how the wastes were generated. In this report, the history of actinide separations, both the basic science and production aspects, is examined. Many of the separations techniques in use today were developed in the 40's and 50's for the identification and production of actinide elements. To respond to the modern world of actinide separations new techniques are being developed for separations ranging from analytical methods to detect ultra-trace concentrations (for bioassay and environmental monitoring) to large scale waste treatment procedures. Some of these new methods are ''improvements'' or adaptations of the historical techniques. Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separations, and selective partitioning of actinides from inert constituents are of primary concern. This report, offers a historical perspective, review the current status of f element separation processes, and suggest areas for continued research in both actinide separations and waste cleanup/environment remediation

  10. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.

  11. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  12. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  13. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as a wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by an increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as a decrease in the expression and activity of proapoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in the preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for the confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  14. Child Rights and Clinical Bioethics: Historical Reflections on Modern Medicine and Ethics.

    Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2016-01-01

    Why might pediatric bioethicists in the United States reject the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as a framework for resolving ethical issues? The essays in this issue present arguments and counterarguments regarding the usefulness of the CRC in various clinical and research cases. But underlying this debate are two historical factors that help explain the seeming paradox of pediatric bioethicists' arguing against child's rights. First, the profession of clinical bioethics emerged in the 1970s as one component of modern medicine's focus on improving health through the application of technologically sophisticated treatments. The everyday work of U.S. bioethicists thus usually involves emerging technologies or practices in clinical or laboratory settings; the articles of the CRC, in contrast, seem better suited to addressing broad policy issues that affect the social determinants of health. Second, U.S. child health policy veered away from a more communitarian approach in the early 20th century for reasons of demography that were reinforced by ideology and concerns about immigration. The divide between clinical medicine and public health in the United States, as well as the relatively meager social safety net, are not based on a failure to recognize the rights of children. Indeed, there is some historical evidence to suggest that "rights language" has hindered progress on child health and well-being in the United States. In today's political climate, efforts to ensure that governments pledge to treat children in accordance with their status as human beings (a child right's perspective) are less likely to improve child health than robust advocacy on behalf of children's unique needs, especially as novel models of health-care financing emerge.

  15. Statistical methods and applications from a historical perspective selected issues

    Mignani, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The book showcases a selection of peer-reviewed papers, the preliminary versions of which were presented at a conference held 11-13 June 2011 in Bologna and organized jointly by the Italian Statistical Society (SIS), the National Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and the Bank of Italy. The theme of the conference was "Statistics in the 150 years of the Unification of Italy." The celebration of the anniversary of Italian unification provided the opportunity to examine and discuss the methodological aspects and applications from a historical perspective and both from a national and international point of view. The critical discussion on the issues of the past has made it possible to focus on recent advances, considering the studies of socio-economic and demographic changes in European countries.

  16. The case of James A. Garfield: a historical perspective.

    Weiner, Bradley K

    2003-05-15

    In 1881, President James A. Garfield was shot in the back and died 79 days later. During this time, many controversies arose that had repercussions for years to come. Who was to manage the President's care? A prominent local physician took on the case, but after Garfield's death, he was highly criticized for inappropriate care and for excluding more highly qualified surgeons. Where was the bullet? Multiple opinions were given including that of Alexander Graham Bell. The correct suggestion turned out to be that of a young, unknown assistant demonstrator of anatomy. What was the proper treatment? Local wound care, removal of the bullet, and laparotomy all were considered. Many have felt that the choice of treatment may have proved to be worse than the injury itself. What did the autopsy show? Even this was controversial, with different observers claiming different results. This historical perspective reviews the case as well the controversies that surrounded it.

  17. Rational use of medicines - Indian perspective!

    Mohanta, G P; Manna, P K

    2015-01-01

    India, the largest democracy in the world, is with a federal structure of 29 states and 7 union territories. With a population of more than 1.2 billion, resource is always a constraint and so is in the health system too. In the federal structure, providing healthcare is largely the responsibility of state governments. Medicines are important component of health care delivery system and quality care is dependent on the availability and proper use of quality medicines. In spite of being known as pharmacy of the third world, poor access to medicines in the country is always a serious concern. Realizing the need of quality use of medicines, several initiatives have been initiated. As early as 1994, seeds of rational use of medicines were sown in the country with two initiatives: establishment of a civil society, Delhi Society for Promoting Rational Use of Drugs (DSPURD) and establishment of government agency in Tamil Nadu, a southern state, called Tamil Medical Services Corporation Limited (TNMSCL). DSPUD was in official association with World Health Organization Country Office for implementing essential medicine programme in the country for two biennia. In addition to organizing sensitising and training programme for healthcare professionals throughout the country, it looked after the procurement and appropriate use of medicines in Delhi government health facilities. TNMSCL has made innovations in medicine management including procurement directly from manufacturers as a part of pooled procurement, establishing warehouses with modern storage facilities and Information Technology enabled management of whole process. TNMSCL Model is now replicated in almost the entire country and even in some small other countries as it is successful in improving access to medicines.The National Government and the State Governments have developed strategies to promote rational use of medicines as a part of improving access and quality care in public health facilities. National

  18. Of Marx and Makers: an Historical Perspective on Generative Justice

    Ron Eglash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Marxist frameworks “distributive justice” depends on extracting value through a centralized state. Many new social movements—peer to peer economy, maker activism, community agriculture, queer ecology, etc.—take the opposite approach, keeping value in its unalienated form and allowing it to freely circulate from the bottom up. Unlike Marxism, there is no general theory for bottom-up, unalienated value circulation. This paper examines the concept of “generative justice” through an historical contrast between Marx’s writings and the indigenous cultures that he drew upon. Marx erroneously concluded that while indigenous cultures had unalienated forms of production, only centralized value extraction could allow the productivity needed for a high quality of life. To the contrary, indigenous cultures now provide a robust model for the “gift economy” that underpins open source technological production, agroecology, and restorative approaches to civil rights. Expanding Marx’s concept of unalienated labor value to include unalienated ecological (nonhuman value, as well as the domain of freedom in speech, sexual orientation, spirituality and other forms of “expressive” value, we arrive at an historically informed perspective for generative justice. 

  19. Historic perspective: prebiotics, probiotics, and other alternatives to antibiotics.

    Hume, M E

    2011-11-01

    Applications of antimicrobials in food production and human health have found favor throughout human history. Antibiotic applications in agricultural and human medical arenas have resulted in tremendous increases in food animal production and historically unprecedented gains in human health protection. Successes attributed to widespread antibiotic use have been accompanied by the inadvertent emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A major problem associated with this emerging resistance is the crossover use of some antibiotics in agricultural settings as well as in the prevention and treatment of human disease. This outcome led to calls to restrict the use of human health-related antibiotics in food animal production. Calls for restricted antibiotic use have heightened existing searches for alternatives to antibiotics that give similar or enhanced production qualities as highly reliable as the antibiotics currently provided to food animals. Agricultural and scientific advances, mainly within the last 100 yr, have given us insights into sources, structures, and actions of materials that have found widespread application in our modern world. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a historic perspective on the search for what are generally known as antibiotics and alternative antimicrobials, probiotics, prebiotics, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, and phytotherapeutics.

  20. RACK(1) to the future - a historical perspective

    Ron, Dorit

    2013-08-01

    This perspective summarises the first and long overdue RACK1 meeting held at the University of Limerick, Ireland, May 2013, in which RACK1’s role in the immune system, the heart and the brain were discussed and its contribution to disease states such as cancer, cardiac hypertrophy and addiction were described. RACK1 is a scaffolding protein and a member of the WD repeat family of proteins. These proteins have a unique architectural assembly that facilitates protein anchoring and the stabilisation of protein activity. A large body of evidence is accumulating which is helping to define the versatile role of RACK1 in assembling and dismantling complex signaling pathways from the cell membrane to the nucleus in health and disease. In this commentary, we first provide a historical perspective on RACK1. We also address many of the pertinent and topical questions about this protein such as its role in transcription, epigenetics and translation, its cytoskeletal contribution and the merits of targeting RACK1 in disease.

  1. [Progress in precision medicine: a scientific perspective].

    Wang, B; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Precision medicine is a new strategy for disease prevention and treatment by taking into account differences in genetics, environment and lifestyles among individuals and making precise diseases classification and diagnosis, which can provide patients with personalized, targeted prevention and treatment. Large-scale population cohort studies are fundamental for precision medicine research, and could produce best evidence for precision medicine practices. Current criticisms on precision medicine mainly focus on the very small proportion of benefited patients, the neglect of social determinants for health, and the possible waste of limited medical resources. In spite of this, precision medicine is still a most hopeful research area, and would become a health care practice model in the future.

  2. Computers. A perspective on their usefulness in nuclear medicine

    Loken, M.K.; Williams, L.E.; Ponto, R.A.; Ganatra, R.D.; Raikar, U.; Samuel, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    To date, many symposia have been held on computer applications in nuclear medicine. Despite all of these efforts, an appraisal of the true utility of computers in the day-to-day practice of nuclear medicine is yet to be achieved. Now that the technology of data storage and processing in nuclear medicine has reached a high degree of sophistication, as evidenced by many reports in the literature, the time has come to develop a perspective on the proper place of computers in nuclear medicine practice. The paper summarizes various uses of a dedicated computer (Nuclear Data Med II) at our two institutions and comments on its clinical utility. (author)

  3. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    Administrator

    The health and drug policies of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health recognize the ... It is known that many countries in African, Asia and ... medicine due to the cultural acceptability of healers and .... These perceptions are related to the belief that.

  4. The historical development of academic journals in occupational medicine, 1901-2009.

    Smith, Derek R

    2009-01-01

    Academic journals in a specialist field provide an interesting historical record of its development and progression over time. This article describes the evolution of some major international journals of occupational medicine, including some historical background on their editorial board. As North America, the United Kingdom, and Northern Europe are known to have the highest contribution to scientific production, it was considered appropriate to investigate the main occupational medicine periodicals in these regions. Given the remarkable improvements in Japanese occupational health following the Second World War, it was also considered worthwhile to investigate the two English-language journals of occupational medicine from this country.

  5. Bioethics and Emergency Medicine: problems and perspectives

    Maurizio Mori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.

  6. Historical thinking in clinical medicine: lessons from R.G. Collingwood's philosophy of history.

    Chin-Yee, Benjamin H; Upshur, Ross E G

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to create a space for historical thinking in medical practice. To this end, we draw on the ideas of R.G. Collingwood (1889-1943), the renowned British philosopher of history, and explore the implications of his philosophy for clinical medicine. We show how Collingwood's philosophy provides a compelling argument for the re-centring of medical practice around the patient history as a means of restoring to the clinical encounter the human meaning that is too often lost in modern medicine. Furthermore, we examine how Collingwood's historical thinking offers a patient-centred epistemology and a more pluralistic concept of evidence that includes the qualitative, narrative evidence necessary for human understanding. We suggest that clinical medicine can benefit from Collingwood's historical thinking, and, more generally, illustrates how a philosophy of medicine that draws on diverse sources from the humanities offers a richer, more empathetic clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics.

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  8. Future directions in psychological assessment: combining evidence-based medicine innovations with psychology's historical strengths to enhance utility.

    Youngstrom, Eric A

    2013-01-01

    Assessment has been a historical strength of psychology, with sophisticated traditions of measurement, psychometrics, and theoretical underpinnings. However, training, reimbursement, and utilization of psychological assessment have been eroded in many settings. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) offers a different perspective on evaluation that complements traditional strengths of psychological assessment. EBM ties assessment directly to clinical decision making about the individual, uses simplified Bayesian methods explicitly to integrate assessment data, and solicits patient preferences as part of the decision-making process. Combining the EBM perspective with psychological assessment creates a hybrid approach that is more client centered, and it defines a set of applied research topics that are highly clinically relevant. This article offers a sequence of a dozen facets of the revised assessment process, along with examples of corollary research studies. An eclectic integration of EBM and evidence-based assessment generates a powerful hybrid that is likely to have broad applicability within clinical psychology and enhance the utility of psychological assessments.

  9. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands

    Soelberg, Jens; Davis, Olasee; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    West Indies (now US Virgin Islands), we identify pre-1900 medicinal plants and their historical uses, and trace their status in the traditional medicine of St. Croix today (2014). By a combined historical and ethnobotanical approach we assess the scale of loss and preservation of traditional medicinal...... knowledge on St. Croix, and explore the drivers involved in the disappearance of knowledge in the oral tradition of medicine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Names, uses and identities of 18th and 19th century medicinal plant uses in the Danish West Indies were derived from manuscripts and publications of Von Rohr...... (1757/58), Oldendorp (1777), West (1793), Benzon (1822), Riise (1853), Eggers (1876;1879) and Berg and Eggers (1888). The presence of the plant species in the pre-1900 Danish West Indies was confirmed by review of herbarium specimens in the University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C). The same species were...

  10. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    The health and drug policies of the Ethiopian Ministry of Health recognize the important role traditional health systems play in health care. Unfortunately, little has ... Conclusion: The Ethiopian government firmly supports and encourages traditional medicine through its policies as part of the national heritage. Despite these ...

  11. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    Background: Although traditional medicine plays an important role in Ethiopian society, knowledge about the extent and characteristics of traditional healing practices and practitioners is limited and has frequently been ignored in the national health system. Objective: To review history of practices and policies on traditional ...

  12. Crisis discussions in psychology--New historical and philosophical perspectives.

    Sturm, Thomas; Mülberger, Annette

    2012-06-01

    In this introductory article, we provide a historical and philosophical framework for studying crisis discussions in psychology. We first trace the various meanings of crisis talk outside and inside of the sciences. We then turn to Kuhn's concept of crisis, which is mainly an analyst's category referring to severe clashes between theory and data. His view has also dominated many discussions on the status of psychology: Can it be considered a "mature" science, or are we dealing here with a pre- or multi-paradigmatic discipline? Against these Kuhnian perspectives, we point out that especially, but not only in psychology distinctive crisis declarations and debates have taken place since at least the late 19th century. In these, quite different usages of crisis talk have emerged, which can be determined by looking at (a) the content and (b) the dimensions of the declarations, as well as (c) the functions these declarations had for their authors. Thus, in psychology at least, 'crisis' has been a vigorous actor's category, occasionally having actual effects on the future course of research. While such crisis declarations need not be taken at face value, they nevertheless help to break the spell of Kuhnian analyses of psychology's history. They should inform ways in which the history and philosophy of psychology is studied further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Expedition medicine: A southern African perspective

    adventure tourists with adequate financial means. ... made wilderness expeditions much safer, they have not been able ... to space – the unifying characteristics of expedition medicine remain ... 4 Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, ... Therefore, while learning.

  14. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  15. Medicinal leech therapy-an overall perspective.

    Sig, Ali K; Guney, Mustafa; Uskudar Guclu, Aylin; Ozmen, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    Complementary medicine methods have a long history, but modern medicine has just recently focused on their possible modes of action. Medicinal leech therapy (MLT) or hirudotherapy, an old technique, has been studied by many researchers for possible effects on various diseases such as inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, and after different surgeries. Hirudo medicinalis has widest therapeutic usage among the leeches, but worldwide, many different species were tested and studied. Leeches secrete more than 20 identified bioactive substances such as antistasin, eglins, guamerin, hirudin, saratin, bdellins, complement, and carboxypeptidase inhibitors. They have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, platelet inhibitory, anticoagulant, and thrombin regulatory functions, as well as extracellular matrix degradative and antimicrobial effects, but with further studies, the spectrum of effects may widen. The technique is cheap, effective, easy to apply, and its modes of action have been elucidated for certain diseases. In conclusion, for treatment of some diseases, MLT is not an alternative, but is a complementary and/or integrative choice. MLT is a part of multidisciplinary treatments, and secretes various bioactive substances. These substances vary among species and different species should be evaluated for both treatment capability and their particular secreted molecules. There is huge potential for novel substances and these could be future therapeutics.

  16. Patient inclusion in transfusion medicine: current perspectives

    Friedman MT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark T Friedman,1 Peyman Bizargity,1 Sandra Gilmore,2 Arnold Friedman3 1Blood Bank and Transfusion Medicine Service, Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai St Luke's–Roosevelt Hospital Center, 2Patient Blood Management Program, Center for Blood Management and Bloodless Medicine and Surgery, Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center, 3Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Patients may have differing perceptions about blood transfusions based on their backgrounds, values, education levels, or cultural or religious beliefs, which may or may not be accurate. Unfortunately, despite the fact that transfusions are associated with a number of infectious and noninfectious risks, and in spite of the fact that there are ethical, accreditation, and regulatory requirements to provide information regarding transfusion risks, benefits, and alternatives to patients, transfusion consent remains inconsistently obtained. This can partly be attributed to the fact that clinicians may take on a paternalistic approach to transfusion decisions as well as to the fact that many clinicians have knowledge gaps in transfusion medicine that prevent them from obtaining transfusion consent adequately. As a result, unlike the case with other medical and surgical therapies, most patients are not included in the making of informed decisions regarding the need for transfusion versus alternative therapies, leading to many situations in which the transfusions provide little benefit to them. Recently however, a number of organizations, such as the American Association of Blood Banks and The Joint Commission in the US, have promoted multidisciplinary, evidence-based treatment strategies that aim to minimize the need for blood transfusion, the so-called patient blood management (PBM protocols. PBM strategies are expected to improve blood utilization through optimization of patients who may need

  17. Review of retrofit strategies decision system in historic perspective

    M. D. Bostenaru Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban development is a process. In structuring and developing its phases different actors are implied, who act under different, sometimes opposite, dynamic conditions and within different reference systems. This paper aims to explore the contribution of participatism to disaster mitigation, when this concerns earthquake impact on urban settlements, through the support provided to multi-criteria decision in matters of retrofit. The research broadness in field of decision making on one side and the lack of a specific model for the retrofit of existing buildings on another side led to an extensive review of the state of the art in related models to address the issue. Core idea in the selection of existing models has been the preoccupation for collaborative issues, in other words, the consideration for the different actors implied in the planning process. The historic perspective on participative planning models is made from the view of two generations of citizen implication. The first approaches focus on the participation of the building owner/inhabitant in the planning process of building construction. As current strategies building rehabilitation and selection from alternative retrofit strategies are presented. New developments include innovative models using the internet or spatial databases. The investigated participation approaches show, that participation and communication as a more comprehensive term are an old topic in the field politics-democratisation-urbanism. In all cases it can be talked of 'successful learning processes', of the improvement of the level of the professional debate. More than 30 years history of participation marked a transition in understanding the concept: from participation, based on a central decision process leading to a solution controlled and steered by the political-administrative system, to communication, characterised by simultaneous decision processes taking place outside politics and administration in co

  18. Prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe: a historical perspective.

    Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank.

  19. Ethno-Confessional Realities in the Romanian Area: Historical Perspectives (XVIII-XX centuries)

    Brie, Mircea; Şipoş, Sorin; Horga, Ioan

    2011-01-01

    Ethno-Confessional Realities in the Romanian Area: Historical Perspectives (XVII-XX Centuries) This present collective volume, coordinated by Mircea Brie, Sorin Şipoş and Ioan Horga, contains the papers of the international conference Ethnicity, Confession and Intercultural Dialogue at the European Union’s East Border (workshop: Ethno-Confessional Realities in the Romanian Area: Historical Perspectives), held in Oradea between 2nd-5th of June 2011. This international conference, organized...

  20. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Isaac, Sami; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future policies for the

  1. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Sami Isaac

    Full Text Available Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy.Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software.Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future

  2. Comparative Examination of Fair Value Accounting and Historical Cost Accountingin Perspective of Advantages and Disadvantages

    Arı, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Rıfat

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it has examined that advantages and disadvantages of fair value accounting and historical cost accounting in comparatively. We discuss advantages and disadvantages of produced financial information according to fair value accounting and historical cost accounting in perspective of reliability, relavance, transparency, intelligibility, comparability, timeliness and financial stability. Literature review results of this study indicate that there are advantages and disadvantages b...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of Chinese medicines: strategies and perspectives.

    Yan, Ru; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yijia

    2018-01-01

    The modernization and internationalization of Chinese medicines (CMs) are hampered by increasing concerns on the safety and the efficacy. Pharmacokinetic (PK) study is indispensable to establish concentration-activity/toxicity relationship and facilitate target identification and new drug discovery from CMs. To cope with tremendous challenges rooted from chemical complexity of CMs, the classic PK strategies have evolved rapidly from PK study focusing on marker/main drug components to PK-PD correlation study adopting metabolomics approaches to characterize associations between disposition of global drug-related components and host metabolic network shifts. However, the majority of PK studies of CMs have adopted the approaches tailored for western medicines and focused on the systemic exposures of drug-related components, most of which were found to be too low to account for the holistic benefits of CMs. With an area under concentration-time curve- or activity-weighted approach, integral PK attempts to understand the PK-PD relevance with the integrated PK profile of multiple co-existing structural analogs (prototyes/metabolites). Cellular PK-PD complements traditional PK-PD when drug targets localize inside the cells, instead of at the surface of cell membrane or extracellular space. Considering the validated clinical benefits of CMs, reverse pharmacology-based reverse PK strategy was proposed to facilitate target identification and new drug discovery. Recently, gut microbiota have demonstrated multifaceted roles in drug efficacy/toxicity. In traditional oral intake, the presystemic interactions of CMs with gut microbiota seem inevitable, which can contribute to the holistic benefits of CMs through biotransforming CMs components, acting as the peripheral target, and regulating host drug disposition. Hence, we propose a global PK-PD approach which includes the presystemic interaction of CMs with gut microbiota and combines omics with physiologically based

  4. Historic range of variability for upland vegetation in the Medicine Bow National Forest, Wyoming

    Gregory K. Dillon; Dennis H. Knight; Carolyn B. Meyer

    2005-01-01

    An approach for synthesizing the results of ecological research pertinent to land management is the analysis of the historic range of variability (HRV) for key ecosystem variables that are affected by management activities. This report provides an HRV analysis for the upland vegetation of the Medicine Bow National Forest in southeastern Wyoming. The variables include...

  5. Residents' Perspectives on Careers in Academic Medicine: Obstacles and Opportunities.

    Lin, Steven; Nguyen, Cathina; Walters, Emily; Gordon, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Worsening faculty shortages in medical schools and residency programs are threatening the US medical education infrastructure. Little is known about the factors that influence the decision of family medicine residents to choose or not choose academic careers. Our study objective was to answer the following question among family medicine residents: "What is your greatest concern or fear about pursuing a career in academic family medicine?" Participants were family medicine residents who attended the Faculty for Tomorrow Workshop at the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Annual Spring Conference in 2016 and 2017. Free responses to the aforementioned prompt were analyzed using a constant comparative method and grounded theory approach. A total of 156 participants registered for the workshops and 95 (61%) answered the free response question. Eight distinct themes emerged from the analysis. The most frequently recurring theme was "lack of readiness or mentorship," which accounted for nearly one-third (31%) of the codes. Other themes included work-life balance and burnout (17%), job availability and logistics (15%), lack of autonomy or flexibility (11%), competing pressures/roles (10%), lower financial rewards (4%), politics and bureaucracy (4%), and research (3%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify barriers and disincentives to pursuing a career in academic medicine from the perspective of family medicine residents. There may be at least eight major obstacles, for which we summarize and consider potential interventions. More research is needed to understand why residents choose, or don't choose, academic careers.

  6. USNCTAM perspectives on mechanics in medicine

    Bao, Gang; Bazilevs, Yuri; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Decuzzi, Paolo; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Ferrari, Mauro; Gao, Huajian; Hossain, Shaolie S.; Hughes, Thomas J. R.; Kamm, Roger D.; Liu, Wing Kam; Marsden, Alison; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Over decades, the theoretical and applied mechanics community has developed sophisticated approaches for analysing the behaviour of complex engineering systems. Most of these approaches have targeted systems in the transportation, materials, defence and energy industries. Applying and further developing engineering approaches for understanding, predicting and modulating the response of complicated biomedical processes not only holds great promise in meeting societal needs, but also poses serious challenges. This report, prepared for the US National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, aims to identify the most pressing challenges in biological sciences and medicine that can be tackled within the broad field of mechanics. This echoes and complements a number of national and international initiatives aiming at fostering interdisciplinary biomedical research. This report also comments on cultural/educational challenges. Specifically, this report focuses on three major thrusts in which we believe mechanics has and will continue to have a substantial impact. (i) Rationally engineering injectable nano/microdevices for imaging and therapy of disease. Within this context, we discuss nanoparticle carrier design, vascular transport and adhesion, endocytosis and tumour growth in response to therapy, as well as uncertainty quantification techniques to better connect models and experiments. (ii) Design of biomedical devices, including point-of-care diagnostic systems, model organ and multi-organ microdevices, and pulsatile ventricular assistant devices. (iii) Mechanics of cellular processes, including mechanosensing and mechanotransduction, improved characterization of cellular constitutive behaviour, and microfluidic systems for single-cell studies. PMID:24872502

  7. USNCTAM perspectives on mechanics in medicine.

    Bao, Gang; Bazilevs, Yuri; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Decuzzi, Paolo; Espinosa, Horacio D; Ferrari, Mauro; Gao, Huajian; Hossain, Shaolie S; Hughes, Thomas J R; Kamm, Roger D; Liu, Wing Kam; Marsden, Alison; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2014-08-06

    Over decades, the theoretical and applied mechanics community has developed sophisticated approaches for analysing the behaviour of complex engineering systems. Most of these approaches have targeted systems in the transportation, materials, defence and energy industries. Applying and further developing engineering approaches for understanding, predicting and modulating the response of complicated biomedical processes not only holds great promise in meeting societal needs, but also poses serious challenges. This report, prepared for the US National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, aims to identify the most pressing challenges in biological sciences and medicine that can be tackled within the broad field of mechanics. This echoes and complements a number of national and international initiatives aiming at fostering interdisciplinary biomedical research. This report also comments on cultural/educational challenges. Specifically, this report focuses on three major thrusts in which we believe mechanics has and will continue to have a substantial impact. (i) Rationally engineering injectable nano/microdevices for imaging and therapy of disease. Within this context, we discuss nanoparticle carrier design, vascular transport and adhesion, endocytosis and tumour growth in response to therapy, as well as uncertainty quantification techniques to better connect models and experiments. (ii) Design of biomedical devices, including point-of-care diagnostic systems, model organ and multi-organ microdevices, and pulsatile ventricular assistant devices. (iii) Mechanics of cellular processes, including mechanosensing and mechanotransduction, improved characterization of cellular constitutive behaviour, and microfluidic systems for single-cell studies. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. The Self Attenuation Correction for Holdup Measurements, a Historical Perspective

    Oberer, R. B.; Gunn, C. A.; Chiang, L. G.

    2006-01-01

    Self attenuation has historically caused both conceptual as well as measurement problems. The purpose of this paper is to eliminate some of the historical confusion by reviewing the mathematical basis and by comparing several methods of correcting for self attenuation focusing on transmission as a central concept

  9. Greenhouse effect and ice ages: historical perspective; Effet de serre et glaciations, une perspective historique

    Bard, E. [College de France, Chaire d' Evolution du Climat et de l' Ocean, 75 - Paris (France); CEREGE (UMR 6635), 13 - Aix en Provence (France)

    2004-06-01

    This article provides a brief historical perspective on the first scientific research on the greenhouse effect and glaciations. While these two aspects of our climate can be investigated separately, naturalists, physicists and chemists during the 19. century were interested jointly in both issues, as well as the possible relationship between them. The contributions of famous pioneers are mentioned, ranging from scholars with encyclopedic knowledge such as Horace-Benedict de Saussure, to modern scientists like Svante Arrhenius, who was first to predict global warming as a consequence of using fossil fuels. Despite fragmentary observations, these pioneers had prophetic insights. Indeed, the main fundamental concepts used nowadays have been developed during the 19. century. However, we must wait until the second half of the 20. century to see a true revolution of investigative techniques in the Earth Sciences, enabling full access to previously unknown components of the climate system, such as deep oceans and the interior of the polar ice caps. (author)

  10. Harnessing Biomedical Natural Language Processing Tools to Identify Medicinal Plant Knowledge from Historical Texts.

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Law, Wayne; Balick, Michael J; Sarkar, Indra Neil

    2017-01-01

    The growing amount of data describing historical medicinal uses of plants from digitization efforts provides the opportunity to develop systematic approaches for identifying potential plant-based therapies. However, the task of cataloguing plant use information from natural language text is a challenging task for ethnobotanists. To date, there have been only limited adoption of informatics approaches used for supporting the identification of ethnobotanical information associated with medicinal uses. This study explored the feasibility of using biomedical terminologies and natural language processing approaches for extracting relevant plant-associated therapeutic use information from historical biodiversity literature collection available from the Biodiversity Heritage Library. The results from this preliminary study suggest that there is potential utility of informatics methods to identify medicinal plant knowledge from digitized resources as well as highlight opportunities for improvement.

  11. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples' lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body, tissue, and fluids and what happens to them when separated from the body can influence ideas about the utility and acceptability of genetic research and thereby affect the recruitment process. Within this community it is understood that genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer; and acknowledgment of the significance of environmental stressors in the production of disease. A commitment to service, i.e. "betterment of humanity," karmic beliefs, and targeting environmental stressors could be prominent avenues for public health campaigns in this

  12. Historical Perspectives on Games and Education from the Learning Sciences

    Shelton, Brett E.; Satwicz, Tom; Caswell, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews three classic theorists' writing on games, learning, and development. Piaget, Vygotsky, and Bruner all wrote about games and play as important to thinking and learning. This review attempts to synthesize their perspectives as a means to revisit underused theoretical perspectives on the role of games in education. The views of…

  13. An historical summary of advisory boards for aerospace medicine at NASA.

    Doarn, Charles R

    2013-03-01

    Over the past 50 years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has interacted with numerous advisory committees. These committees include those established by NASA, the National Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Medicine, or through Congressional oversight. Such groups have had a relatively passive role while providing sage advice on a variety of important issues. While these groups cover a wide range of disciplines, the focus of this paper is on those that impacted aerospace medicine and human spaceflight from NASA's beginning to the present time. The intent is to provide an historical narrative of the committees, their purpose, their outcome, and how they influenced the development of aerospace medicine within NASA. Aerospace medicine and life sciences have been closely aligned and intertwined from NASA's beginning. While several committees overlap life sciences within NASA, life sciences will not be presented unless it is in direct reference to aerospace medicine. This paper provides an historical summary chronicling those individuals and the groups they led when aerospace medicine was emerging as a discipline for human spaceflight beginning in 1957.

  14. Contextualizing Corporate Political Responsibilities: Neoliberal CSR in Historical Perspective

    Djelic, Marie-Laure; Etchanchu, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a historical analysis of the political role of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) before it was even called CSR. We describe two ideal types of political responsibilities during the eras of 19th century paternalism in Europe and corporate trusteeship in the US. Our historical contextualization of recent scholarly work on a “political turn” of CSR offers a two-pronged critique: 1. Growing discussions on political CSR start from a problematic foundation that does not ho...

  15. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands.

    Soelberg, J; Davis, O; Jäger, A K

    2016-11-04

    Hidden in the documents of the dark past of the trans-Atlantic slavery are gems of ethnomedicinal observations, supported by herbarium specimens, which tell of the traditional medicine of a by-gone slave society in the Caribbean. In the context of the former Danish West Indies (now US Virgin Islands), we identify pre-1900 medicinal plants and their historical uses, and trace their status in the traditional medicine of St. Croix today (2014). By a combined historical and ethnobotanical approach we assess the scale of loss and preservation of traditional medicinal knowledge on St. Croix, and explore the drivers involved in the disappearance of knowledge in the oral tradition of medicine. Names, uses and identities of 18th and 19th century medicinal plant uses in the Danish West Indies were derived from manuscripts and publications of Von Rohr (1757/58), Oldendorp (1777), West (1793), Benzon (1822), Riise (1853), Eggers (1876;1879) and Berg and Eggers (1888). The presence of the plant species in the pre-1900 Danish West Indies was confirmed by review of herbarium specimens in the University of Copenhagen Herbarium (C). The same species were collected on St. Croix in 2014 or their ecological status discussed with local specialists. Semi-structured interviews supported by photographs and specimens were conducted with six medicinal plant specialist on St. Croix, to document and compare contemporary names and uses of the historically used medicinal plants. The historic ethnomedicinal sources revealed 102 medicinal uses of 64 plant species. Thirty-eight (37%) of the pre-1900 medicinal uses were traced in interviews, while sixty-four uses (63%) appear to be forgotten, discontinued or otherwise lost. Thirteen species appear to have entirely lost their status as medicinal plants on St. Croix, while 32 species (50%) have lost uses while retaining or gaining others. While 20% of the lost medicinal plant uses can be explained by biodiversity loss, and others likely have become

  16. The European physical and rehabilitation medicine journal network: historical notes on national journals.

    Negrini, S; Ilieva, E; Moslavac, S; Zampolini, M; Giustini, A

    2010-06-01

    In the last 40 years, physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) has made significant steps forward in Europe with the foundation of the European Federation of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (EFPMR) (1963) which gave rise to the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) (2004) the European Academy of Rehabilitation Medicine (1970), the PRM Section of the European Union of Medical Specialists (1974), and the European Board of PRM (1991). Our journal, formerly Europa Medico-physica (1964), the official journal of the EFPMR, now European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM) and official journal of the ESPRM since 2008, is distinct for its steadfast European vocation, long-standing Mediter-ranean interests and connections with various national scientific societies. Jointly with the ESPRM, efforts are under way to set up the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN). The aim of this article is to present a profile of the national journals in the EPRMJN so as to give a better overview of how the scientific part of PRM in Europe has developed within a national perspective. A profile of the following national journals is presented: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (France), Fizikalna i rehabilitacijska medicina (Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine) (Croatia), Neurorehabilitation (Bulgaria), Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Portuguese Society Journal (Portugal), Physical Medicine, Rehabilitaton, Health (Bulgaria), Physikalische Medizin - Rehabilitationsmedizin - Kurort-medizin/Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (Germany and Austria) Prevention and Rehabilitation (Bulgaria), Rehabilitacija (Rehabilitation) (Slovenia), Rehabilitación (Madr) (Spain), Turkish Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (Turkey). Some national journals in Europe have a very long history and tradition of research and education. Having a better knowledge of these realities, usually

  17. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  18. Patient Perspectives of Midlevel Providers in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine.

    Manning, Blaine T; Bohl, Daniel D; Hannon, Charles P; Redondo, Michael L; Christian, David R; Forsythe, Brian; Nho, Shane J; Bach, Bernard R

    2018-04-01

    Midlevel providers (eg, nurse practitioners and physician assistants) have been integrated into orthopaedic systems of care in response to the increasing demand for musculoskeletal care. Few studies have examined patient perspectives toward midlevel providers in orthopaedic sports medicine. To identify perspectives of orthopaedic sports medicine patients regarding midlevel providers, including optimal scope of practice, reimbursement equity with physicians, and importance of the physician's midlevel provider to patients when initially selecting a physician. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 690 consecutive new patients of 3 orthopaedic sports medicine physicians were prospectively administered an anonymous questionnaire prior to their first visit. Content included patient perspectives regarding midlevel provider importance in physician selection, optimal scope of practice, and reimbursement equity with physicians. Of the 690 consecutive patients who were administered the survey, 605 (87.7%) responded. Of these, 51.9% were men and 48.1% were women, with a mean age of 40.5 ± 15.7 years. More than half (51.2%) perceived no differences in training levels between physician assistants and nurse practitioners. A majority of patients (62.9%) reported that the physician's midlevel provider is an important consideration when choosing a new orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Patients had specific preferences regarding which services should be physician provided. Patients also reported specific preferences regarding those services that could be midlevel provided. There lacked a consensus on reimbursement equity for midlevel practitioners and physicians, despite 71.7% of patients responding that the physician provides a higher-quality consultation. As health care becomes value driven and consumer-centric, understanding patient perspectives on midlevel providers will allow orthopaedic sports medicine physicians to optimize efficiency and patient

  19. From "ES-like" cells to induced pluripotent stem cells: a historical perspective in domestic animals.

    Koh, Sehwon; Piedrahita, Jorge A

    2014-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells such as embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide great potential as cell sources for gene editing to generate genetically modified animals, as well as in the field of regenerative medicine. Stable, long-term ESCs have been established in laboratory mouse and rat; however, isolation of true pluripotent ESCs in domesticated animals such as pigs and dogs have been less successful. Initially, domesticated animal pluripotent cell lines were referred to as "embryonic stem-like" cells owing to their similar morphologic characteristics to mouse ESCs, but accompanied by a limited ability to proliferate in vitro in an undifferentiated state. That is, they shared some but not all the characteristics of true ESCs. More recently, advances in reprogramming using exogenous transcription factors, combined with the utilization of small chemical inhibitors of key biochemical pathways, have led to the isolation of iPSCs. In this review, we provide a historical perspective of the isolation of various types of pluripotent stem cells in domesticated animals. In addition, we summarize the latest progress and limitations in the derivation and application of iPSCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Historical perspective on diameter-limit cutting in northeastern forests

    Matthew J. Kelty; Anthony W. D' Amato; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2006-01-01

    The use of diameter-limit cutting and high-grading is currently a concern for long-term sustainability of forests in the Northeastern United States and surrounding areas. This paper reviews historical information about the kinds of harvesting used in this region from 1620 to 1950, to provide a context for current discussions. Throughout this period, most timber...

  1. The Aesthetic As Immediately Sensuous: An Historical Perspective

    Madenfort, Duke

    1974-01-01

    The views of Immanuel Kant, Soren Kierkegaard, Henri Bergson, John Dewey, and Susanne Langer were discussed. In this article they served as five important figures in a historical account of the concept of the aesthetic as the immediately sensuous. (Author/RK)

  2. The Obligations of American Citizenship: A Historical Perspective.

    Murphy, Paul L.

    1983-01-01

    Historical antecedents of modern constitutionalism are examined, and the concepts of citizen participation, civic responsibility, and limitation of government are explained in that context. Students must be exposed to the constitutional basics--why the document is retained, what values it incorporates, and where it has succeeded and failed. (PP)

  3. Accumulation and management in global historical perspective: An introduction

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2014-01-01

    This essay introduces a special issue dedicated to the theme ‘accumulation and management in global historical perspective’. The concepts and practices of accumulation and management are explored in ways that work to de-center the history of science and empire. Particular attention is paid to four

  4. Historic perspective: Prebiotics, probiotics, and other alternatives to antibiotics

    Antibiotic applications in agricultural and human medical arenas have resulted in tremendous increases in food animal production and historically unprecedented gains in human health protection. Successes attributed to wide-spread antibiotic use have been accompanied by the inadvertent emergence of r...

  5. Pirates, ports, and coasts in Asia: historical and contemporary perspectives

    Kleinen, J.; Osseweijer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Pirates, Ports and Coasts in Asia aims to fill in some of the historical gaps in the coverage of maritime piracy and armed robbery in Asia. The authors highlight a variety of activities ranging from raiding, destroying and pillaging coastal villages and capturing inhabitants to attacking and taking

  6. The Toolbox of Proton Spin Physics in Historical Perspective

    Haeberli, Willy

    2008-01-01

    This paper was part of the general-interest session on lecture day, and is thus addressed to a general audience. A 50-year historic overview of the development of the tools of proton spin physics is presented: nuclear scattering, ion sources for polarized protons and deuterons based on atomic beam and optical pumping methods, and polarized gas targets

  7. Art as an investment in a historical perspective

    David, Geraldine

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation studies the price formation mechanisms on the art market. More specifically, it uses historical data to test the impact of several factors on the French art market between 1860 and 1950 and on the Belgian art market between 1945 and 1950. The first paper investigates the link

  8. The Materiality of Digital Collections: Theoretical and Historical Perspectives

    Manoff, Marlene

    2006-01-01

    Digital and textual objects are coming under a new kind of scrutiny as scholars are becoming more interested in physical artifacts and their relation to their social and cultural environment. This study of material culture suggests a need to explore the nature of digital materiality, as well as the broader historical context in which electronic…

  9. The Statue of Liberty: Double Stories Provide Historical Perspective

    Britt, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Standing tall in New York Harbor, the Statue of Liberty is an enduring symbol of America. Layers of historical content and symbolism are uncovered in books that tell various parts of her story. By reading one or more of these books, students can begin to see that the experience of immigration is complex--it's not one narrative, but many that…

  10. Children's Generalization of Strategies: An Historical Perspective on Transfer.

    Cox, Brian D.; And Others

    As an aid to contemporary research, this paper examines historical ideas about young children's use of strategies for memorization and the transfer of such strategies to different contexts. Discussion focuses on (1) current approaches to inducing transfer of strategies; (2) Thorndike and Woodworth's concept of identical elements; (3) Gestalt…

  11. A trifocal perspective on medicine as a moral enterprise: towards an authentic philosophy of medicine.

    Ssebunnya, Gerald M

    2015-02-01

    The fundamental claim that the practice of medicine is essentially a moral enterprise remains highly contentious, not least among the dominant traditional moral theories. The medical profession itself is today characterized by multicultural pluralism and moral relativism that have left the Hippocratic moral tradition largely in disarray. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the ambiguity about practicing medicine as a moral enterprise and echo Pellegrino's call for a phenomenologically and teleologically derived philosophy of medicine. I proffer a realistic trifocal matrix in which the virtuous moral agency and the teleologically derived moral imperative of the physician are comprehensively integrated with an action-guiding practical analytical framework for the resolution of ethical dilemmas in medicine. I argue that this trifocal perspective points us towards an authentic philosophy of medicine that is not only verifiable through Lonerganian self-appropriation, but also authentically objective through the possible moral self-transcendence of the good physician. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Fighting Falsified Medicines with Paperwork – A Historic Review of Danish Legislation Governing Distribution of Medicines

    Borup, Rasmus; Kaae, Susanne; Minssen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Many areas of pharmaceutical legislation in the European Union (EU) are harmonised in order to promote the internal market and protect public health. Ideally, harmonisation leads to less fragmented regulation and cross-border complexities. This study, however, focuses on an increasingly harmonise...... the drastic increases in requirements mandated by the Falsified Medicines Directive of 2011 correspond to a new approach to governing the pharmaceutical supply chain....

  13. Perspectives : anecdotal, historical and critical commentaries on genetics

    Bryan K. Epperson

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to give a personal perspective of the person of Gustave Malecot and a conceptual account of his contributions to the field of population genetics. Some essential biographical information is given, but more important are some insights he himself gave into his early career. I was privileged to have him share these insights with me over the...

  14. The double-contingency principle: An historical perspective

    Knief, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Standard ANSI/ANS-8.1 states the double contingency principle as: Process designs should, in general, incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This paper presents a perspective on the double contingency principle

  15. "Fuzziness" in the celular interactome: a historical perspective.

    Welch, G Rickey

    2012-01-01

    Some historical background is given for appreciating the impact of the empirical construct known as the cellular protein-protein interactome, which is a seemingly de novo entity that has arisen of late within the context of postgenomic systems biology. The approach here builds on a generalized principle of "fuzziness" in protein behavior, proposed by Tompa and Fuxreiter.(1) Recent controversies in the analysis and interpretation of the interactome studies are rationalized historically under the auspices of this concept. There is an extensive literature on protein-protein interactions, dating to the mid-1900s, which may help clarify the "fuzziness" in the interactome picture and, also, provide a basis for understanding the physiological importance of protein-protein interactions in vivo.

  16. Family types and intimate-partner violence: A historical perspective

    Ana Tur-Prats

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the historical origins of violence against women, in contrast to earlier literature, which focused only on short-term determinants. It analyses the relationship between traditional family patterns (stem versus nuclear) and intimate-partner violence (IPV). Stem families are those in which one child stays in the parental household with spouse and children, so that at least two generations live together. I model the behavior of a traditional peasant family and show how coresi...

  17. Latin American Civil-Military Relationships in a Historical Perspective

    Skaar, Elin

    2013-01-01

    Civil-military relationships constitute a crucial element in the transition to substantive democracy all over the world. During periods of authoritarianism or civil war, the military in Latin America has historically speaking been responsible for extensive violations of human rights and humanitarian law. Since the reintroduction of democracy in the region in the 1980s and 1990s, the military has gradually been brought back under civilian rule. The balance of power between military and civil p...

  18. Historical Perspective on Familial Gastric CancerSummary

    C. Richard Boland; Matthew B. Yurgelun

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a common disease worldwide, typically associated with acquired chronic inflammation in the stomach, related in most instances to infection by Helicobacter pylori. A small percentage of cases occurs in familial clusters, and some of these can be linked to specific germline mutations. This article reviews the historical background to the current understanding of familial gastric cancer, focuses on the entity of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, and also reviews the risks for ...

  19. Historical Perspectives and Recent Trends in the Coastal Mozambican Fishery

    Jessica L. Blythe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical data describing changing social-ecological interactions in marine systems can help guide small-scale fisheries management efforts. Fisheries landings data are often the primary source for historical reconstructions of fisheries; however, we argue that reliance on data of a single type and/or from a single scale can lead to potentially misleading conclusions. For example, a narrow focus on aggregate landings statistics can mask processes and trends occurring at local scales, as well as the complex social changes that result from and precipitate marine ecosystem change. Moreover, in the case of many small-scale fisheries, landings statistics are often incomplete and/or inaccurate. We draw on case study research in Mozambique that combines national landings statistics and career history interviews with fish harvesters to generate a multi-scale historical reconstruction that describes social-ecological interactions within the coastal Mozambican fishery. At the national level, our analysis points toward trends of fishing intensification and decline in targeted species, and it highlights the significant impact of small-scale fisheries on marine stocks. At the local level, fishers are experiencing changes in fish abundance and distribution, as well as in their physical, social, and cultural environments, and have responded by increasing their fishing effort. We conclude with a discussion of the governance implications of our methodological approach and findings.

  20. A Historical Perspective of the Atlantic’s Evolution

    Teixeira, Nuno Severiano; Marcos, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    SFRH/BPD/75764/2011 UID/CPO/04627/2013 565280-EPP-1-2015-1-USEPPJMO-NETWORK In the last two centuries, several key moments have defined the Atlantic Basin’s history that help us understand its present. This chapter endeavours to present a comprehensive overview of this evolution, pointing out key events that set up the historical links that still play a role in the Atlantic. In the first section, following a chronological approach, it shows how the American and the French Revolutions...

  1. Historical and epistemological perspectives on research and nursing.

    Cushing, A

    1994-09-01

    This paper examines four main themes with respect to some problematic issues concerning the discipline of nursing, nursing scholarship and the social sciences. First, attention is directed to the controversial issues concerning nursing's search for a knowledge base. Second, a historical context is provided by drawing attention to some key developments between the quantitative and qualitative approaches to research in nursing. Third, the issue of the fundamental and attested difficulties in the application of qualitative methodologies is addressed. Finally, it is submitted that in the interest of nursing's future as a scholarly endeavour, the discipline should focus polemic attention on the body of knowledge already accumulated.

  2. Innovation in science and organizational renewal historical and sociological perspectives

    Münch, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This book looks at the types of new research organizations that drive scientific innovation and how ground-breaking science transforms research fields and their organization. Based on historical case studies and comparative empirical data, the book presents new and thought-provoking evidence that improves our knowledge and understanding about how new research fields are formed and how research organizations adapt to breakthroughs in science. While the book is firmly based in science history, it discusses more general sociological and policy propositions regarding scientific innovations and organizational change. The volume brings together leading scholars both from the United States and Europe.

  3. Survey of Chinese Medicine Students to Determine Research and Evidence-Based Medicine Perspectives at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine.

    Anderson, Belinda J; Kligler, Benjamin; Cohen, Hillel W; Marantz, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Research literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are important initiatives in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which requires cultural change within educational institutions for successful implementation. To determine the self-assessed research and EBM perspectives of Chinese medicine Masters degree students at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY). A survey with 17 close-ended questions and one open-ended question was administered through Survey Monkey to students at PCOM-NY. The survey was sent to 420 Masters students and 176 (41.9%) responded. Students in all four years of the Masters degree indicated a generally high degree of interest in, and support for the value of research. However, increasing years (one to four years) in the program was associated with lower interest in post-graduation research participation and entering the doctoral program, and the fourth year students reported low levels of interest in having greater research content and training in their Masters degree programs. Students who responded to the open-ended question (23% of respondents) expressed enthusiasm for research and concerns about the relevance of research in Chinese medicine. Consistent with findings in similar studies at CAM colleges, interest in research, and EBM of the PCOM-NY Masters students appeared to decline with increasing years in the program. Concerns around paradigm and epistemological issues associated with research and EBM among Chinese medicine students and practitioners warrants further investigation, and may be an important challenge for integrative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Public and Private Intelligence: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives

    Ruth Delaforce

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence is often regarded as information that is special or different, which must be safely kept. When sought, collected or used by the private sector, as opposed to public agencies, concerns are raised on the purpose and propriety of such an activity. However, in an historical context, intelligence collection or sharing between public and private interests for the purpose of national security was not unusual, particularly during the Cold War. Case studies from this era indicate that overlapping concerns were economic success combined with political strategy. Glimpses of these shared interests between the state and business can also be identified in the immediate post-Cold War era, and the aftermath of terrorist attacks in 2001. Perhaps the greatest contemporary change is not that “private” and “public” intelligence is shared between business and state, but the extent of such an enterprise. Further issues related to this change are: state dominance in the public-private relationship; potential fragmentation in the intelligence process; gaps in the historical record; and implications for future generations of intelligence professionals.

  5. Bitcoin and Potosí Silver: Historical Perspectives on Cryptocurrency.

    Zimmer, Zac

    Bitcoin, the digital cryptocurrency, has been celebrated as the future of money on the Internet. Although Bitcoin does present several forward-looking innovations, it also integrates a very old concept into its digital architecture: the mining of precious metals. Even though Bitcoin explicitly invokes mining as a metaphor and gold as an example for understanding the cryptocurrency, there has been little critical work on the connections between Bitcoin and previous metalist currency regimes. The following essay proposes a historical comparison with colonial South American silver mining and the global currency regime based on the New World silver peso it created as a way to interrogate Bitcoin. The comparison with colonial South America, and specifically the silver mining economy around the Cerro Rico de Potosí, will help to develop a historical and political understanding of Bitcoin's stakes, including questions of resources, labor, energy, and ecology. Mining and the extractive apparatus that accompanies it always imply massive-scale earthworks that reshape the planet itself, a process known as terraforming. The Potosí comparison will reveal Bitcoin to form part of a similar process of digital primitive accumulation we can provisionally name cryptoforming.

  6. A historical perspective on the collaboration between psychoanalysis and neuroscience.

    Sauvagnat, François; Wiss, Matthias; Clément, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article is to present and discuss the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience from a historical viewpoint. We start by examining how Sigmund Freud can be viewed as a pioneer in the interaction between these two fields. Freud was himself a neurologist and had maintained an interest in biology as he developed the key concepts of psychoanalysis. His ideas regarding psychosomatics are described. We will also explore how the concept of drive is essential to the connection between psychoanalysis and neuroscience. Then, we describe several key actors and historical events and characters at the interface of these two fields, namely Sándor Radó Lawrence S. Kubie and Mc Culloch, the debates that took place during the Macy conferences, as well as the positions of Jacques Lacan, George L. Engel, and Eric Kandel. Finally, we present a synthesis of the main fields in which the connections between psychoanalysis and neuroscience are already fruitful, and those where they should be developed: the classification of mental diseases, the link between the scientific and psychic dimensions, therapeutics, the organization of the body, intersubjectivity, the subjective division and ambivalence, as well as transferential effects like such as the placebo and nocebo effects. In the conclusion, we advocate several strategic alliances and underscore the complementarity between rigorous scientific experimentation and the individualized psychoanalytic approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic Perspectives on the Family: Process, Structural and Historical Contextual Models.

    Levant, Ronald F.

    1983-01-01

    Describes diagnostic perspectives for viewing dysfunctional families. Presents three general types of models (process, structural, and historical) and organized them along a continuum from most descriptive to most inferential. Presented at the 39th Annual Conference of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy, October-November…

  8. A Historical Perspective on Gender Inequality and Development in the World Economy, c. 1850-2000

    Dilli, S.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370724267

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this dissertation is to add a historical perspective to the debate on the link between gender inequality and development. To do so, the dissertation first documents global gender differences in life expectancy and sex ratios (to cover health status); in average years of

  9. A Historical Perspective on Student Affairs Professionals' Use of Digital Technology

    Cabellon, Edmund T.; Payne-Kirchmeier, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides a historical perspective of student affairs professionals' use of digital and social technologies in their work on college campuses. The purpose of the chapter is to describe how digital technology tools have evolved since 2005, demonstrate how student affairs technology shifted and changed during this time, and shape student…

  10. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  11. Historical and Cultural Perspectives on Centralization/Decentralization in Continuing Education.

    Edelson, Paul J.

    1995-01-01

    Views centralization/decentralization from four perspectives: historical, as an outgrowth of professionalism, in the culture of higher education, and management theory. Suggests that some form of centralized control will always be necessary if continuing education is to function in a larger organization, but smaller units may be the wave of the…

  12. Perspectives of wild medicine harvesters from Cape Town, South Africa

    Leif Petersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora species and 18% of South Africa's plant diversity. Cape Town is also inhabited by a rapidly growing culturally and economically diverse citizenry with distinct and potentially conflicting perspectives on access to, and management of, local natural resources. In a qualitative study of 58 locally resident traditional healers of distinct cultural groups, we examined motivations underlying the generally illicit activity of harvesting of wild resources from Cape Town protected areas. Resource harvester motivations primarily link to local economic survival, health care and cultural links to particular resources and practices, 'access for all' outlooks, and wholesale profit-seeking perspectives. We describe these motivations, contrast them with the current formal, legal and institutional perspectives for biodiversity protection in the city, and propose managerial interventions that may improve sustainability of ongoing harvest activities. Significance: The study reveals, for the first time in the Cape Floristic Region, informal economy viewpoints on terrestrial nature and how its direct use has important economic and cultural roles – specifically in wild medicine harvesting and trade. We contrast the formal and informal approaches to nature conservation in the city and propose new considerations for conservation managers.

  13. Radio listening in a life-historical perspective

    Blaakilde, Anne Leonora

    are interpreted as material-semiotic interactions, as well as the embodied and subjective experiences and memories in time and space are interpreted in a postphenomenological perspective. Encompassing these rather different theories is the notion of soundscape (Schafer) which, in a newer reading inspired by John...... things matter. UCL Press, London. Pink, Sarah and Mackley, Kerstin Leder 2013. Saturated and situated: expanding the meaning of media in the routines of everyday life. Media Culture Society, vol. 35, no. 6: 677-691. Schafer, R. Murray 1994. The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning...

  14. Perspective: Teaching and mentoring the history of medicine: an Oslerian perspective.

    Bryan, Charles S; Longo, Lawrence D

    2013-01-01

    Many predict a takeover (seen by some as hostile, and by others as inadvertent) of professional virtues and values by government and capitalism. One source of professional virtues and values consists of lessons from the history of medicine as taught and mentored by Sir William Osler. Some medical schools have required courses in medical history, but proposing a new requirement would probably be a tough sell to most curriculum committees. Osler himself argued against compulsory courses in medical history. The authors propose that exposing medical students to the history of medicine promotes at least two of the seven types of professionalism identified by Hafferty and Castellani. Exposure to the evolution of medical science and to exemplary physicians of bygone eras promotes nostalgic professionalism, which, although in some ways suspect and naïve, fosters a sense of belonging and solidarity as members of a profession, not a trade, whereas exposure to the evolution of medicine as a public service, to the sad history of health care disparities, and to patients' perspectives promotes activist professionalism, fostering a sense of civic responsibility and opposition to excessive commercialism.Steps to promote such exposure include (1) identifying faculty, community physicians, and others interested in the history of medicine, (2) including the history of medicine in faculty development programs, (3) considering a segment in the history of medicine during the introduction to each major course, (4) sponsoring history clubs, and (5) promoting environments favorable for mentor-protégé relationships for faculty and students with further interest.

  15. Historical perspective on the moon base: the British experience

    Jones, E.M.; Finney, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Among the many historical episodes that have relevance to the establishment of a human base, the voyages of Captain Cook, and the founding of Britain's Botany Bay colony in Australia seems particularly appropriate. The process resulting in the selection of Cook rewards study, as do his relations with the Admiralty, with the scientific establishment and with the scientists who accompanies him. Britain's tight control of the Botany Bay settlement and its unwillingness to promote early self-sufficiency may have delayed the time when Australia became self-supporting. Structuring the lunar base to offer opportunities for private initiatives may hasten the day when it becomes a self-supporting settlement rather than an externally supported scientific base on an Antarctic model

  16. Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Historical and Clinical Perspective.

    Sahyouni, Ronald; Goshtasbi, Khodayar; Mahmoodi, Amin; Tran, Diem K; Chen, Jefferson W

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to highlight the clinical complexity of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) while presenting a brief historical discussion of cSDH. A thorough literature search of published English-language papers was performed in PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane databases. cSDH affects 1-5.3 per 100,000 individuals annually, with the incidence expected to rise as the U.S. population ages. The symptoms of cSDH are often nonspecific, with headaches being the most common complaint. Other symptoms include weakness, balance and gait problems, and memory problems. A variety of clinical factors must be taken into account in the treatment of cSDH, and the multifaceted treatment paradigms continue to evolve. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The relativity revolution from the perspective of historical epistemology.

    Renn, Jürgen

    2004-12-01

    This essay analyzes Einstein's relativity revolution as part of a long-term development of knowledge in which the knowledge system of classical physics was reorganized in a process of reflection, described here as a "Copernican process." This process led in 1905 to the introduction of fundamentally new concepts of space, time, matter, and radiation. On the basis of an extensive historical reconstruction, the heuristics of Einstein's creation of the general theory of relativity, completing the relativity revolution, is interpreted as a further transformation of the knowledge of classical physics, starting from conceiving gravitation as a borderline problem between field theory and mechanics. The essay thus provides an answer to the puzzle of how Einstein was able to create a theory capable of accounting for a wide range of phenomena that were discovered only much later.

  18. Professionalethics, deontology and unionism in brazilian librarianship: multiple historical perspectives

    Jessé Albino Santana

    2017-09-01

    collection, bibliographical and documental research. It presents concepts related to ethics as a science and its importance in the field of professions. It relates ethics and deontology, understanding this as a science of duty, responsible for ascertaining how the norms guiding the professional classes arise and are sustained. It evokes historical elements of the trade union movement in England, its arrival in Brazil and the beginning of unionization of Brazilian librarians. As a result, it highlights the need to broaden the debates about professional ethics and the maturation of class consciousness in Librarianship, which may have repercussions on collective actions of greater visibility with society.

  19. Historical perspective of the H- Ion Source Symposia

    Schmidt, C.W.

    1997-11-01

    The International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Hydrogen Ions and Beams is entering its third decade of providing a forum for the H - ion source community. The first meeting was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1977 and has returned there every three years to 1995. This is the eighth meeting in this series and for the first time is in Europe, hosted by CEA/Center de Cadarache. Since this Symposium is meeting in Europe many new people have had an opportunity to attend and many of these are of a younger generation. On the 20th anniversary of the First Symposium it seems fitting that a historical review should be given. The Symposium meetings and its archiving of information has been a valuable asset to this community. I hope to briefly describe the early H - source work and provide some insight into the success of the H - source effort

  20. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  1. Historical perspective of the H- ion source symposia

    Schmidt, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    The International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Hydrogen Ions and Beams is entering its third decade of providing a forum for the H - ion source community. The first meeting was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1977 and has returned there every three years to 1995. This is the eighth meeting in this series and for the first time is in Europe, hosted by CEA/Center de Cadarache. Since this Symposium is meeting in Europe many new people have had an opportunity to attend and many of these are of a younger generation. On the 20th anniversary of the First Symposium it seems fitting that a historical review should be given. The Symposium meetings and its archiving of information has been a valuable asset to this community. I hope to briefly describe the early H - source work and provide some insight into the success of the H - source effort. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  2. Historical perspective of the H- ion source symposia

    Schmidt, C. W.

    1998-01-01

    The International Symposium on the Production and Neutralization of Negative Hydrogen Ions and Beams is entering its third decade of providing a forum for the H - ion source community. The first meeting was held at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1977 and has returned there every three years to 1995. This is the eighth meeting in this series and for the first time is in Europe, hosted by CEA/Center de Cadarache. Since this Symposium is meeting in Europe many new people have had an opportunity to attend and many of these are of a younger generation. On the 20th anniversary of the First Symposium it seems fitting that a historical review should be given. The Symposium meetings and its archiving of information has been a valuable asset to this community. I hope to briefly describe the early H - source work and provide some insight into the success of the H - source effort

  3. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

    Michael W. Peck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future.

  4. A historical perspective of synthetic ceramic and traditional feldspathic porcelain.

    Chu, Stephen; Ahmad, Irfan

    2005-10-01

    Ceramics were invented by the Chinese during the T'ang Dynasty, where they quickly became a precious commodity. By the early 18th Century, ceramics found its way into dentistry due to its high strength, biocompatibility, and malleability. Today, ceramic materials are a staple in dentistry, available in both naturally based and partially synthetic formulas. Most recently they have become available as quartz-glass synthetic materials manufactured under controlled conditions to eliminate the inconsistencies and impurities inherent in the naturally based counterpart. This article details the discovery of porcelain and its role as a precious substance throughout the world and time, from its initial use as ornamental earthenware to its practical application in modern dentistry. Upon reading this article, the reader should: Understand the historical significance of porcelain. Recognize the fundamental constituents and physical properties of both natural feldspathic porcelains and fully synthetic ceramics used in dentistry.

  5. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  6. People involved in radiation research and protection - an historical perspective

    Toussaint, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The lives of selected people involved in radiation research are covered in two parts: 1. history of radiation and radioactivity; and 2. historical aspects of radiation and radiation protection in Western Australia. History of radiation/radioactivity: The background of some of the key people involved in early radiation research is discussed. These include Rontgen and Becqucrel who undertook early research into X-rays and radioactivity respectively. As well as the radiation hazards which early radiation scientists faced, there were also social pressures, as exemplified by the life of women such as Marie Curie, particularly after the death of her husband Pierre. Despite this being the time of the so-called 'beautiful years' in Europe, where there was a friendly exchange of ideas between scientists from various countries, there were also protracted disagreements. Some of the scientific findings of the Curies' daughter (Irene Joliot-Curie) and husband (Frederic Joliot-Curie) were vigorously disputed by Lisa Meitner (and colleague Otto Hahn) in Vienna. The 'beautiful years' came to an end when politics intruded and scientists such as Lisa Meitner had to flee from persecution. The splitting of the atom and realisation (by Leo Szilard) that a chain reaction was possible, led to political barriers being erected around scientists. With Europe poised for war, the implication of this science for warfare application was cause for concern among many of the normally free thinking and co-operative scientists. Secrecy now prevailed.

  7. The (deMilitarization of Humanitarian Aid: A Historical Perspective

    Marc-Antoine Pérouse de Montclos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian workers often complain that international aid to victims of armed conflicts is more and more militarized because relief organizations are embedded into peacekeeping operations, used as a “force multiplier”, or manipulated as an instrument of diplomacy by proxy. Historically, however, charity has always been a military issue in times of war. We can distinguish four types of militarization of relief organizations in this regard. First is the use of charities to make “war by proxy”, as in Afghanistan or Nicaragua in the 1980s. The second pattern is “embedment”, like the Red Cross during the two world wars. The third is “self-defense”, as with the Order of Saint John of Jerusalem (now Malta in the 12th Century. The fourth, finally, is the model of “International Brigades” alongside the Spanish Republicans in 1936 or various liberation movements in the 1970s. In comparison, humanitarian aid today appears to be much less militarized. However, this perception also depends on the various definitions of the word “humanitarian”.

  8. Historical perspectives on music as a cause of disease.

    Kennaway, James

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between music and medicine is generally understood in the benign context of music therapy, but, as this chapter shows, there is a long parallel history of medical theories that suggest that music can cause real physical and mental illness. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the idea of music as an expression of universal harmony was challenged by a more mechanistic model of nervous stimulation. By the 1790s, there was a substantial discourse on the dangers of musical overstimulation to health in medicine, literature, and etiquette books. During the nineteenth century, the sense of music as a pathogenic stimulant gained in influence. It was often linked to fears about sexuality, female gynecological health, and theories of hypnosis and degeneration. In the twentieth century, the debate on the medical perils of the wrong kinds of music became overtly politicized in Germany and the Soviet Union. Likewise, the opponents of jazz, particularly in the United States, often turned to medicine to fend off its supposed social, moral, and physical consequences. The Cold War saw an extensive discourse on the idea of musical "brainwashing," that rumbled on into the 1990s. Today, regular media panics about pathological music are mirrored by alarming evidence of the deliberate use of music to harm listeners in the context of the so-called War on Terror. Can music make you ill? Music therapy is a common if perhaps rather neglected part of medicine, but its diametric opposite, the notion that music might lead to real mental and physical illness, may seem improbable. In fact, over the last two hundred years, there have been many times when as much was written about the medical dangers of music as about its potential benefits. Since the eighteenth century, fears about music's effects on the nerves and the mind have created a remarkably extensive discourse on pathological music based on a view of both music and the causation of disease as matters of

  9. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Symptom research on chronic cough: a historical perspective.

    Irwin, R S; Madison, J M

    2001-05-01

    This review provides a perspective on how research on the management of cough has evolved, looks at key methodologic lessons that have been learned from this research and how they may relate to the management of other symptoms, identifies important methodologic challenges that remain to be solved, and lists important questions that still need to be answered. Three important methodologic lessons have been learned. First, cough must be evaluated systematically and according to a neuroanatomic framework. Second, the response to specific therapy must be noted to determine the cause or causes of cough and to characterize the strengths and limitations of diagnostic testing. Third, multiple conditions can simultaneously cause cough. Among the three methodologic challenges that still need to be solved are 1) definitively determining the diagnostic accuracy and reliability of 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and how best to interpret pH test results, 2) definitively determining the role of nonacid reflux in cough due to gastroesophageal reflux disease, and 3) developing reliable and reproducible subjective and objective methods with which to assess the efficacy of cough therapy. Numerous important clinical questions are still unanswered: What role do empirical therapeutic trials play in diagnosing the cause of chronic cough? What is the most cost-effective approach to the diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough: empirical therapeutic trials or laboratory testing-directed therapeutic trials? How often is environmental air pollution, unrelated to allergies or smoking, responsible for chronic cough?

  11. Separations chemistry for actinide elements: Recent developments and historical perspective

    Nash, K.L.; Choppin, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    With the end of the cold war, the principal mission in actinide separations has changed from production of plutonium to cleanup of the immense volume of moderately radioactive mixed wastes which resulted from fifty years of processing activities. In order to approach the cleanup task from a proper perspective, it is necessary to understand how the wastes were generated. Most of the key separations techniques central to actinide production were developed in the 40's and 50's for the identification and production of actinide elements. Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separations, and selective partitioning of actinides from inert constituents are currently of primary concern. To respond to the modern world of actinide separations, new techniques are being developed for separations ranging from analytical methods to detect ultra-trace concentrations (for bioassay and environmental monitoring) to large-scale waste treatment procedures. In this report, the history of actinide separations, both the basic science and production aspects, is examined and evaluated in terms of contemporary priorities

  12. Historical Perspective About the Nursing Care of the Mental Patient

    Loide Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of caring in nursing has changed throughout the years. Nursing has developed to meet the needs of the population and to adapt at the same time to scientific knowledge, which has taken another dimension, and technical demand. Every field in nursing gains new formas as it evolves, namely the mental health and psychiatric fields. We start by describing the dominant beliefs of society in the past regarding mental health. We will then talk about mental patients in Portugal from the 16th Century on (1539-1850 and how they were cared for, underlining the first psychiatric institution - Rilhafoles Hospital. We will elaborate on the more common treatments in psychiatry, the purposes they served and how the nursing staff intervened in their application. Finally, we will put the evolution of nursing care to the mental patients into perspective, from the begining of the 20th century, as well as the development of nursing schools in the field of mental and psychiatric health.

  13. Changing tides: ecological and historical perspectives on fish cognition.

    Patton, B Wren; Braithwaite, Victoria A

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for specialization and radiation make fish an excellent group in which to investigate the depth and variety of animal cognition. Even though early observations of fish using tools predates the discovery of tool use in chimpanzees, fish cognition has historically been somewhat overlooked. However, a recent surge of interest is now providing a wealth of material on which to draw examples, and this has required a selective approach to choosing the research described below. Our goal is to illustrate the necessity for basing cognitive investigations on the ecological and evolutionary context of the species at hand. We also seek to illustrate the importance of ecology and the environment in honing a range of sensory systems that allow fish to glean information and support informed decision-making. The various environments and challenges with which fish interact require equally varied cognitive skills, and the solutions that fish have developed are truly impressive. Similarly, we illustrate how common ecological problems will frequently produce common cognitive solutions. Below, we focus on four topics: spatial learning and memory, avoiding predators and catching prey, communication, and innovation. These are used to illustrate how both simple and sophisticated cognitive processes underpin much of the adaptive behavioral flexibility exhibited throughout fish phylogeny. Never before has the field had such a wide array of interdisciplinary techniques available to access both cognitive and mechanistic processes underpinning fish behavior. This capacity comes at a critical time to predict and manage fish populations in an era of unprecedented global change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Pain relief in childbirth: changing historical and feminist perspectives.

    Skowronski, G A

    2015-07-01

    Pain during human childbirth is ubiquitous and severe. Opium and its derivatives constitute the oldest effective method of pain relief and have been used in childbirth for several thousand years, along with numerous folk medicines and remedies. Interference with childbirth pain has always been criticised by doctors and clergy. The 19th century saw the introduction of three much more effective approaches to childbirth pain; diethyl ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide. Access to pain relief was demanded by the first wave of feminist activists as a woman's right. They popularised the use of 'twilight sleep', a combination of morphine and scopolamine, which fell into disrepute as its adverse effects became known. From the 1960s, as epidural analgesia became more popular, a second wave of feminists took the opposite position, calling for a return to non-medicalised, female-controlled, 'natural' childbirth and, in some cases, valorising the importance of the pain experience as empowering for women. However, from the 1990s, a third wave of feminist thought has begun to emerge, revalidating a woman's right to choose a 'technological', pain-free birth, rather than a 'natural' one, and regarding this as a legitimate feminist position.

  15. [Swimming, physical activity and health: a historical perspective].

    Conti, A A

    2015-01-01

    Swimming, which is the coordinated and harmonic movement of the human body inside a liquid medium by means of the combined action of the superior and inferior limbs, is a physical activity which is diffused throughout the whole world and it is practiced by healthy and non-healthy subjects. Swimming is one of the physical activities with less contraindications and, with limited exceptions, can be suggested to individuals of both sexes and of every age range, including the most advanced. Swimming requires energy both for the floating process and for the anterograde progression, with a different and variable osteo-arthro-muscular involvement according to the different styles. The energetic requirement is about four times that for running, with an overall efficiency inferior to 10%; the energetic cost of swimming in the female subject is approximately two thirds of that in the male subject. The moderate aerobic training typical of swimming is useful for diabetic and hypertensive individuals, for people with painful conditions of rachis, as also for obese and orthopaedic patients. Motor activity inside the water reduces the risk of muscular-tendinous lesions and, without loading the joints in excess, requires the harmonic activation of the whole human musculature. Swimming is an activity requiring multiple abilities, ranging from a sense of equilibrium to that of rhythm, from reaction speed to velocity, from joint mobility to resistance. The structured interest for swimming in the perspective of human health from the beginning of civilization, as described in this contribution, underlines the relevance attributed to this activity in the course of human history.

  16. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  17. Homicidal abuse of young children: A historical perspective

    Rudy J Castellani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of females, the illegitimate, and the malformed, killing by ritualistic sacrifice or to conserve resources was carried out with impunity. The middle ages and later saw a decline in these practices albeit limited. One hundred years into the industrial revolution, with harsh child labor in public view, legal remedies were sought to protect children but with little effect. The domestic abuse of children was not addressed until a pivotal 19th-century case, in which the rights of animals were invoked to intervene on behalf of a child. In the 20th century, physicians began to look closely at anatomical findings; patterns due to trauma, especially inflicted trauma, began to emerge. “Battered child syndrome” was followed by “shaken baby syndrome,” the latter prompted by the recurrent findings of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhages, and brain injury with the absence of impact injuries and no plausible accidental or natural disease explanation. In the 21st century, high-quality studies and an emphasis on evidenced-based medicine substantiated the existence of injury patterns resulting from homicidal violence. However, progress has been uneven. A case of child abuse that reached the US Supreme Court resulted in an ill-cited dissent that seems to have amplified an already toxic medicolegal environment, perhaps unjustifiably. The difficulties in balancing the welfare of society with that of caregivers in the aftermath of homicidal abuse will no doubt continue.

  18. Promoting astronomy in developing countries: A historical perspective

    Kochhar, Rk

    2006-08-01

    Any international effort to promote astronomy world wide today must necessarily take into account its cultural and historical component. The past few decades have ushered in an age, which we may call the Age of Cultural Copernicanism. In analogy with the cosmological principle that the universe has no preferred location or direction, Cultural Copernicanism would imply that no cultural or geographical area, or ethnic or social group, can be deemed to constitute a superior entity or a benchmark for judging or evaluating others. In this framework, astronomy (as well as science in general) is perceived as a multi-stage civilizational cumulus where each stage builds on the knowledge gained in the previous stages and in turn leads to the next. This framework however is a recent development. The 19th century historiography consciously projected modern science as a characteristic product of the Western civilization decoupled from and superior to its antecedents, with the implication that all material and ideological benefits arising from modern science were reserved for the West. As a reaction to this, the orientalized East has often tended to view modern science as "their" science, distance itself from its intellectual aspects, and seek to defend, protect and reinvent "our" science and the alleged (anti-science) Eastern mode of thought. This defensive mindset works against the propagation of modern astronomy in most of the non-Western countries. There is thus need to construct a history of world astronomy that is truly universal and unselfconscious. Similarly , the planetarium programs , for use the world over, should be culturally sensitive. IAU can help produce cultural-specific modules. Equipped with this paradigmatic background, we can now address the question of actual means to be adopted for the task at hand. Astronomical activity requires a certain minimum level of industrial activity support. Long-term maintenance of astronomical equipment is not a trivial task

  19. The Phenological Network of Catalonia: an historical perspective

    Busto, Montserrat; Cunillera, Jordi; de Yzaguirre, Xavier

    2017-04-01

    ). Fenocat technicians are also involved in data rescue initiatives that allow the study of historical phenological series. The La Serra d'Almos (near Tarragona) phenological series is an example that shows the life cycle trends for plants and birds observed since 1971. The Phenological Network of Catalonia has marked a turning point in the recording of the rhythms of nature in Catalonia and works to preserve sensitive information for the study of climate change in the fragile Mediterranean ecosystem.

  20. [EU law on marketing authorization of medicines. History, current state of development and perspectives].

    Nettesheim, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The article describes the development of EU policies and regulations on the marketing authorization of medicines. First, it describes the changing perspective of the EU towards the regulation of such authorizations. While its original focus was on the liberalization of national markets, it has today assumed overarching political responsibility for the development and marketing of medicines. Second, the article describes the current, rather fragmented regulatory system. Finally, political perspectives on the integration of markets for medicines are developed.

  1. Integrating family medicine and complementary medicine in cancer care: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Israely, Pesi; Baruch, Erez; Dagash, Jamal

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the case study of a 27 year-old Arab female patient receiving palliative care for advanced breast cancer who was referred to complementary medicine (CM) consultation provided within a conventional oncology department. We explore the impact of the integrative CM practitioners' team of three family physicians and one Chinese medicine practitioner on the patient's well-being and specifically on the alleviation of her debilitating hot flashes and insomnia. This quality of life improvement is also affirmed by comparing the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and Measure Yourself Concerns and Well-being (MYCAW) questionnaires administered at the initial and follow-up assessment sessions. In conclusion, we suggest that family physicians trained in evidence-based complementary medicine are optimal integrators of holistic patient-centered supportive care. The inclusion of trained CM practitioners in a multi-disciplinary integrative team may enhance the bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective, and provide additional practical therapies that improve the quality of life of patients confronting cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Postgraduate education for Chinese medicine practitioners: a Hong Kong perspective

    Mercer Stewart W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in

  3. Health care in Nicaragua: a social and historical perspective.

    Petrack, E M

    1984-10-01

    To facilitate understanding of the advances in health care in Nicaragua since 1979, this discussion examines them within a historical framework. Nicaragua was occupied by US marines almost continuously from 1909-33. In 1933, their withdrawal left in power the US backed National Guard and the 1st dictator, Anastasio Somoza Garcia. Health conditions under the Somoza regime are difficult to evaluate because lack of data and underreporting were the norm. The health care system under Somoza was administered by 23 separate agencies, including the National Social Security Institute (INSS), a national Ministry of Health, independent local health ministries, and autonomous public hospital governing boards. On July 19, 1979, the dictatorship was overthrown in a popular uprising. Somoza left behind a foreign debt of 1.6 billion dollars, which the Sandinista Front for National Liberation (FSLN) needed to honor to qualify for needed loans. Following Somoza's defeat, the new government faced the problem of how to care for the tens of thousands of persons wounded and how to distribute the aid and medical supplies coming in from other countries. The key to achieving these tasks was popular participation and organization. By the early part of 1980, the new government was addressing more directly the organization of the health care system. Unlike the fragmented services under Somoza, health care in the new Nicaragua fell under the control of a unified Ministry of Health (MINSA). In 1980, the FSLN initiated an intensive campaign against illiteracy, 100,000 young Nicaraguans, called "brigadistas," were trained and sent around the country to teach basic reading and writing. In addition, 1 out of 10 was trained in elementary health principles. They were responsible for educating others about hygiene and basic sanitation as well as distributing antimalarial medication. 5 popular Health Campaigns were waged during 1981 against polio; measles, diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; rabies

  4. North American osprey populations and contaminants: Historic and contemporary perspectives

    Henny, Charles J.; Grove, Robert A.; Kaiser, James L.; Johnson, Branden L.

    2010-01-01

    Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) populations were adversely affected by DDT and perhaps other contaminants in the United States and elsewhere. Reduced productivity, eggshell thinning, and high DDE concentrations in eggs were the signs associated with declining osprey populations in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. The species was one of the first studied on a large scale to bring contaminant issues into focus. Although few quantitative population data were available prior to the 1960s, many osprey populations in North America were studied during the 1960s and 1970s with much learned about basic life history and biology. This article reviews the historical and current effects of contaminants on regional osprey populations. Breeding populations in many regions of North America showed post-DDT-era (1972) population increases of varying magnitudes, with many populations now appearing to stabilize at much higher numbers than initially reported in the 1970s and 1980s. However, the magnitude of regional population increases in the United States between 1981 (first Nationwide Survey, ∼8,000 pairs), when some recovery had already occurred, 1994 (second survey, ∼14,200), and 2001 (third survey, ∼16,000–19,000), or any other years, is likely not a simple response to the release from earlier contaminant effects, but a response to multi-factorial effects. This indirect “contaminant effects” measurement comparing changes (i.e., recovery) in post-DDT-era population numbers over time is probably confounded by changing human attitudes toward birds of prey (shooting, destroying nests, etc.), changing habitats, changing fish populations, and perhaps competition from other species. The species' adaptation to newly created reservoirs and its increasing use of artificial nesting structures (power poles, nesting platforms, cell towers, channel markers, offshore duck blinds, etc.) are two important factors. The timing of the initial use of artificial nesting structures, which replaced

  5. Assessment of Drought Severity Techniques - A Historical Perspective

    Panu, U. S.; Crinklaw, T.

    2011-12-01

    Droughts are natural phenomenon experienced by all nations across the globe. Drought inherently means a scarcity of water, which adversely affects various sectors of human socio-economic spectrum, e.g. agriculture, hydropower generation, water supply, industry, recreation, navigation, fish production etc. The prime cause of droughts is the occurrence of less than optimal (below normal) precipitation, which has its origin to various natural reasons, the most important being the global climatic forcing. Droughts are also referred to as sustained and regionally extensive occurrences of below average water availability which invariably cultivate into environmental disasters. The evolution of a drought event is defined into four types; meteorological, agricultural, hydrological, and socio-economic. Drought affects all aspects of societal systems irrespective of how it is defined. This has led to a wide range of studies conducted by meteorologists, ecologists, environmentalists, hydrologists, geologists and agricultural scientists in attempts to understand drought processes as required to analyze and predict the impacts of droughts. A conceptual definition, such as a shortage of water relied on by human activity, avoids quantification of a drought event. On the other hand, the purpose of an operational definition is to determine the beginning, termination, and severity of a drought event. The severity assessment of droughts is of primary importance for allocation and management of available water resources. The progression and impact of historical droughts in a region is helpful for developing relationships and techniques to investigate relevant characteristics of droughts. For optimum drought preparedness and mitigative responses, professional bodies need to provide information to private and government agencies in a manner that may also be understood by their employers, stakeholders and the general public. Drought indicators bridge this communication gap between all

  6. Brief historical perspective on the definition of high-level nuclear wastes

    Jacobs, D.G.; Szluha, A.T.; Gablin, K.A.; Croff, A.G.

    1985-03-01

    This report constitutes a historical perspective on the definition of HLW with emphasis on the US situation. The major HLW definitions are summarized chronologically, including a categorization of the considerations (e.g., waste source, heat generation rate, radiological effects) forming the bases of the definitions. High-level waste (HLW) definitions are then discussed in terms of these considerations. A brief discussion of the institutional aspects of HLW regulation and management are presented. An appendix to the report constitutes an annotated, chronological bibliography that formed the basis of the perspective

  7. Woodland caribou management in Alberta: historical perspectives and future opportunities

    Elston H. Dzus

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou conservation has been the topic of much debate for the past few decades. By the late 1970s there was growing concern about declining woodland caribou populations and the interaction between industrial activities and woodland caribou. Initial concerns led to the closure of the licensed hunting season in 1981. Early confrontation between government and industry in the late 1980s transformed into a series of evolving collaborative ventures. Improving our understanding of the basic ecology of woodland caribou in Alberta was at the center of early research efforts; more recent studies have examined the effects of industrial activities on caribou and effectiveness of various mitigation factors. Despite having amassed an impressive body of information from a research and monitoring perspective, progress on implementing effective management actions has been less dramatic. Industry has endured significant costs implementing a variety of perceived conservation initiatives, but caribou populations continued to decline through the last few decades. While some parties feel more research is needed, there is growing consensus that changes to habitat as induced by human activities are important factors influencing current caribou declines. Predation is a proximate cause of most caribou mortality. Climate change mediated alterations to habitat and predator-prey interactions remain a key source of uncertainty relative to future caribou population trends. Management actions will need to deal with long term habitat changes associated with human land use and short term implications of increased predation. In 2005, the provincial minister responsible for caribou conservation responded to the draft 2004 recovery plan and created the Alberta Caribou Committee (ACC. The goal of the ACC is to maintain and recover woodland caribou in Alberta’s forest ecosystems while providing opportunities for resource development, following guidance provided by the

  8. S.M. Guma and the Sesotho historical novel: an Afrocentric perspective

    T.J. Selepe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Afrocentricity seems to be emerging as one of the potent critical tools that could be used to re-establish and qualify African cultural identity through literary study among others. The primary objective of this movement is to reinterpret world history from an African perspective. This article will therefore examine some historical features of S.M. Guma’s novels from the 1960s to the 1990s from an African perspective. By applying the Afrocentric paradigm this will attempt to demonstrate how material conditions of the period have provided useful raw materials for the Sesotho historical novel, which tends to illuminate a better understanding of the Basotho culture, history, identity and nationhood.

  9. CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF UKRAINIAN NON-FINANCIAL COMPANIES IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    D. Chernenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the dynamics of Ukrainian non-financial firms' capital structure within a historical perspective. It shows that firm financing since 1990 was a derivative from economic and institutional changes, and current levels of leverage are lower than ones of foreign peers. Whereas in the short-term we can expect some market recovery, long-term dynamics relies almost exclusively on the successof institutional reforms.

  10. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: An historical perspective and future opportunities

    Stubbles, John [Steel Industry Consultant, Mason, OH (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Renowned industry expert Dr. John Stubbles has projected the energy savings that the U.S. steel industry could reasonably expect to achieve in the report, Energy Use in the U.S. Steel Industry: Historical Perspective and Future Opportunities (PDF 432 KB). The report examines the potential impacts of state-of-the-art technologies and operating practices, as well as structural changes in the industry itself.

  11. Precision Medicine and Advancing Genetic Technologies—Disability and Human Rights Perspectives

    Aisling de Paor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological developments are propelling genetics and genetic technologies into the public sphere. Scientific and technological innovation is becoming more refined, resulting in an increase in the availability and use of genetic testing, and other cutting edge genetic technologies, including gene editing. These genetic advances not only signal a growing trend towards precision medicine, but also provoke consideration of the protection of genetic information as an emerging human rights concern. Particular ethical and legal issues arise from a disability perspective, including the potential for discrimination and privacy violations. In consideration of the intersection of genetics and disability, this article highlights the significant concerns raised as genetic science and technology advances, and the consequences for disability rights, particularly the core concepts of non-discrimination, and respect for diversity and difference. On examining international human rights perspectives, it looks particularly at the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and how it may be used to guide best practice in this area. With an acknowledgement of historical abuses of genetic science, this article highlights the need to maintain caution as to the potential consequences of advancing genetic technologies on persons with disabilities and indeed on society as a whole.

  12. Historical perspective of sexually transmitted infections and their control in Peru.

    García, P J

    2010-04-01

    In designing an effective national response to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), one must incorporate a historical perspective of previous efforts that have addressed different aspects of STIs. One must understand who have been the key players, what aspects of STIs were the focus of efforts (prevention, treatment or control), and which, if any, societal subgroups were targeted (i.e. sex workers, military, men who have sex with men [MSM], etc.). In addition, one must consider historical and modern attitudes towards sex, sexuality and STIs, especially in terms of taboos and stigmas that may be attached to each. Most importantly, one must recognize which efforts have succeeded, which have failed, and why. This paper presents a historical overview of the perceptions of and responses to STIs at different points in Peru's history, and discusses current efforts to build upon past successes and avoid repeating previous failures that could be helpful for other countries in the Latin American region.

  13. Three Norwegian Varieties of a Nordic Model — A Historical Perspective on Working Life Relations

    Jan Heiret

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of a historical perspective, the aim of this article is to discuss and clarify the concurrent and conflicting interests and norms that have characterized the establishment and development of important institutions in Norwegian working life. The article concentrates on collective bargaining systems, the arrangements for codetermination, and the working environment regulations in both the public and private sector, which are regarded as the main institutions in the Norwegian and Nordic models of working life relations. The article is structured by an analytical distinction between three different historical periods that have constituted three distinct versions of the Norwegian model. By presenting a historical synthesis of Norwegian experiences, the article is a contribution to the ongoing debate on the varieties in the Nordic model, as to further comparisons and broader transnational studies.

  14. [The proof of paternity. An andrological-forensic challenge in historical perspective].

    Albrecht, K; Schultheiss, D

    2004-10-01

    For centuries, difficulties have occurred in determining unresolved paternities. In addition to the modern standard methods, such as the examination of DNA or serological proof, expert opinion on fertility once played an important role. The andrological difference between incapability to fertilise and the inability to participate in sexual intercourse was also distinguished historically. Of special significance was the discovery of spermatozoa by the medical student Johan Ham in 1677 and their further investigation by Antoni van Leeuwenhoek.Recently, modern DNA methods have also been applied for historical investigations. Illustrious examples are the DNA analysis in the case of Kaspar Hauser of Ansbach and the dispute about Thomas Jefferson, President of the U.S., fathering a child by one of his slaves. In this discourse, a medicinal-forensic review of the development of expert opinion, illustrated with historical case studies, is given.

  15. Neuroscience-informed psychoeducation for addiction medicine: A neurocognitive perspective.

    Ekhtiari, Hamed; Rezapour, Tara; Aupperle, Robin L; Paulus, Martin P

    2017-01-01

    Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes. However, the actual impact of neuroscience in the real-life clinical practice of addiction medicine is minimal. In this chapter, we provide a perspective on how PE in addiction medicine can be informed by neuroscience in two dimensions: content (knowledge we transfer in PE) and structure (methods we use to deliver PE). The content of conventional PE targets knowledge about etiology of illness, treatment process, adverse effects of prescribed medications, coping strategies, family education, and life skill training. Adding neuroscience evidence to the content of PE could be helpful in communicating not only the impact of drug use but also the beneficial impact of various treatments (i.e., on brain function), thus enhancing motivation for compliance and further destigmatizing their symptoms. PE can also be optimized in its "structure" by implicitly and explicitly engaging different neurocognitive processes, including salience/attention, memory, and self-awareness. There are many interactions between these two dimensions, structure and content, in the delivery of neuroscience-informed psychoeducation (NIPE). We explore these interactions in the development of a cartoon-based NIPE to promote brain recovery during addiction treatment as a part of the brain awareness for addiction recovery initiative. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Historical root of precision medicine: an ancient concept concordant with the modern pharmacotherapy.

    Moeini, Reihaneh; Memariani, Zahra; Pasalar, Parvin; Gorji, Narjes

    2017-04-04

    Pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics are new sciences that their goal is achieving therapeutics with maximum results and minimal side effects for each individual due to the pattern of his genome and proteome.Although they considered new and high technology sciences but in distant past, Persian sages like Avicenna also knew about importance of "personalized medicine" and used specific patterns to detect individual differences in order to select suitable medication.Based on experience and analogy they divided individuals into different categories considering characteristics like body color, body temperature, sleep-awake pattern and skeletal structure.They also paid attention to effect of environmental conditions such as climate, job and the change of seasons on the influence of medication.Considering the low cost and ease of use of these experiences, it seems that researching their opinions can uncover the historical roots of modern pharmacoproteomics and can possibly infuse new ideas in this field.

  17. Diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives in nuclear medicine: radiolabelled biomolecules

    Ferro F, G.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Melendez A, L.

    2003-01-01

    From their beginning, the radiopharmaceuticals chemistry has gone to the study of the molecular chemistry. The radiopharmaceuticals are only in their capacity to detect such specific biochemical places as the receivers and the enzymes. With the recent obtaining of the complete structural sequence of the genome, it doesn't fit doubt of the importance that they have acquired the molecular images for the study from the genetic information to the alterations phenotypic in the chemistry of the human body. So, the future of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, practically is based in the study of protein fragments, peptide structures and chains of DNA radiolabelled for the study of the metabolism In vivo. These investigations represent a substantial change in those paradigms of the pharmaceutical development, when using the own organic capacities as source of medications, instead of considering to the organism like a simple assay tube where molecules act, like they are most of the traditional medications. The investigation of new techniques to design complex stable of Tc-99m, Re-188, Lu-177, Y-90 and Dy-166/Ho-l66 with biomolecules that don't alter the specificity and in general the molecular properties of the same ones. it is a topic of world interest in the environment of the radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this work some achievements and perspectives are presented on those main diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals of third generation. (Author)

  18. Race, medicine, and health care in the United States: a historical survey.

    Byrd, W M; Clayton, L A

    2001-03-01

    Racism in medicine, a problem with roots over 2,500 years old, is a historical continuum that continuously affects African-American health and the way they receive healthcare. Racism is, at least in part, responsible for the fact African Americans, since arriving as slaves, have had the worst health care, the worst health status, and the worst health outcome of any racial or ethnic group in the U.S. Many famous doctors, philosophers, and scientists of each historical era were involved in creating and perpetuating racial inferiority mythology and stereotypes. Such theories were routinely taught in U.S. medical schools in the 18th, 19th, and first half of the 20th centuries. The conceptualization of race moved from the biological to the sociological sphere with the march of science. The atmosphere created by racial inferiority theories and stereotypes, 246 years of black chattel slavery, along with biased educational processes, almost inevitably led to medical and scientific abuse, unethical experimentation, and overutilization of African-Americans as subjects for teaching and training purposes.

  19. Physiopathology of dementia from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-07-01

    The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Clarifying appeals to dignity in medical ethics from an historical perspective.

    Van Der Graaf, Rieke; Van Delden, Johannes Jm

    2009-03-01

    Over the past few decades the concept of (human) dignity has deeply pervaded medical ethics. Appeals to dignity, however, are often unclear. As a result some prefer to eliminate the concept from medical ethics, whereas others try to render it useful in this context. We think that appeals to dignity in medical ethics can be clarified by considering the concept from an historical perspective. Firstly, on the basis of historical texts we propose a framework for defining the concept in medical debates. The framework shows that dignity can occur in a relational, an unconditional, a subjective and a Kantian form. Interestingly, all forms relate to one concept since they have four features in common: dignity refers, in a restricted sense, to the 'special status of human beings'; it is based on essential human characteristics; the subject of dignity should live up to it; and it is a vulnerable concept, it can be lost or violated. We argue that being explicit about the meaning of dignity will prevent dignity from becoming a conversation-stopper in moral debate. Secondly, an historical perspective on dignity shows that it is not yet time to dispose of dignity in medical ethics. At least Kantian and relational dignity can be made useful in medical ethics.

  1. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Mental Disorders in a Holistic Perspective

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic perspective, psychiatric diseases are caused by the patient’s unwillingness to assume responsibility for his life, existence, and personal relations. The loss of responsibility arises from the repression of the fundamental existential dimensions of the patients. Repression of love and purpose causes depersonalization (i.e., a lack of responsibility for being yourself and for the contact with others, loss of direction and purpose in life. Repression of strength in mind and emotions leads to derealization (the breakdown of the reality testing, often with mental delusions and hallucinations. The repression of joy and gender leads to devitalization (emotional emptiness, loss of joy, personal energy, sexuality, and pleasure in life.The losses of existential dimensions are invariably connected to traumas with life-denying decisions. Healing the wounds of the soul by holding and processing will lead to the recovery of the person's character, purpose of life, and existential responsibility. It can be very difficult to help a psychotic patient. The physician must first love his patient unconditionally and then fully understand the patient in order to meet and support the patient to initiate the holistic process of healing. It takes motivation and willingness to suffer on behalf of the patients in order to heal, as the existential and emotional pain of the traumas resulting in insanity is often overwhelming. We believe that most psychiatric diseases can be alleviated or cured by the loving and caring physician who masters the holistic toolbox. Further research is needed to document the effect of holistic medicine in psychiatry.

  2. Advances for prosthetic technology from historical perspective to current status to future application

    LeMoyne, Robert

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies.  The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities.  The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored.  The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses.  The core of the book deals with futuristic robo...

  3. Historical perspective and contemporary management of acute coronary syndromes: from MONA to THROMBINS2.

    Kline, Kristopher P; Conti, C Richard; Winchester, David E

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major burden on morbidity and mortality in the United States. Medical professionals and students often use the mnemonic 'MONA' (morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin and aspirin) to recall treatments for ACS; however, this list of therapies is outdated. We provide a historical perspective on 'MONA,' attempt to uncover its origin in the medical literature, and demonstrate the myriad changes that have occurred over the last 50 years of ACS management. We have developed a novel mnemonic, 'THROMBINS2' (thienopyridines, heparin/enoxaparin, renin-angiotensin system blockers, oxygen, morphine, beta blocker, intervention, nitroglycerin, statin/salicylate) to help bedside clinicians recall all the elements of contemporary ACS management. We demonstrate the mortality benefit for each component of contemporary ACS management, correlating the continued improvement with historical data on mortality after myocardial infarction. We encourage providers to utilize this mnemonic to explore options and guide treatments in ACS patients.

  4. Propulsion Control Technology Development in the United States A Historical Perspective

    Jaw, Link C.a; Garg, Sanjay

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective of the advancement of control technologies for aircraft gas turbine engines. The paper primarily covers technology advances in the United States in the last 60 years (1940 to approximately 2002). The paper emphasizes the pioneering technologies that have been tested or implemented during this period, assimilating knowledge and experience from industry experts, including personal interviews with both current and retired experts. Since the first United States-built aircraft gas turbine engine was flown in 1942, engine control technology has evolved from a simple hydro-mechanical fuel metering valve to a full-authority digital electronic control system (FADEC) that is common to all modern aircraft propulsion systems. At the same time, control systems have provided engine diagnostic functions. Engine diagnostic capabilities have also evolved from pilot observation of engine gauges to the automated on-board diagnostic system that uses mathematical models to assess engine health and assist in post-flight troubleshooting and maintenance. Using system complexity and capability as a measure, we can break the historical development of control systems down to four phases: (1) the start-up phase (1942 to 1949), (2) the growth phase (1950 to 1969), (3) the electronic phase (1970 to 1989), and (4) the integration phase (1990 to 2002). In each phase, the state-of-the-art control technology is described and the engines that have become historical landmarks, from the control and diagnostic standpoint, are identified. Finally, a historical perspective of engine controls in the last 60 years is presented in terms of control system complexity, number of sensors, number of lines of software (or embedded code), and other factors.

  5. [The Woman and the Care of Life. Historical Understanding and Future Perspectives].

    Massé García, M Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Over the ages of humanity, women has established a special relationship life care's with the most vulnerable. Women dedicated to the professional care have always existed, also to the unpaid home care of the sick, elderly, with some disability, and children. This study has been carried out a historical and current verification of this question, marking its most characteristic and significant features. From that perspective, we tried to answer these key questions: causes that have motivated this fact, its social consequences and, finally, the most important future implications for all, men and women that, surely, we will be caregivers and strapped for care in our illness.

  6. Social Media in the Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum: Social Media Responses to the Residents' Perspective Article

    Hayes, BD; Kobner, S; Trueger, NS; Yiu, S; Lin, M

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. In July to August 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Annals Residents' Perspective article "Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum" by Scott et al. The objective was to describe a 14-day worldwide clinician dialogue about evidence, opinions, and early relevant i...

  7. Can artificial parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? An historical perspective

    Fangerau, H

    2005-01-01

    The aim of regenerative medicine is to reconstruct tissue that has been lost or pathologically altered. Therapeutic cloning seems to offer a method of achieving this aim; however, the ethical debate surrounding human therapeutic cloning is highly controversial. Artificial parthenogenesis—obtaining embryos from unfertilised eggs—seems to offer a way to sidestep these ethical pitfalls. Jacques Loeb (1859–1924), the founding father of artificial parthogenesis, faced negative public opinion when he published his research in 1899. His research, the public's response to his findings, and his ethical foundations serve as an historical argument both for the communication of science and compromise in biological research. PMID:16319240

  8. Problems, challenges and promises: perspectives on precision medicine.

    Duffy, David J

    2016-05-01

    The 'precision medicine (systems medicine)' concept promises to achieve a shift to future healthcare systems with a more proactive and predictive approach to medicine, where the emphasis is on disease prevention rather than the treatment of symptoms. The individualization of treatment for each patient will be at the centre of this approach, with all of a patient's medical data being computationally integrated and accessible. Precision medicine is being rapidly embraced by biomedical researchers, pioneering clinicians and scientific funding programmes in both the European Union (EU) and USA. Precision medicine is a key component of both Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation) and the White House's Precision Medicine Initiative. Precision medicine promises to revolutionize patient care and treatment decisions. However, the participants in precision medicine are faced with a considerable central challenge. Greater volumes of data from a wider variety of sources are being generated and analysed than ever before; yet, this heterogeneous information must be integrated and incorporated into personalized predictive models, the output of which must be intelligible to non-computationally trained clinicians. Drawing primarily from the field of 'oncology', this article will introduce key concepts and challenges of precision medicine and some of the approaches currently being implemented to overcome these challenges. Finally, this article also covers the criticisms of precision medicine overpromising on its potential to transform patient care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. ADOLESCENCE IN DEBATE: THEORETICAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN THE LIGHT OF THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Candida de Souza

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the studies about adolescence, it is noticeable that psychology has more and more been invited to give answers to questions pertaining this specific period of the human development. The historical-cultural perspective proposed by Lev Semenovich Vygotsky and his followers has represented an important theoretical approach to the comprehension of the human being. Thus, this study aims to offer contributions to the debate about adolescence as a social category and a particular stage of the cultural development of subjects. In this way, the main ideas of this Russian theorist are presented here, incorporating them into the discussion that is still incipient in the studies of the historical-cultural perspective: the role of the body in the constitution of subjects. With this starting point, we build arguments that reinforce the monolithic characteristic of the constitution of the human being, where the mind and the body are inseparable parts of the same gear, that develop together along the lifespan, through the social relations of the individuals with the environmental elements. As final considerations, it is pointed out that the role of the body in the process of developing a conceptual thought – a specific characteristic of adolescence – cannot be neglected when we propose the goal to understand the constitution of the totality of the human psyche.

  10. The historical social positioning of nursing and medicine: implications for career choice, early socialization and interprofessional collaboration.

    Price, Sheri; Doucet, Shelley; Hall, Linda McGillis

    2014-03-01

    For almost half a century, research has identified that effective teamwork is essential in order to enhance care provision and health outcomes for patients. Although the value of teamwork is well-recognized in healthcare, the historically rooted dynamics of workplace relationships create a myriad of challenges to creating collaborative teams. Understanding the history of interpersonal dynamics between health professionals can provide direction for future interprofessional education and collaboration strategies. The aim of this paper is to provide a historical overview of the social positioning of nursing and medicine in the context of interprofessional collaboration. Few professions work as closely as nursing and medicine. Despite the well-recognized benefits of interprofessional collaboration, these two professions are often socially positioned in opposition to one another and depicted as adversarial. This analysis will seek to advance our understanding of the historical roots between these two professions and their relationships with and among each other in relation to career choice, early socialization and patient care delivery. An exploration of the historical social positioning of nursing and medicine can provide an enhanced understanding of the barriers to interprofessional collaboration and inform future successes in interprofessional education and practice among all health and social care professions.

  11. Transformations over Time or Sudden Change:Historical Perspectives on Mass Migrations and Human Lives

    Dirk Hoerder

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Both migrations and attitudes towards them have deep historical roots. To pronounce the present migration and the economic crisis triggered by derivative bankers in the fall of 2008 as “new without historical precedent” overlooks the impact of patterns of the past on the present and prevents an understanding being reached of continuities and comparisons. It is not migrants who are “uprooted”, as some would have it, but historical memory is deliberately being uprooted. This essay starts by addressing the multiple problems of present-day debates about migration and historicising the perspectives. It critiques the anti-immigrant ascriptions, labels and ideologies. It goes on to present the data and discuss the geographies of migrant trajectories in the context of translocal, transregional, transnational and global connectivity. An integrative Transcultural Societal Studies approach will be proposed. The essay will then deal with migrant agency, that is the actions of migrants, criticising “victimization” approaches and argue that Otherness is a resource as well as a framework for exploitation. Remittances will serve as an example of the intersection between migrant agency and states’ needs. The conclusion will briefly place the present in the context of global inequalities, of the economic aspect and of anti-immigrantism, as well as the ideological national-essentialist aspect.

  12. Continuity and change in medicinal plant use: the example of monasteries on Cyprus and historical iatrosophia texts.

    Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2013-10-28

    How medicinal plant knowledge changes over time is a question of central importance in modern ethnopharmacological research. However, only few studies are available which undertook a comprehensive exploration of the evolution of plant use in human cultures. In order to understand this dynamic process, we conduct a systematic diachronic investigation to explore continuity and change in two knowledge systems which are closely related but separated in time-historical iatrosophia texts and today's Greek Orthodox monasteries on Cyprus. An ethnobotanical study was conducted in 21 of the island's monasteries involving various types of interview as well as a written questionnaire survey. Data about medicinal plant use collected in the monasteries was analysed and quantitatively compared to historical iatrosophia texts using data from our pre-existing dataset. We found a core group of plant taxa for which a high consensus exists among the monasteries regarding their medicinal usefulness. Various means and routes of knowledge transmission appear to be involved in the development of this knowledge. The systematic comparison between the monasteries and the iatrosophia shows similarities and differences on various levels. While the plants used by the nuns and monks have by the majority a relationship to the iatrosophia and show a remarkable historical consistency in terms of their use for defined groups of ailments, the importance of many of these plants and the use of herbal medicines in general have changed. This is one of the first studies from the Mediterranean region which is based on a systematic ethnopharmacological analysis involving comprehensive datasets of historical and modern ethnographic data. The example illustrates continuity and change in 'traditional' knowledge as well as the adoption of new knowledge and provides the opportunity to look beyond the dichotomy between traditional and modern concepts of plant usage. Overall, the study suggests that a systematic

  13. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  14. [Research on problem of exogenous pollution of Chinese medicine resources from perspective of circular economy].

    Yang, Yi; Tian, Kan; Tian, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Based on the in-depth analysis of the current situation of the exogenous pollution of Chinese medicine resources, this research mainly discusses the intrinsic link and practical significance between the development of circular economy in Chinese medicine resources and the control of the problem of the exogenous pollution from the perspective of circular economy, and proposes some suggestions to develop the recycling economy of Chinese medicine resources from the establishment of legal system, mechanism of development, production norms, industry standards and regulatory system of the recycling of Chinese medicine resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Heart Palpitation From Traditional and Modern Medicine Perspectives

    Ershadifar, Tabassom; Minaiee, Bagher; Gharooni, Manouchehr; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Gousheguir, Ashraf Aldin; Kazemi Saleh, Davod

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palpitation is a sign of a disease and is very common in general population. For this purpose we decided to explain it in this study. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the palpitation in both modern and traditional medicine aspect. It may help us to diagnose and cure better because the traditional medicine view is holistic and different from modern medicine. Materials and Methods: We addressed some descriptions to the articles of traditional medicine subjects which have published recently. Palpitation in modern medicine was extracted from medical books such as Braunwald, Harrison and Guyton physiology and some related articles obtained from authentic journals in PubMed and Ovid and Google scholar between1990 to 2013. Results: According to modern medicine, there are many causes for palpitation and in some cases it is cured symptomatically. In traditional medicine view, palpitation has been explained completely and many causes have been described. Its aspect is holistic and it cures causatively. The traditional medicine scientists evaluated the body based on Humors and temperament. Temperament can be changed to dis-temperament in diseases. Humors are divided in 4 items: sanguine, humid or phlegm, melancholy and bile. Palpitation is a disease, it is heart vibration and is caused by an abnormal substance in the heart itself or its membrane or other adjacent organs that would result in the heart suffering. Conclusions: Our data of this article suggests that causes of palpitation in the aspect of traditional medicine are completely different from modern medicine. It can help us to approach and treat this symptom better and with lower side effects than chemical drugs. According to this article we are able to detect a new approach in palpitation. PMID:24719741

  16. The genus Lycium as food and medicine: A botanical, ethnobotanical and historical review.

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-02-15

    Lycium is widely distributed in the arid to semi-arid environments of North and South America, Africa, and Eurasia. In recent years, Lycium barbarum and L. chinense have been advertised as "superfood" with healthy properties. Despite of its popularity, there is a lack of an integrated and critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the use of Lycium. There is a need to understand: 1) Which species were used and how the uses of Lycium developed spatially and over time, 2) how uses differ among regions with different culture backgrounds, and 3) how traditional and current therapeutic and preventive health claims correlate with pharmacological findings. Information was retrieved from floras, taxonomic, botanical, and ethnobotanical databases, research articles, recent editions of historical Chinese herbals over the last 2000 years, and pharmacopoeias. Of totally 97 species, 31 have recorded uses as food and/or medicine worldwide. Usually the fruits are used. While 85% of the Lycium species occur in the Americas and Africa, 26% of them are used, but 9 out of 14 species in Eurasia. In China, seven species and two varieties of the genus Lycium occur, of which four species have been used by different ethnic groups. Only L. barbarum and L. chinense have been transformed into globally traded commodities. In China, based on the name ", their use can be traced back over the last two millennia. Lycium fruits for anti-aging, improving eyesight and nourishment were documented already in 500C.E. (Mingyi Bielu). Recent findings explain the pharmacological foundations of the traditional uses. Especially polysaccharides, zeaxanthin dipalmitate, vitamins, betaine, and mixed extracts were reported to be responsible for anti-aging, improving eyesight, and anti-fatigue effects. The integration of historical, ethnobotanical, botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological data has enabled a detailed understanding of Lycium and its wider potential. It highlights that the focus so far has

  17. Fostering Competence in Medicines Development: The IFAPP Perspective

    Dominique J Dubois

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available IFAPP is a nonprofit organization with the mission to promote Pharmaceutical Medicine & Medicines Development (PM&MD by enhancing the competencies and maintaining high ethical standards of Pharmaceutical Physicians and other professionals involved in medicines development worldwide, leading to the availability and appropriate use of medicines for the benefit of patients and society.1 www.ifapp.org About 30 national professional associations related to PM&MD, involving 7000 professionals, are affiliated to IFAPP.Medicines development has traditionally been a challenging enterprise, with high risk, high investment and potentially high returns in the lengthy and complex process of identifying a new chemical entity as a candidate for development and possibly succeeding in bringing it as a pharmaceutical product to the market. However, the emergence of genomics, translational research, biomarkers and precision medicine pose challenges going forward involving allocation of resources, price, market access and cost-effectiveness as opposed to the traditional concepts of efficacy and safety.Education and Continuing Professional Development (CPD are a major focus of IFAPP. The International Conference on Pharmaceutical Medicine (ICPM is the largest event for our organization; ICPM is aimed to provide the state of the art in key areas for our discipline and profession. The paper is a reflection on the role of competency-based education and training for Pharmaceutical Physicians and medicines development scientists, as was discussed during the recent ICPM 2016 held in Sao Paulo, with the support of the Brazilian Association of Pharmaceutical Medicine and gathered around 200 representatives from the pharmaceutical, clinical research and regulatory arenas worldwide. http://www.icpm2016.com/en/programacao/programa;

  18. Sugar Cane Agrobussiness and Traditional Farm in the Northern Plains of Cauca (Colombia). Historical Perspectives and Ethnographic Notes

    Jaramillo Marín, Jefferson; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Bogotá, Colombia); Londoño Ortiz, Natalia; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Bogotá, Colombia); Sánchez González, Gina; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana (Bogotá, Colombia)

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects in an historical and etnographic key about some of the frictions and links between sugar cain agrobussiness and traditional farm in the northern plains of Cauca, since the mid xx century to the date. The historical perspective allows to trace the consolidation of the sugar cain agroindustrial model. The etnographic approach, describes from the inhabitants narratives some of the socio enviromental conflicts wich are generated by this model in the traditional farm. Both ke...

  19. Knowledge discovery in traditional Chinese medicine: state of the art and perspectives.

    Feng, Yi; Wu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Zhongmei; Fan, Weiyu

    2006-11-01

    As a complementary medical system to Western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of diseases over thousands of years. Confronted with the increasing popularity of TCM and the huge volume of TCM data, historically accumulated and recently obtained, there is an urgent need to explore these resources effectively by the techniques of knowledge discovery in database (KDD). This paper aims at providing an overview of recent KDD studies in TCM field. A literature search was conducted in both English and Chinese publications, and major studies of knowledge discovery in TCM (KDTCM) reported in these materials were identified. Based on an introduction to the state of the art of TCM data resources, a review of four subfields of KDTCM research was presented, including KDD for the research of Chinese medical formula, KDD for the research of Chinese herbal medicine, KDD for TCM syndrome research, and KDD for TCM clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the current state and main problems in each subfield were summarized based on a discussion of existing studies, and future directions for each subfield were also proposed accordingly. A series of KDD methods are used in existing KDTCM researches, ranging from conventional frequent itemset mining to state of the art latent structure model. Considerable interesting discoveries are obtained by these methods, such as novel TCM paired drugs discovered by frequent itemset analysis, functional community of related genes discovered under syndrome perspective by text mining, the high proportion of toxic plants in the botanical family Ranunculaceae disclosed by statistical analysis, the association between M-cholinoceptor blocking drug and Solanaceae revealed by association rule mining, etc. It is particularly inspiring to see some studies connecting TCM with biomedicine, which provide a novel top-down view for functional genomics research. However, further developments

  20. Perspectives of Medieval Persian Medicine on Multiple Sclerosis.

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Sheibani, Behnam; Schiess, Nicoline; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmail; Sadeghpour, Omid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) was the prevailing practice of medicine in the Eurasia region up through the 18th century, a practice of medicine stemming back to Hippocrates and to the 5000 year old civilization of the region. It is a school of medicine which touches on many a delicate points which may seem unimaginable within the realm of modern allopathic medicine. This practice of ancient medicine besides shedding light on various possible theoretical modern day disorders serves as a vast resource for therapeutics. In this paper, we present study of the manuscripts of this ancient medical practice in search of symptom presentations coinciding with presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper represents a comprehensive search through TPM texts and manuscripts with the intention to seek possible clues on MS from potentially valuable age-old resources. We predominantly focused our search on the works of five eminent physicians of Medieval Persia: Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Haly Abbas (949-982 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Averroes (1126-1198 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD). In this paper, the authors attempt a theory and conclude with high probability that a conjunction of a series of signs, symptoms found in TPM texts under the terms khadar, isterkha and falej form the symptoms and the disease pattern of modern day MS. This theory draws upon existent similarities in terms of disease pathology, disease patterns and predisposing factors seen between MS and the related morbidities within Persian Medicine. We recommend further examinations of such potentially valuable long-standing resources, examining the diagnoses and treatments as set forth by Persian Medicine through international collaboration within the global scientific community. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Johann P. Arnason & Kurt A. Raaflaub, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives (Chichester: Wiley & Sons, 2011

    Michael Gibbons

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arnason and Raaflaub’s edited volume, The Roman Empire in Context: Historical and Comparative Perspectives, is the fifth volume in a series entitled The Ancient World: Comparative Histories. The overarching aim of the series is to bring a comparative perspective to studies of ancient histories, and earlier titles focus either on content or geography. This is the only volume to date that focuses on a specific civilization, and Rome is of course significant enough to merit its own volume.

  2. On the concept of “variant” in lexicon studies from a historic-variational perspective

    Américo Venâncio Lopes Machado Filho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Even though the concept of linguistic variant has been fully established in contemporary sociolinguistic studies, it demands a theoretical review when it is considered from the perspective of lexicon studies, especially when related to historical and variational biases. In this paper, we present limits on identification and characterization of lexical variation, considering formal changes that may occur at other levels of analysis, especially at the morphological or phonetic ones. To support the reflections on the topic, we discuss the process of lexicon constitution in Portuguese and the results of etymological convergence and divergence present in the history of the language. Based on the analysis presented, it is proposed that research on lexical variation should incorporate to this notion any significant formal or content changes.

  3. Hunger strikers: historical perspectives from the emergency management of refugee camp asylum seekers.

    Burkle, Frederick M; Chan, Jimmy T S; Yeung, Richard D S

    2013-12-01

    The treatment of hunger strikers is always contentious, chaotic and complex. The management is particularly difficult for health professionals as it raises unprecedented clinical, ethical, moral, humanitarian, and legal questions. There are never any easy answers. The current situation of prisoners from the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars currently at the Guantanamo Bay Detention Center in Cuba demands unprecedented transparency, accountability and multilevel coordination to ensure that the rights of the strikers are properly met. There are scant references available in the scientific literature on the emergency management of these tragedies. This historical perspective documents the complex issues faced by emergency physicians in Hong Kong surrounding refugee camp asylum seekers from Vietnam in 1994 and is offered as a useful adjunct in understanding the complex issues faced by emergency health providers and managers.

  4. Race and ethnicity in the workplace: spotlighting the perspectives of historically stigmatized groups.

    Plaut, Victoria C; Thomas, Kecia M; Hebl, Michelle R

    2014-10-01

    Racial and ethnic identity matter and are salient for people in the workplace--a place where people spend a substantial amount of their time. This special issue brings the workplace into the domain of racial and ethnic minority psychology. It also brings to the study of the workplace a relatively neglected perspective: that of people from historically stigmatized racial and ethnic groups. Though there is, of course, need for more work with different themes, outcomes, and populations, this special issue takes us an important step in the direction of understanding better and giving voice to the experiences of racial and ethnic minorities in the workplace. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Historical and perspectives of thorium compounds production and purification at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    Lainetti, Paulo E.O.; Abrao, A.; Freitas, Antonio A.; Carvalho, Fatima M.S. de; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei S.; Cunha, Edgar F.; Ayoub, Jamil M.S.; Mindrisz, Ana C.

    2000-01-01

    The production and purification of some thorium compounds has been performed in the IPEN in the last 15 years. Some raw materials have been employed in this production, obtained from the monazite exploitation in industrial scale that it was performed in Sao paulo during the period 1948 until 1994. More than 160 t of high purity thorium nitrate were produced, purified by the solvent extraction process. The thorium nitrate has been supplied for the Brazilian portable gaslight industry to the production of Welsbach Mantle. Nowadays, a new facility is being designed and built. The main concern is the recovering of the production capacity, lost after some years of operation without suitable maintenance. This activity has an important strategic role, considering the huge Brazilian thorium resources and the renewed interest in thorium fuel cycle. This paper describes a brief historical background of thorium activities in the IPEN as well as their perspectives. (author)

  6. Searching for social capital: historical perspectives on health, poverty and culture.

    Welshman, John

    2006-11-01

    Social capital has been seen as having a positive effect on health, and the concept of social capital has been viewed as of central importance to debates about healthy, sustainable communities. More generally, behaviour and its relationship with health has become much more central to policy-making, as illustrated in the Choosing Health White Paper (2005), and the concept of social capital has been one influence on the concept of social exclusion. Robert Putnam's arguments, both those expressed in Making Democracy Work (1993) and the revised version seen in Bowling Alone (2000) have been taken up by numerous social scientists and policy-makers. But despite the explicitly historical perspective that Putnam employs in Bowling Alone in particular, the history of social capital remains rather neglected in the available literature. This article is concerned with providing a historical perspective on social capital, especially the ways in which social investigators have viewed the relationships between health, poverty and behaviour. The article puts social capital alongside that of 'underclass' concepts such as the culture of poverty thesis, and examines how the latter has been invented and reinvented in the U.K. and the U.S.A. over the last 120 years. It argues that there are important similarities between the culture of poverty and social capital, but also significant differences, and these have implications for current policy initiatives. One way of analysing concepts like social capital and social exclusion more rigorously is by locating them within this longer-term history of social investigation, in which debates about health, poverty, and culture have been of

  7. Strategy for Self-Centered Development from the Perspective of an Historical Analysis of Development

    Alfredo Pérez Sánchez

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available After acknowledging the three phases of historical analysis of development, and especially considering the research work done in the last twenty-five years by the Germans Dieter Sengcheus and Ulrich Mezel, the author presents the principle elements of a self-centered development strategy which highlights the following perspectives:dissociation, economic restructuring, and the new forms of an international division of labor among Third World economies.This document calls into question the underlying operation of the conventional theory of development and its current policy, which call for the increasing integration of the Third World in the world market as a means of going beyond development as it is commonly understood. Though being an integral element in the theory of self-centereddevelopment, temporary dissociation from the world market is proposed. The justification for the strategy of dissociation, excepting the recourse to some historical and paradigmatic reflections sketched by Friedrich List, has kept itself, of necessity, to the global and abstract level. This position is nothing, however, but a most direct analytical result deduced fromthe principle theoretical beginnings and the empirical observations of both the Theory of Dependence and Peripheral Capitalism. Although the review vents its criticism on (and mainly questions the practicality of the aforesaid conception, a more penetratingunderstanding of what the wager for such a strategy entails is found. Thus, the notion of self-centered development influences and gives impulse to a most extensive ideologicallymarked debate about the alternative conceptions of development.

  8. Heritage Conservation and Urban Landscaping of Ancient Pan Pool Neighborhood, Qufu: a Historical and Indigenous Perspective

    Yingchun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gu Pan Pool neighborhood got its name because of Gu Pan Chi, (古泮池,the ancient Pan Pool, located in the southeastern part of Confucius’ birthplace, Qufu, the birth place of Confucius with a history of 3000 year. Gu Pan Pool has been recently under preservation with the joint efforts of World Bank cultural heritage conservation project and the local municipal government. With disparate interests in mind, the three stakeholders of heritage, the world bank, Qufu municipal government and local residents are contradictory with each other in the regeneration process, in which the local voices are often ignored. The purpose of this paper is to rethink heritage making from a historical and indigenous perspective in the contemporary Chinese urban historic landscape planning process. The author contends that the cultural value and pluralism embedded in the ritual way of thinking in Chinese Classics inherited and transmitted for thousands of years could be an alternative way of thinking for the landscape planning practices in the homogenizing culture of global capitalism. This research aims to reinterpret and re-activate Confucianism as cultural heritage to enrich the understanding and hence the sustainability related to human action in urban spaces with emphasis on planning processes in contemporary China.

  9. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  10. Clinical decision making-a functional medicine perspective.

    Pizzorno, Joseph E

    2012-09-01

    As 21st century health care moves from a disease-based approach to a more patient-centric system that can address biochemical individuality to improve health and function, clinical decision making becomes more complex. Accentuating the problem is the lack of a clear standard for this more complex functional medicine approach. While there is relatively broad agreement in Western medicine for what constitutes competent assessment of disease and identification of related treatment approaches, the complex functional medicine model posits multiple and individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, most or many of which have reasonable underlying science and principles, but which have not been rigorously tested in a research or clinical setting. This has led to non-rigorous thinking and sometimes to uncritical acceptance of both poorly documented diagnostic procedures and ineffective therapies, resulting in less than optimal clinical care.

  11. Innovative Perspectives of Integrated Chinese Medicine on H. pylori.

    Ye, Hui; Shi, Zong-Ming; Chen, Yao; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Zhi

    2018-06-08

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment requires the development of more effective therapies, mainly owing to the challenges posed by the bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In China, critically high infection and antibiotic resistance rates have limited the application of classic H. pylori eradication therapies. Consequently, researchers are attempting to find new solutions by drawing from traditional medicine. This article reviews basic scientific and clinical progress in the use of integrated Chinese and Western medicine (IM) to treat H. pylori; describes the conflicting results between in vivo and in vitro studies in this regard; discusses the observed clinical effects of IM, with emphasis on traditional patent medicines; and proposes a role for IM in both the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori, including the use of tongue manifestation as an early diagnostic method and capitalizing on IM's direct and indirect methods for enhancing antibiotic effect.

  12. Recent perspectives on the medicinal potential of ginger

    Gunathilake KDPP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available KDPP Gunathilake,1 HP Vasantha Rupasinghe2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Sri Lanka; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a globally known food and flavoring ingredient which is also reputed for its wide range of medicinal properties. The rhizome of ginger consists of a unique homologous series of compounds, gingerols, which are the major phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its unique flavor and health benefits. Over the last 2 decades, extensive research has been conducted to identify bioactive constituents and medicinal potential of ginger. This review deliberates chemical composition as well as the most recent research findings on potential health benefits of ginger, including its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, antiplatelet aggregation, chemopreventive, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic properties. Keywords: ginger, gingerols, medicinal properties, Zingiber officinale, health

  13. The future of laboratory medicine - a 2014 perspective.

    Kricka, Larry J; Polsky, Tracey G; Park, Jason Y; Fortina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the future is a difficult task. Not surprisingly, there are many examples and assumptions that have proved to be wrong. This review surveys the many predictions, beginning in 1887, about the future of laboratory medicine and its sub-specialties such as clinical chemistry and molecular pathology. It provides a commentary on the accuracy of the predictions and offers opinions on emerging technologies, economic factors and social developments that may play a role in shaping the future of laboratory medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modernity Strikes Back? A Historical Perspective on the Latest Increase in Interpersonal Violence (1960–1990

    Manuel Eisner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a plethora of criminological explanations why criminal violence increased during the three decades between the early 1960s and the early 1990s. This paper argues that most available interpretations are lacking in three respects: they lack a historical perspective that anchors the three critical decades in a wider understanding of long-term trends; they take the nation-state as their unit of analysis and disregard important commonalities across the Western world; and they pay insufficient attention to different trends in broad categories of physical violence. This paper therefore takes a macro-level and long-term perspective on violent crime, focussing on European homicide during the past 160 years. It demonstrates that the period of increase was preceded by a long-term decline and convergence of homicide rates from the 1840s to the 1950s. Also, it shows that both the decline and the increase primarily resulted from temporal variation in the likelihood of physical aggression between men in public space. It argues that explanations of these common trends need to take into account broad long-term cultural change common to Western societies. In particular, the paper suggests that shifts in culturally transmitted and institutionally embedded ideals of the conduct of life may provide an explanation for long-term change in levels of interpersonal violence.

  15. Alternative Medicine. A Doctor's Perspective The ALLSA Handbook ...

    on their way to or from The Spinney. They also went ... Back in Cape Town, there was no reason or need to ... dimension which unorthodox approaches often seem to provide .... Several authors are epidemiologists or health economists ... and epidemiological perspective (cost-effectiveness, validity, ... from our accountants.

  16. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands : A Historical Perspective

    Janssen, Fanny; van Poppel, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime

  17. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    Janssen, F.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime

  18. The Development of the Interface between Law, Medicine and Psychiatry: Medico-Legal Perspectives in History

    M Swanepoel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicine and law were related from early times. This relation resulted as a necessity of protecting communities from the irresponsible acts of impostors. Various legal codes dealing with medical malpractice existed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Islam, Greece, Rome, Persia and India. Over the course of the past 30 years, interest in the history of psychiatry has boomed. Much of this proliferation of interest has taken place under the broad influence of postmodernism and has resulted in multiple and diverse histories that no longer seek to provide a linear narrative of constant evolutionary progress. Rather, these new histories explore and disrupt taken for granted assumptions about the past and provide a starting point for discussion and debate about the some of the very foundations of mental health care in South Africa. As a matter of practical importance knowledge of how knowledge accrues and knowledge of the mistakes of the past is of prime importance in preventing similar mistakes in present and future work. An important reason for specifically understanding historical psychiatry is the fact that many of the uncertainties experienced in the present are a direct result of decisions made in the past. The key issue is that while it is tempting to experience current psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered as natural and permanent, an understanding of the past helps mental health and legal practitioners to see things in a different perspective. Psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered have changed over time and can undoubtedly also be changed in future. Therefore, the research conducted in this article focuses on the history and development of law and psychiatry including prehistoric times, the Arabian countries, the Nile Valley as well as Greece and Rome.

  19. Instrumentation in the nuclear medicine modern achievements and perspective developments

    Narkevich, B.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    Most important achievement and tendencies of development of physical maintenance of modern nuclear medicine are analysed. The urgent problems and directions of researches are considered in the field of development of the equipment, technologies of measurements and software maintenance, and also means and procedures of the warranty of radiodiagnostic researches [ru

  20. Dreams and Medicines: The Perspective of Xhosa Diviners and ...

    Based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in the Eastern Cape, the paper explores the interconnections between dreams (amathongo, amaphupha) and medicines (amayeza, imithi, amachiza) as aspects of the Xhosa diviner's culture, knowledge and experience. Background information is provided in the introduction, ...

  1. Women's leadership in neuropsychology: historical perspectives, present trends, and future directions.

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Benitez, Andreana; Buelow, Melissa T; Gooding, Amanda; Schaefer, Lynn A; Sim, Anita H; Tussey, Chriscelyn M; Shear, Paula K

    2018-02-01

    Although psychology has become a female-dominated field, this pattern of gender representation has not held true within the specialty of neuropsychology. In recent years more women have been pursuing careers in neuropsychology, and while the balance of male and female neuropsychologists as a whole has shifted, it is unclear whether the gender composition of leadership has also changed. Our goal was to survey various neuropsychological organizations, training programs, editorial boards, and organizations granting board certification to determine the current gender composition of leadership positions within neuropsychology. A literature review was conducted to examine past trends of gender composition in neuropsychology, psychology, medicine, and academia. Data on current gender compositions of the field were culled from publicly available websites and through personal communication with representatives from major psychological and neuropsychological organizations. We found that the overall composition of the field has changed over time, but notable gender disparities in leadership positions remain. Women still comprise the minority of leadership positions within most neuropsychological organizations, editorial boards for neuropsychology journals, and fellow positions in major neuropsychological organizations. More equitable representation has been achieved in the directorships of training programs and ABPP/ABCN board certification. We review the historical trends in gender discrepancies in leadership in neuropsychology and discuss these within the broader arenas of academia, research, and medicine. We conclude with a summary addressing potential causes for these discrepancies, including work-life balance issues, discrimination, institutional bias, and various other factors. We also provide pragmatic suggestions to help address these continued disparities.

  2. Patient perspectives on type 2 diabetes and medicine use during Ramadan among Pakistanis in Denmark

    Mygind, Anna; Kristiansen, Maria; Wittrup, Inge

    2013-01-01

    of Ramadan without adequate counselling on how to adjust their medicines. Objective To explore patient perspectives on medicine use during Ramadan, reasons for fasting and experiences with counselling on medicine use during Ramadan among people of Pakistani background with type 2 diabetes and at least one...... (six interviewers). Results All interviewees pointed out that Islam allows ill people to refrain from fasting during Ramadan. However, all had fasted during Ramadan despite being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. While fasting, they adapted their use of medicines in different ways, e.g. by changing...... the time of intake or by skipping morning medicines. Fasting during Ramadan meant a feeling of improvement in well-being for all interviewees. Reasons for this improvement included physiological, social and religious aspects. Healthcare professionals were rarely included in the decision-making process...

  3. Mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals in sports medicine: a new perspective.

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-01-01

    Since mitochondria have been recognized as the cells' key organelles involved in the energy utilization during exercise, targeting the organelle with specifically designed compounds (mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals, MTNs) may have a great promise in the prevention and treatment of heavy exercise-related mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro studies suggested that MTNs have antioxidant effects at the molecular level, and might boost mitochondrial biogenesis and organelle bioenergetics, with both processes are known to positively affect exercise performance and recovery. However, while there are a number of different MTNs evaluated for a potential benefit as a therapy for mitochondria-related diseases and conditions, only few human studies evaluated the possible impact of novel MTNs in the field of sports medicine. This mini review summarizes recent research findings regarding the efficacy of different mitochondria-targeted nutritional agents, emphasizing their roles in sports medicine.

  4. [Periodontology from the perspective of holistic integrative medicine].

    Luan, Q X

    2017-08-09

    Medical diciplines have been gradually differentiated and specialized during its developement, and problems due to deep specialization have been increasingly apparent. Its performance is as follows: dental specialists tends to focus on a certain narrow area and ignore neither the patients as a whole existence nor the role of the environmental factors. In this article, the author tries to show the holistic integrative medicine (HIM) from the point of view of periodontal specialty. In fact, the pathogenesis, the differential diagnosis and the treatment of periodontal diseases along with the role of preventive dentistry and basic medicine for periodontology must be considered as a whole using the philosophy of HIM. The future development of periodontal specialty should absorb the achievements of other medical and dental diciplines. Periodontist should pay more attention to HIM. The author also gives some thoughts and suggestions on how to practice HIM in the field of periodontics.

  5. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine

    Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. Results: According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Conclusion: Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state. PMID:27840513

  6. Depression from the perspective of modern and Persian medicine

    Anushiravani, Majid; Manteghi, Ali Akhondpour; Taghipur, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide Objective The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine, Al-Hawi Fi Teb, Kamel Al-Sina’a, Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A’azam. Classic medicine sources investigated were Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry and related articles in the Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Research was done from January through April 2017, using keywords. Results To explain the biologic causes, various factors including humoral dystemperaments, cold and hot dystemperaments of chief organs especially heart and brain and some qualitative and quantitative changes in medical spirit should be considered. According to manuscripts some mental-emotional events in life can cause these changes. They independently may cause depression. Semiologically some symptoms and signs happen consequently to in the above-mentioned causes which are in common with depression signs and symptoms including grief, crying, low libido, weight loss, appetite and sleep disorders, exhaustion, slow cognitive processing, indecisiveness and willingness to die. Conclusion The major biological causes of depression is a group of dystemperamental syndromes (hot, cold, dry, and wet) on different bodily structures (humors, organs, and spirits). So preventive and therapeutic strategies for depression couldn’t be the same for all patients and the treatment should be designed according to the exact diagnosis. PMID:29629061

  7. European Medicines Agency initiatives and perspectives on pharmacogenomics

    Ehmann, Falk; Caneva, Laura; Papaluca, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics, the study of variations of DNA and RNA characteristics as related to drug response, has become an integral part of drug development and pharmacovigilance, as reflected by the incorporation of pharmacogenomic data in EU product information. In this short review article, we describe recent European Medicines Agency initiatives intended to support further the implementation of pharmacogenomics in drug development and surveillance so that patients and the public can benefit from advances in genomic science and technology. PMID:24433361

  8. Spiritual Medicine in The Multi Perspective of Religion

    Minhas, Marwa; Akhmad, Syaefudin Ali; Afzal, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Spiritual healing, also known as healing through prayer and meditation, has been widely studied by various scholars from different religions including Islam, Hindu, Buddhism and Christianity. The term spiritual medicine is increasingly popular with increasing mental disorders, degenerative diseases, metabolic, cancer and social illness such as drug abuse. Religions of Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity have almost the same tradition in the spiritual aspect to create purity of self and...

  9. Naturalistic perspectives of traditional Tibetan medicine and contemporary relevance

    Chengxin ZHAO; Li TONG

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM) has unique naturalistic connotation. Understanding naturalism from the TTM helps us to increase our understanding of organic cosmology and naturalism itself. It also helps us to realize the potential of naturalism. Hopefully this will show us a broader Asian naturalism and multidimensional prospect of the international organic cosmology. This paper intends to describe and analyze the naturalism hidden in the TTM by combining the source, theory, system and pr...

  10. Review: Public perspectives on the utilization of human placentas in scientific research and medicine.

    Yoshizawa, R S

    2013-01-01

    Placental tissues are frequently utilized by scientists studying pregnancy and reproduction and in diverse fields including immunology, stem cell research, genetics, cancer research, and tissue engineering, as well as by clinicians in many therapies. Though the utilization of the human placenta in science and medicine has benefitted many people, little is known about public perspectives of this phenomenon. This review addresses placental donation, collection, and utilization in science and medicine, focusing on public perspectives. Cultural values and traditions, ethical paradigms and concerns, public understandings of science and medicine, and political considerations may impact perceptions of the utilization of the placenta in science and medicine, but systematic study is lacking. It is argued that knowledge of public views gained from empirical investigation may underpin the development of collection protocols and research projects that are more responsive to public will, spur more extensive utilization in science and medicine of this unique organ, and/or aid in the realization of the mobilization of knowledge about the placenta for clinical and educational ends. New avenues for research on public perspectives of the placenta are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hospitalist Perspective of Interactions with Medicine Subspecialty Consult Services.

    Adams, Traci N; Bonsall, Joanna; Hunt, Daniel; Puig, Alberto; Richards, Jeremy B; Yu, Liyang; McSparron, Jakob I; Shah, Nainesh; Weissler, Jonathan; Miloslavsky, Eli M

    2018-05-01

    Medicine subspecialty consultation is becoming increasingly important in inpatient medicine. We conducted a survey study in which we examined hospitalist practices and attitudes regarding medicine subspecialty consultation. The survey instrument was developed by the authors based on prior literature and administered online anonymously to hospitalists at 4 academic medical centers in the United States. The survey evaluated 4 domains: (1) current consultation practices, (2) preferences regarding consultation, (3) barriers to and facilitating factors of effective consultation, and (4) a comparison between hospitalist-fellow and hospitalist-subspecialty attending interactions. One hundred twenty-two of 261 hospitalists (46.7%) responded. The majority of hospitalists interacted with fellows during consultation. Of those, 90.9% reported that in-person communication occurred during less than half of consultations, and 64.4% perceived pushback at least "sometimes " in their consult interactions. Participants viewed consultation as an important learning experience, preferred direct communication with the consulting service, and were interested in more teaching during consultation. The survey identified a number of barriers to and facilitating factors of an effective hospitalist-consultant interaction, which impacted both hospitalist learning and patient care. Hospitalists reported more positive experiences when interacting with subspecialty attendings compared to fellows with regard to multiple aspects of the consultation. The hospitalist-consultant interaction is viewed as important for both hospitalist learning and patient care. Multiple barriers and facilitating factors impact the interaction, many of which are amenable to intervention.

  12. Camels Milk: Nutrition and Health Perspectives Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.

  13. Holistic approach to functional constipation: Perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-11-23

    Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) proposes a different viewpoint to the chronic diseases. Diagnosis and implemented treatment are based on individual differences among patients. Constipation or Ea'teghal-e-batn is a condition in which the patient develops difficult or painful defecation. Based on TPM concepts, the fifirst digestion step starts from halq (oral cavity), and ends via defecation from the maq'ad (anus). Avicenna believed that four faculties, ha'zemeh (digestive), ja'zebeh (absorptive), ma'sekeh (retentive) and da'fe'eh (propulsive), are involved in the process of digestion and absorption of the ingested food and expelling the waste materials. The bowel movement and appearance of the stool is a measure for evaluating the gastrointestinal healthy function. Defecation should be with no pain and fecal material should have no burning and acuity. Low food intake or foods with dry temperament, dryness of gastrointestinal tract, diaphoresis and heavy exercise as well as intestine sensory loss were discussed as main causes of constipation. Management of constipation in TPM includes dietary schemes, oil massages and subsequently simple herbal medicines. According to TPM theories, the fifirst step in treating a disease is the elimination of disease causes (asbabe- maraz) and also providing the causes of health (asbab-e-sehhat). Health care providers should know the proper condition which the herbal medicines should be administered in and be able to guide the patients about the benefifits and hazards of herbal remedies, commonly used in their living origin.

  14. Molecular hydrogen in sports medicine: new therapeutic perspectives.

    Ostojic, S M

    2015-04-01

    In the past 2 decades, molecular hydrogen emerged as a novel therapeutic agent, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects demonstrated in plethora of animal disease models and human studies. Beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen in clinical environment are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, brain stem infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, or neurodegenerative diseases. A number of more recent studies have reported that molecular hydrogen affects cell signal transduction and acts as an alkalizing agent, with these newly identified mechanisms of action having the potential to widen its application in clinical medicine even further. In particular, hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific innovative treatment for exercise-induced oxidative stress and sports injury, with potential for the improvement of exercise performance. This review will summarize recent research findings regarding the clinical aspects of molecular hydrogen use, emphasizing its application in the field of sports medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Resurgence of malaria in Bombay (Mumbai) in the 1990s: a historical perspective.

    Kamat, V

    2000-06-01

    Bombay has achieved extraordinary success in controlling its malaria problem for nearly six decades by relying primarily on legislative measures and non-insecticidal methods of mosquito abatement. In 1992, however, malaria reemerged in Bombay with a vengeance. During 1992-1997, the city witnessed a manifold increase in the number of malaria cases diagnosed and treated by the public health system. The large number of malaria patients treated by private practitioners was not recorded by the municipal malaria surveillance system during this period. In 1995, at the peak of the resurgence, public health officials of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay (MCGB) confirmed that 170 persons in the city had died due to malaria. The crisis was unprecedented in Bombay's modern public health history. In response to intense criticism from the media, the city's public health officials attributed the resurgence to the global phenomenon of mosquito-vector resistance to insecticides, and Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Local scientists who investigated the problem offered no support to this explanation. So what might explain the resurgence? What factors led the problem to reach an epidemic level in a matter of two or three years? In addressing the above principal questions, this paper adopts a historical perspective and argues that in the resurgence of malaria in Bombay in the 1990s, there is an element of the 'presence of the past'. In many ways the present public health crisis in Bombay resembles the health scenario that characterized the city at the turn of the 19th century. It is possible to draw parallels between the early public health history of malaria control in Bombay, which was punctuated by events that followed the bubonic plague epidemic of 1896, and the present-day malaria epidemic punctuated by the threat of a plague epidemic in 1994. As such, the paper covers a long period, of almost 100 years. This time-depth is used to

  16. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy: current overview and future perspectives.

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Kui; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C; Zhang, Haiyuan; Huang, Canhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a common disease that is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for more effective management of cancer. Importantly, protein profiling using clinical proteomic strategies, with spectacular sensitivity and precision, offer excellent promise for the identification of potential biomarkers that would direct the development of targeted therapeutic anticancer drugs for precision medicine. In particular, clinical sample sources, including tumor tissues and body fluids (blood, feces, urine and saliva), have been widely investigated using modern high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches combined with bioinformatic analysis, to pursue the possibilities of precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy. Discussed in this review are the current advantages and limitations of clinical proteomics, the available strategies of clinical proteomics for the management of precision medicine, as well as the challenges and future perspectives of clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy.

  18. Acidic and basic drugs in medicinal chemistry: a perspective.

    Charifson, Paul S; Walters, W Patrick

    2014-12-11

    The acid/base properties of a molecule are among the most fundamental for drug action. However, they are often overlooked in a prospective design manner unless it has been established that a certain ionization state (e.g., quaternary base or presence of a carboxylic acid) appears to be required for activity. In medicinal chemistry optimization programs it is relatively common to attenuate basicity to circumvent undesired effects such as lack of biological selectivity or safety risks such as hERG or phospholipidosis. However, teams may not prospectively explore a range of carefully chosen compound pKa values as part of an overall chemistry strategy or design hypothesis. This review summarizes the potential advantages and disadvantages of both acidic and basic drugs and provides some new analyses based on recently available public data.

  19. Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy) for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective

    Ablin, Jacob N.; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS. PMID:23983795

  20. Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective

    Jacob N. Ablin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS, evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

  1. Analysing young children’s thinking about natural phenomena: A sociocultural/cultural historical perspective

    JILL ROBBINS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Vygotsky’s sociocultural/cultural historical theory emphasised the notion of semiotic mediation – or how thinking is transformed through signs (such as language and cultural tools (such as drawings from an intermental to an intramental plane. While the ideas of Vygotsky have become well-accepted within research in early childhood education in Australia, they are somewhat slower to be adopted within science education research. Yet they offer the potential for gaining new understandings of how young children’s thinking about the world develops. This article will demonstrate one way in which aspects of Vygotsky’s (1987-1999 work, particularly his ideas about semiotic mediation can inform analysis of children’s thinking about the world. Focusing on conversations with children about natural phenomena, and drawings they completed during those conversations, the analysis identifies a number of significant issues that are not normally revealed within the dominant forms of analysis which draw on constructivist perspectives. The findings, which reveal complex and dynamic aspects of children’s thinking, have implications for both teachers and researchers working with young children – especially within science education and science education research.

  2. Measuring retrograde autobiographical amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy: historical perspective and current issues.

    Semkovska, Maria; McLoughlin, Declan M

    2013-06-01

    Retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a major concern for both patients and clinicians. In contemporary ECT research, retrograde autobiographical amnesia (RAA) is commonly measured with instruments assessing autobiographical memory (AM) consistency over time. However, normal AM recall loses in consistency with the passage of time, and time has a differential effect on stability of personal memories. In addition, experiencing depression is associated with a decreased ability to recall specific AMs, and this difficulty may persist in the euthymic phase of recurrent depression. Despite these scientific facts, relatively few attempts have been made to accurately measure the specific effect of ECT on AM independent of both normal and mood-associated forgetting over time. This major gap in our knowledge prevents us at present from objectively quantifying the nature and extent of RAA associated with ECT. In turn, this hinders our identifying and implementing strategies for prevention or remediation of AM deficits. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date review and historical perspective of this major methodological conundrum for ECT research, highlight current issues in retrograde amnesia assessment following ECT, and propose directions for future studies. In conclusion, we suggest methods to reliably and specifically measure the extent and progression over time of ECT-associated RAA independently from persistent depressive symptoms' contribution and normal loss in AM consistency over time.

  3. Portfolio Risk of International Diversification of Kosovo Pension Fund: A Historical Perspective

    Florin Aliu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Finance do not stand on static variables like exact sciences, they are changeable and influenced from human actions. The question where to invest funds, is a crucial task for financial managers. The study aimed at assessing the portfolio risk of different asset managers of the Kosovo Pension and Saving Trust. In general, the assessment has been categorized in two historical perspectives. The first phase is an assessment of the portfolio risk of the fund from 2003 to 2009 and the second phase is from 2003 to 2013. In general, portfolio risk in the second stage has shown a reduction as compared to the first stage. However, the return side shows also a reduction in the second phase than the first one. The overall risk of Kosovo Pension and Saving Trust has been in accepted range. Majority of money have been invested in stocks which automatically exposes huge risk on KPST portfolio, since it is proven that financial markets are not stable and they are prone to asset bubbles.

  4. THE ROLE PLAY AND THE CHILD WITH AUTISM IN THE HISTORICAL-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    Maria Angélica da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the play of make-believe for children with autism, focusing on the symbolic resources it uses in asserting roles. It is based on the theoretical contributions of the historical-cultural perspective, with Vygotsky as its main exponent. The research was carried out in a public school of Early Childhood Education, in Brasília. From the microgenetic analysis, the research had six children diagnosed with autism, at the ages of 4 and 6 years, included in Special Class, as participants. The play situations were videotaped and later transcribed in episode format. In the data analysis, we identified two axes, namely: 1 The construction of the role play and; 2 Assumption of roles by the child with autism: set design and imagery resources. The results reveal the role of the other (intentional participation in the constitution of play activity, especially the role of the adult. In addition, they demonstrate that pedagogical mediation, including the creation of 'scenarios', is fundamental for the extension of the symbolic experience of the child with autism.

  5. Profiles in chemistry: a historical perspective on the national organic symposium.

    Fenlon, Edward E; Myers, Brian J

    2013-06-21

    This perspective delineates the history of the National Organic Chemistry Symposium (NOS) and, in doing so, traces the development of organic chemistry over the past 88 years. The NOS is the premier event sponsored by the ACS Division of Organic Chemistry (ORGN) and has been held in odd-numbered years since 1925, with the exceptions of 1943 and 1945. During the 42 symposia, 332 chemists have given 549 plenary lectures. The role the NOS played in the launch of The Journal of Organic Chemistry and Organic Reactions and the initiation of the Roger Adams Award are discussed. Representative examples highlighting the chemistry presented in each era are described, and the evolution of the field is examined by assigning each NOS talk to one of seven subdisciplines and analyzing how the number of talks in each subdiscipline has changed over time. Comparisons of the demographics of speakers, attendees, and ORGN members are made, and superlatives are noted. Personal interest stories of the speakers are discussed, along with the relationships among them, especially their academic lineage. Logistical aspects of the NOS and their historical trends are reviewed. Finally, the human side of science is examined, where over the past century, the NOS has been intertwined with some of the most heated debates in organic chemistry. Conflicts and controversies involving free radicals, reaction mechanisms, and nonclassical carbocations are discussed.

  6. Metabolomics enables precision medicine: "A White Paper, Community Perspective".

    Beger, Richard D; Dunn, Warwick; Schmidt, Michael A; Gross, Steven S; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Cascante, Marta; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S; Oresic, Matej; Hankemeier, Thomas; Broadhurst, David I; Lane, Andrew N; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Sumner, Susan J; Thiele, Ines; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    stratification of patients based on metabolic pathways impacted; (4) reveal biomarkers for drug response phenotypes, providing an effective means to predict variation in a subject's response to treatment (pharmacometabolomics); (5) define a metabotype for each specific genotype, offering a functional read-out for genetic variants: (6) provide a means to monitor response and recurrence of diseases, such as cancers: (7) describe the molecular landscape in human performance applications and extreme environments. Importantly, sophisticated metabolomic analytical platforms and informatics tools have recently been developed that make it possible to measure thousands of metabolites in blood, other body fluids, and tissues. Such tools also enable more robust analysis of response to treatment. New insights have been gained about mechanisms of diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes and a range of pathologies. A series of ground breaking studies supported by National Institute of Health (NIH) through the Pharmacometabolomics Research Network and its partnership with the Pharmacogenomics Research Network illustrate how a patient's metabotype at baseline, prior to treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment, can inform about treatment outcomes and variations in responsiveness to drugs (e.g., statins, antidepressants, antihypertensives and antiplatelet therapies). These studies along with several others also exemplify how metabolomics data can complement and inform genetic data in defining ethnic, sex, and gender basis for variation in responses to treatment, which illustrates how pharmacometabolomics and pharmacogenomics are complementary and powerful tools for precision medicine. Our metabolomics community believes that inclusion of metabolomics data in precision medicine initiatives is timely and will provide an extremely valuable layer of data that compliments and informs other data obtained by these important initiatives. Our

  7. Therapeutic journery of nitrogen mustard as alkylating anticancer agents: Historic to future perspectives.

    Singh, Rajesh K; Kumar, Sahil; Prasad, D N; Bhardwaj, T R

    2018-05-10

    Cancer is considered as one of the most serious health problems today. The discovery of nitrogen mustard as an alkylating agent in 1942, opened a new era in the cancer chemotherapy. This valuable class of alkylating agent exerts its biological activity by binding to DNA, cross linking two strands, preventing DNA replication and ultimate cell death. At the molecular level, nitrogen lone pairs of nitrogen mustard generate a strained intermediate "aziridinium ion" which is very reactive towards DNA of tumor cell as well as normal cell resulting in various adverse side effects alogwith therapeutic implications. Over the last 75 years, due to its high reactivity and peripheral cytotoxicity, numerous modifications have been made in the area of nitrogen mustard to improve its efficacy as well as enhancing drug delivery specifically to tumor cells. This review mainly discusses the medicinal chemistry aspects in the development of various classes of nitrogen mustards (mechlorethamine, chlorambucil, melphalan, cyclophosphamide and steroidal based nitrogen mustards). The literature collection includes the historical and the latest developments in these areas. This comprehensive review also attempted to showcase the recent progress in the targeted delivery of nitrogen mustards that includes DNA directed nitrogen mustards, antibody directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT), nitrogen mustard activated by glutathione transferase, peptide based nitrogen mustards and CNS targeted nitrogen mustards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Evolutionary systems biology: historical and philosophical perspectives on an emerging synthesis.

    O'Malley, Maureen A

    2012-01-01

    Systems biology (SB) is at least a decade old now and maturing rapidly. A more recent field, evolutionary systems biology (ESB), is in the process of further developing system-level approaches through the expansion of their explanatory and potentially predictive scope. This chapter will outline the varieties of ESB existing today by tracing the diverse roots and fusions that make up this integrative project. My approach is philosophical and historical. As well as examining the recent origins of ESB, I will reflect on its central features and the different clusters of research it comprises. In its broadest interpretation, ESB consists of five overlapping approaches: comparative and correlational ESB; network architecture ESB; network property ESB; population genetics ESB; and finally, standard evolutionary questions answered with SB methods. After outlining each approach with examples, I will examine some strong general claims about ESB, particularly that it can be viewed as the next step toward a fuller modern synthesis of evolutionary biology (EB), and that it is also the way forward for evolutionary and systems medicine. I will conclude with a discussion of whether the emerging field of ESB has the capacity to combine an even broader scope of research aims and efforts than it presently does.

  9. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Asthma: A Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multidatabase electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. Then, the antiasthmatic effectiveness of TPM-recommended plants was verified in view of the findings from modern pharmacological investigations. According to the main TPM texts, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Boswellia oleogumresin, Crocus sativus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis and Ruta graveolens were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma. This finding was confirmed by pharmacological studies which showed counterbalancing effects of the above-mentioned plants on inflammation, oxidative stress, allergic response, tracheal smooth muscle cell constriction and airway remodeling. The strong ethnobotanical background of plants used in TPM could be a valuable tool to find new anti-asthmatic medications. In this review, TPM-suggested anti-asthmatic plants were found to possess several mechanisms relevant to the treatment of respiratory diseases according to the information retrieved from modern pharmacological studies. This high degree of conformity suggested further proof-of-concept trials to ascertain the role of these plants in the routine management of asthmatic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. The history of the Russian Orthodox Church in Denmark (1741-2016 seen in a Danish-Russian historical perspective

    Christensen Carsten Sander

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history and the problems of the Russian Orthodox Church in Denmark – and here seen in a Danish-Russian historical perspective, especially, in the last 300 years. The relations between the Danes and the Orthodox Church began, however, around 900 years before, in the Eastern European state of Kievan Rus. The article shows that the history of the church is closely linked to the political development in Russia. In this article, the history of the church and the changing Russian congregations will be illuminated in a historical perspective so that both the church and church buildings will throw a new light on the role of the Russian Church in both Danish and Russian history. In addition, it will be analysed to what extent trade policy, strategy and power policy and family relations have influenced the role and position of the Russian Church in Danish history.

  12. Systems biology of resilience and optimal health: integrating Chinese and Western medicine perspectives

    Herman van Wietmarschen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western science has been strong in measuring details of biological systems such as gene expression levels and metabolite concentrations, and has generally followed a bottom up approach with regard to explaining biological phenomena. Chinese medicine in contrast has evolved as a top down approach in which body and mind is seen as a whole, a phenomenological approach based on the organization and dynamics of symptom patterns. Western and Chinese perspectives are developing towards a ‘middle out’ approach. Chinese medicine diagnosis, we will argue, allows bridging the gap between biologists and psychologists and offers new opportunities for the development of health monitoring tools and health promotion strategies.

  13. Improving data retrieval quality: Evidence based medicine perspective.

    Kamalov, M; Dobrynin, V; Balykina, J; Kolbin, A; Verbitskaya, E; Kasimova, M

    2015-01-01

    The actively developing approach in modern medicine is the approach focused on principles of evidence-based medicine. The assessment of quality and reliability of studies is needed. However, in some cases studies corresponding to the first level of evidence may contain errors in randomized control trials (RCTs). Solution of the problem is the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Studies both in the fields of medicine and information retrieval are conducted for developing search engines for the MEDLINE database [1]; combined techniques for summarization and information retrieval targeted to solving problems of finding the best medication based on the levels of evidence are being developed [2]. Based on the relevance and demand for studies both in the field of medicine and information retrieval, it was decided to start the development of a search engine for the MEDLINE database search on the basis of the Saint-Petersburg State University with the support of Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University and Tashkent Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education. Novelty and value of the proposed system are characterized by the use of ranking method of relevant abstracts. It is suggested that the system will be able to perform ranking based on studies level of evidence and to apply GRADE criteria for system evaluation. The assigned task falls within the domain of information retrieval and machine learning. Based on the results of implementation from previous work [3], in which the main goal was to cluster abstracts from MEDLINE database by subtypes of medical interventions, a set of algorithms for clustering in this study was selected: K-means, K-means ++, EM from the sklearn (http://scikit-learn.org) and WEKA (http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/~ml/weka/) libraries, together with the methods of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) [4] choosing the first 210 facts and the model "bag of words" [5] to represent clustered documents

  14. Idiopathic Scoliosis from Psychopathological and Mind-Body Medicine Perspectives.

    Talić, Goran; Ostojić, Ljerka; Bursać, Snježana Novaković; Nožica-Radulović, Tatjana; Stevanović-Papić, Đurđica

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis, defined as a three-dimensional spine and trunk deformity, which appears in otherwise healthy subjects, exhibits complex relations with various forms of personal well-being and psychopathology. Most research studies have documented a higher proportion of psychological disturbances (e.g., self-criticism, negative body image, low self-esteem) and mental disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders, personality disorders) among idiopathc scoliosis patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, there are some reports, although more systematic research is warranted, on the role of mental health and personality traits in relation to the adherence to conservative treatment. Given the increasing role of surgical treatment in the management of scoliosis, as well as several reports on negative psychological outcomes of such interventions, there is a growing need for ongoing screening and mental health care in this population. It seems this also holds true for non-operative treatments, particularly bracing therapy. One should keep in mind that these scoliosis-psychopathology relations are deduced from a limited number of empirical studies, usually conducted on small sample sizes, suggesting the need for further large-scale investigations, preferrably those with longitudinal research designs. Understanding the complex interplay between personality/psychopathology and spinal deformities within the framework of personalized mind-body medicine, should help clinicians tailor more individualized and specific treatments and predict therapeutic outcomes in this clinical population.

  15. [Intensive care medicine on medical undergraduation: student's perspective].

    Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Albuquerque, Ligia Carvalho; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Rolim, Carlos Eduardo Cerqueira; Godinho, Tiana Mascarenhas; Liberato, Maurício Valverde; Oliveira Filho, Fernando Cezar Cabral; Azevedo, Ana Bárbara Galvão de; Neves, Ana Paula Soares da Silva; Martins, Marcelo de Jesus; Silva, João Paulo Maciel; Jesuíno, Paulo André; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de

    2007-12-01

    There are deficiencies on Intensive Medicine (IM) teaching in most of medical undergraduate schools. Those deficiencies may imply damages on their clinical competence. The objective of this study was to analyze current status of IM teaching and the medical undergraduate student interest in this speciality. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005. We applied a self-reported questionnaire to enrolled students between the sixth and the last semesters of two medical schools from Salvador-Bahia. The questionnaire contained questions about students' interest and knowledge on IM, and opinion on IM teaching in their schools. We studied 570 students. Most of them (57.5%) had never realized a clerkship in intensive care unit (ICU) despite classifying its usefulness as high (mean of 4.14 ± 1.05, in a scale from 1 to 5). IM interest was high or very high in 53.7% of sample. Almost all students (97%) thought that IM topics should be more explored at their curriculum. Only 42.1% reported to be able to assess a critical care patient and this assurance was higher among students with previous clerkship in ICU (p < 0.001). Shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sepsis were the most interesting topics in ICU for students' opinion. This study revealed a high interest in IM among medical undergraduate students. However, most had never practice a clerkship in ICU, demonstrating to be an important factor on undergraduate student performance faced to a critical care patient.

  16. [Snake as a symbol in medicine and pharmacy - a historical study].

    Okuda, J; Kiyokawa, R

    2000-01-01

    The snake and snake venoms have stimulated the mind and imagination of humankind since the beginning of records about society. No animal has been more worshipped yet more cast out, more loved yet more despised than the snake. The essence of the fascination with fear of the snake lies within the creature's venom. Snakes have been used for worship, magic potions and, medicine, and they have been the symbol of love, health, disease, medicine, pharmacy, immortality, death and even wisdom. In the Sumer civilization (B.C. 2350-2150), designs with 2 snakes appeared. In Greek mythology (B.C. 2000-400), statues of Asclepius (God of Medicine), with "Caduceus" (made of two snakes and a staff), and his daughter Hygeia (God of Health), holding a snake and bowl, were created as symbols for medicine and health, respectively. A kind of Caduceus (1 snake and 1 staff) has been used as a symbol by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a snake and bowl as a symbol of pharmacies in Europe. Snakes have also been worshipped by old Indian peoples involved in Hinduism since 6-4th century B.C. In ancient Egypt, snake designs were used in hieroglyphs. In China, dried bodies of about 30 species of snakes are still using as Chinese medicines. In Japan, a painting of the symbol of "Genbu" (snake with tortoise) was found recently on the north wall of the Takamatsuzuka ancient tomb (7-8th century A.D.), however it is a symbol of a compass direction, and has probably less relation to medicine and pharmacy.

  17. Postmenopausal Health and Disease from the Perspective of Evolutionary Medicine

    Andrew W. Froehle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Menopause normally occurs between 45-55 years of age, marks the end of a woman’s reproductive lifespan, and is accompanied by a reduction in estrogen that has substantial physiological effects. The standard medical view is that these changes underlie high postmenopausal disease rates, defining menopause as an estrogen deficiency condition needing treatment. This view stems from the idea that extended postmenopausal longevity is a consequence of recent technological developments, such that women now outlive their evolutionarily-programmed physiological functional lifespan.Increasingly, however, researchers employing an evolutionary medicine framework have used data from comparative demography, comparative biology, and human behavioral ecology to challenge the mainstream medical view. Instead, these data suggest that a two-decade human postmenopausal lifespan is an evolved, species-typical trait that distinguishes humans from other primates, and has deep roots in our evolutionary past. This view rejects the inevitability of high rates of postmenopausal disease and the concept of menopause as pathology. Rather, high postmenopausal disease risk likely stems from specific lifestyle differences between industrialized societies and foraging societies of the type that dominated human evolutionary history. Women in industrialized societies tend to have higher estrogen levels during premenopausal life, and experience a greater reduction in estrogen across menopause than do women living in foraging societies, with potentially important physiological consequences. The anthropological approach to understanding postmenopausal disease risk reframes the postmenopausal lifespan as an integral period in the human life cycle, and offers alternative avenues for disease prevention by highlighting the importance of lifestyle effects on health.

  18. Ringhals unit 3 and 4 - Fluence determination in a historic and future perspective

    Green, E.L. [Primary Systems Inspection and Repair, Vattenfall/Ringhals AB, 432 85 Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Rouden, J. [Material and Analytical Services, Vattenfall/Ringhals AB, 432 85 Vaeroebacka (Sweden); Efsing, P. [Materials Mechanics, Research and Nuclear Development, Vattenfall/Ringhals AB, 432 85 Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    Document available in abstract form only, full text of document follows: The Ringhals site is situated on the Swedish southwest coastline. At the site, there are four operating nuclear power plants. Historically, the Swedish policy has been that the nuclear power plants were to be closed in 2010. The present position is to operate the units until their technical and economic lifetime has run out. The units shall be maintained and invested in to ensure a lifetime of at least 50 years, but the actions taken shall not limit the time to this date. When the initial surveillance capsules were evaluated, it was noted that the material properties of the weld material of unit 3 and 4 showed some deviations from the expected behaviour. Currently there is an extensive project running for re-evaluating the embrittlement situation from a long-term operating perspective. One part of the project is aimed at more accurately determining the fluence levels of the reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The basis for the early evaluations of the dosimeters in the surveillance capsules and the corresponding fluence evaluation had an operating lifetime of 25 years as a target value. Therefore, the accuracy and refinement of the measurement and calculation were taken to be good enough to suit this life span. Looking back at the results from the dosimetry measurements there are a few discrepancies. Some of the dosimeters were disintegrated and some measurements had comparatively large uncertainties. When starting this project there were some re-evaluations done with the old fluence prediction model. For every new run and refinement there appeared new difficulties, and the decision was to start the evaluation from scratch. Then there are two questions remaining regarding the fluence: What is the current fluence level? What will the resulting fluence be after 60 years of operation, when we have up-rated output power of both reactors? This paper aims to describe the view of the fluence evaluation

  19. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Context The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. Evidence Acquisition In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. Results From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Conclusions Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important. PMID:27275398

  20. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-04-01

    The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important.

  1. Advanced therapy medicinal products: current and future perspectives.

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies that encompass gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products. These therapies are expected to bring important health benefits, but also to substantially impact the pharmaceuticals budget. The aim of this study was to characterise the ATMPs in development and discuss future implications in terms of market access. Clinical trials were searched in the following databases: EudraCT (EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials), ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization). Trials were classified by category of ATMP as defined by European regulation EC No. 1394/2007, as well as by development phase and disease area. The database search identified 939 clinical trials investigating ATMPs (85% ongoing, 15% completed). The majority of trials were in the early stages (Phase I, I/II: 64.3%, Phase II, II/III: 27.9%, Phase 3: 6.9%). Per category of ATMP, we identified 53.6% of trials for somatic cell therapies, 22.8% for tissue-engineered products, 22.4% for gene therapies, and 1.2% for combined products (incorporating a medical device). Disease areas included cancer (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (19.4%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), immune system and inflammation (11.5%), neurology (9.1%), and others. Of the trials, 47.2% enrolled fewer than 25 patients. Due to the complexity and specificity of ATMPs, new clinical trial methodologies are being considered (e.g., small sample size, non-randomised trials, single-arm trials, surrogate endpoints, integrated protocols, and adaptive designs). Evidence generation post-launch will become unavoidable to address payers' expectations. ATMPs represent a fast-growing field of interest. Although most of the products are in an early development phase, the combined trial phase and the potential to cure severe chronic conditions suggest that ATMPs may reach the market earlier than

  2. Enhancing student perspectives of humanism in medicine: reflections from the Kalaupapa service learning project.

    Lee, Winona K; Harris, Chessa C D; Mortensen, Kawika A; Long, Linsey M; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle

    2016-05-09

    Service learning is endorsed by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) as an integral part of U.S. medical school curricula for future physicians. Service learning has been shown to help physicians in training rediscover the altruistic reasons for pursuing medicine and has the potential to enhance students' perspectives of humanism in medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a unique collaboration between disadvantaged post-baccalaureate students with an underserved rural community. This study was conducted to determine whether the Kalaupapa service learning curricula enhanced student perspectives of humanism in medicine at an early stage of their medical training. Program participants between 2008 and 2014 (n = 41) completed written reflections following the conclusion of the service learning project. Four prompts guided student responses. Reflections were thematically analyzed. Once all essays were read, team members compared their findings to condense or expand themes and assess levels of agreement. Emerging themes of resilience and unity were prominent throughout the student reflections. Students expressed respect and empathy for the patients' struggles and strengths, as well as those of their peers. The experience also reinforced students' commitment to service, particularly to populations in rural and underserved communities. Students also gained a deeper understanding of the patient experience and also of themselves as future physicians. To identify and address underserved and rural patients' health care needs, training programs must prepare an altruistic health care workforce that embraces the humanistic element of medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a potential curricular model that can be used to enhance students' awareness and perspectives of humanism in medicine.

  3. RELIGION AND BANKING SYSTEM: THE FUTURE OF SYARIAH BANKING PRACTICES Historical and Contemporary Fiqh Perspectives

    Hamka Siregar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The momentum of the development of Sharia banking has been noticed since the 1970s, which generally had two patterns: first, establishing the Islamic bank side by side with conventional one (dual-banking system as practiced in Egypt, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Kuwait, Bahrain, and Bangladesh; and second, restructuring the banking system as a whole in accordance with Islamic Sharia (full-fledged Islamic financial system as applied in Sudan, Iran and Pakistan. The development of the Sharia-based banks which have been established across the world since the 1970s, became the motivation of the Indonesian ulemas to draft law on Sharia banking, so that Sharia banking could also be developed. As a result, these last few years, the banking world in Indonesia has witnessed the establishment of the public Sharia banks and Sharia business units, like Bank Muamalat and Bank Syariah Mandiri to mention a few. Using historical and contemporary jurisprudence perspective, this paper provides discussion on the future of Sharia banking.

  4. Controlling our destinies: Historical, philosophical, social and ethical perspectives on the Human Genome Project: Final report, July 1, 1995-June 30, 1996

    Sloan, P.R.

    1996-09-25

    This report briefly describes the efforts by the organizing committee in preparation for the conference entitled Controlling Our Destinies: Historical, Philosophical, Social, and Ethical Perspectives on the Human Genome Project. The conference was held October 5-8, 1995.

  5. Historical root of precision medicine: an ancient concept concordant with the modern pharmacotherapy

    Moeini, Reihaneh; Memariani, Zahra; Pasalar, Parvin; Gorji, Narjes

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics are new sciences that their goal is achieving therapeutics with maximum results and minimal side effects for each individual due to the pattern of his genome and proteome. Although they considered new and high technology sciences but in distant past, Persian sages like Avicenna also knew about importance of ?personalized medicine? and used specific patterns to detect individual differences in order to select suitable medication. Based on experience and ...

  6. Pioneers of invasive cardiovascular medicine - Charles Theodore dotter and colleagues: Short historical review

    Kostić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within modern medicine at the beginning of 21st century, we are witnessing a revolutionary development of the invasive diagnostics and therapy of cardiovascular system diseases. With the discovery of X-rays at the end of 19th century by Wilhelm Roentgen, it is appropriate to reflect on the gifted individuals whose efforts drastically altered radiology and cardiology. The early techniques used in peripheral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty form the basis for subsequent percutaneous intervention both in the peripheral and coronary arteries and are largely the contribution of Charles Dotter. The main goal of his work was the use of catheters for diagnosis and treatment in an attempt to replace the scalpel. He was 20 years ahead of his time, especially with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty marked a new era in the treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. This practical genius dedicated his considerable energy to the belief that there is always a better way to treat disease. His personal contributions to clinical medicine, research, and teaching have saved millions of limbs and lives all over the world. European physicians, who were more open to unproven techniques, almost immediately embraced percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Without the contribution and help of his colleagues, Forssmann, Sones and Gruntzig, all of them pioneers, nothing would be done. They were all ahead of there time and opened completely new chapter in medicine.

  7. THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF CONSULTATION LIAISON PSYCHIATRY AND PSYCHOSOMATIC MEDICINE IN TURKISH CULTURE

    ÖZKAN, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    Before discussing the approach traditionally taken towards the mentally ill by Turkish society, let me say a few words about just who the Turks are. The first historical references to them appear in Chinese records of about 200 BC who lived in Central Asia and are believed to be the ancestors of modern-day Turks. Other Turkic tribes gradually came and settled in Anatolia, where they found a local culture that had been developing over the centuries from a mixture of peoples and societies. The ...

  8. Subsidiary historical disciplines at Yugoslav and Serbian universities: Their development and perspectives

    Atlagić Marko P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subsidiary historical disciplines are an important segment of the studies of history without which the history cannot achieve its main methodological goal. They are available for the purpose of history and historical scientific research. Also, they are of an immense importance for collecting and examining historical sources that is for heuristics. At the same time they are relevant for the judgment regarding choosing, valorization and the use of historical sources, namely for historical critique. In the modern period of the development of teaching history at the universities, subsidiary historical disciplines were consisted mostly of Latin paleography, diplomatics and chronology. Since teaching at universities is being developed, the extension of subsidiary historical disciplines is also being slowly spread on sphragistics and numismatics so that nowadays they include Latin paleography, Slavic paleography, epigraphic, filigranology, diplomatics, chronology, genealogy, sphragistics, numismatics, historical metrology, toponomastics with topography and vexillology. Subsidiary historical disciplines became a part of the programmes for studying history at the end of the XVIII century while they were completely affirmed during the XIX century. However, that practice was not included in Yugoslav and especially not in Serbian universities where subsidiary historical disciplines should have been given the first place in the programmes for studying history as well as in their practical use.

  9. Stopping the "Flow of Co-Eds and Other Female Species": A Historical Perspective on Gender Discrimination at Southern (U.S.) Colleges and Universities

    McCandless, Amy Thompson

    2009-01-01

    The interrelated nature of gender and racial constructs in the culture of the southern United States accounts for much of the historical prejudice against coeducation in the region's institutions of higher education. This essay offers a historical perspective on gender discrimination on the campuses of Southern universities from the attempts to…

  10. Cancer survivors' perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Partike, Nancy S; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the People's Republic of China, both western medicine (WM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation. Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis. WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor-patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused. Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM. Meanwhile, marketing management and guidance to consumers regarding use of dietary supplements in the cancer rehabilitation field are also necessary.

  11. New perspectives on evolutionary medicine: the relevance of microevolution for human health and disease.

    Rühli, Frank Jakobus; Henneberg, Maciej

    2013-04-29

    Evolutionary medicine (EM) is a growing field focusing on the evolutionary basis of human diseases and their changes through time. To date, the majority of EM studies have used pure theories of hominin macroevolution to explain the present-day state of human health. Here, we propose a different approach by addressing more empirical and health-oriented research concerning past, current and future microevolutionary changes of human structure, functions and pathologies. Studying generation-to-generation changes of human morphology that occurred in historical times, and still occur in present-day populations under the forces of evolution, helps to explain medical conditions and warns clinicians that their current practices may influence future humans. Also, analyzing historic tissue specimens such as mummies is crucial in order to address the molecular evolution of pathogens, of the human genome, and their coadaptations.

  12. Medicine use and safety while breastfeeding: investigating the perspectives of community pharmacists in Australia.

    de Ponti, Martine; Stewart, Kay; Amir, Lisa H; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2015-01-01

    Consumers and health professionals rely on community pharmacists for accurate information about the safety of medicines. Many breastfeeding women require medications, yet we know little about the advice provided to them by pharmacists in Australia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the perspectives of community pharmacists in Australia on medication use and safety in breastfeeding using a postal survey of a national random sample of 1166 community pharmacies in 2011. One hundred and seventy-six pharmacists responded (51% female). Of the 52% of participants with children, many (70%) had a total breastfeeding duration (self or partner) of 27 weeks or more. The majority (92%) were confident about supplying or counselling on medication during breastfeeding. The most commonly used resources were drug company information, Australian Medicines Handbook and the Royal Women's Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicine Guide. Most (80%) believed the available information to be adequate and 86% thought it accessible. Over one-third were unaware that ibuprofen and metronidazole are compatible with breastfeeding. Most (80%) were able to name at least one medicine that may decrease milk supply. We found that community pharmacists discuss medicine use in lactation and are confident of their ability to do so; however, their knowledge may be variable.

  13. 50th anniversary of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine--a historical overview.

    Körber, Friedrich; Plebani, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In the early 1960s, Joachim Brugsch, one of the founders of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) (then Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie), had the idea to found a journal in the upcoming field of clinical chemistry. He approached Ernst Schütte, who was associated with the De Gruyter publishing house through another journal, to participate, and Schütte thus became the second founder of this Journal. The aim was to create a vehicle allowing the experts to express their opinions and raise their voices more clearly than they could in a journal that publishes only original experimental papers, a laborious and difficult, but important endeavor, as the profession of clinical chemistry was still in the early stages of development at this time. The first issue of this Journal was published in early 1963, and today, we are proud to celebrate the 50th anniversary of CCLM. This review describes the development of this Journal in light of the political situation of the time when it was founded, the situation of the publisher Walter De Gruyter after the erection of the Berlin Wall, and the development of clinical chemistry, and later on, laboratory medicine as a well-acknowledged discipline and profession.

  14. An historical overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, 1985–2015

    Speaker, Susan L.

    2018-01-01

    The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM), established as the Regional Medical Library Program in 1965, has a rich and remarkable history. The network’s first twenty years were documented in a detailed 1987 history by Alison Bunting, AHIP, FMLA. This article traces the major trends in the network’s development since then: reconceiving the Regional Medical Library staff as a “field force” for developing, marketing, and distributing a growing number of National Library of Medicine (NLM) products and services; subsequent expansion of outreach to health professionals who are unaffiliated with academic medical centers, particularly those in public health; the advent of the Internet during the 1990s, which brought the migration of NLM and NNLM resources and services to the World Wide Web, and a mandate to encourage and facilitate Internet connectivity in the network; and the further expansion of the NLM and NNLM mission to include providing consumer health resources to satisfy growing public demand. The concluding section discusses the many challenges that NNLM staff faced as they transformed the network from a system that served mainly academic medical researchers to a larger, denser organization that offers health information resources to everyone. PMID:29632439

  15. An historical overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, 1985–2015

    Susan L. Speaker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM, established as the Regional Medical Library Program in 1965, has a rich and remarkable history. The network’s first twenty years were documented in a detailed 1987 history by Alison Bunting, AHIP, FMLA. This article traces the major trends in the network’s development since then: reconceiving the Regional Medical Library staff as a “field force” for developing, marketing, and distributing a growing number of National Library of Medicine (NLM products and services; subsequent expansion of outreach to health professionals who are unaffiliated with academic medical centers, particularly those in public health; the advent of the Internet during the 1990s, which brought the migration of NLM and NNLM resources and services to the World Wide Web, and a mandate to encourage and facilitate Internet connectivity in the network; and the further expansion of the NLM and NNLM mission to include providing consumer health resources to satisfy growing public demand. The concluding section discusses the many challenges that NNLM staff faced as they transformed the network from a system that served mainly academic medical researchers to a larger, denser organization that offers health information resources to everyone.  This article has been approved for the Medical Library Association’s Independent Reading Program.

  16. An historical overview of the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, 1985-2015.

    Speaker, Susan L

    2018-04-01

    The National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM), established as the Regional Medical Library Program in 1965, has a rich and remarkable history. The network's first twenty years were documented in a detailed 1987 history by Alison Bunting, AHIP, FMLA. This article traces the major trends in the network's development since then: reconceiving the Regional Medical Library staff as a "field force" for developing, marketing, and distributing a growing number of National Library of Medicine (NLM) products and services; subsequent expansion of outreach to health professionals who are unaffiliated with academic medical centers, particularly those in public health; the advent of the Internet during the 1990s, which brought the migration of NLM and NNLM resources and services to the World Wide Web, and a mandate to encourage and facilitate Internet connectivity in the network; and the further expansion of the NLM and NNLM mission to include providing consumer health resources to satisfy growing public demand. The concluding section discusses the many challenges that NNLM staff faced as they transformed the network from a system that served mainly academic medical researchers to a larger, denser organization that offers health information resources to everyone.

  17. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    technical and sociological reasons. The Mountain lands' conservation and restoration law of 1882 aimed to better fit local issues. The idea of the presentation is thus to highlight how evolved the historical comprehension of torrential hazards and of the usefulness of check dams in mitigation plans in a changing environment on the technical as well as on the sociological and regulatory points of view. Pioneering scientific and technical works on torrential hydraulics and check dams will be presented. Describing the global context that leads to French laws of 1860,1864 and 1882 will allow us to explain the extensive development of the works in more than a thousand of torrents and a hundred of big landslides. We then will discuss the evolution of technics during the beginning of the 20th century and the changes induced after WWII by the arrival of reinforced-concrete technics. We will conclude the presentation with a synthesis table aiming to highlight the different functions of check dams based on a description of their situations in the watershed, compare to other structures' situations and on shape criteria. This historical perspective will hopefully help people to better understand for which purposes some structures have been built in the past centuries and what lessons can be learnt from this assessment.

  18. Poseidon's paintbox : historical archives of ocean colour in global-change perspective

    Wernand, M. R.

    2011-11-01

    In the thesis introduction issues are discussed on the historical background of marine optics and on marine optical devices that were used over the past centuries to observe and measure; as in all sciences, in marine optics we can see a steady development: that of ‘measuring’, beginning many centuries ago, to 'knowing' and since less than a century to the understanding of the phenomenon. Hereafter, six themes are treated successively. The first theme, ‘Ocean optics from 1600 (Hudson) to 1930 (Raman), shift in interpretation of natural water colouring’, addresses the question of why it took so long a time to explain the phenomenon ‘the colouring of the sea’, especially the blue colour, despite the age-long interest of sailors, for practical purposes of navigation and detection of fish - of which more later. The second theme ‘On the history of the Secchi disc’, describes the search to establish methods for the determination of (sea) water clarity concerning purposes of navigation (near coast colour changes) just mentioned to detect shoals, and for a more basic purpose, tracing lost objects. The search to determine the clarity of lakes and seas culminated in the invention of the Secchi disc, used since the late 19th century. The third theme, ‘Spectral analysis of the Forel-Ule ocean colour comparator scale’, addresses the accuracy of a colour scale proposed, used in limnology and oceanography. Scale observations are put into perspective with contemporary measurements on the colour of the sea. The fourth theme, ‘Ocean colour changes in the North Pacific since 1930’, handles the question whether long-term ocean colour changes using historic Forel-Ule observations, in this part of the ocean made very frequently over time, can be determined in relation to global change. In principal global warming may cause a gradual change in ocean colour due to the effect of biological, chemical and physical aspects of the ocean-surface. The fifth theme,

  19. Choice of rotatable plug seals for prototype fast breeder reactor: Review of historical perspectives

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail: nksinha@igcar.gov.in; Raj, Baldev, E-mail: baldev.dr@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Choice and arrangement of elastomeric inflatable and backup seals as primary and secondary barriers. • With survey (mid-1930s onwards) of reactor, sealing, R&D and rubber technology. • Load, reliability, safety, life and economy of seals and reactors are key factors. • PFBR blends concepts and experience of MOX fuelled FBRs with original solutions. • R&D indicates inflatable seal advanced fluoroelastomer pivotal in unifying nuclear sealing. - Abstract: Choice and arrangement of elastomeric primary inflatable and secondary backup seals for the rotatable plugs (RPs) of 500 MW (e), sodium cooled, pool type, 2-loop, mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is depicted with review of various historical perspectives. Static and dynamic operation, largest diameters (PFBR: ∼6.4 m, ∼4.2 m), widest gaps and variations (5 ± 2 mm) and demanding operating requirements make RP openings on top shield (TS) the most difficult to seal which necessitated extensive development from 1950s to early 1990s. Liquid metal freeze seals with life equivalent to reactor prevailed as primary barrier (France, Japan, U.S.S.R.) during pre-1980s in spite of bulk, cost and complexity due to the abilities to meet zero leakage and resist core disruptive accident (CDA). Redefinition of CDA as beyond design basis accident, tolerable leakage and enhanced economisation drive during post-1980s established elastomeric inflatable seal as primary barrier excepting in U.S.S.R. (MOX fuel, freeze seal) and U.S.A. (metallic fuel). Choice of inflatable seal for PFBR RPs considers these perspectives, inherent advantages of elastomers and those of inflatable seals which maximise seal life. Choice of elastomeric backup seal as secondary barrier was governed by reliability and minimisation as well as distribution of load (temperature, radiation, mist) to maximise seal life. The compact sealing combination brings the hanging RPs at about the same elevation to reduce

  20. History from Children's Perspectives: Learning to Read and Write Historical Accounts Using Family Sources

    Schmidt, Maria Auxiliadora; Garcia, Tania Maria F. Braga

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation which was part of a project called "Recreating Histories". It is concerned with the analysis of historical narratives created by the children who participated in the project and an analysis of historical sources kept by families who live in Campina Grande do Sul (Brazil). It draws on…

  1. Historical Facts and Fictions: Representing and Reading Diverse Perspectives on the Past.

    Enciso, Patricia E.; Jenkins, Christine; Rogers, Theresa; Tyson, Cynthia; Marshall, Elizabeth; Robinson, Dwan; Wissman, Jackie; Price-Dennis, Detra; Core, Elizabeth; Morss, Betty; Cordova, Carmen; Youngsteadt-Parish, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Presents brief descriptions of 22 recently published books for children and adolescents that present untold stories that begin to fill in the gaps of mainstream versions of the past. Includes categories of historical fiction, historical nonfiction, biography/memoir, and poetry and verse. Discusses these books in tandem with numerous landmark…

  2. The Inside, Out: Diaries as Entry Points to Historical Perspective-Taking

    Lemisko, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Diaries can serve as meaningful entry points for advancing historical consciousness and develop historical thinking (Seixas, 2002) because they can connect readers/learners with the diverse emotions, thoughts and motivations of the people who wrote them in particular times and particular places. According to philosopher and historian, R.G.…

  3. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad--to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs

  4. Policy objective of generic medicines from the investment perspective: The case of clopidogrel.

    Elek, Péter; Harsányi, András; Zelei, Tamás; Csetneki, Kata; Kaló, Zoltán

    2017-05-01

    The objective of generic drug policies in most countries is defined from a disinvestment perspective: reduction in expenditures without compromising health outcomes. However, in countries with restricted access of patients to original patented drugs, the objective of generic drug policies can also be defined from an investment perspective: health gain by improved patient access without need for additional health budget. This study examines the investment aspect of generic medicines by analyzing clopidogrel utilization in European countries between 2004 and 2014 using multilevel panel data models. We find that clopidogrel consumption was strongly affected by affordability constraints before the generic entry around 2009, but this effect decayed by 2014. After controlling for other variables, utilization had a substantially larger trend increase in lower-income European countries than in the higher-income ones. Generic entry increased clopidogrel consumption only in lower- and average-income countries but not in the highest-income ones. An earlier generic entry was associated with a larger effect. The case of clopidogrel indicates that the entrance of generics may increase patient access to effective medicines, most notably in lower-income countries, thereby reducing inequalities between European patients. Policymakers should also consider this investment aspect of generic medicines when designing pharmaceutical policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological Treatment Trials for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Sexual Medicine Critique and Perspective.

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2015-12-01

    Publications claim efficacy for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in women with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness meditation training (MMT). However, no review has evaluated the evidence for these therapies from the rigorous perspective of sexual medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the published controlled trials of CBT and MMT for disorders of sexual desire from the perspective of sexual medicine standards of control paradigms, risk/benefit ratios, and clinical significance. MEDLINE was reviewed from the last 10 years. Evaluated study quality via 10 metrics and efficacy as mean change, and proportion of responders and remitters. Three controlled trials support CBT and two controlled trials support MMT. The reports of the trials each lacked several scientific requirements: a hierarchy of endpoints with a planned primary endpoint, sufficient information on the intervention to reproduce it, randomization, adequate control, accepted measures of benefits and harms, compliance data, and/or outcomes of clinical relevance. Psychological treatments for HSDD are not yet supported by adequate clinical trials. The current scientific and regulatory standards for drug treatment trials should also be applicable to psychological treatment trials. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  7. Medicines

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  8. The territoriality of spatial-economic governance in historical perspective: the case of the Netherlands

    Lagendijk, A.; Boekema, F.W.M.; Arts, B.J.M.; Lagendijk, A.; Houtum, H.J. van

    2009-01-01

    This chapter explores how shifts in governmentality and the rise of new forms of governance in the field of regional innovation policies have impacted upon perspectives on territoriality and practices of territorialisation. The debate centres on two dominant perspectives, both endorsed by

  9. From bosentan (Tracleer®) to macitentan (Opsumit®): The medicinal chemistry perspective.

    Boss, Christoph; Bolli, Martin H; Gatfield, John

    2016-08-01

    The endothelin peptides bind to two receptors found on cells of vasculature and in tissues. While the endothelin-A (ETA)-receptor is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, the endothelin-B (ETB)-receptor is also found in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and neuronal cells. Activation of the endothelin system plays a driving role in several chronic cardiovascular diseases and several endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) (bosentan (6), ambrisentan (83) and macitentan (43)) have successfully been introduced as oral treatments for the life threatening condition of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This digest highlights the medicinal chemistry of the pyrimidine based ERAs 6 and 43 and describes the story that started with bosentan and culminated in macitentan (43). A condensed overview of the competitive landscape in the field of ERAs puts the different strategies and tactics applied by the medicinal chemists involved in this endeavor into perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular Diagnostics for Precision Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspective

    Guoli Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision medicine, a concept that has recently emerged and has been widely discussed, emphasizes tailoring medical care to individuals largely based on information acquired from molecular diagnostic testing. As a vital aspect of precision cancer medicine, targeted therapy has been proven to be efficacious and less toxic for cancer treatment. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes for cancer related deaths in the United States and worldwide. By far, CRC has been one of the most successful examples in the field of precision cancer medicine, applying molecular tests to guide targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the current guidelines for anti-EGFR therapy, revisit the roles of pathologists in an era of precision cancer medicine, demonstrate the transition from traditional “one test-one drug” assays to multiplex assays, especially by using next-generation sequencing platforms in the clinical diagnostic laboratories, and discuss the future perspectives of tumor heterogeneity associated with anti-EGFR resistance and immune checkpoint blockage therapy in CRC.

  11. Social media in the emergency medicine residency curriculum: social media responses to the residents' perspective article.

    Hayes, Bryan D; Kobner, Scott; Trueger, N Seth; Yiu, Stella; Lin, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    In July to August 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Annals Residents' Perspective article "Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum" by Scott et al. The objective was to describe a 14-day worldwide clinician dialogue about evidence, opinions, and early relevant innovations revolving around the featured article and made possible by the immediacy of social media technologies. Six online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and YouTube, which featured 3 preselected questions. Engagement was tracked through various Web analytic tools, and themes were identified by content curation. The dialogue resulted in 1,222 unique page views from 325 cities in 32 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 569,403 Twitter impressions, and 120 views of the video interview with the authors. Five major themes we identified in the discussion included curriculum design, pedagogy, and learning theory; digital curation skills of the 21st-century emergency medicine practitioner; engagement challenges; proposed solutions; and best practice examples. The immediacy of social media technologies provides clinicians the unique opportunity to engage a worldwide audience within a relatively short time frame. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [The German DRG system 2003-2010 from the perspective of intensive care medicine].

    Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Reinecke, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Intensive care medicine is extremely heterogeneous, expensive and can only be partially planned and controlled. A correct and fair representation of intensive care medicine in the G-DRG system is an essential requirement for the use as a pricing system. From the perspective of intensive care medicine, pertinent changes of the DRG structure and differentiation of relevant parameters have been established within the G-DRG systems 2003-2010. Analysis of relevant diagnoses, medical procedures, co-payment structures and G-DRGs in the versions 2003-2010 based on the publications of the German DRG Institute (InEK) and the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). Since the first G-DRG system version 2003, numerous measures improved quality of case allocation of intensive care medicine. Highly relevant to the system version 2010 are duration of mechanical ventilation, the intensive care treatment complex and complicating constellations. The number of G-DRGs relevant to intensive medical care increased from n = 3 (2003) to n = 58 (2010). For standard cases, quality of case allocation and G-DRG reimbursement are adequate in 2010. The G-DRG system gained complexity again. High demands are made on correct and complete coding of complex cases. Nevertheless, further adjustments of the G-DRG system especially for cases with extremely high costs are necessary. Where the G-DRG system is unable to cover extremely high-cost cases, reimbursement solutions beyond the G-DRG structure should be taken into account.

  13. Medical students' perspective about role-plays as a teaching strategy in community medicine.

    Manzoor, Iram; Mukhtar, Fatima; Hashmi, Noreen Rahat

    2012-04-01

    To assess the students' perspective about role-plays conducted as a teaching methodology in community medicine. A quasi-experimental study. Department of Community Medicine at Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry from July to November 2010. A probability technique of simple random sampling was used to collect 63 students from the third and fourth year MBBS who were randomly distributed in five sub-groups. They were variously ascribed the roles of obsceners, participants and helpers. A questionnaire was distributed to collect student's responses. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 17 to compare the responses. Chi-square test was applied and p-value was fixed at andragogy (p = 0.005) and 48 (76.2%) said that it provoked critical thinking about the subject (p = 0.038). Fifty-four students (85.7%) admitted that their attention span was better in role-plays as compared to lectures (p = 0.047). Role-plays were well accepted by the students as an effective teaching methodology and can be incorporated as a part of teaching strategies in Community Medicine.

  14. Molecular Diagnostics for Precision Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    Chen, Guoli; Yang, Zhaohai; Eshleman, James R; Netto, George J; Lin, Ming-Tseh

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine, a concept that has recently emerged and has been widely discussed, emphasizes tailoring medical care to individuals largely based on information acquired from molecular diagnostic testing. As a vital aspect of precision cancer medicine, targeted therapy has been proven to be efficacious and less toxic for cancer treatment. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes for cancer related deaths in the United States and worldwide. By far, CRC has been one of the most successful examples in the field of precision cancer medicine, applying molecular tests to guide targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the current guidelines for anti-EGFR therapy, revisit the roles of pathologists in an era of precision cancer medicine, demonstrate the transition from traditional "one test-one drug" assays to multiplex assays, especially by using next-generation sequencing platforms in the clinical diagnostic laboratories, and discuss the future perspectives of tumor heterogeneity associated with anti-EGFR resistance and immune checkpoint blockage therapy in CRC.

  15. A Historical Perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick Højrup; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical...... development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP100), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies...

  16. Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective

    Mezzich J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.

  17. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    IJzerman MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maarten J IJzerman,1,3 Andrea Manca,2,3 Julia Keizer,1 Scott D Ramsey4 1Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK; 3Department of Population Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg, 4Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Personalized medicine (PM or precision medicine has been defined as an innovative approach that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles in prevention and treatment of disease. In PM, genomic information may contribute to the molecular understanding of disease, to optimize preventive health care strategies, and to fit the best drug therapies to the patient's individual characteristics. Evidence development in the era of genomic medicine is extremely challenging due to a number of factors. These include the rapid technological innovation in molecular diagnostics and targeted drug discoveries, and hence the large number of mutations and multiple ways these may influence treatment decisions. Although the evidence base for PM is evolving rapidly, the main question to be explored in this article is whether existing evidence is also fit for comparative effectiveness research (CER. As a starting point, this paper therefore reflects on the evidence required for CER and the evidence gaps preventing decisions on market access and coverage. The paper then discusses challenges and potential barriers for applying a CER paradigm to PM, identifies common methodologies for designing clinical trials in PM, discusses various approaches for analyzing clinical trials to infer from population to individual level, and presents an example of a clinical trial in PM (The RxPONDER TRIAL demonstrating good practice. The paper concludes with a future perspective, including modeling approaches for evidence synthesis.Keywords: personalized

  18. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    Si-Yuan Pan; Gerhard Litscher; Si-Hua Gao; Shu-Feng Zhou; Zhi-Ling Yu; Hou-Qi Chen; Shuo-Feng Zhang; Min-Ke Tang; Jian-Ning Sun; Kam-Ming Ko

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesse...

  19. Translating Bourdieu: cultural capital and the English middle class in historical perspective.

    Gunn, Simon

    2005-03-01

    This article examines the ways in which Pierre Bourdieu's work on culture and cultural capital can be applied to the study of the English middle class in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Drawing on a wide historical literature, the article argues for the significance of culture as a constitutive element of middle-class identities in England since 1800. It goes on to examine Bourdieu's ideas of 'objectivated', 'instutionalized' and 'incorporated' cultural capital, in the context of family, inheritance, education and the body. The article identifies changes in the historical forms which cultural capital has taken and emphasizes the importance of analysing family processes of intergenerational transmission.

  20. Enhancing the Evidence for Behavioral Counseling: A Perspective From the Society of Behavioral Medicine.

    Alcántara, Carmela; Klesges, Lisa M; Resnicow, Ken; Stone, Amy; Davidson, Karina W

    2015-09-01

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) clinical guidelines at present rarely assign the highest grade recommendation to behavioral counseling interventions for chronic disease prevention or risk reduction because of concerns about the certainty and quality of the evidence base. As a result, the broad integration of behavioral counseling interventions in primary care remains elusive. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel perspectives on how to generate the highest-quality and -certainty evidence for primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. As members of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM)--a multidisciplinary scientific organization committed to improving population health through behavior change--we review the USPSTF mandate and current recommendations for behavioral counseling interventions and provide a perspective for the future that calls for concerted and coordinated efforts among SBM, USPSTF, and other organizations invested in the rapid and wider uptake of beneficial, feasible, and referable primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. This perspective highlights five areas for further development, including (1) behavioral counseling-focused practice-based research networks; (2) promotion of USPSTF evidence standards and the increased use of pragmatic RCT design; (3) quality control and improvement procedures for behavioral counseling training; (4) systematic research on effective primary care-based collaborative care models; and (5) methodologic innovations that capitalize on disruptive technologies and healthcare transformation. Collective efforts to improve the health of all Americans in the 21st century and beyond must ensure that effective, feasible, and referable behavioral counseling interventions are embedded in modern primary care practice. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Symbiotic Relationship Between Operational Military Medicine, Tactical Medicine, and Wilderness Medicine: A View Through a Personal Lens.

    Llewellyn, Craig H

    2017-06-01

    There are direct and indirect linkages and a form of symbiosis between operational military medicine from World War II and present wilderness medicine, from the beginnings to contemporary practice, and the more recently evolved field of tactical emergency medical support. Each of these relationships will be explored from the historical perspective of the Department of Military & Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from 1982 to the present. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicine, religion and ayahuasca in Catalonia. Considering ayahuasca networks from a medical anthropology perspective.

    Apud, Ismael; Romaní, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism. Closely linked to the process of medicalization, we also analyze prohibitionist drug policies and their tensions and conflicts with the use of ayahuasca in ritual and 'health care' contexts. The paper ends with a reflection on the problem of ayahuasca as 'medicine', since the connection between religion and medicine is a very difficult one to separate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Advances in Patient Classification for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Machine Learning Perspective

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Chengjun; Niu, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary and alternative medicine in medical field, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has drawn great attention in the domestic field and overseas. In practice, TCM provides a quite distinct methodology to patient diagnosis and treatment compared to western medicine (WM). Syndrome (ZHENG or pattern) is differentiated by a set of symptoms and signs examined from an individual by four main diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation which reflects the pathological and physiological changes of disease occurrence and development. Patient classification is to divide patients into several classes based on different criteria. In this paper, from the machine learning perspective, a survey on patient classification issue will be summarized on three major aspects of TCM: sign classification, syndrome differentiation, and disease classification. With the consideration of different diagnostic data analyzed by different computational methods, we present the overview for four subfields of TCM diagnosis, respectively. For each subfield, we design a rectangular reference list with applications in the horizontal direction and machine learning algorithms in the longitudinal direction. According to the current development of objective TCM diagnosis for patient classification, a discussion of the research issues around machine learning techniques with applications to TCM diagnosis is given to facilitate the further research for TCM patient classification. PMID:26246834

  4. Advances in Patient Classification for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Machine Learning Perspective.

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Chengjun; Niu, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary and alternative medicine in medical field, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has drawn great attention in the domestic field and overseas. In practice, TCM provides a quite distinct methodology to patient diagnosis and treatment compared to western medicine (WM). Syndrome (ZHENG or pattern) is differentiated by a set of symptoms and signs examined from an individual by four main diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation which reflects the pathological and physiological changes of disease occurrence and development. Patient classification is to divide patients into several classes based on different criteria. In this paper, from the machine learning perspective, a survey on patient classification issue will be summarized on three major aspects of TCM: sign classification, syndrome differentiation, and disease classification. With the consideration of different diagnostic data analyzed by different computational methods, we present the overview for four subfields of TCM diagnosis, respectively. For each subfield, we design a rectangular reference list with applications in the horizontal direction and machine learning algorithms in the longitudinal direction. According to the current development of objective TCM diagnosis for patient classification, a discussion of the research issues around machine learning techniques with applications to TCM diagnosis is given to facilitate the further research for TCM patient classification.

  5. The real dope: social, legal, and historical perspectives on the regulation of drugs in Canada

    Montigny, Edgar-André

    2011-01-01

    ... - to examine the relationship between moral judgment and legal regulation. Highlights of this collection include rare glimpses into how LSD, cocaine, and Ecstasy have historically been treated by authority figures. Other topics explored range from anti-smoking campaigns and addiction treatment to the relationship between ethnicity and liquor control. Readers ...

  6. Exploring Perspectives of Transitional Leadership Styles at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Case Study

    Mosley, Melvin L.

    2017-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) continue to strive for academic relevance in spite of the national problem of the misalignment of mission and values among their institutional leadership. The national problem was important to both the HBCU institutions and the entire academic community to establish global relevancy. The…

  7. Practicality in Curriculum Building: A Historical Perspective on the Mission of Chinese Education

    Bai, Limin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how the definition and interpretation of the concept gewu zhizhi ???? (investigating things and extending knowledge), evolved along with Chinese intellectual efforts to construct the framework for Chinese learning which, in turn, had a profound impact on the development of educational curricula in different historical periods.…

  8. Hebrew Education in the United States: Historical Perspectives and Future Directions

    Avni, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article sketches the trajectory of Hebrew education in the United States from the early 1900s to the present. Attending to the historiography of Hebrew education, it shows how current curricula and pedagogical approaches have been stamped by historical considerations and language ideologies, how goals and strategies have changed (or remained…

  9. Research in the Work of New Zealand Teacher Educators: A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Perspective

    Berg, David A. G.; Gunn, Alexandra C.; Hill, Mary F.; Haigh, Mavis

    2016-01-01

    In this article we use cultural-historical activity theory to explore the place of research in the work of New Zealand university-based teacher educators (TEs). We consider how aspirations for a research-informed initial teacher education are served by New Zealand universities' recruitment practices and TEs' actual work. We suggest that TEs value…

  10. Student Motivation for Involvement in Supervised Agricultural Experiences: An Historical Perspective

    Bird, William A.; Martin, Michael J.; Simonsen, Jon C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine student motivation for SAEs through the lens of the Self-Determination Theory. Self-Determination Theory proposed that human beings are more genuinely motivated when driven by internal factors as opposed to external factors. We used historical research and general qualitative interpretative methods to…

  11. A conceptual perspective for investigating motive in cultural-historical theory

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides a brief discussion of the other chapters in this edited volume, and then presents a brief introduction to the concept of motive within cultural-historical theory. This discussion includes a discussion of why the concept is needed, the ontological shift in the explanatory log...

  12. Government's Paper Empire: Historical Perspectives on Measuring Student Achievement in British Columbia Schools, 1872-1999

    Fleming, Thomas; Raptis, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Few historical studies of government's interest in student achievement exist and, of those that do, most concern themselves with relatively short periods of time, a decade or two in general. This discussion takes a longer view of measurement practices in one jurisdiction, British Columbia. Based on archival records, it examines testing and…

  13. "To Kill a Mockingbird": An Historical Perspective. Learning Page Lesson Plan.

    Prody, Kathleen; Whearty, Nicolet

    Students gain from a sense of the living history that surrounds Harper Lee's novel, "To Kill a Mockingbird." Through studying primary source materials from American Memory and other online sources, students of all backgrounds may better grasp how historical events and human forces have shaped relationships between black and white and…

  14. Health and Fitness Courses in Higher Education: A Historical Perspective and Contemporary Approach

    Bjerke, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among 18- to 24-year-olds has steadily increased. Given that the majority of young American adults are enrolled in colleges and universities, the higher education setting could be an appropriate environment for health promotion programs. Historically, health and fitness in higher education have been provided via…

  15. Perspective has a strong effect on the calculation of historical contributions to global warming

    Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Berntsen, Terje; Peters, Glen P.; Andrew, Robbie; Allen, Myles; Kallbekken, Steffen

    2017-02-01

    The politically contentious issue of calculating countries’ contributions to climate change is strongly dependent on methodological choices. Different principles can be applied for distributing efforts for reducing human-induced global warming. According to the ‘Brazilian Proposal’, industrialized countries would reduce emissions proportional to their historical contributions to warming. This proposal was based on the assumption that the political process would lead to a global top-down agreement. The Paris Agreement changed the role of historical responsibilities. Whereas the agreement refers to equity principles, differentiation of mitigation efforts is delegated to each country, as countries will submit new national contributions every five years without any international negotiation. It is likely that considerations of historical contributions and distributive fairness will continue to play a key role, but increasingly so in a national setting. Contributions to warming can be used as a background for negotiations to inform and justify positions, and may also be useful for countries’ own assessment of what constitutes reasonable and fair contributions to limiting warming. Despite the fact that the decision from COP21 explicitly rules out compensation in the context of loss and damage, it is likely that considerations of historical responsibility will also play a role in future discussions. However, methodological choices have substantial impacts on calculated contributions to warming, including rank-ordering of contributions, and thus support the view that there is no single correct answer to the question of how much each country has contributed. There are fundamental value-related and ethical questions that cannot be answered through a single set of calculated contributions. Thus, analyses of historical contributions should not present just one set of results, but rather present a spectrum of results showing how the calculated contributions vary with a

  16. Cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study

    Wang JW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Wei Wang,1 Zhi-Qi Yang,1 Cong Liu,1 Si-Jia Chen,1 Qian Shen,1 Tian-Rui Zhang,1 Nancy S Partike,2 Zheng-Ping Yuan,3 Jin-Ming Yu1 1School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Public Health, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: In the People’s Republic of China, both western medicine (WM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation.Methods: Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis.Results: WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor–patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused.Conclusion: Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM

  17. Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified toward one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function. PMID:25408634

  18. INTRINSIC ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF MAMMALIAN NEURONS AND CNS FUNCTION: A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Rodolfo R Llinas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified towards one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictates brain function. The perspective of the paper is not a comprehensive description of the intrinsic electrical properties of all nerve cells but rather addresses a set of cell types that provide indicative examples of mechanisms that modulate brain function.

  19. Changing physician perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine: the need for a top-down approach

    MacKinnon TS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas S MacKinnon,1 Norbert F Banhidy,1 Daniel R Tuite21School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 2Faculty of Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UKWe read with great interest the article by Patel et al1 discussing the changing perspectives towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, and an impetus for additional physician knowledge of the strengths and drawbacks of CAM. These findings are indeed relevant in the UK, with an estimated 41.1% one-year prevalence of CAM use, responsible for an annual out-of-pocket expenditure of £1.6 billion.2 We agree that improved training and education in medical school and residencies – which can be thought of as a “bottom-up” approach – are fundamental in preparing the health care system for improved integration of CAM. However, we also suggest that “top-down” changes are required to optimize patient care.Authors' reply Sejal J Patel,1 Kathi J Kemper,2 Joseph P Kitzmiller31College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 2Center for Integrative Health and Wellness, The Ohio State Wexner University Medical Center, 3Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAWe agree the letter is worthy of publication but have a little to add: a top-down approach (as suggested and described by the authors of the letter certainly complements the bottom-up approach (described in our article.1View the original paper by Patel et al.

  20. Water, mining, and waste: An historical and economic perspective on conflict management in South Africa

    Rebecca A. Adler; Marius Claassen; Linda Godfrey; Anthony R. Turton.

    2007-01-01

    Lack of government intervention in South Africa’s mining industry has worsened conflicts associated with limited water resources. With the advent of democracy, new legislation demands that all South African citizens have the right to a clean, safe environment, including access to potable water, and that the country develop in a sustainable manner. But conflict remains due to the historical partnership between the government and the mining industry, as well as due to cumulative impacts associa...

  1. Historical films and the Asian nations: struggles for independence and emancipation – a gendered perspective

    Wan Yahaya, Wan Aida

    2017-01-01

    This thesis explores in detail fourteen historical films about Asian nations, most made by indigenous production companies and directors from the countries depicted in the films. The thesis has concentrated on films from Southeast Asia, but includes extensive discussion of two films made about Indian history and of two films made about Japanese history. The thesis concentrates on films concerned with issues of national independence, the period of the formation of the nation, and with women’s ...

  2. Historical perspectives and future directions in the surgical management of retroperitoneal sarcoma.

    Tseng, William W; Seo, Hyun Jae; Pollock, Raphael E; Gronchi, Alessandro

    2018-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) have fascinated and intrigued physicians both past and present. Operative mortality rates were historically very high and complete resection was not possible for the majority of patients until only the last 2 decades. More recently, changes to the surgical approach and clinical decision-making in RPS have improved patient outcomes. With select integration of nonsurgical therapies, continued RPS-specific research, and ongoing collaborative efforts among major referral centers, the future appears promising. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Historical Perspectives of Federal Educational Promises and Performance Among the Fort Berthold Indians.

    Stockman, Wallace Henry

    The study concerns Federal Indian Law--its social origins, its historical growth and direction, and its effectiveness among the 3 affiliated tribes (Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara) of the Ft. Berthold American Indian Reservation (population total 2,750, with a birth rate of 40 per 1,000 and a death rate of 9 per 1,000) located in North Dakota. It is…

  4. The Historical Perspective of Formation of Offshore Jurisdictions as the Global System of Tax Evasion

    Synyutka Nataliya G.; Synyutka Oleg M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this publication is improving the knowledge about the genesis of formation of offshore jurisdictions. The article characterizes the historical stages of origination of tax havens on the basis of theoretical generalizations and comparing the results of studies and publications on the specified issues. The article identifies the main groups of tax havens: offshores of the colonies of the former British Empire; the European havens; the group of simulators (such as Panama, Uruguay, Dub...

  5. SRS SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION AND PROCESSING; HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    Cercy, M.; Peeler, D.; Stone, M.

    2013-09-25

    This report provides a historical overview and lessons learned associated with the SRS sludge batch (SB) qualification and processing programs. The report covers the framework of the requirements for waste form acceptance, the DWPF Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), waste feed acceptance, examples of how the program complies with the specifications, an overview of the Startup Program, and a summary of continuous improvements and lessons learned. The report includes a bibliography of previous reports and briefings on the topic.

  6. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources.

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Litscher, Gerhard; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal "renaissance" occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

  7. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world’s populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs.

  8. Historical Perspective of Traditional Indigenous Medical Practices: The Current Renaissance and Conservation of Herbal Resources

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Gao, Si-Hua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Chen, Hou-Qi; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, increasing numbers of people have been choosing herbal medicines or products to improve their health conditions, either alone or in combination with others. Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal “renaissance” occurs all over the world. According to the World Health Organization, 75% of the world's populations are using herbs for basic healthcare needs. Since the dawn of mankind, in fact, the use of herbs/plants has offered an effective medicine for the treatment of illnesses. Moreover, many conventional/pharmaceutical drugs are derived directly from both nature and traditional remedies distributed around the world. Up to now, the practice of herbal medicine entails the use of more than 53,000 species, and a number of these are facing the threat of extinction due to overexploitation. This paper aims to provide a review of the history and status quo of Chinese, Indian, and Arabic herbal medicines in terms of their significant contribution to the health promotion in present-day over-populated and aging societies. Attention will be focused on the depletion of plant resources on earth in meeting the increasing demand for herbs. PMID:24872833

  9. Research Faculty Development: An Historical Perspective and Ideas for a Successful Future

    Brutkiewicz, Randy R.

    2012-01-01

    What does it take to be successful as a tenure-track research faculty member in a School of Medicine? What are the elements necessary to run a successful laboratory? How does one find the resources and help to know what is important for promotion and tenure? Most training in graduate school or in clinical fellowships does not answer these…

  10. China’s Land-Use Changes during the Past 300 Years: A Historical Perspective

    Lijuan Miao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s–1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability.

  11. Historical and future perspectives of global soil carbon response to climate and land-use changes

    Eglin, T.; Ciais, P.; Piao, S. L.; Barre, P.; Bellassen, V.; Cadule, P.; Chenu, C.; Gasser, T.; Koven, C.; Reichstein, M.; Smith, P.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we attempt to analyse the respective influences of land-use and climate changes on the global and regional balances of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Two time periods are analysed: the historical period 1901-2000 and the period 2000-2100. The historical period is analysed using a synthesis of published data as well as new global and regional model simulations, and the future is analysed using models only. Historical land cover changes have resulted globally in SOC release into the atmosphere. This human induced SOC decrease was nearly balanced by the net SOC increase due to higher CO2 and rainfall. Mechanization of agriculture after the 1950s has accelerated SOC losses in croplands, whereas development of carbon-sequestering practices over the past decades may have limited SOC loss from arable soils. In some regions (Europe, China and USA), croplands are currently estimated to be either a small C sink or a small source, but not a large source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In the future, according to terrestrial biosphere and climate models projections, both climate and land cover changes might cause a net SOC loss, particularly in tropical regions. The timing, magnitude, and regional distribution of future SOC changes are all highly uncertain. Reducing this uncertainty requires improving future anthropogenic CO2 emissions and land-use scenarios and better understanding of biogeochemical processes that control SOC turnover, for both managed and un-managed ecosystems.

  12. China’s Land-Use Changes during the Past 300 Years: A Historical Perspective

    Miao, Lijuan; Zhu, Feng; Sun, Zhanli; Moore, John C.; Cui, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s–1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability. PMID:27571087

  13. Language barriers in medical education and attitudes towards Arabization of medicine: student and staff perspectives.

    Sabbour, S M; Dewedar, S A; Kandil, S K

    2012-12-04

    Students and staff perspectives on language barriers in medical education in Egypt and their attitude towards Arabization of the medical curriculum were explored in a questionnaire survey of 400 medical students and 150 staff members. Many students (56.3%) did not consider learning medicine in English an obstacle, and 44.5% of staff considered it an obstacle only in the 1st year of medical school. Many other barriers to learning other than language were mentioned. However, 44.8% of students translated English terms to Arabic to facilitate studying and 70.6% of students in their clinical study years would prefer to learn patient history-taking in Arabic. While Arabization in general was strongly declined, teaching in Arabic language was suggested as appropriate in some specialties.

  14. Evaluating residents in the nuclear medicine residency training program: an educational perspective

    Pascual, T.N.; San Luis, T.O.L.; Leus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The comprehensive evaluation of medical residents in a residency-training program includes the use of educational tools to measure the attainment of competencies in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains as prescribed in the training curriculum. Attention is almost always focused on the testing of cognitive domain of the learners with limited attention given on the psychomotor and affective parameters, which are in fact, together with the cognitive domain, integral to the students' learning behaviour. This paper aims to review the principles of test construction, including the perspectives on the roles, types and purpose of tests in the domains of learning (cognitive, psychomotor and affective) as well as the use of Non-Test materials for measuring affective learning outcomes and the construction of Performance Tests and Portfolio Assessment tools which are all essential for the effective and efficient evaluation of residents in a Nuclear Medicine Training Program. (author)

  15. [Organizational forms of emergency medicine from the perspective of DIVI. Discipline-specific or interdisciplinary?].

    Quintel, M; Kumle, B

    2011-04-01

    Modern processes in the organization in German hospitals are decisive to the development of emergency departments and as these represent the interface between outpatient and inpatient care, they have been identified as a strategic success factor. In larger hospitals emergency departments are generally run as independent units with their own management. The growing number of patients in emergency rooms each year demonstrates the future importance of these structures and successful hospital management has to face and handle this challenge. Clear job profiles for the leadership, staff members and structures of these units are needed. This article highlights the requirements for these structures from the perspective of the German Interdisciplinary Association of Critical Care Medicine (DIVI).

  16. Licensing of Generic Medicines: Are There Any Challenges Left? A Pharmaceutical Regulatory Perspective.

    Borg, John Joseph; Tomasi, Paolo; Pani, Luca; Aislaitner, George; Pirozynski, Michal; Leufkens, Hubert; Melchiorri, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    When an innovative product (innovator) is not covered anymore by intellectual property rights, cheaper equivalent medicinal products (generic products) may be marketed and used in clinical practice. The regulation of generic products is well-established, and is primarily based on standard rules for quality, therapeutic equivalence requirements (the latter in most instances proven through a bioequivalence study), and safety data for the innovator. The extensive experience from bringing generic products to the market over the last decades allows the conclusion that they are well-accepted and provide a useful alternative option for cost-effective pharmacotherapy. While supporting this conclusion, there are a number of issues to be considered during the assessment of a generic product application. Six scenarios are described in total, from an efficacy and a safety perspective, where potential concerns with the current regulatory standards could arise in the approval of generic products. We also propose solutions to these scenarios in order to foster debate on these issues.

  17. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  18. Intrinsic electrical properties of mammalian neurons and CNS function: a historical perspective

    Llinás, Rodolfo R.

    2014-01-01

    This brief review summarizes work done in mammalian neuroscience concerning the intrinsic electrophysiological properties of four neuronal types; Cerebellar Purkinje cells, inferior olivary cells, thalamic cells, and some cortical interneurons. It is a personal perspective addressing an interesting time in neuroscience when the reflex view of brain function, as the paradigm to understand global neuroscience, began to be modified towards one in which sensory input modulates rather than dictate...

  19. Solar System Exploration Augmented by Lunar and Outer Planet Resource Utilization: Historical Perspectives and Future Possibilities

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Establishing a lunar presence and creating an industrial capability on the Moon may lead to important new discoveries for all of human kind. Historical studies of lunar exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) and industrialization all point to the vast resources on the Moon and its links to future human and robotic exploration. In the historical work, a broad range of technological innovations are described and analyzed. These studies depict program planning for future human missions throughout the solar system, lunar launched nuclear rockets, and future human settlements on the Moon, respectively. Updated analyses based on the visions presented are presented. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal propulsion, nuclear surface power, as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Robotic and human outer planet exploration options are described in many detailed and extensive studies. Nuclear propulsion options for fast trips to the outer planets are discussed. To refuel such vehicles, atmospheric mining in the outer solar system has also been investigated as a means of fuel production for high energy propulsion and power. Fusion fuels such as helium 3 (3He) and hydrogen (H2) can be wrested from the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune and either returned to Earth or used in-situ for energy production. Helium 3 and H2 (deuterium, etc.) were the primary gases of interest with hydrogen being the primary propellant for nuclear thermal solid core and gas core rocket-based atmospheric flight. A series of analyses have investigated resource capturing aspects of atmospheric mining in the outer solar system. These analyses included the gas capturing rate, storage options, and different methods of direct use of the captured gases. While capturing 3He, large amounts of hydrogen and 4He are produced. With these two additional

  20. Fish and fisheries in the Lower Rhine 1550-1950: A historical-ecological perspective.

    Lenders, H J Rob

    2017-11-01

    Regulation and intensive use of most of the world's large rivers, has led to dramatic decline and even to extinction of riverine fish populations like salmon and sturgeon in the river Rhine. In general this decline is considered an unwelcome side-effect of the Industrial Revolution and large-scale river regulation (c. 1800), but the deterioration of stocks of some species may have started well before the 19th century. For the river Rhine, data on fish landings as proxies of abundance in the period 1550-1950 can be derived from historical market prices, fisheries taxation and fishery and fish auctions statistics, especially for commercially interesting species like Atlantic salmon, sturgeon, Allis shad and Twaite shad. Most data from which abundance of these species can be derived, however, appear to be missing in historical sources until decline of the investigated species sets in and the species become economically scarce goods. Atlantic salmon in the Rhine catchment appears to be already in decline during Early Modern Times (post 1500 AD) after which time river regulation, pollution and intensified fisheries finished off the remaining stocks in the 20th century. Salmon decline caused a cascade in the River Rhine ecosystem as fisheries shifted to, especially, Allis shad and Twaite shad, followed by (near-)extinction of these species. Dropping yields of salmon fishery did not lead to increased sturgeon fishery, although numbers of sturgeon also dwindled to extinction in the river Rhine. The onset of sturgeon decline appears to coincide with the period of the first large regulation works. It is shown that historical-ecological data on fish abundance can quantitatively underpin detrimental long-term processes in river ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of non-prescription medicines during lactation: A qualitative study of community pharmacists' attitudes and perspectives.

    Sim, Tin Fei; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Sherriff, Jillian; Tee, Lisa B G

    2018-05-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in the provision of non-prescription medicines. There is evidence that women self-medicate and use non-prescription medicines whilst breastfeeding. Studies have demonstrated that breastfeeding women are likely to seek advice from pharmacists, presenting a unique opportunity for pharmacists to provide on-going support of these women especially in relation to the appropriate use of non-prescription medicines. This study aimed to explore community pharmacists' attitudes and perspectives towards the use of non-prescription medicines during breastfeeding. This exploratory study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 30 community pharmacists in Western Australia, between July and September 2013. Transcribed data were analysed using descriptive and qualitative approaches. NVivo ® Version 10.0 was used to organise qualitative data and quotations to facilitate thematic analysis. Four major themes emerged. Despite the positive attitudes and favourable perceived knowledge level, participants often found themselves in a dilemma when required to make clinical recommendations especially in situations where there was a therapeutic need for treatment but clear guidelines or evidence to suggest safety of the medicines or treatment in lactation was absent. Despite the popularity of complementary medicines, participants felt more confident in providing advice in relation to conventional over complementary medicines. Whilst medication safety is within the field of expertise of pharmacists, the absence of information and safety data was seen as a major challenge and barrier to enable pharmacists to confidently provide evidence-based recommendations. This study has enhanced our understanding of the attitudes and perspectives of community pharmacists towards the use of non-prescription, including complementary medicines, during breastfeeding. Future studies are warranted to confirm the safety of commonly used or requested

  2. Italian Chemists’ Contributions to Named Reactions in Organic Synthesis: An Historical Perspective

    Gianluca Papeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the second half of the 19th century up to modern times, the tremendous contribution of Italian chemists to the development of science resulted in the discovery of a number of innovative chemical transformations. These reactions were subsequently christened according to their inventors’ name and so entered into the organic chemistry portfolio of “named organic reactions”. As these discoveries were being conceived, massive social, political and geographical changes in these chemists’ homeland were also occurring. In this review, a brief survey of known (and some lesser known named organic reactions discovered by Italian chemists, along with their historical contextualization, is presented.

  3. Italian chemists' contributions to named reactions in organic synthesis: an historical perspective.

    Papeo, Gianluca; Pulici, Maurizio

    2013-09-04

    From the second half of the 19th century up to modern times, the tremendous contribution of Italian chemists to the development of science resulted in the discovery of a number of innovative chemical transformations. These reactions were subsequently christened according to their inventors' name and so entered into the organic chemistry portfolio of "named organic reactions". As these discoveries were being conceived, massive social, political and geographical changes in these chemists' homeland were also occurring. In this review, a brief survey of known (and some lesser known) named organic reactions discovered by Italian chemists, along with their historical contextualization, is presented.

  4. Women in physics in El Salvador: Historical perspectives and current challenges

    Jiménez, Telma; Jiménez, Diana; Larios, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    Physics as a discipline in El Salvador's higher education system has struggled historically; however, since 1991, it has enjoyed a growth-friendly environment. While there are few female physicists in El Salvador, they are employed in various organizations and educational institutions, demonstrating that physics is a viable career path. El Salvador currently offers a range of opportunities for women in physics. With the support of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we will both meet the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that face female physicists in El Salvador.

  5. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Rosa Alicia Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1 A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2 A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America; and (3 A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses

  6. The Regulation of Market Manipulation in Australia: A Historical Comparative Perspective

    Howard Chitimira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Notably, in Australia, market abuse practices like market manipulation and other market misconduct practices are expressly prohibited under the Corporations Act as amended by the Financial Services Reform Act. In the light of this, and for the purposes of this article, a brief historical analysis of the market manipulation prohibition will be presented first. Secondly, the available penalties and remedies for market manipulation are discussed. Thereafter, possible recommendations and significant Australian anti-market abuse enforcement approaches that may be utilised in South Africa are briefly stated. Lastly, concluding remarks are provided.

  7. Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

    Jiménez, Rosa Alicia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence data and microsatellite loci scores for populations throughout the range of the three Amazilia species, as well as morphological and ecological data. Haplotype network, Bayesian phylogenetic and divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche divergence tests were used to reconstruct the evolutionary history of this Amazilia species complex. An isolation-with-migration coalescent model and Bayesian assignment analysis were assessed to determine historical introgression and current genetic admixture. mtDNA haplotypes were geographically unstructured, with haplotypes from disparate areas interdispersed on a shallow tree and an unresolved haplotype network. Assignment analysis of the nuclear genome (nuDNA) supported three genetic groups with signs of genetic admixture, corresponding to: (1) A. beryllina populations located west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec; (2) A. cyanura populations between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Nicaraguan Depression (Nuclear Central America); and (3) A. saucerottei populations southeast of the Nicaraguan Depression. Gene flow and divergence time estimates, and demographic and palaeodistribution patterns suggest an evolutionary history of introgression mediated by Quaternary climatic fluctuations. High levels of gene flow were indicated by mtDNA and asymmetrical isolation-with-migration, whereas the microsatellite analyses found evidence

  8. Exploration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of Home Medicines Review.

    Swain, Lindy S; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, Home Medicines Review (HMR) has been found to be an important tool to raise awareness of medication safety, reduce adverse events and improve medication adherence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are 'underserviced' by the HMR program and are the most likely of all Australians to miss out on HMRs despite their high burden of chronic disease and high rates of hospitalisation due to medication misadventure. The goal of this study was to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of the Home Medicines Review program and their suggestions for an 'improved' or more readily accessible model of service. Eighteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 102 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients at 11 Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs). Participants who were multiple medication users and understood English were recruited to the study by AHS staff. Seven focus groups were conducted for people who had already used the HMR program (User, n=23) and 11 focus groups were conducted for people who had not had an HMR (Non User, n=79). Focus groups were recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Focus groups continued and concepts were explored until no new findings were being generated and thus saturation of data occurred. Focus group participants who had not had an HMR had little or no awareness of the HMR program. All the participants felt that lack of awareness and promotion of the HMR program were contributing factors to the low uptake of the HMR program by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Most participants felt that an HMR would assist them to better understand their medicines, would empower them to seek information about medicines, would improve relationships with health professionals and would increase the likelihood of medication adherence. Most of the User participants reported that the HMR interview had been very useful for learning more about their

  9. A Global Perspective: Reframing the History of Health, Medicine, and Disease.

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of global history has been one of the more notable features of academic history over the past three decades. Although historians of disease were among the pioneers of one of its earlier incarnations-world history-the recent "global turn" has made relatively little impact on histories of health, disease, and medicine. Most continue to be framed by familiar entities such as the colony or nation-state or are confined to particular medical "traditions." This article aims to show what can be gained from taking a broader perspective. Its purpose is not to replace other ways of seeing or to write a new "grand narrative" but to show how transnational and transimperial approaches are vital to understanding some of the key issues with which historians of health, disease, and medicine are concerned. Moving on from an analysis of earlier periods of integration, the article offers some reflections on our own era of globalization and on the emerging field of global health.

  10. Innovative Thoughts on Treating Diabetes from the Perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Pang, Bing; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; He, Li-Sha; Guo, Jing; Chen, Hong-Dong; Zhao, Lin-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue. As one of the important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is promising in treating DM. In this review, we summarize new thoughts on treating DM that aim to improve the clinical efficacy of TCM from the perspectives of principle, methods, formula, herbs, and doses. Our approach is as follows: principle: we use a combination of symptoms, syndromes, and diseases as a new mode for treating diabetes; methods: emphasizing heat-clearing in the early and middle stage of T2DM and invigorating blood circulation throughout the whole process of T2DM are two innovative methods to treat T2DM; formulas and herbs: choosing formulas and herbs based on the combination of TCM theory and current medicine. We will emphasize four strategies to help doctors choose formulas and herbs, including treatment based on syndrome differentiation, choosing herbs of bitter and sour flavors to counteract sweet flavor, choosing formulas and herbs aimed at main symptoms, and using modern pharmacological achievements in clinical practice; dose: reasonable drug dose plays an important role in the treatment of DM and a close relationship exists between dose and clinical efficacy.

  11. Perspectives of resettled African refugees on accessing medicines and pharmacy services in Queensland, Australia.

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Australia, from the perspectives of resettled African refugees. A generic qualitative approach was used in this study. Resettled African refugees were recruited via a purposive snowball sampling method. The researcher collected data from different African refugee communities, specifically those from Sudanese, Congolese and Somalian communities. Participants were invited by a community health leader to participate in the study; a community health leader is a trained member of the refugee community who acts as a 'health information conduit' between refugees and the health system. Invitations were done either face-to-face, telephonically or by email. The focus groups were digitally recorded in English and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Transcripts were entered into NVIVO© 11 and the data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four focus groups were conducted between October and November 2014 in the city of Brisbane with African refugees, one with five Somali refugees, one with five Congolese refugees, one with three refugee community health leaders from South Sudan, Liberia and Eritrea and one with three refugee community health leaders from Uganda, Burundi and South Sudan. Eleven sub-themes emerged through the coding process, which resulted in four overarching themes: health system differences, navigating the Australian health system, communication barriers and health care-seeking behaviour. With regard to accessing medicines and pharmacy services, this study has shown that there is a gap between resettled refugees' expectations of health services and the reality of the Australian health system. Access barriers identified included language barriers, issues with the Translating and Interpreter Service, a lack of professional communication and cultural beliefs affecting health care-seeking behaviour. This exploratory study has

  12. Comparing World Economic and Net Energy Metrics, Part 3: Macroeconomic Historical and Future Perspectives

    Carey W. King

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available I use energy cost share to characterize the role of energy in the economy. Specifically, I use an estimate of monetary expenditures for primary energy on an annualized basis for forty-four countries from 1978 to 2010 for natural gas, coal, petroleum, and electricity. I show that global energy cost share is significantly correlated to a one-year lag in the change in gross domestic product as well as measures of total factor productivity. Given the historical reduction in the relative cost of energy (including food and fodder for animate power since the start of the Industrial Revolution, combined with a global energy cost share estimate, I conclude that the turn of the 21st Century represents the time period with the cheapest energy in the history of human civilization (to date. This potential historical nadir for energy expenditures around 2000 has important ramifications for strategies to solve future social, economic, and environmental problems such as reducing annual emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Rapidly decreasing annual GHG emissions while internalizing their costs into the economy might feedback to increase energy expenditures to such a degree as to prevent economic growth during that transition.

  13. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP 100 ), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO 2 -eq. tonne −1 to net saving of 670 kg CO 2 -eq. tonne −1 of MSWM

  14. A historical perspective on the economics of the ownership of mineral rights ownership

    Cawood, F.T.; Minnitt, R.C.A. [Technikon SA, Florida (South Africa). Dept. of Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Inauguration of the new political dispensation in South Africa, initiated a dynamic period in the historical development of its minerals policy. The process of substituting the current South African mineral policy framework with an acceptable `post apartheid` system, started soon after the 1994 election of the African National Congress (ANC) government. The Green Paper on a Minerals and Mining Policy for South Africa released for public discussion in February 1998, calls for radical transformation in mineral rights ownership. A shift towards exclusive state ownership of mineral rights, away from the present dual system of private and state ownership, is the most significant proposal. The current holders of mineral rights, or their nominees, who lawfully enjoyed security of tenure under past and present mineral laws are opposed to this transformation because mineral rights were often acquired at considerable cost. The situation is compounded by poor public record-keeping and passive mineral rights administration over a very long period. This paper represents a summary of the historical developments leading to the current legislative environment and forms the basis for any discussion on which future sculpturing of South Africa`s policy regarding mineral rights can take place. One cannot plan for the future without considering the past. 21 refs.

  15. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management

    Habib, Komal, E-mail: koh@kbm.sdu.dk [Institute of Chemical Engineering, Biotechnology and Environmental Technology, University of Southern Denmark, Niels Bohr’s Alle 1, 5230 Odense M (Denmark); Schmidt, Jannick H.; Christensen, Per [Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, DK-9220 Aalborg OE (Denmark)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Five scenarios are compared based on different waste management systems from 1970 to 2010. • Technology development for incineration and vehicular exhaust system throughout the time period is considered. • Compared scenarios show continuous improvement regarding environmental performance of waste management system. • Energy and material recovery from waste account for significant savings of Global Warming Potential (GWP) today. • Technology development for incineration has played key role in lowering the GWP during past five decades. - Abstract: The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP{sub 100}), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} to net saving of 670 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. tonne{sup −1} of MSWM.

  16. A historical perspective of Global Warming Potential from Municipal Solid Waste Management.

    Habib, Komal; Schmidt, Jannick H; Christensen, Per

    2013-09-01

    The Municipal Solid Waste Management (MSWM) sector has developed considerably during the past century, paving the way for maximum resource (materials and energy) recovery and minimising environmental impacts such as global warming associated with it. The current study is assessing the historical development of MSWM in the municipality of Aalborg, Denmark throughout the period of 1970 to 2010, and its implications regarding Global Warming Potential (GWP(100)), using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. Historical data regarding MSW composition, and different treatment technologies such as incineration, recycling and composting has been used in order to perform the analysis. The LCA results show a continuous improvement in environmental performance of MSWM from 1970 to 2010 mainly due to the changes in treatment options, improved efficiency of various treatment technologies and increasing focus on recycling, resulting in a shift from net emission of 618 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) to net saving of 670 kg CO(2)-eq.tonne(-1) of MSWM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream healthcare services: the perspectives of health service managers.

    Singer, Judy; Adams, Jon

    2014-05-22

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women's health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person

  18. Growth and yield models in Spain: Historical overview, Contemporary Examples and perspectives

    Bravo, F.; Alvarez-Gonzalez, J. G.; Rio, M. del; Barrio, M.; Bonet, J. a.; Bravo-Oviedo, A.; Calama, R.; Castedo-Dorado, F.; Crecente-Campo, F.; Condes, S.; Dieguez-Aranda, U.; Gonzalez-Martinez, S. C.; Lizarralde, I.; Nanos, N.; Madrigal, A.; Martinez-Millan, F. J.; Montero, G.; Ordonez, C.; Palahi, M.; Pique, M.; Rodriguez, F.; Rodriguez-Soalleiro, R.; Rojo, A.; Ruiz-Peinado, R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, M.; Trasobares, A.; Vazquez-Pique, J.

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we present a review of forest models developed in Spain in recent years for both timber and non timber production and forest dynamics (regeneration, mortality,..). Models developed are whole stand, size (diameter) class and individual-tree. The models developed to date have been developed using data from permanent plots, experimental sites and the National Forest Inventory. In this paper we show the different sub-models developed so far and the friendly use software. Main perspectives of forest modelling in Spain are presented. (Author) 107 refs.

  19. A historical perspective of the popular use of electric and magnetic therapy.

    Basford, J R

    2001-09-01

    To review the history of the therapeutic use of static electric and magnetic fields and to understand its implications for current popular and medical acceptance of these and other alternative and complementary therapies. Comprehensive MEDLINE (1960-2000) and CINAHL (1982-2000) computer literature searches by using key words such as electricity, magnetism, electromagnetic, therapy, medicine, EMF, history of medicine, and fields. Additional references were obtained from the bibliographies of the selected articles. In addition, discussions were held with curators of medical history museums and supplemental searches were made of Internet sources through various search engines. Primary references were used whenever possible. In a few instances, secondary references, particularly those requiring translations of early texts, were used. The use of electric and magnetic forces to treat disease has intrigued the general public and the scientific community since at least the time of the ancient Greeks. The popularity of these therapies has waxed and waned over the millennia, but at all times the popular imagination, often spurred by dynamic and colorful practitioners of pseudoscience, has been more excited than the medical or political establishment. In fact, a pattern seems to reappear. In each era, unsophisticated public acceptance is met first with medical disdain, then with investigation, and, finally, with a failure to find objective evidence of efficacy. This pattern continues today with the public acceptance of magnetic therapy (and alternative and complementary medicine in general) far outstripping acceptance by the medical community. The therapeutic implications of applying electrical and magnetic fields to heal disease have continually captured the popular imagination. Approaches thousands of years apart can be remarkably similar, but, in each era, proof has been lacking and the prevailing medical establishment has remained unconvinced. Interest persists today

  20. How Medical Statistics has been established at the University of Freiburg: a historical perspective

    Schumacher, Martin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution gives an outline on the reasons why the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Freiburg established an Institute of Medical Statistics and Documentation about fourty years ago as one of the first in Germany. It will be shown that the Professor of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene at that time initiated and promoted this development being himself motivated by the successful implementation of a vaccine against poliomyelitis through rigorous design, conduct and statistical analysis of a large scale field trial.

  1. Fibreoptic gastro-intestinal endoscopy at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana: a historical perspective.

    Nkrumah, Kofi N; Archampong, Emmanuel Q

    2017-12-01

    Fibreoptic (or Flexible) endoscopy has revolutionized and completely transformed practice of gastroenterology, and many other medical specialties, over the past half century or so. At the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra the development of this facility has evolved gradually, especially involving specialists from the Departments of Medicine and Surgery since the 1970s. This article is an attempt to trace and record this journey and to highlight some of the problems and challenges yet to be overcome. It is an anecdotal account based on the authors' recollection with attempts at verification of important dates.

  2. Capital-centric versus knowledge-centric paradigms of human resource management: A historical perspective

    Chris W. Callaghan

    2016-04-01

    Research purpose: This article relates certain changes in HRM over time to the argument that there has been a shift from an industrial paradigm (on which many human resource [HR] systems, practices and theoretical frameworks are still based to a knowledge paradigm (of knowledge work, in which employee knowledge and skills offer compound advantages that are not substitutable which explains a great deal of the variance in changes of the field over time. Motivation for the study: It is argued that in order for the field to move forward, it may needto bring to the surface certain assumptions and differentiate between theoretical frameworkswhen dealing with knowledge work versus non-knowledge work. Research design, approach and method: This article offers a perspective of HR theory development over time. It is a conceptual/perspectives article and is not qualitative nor quantitative in nature. Further research will be able to test the ideas presented here. Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resources managers need to differentiate between knowledge and non-knowledge work. The latter is associated with increased heterogeneity and complexity, and differences in power relationships, as knowledge work shifts power away from capital into the hands of skilled knowledge labour.

  3. An historical perspective of the NERVA nuclear rocket engine technology program. Final Report

    Robbins, W.H.; Finger, H.B.

    1991-07-01

    Nuclear rocket research and development was initiated in the United States in 1955 and is still being pursued to a limited extent. The major technology emphasis occurred in the decade of the 1960s and was primarily associated with the Rover/NERVA Program where the technology for a nuclear rocket engine system for space application was developed and demonstrated. The NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) technology developed twenty years ago provides a comprehensive and viable propulsion technology base that can be applied and will prove to be valuable for application to the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). This paper, which is historical in scope, provides an overview of the conduct of the NERVA Engine Program, its organization and management, development philosophy, the engine configuration, and significant accomplishments

  4. Economists, capitalists, and the making of globalization: North American free trade in comparative-historical perspective.

    Fairbrother, Malcolm

    2014-03-01

    Why did globalization happen? Current explanations point to a variety of conditions under which states have made the free market policy changes driving international economic integration since the 1980s. Such accounts disagree, however, about the key actors involved. This article provides a reconciliation, showing how two different combinations of actors, and two different political economic pathways, have led to globalization in recent decades. In developed countries, mobilization by business has been central; elsewhere, technocrats both constrained and empowered by international finance have pursued globalization more independently of business. In both contexts, economists' technical authority has helped legitimate liberalization, despite the limited diffusion of their ideas. The article validates and elaborates this model using a comparative-historical study of how the United States, Canada, and Mexico proposed, negotiated, and ratified agreements for free trade in North America.

  5. Dharmic projects, imperial reservoirs, and new temples of India: An historical perspective on dams in India

    Morrison Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As international attention continues to focus on large dam projects across Asia, it is worth noting that conflicts over the politics of and environmental changes caused by dams in India are not new. Population dislocation, siltation, disease, floods caused by catastrophic dam failure, raised water tables, high costs and low returns-all of these concerns, and others, can be discussed in the context of reservoir projects ten, one hundred, or even one thousand years old. In this paper, I identify some of the major issues in the political ecology of contemporary dam projects and show how these same issues have played out in southern India over the last thousand years, suggesting that historical attention to the cultural and political context of reservoir construction might help us to understand some aspects of contemporary conflicts.

  6. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current perspectives.

    Hobday, R A; Dancer, S J

    2013-08-01

    Infections caught in buildings are a major global cause of sickness and mortality. Understanding how infections spread is pivotal to public health yet current knowledge of indoor transmission remains poor. To review the roles of natural ventilation and sunlight for controlling infection within healthcare environments. Comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic and library databases to retrieve English language papers combining infection; risk; pathogen; and mention of ventilation; fresh air; and sunlight. Foreign language articles with English translation were included, with no limit imposed on publication date. In the past, hospitals were designed with south-facing glazing, cross-ventilation and high ceilings because fresh air and sunlight were thought to reduce infection risk. Historical and recent studies suggest that natural ventilation offers protection from transmission of airborne pathogens. Particle size, dispersal characteristics and transmission risk require more work to justify infection control practices concerning airborne pathogens. Sunlight boosts resistance to infection, with older studies suggesting potential roles for surface decontamination. Current knowledge of indoor transmission of pathogens is inadequate, partly due to lack of agreed definitions for particle types and mechanisms of spread. There is recent evidence to support historical data on the effects of natural ventilation but virtually none for sunlight. Modern practice of designing healthcare buildings for comfort favours pathogen persistence. As the number of effective antimicrobial agents declines, further work is required to clarify absolute risks from airborne pathogens along with any potential benefits from additional fresh air and sunlight. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-03-26

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several

  8. Mechanical fasteners used in historical Siberian shipbuilding: perspectives for metallurgical analysis

    Goncharov, A. E.; Mednikov, D. M.; Karelin, N. M.; Nasyrov, I. R.

    2017-10-01

    Recent discoveries of shipwrecked vessels in the northern reaches of the river Yenisei led to a number of questions concerning the history of shipbuilding in Siberia and the technical features of the first vessels of the industrial era to navigate the Northern Sea Route and the Yenisei. One of these questions addresses the features of mechanical fasteners used in the construction of the Siberian vessels. The answer to this question may provide information on how the first vessels, constructed in Siberia during the 1870’s, were able to sail the high seas of the Arctic Ocean and reach European ports. In this paper, we provide a description of iron mechanical fasteners obtained from one shipwrecked vessel and discuss on the perspectives of a metallurgical analysis This research has been funded by a grant of the Russian Fund of Humanities Research (Russian Fund of Fundamental Research) and the Krasnoyarsk Regional Science Fund under Grant number 16-11-24010.

  9. Diversity dynamics operating between students lecturers and management in a historically Black university: The lecturers perspective

    Michelle S. May

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe the experiences of nine lecturers in a particular HBU. This was undertaken to analyse and interpret the conscious and unconscious diversity dynamics operating in the relationship between the students, lecturers and management, from the lecturers’ perspective. Motivation for the study: The researcher was interested in the nature of the diversity dynamics operating in the relationship between students, lecturers and management in an HBU, as a platform towards understanding diversity dynamics in educational institutions and South African organisations. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative and descriptive research approaches were used. Hermeneutic phenomenology, using the systems psychodynamic perspective, allowed for the description and interpretation of diversity dynamics operating in the relationship between the students, lecturers and management. The data were obtained through in-depth interviews with nine lecturers. Thematic analysis resulted in two broad themes for which a discussion was provided and a research hypothesis formulated. Main findings: Two broad themes manifested, firstly diversity characteristics and secondly struggle skills entrenching the Black and White divide. Practical/managerial implications: The research highlighted the importance of understanding the diversity dynamics operating in the relationship between students, lecturers and management. This was in order to develop our understanding of diversity dynamics operating in educational institutions specifically, and organisations in general. Contribution/value-add: The understanding about diversity dynamics is available for application, by lecturers and management, to form a different understanding of conscious and unconscious factors impacting on the relationship between the three stakeholders, and subsequently the effectiveness of the three stakeholders in their respective roles. This understanding can also be

  10. The Composition of Cigarette Smoke. An Historical Perspective of Several Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Rodgman A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant advancements in fractionation, analytical, and characterization technologies since the early 1960s, hundreds of components of complex mixtures have been accurately characterized without the necessity of actually isolating the individual component. This has been particularly true in the case of the complex mixtures tobacco and tobacco smoke. Herein, an historical account of a mid-1950 situation concerning polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in cigarette smoke is presented. While the number of PAHs identified in tobacco smoke has escalated from the initial PAH, azulene, identified in 1947 to almost 100 PAHs identified by late 1963 to more than 500 PAHs identified by the late 1970s, the number of PAHs isolated individually and characterized by several of the so-called classical chemical means (melting point, mixture melting point, derivative preparation and properties in the mid-1950s and since is relatively few, 14 in all. They were among 44 PAHs identified in cigarette mainstream smoke and included the following PAHs ranging from bicyclic to pentacyclic: Acenaphthylene, 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene, anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, dibenz[a, h]anthracene, fluoranthene, 9H-fluorene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene. One of them, benzo[a]pyrene, was similarly characterized in another study in 1959 by Hoffmann.

  11. “Grammar-translation” method, a linguistic historic err or of perspective: origins, dynamics and inconsistencies

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Grammar-Translation method is frequently referred to as the traditional ineffective approach par excellence. Such view is often justified by the claim that before the Audiolingual method oral performance in foreign language was not reached, and language classes were reduced to memorizing grammar rules and lists of vocabulary. Nevertheless, this opinion is derived from unproved claims, mainly made by misinformed authors for they offer no compelling empirical evidence to validate their restrictive descriptions where translation is shown as an invalid metacognitive strategy. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that Grammar-Translation is merely an arbitrary historic label, developed by methodologists and theoreticians to encompass the history of language teaching from 1790 through 1950. References to Grammar-Translation are critically reviewed to make evident they are biased inferences based on partial evidence to account for the existence of any such methodology. The assumption that Grammar-Translation did exist, and that it is the negative model of teaching practices that should be better avoided at all costs, might reflect an unconstructive and unfounded ideological interest of mainstream theoreticians and unsuspecting teachers.

  12. Pelvic Fixation in Adult and Pediatric Spine Surgery: Historical Perspective, Indications, and Techniques: AAOS Exhibit Selection.

    Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Strike, Sophia A; Menga, Emmanuel N; Sponseller, Paul D; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-09-16

    Achieving solid osseous fusion across the lumbosacral junction has historically been, and continues to be, a challenge in spine surgery. Robust pelvic fixation plays an integral role in achieving this goal. The goals of this review are to describe the history of and indications for spinopelvic fixation, examine conventional spinopelvic fixation techniques, and review the newer S2-alar-iliac technique and its outcomes in adult and pediatric patients with spinal deformity. Since the introduction of Harrington rods in the 1960s, spinal instrumentation has evolved substantially. Indications for spinopelvic fixation as a means to achieve lumbosacral arthrodesis include a long arthrodesis (five or more vertebral levels) or use of three-column osteotomies in the lower thoracic or lumbar spine, surgical treatment of high-grade spondylolisthesis, and correction of lumbar deformity and pelvic obliquity. A variety of techniques have been described over the years, including Galveston iliac rods, Jackson intrasacral rods, the Kostuik transiliac bar, iliac screws, and S2-alar-iliac screws. Modern iliac screws and S2-alar-iliac screws are associated with relatively low rates of pseudarthrosis. S2-alar-iliac screws have the advantages of less implant prominence and inline placement with proximal spinal anchors. Collectively, these techniques provide powerful methods for obtaining control of the pelvis in facilitating lumbosacral arthrodesis. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  13. The evolution of the Japanese medical education system: a historical perspective.

    Kuwabara, Norimitsu; Yamashita, Miu; Yee, Keolamau; Kurahara, David

    2015-03-01

    The Japanese Medical Education system has been influenced by political events throughout the country's history. From long periods of isolation from the western world to the effect of world wars, Japan's training system for physicians has had to adapt in many ways and will continue to change. The Japanese medical education system was recently compared to the "Galapagos Islands" for its unusual and singular evolution, in a speech by visiting professor Dr. Gordon L. Noel at the University of Tokyo International Research center.1 Japanese medical schools are currently working to increase their students' clinical hours or else these students may not be able to train in the United States for residencies. Knowing the history of the Japanese Medical education system is paramount to understanding the current system in place today. Studying the historical foundation of this system will also provide insight on how the system must change in order to produce better clinicians. This article provides a glimpse into the medical system of another nation that may encourage needed reflection on the state of current healthcare training in the United States.

  14. Death, bereavement and traumatic loss in Israel: a historical and cultural perspective.

    Witztum, E; Malkinson, R; Rubin, S S

    2001-01-01

    In the present article, we focus on the experience of bereavement and traumatic loss in Israel and examine the main influences that continue to shape them. For the Jewish population the main features are: religious aspects stemming from Jewish tradition and its variants; the secular and contemporary traditions, the ethos of the Israeli state, and the influence of the struggle to reestablish the Jewish people in its homeland. In an increasingly multicultural society, significant changes are occurring. A series of vignettes of grief and mourning illustrate current issues and practices among religious, secular, kibbutz, Russian and Ethiopian segments of society. The remainder of the article discusses emerging patterns of response to bereavement that are socially constructed and historically situated. We follow the variations in these patterns, from shifting forms of memorialization on the collective level to changes in expressive mood on the individual level, which are mediated by the cultural mosaic of the society. Mental health professionals would benefit from an understanding of the multifaceted fabric of beliefs and cultural-specific customs that shape the mourning rituals and their meanings for the bereaved.

  15. The Historical Perspective of Formation of Offshore Jurisdictions as the Global System of Tax Evasion

    Synyutka Nataliya G.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is improving the knowledge about the genesis of formation of offshore jurisdictions. The article characterizes the historical stages of origination of tax havens on the basis of theoretical generalizations and comparing the results of studies and publications on the specified issues. The article identifies the main groups of tax havens: offshores of the colonies of the former British Empire; the European havens; the group of simulators (such as Panama, Uruguay, Dubai, new havens in the countries with transition economy and in African countries. A comprehensive list of offshores in terms of actors by the domestic classification has been provided. The authors suggest, as a timely measures, establishing a coordinated international campaign to counter the aggressive tax planning. For the purpose of stabilization of the internal capital markets, as well as success of the fiscal control, the main directions of the anti-offshore policy have been proposed as follows: unification of the taxation rules for residents and non-residents within the offshore countries; global limitation of the bank secrecy along with transparency of information for the taxation purposes, ensuring transparency of ownership and tracing of end the beneficiaries of assets; changing the model convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the data exchange.

  16. Historical Perspectives and Future Needs in the Development of the Soil Series Concept

    Beaudette, Dylan E.; Brevik, Eric C.; Indorante, Samuel J.

    2016-04-01

    The soil series concept is an ever-evolving understanding of soil profile observations, their connection to the landscape, and functional limits on the range in characteristics that affect management. Historically, the soil series has played a pivotal role in the development of soil-landscape theory, modern soil survey methods, and concise delivery of soils information to the end-user-- in other words, soil series is the palette from which soil survey reports are crafted. Over the last 20 years the soil series has received considerable criticism as a means of soil information organization (soil survey development) and delivery (end-user application of soil survey data), with increasing pressure (internal and external) to retire the soil series. We propose that a modern re-examination of soil series information could help address several of the long-standing critiques of soil survey: consistency across survey vintage and political divisions and more robust estimates of soil properties and associated uncertainty. A new library of soil series data would include classic narratives describing morphology and management, quantitative descriptions of soil properties and their ranges, graphical depiction of the relationships between associated soil series, block diagrams illustrating soil-landscape models, maps of series distribution, and a probabilistic representation of a "typical" soil profile. These data would be derived from re-correlation of existing morphologic and characterization data informed by modern statistical methods and regional expertise.

  17. Canadian upstream oil and gas industry profitability: Historical review and future perspectives [with executive summary

    1991-09-01

    The profitability of the Canadian upstream oil and gas industry is examined by analyzing return on equity and return on capital invested. By all measures and interpretations, the upstream industry has been unprofitable since the mid-1980s; returns generated are far below the industry's own historical cost of capital, and are inadequate relative to other sectors of the Canadian economy and to international oil and gas companies. This poor profitability is attributed to such factors as: overly optimistic price forecasts and healthy cash flows generated in the early 1980s, which led to excess capital spending; poor returns on capital reflective of the physical limitations of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin; high capital and operating costs; and a high royalty burden imposed by provincial governments. The consequences of low profitability include inadequate returns to equity investors, a drop in spending on upstream services such as drilling and exploration, a reduced ability of the industry to generate employment, and an adverse effect on the economy of Alberta. Forecasts indicate that the upstream sector is extremely vulnerable to a scenario of relatively flat prices due to high and increasing operating costs and depletion charges, and the significant royalty payments that still are in effect. Little scope is foreseen for industry profitability to return to acceptable levels over the first half of the 1990s. Reduced royalties have the potential to make a significant contribution to improved profitability. 52 figs., 40 tabs

  18. Historical perspective and human consequences of Africanized bee stings in the Americas.

    Ferreira, R S; Almeida, R A M B; Barraviera, S R C S; Barraviera, B

    2012-01-01

    In 1956, Africanized bees began to spread in the American continent from southern Brazil, where original African bees mated with European bees. A few years later, in 1990, these Africanized bees reached the United States and were found in Texas. Currently, these hybrid bees are found in several North American states and will probably reach the Canadian border in the future. Although the presence of Africanized bees had produced positive effects on Brazilian economy, including improvement in crop pollination and in honey production, turning Brazil into a major exporter, the negative impacts-such as swarming, aggressive behavior, and the ability to mass attack-resulted in serious and fatal envenomation with humans and animals. Victims of bee attacks usually develop a severe envenomation syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines [interleukins (IL) IL-1, IL-6, IL-8], and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Subsequently, such cytokines produce an acute inflammatory response that triggers adverse effects on skeletal muscles; bone marrow; hepatic and renal functions; and cardiovascular, central nervous, and immune systems. Finally, the aim of the present review is to study historical characteristics and current status of Africanized bees' spread, the composition of their venom, the impact of the bees on the Brazilian economy and ecology, and clinical aspects of their stings including immune response, and to suggest a protocol for bee sting management since there is no safe and effective antivenom available.

  19. Why New Hybrid Organizations are Formed: Historical Perspectives on Epistemic and Academic Drift.

    Kaiserfeld, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    By comparing three types of hybrid organizations-18th-century scientific academies, 19th-century institutions of higher vocational education, and 20th-century industrial research institutes-it is the purpose here to answer the question of why new hybrid organizations are continuously formed. Traditionally, and often implicitly, it is often assumed that emerging groups of potential knowledge users have their own organizational preferences and demands influencing the setup of new hybrid organizations. By applying the concepts epistemic and academic drift, it will be argued here, however, that internal organizational dynamics are just as important as changing historical conjunctures in the uses of science when understanding why new hybrid organizations are formed. Only seldom have older hybrid organizations sought to make themselves relevant to new categories of knowledge users as the original ones have been marginalized. Instead, they have tended to accede to ideals supported by traditional academic organizations with higher status in terms of knowledge management, primarily universities. Through this process, demand has been generated for the founding of new hybrid organizations rather than the transformation of existing ones. Although this study focuses on Swedish cases, it is argued that since Sweden strove consistently to implement existing international policy trends during the periods in question, the observations may be generalized to apply to other national and transnational contexts.

  20. [Cocaine: historical background, neurobiology of the addiction and relapse and therapeutic perspectives].

    Silva, M I; Citó, M C; Vasconcelos, P F; Vasconcelos, S M; Sousa, F C

    2010-01-01

    Following more than a century of cocaine hydrochloride extraction from Erythroxylon coca, this drug remains representing a serious social and public health problema around the world. This paper intends to provide a review about the cocaine theme, focusing on historical background and on its different neurotransmission systems, as well as addresses therapeutics aspects about drug addiction. Electronic search in databases Medline, Pubmed and Lilacs was accomplished in order to select classics and recent studies relevant to the discussion of issue addressed. Previous studies have shown high vulnerability to relapse to cocaine seeking following prolonged withdrawal periods. Such behavioral consequences have been cre-dited to induced changes in brain neurotransmitters provoked by repeated cocaine use. In recent years, the growing abuse of this drug has mobilized researchers worldwide in seeking for new therapies that reduce the behavioral and neurochemical changes resulting from addiction. Numerous advances regarding the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence have emerged in recent years. However, researche aiming at a safe and effective users' pharmacological treatment remain necessary and should be continued.

  1. Has player development in men's tennis really changed? An historical rankings perspective.

    Bane, Michael Kenneth; Reid, Machar; Morgan, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Tennis federations are regularly faced with decisions regarding which athletes should be supported in financial terms, and for how long. The financial investments can be considerable, given the cost of competing on tour has been estimated at a minimum $121,000 per year and only the top 130 professionally ranked athletes earned enough prize money to cover this cost in 2012. This study investigates key points of progression in tennis players' careers, to determine how these have changed over time and how that evolution may inform talent development. Approximately 400,000 weekly rankings for 273 male professional tennis players between 1985 and 2010 were compiled, and historical trends in the time taken to reach career milestones were investigated by least-squares regression. The time between earning a first professional ranking point and entry into the Top 100 significantly increased over time for all considered athletes. This was at the detriment of time spent within the Top 100 for some athletes. Career peak Top 50-100 athletes have shown an increase in longevity. These results assist tennis federations in assessing the progress of developing athletes and highlight the evolving nature of the competition for top players.

  2. Vectorcardiographic diagnostic & prognostic information derived from the 12-lead electrocardiogram: Historical review and clinical perspective.

    Man, Sumche; Maan, Arie C; Schalij, Martin J; Swenne, Cees A

    2015-01-01

    In the course of time, electrocardiography has assumed several modalities with varying electrode numbers, electrode positions and lead systems. 12-lead electrocardiography and 3-lead vectorcardiography have become particularly popular. These modalities developed in parallel through the mid-twentieth century. In the same time interval, the physical concepts underlying electrocardiography were defined and worked out. In particular, the vector concept (heart vector, lead vector, volume conductor) appeared to be essential to understanding the manifestations of electrical heart activity, both in the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and in the 3-lead vectorcardiogram (VCG). Not universally appreciated in the clinic, the vectorcardiogram, and with it the vector concept, went out of use. A revival of vectorcardiography started in the 90's, when VCGs were mathematically synthesized from standard 12-lead ECGs. This facilitated combined electrocardiography and vectorcardiography without the need for a special recording system. This paper gives an overview of these historical developments, elaborates on the vector concept and seeks to define where VCG analysis/interpretation can add diagnostic/prognostic value to conventional 12-lead ECG analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Alternative explanations of the cosmic microwave background: A historical and an epistemological perspective

    Ćirković, Milan M.; Perović, Slobodan

    2018-05-01

    We historically trace various non-conventional explanations for the origin of the cosmic microwave background and discuss their merit, while analyzing the dynamics of their rejection, as well as the relevant physical and methodological reasons for it. It turns out that there have been many such unorthodox interpretations; not only those developed in the context of theories rejecting the relativistic ("Big Bang") paradigm entirely (e.g., by Alfvén, Hoyle and Narlikar) but also those coming from the camp of original thinkers firmly entrenched in the relativistic milieu (e.g., by Rees, Ellis, Rowan-Robinson, Layzer and Hively). In fact, the orthodox interpretation has only incrementally won out against the alternatives over the course of the three decades of its multi-stage development. While on the whole, none of the alternatives to the hot Big Bang scenario is persuasive today, we discuss the epistemic ramifications of establishing orthodoxy and eliminating alternatives in science, an issue recently discussed by philosophers and historians of science for other areas of physics. Finally, we single out some plausible and possibly fruitful ideas offered by the alternatives.

  4. Social network analysis in the study of nonhuman primates: A historical perspective

    Brent, Lauren J.N.; Lehmann, Julia; Ramos-Fernández, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Advances over the last fifteen years have made social network analysis (SNA) a powerful tool for the study of nonhuman primate social behavior. Although many SNA-based techniques have been only very recently adopted in primatological research, others have been commonly used by primatologists for decades. The roots of SNA also stem from some of the same conceptual frameworks as the majority of nonhuman primate behavioral research. The rapid development of SNA in recent years has led to questions within the primatological community of where and how SNA fits within this field. We aim to address these questions by providing an overview of the historical relationship between SNA and the study of nonhuman primates. We begin with a brief history of the development of SNA, followed by a detailed description of the network-based visualization techniques, analytical methods and conceptual frameworks which have been employed by primatologists since as early as the 1960s. We also introduce some of the latest advances to SNA, thereby demonstrating that this approach contains novel tools for study of nonhuman primate social behavior which may be used to shed light on questions that cannot be addressed fully using more conventional methods. PMID:21433047

  5. A brief historical perspective on the advent of brain oscillations in the biological and psychological disciplines.

    Karakaş, Sirel; Barry, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    We aim to review the historical evolution that has led to the study of the brain (body)-mind relationship based on brain oscillations, to outline and illustrate the principles of neuro-oscillatory dynamics using research findings. The paper addresses the relevant developments in behavioral sciences after Wundt established the science of psychology, and developments in the neurosciences after alpha and gamma oscillations were discovered by Berger and Adrian, respectively. Basic neuroscientific studies have led to a number of principles: (1) spontaneous EEG is composed of a set of oscillatory components, (2) the brain responds with oscillatory activity, (3) poststimulus oscillatory activity is a function of prestimulus activity, (4) the brain response results from a superposition of oscillatory components, (5) there are multiplicities with regard to oscillations and functions, and (6) oscillations are spatially integrated. Findings of clinical studies suggest that oscillatory responses can serve as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the field of psychology is still making limited use of neuro-oscillatory dynamics for a bio-behavioral understanding of cognitive-affective processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lessons from the past: Historical perspectives of mental health in the Eastern Cape

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province is inextricably entwined in South Africa’s colonial history and the racist policy of apartheid. Prior to the development of mental hospitals, mental health services were provided through a network of public and mission hospitals. This paper explores the development of early hospital and mental health services in the Eastern Cape from the time of the Cape Colony to the dissolution of apartheid in 1994, and highlights the influence of colonialism, race and legislation in the development of mental health services in this province. The objective is to provide a background of mental health services in order to identify the historical factors that have had an impact on the current shortcomings in the provision of public sector mental health services in the province. This information will assist in the future planning and development of a new service for the province without the stigma of the past. This research indicates that one lesson from the past should be the equitable distribution of resources for the provision of care for all that inhabit this province, as enshrined in South Africa’s constitution.

  7. Potable water for a city: a historic perspective from Bruges, Belgium

    Vandenbohede, A.; Vandevyvere, E.

    2014-06-01

    Contributing to the optimisation of drinking-water supplies is a key responsibility for professional hydrogeologists. Thus, it is interesting to look back and put current-day practices in the framework of historic evolution and past achievements. The water supply of Bruges (Belgium), with an innovative supply system already established by the end of the 13th century, forms an interesting case study. The supply system consisted of an underground network of pipes feeding public and private wells. A special construction, the Water House, was built to overcome a topographical height difference. Population growth and industrial expansion during the 19th century increased the water demand and new solutions were necessary. Tap water became available from 1925 onwards and, as a stopgap measure to meet demand, deep groundwater was used. This invoked a lively debate among the city council, scientists and entrepreneurs, whereby both water quality and quantity were discussed. Although based on a lack of modern understanding of the groundwater system, some arguments, both pro or contra, look very familiar to current-day hydrogeologists.

  8. Historical and contemporary perspectives on children's diets: is choice always in the patients' best interest?

    Denny, G; Sundvall, P; Thornton, S J; Reinarz, J; Williams, A N

    2010-06-01

    On 29 March 1744, Thomasin Grace, a 13-year-old girl, was the first inpatient admitted to the Northampton General Infirmary (later the Northampton General Hospital). Inpatient hospital diets, then and now, are mainstays of effective patient treatment. In the mid-18th century there were four prescribed diets at Northampton: 'full', 'milk', 'dry' and 'low'. Previous opinions concerning these four diets were unfavourable, but had not been based upon an individual dietetic assessment. Thomasin would most likely have been given the milk diet, but use of the full diet cannot be excluded. 'Grace Everyman' is Thomasin's modern equivalent. Under current NHS guidelines Thomasin would be considered a paediatric patient, but in 1744 she would have been considered as an adult. This study undertakes a full dietetic analysis of all the prescribed diets available for Thomasin in 1744 and compares this against random choices for Grace from the 2009 inpatient menu from the paediatric (Paddington) ward, and the adult ward inpatient menu at the Northampton General Hospital. The results show that, for Thomasin, the 1744 milk and full diets met the current advised nutritional requirements for adequate dietary intake. However, for Grace, the present 2009 Paddington and adult ward menu, although generally meeting nutritional requirements, could, if Grace or her carer consistently chose poorly during a prolonged inpatient stay, lead to inadequate nutrition. This challenges assumptions that hospital diets were historically inadequate, and that choice in present day equates with satisfactory nutritional intake.

  9. What's the Original Concept of Meridian and Acupuncture Point in Oriental Medicine? - A Perspective of Medical History

    YIN Chang- Shik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Meridian and acupuncture point(MAP is a core theory of acupuncture and essential building blocks of oriental medicine. There still continue theoretic or experimental arguments and controversies on the origination or original concept of MAP, without any definite approval or disapproval of a hypothesis. The theory of MAP is an historic product and has never been outside of historic influences. This study discusses the original concept of meridian and acupuncture point theory and its historical evolution, based on the review of classic literatures on meridian including the mawangdui medical texts of Han dynasty. The concept of MAP served as a empirical reference system in clinical settings irrespective of the anatomical entity of MAP.

  10. A Historical Perspective on Local Environmental Movements in Japan: Lessons for the Transdisciplinary Approach on Water Resource Governance

    Oh, T.

    2014-12-01

    Typical studies on natural resources from a social science perspective tend to choose one type of resource—water, for example— and ask what factors contribute to the sustainable use or wasteful exploitation of that resource. However, climate change and economic development, which are causing increased pressure on local resources and presenting communities with increased levels of tradeoffs and potential conflicts, force us to consider the trade-offs between options for using a particular resource. Therefore, the transdisciplinary approach that accurately captures the advantages and disadvantages of various possible resource uses is particularly important in the complex social-ecological systems, where concerns about inequality with respect to resource use and access have become unavoidable. Needless to say, resource management and policy require sound scientific understanding of the complex interconnections between nature and society, however, in contrast to typical international discussions, I discuss Japan not as an "advanced" case where various dilemmas have been successfully addressed by the government through the optimal use of technology, but rather as a nation seeing an emerging trend that is based on a awareness of the connections between local resources and the environment. Furthermore, from a historical viewpoint, the nexus of local resources is not a brand-new idea in the experience of environmental governance in Japan. There exist the local environment movements, which emphasized the interconnection of local resources and succeeded in urging the governmental action and policymaking. For this reason, local movements and local knowledge for the resource governance warrant attention. This study focuses on the historical cases relevant to water resource management including groundwater, and considers the contexts and conditions to holistically address local resource problems, paying particular attention to interactions between science and society. I

  11. Broadening our perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine for menopause: A narrative review.

    Tonob, Dunia; Melby, Melissa K

    2017-05-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used for menopause, although not all women disclose use to their healthcare providers. This narrative review aims to expand providers' understanding of cross-cultural approaches to treating and managing menopause by providing an overarching framework and perspective on CAM treatments. Increased provider understanding and awareness may improve not only provider-patient communication but also effectiveness of treatments. The distinction between illness (what patients suffer) and disease (what physicians treat) highlights the gap between what patients seek and doctors provide, and may help clarify why many women seek CAM at menopause. For example, CAM is often sought by women for whom biomedicine has been unsuccessful or inaccessible. We review the relevance to menopause of three CAM categories: natural products, mind-body practices including meditation, and other complementary health approaches including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Japanese Kampo. Assessing the effectiveness of CAM is challenging because of the individualized nature of illness patterns and associated treatments, which complicate the design of randomized controlled trials. Because many women seek CAM due to inefficacy of biomedical treatments, or cultural or economic marginalization, biomedical practitioners who make an effort to learn about CAM and ask patients about their CAM use or interest may dramatically improve the patient-provider relationship and rapport, as well as harnessing the 'meaning response' (Moerman, 2002) imbued in the clinical encounter. By working with women to integrate their CAM-related health-seeking behaviors and treatments, providers may also boost the efficacy of their own biomedical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Three-year emergency medicine training program in The Netherlands: first evaluation from the residents' perspective.

    Koning, Salomon Willem; Gaakeer, Menno Iskander; Veugelers, Rebekka

    2013-07-26

    The Netherlands' 3-year training in Emergency Medicine (EM) was formally approved and introduced in November 2008. To identify areas for improvement, we conducted the first evaluation of this curriculum from the residents' perspective. A questionnaire was composed on ten aspects of the curriculum. It contained multiple-choice, open and opinion questions; answers to the latter were classified using the Likert scale. The questionnaires were mailed to all enrolled residents. We mailed questionnaires to all 189 enrolled residents, and 105 responded (55.6%). Although they were satisfied with their training overall, 96.2% thought it was currently too short: 18.3% desired extension to 4 years, 76.0% to 5 and 1.9% to 6 years. Nevertheless, residents expected that they would function effectively as emergency physicians (EPs) after finishing their 3-year training program. Bedside teaching was assessed positively by 35.2%. All rotations were assessed positively, with the general practice rotation seen as contributing the least to the program. According to 43.7%, supervising EPs were available for consultation; 40.7% thought that, in a clinical capacity, the EP was sufficiently present during residents' shifts. When EPs were present, 82.5% found them to be easily accessible, and 66.6% viewed them as role models. In the Emergency Medicine Departments (EDs) with a higher number of EPs employed, residents tended to perceive better supervision and were more likely to see their EPs as role models. While residents were stimulated to do research, actual support and assistance needed to be improved. Although overall, the current training program was evaluated positively, the residents identified four areas for improvement: (1) in training hospitals, trained EPs should be present more continuously for clinical supervision; (2) bedside teaching should be improved, (3) scientific research should be facilitated more and (4) the training program should be extended.

  13. Salt and its Role in Health and Disease Prevention from the Perspectives of Iranian Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    Mokhtari, Masoud; Vahid, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    Salt in Iranian medical sources is mentioned as Malh and has a special place in people's nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of correct use of salt on health and disease prevention in the context of Iranian medicine and its comparison with modern medicine. This article reviews Iranian medicine references on the usage of salt and its benefits. Additionally, modern medicine references were searched to identify the dos and don'ts of salt consumption. Then the results from both approaches were compared and analyzed. The main application salt in Iranian medical resources includes usage in latif supplier, solvent, dryer, laxative of phlegm and melancholy, slimy moisture body repellent, opening obstruction of liver and spleen, aid in digestion, beneficial for seeds and corruption of foods, appetizing, cold foods reformer and improving the flavor of foods. On the other hand, the major benefits of salt according to modern medicine resources are; aiding the balance of electrolytes and fluids, carry nutrients into cells, regulation of acid-base balance, support transfer of nerve impulses, regulate blood pressure, and secretion of gastric acid. According to the Iranian medicine, the amount and type of salt to maintain health and prevent diseases is determined based on factors such as temperament, age, health and disease, season, and location. While a unique approach is not prescribed for every individual, in modern medicine resources, a fixed set of guidelines is recommended for all healthy individuals. Consequently, the modern medicine pays less attention to physiological, structural, and genetic issues. Considering the importance of salt and its undeniable impact on human health, it is apparent that additional research is required to determine factors affecting the actual amount of salt per person.

  14. Using historical perspective in designing discovery learning on Integral for undergraduate students

    Abadi; Fiangga, S.

    2018-01-01

    In the course of Integral Calculus, to be able to calculate an integral of a given function is becoming the main idea in the teaching beside the ability in implementing the application of integral. The students tend to be unable to understand the conceptual idea of what is integration actually. One of the promising perspectives that can be used to invite students to discover the idea of integral is the History and Pedagogy Mathematics (HPM). The method of exhaustion and indivisible appear in the discussion on the early history of area measurement. This paper study will discuss the designed learning activities based on the method of exhaustion and indivisible in providing the undergraduate student’s discovery materials for integral using design research. The designed learning activities were conducted into design experiment that consists of three phases, i.e., preliminary, design experimental, and teaching experiment. The teaching experiment phase was conducted in two cycles for refinement purpose. The finding suggests that the implementation of the method of exhaustion and indivisible enable students to reinvent the idea of integral by using the concept of derivative.

  15. A free church perspective on military chaplains role in its historical context

    Neil E. Allison

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The waning influence of Christianity in the United Kingdom’s armed forces since 1960 and the growing ignorance of personnel who have ties to a particular denomination, gave rise to a new assessment of the military chaplain in a modern and postmodern context. This article gives an overview of the practice during the two world wars and after the 1960s. It also gives an overview of the debate on the current role of the military chaplain, especially the beliefs of Herspring, Zahn, Coleman and McCormack, and eventually set up a role model from a Free Church perspective. It is shown that an operating model that is only defined in pastoral terms does not satisfy. The pastoral and spiritual definition, in terms of a liminal serving as an alternative, is suggested because it frees the chaplain to act more independent and also describes the best practice that has always prevailed in the British army.

  16. Supply/Demand in Radiology: A Historical Perspective and Comparison to other Labor Markets.

    Sharafinski, Mark E; Nussbaum, David; Jha, Saurabh

    2016-02-01

    There has been attention on the job market recently and on radiology's supply/demand calculus. Supply is influenced by the number of trained radiologists, while demand is driven by demographics and technological innovation. We analyze the supply of radiologists historically and compare to other labor markets-medical and non-medical, domestic and foreign. We review National Resident Matching Program data in radiology and several other specialties from 1991 to 2015. We also review surveys, physician recruitment data, and peer-reviewed commentaries on medical specialty job markets. Trends are compared across specialties. The regulation of American medical training is compared to that in the United Kingdom and to a nonmedical labor market, unionized theatrical stage employees. Radiology residency positions have increased since 1998 despite a downturn in the job market. This expansion coincides with a decreasing percentage of positions filled by domestic graduates. A similar trend has been seen in pathology, a notoriously oversupplied specialty. Conversely, other specialties have maintained their proportion of domestic graduates by way of limited supply or implicit demand. The radiology job market is currently oversupplied, primarily a result of increasing residency positions despite indicators of decreasing demand. The percentage of residency positions filled by domestic graduates has decreased during the same period, suggesting that medical student interest is responsive to the market. Other specialties, particularly pathology, demonstrate the dangers of chronic oversupply. We advocate a reduction of radiology residency positions such that supply closely approximates demand without exceeding it. Additional measures may be taken, if necessary, to restore market equilibrium in the event of a mild undersupply. Copyright © 2015 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Childhood central nervous system leukemia: historical perspectives, current therapy, and acute neurological sequelae

    Laningham, Fred H. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Kun, Larry E. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States); Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ogg, Robert J. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Division of Translational Imaging Research, Department of Radiological Sciences, Memphis, TN (United States); Morris, E.B. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); Pui, Ching-Hon [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Oncology, Memphis, TN (United States); University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2007-11-15

    During the past three decades, improvements in the treatment of childhood leukemia have resulted in high cure rates, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unfortunately, successful therapy has come with a price, as significant morbidity can result from neurological affects which harm the brain and spinal cord. The expectation and hope is that chemotherapy, as a primary means of CNS therapy, will result in acceptable disease control with less CNS morbidity than has been observed with combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy over the past several decades. In this review we discuss the poignant, historical aspects of CNS leukemia therapy, outline current methods of systemic and CNS leukemia therapy, and present imaging findings we have encountered in childhood leukemia patients with a variety of acute neurological conditions. A major objective of our research is to understand the neuroimaging correlates of acute and chronic effects of cancer and therapy. Specific features related to CNS leukemia and associated short-term toxicities, both disease- and therapy-related, are emphasized in this review with the specific neuroimaging findings. Specific CNS findings are similarly important when treating acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and details of leukemic involvement and toxicities are also presented in this entity. Despite contemporary treatment approaches which favor the use of chemotherapy (including intrathecal therapy) over radiotherapy in the treatment of CNS leukemia, children still occasionally experience morbid neurotoxicity. Standard neuroimaging is sufficient to identify a variety of neurotoxic sequelae in children, and often suggest specific etiologies. Specific neuroimaging findings frequently indicate a need to alter antileukemia therapy. It is important to appreciate that intrathecal and high doses of systemic chemotherapy are not innocuous and are associated with acute, specific, recognizable, and often serious neurological

  18. Skyscape of an Amazonian Diaspora: Arawak Astronomy in Historical Comparative Perspective

    Jara, Fabiola

    The title of this article "Arawak Astronomy" suggests that the research matter concerns the astronomy of an already well-defined ethnographic entity. This however does not do justice to the complexities of Arawak (pre)history. This contribution aims to discuss and connect the available historical and ethnographic data on Arawak astronomies as gathered by the author (Jara 2000), with the most recent research on the archeology and comparative linguistics of the Arawak diaspora. The article argues that Arawak astronomy has to be related to the cultural and sociopolitical continuities and discontinuities of the Arawak diaspora throughout the lowlands of tropical South America. This article recognizes the need to consider Arawak astronomy has an object to be discovered and explained within its local and regional contexts. Notwithstanding these remarks, based on a sustained examination of ethnohistorical and ethnographic sources, this article proposes that Arawak astronomy can be characterized by at least four elements: firstly, a horizon system of observation which combines the observation of the solar solstices and equinoxes with the near heliacal and near cosmic rising or setting of at least seven star groups - the Pleiades, the Hyades, the upper stars of the constellation of Scorpius (including α Sco), Corvus, the Belt of Orion, several stars near Sirius, and the Milky Way. Secondly, the association of the rising and setting of these star groups with the seasonal cycle, mainly with the start and/or of the end of rainy and dry seasons. Thirdly, the widespread association of the stars of the year (most commonly the Pleiades but sometimes Orion or the head of Scorpius) with the beginning of the agricultural cycle and consequently with the end of the heavy rains announcing the time to plant the new fields. The last and fourth commonality are the inscriptions or markings of the origin of the stars in the local landscape, lakes, mountains, and other salient landscape

  19. Childhood central nervous system leukemia: historical perspectives, current therapy, and acute neurological sequelae

    Laningham, Fred H.; Kun, Larry E.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Ogg, Robert J.; Morris, E.B.; Pui, Ching-Hon

    2007-01-01

    During the past three decades, improvements in the treatment of childhood leukemia have resulted in high cure rates, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unfortunately, successful therapy has come with a price, as significant morbidity can result from neurological affects which harm the brain and spinal cord. The expectation and hope is that chemotherapy, as a primary means of CNS therapy, will result in acceptable disease control with less CNS morbidity than has been observed with combinations of chemotherapy and radiotherapy over the past several decades. In this review we discuss the poignant, historical aspects of CNS leukemia therapy, outline current methods of systemic and CNS leukemia therapy, and present imaging findings we have encountered in childhood leukemia patients with a variety of acute neurological conditions. A major objective of our research is to understand the neuroimaging correlates of acute and chronic effects of cancer and therapy. Specific features related to CNS leukemia and associated short-term toxicities, both disease- and therapy-related, are emphasized in this review with the specific neuroimaging findings. Specific CNS findings are similarly important when treating acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), and details of leukemic involvement and toxicities are also presented in this entity. Despite contemporary treatment approaches which favor the use of chemotherapy (including intrathecal therapy) over radiotherapy in the treatment of CNS leukemia, children still occasionally experience morbid neurotoxicity. Standard neuroimaging is sufficient to identify a variety of neurotoxic sequelae in children, and often suggest specific etiologies. Specific neuroimaging findings frequently indicate a need to alter antileukemia therapy. It is important to appreciate that intrathecal and high doses of systemic chemotherapy are not innocuous and are associated with acute, specific, recognizable, and often serious neurological

  20. A historical perspective on soil organic carbon in Mediterranean cropland (Spain, 1900-2008).

    Aguilera, Eduardo; Guzmán, Gloria I; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge; Infante-Amate, Juan; García-Ruiz, Roberto; Carranza-Gallego, Guiomar; Soto, David; González de Molina, Manuel

    2018-04-15

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) management is key for soil fertility and for mitigation and adaptation to climate change, particularly in desertification-prone areas such as Mediterranean croplands. Industrialization and global change processes affect SOC dynamics in multiple, often opposing, ways. Here we present a detailed SOC balance in Spanish cropland from 1900 to 2008, as a model of a Mediterranean, industrialized agriculture. Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and soil C inputs were estimated based on yield and management data. Changes in SOC stocks were modeled using HSOC, a simple model with one inert and two active C pools, which combines RothC model parameters with humification coefficients. Crop yields increased by 227% during the studied period, but total C exported from the agroecosystem only increased by 73%, total NPP by 30%, and soil C inputs by 20%. There was a continued decline in SOC during the 20th century, and cropland SOC levels in 2008 were 17% below their 1933 peak. SOC trends were driven by historical changes in land uses, management practices and climate. Cropland expansion was the main driver of SOC loss until mid-20th century, followed by the decline in soil C inputs during the fast agricultural industrialization starting in the 1950s, which reduced harvest indices and weed biomass production, particularly in woody cropping systems. C inputs started recovering in the 1980s, mainly through increasing crop residue return. The upward trend in SOC mineralization rates was an increasingly important driver of SOC losses, triggered by irrigation expansion, soil cover loss and climate change-driven temperature rise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Territorial Contradictions of the Rise of China: Geopolitics, Nationalism and Hegemony in Comparative-Historical Perspective

    Sahan Savas Karatasli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is debate in the literature regarding whether China can become a new world hegemonic power in the 21st century. Most existing analyses focus on economic aspects of world hegemony-building processes and ignore its macro-political dimensions. This article starts with the premise that reshaping the geopolitical configuration of the inter-state system is an important part of world hegemony-building processes. One of the ways in which previous and current world hegemonic powers established their world hegemonies was through the inclusion of new nations by co-opting, supporting or sometimes selectively leading a section of nationalist movements into independence. Our comparative analysis shows that, as of now, contemporary China has not been following this historical pattern. Compared to Mao-era China, which was perceived as a champion of national liberation—at least when colonial and semi-colonial areas were at stake—today’s People’s Republic of China (PRC is emerging as a champion of the global geo-political status quo. The current Chinese government is not actively pursuing the transformation of the inter-state system or seeking to create instabilities at different levels. This is because, unlike previous and current world hegemonic powers, during its rise to global preeminence, Chinese territorial integrity has been challenged due to rapid escalation of nationalist/secessionist movements within its own state boundaries. Hence, the PRC's foreign policy has consistently been concerned with creating and preserving macro-political stability at national and international levels.

  2. Sulfate Salts in Gasoline and Ethanol Fuels -- Historical Perspective and Analysis of Available Data

    McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alleman, Teresa [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Inc., Sharonville, OH (United States)

    2017-09-21

    This report reviews the chemistry of sulfate salts dissolved in ethanol and gasoline, potential sources of sulfate salts in ethanol and gasoline, the history of consumer vehicle issues with sulfate salt deposits in the early 2000s, and the corresponding changes to the denatured fuel ethanol specification. Recommendations for future research are provided. During a period of rapid market expansion in 2004-05, issues were reported with vehicles running on E10 provided by certain suppliers in some markets. It was commonly believed that these vehicle problems were caused by sulfate salts precipitating from the fuel. Investigators identified sodium sulfate, and in one case also ammonium sulfate, as the predominate salts found in the engines. Several stakeholders believed the issue was excess sulfate ions in the ethanol portion of the E10, and in 2005 the ASTM specification for ethanol (D4806) was modified to include a 4-part per million (ppm) limit on sulfate ions. While there have been no further reports of consumer vehicle issues, the recently approved increase of ethanol in gasoline from 10 to 15 volume percent has resulted in renewed interest in the sulfate ion concentration in fuel ethanol. This report reviews published data on the solubility of sulfate salts in ethanol. The possible sources of sulfate anions and charge balancing cations (such as sodium) in fuel ethanol and petroleum derived blendstocks are discussed. Examination of historical information on the consumer vehicle issues that occurred in 2004-2005 reveals that a source of sodium or ammonium ions, required for the formation of the observed insoluble salts, was never identified. Recommendations for research to better understand sulfate salt solubility issues in ethanol, hydrocarbon blendstocks, and ethanol-gasoline blends are presented.

  3. The classification systems of nursing practice--the historical and practical perspective.

    Górajek-Jóźwik, Jolanta

    2003-01-01

    The contribution into activities connected with the development of the quality of nursing care is closely combined with the process of systematic recording of accumulated data, of undertaken activities and achieved results. This in turn constitutes the essence of the 31st Aim of WHO which speaks not only about the need to continue the rational contribution towards the increase in the nursing care quality but also the application of adequate computer technologies to improve this quality. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the scope and character of the activities that have been over years undertaken by the nursing community towards the development of the classification systems which are comparable with those used in medicine. The focus has been specifically put on the taxonomy of diagnosis used by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) and the European International Classification of Nursing Practice (ICNP). The analysis of the reference sources constitutes the methodological foundation applied in this work. It has allowed to show the pioneering contribution of the American Nursing Association (ANA) into the process of recording and coding of the data that are essential in care delivery as well as their value for the development of ICNP. The latter one is a systematic and multi-axial structure which uses unified terminology and numeric codes for the three categories of variables: the recognized conditions, the undertaken activities and the achieved results.

  4. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective.

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel

    2003-08-01

    Rickets, a disease of vitamin D deficiency, is rarely confronted by the practicing pediatrician in the United States today. At the turn of the 20th century, rickets was rampant among the poor children living in the industrialized and polluted northern cities of the United States. With the discovery of vitamin D and the delineation of the anti-rachitic properties of cod-liver oil by the 1930s, it became possible to not only treat but also eradicate rickets in the United States. Rickets was a common disease in 17th century England. Frances Glisson's treatise on rickets published in 1650, a glorious contribution to English medicine, described the clinical and anatomic features of rickets in great detail. The exact etiology of rickets had been elusive until the 1920s. During the Glissonian era, rickets was a mysterious disease. By the late 19th and early 20th century, faulty diet or faulty environment (poor hygiene, lack of fresh air and sunshine) or lack of exercise was implicated in its etiology. Animal experiments, appreciation of folklore advocating the benefits of cod-liver oil, and the geographical association of rickets to lack of sunshine were all relevant factors in the advancement of knowledge in the conquest of this malady. In this article, the history of rickets pertaining to the discovery of vitamin D, cod-liver oil, and sunlight is reviewed.

  5. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a historical perspective leading up to the end of the 19th century.

    Ekmektzoglou, Konstantinos A; Johnson, Elizabeth O; Syros, Periklis; Chalkias, Athanasios; Kalambalikis, Lazaros; Xanthos, Theodoros

    2012-01-01

    Social laws and religious beliefs throughout history underscore the leaps and bounds that the science of resuscitation has achieved from ancient times until today. The effort to resuscitate victims goes back to ancient history, where death was considered a special form of sleep or an act of God. Biblical accounts of resuscitation attempts are numerous. Resuscitation in the Middle Ages was forbidden, but later during Renaissance, any prohibition against performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was challenged, which finally led to the Enlightenment, where scholars attempted to scientifically solve the problem of sudden death. It was then that the various components of CPR (ventilation, circulation, electricity, and organization of emergency medical services) began to take shape. The 19th century gave way to hallmarks both in the ventilatory support (intubation innovations and the artificial respirator) and the open-and closed chest circulatory support. Meanwhile, novel defibrillation techniques had been employed and ventricular fibrillation described. The groundbreaking discoveries of the 20th century finally led to the scientific framework of CPR. In 1960, mouth-to-mouth resuscitation was eventually combined with chest compression and defibrillation to become CPR as we now know it. This review presents the scientific milestones behind one of medicine's most widely used fields.

  6. Twenty years of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER: Historical and personal perspectives.

    Barton, Matthias; Filardo, Edward J; Lolait, Stephen J; Thomas, Peter; Maggiolini, Marcello; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2018-02-01

    Estrogens play a critical role in many aspects of physiology, particularly female reproductive function, but also in pathophysiology, and are associated with protection from numerous diseases in premenopausal women. Steroids and the effects of estrogen have been known for ∼90 years, with the first evidence for a receptor for estrogen presented ∼50 years ago. The original ancestral steroid receptor, extending back into evolution more than 500 million years, was likely an estrogen receptor, whereas G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) trace their origins back into history more than one billion years. The classical estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) are ligand-activated transcription factors that confer estrogen sensitivity upon many genes. It was soon apparent that these, or novel receptors may also be responsible for the "rapid"/"non-genomic" membrane-associated effects of estrogen. The identification of an orphan GPCR (GPR30, published in 1996) opened a new field of research with the description in 2000 that GPR30 expression is required for rapid estrogen signaling. In 2005-2006, the field was greatly stimulated by two studies that described the binding of estrogen to GPR30-expressing cell membranes, followed by the identification of a GPR30-selective agonist (that lacked binding and activity towards ERα and ERβ). Renamed GPER (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor) by IUPHAR in 2007, the total number of articles in PubMed related to this receptor recently surpassed 1000. In this article, the authors present personal perspectives on how they became involved in the discovery and/or advancement of GPER research. These areas include non-genomic effects on vascular tone, receptor cloning, molecular and cellular biology, signal transduction mechanisms and pharmacology of GPER, highlighting the roles of GPER and GPER-selective compounds in diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and cancer and the obligatory role of GPER in propagating cardiovascular aging, arterial

  7. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics

    Yung-Yi Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing number of cancer patients seeking an improved quality of life, complementary and alternative therapies are becoming more common ways to achieve such improvements. The potential risks of concurrent administration are serious and must be addressed. However, comprehensive evidence for the risks and benefits of combining anticancer drugs with traditional herbs is rare. Pharmacokinetic investigations are an efficient way to understand the influence of concomitant remedies. Therefore, this study aimed to collect the results of pharmacokinetic studies relating to the concurrent use of cancer chemotherapy and complementary and alternative therapies. According to the National Health Insurance (NHI database in Taiwan and several publications, the three most commonly prescribed formulations for cancer patients are Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. The three most commonly prescribed single herbs for cancer patients are Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, and Astragalus membranaceus. Few studies have discussed herb–drug interactions involving these herbs from a pharmacokinetics perspective. Here, we reviewed Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Curcuma longa and milk thistle to provide information based on pharmacokinetic evidence for healthcare professionals to use in educating patients about the risks of the concomitant use of various remedies. Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine, Chemotherapy drug, Pharmacokinetics, Herb–drug interaction

  8. Causes and consequences of coagulation activation in sepsis: an evolutionary medicine perspective.

    Fiusa, Maiara Marx Luz; Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M; De Paula, Erich V

    2015-05-06

    Coagulation and innate immunity have been linked together for at least 450 million years of evolution. Sepsis, one of the world's leading causes of death, is probably the condition in which this evolutionary link is more evident. However, the biological and the clinical relevance of this association have only recently gained the attention of the scientific community. During sepsis, the host response to a pathogen is invariably associated with coagulation activation. For several years, coagulation activation has been solely regarded as a mechanism of tissue damage, a concept that led to several clinical trials of anticoagulant agents for sepsis. More recently, this paradigm has been challenged by the failure of these clinical trials, and by a growing bulk of evidence supporting the concept that coagulation activation is beneficial for pathogen clearance. In this article we discuss recent basic and clinical data that point to a more balanced view of the detrimental and beneficial consequences of coagulation activation in sepsis. Reappraisal of the association between coagulation and immune activation from an evolutionary medicine perspective offers a unique opportunity to gain new insights about the pathogenesis of sepsis, paving the way to more successful approaches in both basic and clinical research in this field.

  9. Learning from Multiple Classifier Systems: Perspectives for Improving Decision Making of QSAR Models in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Pham-The, Hai; Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Nga, Doan-Viet; Hai, Dang Thanh; Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Marrero-Poncee, Yovani; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casanola-Martin, Gerardo M; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong

    2018-02-09

    Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models. One of these directions is the use of Multiple Classifier Systems (MCSs) that potentially provide a means to exploit the advantages of manifold learning through decomposition frameworks, while improving generalization and predictive performance. In this paper, we presented MCS as a next generation of QSAR modeling techniques and discuss the chance to mining the vast number of models already published in the literature. We systematically revisited the theoretical frameworks of MCS as well as current advances in MCS application for QSAR practice. Furthermore, we illustrated our idea by describing ensemble approaches on modeling histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors. We expect that our analysis would contribute to a better understanding about MCS application and its future perspectives for improving the decision making of QSAR models. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Herbal medicine, radical scavenger and metal detoxification: bioinorganic, complexity and nano science perspectives

    Sumitro, Sutiman B.; Alit, Sukmaningsih

    2018-03-01

    Developing Complexity Science and Nano Biological perspective giving the ideas of interfacing between modern physical and biological sciences for more comprehensive understanding of life. The study of bioinorganic is a trans-disciplinary, and will initiate the way to more comprehensive and better understanding life. We can talk about energy generation, motive forces and energy transfer at the level of macromolecules. We can then develop understanding biological behavior on nano size biological materials and its higher order using modern physics as well as thermodynamic law. This is a necessity to ovoid partial understanding of life that are not match with holism. In animal tissues, the accumulation or overwhelmed production of free radicals can damage cells and are believed to accelerate the progression of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related diseases. Thus a guarded balance of radical species is imperative. Edward Kosower [1] proposed an idea of biradical in an aromatic organic compounds. Each of which having unpaired electrons. The magnetic force of this compound used for making agregation based on their magnetic characters. Bioinorganic low molecular weight complex compounds composing herbal medicine can bind toxic metals. This low molecular weight complex molecules then easily excerted the metals from the body, removing them from their either intracellular or extracellular existences. This bioinorganic chelation potential is now inspiring a new therapeutic strategies.

  11. Effectiveness of a Formal Mentorship Program in Family Medicine Residency: The Residents’ Perspective

    Marie Andrades

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mentoring is a recognized form of teaching learning strategy in postgraduate medical education. This paper describes the effectiveness of a formal mentorship program from the residents’ perspective after a year of implementation. Methods. The Aga Khan University Family Medicine Residency Program is the first program in Pakistan to our knowledge to implement formal mentorship for all four years of residency. A mentorship program was developed, implemented, and evaluated a year later using a rating scale. The 10-point Likert scale consisted of questions on academics, clinical work, research, administrative issues, and personal/social issues. Results. The response rate was 95% (. Eighty percent ( were women. Satisfaction level in seeking help was the highest for academics (75%. Residents scored mentorship as low in helping to tackle their personal problems (20%. Barriers reported in rapport building with mentor were time constraints and gender difference. The most useful attributes of the mentor which helped rapport building were accessibility, active listening, support for emotional needs, and trustworthiness. Conclusion. Mentoring has a role in trainees’ personal and professional growth especially when their needs are addressed. The effectiveness of the mentorship program in residency can improve if the residents are allowed to choose their own mentors.

  12. Perspectives from the Patient and the Healthcare Professional in Multiple Sclerosis: Social Media and Participatory Medicine.

    Kantor, Daniel; Bright, Jeremy R; Burtchell, Jeri

    2018-06-01

    When faced with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), patients often turn to the Internet and social media to find support groups, read about the experiences of other people affected by MS and seek their advice, and research their condition and treatment options to discuss with their healthcare professionals (HCPs). Here, we examine the use of social media and the Internet among patients with MS, considering its impact on patient empowerment and patient participation in treatment decision-making and MS research. These themes are exemplified with first-hand experiences of the patient author. We also explore the impact of the Internet and social media on the management of patients from the perspective of HCPs, including new opportunities for HCPs to engage in participatory medicine and to improve communication with and among patients. We consider both the benefits afforded to and the potential pitfalls faced by HCPs when interacting with their patients via these routes, and discuss potential concerns around privacy and confidentiality in the use of the Internet and social media in the clinical context. Communication online is driving the evolution of the patient-HCP relationship, and is empowering patients to participate more actively in the decision-making process relating to the provision of their health care. Funding Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

  13. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities

    Stubbles, John

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in

  14. Energy use in the U.S. steel industry: a historical perspective and future opportunities; TOPICAL

    Stubbles, John

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. steel industry has taken enormous strides over the past decades to reduce its energy consumption; since the end of World War II, the industry has reduced its energy intensity (energy use per shipped ton) by 60 percent. Between 1990 and 1998 alone, intensity has dropped from 20 to 18 million Btu (MBtu) per ton. This figure is projected to decrease to 15 MBtu/ton by 2010 with an asymptotic trend towards 14 MBtu/ton. Domestic shipments are projected to flatten out over the next decade to around 105 million tons which means that total energy consumption will also decrease. Historically, the steel industry has accounted for about 6 percent of U.S. energy consumption. Today, that figure is less than 2 percent and will decrease further to 1.5 percent by 2010. The primary causes for the decrease in energy consumption since WWII are: The use of pellets in the blast furnace and the application of new technology in the ironmaking process to further reduce fuel rates per net ton of hot metal (NTHM); The total replacement of the open hearth process by basic oxygen and electric furnaces; The almost total replacement of ingot casting by continuous casting (which improved yield dramatically and thus reduced the tons of raw steel required per ton of shipments); and The growth of the electric furnace sector of the industry at the expense of hot metal-based processes (which has also stimulated scrap recycling so that about 55 percent of ''new'' steel is now melted from scrap steel). This report focuses on the concept of good practices (i.e., those that are sustainable and can use today's technology). If all the industry could operate on this basis, the additional savings per ton could total 2 MBtu, As further restructuring occurs and the swing from hot metal-based to electric furnace-based production continues, the average consumption will approach the good practice energy per ton. Further savings will accrue through new technology, particularly in the areas of reduced blast

  15. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    Janssen, Fanny; van Poppel, Frans

    2015-01-01

    We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality. We decomposed the sex difference in life expectancy at birth into smoking-related and nonsmoking-related overall and cause-specific mortality. The smoking epidemic in Netherlands, which started among men born around 1850 and among women from birth cohort 1900 onwards, contributed substantially to the increasing sex difference in life expectancy at birth from 1931 (1.3 years) to 1982 (6.7 years), the subsequent decline to 3.7 years in 2012, and the high excess mortality among Dutch men born between 1895 and 1910. Smoking-related cancer mortality contributed most to the increase in the sex difference, whereas smoking-related cardiovascular disease mortality was mainly responsible for the decline from 1983 onwards. Examining nonsmoking-related (cause-specific) mortality shed new light on the mortality gender gap and revealed the important role of smoking-related cancers, the continuation of excess mortality among women aged 40–50, and a smaller role of biological factors in the sex difference than was previously estimated. PMID:26273613

  16. The Adoption of Smoking and Its Effect on the Mortality Gender Gap in Netherlands: A Historical Perspective

    Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine in depth the effect of differences in the smoking adoption patterns of men and women on the mortality gender gap in Netherlands, employing a historical perspective. Using an indirect estimation technique based on observed lung cancer mortality from 1931 to 2012, we estimated lifetime smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality. We decomposed the sex difference in life expectancy at birth into smoking-related and nonsmoking-related overall and cause-specific mortality. The smoking epidemic in Netherlands, which started among men born around 1850 and among women from birth cohort 1900 onwards, contributed substantially to the increasing sex difference in life expectancy at birth from 1931 (1.3 years to 1982 (6.7 years, the subsequent decline to 3.7 years in 2012, and the high excess mortality among Dutch men born between 1895 and 1910. Smoking-related cancer mortality contributed most to the increase in the sex difference, whereas smoking-related cardiovascular disease mortality was mainly responsible for the decline from 1983 onwards. Examining nonsmoking-related (cause-specific mortality shed new light on the mortality gender gap and revealed the important role of smoking-related cancers, the continuation of excess mortality among women aged 40–50, and a smaller role of biological factors in the sex difference than was previously estimated.

  17. Role of PET/CT for precision medicine in lung cancer: perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Greenspan, Bennett S

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management. PET/CT is essential in determining staging and re-staging of disease, detecting recurrent or residual disease, evaluating response to therapy, and providing prognostic information. PET/CT is also critically important in radiation therapy planning by determining the extent of active disease, including an assessment of functional tumor volume. The current approach in tumor imaging is a significant advance over conventional imaging. However, recent advances suggest that therapeutic response criteria in the near future will be based on metabolic characteristics and will include the evaluation of biologic characteristics of tumors to further enhance the effectiveness of precision medicine in lung cancer, producing improved patient outcomes with less morbidity.

  18. Teaching methods in Hawler College of Medicine in Iraq: A qualitative assessment from teachers' perspectives

    Saleh Abubakir M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Iraq is poorly assessed and there is a general lack of documented knowledge about the challenges facing this field and the needs for its development. This study aimed to assess the existing teaching methods in the Hawler College of Medicine, Iraq from teaching staff perspectives and assess the knowledge of the teaching staff about student-centred learning. Methods A qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of a purposive sample of 83 teaching staff in Hawler Medical University was conducted. The questionnaire addressed the participants’ view on the positive aspects and problems of the current teaching methods and priorities to change it. The qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis. Results The study revealed significant problems facing the existing teaching methods including having large number of students in the lecture hall (45.0 %, having focus on teacher-centred teaching (45.0 % and lack of infrastructures and facilities suitable for proper teaching (26.7 %. The priorities for improving the quality of teaching methods included adoption of small group teaching strategy in all study years (34.6 %, improving the infrastructure and facilities for teaching in the college (34.6 % and provision of continuous academic development programs for the teaching staff (24.3 %. Conclusions The existing medical education system face significant problems and it needs important and comprehensive improvements in different areas. There is a need for further research in this field to explore the identified problems in a more in-depth manner in order to better understand of the problems and needs of this important area of education.

  19. Teaching methods in Hawler College of Medicine in Iraq: a qualitative assessment from teachers' perspectives.

    Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2012-07-27

    Medical education in Iraq is poorly assessed and there is a general lack of documented knowledge about the challenges facing this field and the needs for its development. This study aimed to assess the existing teaching methods in the Hawler College of Medicine, Iraq from teaching staff perspectives and assess the knowledge of the teaching staff about student-centred learning. A qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of a purposive sample of 83 teaching staff in Hawler Medical University was conducted. The questionnaire addressed the participants' view on the positive aspects and problems of the current teaching methods and priorities to change it. The qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis. The study revealed significant problems facing the existing teaching methods including having large number of students in the lecture hall (45.0 %), having focus on teacher-centred teaching (45.0 %) and lack of infrastructures and facilities suitable for proper teaching (26.7 %). The priorities for improving the quality of teaching methods included adoption of small group teaching strategy in all study years (34.6 %), improving the infrastructure and facilities for teaching in the college (34.6 %) and provision of continuous academic development programs for the teaching staff (24.3 %). The existing medical education system face significant problems and it needs important and comprehensive improvements in different areas. There is a need for further research in this field to explore the identified problems in a more in-depth manner in order to better understand of the problems and needs of this important area of education.

  20. Communication between physicians and cancer patients about complementary and alternative medicine: exploring patients' perspectives.

    Tasaki, Katsuya; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Shumay, Dianne M; Tatsumura, Yvonne; Kakai, Hisako

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify barriers to communication between physicians and cancer patients regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by exploring the perspectives of patients. In face of the recent popularity of CAM use among cancer patients, the lack of communication is a serious problem. A number of CAM therapies may interfere with conventional treatments and thus impact patients' well-being and chances of survival. In addition, lack of communication is problematic in the health care context because the development of openness and trust between health care providers and clients is contingent upon effective interpersonal communication. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 143 cancer patients to explore their experiences with CAM use. Using a qualitative research method, we examined interview data from 93 CAM users who provided sufficient information about communication issues. As a result, three themes emerged describing barriers to unsuccessful communication as perceived from the patient's point of view: physicians' indifference or opposition toward CAM use, physicians' emphasis on scientific evidence, and patients' anticipation of a negative response from their physician. Increasing education about CAM and regular assessment of CAM use may help physicians to be more aware of their patients' CAM use. As a result, physicians may provide patients with information on risks and benefits of CAM use and refer patients to other services that may address unmet needs. Given a difference in epistemiologic beliefs about cancer and its treatment, the challenge is to find a common ground for an open discussion in which physicians consider that scientific evidence is not all that counts in the life of an individual facing a serious disease. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Perspectives of Oncology Nurses on Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Gok Metin, Zehra; Izgu, Nur; Karadas, Canan; Arikan Donmez, Ayse

    In Turkey, between 22.1% and 84.1% of patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, few CAM-related studies have focused on the perspective of oncology nurses. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish oncology nurses regarding CAM. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 127 participants was conducted in Ankara, Turkey. A semistructured questionnaire including characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of oncology nurses toward CAM was administered to participants. We found that more than half of nurses (54.0%) surveyed had no information on CAM modalities. Most oncology nurses (81.1%) used audiovisual media sources to obtain CAM information. Many nurses (81.3%) reported not using any CAM in cancer care, and only 26.8% recommended CAM to patients. Most nurses used CAM to accelerate wound healing (19.7%) and to manage symptoms, including constipation and diarrhea (8.8%) and anxiety (7.9%). Music (52.8%), massage (49.6%), and exercise (48.8%) were stated to be beneficial. Important barriers to use CAM for patients with cancer involved a lack of knowledge (60.6%); needing physician approval to apply any CAM methods to patients (52.1%); legal and institutional issues (47.2%); and limited educational, training, or certificate programs (44.1%). There is a need for increased knowledge about CAM by oncology nurses, considering their vital role in symptom management of patients with cancer. This can be achieved through solving legal and institutional problems, structured and comprehensive education/training programs, and the integration of CAM therapy into cancer care guidelines.

  2. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Okafor Henrietta U

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended.

  3. Electronic Health Record Phenotypes for Precision Medicine: Perspectives and Caveats From Treatment of Breast Cancer at a Single Institution

    Liu, Hongfang; Maxwell, Kara N.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Precision medicine is at the forefront of biomedical research. Cancer registries provide rich perspectives and electronic health records (EHRs) are commonly utilized to gather additional clinical data elements needed for translational research. However, manual annotation is resource‐intense and not readily scalable. Informatics‐based phenotyping presents an ideal solution, but perspectives obtained can be impacted by both data source and algorithm selection. We derived breast cancer (BC) receptor status phenotypes from structured and unstructured EHR data using rule‐based algorithms, including natural language processing (NLP). Overall, the use of NLP increased BC receptor status coverage by 39.2% from 69.1% with structured medication information alone. Using all available EHR data, estrogen receptor‐positive BC cases were ascertained with high precision (P = 0.976) and recall (R = 0.987) compared with gold standard chart‐reviewed patients. However, status negation (R = 0.591) decreased 40.2% when relying on structured medications alone. Using multiple EHR data types (and thorough understanding of the perspectives offered) are necessary to derive robust EHR‐based precision medicine phenotypes. PMID:29084368

  4. A Historical Comparative Perspective

    MJM Venter

    with the free and fair operation of the financial markets by creating an artificial, false or misleading appearance with respect ... to as the Financial Markets Act. See Benade et al Entrepreneurial Law 130; Van Deventer 2008 ...... Financial Institutions (Protection of Funds) Act 28 of 2001 as amended, hereinafter referred to as.

  5. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  6. Historical perspective of peptidomics

    Michael Schrader

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peptides have been studied for over 100 years, but for most of this time the focus was on a specific peptide or peptides, and not on the general peptidome of a biological sample. In the 1990s, mass spectrometry techniques were developed for the analysis of proteins, usually after digestion into peptides. The field of peptidomics started soon after proteomics and has grown to over 600 publications that use the word “peptidomic” or “peptidomics”. Although peptidomics is related to proteomics, there are fundamental differences. In this review, we discuss these differences along with the history of the field of peptidomics.

  7. Moral hazard and prescription medicine use in Australia--the patient perspective.

    Doran, Evan; Robertson, Jane; Henry, David

    2005-04-01

    All Australian citizens are provided affordable access to prescription medicines through the nation's system of universal pharmaceutical subsidies--the pharmaceutical benefits scheme. The rapid increase in pharmaceutical related expenditure has generated the concern that Australians are taking advantage of prescription subsidies and are using more medicines than are necessary, thereby creating a 'moral hazard'. This concern is predicated on a number of assumptions about patient behaviour rather than on empirical observation. These assumptions amount to a view that patients are consumers who treat prescription medicines as common goods subject to informed and rational calculation of the cost and benefits of their use. This paper reports the findings of an in-depth interview study undertaken to explore how prescription cost influences Australians' medicine use. Qualitative data were analysed to compare medicine users' descriptions of the role of prescription cost in medicine use against the assumptions that underlie the belief in moral hazard. Moral hazard did not appear to be significantly operating in the accounts of medicine use collected for this study. Interviewees' accounts of medicine use revealed an act characterised by ambivalence, a mix of desire and antipathy, faith and suspicion. Medicines appeared in interviewees' accounts as both pharmacologically and symbolically potent substances, which despite their familiarity as objects, are often mysterious to non-expert patients. Cost appeared as a secondary factor in patients' decision to access a prescription medicine. Using a prescription was predicated on the medicine being necessary, with necessity typically established by an expert doctor prescribing the medicine. Prescription medicines did not appear as 'common goods' where subsidised access motivates a 'consumer' to demand more or make the prospect of prescription use more attractive or necessary.

  8. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review.

    Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah; Reeve, Joanne; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients' experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients' experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients' experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID ® , and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine-related quality of life. None of the identified questionnaires covered all domains. Instruments varied in the extent of patient involvement in both their development and validation. There is a scarcity of psychometrically sound, comprehensive, and generic measures of experiences

  9. Family Medicine in Egypt From Medical Students' Perspective: A Nationwide Survey.

    AlKot, Mohammad Mahmoud; Gouda, Mohamed Alaa; KhalafAllah, Mahmoud Tawfik; Zahran, Mohamed Salah; Kallaf, Mostafa Mohamed; Zayed, Ahmed Medhat

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Attitudes of medical students toward family medicine as a specialty choice can provide information on the future supply of family physicians. Due to the current worldwide shortage of family physicians, these attitudes, with their subsequent effects on the state and dynamics of the healthcare system, are important to investigate. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 600 medical students, selected by a systematic random sampling technique, in 7 Egyptian medical schools. Participants were surveyed to assess their perception of the family medicine specialty as a future career and explore the impact of different factors, including undergraduate family medicine clerkships, on their attitudes toward family medicine. We had a response rate of 75.2% (n = 451). Although 90.7% of students believed in the vital role that family medicine can play in Egypt's healthcare system, only 4.7% showed an intention to choose it as a future career. Students choosing family medicine as a first-career choice were more likely to have a prior contact with family physicians as consumers. Exposure to an undergraduate family medicine curriculum was associated with increased knowledge about family medicine but not the intentions to pursue it as a career. INSIGHTS: Medical students in Egypt have a positive perception of family medicine as an important specialty but low interest in its choice as a future career.

  10. The history of nuclear decommissioning: an historical perspective from the view point of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Laraia, M.

    2008-01-01

    facilities will reach the end of their operational, lifetime and become candidates for decommissioning. Taking account of work done to date on nuclear facility decommissioning, it is timely to provide an up to date basis for ongoing and foreseen activities in this field. An evaluation of the state of the art, latest trends and current issues is desirable. The approach taken in this paper is to review, from a historical perspective, decommissioning issues either solved in recent years or under way, to assess progress, as well as remaining and new issues. (author)

  11. A comprehensive review of recent studies on pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicines (2014-2017) and perspectives.

    Shi, Peiying; Lin, Xinhua; Yao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have a long history for safely treating human diseases. Unlike western medicine, TCMs usually contain multiple components synergistically and holistically acting on the diseases. It remains a big challenge to represent rationally the in vivo process of multiple components of TCMs for understanding the relationship between administration and therapeutic effects. For years, efforts were always made to face the challenge, and the achievements were obvious. Here, we give an comprehensive overview of the recent investigation progress (from 2015 to 2017, except the part of 'integrated pharmacokinetics of TCMs' from 2014 to 2017 and the part of 'reverse pharmacokinetics in drug discovery from natural medicines' in 2014) on pharmacokinetics of TCMs, mainly referring to the following six aspects: (1) classical pharmacokinetic studies on TCMs; (2) absorbed components and metabolites identification of TCMs; (3) pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions and herb-herb interactions with TCMs; (4) integrated pharmacokinetics of TCMs; (5) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic combination studies to dissect the action mechanisms of TCMs; and (6) reverse pharmacokinetics in drug discovery from natural medicines. Finally, based on the insights from the recent progress and our latest efforts, we propose new perspectives on the integrated pharmacokinetics of TCMs.

  12. Similia Similibus Curentur: notação histórica da medicina homeopática Similia Similibus Curentur: historical backgrounds of homeopathic medicine

    A.D. Corrêa

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available A história da medicina homeopática foi discutida neste artigo, abordando-se as concepções de Hipócrates, Galeno, Paracelso e Hahnemann. Pretendemos dar uma idéia da evolução da ciência médica de um modo geral, incluindo, neste contexto, o surgimento gradativo das idéias que levaram Hahnemann a criar a homeopatia.The history of homeopathic medicine was focused on the present work since the first ideas historically described by Hypocrates, Galeno, Paracelsus and Hahnemann. We intended to give an idea of the evolution of medical sciences in general, including the gradual arise of ideas which led Hahnemann to create homeopathy.

  13. Cross-country variation in medicines use; a pharmaceutical system perspective

    Hoebert, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Access to effective and affordable medicines (medical care) is considered an equitable right for all (European) citizens. Ensuring access to medical care is a challenge for governments and health care systems across the world. Choices need to be made about which medicine can be used and in what

  14. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Manca, Andrea; Keizer, Julia; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM) or precision medicine has been defined as an innovative approach that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles in prevention and treatment of disease. In PM, genomic information may contribute to the molecular understanding

  15. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  16. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics.

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ma, Dik-Lung; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is "experience driven," the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like "looking for a needle in a haystack," is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  17. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  18. Quantification of scientific output in cardiovascular medicine: A perspective based on global data

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); A. Rodriguez (Alfredo Chapin); N. Bruining (Nico); J. Milei (José); J. Aoki (Jiro); K. Tsuchida (Keiichi); R. del Valle-Fernández (Raquel); C.A. Arampatzis (Chourmouzios); A.T.L. Ong (Andrew); P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); R. Ayala (Rosa); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); F. Saia (Francesco); M. Valgimigli (Marco); E.S. Regar (Eveline); E. McFadden (Eugene); G.G. Biondi-Zoccai (Giuseppe); E. Barbenza (Ezequiel); P. Schoenhagen (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims: We sought to explore whether global and regional scientific output in cardiovascular medicine is associated with economic variables and follows the same trend as medicine and as science overall. Methods and results: We registered the number of documents, number of citations,

  19. Challenges of access to medicine and the responsibility of pharmaceutical companies: a legal perspective.

    Ahmadiani, Saeed; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-05-04

    The right to health as a basic human right- and access to medicine as a part of it- have been a matter of attention for several decades. Also the responsibilities of different parties- particularly pharmaceutical companies- in realization of this right has been emphasized by World Health Organization. This is while many companies find no incentive for research and development of medicines related to rare diseases. Also some legal structures such as "patent agreements" clearly cause huge difficulties for access to medicine in many countries. High prices of brand medicine and no legal production of generics can increase the catastrophic costs- as well as morbidity-mortality of medication in lower income countries. Here we evidently review the current challenges in access to medicine and critically assess its legal roots. How societies/governors can make the pharmaceutical companies responsible is also discussed to have a look on possible future and actions that policy makers- in local or global level- can take.

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine Physicians' Insights into Interprofessional Tensions between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Biomedicine: A Critical Perspective.

    Chang, Leanne; Lim, Jing Ci Jill

    2017-11-22

    In Singapore, the institutional preference for biomedicine and the cultural importance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have created tensions between the two medical systems and erected barriers to a more collaborative health-care system. This study foregrounds TCM physicians' voice to reveal ideological struggles and power imbalances that underlie the interprofessional tensions and accompanying marginalization of TCM. Through in-depth interviews with 22 TCM physicians in Singapore, this study reveals the incongruences in ideological underpinnings between biomedicine and TCM, reflected in their different worldviews and epistemological approaches to knowledge formation and evaluation. Power differentials between the two medical systems are manifest in TCM physicians' inferior position in relation to their biomedical peers, the patients' internalization of biomedical standards to question the TCM profession and their own interest in seeking TCM treatments, and the state's limited support for TCM research, subsidies, and service provision in hospital settings. The results suggest that more open dialogue about the dichotomous framings of biomedicine and TCM is key to disrupting the mutual reinforcement of ideology and power, as well as to creating increased mutual understanding between the two medical systems.

  1. The Dosage Form of Aragh in Treatment, from the Iranian Traditional Medicine Perspective.

    Adl, Mehdi; Emtiazi, Majid

    2016-05-01

    The Iranian traditional medicine is one of the branches of complementary medicine and it is based on using the dosage forms of plants. One of the most common forms of pharmaceutical plants is Aragh. Due to ease-of-use, distillate is a more acceptable form among the public. In this article, it is attempted to study the usage forms and effects of Aragh according to the valid traditional medicine resources. This article is a review of Iranian traditional medicine textbooks such as Makhzan-ul-dawiah, Gharabadin Kabir, Cannon of Medicine, and other recent texts on medical plants. According to the traditional medicine, the process of getting Aragh is a kind of distillation, which is performed by using Ghar and Alembic (the equipment that are used in distillation). Distillation is the process of extracting and refining the fluid of a plant. Aragh of the plants is much more effective on the body than the plant itself. Traditional medicine regards Aragh as a new kind of drug (medicine) that is rarely mentioned in older texts (except for golab). However, the modern medicine regards it as a dosage form of essence, which is dissolved in water. The more the essence, the better the distillate gets. According to the traditional medicine sources, since the time of Hakim Aghil Khorasani, Aragh was used more and more every day. About 100 kinds of Araghs are mentioned in ancient texts, which are extracted from simple plants. Considering the distillation process and the way it performs, and by knowing that Aragh is a plant's softest and the most influential entity, it seems that it has a huge effect on Arvah and Ghova, the main parts like heart and brain and nervous parts.

  2. The Historical Development of Deqi Concept from Classics of Traditional Chinese Medicine to Modern Research: Exploitation of the Connotation of Deqi in Chinese Medicine

    Hong-Wen Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is difficult in fully clarifying its mechanisms and effects, Deqi still can be considered as an instant “sign” of acupuncture response of the patient and acupuncturist, which has a significant value in clinic and research. This paper aims to take a history trace to the development of Deqi theory, understand the connotation of Deqi based on Chinese medicine theory, and establish an evaluation methodology accordingly. We believe that Deqi is not only the needling sensation, but also the perception of changes of qi' flowing of the patient elicited by needling on acupoints. The signs of Deqi include the patient’s subjective perception (needling sensation, the objective physiological changes (common referred to the skin redness around the acupoints and the response of brain, and the acupuncturists' perception. Although Deqi is essential for attaining the effect, it may not be the necessary sign of the ideal efficacy. It is found that the characteristics of Deqi sensations, Deqi’s intensity, time duration, and the propagation will all affect the efficacy. Thus, acupuncturists should pay attention to elicit and control Deqi state, which is also the key point in modern research on the therapeutic implications of Deqi.

  3. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review

    Katusiime B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Barbra Katusiime,1 Sarah Corlett,1 Joanne Reeve,2 Janet Krska1 1Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham, Maritime, Kent, UK; 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Background: There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients’ experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients’ experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients’ experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID®, and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Results: Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective

    Shuo Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective.

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.

  6. [Highlights of hospital-based internal medicine in 2010: chief residents' perspective].

    Uhlmann, Marc; Burnard, Jérôme; Cosma Rochat, Monica; Gabus, Vincent; Micheloud, Valérie Geiser; Gobin, Niels; Laurent, Jean-Christophe; Marino, Laura; Méan, Marie; Merz, Laurent; Regamey, Julien; Stadelmann, Raphaël

    2011-02-02

    Applying knowledge acquired from recent medical studies to patient care poses a daily challenge to physicians. Chief residents from the Department of Internal Medicine at the University Hospital of Lausanne carried out a review of some of the issues they considered important. The conclusions of these various publications may have a significant impact on the daily practice of hospital-based internal medicine. Modern medicine based on scientific studies is a reminder that in spite of the essential importance of clinical experience, it is crucial to confront it with the results of relevant publications from the medical literature.

  7. Physics and medicine: at Erice the new perspectives of an ancient cooperation

    2004-01-01

    From April the 15th to the 17th, at Ettore Majorana Foundation in Erice, in the context of the International School on Physics and Industry, there will be a congress entitled "Particle accelerators and detectors: from physics to medicine".

  8. The waves of Biotechnological Innovation in Medicine : Interfirm Cooperation Effects and a Venture Capital Perspective

    K.D.S.-G. Fernald (Kenneth)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Improving medicine and health is the ultimate purpose of biotechnological innovation, where basic science is used to develop new innovative diagnostics and therapeutics to significantly improve the lives of patients worldwide. Concurrently, for three stakeholder groups,

  9. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective

    Shuo Gu; Jianfeng Pei

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regula...

  10. Advances in stem cells and regenerative medicine: single-cell dynamics, new models and translational perspectives.

    Twigger, Alecia-Jane; Scheel, Christina H

    2017-09-01

    An international cohort of over 300 stem cell biologists came together in Heidelberg, Germany in May 2017 as delegates of the 'Advances in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine' conference run through the European Molecular Biology Organization. This Meeting Review highlights the novel insights into stem cell regulation, new technologies aiding in discovery and exciting breakthroughs in the field of regenerative medicine that emerged from the meeting. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Current Status and Future Perspective in the Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Wan-Ying Wu; Wen-Zhi Yang; Jin-Jun Hou; De-An Guo

    2015-01-01

    Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia) and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). So far, several TCM herbal quality monogra...

  12. Development and perspectives of Slovenian medical terminology and lexicography - the historical role of Zdravniški vestnik

    Dušan Sket

    2011-02-01

    Conclusions: Slovenian medicine has made important steps in the development of modern Slovenian medical language. The current state of the art enables Slovenian physicians and biomedical professionals to follow the progress of global medicine and to create adequate Slovenian expressions in all medical disciplines.

  13. The Current Status and Future Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Korea

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level.

  14. Stem cells and regenerative medicine in domestic and companion animals: a multispecies perspective.

    Gonçalves, N N; Ambrósio, C E; Piedrahita, J A

    2014-10-01

    Since their original isolation, the majority of the work on embryonic stem cells (ESC) has been carried out in mice. While the mouse is an outstanding model for basic research, it also has considerable limitations for translational work, especially in the area of regenerative medicine. This is due to a combination of factors that include physiological and size differences when compared to humans. In contrast, domestic animal species, such as swine, and companion animal species, such as dogs, provide unique opportunities to develop regenerative medicine protocols that can then be utilized in humans. Unfortunately, at present, the state of knowledge related to, and availability of, ESC from domestic animals vary among species such as pig, horse, dog and cat, and without exception lags significantly behind the mouse and human. It is clear that much still needs to be discovered. The 'stem cell-like' cell lines being reported are still not satisfactorily used in regenerative medicine, due to reasons such as heterogeneity and chromosomal instability. As a result, investigators have searched for alternate source of cells that can be used for regenerative medicine. This approach has uncovered a range of adult stem cells and adult progenitor cells that have utility in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we review a range of stem cells, from ESC to induced pluripotent stem cells, and discuss their potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Socializing Identity Through Practice: A Mixed Methods Approach to Family Medicine Resident Perspectives on Uncertainty.

    Ledford, Christy J W; Cafferty, Lauren A; Seehusen, Dean A

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central theme in the practice of medicine and particularly primary care. This study explored how family medicine resident physicians react to uncertainty in their practice. This study incorporated a two-phase mixed methods approach, including semi-structured personal interviews (n=21) and longitudinal self-report surveys (n=21) with family medicine residents. Qualitative analysis showed that though residents described uncertainty as an implicit part of their identity, they still developed tactics to minimize or manage uncertainty in their practice. Residents described increasing comfort with uncertainty the longer they practiced and anticipated that growth continuing throughout their careers. Quantitative surveys showed that reactions to uncertainty were more positive over time; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Qualitative and quantitative results show that as family medicine residents practice medicine their perception of uncertainty changes. To reduce uncertainty, residents use relational information-seeking strategies. From a broader view of practice, residents describe uncertainty neutrally, asserting that uncertainty is simply part of the practice of family medicine.

  16. Perspectives of family medicine physicians on the importance of adolescent preventive care: a multivariate analysis.

    Taylor, Jaime L; Aalsma, Matthew C; Gilbert, Amy L; Hensel, Devon J; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2016-01-20

    The study objective was to identify commonalities amongst family medicine physicians who endorse annual adolescent visits. A nationally weighted representative on-line survey was used to explore pediatrician (N = 204) and family medicine physicians (N = 221) beliefs and behaviors surrounding adolescent wellness. Our primary outcome was endorsement that adolescents should receive annual preventive care visits. Pediatricians were significantly more likely (p family medicine physicians, bivariate comparisons were conducted between those who endorsed an annual visit (N = 164) compared to those who did not (N = 57) with significant predictors combined into two multivariate logistic regression models. Model 1 controlled for: patient race, proportion of 13-17 year olds in provider's practice, discussion beliefs scale and discussion behaviors with parents scale. Model 2 controlled for the same first three variables as well as discussion behaviors with adolescents scale. Model 1 showed for each discussion beliefs scale topic selected, family medicine physicians had 1.14 increased odds of endorsing annual visits (p family medicine physicians had 1.15 increased odds of also endorsing the importance of annual visits (p Family medicine physicians that endorse annual visits are significantly more likely to affirm they hold strong beliefs about topics that should be discussed during the annual exam. They also act on these beliefs by talking to parents of teens about these topics. This group appears to focus on quality of care in thought and deed.

  17. Patients' perspectives on antiepileptic medication: relationships between beliefs about medicines and adherence among patients with epilepsy in UK primary care.

    Chapman, S C E; Horne, R; Chater, A; Hukins, D; Smithson, W H

    2014-02-01

    Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can result in suboptimal outcomes for patients. This study aimed to assess the utility of a theory-based approach to understanding patient perspectives on AEDs and adherence. Patients with epilepsy, identified by a GP case note review, were mailed validated questionnaires assessing their perceptions of AEDs and their adherence to them. Most (84.9%) of the 398 AED-treated respondents accepted the necessity of AEDs, but over half expressed doubts, with 55% disagreeing or uncertain about the statement 'I would prefer to take epilepsy medication than risk a seizure'. Over a third (36.4%) expressed strong concerns about the potential negative effects of AEDs. We used self-report and medication possession ratio to classify 36.4% of patients as nonadherent. Nonadherence was related to beliefs about medicines and implicit attitudes toward AEDs (pbeliefs about pharmaceuticals (BMQ General: General Harm, General Overuse, and General Benefit scales) and perceptions of personal sensitivity to medicines (PSM scale). We identified salient, adherence-related beliefs about AEDs. Patient-centered interventions to support medicine optimization for people with epilepsy should take account of these beliefs. © 2013.

  18. Individualised medicine from the perspectives of patients using complementary therapies: a meta-ethnography approach.

    Franzel, Brigitte; Schwiegershausen, Martina; Heusser, Peter; Berger, Bettina

    2013-06-03

    Personalised (or individualised) medicine in the days of genetic research refers to molecular biologic specifications in individuals and not to a response to individual patient needs in the sense of person-centred medicine. Studies suggest that patients often wish for authentically person-centred care and personal physician-patient interactions, and that they therefore choose Complementary and Alternative medicine (CAM) as a possibility to complement standard care and ensure a patient-centred approach. Therefore, to build on the findings documented in these qualitative studies, we investigated the various concepts of individualised medicine inherent in patients' reasons for using CAM. We used the technique of meta-ethnography, following a three-stage approach: (1) A comprehensive systematic literature search of 67 electronic databases and appraisal of eligible qualitative studies related to patients' reasons for seeking CAM was carried out. Eligibility for inclusion was determined using defined criteria. (2) A meta-ethnographic study was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's method for translating key themes in patients' reasons for using CAM. (3) A line-of-argument approach was used to synthesize and interpret key concepts associated with patients' reasoning regarding individualized medicine. (1) Of a total of 9,578 citations screened, 38 studies were appraised with a quality assessment checklist and a total of 30 publications were included in the study. (2) Reasons for CAM use evolved following a reciprocal translation. (3) The line-of-argument interpretations of patients' concepts of individualised medicine that emerged based on the findings of our multidisciplinary research team were "personal growth", "holism", "alliance", "integrative care", "self-activation" and "wellbeing". The results of this meta-ethnographic study demonstrate that patients' notions of individualised medicine differ from the current idea of personalised genetic medicine. Our study

  19. Individualised medicine from the perspectives of patients using complementary therapies: a meta-ethnography approach

    2013-01-01

    Background Personalised (or individualised) medicine in the days of genetic research refers to molecular biologic specifications in individuals and not to a response to individual patient needs in the sense of person-centred medicine. Studies suggest that patients often wish for authentically person-centred care and personal physician-patient interactions, and that they therefore choose Complementary and Alternative medicine (CAM) as a possibility to complement standard care and ensure a patient-centred approach. Therefore, to build on the findings documented in these qualitative studies, we investigated the various concepts of individualised medicine inherent in patients’ reasons for using CAM. Methods We used the technique of meta-ethnography, following a three-stage approach: (1) A comprehensive systematic literature search of 67 electronic databases and appraisal of eligible qualitative studies related to patients’ reasons for seeking CAM was carried out. Eligibility for inclusion was determined using defined criteria. (2) A meta-ethnographic study was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's method for translating key themes in patients’ reasons for using CAM. (3) A line-of-argument approach was used to synthesize and interpret key concepts associated with patients’ reasoning regarding individualized medicine. Results (1) Of a total of 9,578 citations screened, 38 studies were appraised with a quality assessment checklist and a total of 30 publications were included in the study. (2) Reasons for CAM use evolved following a reciprocal translation. (3) The line-of-argument interpretations of patients’ concepts of individualised medicine that emerged based on the findings of our multidisciplinary research team were “personal growth”, “holism”, “alliance”, “integrative care”, “self-activation” and “wellbeing”. Conclusions The results of this meta-ethnographic study demonstrate that patients’ notions of individualised medicine

  20. For the development of therapy with ionising radiation in tooth, mouth and jaw medicine. An historical summary

    Halbleib, T.

    1983-01-01

    Based on the corresponding literature study, the development of therapy with ionising radiation, especially in the areas of tooth, mouth and jaw medicine, is reported from the discovery of X-rays up till the present. First from 1915 on did the X-ray antiphlogistic irradiation with in importance, from 1925 to about 1940 it played a domineering role, after the war was hardly still in use and since 1970 is considered in the stomatological sector obsolete. In comparison, already in 1905 there were individual successes in tumor therapy using X radiation. After many failures and competition with the method of radium therapy in the following years, a new upswing in X-radiation came starting in around 1930 with the introduction of the Chaoul contact therapy. The high point of this development is the introduction of supervolt therapy starting around 1965. It is the result of comprehensive research in the area of radiation physics. As a result of further developed techniques there were soon combined and competing procedures available, whose results, however, have not been adequately compared and documented. From 1970 on electronic data processing has primarily taken over individual irradiation planning (cobalt 60 and electron irradiation), predictions about clinically relevant therapy successes are not present at this time. (TRV) [de