WorldWideScience

Sample records for medicine hindu perspectives

  1. Karma, reincarnation, and medicine: Hindu perspectives on biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Janis Faye; Sharp, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the completion of the Human Genome Project, bioethicists and other academics debated the impact of this new genetic information on medicine, health care, group identification, and peoples' lives. A major issue is the potential for unintended and intended adverse consequences to groups and individuals. When conducting research in, for instance, American Indian and Alaskan native (AI/AN) populations, political, cultural, religious and historical issues must be considered. Among African Americans, the Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is a reminder of racism and discrimination in this country. The goal of the current study is to understand reasons for participating, or not, in genetic research such as the HapMap project and other genetic/medical research from the perspective of the Indian American community in Houston, Texas. In this article, we report on a topic central to this discussion among Indian Americans: karma and reincarnation. Both concepts are important beliefs when considering the body and what should happen to it. Karma and reincarnation are also important considerations in participation in medical and genetic research because, according to karma, what is done to the body can affect future existences and the health of future descendants. Such views of genetic and medical research are culturally mediated. Spiritual beliefs about the body, tissue, and fluids and what happens to them when separated from the body can influence ideas about the utility and acceptability of genetic research and thereby affect the recruitment process. Within this community it is understood that genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer; and acknowledgment of the significance of environmental stressors in the production of disease. A commitment to service, i.e. "betterment of humanity," karmic beliefs, and targeting environmental stressors could be prominent avenues for public health campaigns in this

  2. A Hindu Perspective to Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama Rao, Ashok; Kamath Burde, Jyothsna

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of the relevance and applicability of the Hindu tradition to organizational learning. Design/methodology/approach: Attempting to separate the spiritual from the religious aspects, a primarily theoretical approach is used to delineate the basic concepts in Hinduism and their applicability to various…

  3. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

  4. Interpretation Meaning of Ngaben for Krama Dadia Arya Kubontubuh Tirtha Sari Ulakan Village Karangasem District (Hindu Religious Education Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sudarsana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available                Religious activity which is conducted by Krama Dadya Arya Kubontubuh Tirtha Sari  Desa Ulakan during this particular time, especially cremation ceremony or Ngaben, is not only as an obligation but also as a form of respect and devotion to parents or relatives who have died. This obligation is implemented sincerely in the form of material and spiritual sacrifice of a religious ceremony, in which its aimis to gratify the parents and ancestors respectively. This research successfully describes: 1 Ngaben which is implemented by Krama Dadya Arya Kubontubuh Tirthasari Ulakan used kebodanversion that act as Yajemana Pamucukin  which is Ida Pedanda Buda while also accompanied by Ida Pedanda Siwa. The implementation of this cremation ceremony is always followed by a Nuntun Dewa Hyangceremony because Nyekah procession is been considered together in the cremation. The uniqueness of the implementation is non-performance of Ngeroras after cremation as the Hindu majority, but held on Pengaskaraan which is started with ngereka sawa karsian. The advantages of conducting pengaskaraan are includes facility and process, as follows: use banten puriagan, banten suluh agung, sekah lilit and tumaligi for all sawa which should only be made by Tarpini Sulinggih, while in the process, Ida Pedanda Buda does nepak and penyolsolan sekah lilit with white duck, white rooster and kucit butuan selem. In addition, as it is commonly known is the use of petulangan macan selemand propose of the dead bodies in the form of bade tumpang pitu ataman punggel.2 The values of Hindu’s Education in cremation ceremony which is conducted by Krama Dadya Arya Kubontubuh Tirthasari Ulakan include: tattwa, susila/etika, ceremony and aesthetic educational values.

  5. Spiritual Medicine in The Multi Perspective of Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Minhas, Marwa; Akhmad, Syaefudin Ali; Afzal, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Spiritual healing, also known as healing through prayer and meditation, has been widely studied by various scholars from different religions including Islam, Hindu, Buddhism and Christianity. The term spiritual medicine is increasingly popular with increasing mental disorders, degenerative diseases, metabolic, cancer and social illness such as drug abuse. Religions of Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity have almost the same tradition in the spiritual aspect to create purity of self and...

  6. Hindu Responses to Darwinism: Assimilation and Rejection in a Colonial and Post-Colonial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C. Mackenzie

    2010-01-01

    Hindu responses to Darwinism, like Christian, have run the gamut from outright rejection to fairly robust but limited accommodations of the Darwinian perspective. Despite certain features of Hindu thought such as the enormous time-scales of traditional cosmogonies that may suggest considerable affinity with modern notions of organic evolution,…

  7. MENINGKATKAN PROFESIONALISME GURU AGAMA HINDU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nyoman Sri Widiasih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a correct understanding of the importance of quality and professionalism of Hindu religious teachers in education. A teacher of religion, especially Hindu religious teachers is not just a job assigned to transfer knowledge but also served to instill the values of the teachings of Hinduism to the learners. Hindu religious teachers are professional positions, hence a teacher demanded to carry out their duties professionally. The professionalism of a teacher can be seen from how to run any of the duties is always productive, innovative, efficient and effective and independentTo be a Hindu religious teacher who is able to carry out their duties in a professional manner, the necessary efforts both from its own consciousness and on the government's efforts. In an effort to become a Hindu religious teachers qualified and professional, then a Hindu religious teachers is not enough to just rely on what the government has programmed as with training, workshops, competition research, as well as awards in the form of allowance teacher certification, and seminars, but a Hindu religious teachers are required to understand the teachings of Hinduism as a whole and want to fill themselves with the knowledge and responsiveness to changing times and technological advances. Thus, the material being taught will always correspond with the times and the material can be innovative, efficient and effective in their delivery in the classroom.Finally the success of a teacher of religion in their profession will appear on the character and attitude of the learners who become responsible, religious and good behavior.

  8. Future Perspectives in Sleep Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huon, Leh-Kiong Anne; Guilleminault, Christian

    2017-01-01

    "Sleep Medicine" is now a specialty in its own right. Currently, there is increasing recognition of the very negative impact sleep disorders have on learning, education, safety, and quality of life. Technological advances will help us to break down diagnoses (e.g., narcolepsy has now been subdivided into types 1 and 2, depending upon the hypocretin levels in the spinal fluid) and to discover relationships to other bodily systems (e.g., type 1 narcolepsy potentially being an autoimmune disorder). The modern lifestyle of many, as characterized by a shortening of sleep periods, shift work, jet lag, and the need to be constantly available, means that advances in sleep medicine may result in a major understanding of more balanced "work-rest lifestyle" modifications. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Pain and suffering as viewed by the Hindu religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Sarah M

    2007-08-01

    Religion and spiritual practices are among the resources used by patients to cope with chronic pain. The major concepts of Hinduism that are related to pain and suffering are presented. Ways that Hindu traditions deal with pain and suffering are reviewed, including the concept of acceptance, which has been studied in the pain medicine literature. By becoming more familiar with Hindu views of pain and suffering, pain medicine practitioners can offer potentially helpful concepts to all patients and support Hindus' spirituality as it relates to pain and suffering. Religion or spirituality is often important to patients. This article will inform the pain medicine practitioner how pain and suffering are viewed in Hinduism, the third largest religion in the world. It is hoped that these concepts will prove helpful when treating not only followers of Hinduism but all patients.

  10. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  11. End-of-life care beliefs among Hindu physicians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Vijaya Sivalingam; Saeed, Fahad; Sinnakirouchenan, Ramapriya; Holley, Jean L; Srinivasan, Sinnakirouchenan

    2015-02-01

    Several studies from the United States and Europe showed that physicians' religiosity is associated with their approach to end-of-life care beliefs. No such studies have focused exclusively on Hindu physicians practicing in the United States. A 34-item questionnaire was sent to 293 Hindu physicians in the United States. Most participants believed that their religious beliefs do not influence their practice of medicine and do not interfere with withdrawal of life support. The US practice of discussing end-of-life issues with the patient, rather than primarily with the family, seems to have been adopted by Hindu physicians practicing in the United States. It is likely that the ethical, cultural, and patient-centered environment of US health care has influenced the practice of end-of-life care by Hindu physicians in this country. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. The Hindu-Arabic numerals

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David Eugene

    1911-01-01

    The numbers that we call Arabic are so familiar throughout Europe and the Americas that it can be difficult to realize that their general acceptance in commercial transactions is a matter of only the last four centuries and they still remain unknown in parts of the world.In this volume, one of the earliest texts to trace the origin and development of our number system, two distinguished mathematicians collaborated to bring together many fragmentary narrations to produce a concise history of Hindu-Arabic numerals. Clearly and succinctly, they recount the labors of scholars who have studied the

  13. [Internet in medicine--development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezelić, Gjuro

    2002-01-01

    Internet is one of information technologies marking the transition from the second to the third millennium. The present role and expansion of Internet in medicine and healthcare is reviewed together with the perspective of further development. The beginning and initial expansion of the use of Internet in medicine are described. The World Wide Web (WWW or Web) is recognized as a major reason for this expansion, reaching a state described as a Web-pandemic. The rapid increase of the number of papers dealing with Internet in medical literature is presented as well as the appearance of several journals dedicated to Internet in medicine. First specialized symposia, among them MEDNET world conferences, are noted. First uses of Internet in medicine comprised databases, discussion groups, electronic newsletters, software archives and online public access catalogues. The appearance of the Web has led to a significant improvement of the Internet use in medicine, which is reflected in an exponential increase in the number of publications. It is noted that Internet allows "to do old things in new ways", but also "to do new things". It has become clear that the information revolution evoked by the internet shall leave a deep trace in medicine, as health information has become accessible to the public and ceased to be in exclusive control of health professionals. New medical fields--telemedicine and cybermedicine--appeared as the result of the development and global expansion of information and communication technologies, with cybermedicine dealing more specifically with the use of Internet. The advantages and disadvantages of cybermedicine are discussed, and major problems related to the quality of health information are highlighted. Several systems for quality criteria of health related Web-sites are described, indicating that Websites have to conform with the quality criteria such as transparency and honesty, accountability, privacy and data protection, currency

  14. Human compulsivity: A perspective from evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J; Hermesh, Haggai; Eilam, David; Segalas, Cosi; Zohar, Joseph; Menchon, Jose; Nesse, Randolph M

    2016-05-01

    Biological explanations address not only proximal mechanisms (for example, the underlying neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder), but also distal mechanisms (that is, a consideration of how particular neurobiological mechanisms evolved). Evolutionary medicine has emphasized a series of explanations for vulnerability to disease, including constraints, mismatch, and tradeoffs. The current paper will consider compulsive symptoms in obsessive-compulsive and related disorders and behavioral addictions from this evolutionary perspective. It will argue that while obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is typically best conceptualized as a dysfunction, it is theoretically and clinically valuable to understand some symptoms of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders in terms of useful defenses. The symptoms of behavioral addictions can also be conceptualized in evolutionary terms (for example, mismatch), which in turn provides a sound foundation for approaching assessment and intervention. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Is Exercise Really Medicine? An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Daniel E

    2015-01-01

    An evolutionary perspective helps evaluate the extent to which exercise is medicine and to explain the exercise paradox: why people tend to avoid exercise despite its benefits. Many lines of evidence indicate that humans evolved to be adapted for regular, moderate amounts of endurance physical activity into late age. However, because energy from food was limited, humans also were selected to avoid unnecessary exertion, and most anatomical and physiological systems evolved to require stimuli from physical activity to adjust capacity to demand. Consequently, selection never operated to cope with the long-term effects of chronic inactivity. However, because all adaptations involve trade-offs, there is no evolutionary-determined dose or type of physical activity that will optimize health. Furthermore, because humans evolved to be active for play or necessity, efforts to promote exercise will require altering environments in ways that nudge or even compel people to be active and to make exercise fun.

  16. Redefining medicine from an anticipatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Mihai

    2018-04-13

    The meaning of the concept of anticipation escapes the majority of those concerned with change, in particular those who study health. To characterize only genetic disorders, such as conditions with progressively earlier symptoms and higher intensity of disease from generation to generation, in terms of anticipatory expression is rather limited and limiting. Practitioners of medical care could benefit from understanding anticipation as definitory of the living. This view explains why diminished anticipatory expression, in all forms of the living, results in conditions calling for medical attention. So far, medicine has opted for a deterministic-reductionist perspective that reduces the living to a machine. Medical care, stuck in the grey zone between success and failure, should overcome its reactive obsession. From an almost exclusively mechanistic activity, it should evolve into a holistic proactive practice of well-being that reflects awareness of anticipation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evolution of nuclear medicine: a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, A.; Kamal, S.

    1996-01-01

    The field Nuclear Medicine has Completed its 100 yeas in 1996. Nuclear medicine began with physics, expanded into chemistry and instrumentation, and then greatly influenced various fields of medicine. The chronology of the events that formulated the present status of nuclear medicine involves some of the great pioneers of yesterday like Becquerel, Curie, Joliot, Hevesy, Anger, Berson and Yallow. The field of nuclear medicine has been regarded as the bridge builder between various aspects of health care and within next 20 years, nuclear medicine enters a new age of certainty, in which surgery, radiation and chemotherapy will only be used when a benefit in certain to result from the treatment. (author)

  18. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  19. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  20. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as a wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of the present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by an increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as a decrease in the expression and activity of proapoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in the preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for the confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  2. Rational use of medicines - Indian perspective!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanta, G P; Manna, P K

    2015-01-01

    India, the largest democracy in the world, is with a federal structure of 29 states and 7 union territories. With a population of more than 1.2 billion, resource is always a constraint and so is in the health system too. In the federal structure, providing healthcare is largely the responsibility of state governments. Medicines are important component of health care delivery system and quality care is dependent on the availability and proper use of quality medicines. In spite of being known as pharmacy of the third world, poor access to medicines in the country is always a serious concern. Realizing the need of quality use of medicines, several initiatives have been initiated. As early as 1994, seeds of rational use of medicines were sown in the country with two initiatives: establishment of a civil society, Delhi Society for Promoting Rational Use of Drugs (DSPURD) and establishment of government agency in Tamil Nadu, a southern state, called Tamil Medical Services Corporation Limited (TNMSCL). DSPUD was in official association with World Health Organization Country Office for implementing essential medicine programme in the country for two biennia. In addition to organizing sensitising and training programme for healthcare professionals throughout the country, it looked after the procurement and appropriate use of medicines in Delhi government health facilities. TNMSCL has made innovations in medicine management including procurement directly from manufacturers as a part of pooled procurement, establishing warehouses with modern storage facilities and Information Technology enabled management of whole process. TNMSCL Model is now replicated in almost the entire country and even in some small other countries as it is successful in improving access to medicines.The National Government and the State Governments have developed strategies to promote rational use of medicines as a part of improving access and quality care in public health facilities. National

  3. [Progress in precision medicine: a scientific perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Precision medicine is a new strategy for disease prevention and treatment by taking into account differences in genetics, environment and lifestyles among individuals and making precise diseases classification and diagnosis, which can provide patients with personalized, targeted prevention and treatment. Large-scale population cohort studies are fundamental for precision medicine research, and could produce best evidence for precision medicine practices. Current criticisms on precision medicine mainly focus on the very small proportion of benefited patients, the neglect of social determinants for health, and the possible waste of limited medical resources. In spite of this, precision medicine is still a most hopeful research area, and would become a health care practice model in the future.

  4. Computers. A perspective on their usefulness in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, M.K.; Williams, L.E.; Ponto, R.A.; Ganatra, R.D.; Raikar, U.; Samuel, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    To date, many symposia have been held on computer applications in nuclear medicine. Despite all of these efforts, an appraisal of the true utility of computers in the day-to-day practice of nuclear medicine is yet to be achieved. Now that the technology of data storage and processing in nuclear medicine has reached a high degree of sophistication, as evidenced by many reports in the literature, the time has come to develop a perspective on the proper place of computers in nuclear medicine practice. The paper summarizes various uses of a dedicated computer (Nuclear Data Med II) at our two institutions and comments on its clinical utility. (author)

  5. Bioethics and Emergency Medicine: problems and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mori

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Before examining the specific problems of emergency medicine, the article identifies the cardinal points for orientation in bioethics, in the conviction that the knowledge of the basic aspects of the subject allow the reader to make more conscious and suitable choices. The questions of moral relativism and the consequences of the biomedical revolution are addressed in detail in order to support the argument for a new ethical base for healthcare in general and for emergency medicine.

  6. Religious Perspectives on Human Suffering: Implications for Medicine and Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott J; Kerridge, Ian H; Jordens, Christopher F C; Zoloth, Laurie; Tollefsen, Christopher; Tsomo, Karma Lekshe; Jensen, Michael P; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Sarma, Deepak

    2016-02-01

    The prevention and relief of suffering has long been a core medical concern. But while this is a laudable goal, some question whether medicine can, or should, aim for a world without pain, sadness, anxiety, despair or uncertainty. To explore these issues, we invited experts from six of the world's major faith traditions to address the following question. Is there value in suffering? And is something lost in the prevention and/or relief of suffering? While each of the perspectives provided maintains that suffering should be alleviated and that medicine's proper role is to prevent and relieve suffering by ethical means, it is also apparent that questions regarding the meaning and value of suffering are beyond the realm of medicine. These perspectives suggest that medicine and bioethics have much to gain from respectful consideration of religious discourse surrounding suffering.

  7. Expedition medicine: A southern African perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adventure tourists with adequate financial means. ... made wilderness expeditions much safer, they have not been able ... to space – the unifying characteristics of expedition medicine remain ... 4 Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, ... Therefore, while learning.

  8. Historical perspectives on health. Early Arabic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Harry

    2004-07-01

    The Arabian conquests during and after the 7th century led to a spread of Islam as well as the consequential influence of theology on health through the teachings of the Qur'an (Koran). Although traditional medicine was widely accepted and used, the character of early aggrandisement of Arabic medicine involved a facility for adapting and absorbing Graeco-Roman knowledge. The translation schools and libraries, famous in both the East and West, preserved and expanded the knowledge acquired. European academic learning owed much to the Arabs. Information came through Spain to Italy, France and, later on, England. The founding of hospitals, whilst not an Arab initiative, received a fillip from the religious prescriptions for care of the sick. The Military Orders developed specialist institutions for the sick, probably as a result of what they saw during their sojourn in the Middle East. The legacy of Arabic medical care is still with us today and deserves understanding and greater appreciation.

  9. Essential Medicines for Children: An Endocrine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of endocrine disease has created significant challenges for healthcare policy-makers and payers across the world. Policy-makers have to ensure availability of drugs used for various endocrinopathies. One way in which this is facilitated is through the World Health Organization (WHO List of Essential Medicines (LEM. The LEM aims to cover the basic pharmaceutical needs of the majority of people seeking healthcare (1.

  10. Medicinal leech therapy-an overall perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sig, Ali K; Guney, Mustafa; Uskudar Guclu, Aylin; Ozmen, Erkan

    2017-12-01

    Complementary medicine methods have a long history, but modern medicine has just recently focused on their possible modes of action. Medicinal leech therapy (MLT) or hirudotherapy, an old technique, has been studied by many researchers for possible effects on various diseases such as inflammatory diseases, osteoarthritis, and after different surgeries. Hirudo medicinalis has widest therapeutic usage among the leeches, but worldwide, many different species were tested and studied. Leeches secrete more than 20 identified bioactive substances such as antistasin, eglins, guamerin, hirudin, saratin, bdellins, complement, and carboxypeptidase inhibitors. They have analgesic, anti-inflammatory, platelet inhibitory, anticoagulant, and thrombin regulatory functions, as well as extracellular matrix degradative and antimicrobial effects, but with further studies, the spectrum of effects may widen. The technique is cheap, effective, easy to apply, and its modes of action have been elucidated for certain diseases. In conclusion, for treatment of some diseases, MLT is not an alternative, but is a complementary and/or integrative choice. MLT is a part of multidisciplinary treatments, and secretes various bioactive substances. These substances vary among species and different species should be evaluated for both treatment capability and their particular secreted molecules. There is huge potential for novel substances and these could be future therapeutics.

  11. Patient inclusion in transfusion medicine: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman MT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mark T Friedman,1 Peyman Bizargity,1 Sandra Gilmore,2 Arnold Friedman3 1Blood Bank and Transfusion Medicine Service, Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai St Luke's–Roosevelt Hospital Center, 2Patient Blood Management Program, Center for Blood Management and Bloodless Medicine and Surgery, Mount Sinai Beth Israel Medical Center, 3Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Science, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Patients may have differing perceptions about blood transfusions based on their backgrounds, values, education levels, or cultural or religious beliefs, which may or may not be accurate. Unfortunately, despite the fact that transfusions are associated with a number of infectious and noninfectious risks, and in spite of the fact that there are ethical, accreditation, and regulatory requirements to provide information regarding transfusion risks, benefits, and alternatives to patients, transfusion consent remains inconsistently obtained. This can partly be attributed to the fact that clinicians may take on a paternalistic approach to transfusion decisions as well as to the fact that many clinicians have knowledge gaps in transfusion medicine that prevent them from obtaining transfusion consent adequately. As a result, unlike the case with other medical and surgical therapies, most patients are not included in the making of informed decisions regarding the need for transfusion versus alternative therapies, leading to many situations in which the transfusions provide little benefit to them. Recently however, a number of organizations, such as the American Association of Blood Banks and The Joint Commission in the US, have promoted multidisciplinary, evidence-based treatment strategies that aim to minimize the need for blood transfusion, the so-called patient blood management (PBM protocols. PBM strategies are expected to improve blood utilization through optimization of patients who may need

  12. Physics and medicine: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keevil, Stephen F

    2012-04-21

    Nowadays, the term medical physics usually refers to the work of physicists employed in hospitals, who are concerned mainly with medical applications of radiation, diagnostic imaging, and clinical measurement. This involvement in clinical work began barely 100 years ago, but the relation between physics and medicine has a much longer history. In this report, I have traced this history from the earliest recorded period, when physical agents such as heat and light began to be used to diagnose and treat disease. Later, great polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci and Alhazen used physical principles to begin the quest to understand the function of the body. After the scientific revolution in the 17th century, early medical physicists developed a purely mechanistic approach to physiology, whereas others applied ideas derived from physics in an effort to comprehend the nature of life itself. These early investigations led directly to the development of specialties such as electrophysiology, biomechanics, and ophthalmology. Physics-based medical technology developed rapidly during the 19th century, but it was the revolutionary discoveries about radiation and radioactivity at the end of the century that ushered in a new era of radiation-based medical diagnosis and treatment, thereby giving rise to the modern medical physics profession. Subsequent developments in imaging in particular have revolutionised the practice of medicine. We now stand on the brink of a new revolution in post-genomic personalised medicine, with physics-based techniques again at the forefront. As before, these techniques are often the unpredictable fruits of earlier investment in basic physics research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise is medicine: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jack W

    2010-01-01

    Much of the early information about exercise and medicine appeared in the ancient, medieval, and Renaissance medical literature in the context of the "six things nonnatural." These were the things that were under everyone's own control, directly influenced health, and became the central part of the new "physical education" movement in the early 19 century in the United States. They were known then as the "Laws of Health." Until the early 1900s, "physical education" was dominated by physicians who specialized in health and exercise. However, physical education changed to a games and sports curriculum led by coaches who introduced competition and athletic achievement into the classroom. As that happened, physicians disappeared from the profession. Through the last half of the twentieth century, as exercise became more central to public health, the medical community began to view exercise as part of lifestyle, a concept embracing what was once called the "six things nonnatural."

  14. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Sami; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future policies for the

  15. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Isaac

    Full Text Available Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy.Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software.Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future

  16. Teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, D

    1999-03-01

    The current interest in philosophical questions and ethical aspects of medicine turns attention towards the past and obtains suggestions and perspectives from previous descriptions and interpretations of sickness, therapy, and the relation between the patient and physician. Culture as therapy and therapy as culture are fundamental challenges for the present; physician, patient, and society, i.e., humans and humane medicine, need this dialogue, which should also be constitutive for teaching history of medicine. Through the separation of the natural sciences and the humanities, modern progress of medicine has produced many benefits but has, at the same time, raised many problems. Negative consequences of this development exist not only for the patient, but also for his personal environment and for the physician. In the course of modern history, there have been several reactions aimed at overcoming these one-sided tendencies: in the Renaissance, in the epoch of Romanticism and Idealism, and at the beginning and the end of the 19th century. This article outlines, with historical examples and contemporary reflections, the concept of teaching history of medicine in the perspective of "medical humanities".

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Chinese medicines: strategies and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ru; Yang, Ying; Chen, Yijia

    2018-01-01

    The modernization and internationalization of Chinese medicines (CMs) are hampered by increasing concerns on the safety and the efficacy. Pharmacokinetic (PK) study is indispensable to establish concentration-activity/toxicity relationship and facilitate target identification and new drug discovery from CMs. To cope with tremendous challenges rooted from chemical complexity of CMs, the classic PK strategies have evolved rapidly from PK study focusing on marker/main drug components to PK-PD correlation study adopting metabolomics approaches to characterize associations between disposition of global drug-related components and host metabolic network shifts. However, the majority of PK studies of CMs have adopted the approaches tailored for western medicines and focused on the systemic exposures of drug-related components, most of which were found to be too low to account for the holistic benefits of CMs. With an area under concentration-time curve- or activity-weighted approach, integral PK attempts to understand the PK-PD relevance with the integrated PK profile of multiple co-existing structural analogs (prototyes/metabolites). Cellular PK-PD complements traditional PK-PD when drug targets localize inside the cells, instead of at the surface of cell membrane or extracellular space. Considering the validated clinical benefits of CMs, reverse pharmacology-based reverse PK strategy was proposed to facilitate target identification and new drug discovery. Recently, gut microbiota have demonstrated multifaceted roles in drug efficacy/toxicity. In traditional oral intake, the presystemic interactions of CMs with gut microbiota seem inevitable, which can contribute to the holistic benefits of CMs through biotransforming CMs components, acting as the peripheral target, and regulating host drug disposition. Hence, we propose a global PK-PD approach which includes the presystemic interaction of CMs with gut microbiota and combines omics with physiologically based

  18. Residents' Perspectives on Careers in Academic Medicine: Obstacles and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Nguyen, Cathina; Walters, Emily; Gordon, Paul

    2018-03-01

    Worsening faculty shortages in medical schools and residency programs are threatening the US medical education infrastructure. Little is known about the factors that influence the decision of family medicine residents to choose or not choose academic careers. Our study objective was to answer the following question among family medicine residents: "What is your greatest concern or fear about pursuing a career in academic family medicine?" Participants were family medicine residents who attended the Faculty for Tomorrow Workshop at the Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Annual Spring Conference in 2016 and 2017. Free responses to the aforementioned prompt were analyzed using a constant comparative method and grounded theory approach. A total of 156 participants registered for the workshops and 95 (61%) answered the free response question. Eight distinct themes emerged from the analysis. The most frequently recurring theme was "lack of readiness or mentorship," which accounted for nearly one-third (31%) of the codes. Other themes included work-life balance and burnout (17%), job availability and logistics (15%), lack of autonomy or flexibility (11%), competing pressures/roles (10%), lower financial rewards (4%), politics and bureaucracy (4%), and research (3%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify barriers and disincentives to pursuing a career in academic medicine from the perspective of family medicine residents. There may be at least eight major obstacles, for which we summarize and consider potential interventions. More research is needed to understand why residents choose, or don't choose, academic careers.

  19. USNCTAM perspectives on mechanics in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Bazilevs, Yuri; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Decuzzi, Paolo; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Ferrari, Mauro; Gao, Huajian; Hossain, Shaolie S.; Hughes, Thomas J. R.; Kamm, Roger D.; Liu, Wing Kam; Marsden, Alison; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Over decades, the theoretical and applied mechanics community has developed sophisticated approaches for analysing the behaviour of complex engineering systems. Most of these approaches have targeted systems in the transportation, materials, defence and energy industries. Applying and further developing engineering approaches for understanding, predicting and modulating the response of complicated biomedical processes not only holds great promise in meeting societal needs, but also poses serious challenges. This report, prepared for the US National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, aims to identify the most pressing challenges in biological sciences and medicine that can be tackled within the broad field of mechanics. This echoes and complements a number of national and international initiatives aiming at fostering interdisciplinary biomedical research. This report also comments on cultural/educational challenges. Specifically, this report focuses on three major thrusts in which we believe mechanics has and will continue to have a substantial impact. (i) Rationally engineering injectable nano/microdevices for imaging and therapy of disease. Within this context, we discuss nanoparticle carrier design, vascular transport and adhesion, endocytosis and tumour growth in response to therapy, as well as uncertainty quantification techniques to better connect models and experiments. (ii) Design of biomedical devices, including point-of-care diagnostic systems, model organ and multi-organ microdevices, and pulsatile ventricular assistant devices. (iii) Mechanics of cellular processes, including mechanosensing and mechanotransduction, improved characterization of cellular constitutive behaviour, and microfluidic systems for single-cell studies. PMID:24872502

  20. USNCTAM perspectives on mechanics in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Bazilevs, Yuri; Chung, Jae-Hyun; Decuzzi, Paolo; Espinosa, Horacio D; Ferrari, Mauro; Gao, Huajian; Hossain, Shaolie S; Hughes, Thomas J R; Kamm, Roger D; Liu, Wing Kam; Marsden, Alison; Schrefler, Bernhard

    2014-08-06

    Over decades, the theoretical and applied mechanics community has developed sophisticated approaches for analysing the behaviour of complex engineering systems. Most of these approaches have targeted systems in the transportation, materials, defence and energy industries. Applying and further developing engineering approaches for understanding, predicting and modulating the response of complicated biomedical processes not only holds great promise in meeting societal needs, but also poses serious challenges. This report, prepared for the US National Committee on Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, aims to identify the most pressing challenges in biological sciences and medicine that can be tackled within the broad field of mechanics. This echoes and complements a number of national and international initiatives aiming at fostering interdisciplinary biomedical research. This report also comments on cultural/educational challenges. Specifically, this report focuses on three major thrusts in which we believe mechanics has and will continue to have a substantial impact. (i) Rationally engineering injectable nano/microdevices for imaging and therapy of disease. Within this context, we discuss nanoparticle carrier design, vascular transport and adhesion, endocytosis and tumour growth in response to therapy, as well as uncertainty quantification techniques to better connect models and experiments. (ii) Design of biomedical devices, including point-of-care diagnostic systems, model organ and multi-organ microdevices, and pulsatile ventricular assistant devices. (iii) Mechanics of cellular processes, including mechanosensing and mechanotransduction, improved characterization of cellular constitutive behaviour, and microfluidic systems for single-cell studies. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. REVITALISASI PENDIDIKAN AGAMA HINDU DALAM MENCIPTAKAN BUDAYA RELIGIUS BAGI GENERASI HINDU 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Sueca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of education is an issue of human life throughout their life, both as individuals, social groups as well as members of society. A hope for the government and society to the generations of Hindu that schools of Hinduism can be built not only in formal education but through education in formal and non-formal as in the rise and pasraman-pasraman in every Pakraman in Bali, so the creation of a religious culture, the strong one.The phenomenon that occurs in the Hindu generation, where Hindu religious education in the learning process in schools to create a culture of religious solely to meet the cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects whereas as if ignored, this happens because of the situation of globalization. Build or revitalize Hindu religious education is actually the duty of teachers and parents with instilling religious values to create a religious culture. A religious culture that is based on religion teacher jobs, selfless, is also a method for building one's values in a comprehensively manner.

  2. The Influence of Hindu Epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Bradley Gerald

    This study attempted to determine the influence of Hindu epistemology on Ranganathan's Colon Classification. Only the epistemological schools of Hindu philosophy and the Idea Plane element of Colon Classification were included. A literature search revealed that, although there is significant literature on each side of the problem, no bridges exist…

  3. Equality on Different Terms: The Case of Dutch Hindu Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; Driessen, Geert

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine the reasons for the establishment of Hindu schools in the Netherlands and how the Dutch system of education facilitates these and other voluntarily separate schools. In particular, the authors explore the manner in which Hindu schools aim to cultivate and sustain attachments to their own group through a…

  4. Puja: Expressions of Hindu Devotion. Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Sarah

    This teaching packet serves as a unit by itself or as part of preparation unit for a visit to the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery to see the exhibition "Puja: Expressions of Hindu Devotion." Focusing on Hindu religious objects found in an art museum, the packet suggests connections between art and world studies themes. In addition, these…

  5. Medicinal mushroom science: Current perspectives, advances, evidences, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon P Wasser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main target of the present review is to draw attention to the current perspectives, advances, evidences, challenges, and future development of medicinal mushroom science in the 21 st century. Medicinal mushrooms and fungi are thought to possess approximately 130 medicinal functions, including antitumor, immunomodulating, antioxidant, radical scavenging, cardiovascular, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, antifungal, detoxification, hepatoprotective, and antidiabetic effects. Many, if not all, higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms contain biologically active compounds in fruit bodies, cultured mycelium, and cultured broth. Special attention is paid to mushroom polysaccharides. The data on mushroom polysaccharides and different secondary metabolites are summarized for approximately 700 species of higher hetero- and homobasidiomycetes. Numerous bioactive polysaccharides or polysaccharide-protein complexes from the medicinal mushrooms described appear to enhance innate and cell-mediated immune responses, and exhibit antitumor activities in animals and humans. Whilst the mechanism of their antitumor actions is still not completely understood, stimulation and modulation of key host immune responses by these mushroom compounds appear central. Polysaccharides and low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites are particularly important due to their antitumor and immunostimulating properties. Several of the mushroom compounds have been subjected to Phase I, II, and III clinical trials, and are used extensively and successfully in Asia to treat various cancers and other diseases. Special attention is given to many important unsolved problems in the study of medicinal mushrooms.

  6. South African Hindu psychologists' perceptions of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padayachee, Priyanka; Laher, Sumaya

    2014-04-01

    Conceptualisations of mental illness are not universally applicable, as culture shapes the expression, perceptions and treatment preferences thereof. By focusing on the perceptions of Hindu psychologists regarding mental illness, this study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the impact that religious beliefs have on such conceptualisations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six Hindu psychologists around the Johannesburg area, South Africa. Responses were analysed using thematic content analysis. From the findings, it was evident that religion plays a critical role in the understanding and treatment of mental illness. Hindu beliefs around psychological disturbances were salient. Additionally, it was found that a tension existed between psychologists' awareness of the influential function of religion, particularly amongst collectivistic communities such as the Hindu community, and their occupational understandings and practices, which are deeply rooted in Western thought. Furthermore, it was suggested that the fear of stigma prevented Hindu clients from reaping the benefits of seeking help from culturally competent psychologists.

  7. Patient Perspectives of Midlevel Providers in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Blaine T; Bohl, Daniel D; Hannon, Charles P; Redondo, Michael L; Christian, David R; Forsythe, Brian; Nho, Shane J; Bach, Bernard R

    2018-04-01

    Midlevel providers (eg, nurse practitioners and physician assistants) have been integrated into orthopaedic systems of care in response to the increasing demand for musculoskeletal care. Few studies have examined patient perspectives toward midlevel providers in orthopaedic sports medicine. To identify perspectives of orthopaedic sports medicine patients regarding midlevel providers, including optimal scope of practice, reimbursement equity with physicians, and importance of the physician's midlevel provider to patients when initially selecting a physician. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 690 consecutive new patients of 3 orthopaedic sports medicine physicians were prospectively administered an anonymous questionnaire prior to their first visit. Content included patient perspectives regarding midlevel provider importance in physician selection, optimal scope of practice, and reimbursement equity with physicians. Of the 690 consecutive patients who were administered the survey, 605 (87.7%) responded. Of these, 51.9% were men and 48.1% were women, with a mean age of 40.5 ± 15.7 years. More than half (51.2%) perceived no differences in training levels between physician assistants and nurse practitioners. A majority of patients (62.9%) reported that the physician's midlevel provider is an important consideration when choosing a new orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Patients had specific preferences regarding which services should be physician provided. Patients also reported specific preferences regarding those services that could be midlevel provided. There lacked a consensus on reimbursement equity for midlevel practitioners and physicians, despite 71.7% of patients responding that the physician provides a higher-quality consultation. As health care becomes value driven and consumer-centric, understanding patient perspectives on midlevel providers will allow orthopaedic sports medicine physicians to optimize efficiency and patient

  8. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  9. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  10. A trifocal perspective on medicine as a moral enterprise: towards an authentic philosophy of medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssebunnya, Gerald M

    2015-02-01

    The fundamental claim that the practice of medicine is essentially a moral enterprise remains highly contentious, not least among the dominant traditional moral theories. The medical profession itself is today characterized by multicultural pluralism and moral relativism that have left the Hippocratic moral tradition largely in disarray. In this paper, I attempt to clarify the ambiguity about practicing medicine as a moral enterprise and echo Pellegrino's call for a phenomenologically and teleologically derived philosophy of medicine. I proffer a realistic trifocal matrix in which the virtuous moral agency and the teleologically derived moral imperative of the physician are comprehensively integrated with an action-guiding practical analytical framework for the resolution of ethical dilemmas in medicine. I argue that this trifocal perspective points us towards an authentic philosophy of medicine that is not only verifiable through Lonerganian self-appropriation, but also authentically objective through the possible moral self-transcendence of the good physician. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Systems Approaches: A Global and Historical Perspective on Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The globalization of healing systems is a dance of cultural awareness and cultural dominance that has arisen throughout history. With the development of greater communication and interest in whole-systems approaches to healing, the opportunity for the development of a global perspective on healing has emerged with new life force. The birth of integrative holistic healing systems in the West, such as naturopathic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, integral and functional medicine, and others, echoes the ocean of wisdom present in traditional healing systems, such as traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. In working to integrate the lessons from these systems, we see the inextricable link between man and the natural world, we work to understand the root cause of disease, we focus on the whole person to return balance, and we use empiric observation in large populations over time to grasp the interrelationships inherent in the whole-systems view of illness and wellness. PMID:24278794

  12. Sandhyopaasan:The Hindu Ritual as a Foundation of Vedic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Raj Timilsina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yoga, meditation and Hasta Mudra Chikitsa (medication through the exercise or gesture of hands known as spiritual activities in the past have been emerged as bases to maintain  one’s health, peace and tranquility. Some people follow yoga, some focus on meditation and others apply “Hasta Chikitsa” or “Mudra”. They are separate traditional exercises. They require to spend 10 to 30 minutes once or twice a day for their optional exercise/s. It is proved that such practice has productive effect in different health treatments. This paper has applied the methods of observation, interview and literature review as qualitative paradigm in exploring their original roots of Vedic Sandhyopaasan. Twice born castes (Brahman, Chhetri and Baishya of Nepali Hindu society has been found practicing all components of the exercises as a unified ritual of Sandhyopaasan. Upanayan (Bratabandha ritual teaches Sandhyopaasan procedures for self control and self healing of the performers. Brahman is not eligible as Brahman without doing the ritual daily. However, this study has found that some Dalits have also been practicing Sandhyopaasan daily and feeling relaxed. Findings of this study show that Sandhyopaasan is a compact package of yoga, meditations and Hasta Chikitsa. Students and gurus of Vedas have been regularly following the compact package for inner peace and self control. Root of yoga, meditation and “Mudra” is Sandhyopaasan and this is the base of Hindu education system. The paper analyzes the ritual through Hindu educational perspective.

  13. Peningkatan Kompetensi Profesional Dosen Menuju Kualitas Pendidikan Tingi Agama Hindu Dan Sumber Daya Manusia Hindu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Tanu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on increasing lecturer competence is interesting in relation to the dynamics of education and education. Especially in relation to the higher education of Hinduism is also a thing that is still rare to be observed by practitioners of Hindu religious education in particular and education globally in general. With regard to the competence of lecturers in relation to the quality of Hindu religious education the hope is for the realization of the quality of Hindu human resources.An institution of higher education can be said to have quality, depending on many factors. Many components need to be met in accordance with applicable criteria and conditions. Lately there is a tendency that learners have wisely determine which college option is chosen as a place of college. Physically, that magnificent building can be used as a measure. Then there are also choosing the completeness of facilities owned by the college. In addition, it is also seen that the graduates have the best performance in the regional and national scale. All of that is as the hope and desire of each learner to be able to follow his studies at such higher education institutions

  14. Survey of Chinese Medicine Students to Determine Research and Evidence-Based Medicine Perspectives at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Belinda J; Kligler, Benjamin; Cohen, Hillel W; Marantz, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Research literacy and the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) are important initiatives in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), which requires cultural change within educational institutions for successful implementation. To determine the self-assessed research and EBM perspectives of Chinese medicine Masters degree students at Pacific College of Oriental Medicine, New York campus (PCOM-NY). A survey with 17 close-ended questions and one open-ended question was administered through Survey Monkey to students at PCOM-NY. The survey was sent to 420 Masters students and 176 (41.9%) responded. Students in all four years of the Masters degree indicated a generally high degree of interest in, and support for the value of research. However, increasing years (one to four years) in the program was associated with lower interest in post-graduation research participation and entering the doctoral program, and the fourth year students reported low levels of interest in having greater research content and training in their Masters degree programs. Students who responded to the open-ended question (23% of respondents) expressed enthusiasm for research and concerns about the relevance of research in Chinese medicine. Consistent with findings in similar studies at CAM colleges, interest in research, and EBM of the PCOM-NY Masters students appeared to decline with increasing years in the program. Concerns around paradigm and epistemological issues associated with research and EBM among Chinese medicine students and practitioners warrants further investigation, and may be an important challenge for integrative medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Perspectives of wild medicine harvesters from Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Petersen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is a fast-growing cityscape in the Cape Floristic Region in South Africa with 24 formally protected conservation areas including the World Heritage Table Mountain National Park. These sites have been protected and managed as critical sites for local biodiversity, representing potentially one-third of all Cape Floristic Region flora species and 18% of South Africa's plant diversity. Cape Town is also inhabited by a rapidly growing culturally and economically diverse citizenry with distinct and potentially conflicting perspectives on access to, and management of, local natural resources. In a qualitative study of 58 locally resident traditional healers of distinct cultural groups, we examined motivations underlying the generally illicit activity of harvesting of wild resources from Cape Town protected areas. Resource harvester motivations primarily link to local economic survival, health care and cultural links to particular resources and practices, 'access for all' outlooks, and wholesale profit-seeking perspectives. We describe these motivations, contrast them with the current formal, legal and institutional perspectives for biodiversity protection in the city, and propose managerial interventions that may improve sustainability of ongoing harvest activities. Significance: The study reveals, for the first time in the Cape Floristic Region, informal economy viewpoints on terrestrial nature and how its direct use has important economic and cultural roles – specifically in wild medicine harvesting and trade. We contrast the formal and informal approaches to nature conservation in the city and propose new considerations for conservation managers.

  16. Perspective: Teaching and mentoring the history of medicine: an Oslerian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Charles S; Longo, Lawrence D

    2013-01-01

    Many predict a takeover (seen by some as hostile, and by others as inadvertent) of professional virtues and values by government and capitalism. One source of professional virtues and values consists of lessons from the history of medicine as taught and mentored by Sir William Osler. Some medical schools have required courses in medical history, but proposing a new requirement would probably be a tough sell to most curriculum committees. Osler himself argued against compulsory courses in medical history. The authors propose that exposing medical students to the history of medicine promotes at least two of the seven types of professionalism identified by Hafferty and Castellani. Exposure to the evolution of medical science and to exemplary physicians of bygone eras promotes nostalgic professionalism, which, although in some ways suspect and naïve, fosters a sense of belonging and solidarity as members of a profession, not a trade, whereas exposure to the evolution of medicine as a public service, to the sad history of health care disparities, and to patients' perspectives promotes activist professionalism, fostering a sense of civic responsibility and opposition to excessive commercialism.Steps to promote such exposure include (1) identifying faculty, community physicians, and others interested in the history of medicine, (2) including the history of medicine in faculty development programs, (3) considering a segment in the history of medicine during the introduction to each major course, (4) sponsoring history clubs, and (5) promoting environments favorable for mentor-protégé relationships for faculty and students with further interest.

  17. Modeling Wildfire Hazard in the Western Hindu Kush-Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylow, D.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire regimes are a leading driver of global environmental change affecting a diverse array of global ecosystems. Particulates and aerosols produced by wildfires are a primary source of air pollution making the early detection and monitoring of wildfires crucial. The objectives of this study were to model regional wildfire potential and identify environmental, topological, and sociological factors that contribute to the ignition of wildfire events in the Western Hindu Kush-Himalayas of South Asia. The environmental, topological, and sociological factors were used to model regional wildfire potential through multi-criteria evaluation using a method of weighted linear combination. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and geographic information systems (GIS) data were integrated to analyze regional wildfires and construct the model. Model validation was performed using a holdout cross validation method. The study produced a significant model of wildfire potential in the Western Hindu Kush-Himalayas.; Western Hindu Kush-Himalayas ; Western Hindu Kush-Himalayas Wildfire Potential

  18. Some contemporary aspects of Hindu-Christian dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Corneliu Arion

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with an important aspect of today’s interreligious dialogue, that between Christianity and the second largest religion of Asia, namely Hinduism. The concern is centering around not the ancient or traditional links between these two expressions of the Sacred, but rather of the contemporary ones. But that requires certain knowledge of what has already happened. The dialogue comes from the heart of the people, and is situated in the middle of life. Unfortunately, many present-day dialogues set the stage according to the terms of one of the parties alone. But in spite of misunderstandings and difficulties of the Hindu-Christian dialogue, it has an unavoidable effect: it changes our vision and interpretation of our own religion. The main tenets would be: the future of Hindu-Christian dialogue will largely depend on future mutual interest; Hindu-Christian dialogue may be linked to the future development of Hinduism and Christianity; the future of Hindu-Christian dialogue may be endangered by an institutional misunderstanding of its nature; Hindu-Christian dialogue may have to be placed into a larger “secular” context; Hindu-Christian dialogue is inevitable. It is an imperative and it must exhibit more continuity.

  19. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  1. [EU law on marketing authorization of medicines. History, current state of development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettesheim, Martin

    2008-07-01

    The article describes the development of EU policies and regulations on the marketing authorization of medicines. First, it describes the changing perspective of the EU towards the regulation of such authorizations. While its original focus was on the liberalization of national markets, it has today assumed overarching political responsibility for the development and marketing of medicines. Second, the article describes the current, rather fragmented regulatory system. Finally, political perspectives on the integration of markets for medicines are developed.

  2. Integrating family medicine and complementary medicine in cancer care: a cross-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Israely, Pesi; Baruch, Erez; Dagash, Jamal

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we describe the case study of a 27 year-old Arab female patient receiving palliative care for advanced breast cancer who was referred to complementary medicine (CM) consultation provided within a conventional oncology department. We explore the impact of the integrative CM practitioners' team of three family physicians and one Chinese medicine practitioner on the patient's well-being and specifically on the alleviation of her debilitating hot flashes and insomnia. This quality of life improvement is also affirmed by comparing the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) and Measure Yourself Concerns and Well-being (MYCAW) questionnaires administered at the initial and follow-up assessment sessions. In conclusion, we suggest that family physicians trained in evidence-based complementary medicine are optimal integrators of holistic patient-centered supportive care. The inclusion of trained CM practitioners in a multi-disciplinary integrative team may enhance the bio-psycho-social-spiritual perspective, and provide additional practical therapies that improve the quality of life of patients confronting cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Postgraduate education for Chinese medicine practitioners: a Hong Kong perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite Hong Kong government's official commitment to the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM over the last ten years, there appears to have been limited progress in public sector initiated career development and postgraduate training (PGT for public university trained TCM practitioners. Instead, the private TCM sector is expected to play a major role in nurturing the next generation of TCM practitioners. In the present study we evaluated TCM graduates' perspectives on their career prospects and their views regarding PGT. Method Three focus group discussions with 19 local TCM graduates who had worked full time in a clinical setting for fewer than 5 years. Results Graduates were generally uncertain about how to develop their career pathways in Hong Kong with few postgraduate development opportunities; because of this some were planning to leave the profession altogether. Despite their expressed needs, they were dissatisfied with the current quality of local PGT and suggested various ways for improvement including supervised practice-based learning, competency-based training, and accreditation of training with trainee involvement in design and evaluation. In addition they identified educational needs beyond TCM, in particular a better understanding of western medicine and team working so that primary care provision might be more integrated in the future. Conclusion TCM graduates in Hong Kong feel let down by the lack of public PGT opportunities which is hindering career development. To develop a new generation of TCM practitioners with the capacity to provide quality and comprehensive care, a stronger role for the government, including sufficient public funding, in promoting TCM graduates' careers and training development is suggested. Recent British and Australian experiences in prevocational western medicine training reform may serve as a source of references when relevant program for TCM graduates is planned in

  4. RELASI ISLAM DAN HINDU DALAM PERSPEKTIF MASYARAKAT MULTIKULTUR DI BALI Studi Kasus Tiga Daerah: Denpasar; Karangasem, dan Buleleng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gede Suwindia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the situations where Bali as part of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia that has a various diversity of ethnicity, race, religion, and citizenship. The background of various ethnic, tribe and religion in Indonesia are often tainted by the conflicts, contradictions, until riots. This makes this paper important to be appointed, where Bali gives a different color in managing the existing heterogeneity. When conflicts on behalf of ethnic, tribe and religion occurred in some areas, Bali remains in control, not affected by the riots. This article at least has the purpose to provide a review of the relation between the life that is built up during the time in Bali, especially between Muslims and Hindus in the perspective of multicultural society. The method used in this study is a qualitative method with descriptive analysis. Data sampling is done by using purposive sampling technique, using primary data in the form of informans and secondary data in the form of library data both at home and abroad as KITLV, as well as libraries at the University of Leiden. Islam and Hindu relationship in Bali is essentially strengthened in the Balinese culture that develops and continues sustainable until now. Genealogical role caused by inter-family marriages in the past, reinforce islam and hindu relationship. The role of kings in the past and to the present generation also contributed quite a bit of harmony of Islam and Hindu in Bali. Local government through Forum for Interreligious Harmony and Ministry of Religious Affairs gives greater media after the reform, so that there is better relations and places cultural piety as the foundation. The writer conclude that Islam and Hindu relationship in Bali is supported by the community local wisdom (Islam and Hindu, which upholds the sense of brotherhood, tolerance, respect, and recognition of the existing diversity. This reality is certainly very great significance in the life of the country of

  5. Ischiopagus and diprosopus in India: two pairs of conjoined twins perceived as incarnations of Hindu deities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Ditty, Benjamin; Bosmia, Anand N; Bosmia, Arpan N

    2015-02-01

    This article briefly reviews two specific types of conjoined twins, ischiopagus and diprosopus, and discusses recent cases of such twins born in India. Some members of the Hindu community worshiped these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities. In discussing this phenomenon, the authors aim to elucidate certain features of the faith tradition of Hinduism itself. The reception of these conjoined twins as incarnations of Hindu deities can be understood by examining two salient features of Hindu polytheism: the pictorial depiction of Hindu deities with multiple appendages and the concept of an incarnation, or avatar, of a Hindu deity.

  6. Neuroscience-informed psychoeducation for addiction medicine: A neurocognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhtiari, Hamed; Rezapour, Tara; Aupperle, Robin L; Paulus, Martin P

    2017-01-01

    Psychoeducation (PE) is defined as an intervention with systematic, structured, and didactic knowledge transfer for an illness and its treatment, integrating emotional and motivational aspects to enable patients to cope with the illness and to improve its treatment adherence and efficacy. PE is considered an important component of treatment in both medical and psychiatric disorders, especially for mental health disorders associated with lack of insight, such as alcohol and substance use disorders (ASUDs). New advancements in neuroscience have shed light on how various aspects of ASUDs may relate to neural processes. However, the actual impact of neuroscience in the real-life clinical practice of addiction medicine is minimal. In this chapter, we provide a perspective on how PE in addiction medicine can be informed by neuroscience in two dimensions: content (knowledge we transfer in PE) and structure (methods we use to deliver PE). The content of conventional PE targets knowledge about etiology of illness, treatment process, adverse effects of prescribed medications, coping strategies, family education, and life skill training. Adding neuroscience evidence to the content of PE could be helpful in communicating not only the impact of drug use but also the beneficial impact of various treatments (i.e., on brain function), thus enhancing motivation for compliance and further destigmatizing their symptoms. PE can also be optimized in its "structure" by implicitly and explicitly engaging different neurocognitive processes, including salience/attention, memory, and self-awareness. There are many interactions between these two dimensions, structure and content, in the delivery of neuroscience-informed psychoeducation (NIPE). We explore these interactions in the development of a cartoon-based NIPE to promote brain recovery during addiction treatment as a part of the brain awareness for addiction recovery initiative. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives in nuclear medicine: radiolabelled biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro F, G.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Melendez A, L.

    2003-01-01

    From their beginning, the radiopharmaceuticals chemistry has gone to the study of the molecular chemistry. The radiopharmaceuticals are only in their capacity to detect such specific biochemical places as the receivers and the enzymes. With the recent obtaining of the complete structural sequence of the genome, it doesn't fit doubt of the importance that they have acquired the molecular images for the study from the genetic information to the alterations phenotypic in the chemistry of the human body. So, the future of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, practically is based in the study of protein fragments, peptide structures and chains of DNA radiolabelled for the study of the metabolism In vivo. These investigations represent a substantial change in those paradigms of the pharmaceutical development, when using the own organic capacities as source of medications, instead of considering to the organism like a simple assay tube where molecules act, like they are most of the traditional medications. The investigation of new techniques to design complex stable of Tc-99m, Re-188, Lu-177, Y-90 and Dy-166/Ho-l66 with biomolecules that don't alter the specificity and in general the molecular properties of the same ones. it is a topic of world interest in the environment of the radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this work some achievements and perspectives are presented on those main diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals of third generation. (Author)

  8. Physiopathology of dementia from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-07-01

    The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Mental Disorders in a Holistic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available From a holistic perspective, psychiatric diseases are caused by the patient’s unwillingness to assume responsibility for his life, existence, and personal relations. The loss of responsibility arises from the repression of the fundamental existential dimensions of the patients. Repression of love and purpose causes depersonalization (i.e., a lack of responsibility for being yourself and for the contact with others, loss of direction and purpose in life. Repression of strength in mind and emotions leads to derealization (the breakdown of the reality testing, often with mental delusions and hallucinations. The repression of joy and gender leads to devitalization (emotional emptiness, loss of joy, personal energy, sexuality, and pleasure in life.The losses of existential dimensions are invariably connected to traumas with life-denying decisions. Healing the wounds of the soul by holding and processing will lead to the recovery of the person's character, purpose of life, and existential responsibility. It can be very difficult to help a psychotic patient. The physician must first love his patient unconditionally and then fully understand the patient in order to meet and support the patient to initiate the holistic process of healing. It takes motivation and willingness to suffer on behalf of the patients in order to heal, as the existential and emotional pain of the traumas resulting in insanity is often overwhelming. We believe that most psychiatric diseases can be alleviated or cured by the loving and caring physician who masters the holistic toolbox. Further research is needed to document the effect of holistic medicine in psychiatry.

  10. Social Media in the Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum: Social Media Responses to the Residents' Perspective Article

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, BD; Kobner, S; Trueger, NS; Yiu, S; Lin, M

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. In July to August 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Annals Residents' Perspective article "Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum" by Scott et al. The objective was to describe a 14-day worldwide clinician dialogue about evidence, opinions, and early relevant i...

  11. The concept of ‘transcendence’ in modern Western philosophy and in twentieth century Hindu thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando SARDELLA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ‘Transcendence’ has been a key subject of Western philosophy of religion and history of ideas. The meaning of transcendence, however, has changed over time. The article looks at some perspectives offered by the nineteenth and the twentieth century Anglo‑American and continental European philosophers of religion and presents their views in relation to the concept of transcendence formulated by the Bengali Hindu traditionalist Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati (1874–1937. The questions raised are what transcendence in the philosophy of religion is, how one can speak of it, and what its goal is. The paper points to parallels and differences in epistemology, ontology and practice. One difference is that the nineteenth and the twentieth century Western philosophy of religion tended to assume an ontological difference between self and transcendence inherited from personalities such as Søren Kierkegaard, but also to explore the concept of transcendence beyond the idea of a metaphysical God. Bhaktisiddhanta, whose foundational thought mirrors medieval Hindu philosophy of religion and the theistic schools of Vedānta, suggests that transcendence has a metaphysical and personal dimension that is to some degree ontologically similar to and directly knowable by the self. Bhaktisiddhanta’s approach to transcendence differs from Kierkegaard’s and other Western philosophers’ and revolves around the idea of God as a transcendent person that can be directly known morphologically and ontologically through devotion. The article is a contribution to the history of ideas and the philosophy of religion in Eurasia and beyond.

  12. THE THEOLOGY OF TOLERANCE IN HINDU AND ISLAM: MAINTAINING SOCIAL INTEGRATION IN LOMBOK - INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprapto Suprapto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to examine the theology of tolerance as the basis for interreligious and harmonious co-existence between Muslims and Hindus in Lombok. Lombok is known as the island of thousand mosques where majestic mosques scatter throughout the island. But Lombok is also a home for Hindus. The interactions between them have been very dynamics, creating integration, acculturation, adaptation, accommodation while sometimes also triggering tension. This article argues that theology occupies important aspects in both Hindu and Muslim daily live and thus can be employed as the solid basis of interreligious relations between them. From the Islamic perspective, there are a number of Qur’anic verse injuctions for tolerance. Hindus are also required to maintain tolerant attitude towards other religions as this is commanded in the Veda. These theological grounds will strengthen from the faith point of view Hindu-Muslim social cohesion, which has so far been realized though various means, such as music, arts and religious festivals.

  13. Avatara and Sakti : Traditional symbols in the Hindu renaissance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Sharpe

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hindu Renaissance is commonly regarded as having begun seriously in the 1870's, consequent upon the foundation in 1875 of the Ārya Samāj in the West of India.' But this is in many ways a date of convenience. The roots of the movement go back, particularly as far as Bengal is concerned, to the time of Rammohun Roy, when on the one hand there was created a serious, though small-scale. Hindu reform movement, and on the other there was introduced into Calcutta the remarkable catalyst of Western education. Hindu reform and Western education were closely linked for the greater part of the nineteenth century. The early Hindu reform movements to a very great extent shared the same characteristics: small-scale and elitist, they were not designed to appeal, and did not appeal, to the masses. The Brāhma Samāj, for instance, never succeeded in achieving popularity; it began and continued very largely as a somewhat rarefied worship-society. But the years between 1893 and 1897 were the years of Swāmi Vivekānanda's "mission" to the World's Parliament of Religions in Chicago and his tours in the countries of the West. Perhaps it was in the figure of the Swāmi that the Indian national movement found its first powerful human symbol.

  14. A Resource Guide for Teachers of Hindu Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John L., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on Hinduism, India, and Indian literature, this course guide offers help in organizing a course or units of instruction. The guide contains a historical outline of the evolution of Hinduism over a period of 3,000 years; a glossary listing terms in the guide and in Hindu literature; five courses of different time lengths (the literature of…

  15. Problems, challenges and promises: perspectives on precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, David J

    2016-05-01

    The 'precision medicine (systems medicine)' concept promises to achieve a shift to future healthcare systems with a more proactive and predictive approach to medicine, where the emphasis is on disease prevention rather than the treatment of symptoms. The individualization of treatment for each patient will be at the centre of this approach, with all of a patient's medical data being computationally integrated and accessible. Precision medicine is being rapidly embraced by biomedical researchers, pioneering clinicians and scientific funding programmes in both the European Union (EU) and USA. Precision medicine is a key component of both Horizon 2020 (the EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation) and the White House's Precision Medicine Initiative. Precision medicine promises to revolutionize patient care and treatment decisions. However, the participants in precision medicine are faced with a considerable central challenge. Greater volumes of data from a wider variety of sources are being generated and analysed than ever before; yet, this heterogeneous information must be integrated and incorporated into personalized predictive models, the output of which must be intelligible to non-computationally trained clinicians. Drawing primarily from the field of 'oncology', this article will introduce key concepts and challenges of precision medicine and some of the approaches currently being implemented to overcome these challenges. Finally, this article also covers the criticisms of precision medicine overpromising on its potential to transform patient care. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  17. [Research on problem of exogenous pollution of Chinese medicine resources from perspective of circular economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Tian, Kan; Tian, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Based on the in-depth analysis of the current situation of the exogenous pollution of Chinese medicine resources, this research mainly discusses the intrinsic link and practical significance between the development of circular economy in Chinese medicine resources and the control of the problem of the exogenous pollution from the perspective of circular economy, and proposes some suggestions to develop the recycling economy of Chinese medicine resources from the establishment of legal system, mechanism of development, production norms, industry standards and regulatory system of the recycling of Chinese medicine resources. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Heart Palpitation From Traditional and Modern Medicine Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershadifar, Tabassom; Minaiee, Bagher; Gharooni, Manouchehr; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Gousheguir, Ashraf Aldin; Kazemi Saleh, Davod

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palpitation is a sign of a disease and is very common in general population. For this purpose we decided to explain it in this study. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the palpitation in both modern and traditional medicine aspect. It may help us to diagnose and cure better because the traditional medicine view is holistic and different from modern medicine. Materials and Methods: We addressed some descriptions to the articles of traditional medicine subjects which have published recently. Palpitation in modern medicine was extracted from medical books such as Braunwald, Harrison and Guyton physiology and some related articles obtained from authentic journals in PubMed and Ovid and Google scholar between1990 to 2013. Results: According to modern medicine, there are many causes for palpitation and in some cases it is cured symptomatically. In traditional medicine view, palpitation has been explained completely and many causes have been described. Its aspect is holistic and it cures causatively. The traditional medicine scientists evaluated the body based on Humors and temperament. Temperament can be changed to dis-temperament in diseases. Humors are divided in 4 items: sanguine, humid or phlegm, melancholy and bile. Palpitation is a disease, it is heart vibration and is caused by an abnormal substance in the heart itself or its membrane or other adjacent organs that would result in the heart suffering. Conclusions: Our data of this article suggests that causes of palpitation in the aspect of traditional medicine are completely different from modern medicine. It can help us to approach and treat this symptom better and with lower side effects than chemical drugs. According to this article we are able to detect a new approach in palpitation. PMID:24719741

  19. Fostering Competence in Medicines Development: The IFAPP Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique J Dubois

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available IFAPP is a nonprofit organization with the mission to promote Pharmaceutical Medicine & Medicines Development (PM&MD by enhancing the competencies and maintaining high ethical standards of Pharmaceutical Physicians and other professionals involved in medicines development worldwide, leading to the availability and appropriate use of medicines for the benefit of patients and society.1 www.ifapp.org About 30 national professional associations related to PM&MD, involving 7000 professionals, are affiliated to IFAPP.Medicines development has traditionally been a challenging enterprise, with high risk, high investment and potentially high returns in the lengthy and complex process of identifying a new chemical entity as a candidate for development and possibly succeeding in bringing it as a pharmaceutical product to the market. However, the emergence of genomics, translational research, biomarkers and precision medicine pose challenges going forward involving allocation of resources, price, market access and cost-effectiveness as opposed to the traditional concepts of efficacy and safety.Education and Continuing Professional Development (CPD are a major focus of IFAPP. The International Conference on Pharmaceutical Medicine (ICPM is the largest event for our organization; ICPM is aimed to provide the state of the art in key areas for our discipline and profession. The paper is a reflection on the role of competency-based education and training for Pharmaceutical Physicians and medicines development scientists, as was discussed during the recent ICPM 2016 held in Sao Paulo, with the support of the Brazilian Association of Pharmaceutical Medicine and gathered around 200 representatives from the pharmaceutical, clinical research and regulatory arenas worldwide. http://www.icpm2016.com/en/programacao/programa;

  20. Perspectives of Medieval Persian Medicine on Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Sheibani, Behnam; Schiess, Nicoline; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmail; Sadeghpour, Omid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) was the prevailing practice of medicine in the Eurasia region up through the 18th century, a practice of medicine stemming back to Hippocrates and to the 5000 year old civilization of the region. It is a school of medicine which touches on many a delicate points which may seem unimaginable within the realm of modern allopathic medicine. This practice of ancient medicine besides shedding light on various possible theoretical modern day disorders serves as a vast resource for therapeutics. In this paper, we present study of the manuscripts of this ancient medical practice in search of symptom presentations coinciding with presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS). This paper represents a comprehensive search through TPM texts and manuscripts with the intention to seek possible clues on MS from potentially valuable age-old resources. We predominantly focused our search on the works of five eminent physicians of Medieval Persia: Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Haly Abbas (949-982 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Averroes (1126-1198 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD). In this paper, the authors attempt a theory and conclude with high probability that a conjunction of a series of signs, symptoms found in TPM texts under the terms khadar, isterkha and falej form the symptoms and the disease pattern of modern day MS. This theory draws upon existent similarities in terms of disease pathology, disease patterns and predisposing factors seen between MS and the related morbidities within Persian Medicine. We recommend further examinations of such potentially valuable long-standing resources, examining the diagnoses and treatments as set forth by Persian Medicine through international collaboration within the global scientific community. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. The Suicide Paradigm: Insights from Ancient Hindu Scriptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Hsu, Minna J

    2017-06-01

    The world religions in general promote peace and happiness. They strongly discourage all sorts of violence in society including suicide. Religious commitments toward life-saving value are known to prevent suicide attempts since all world religions promote unity, reducing interpersonal hostilities. Therefore, understanding the basics on what religious scriptures narrate on life and death including suicide is essential. This paper highlights the seldom discussed topic on the concept and consequences of suicide portrayed in the ancient Hindu religious scriptures.

  2. SADHARANIKARANA, SEBUAH MODEL KOMUNIKASI HINDU: ASPEK-ASPEK DAN FILSAFATNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Putu Suamba

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sistem komunikasi Hindu telah dianggap sebagai disiplin baru di bidang teori dan praktik komunikasi. Ini tidak berarti bahwa benih atau gagasan komunikasi tidak ada dalam literatur dan praktiknya sejak periode Veda. Referensi yang diambil dari bidang puisi, estetika, dan drama dalam literatur Sanskerta menunjukkan banyaknya sumber yang bisa dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber utama untuk mengembangkan sistem komunikasi Hindu yang tepat. Sadharanikarakana sebagai teori generalisasi dalam ekspresi puitis dikembangkan menjadi model komunikasi Hindu di era modern. Model terdiri dari beberapa aspek, seperti sahridaya (pihak yang terlibat - pengirim dan penerima, sahridayata (keadaan kesamaan, bhava (mood, abhivyanjana (encoding, sandesha (pesan, sarani (saluran, rasawadana (yang pertama diterima, decoding dan interpretasi pesan dan akhirnya mencapai rasa, dosha (suara, dan pratikriya (umpan balik; mereka menjadi bingkisan dari keseluruhan sistem. Sebagai model komunikasi, setiap pihak terlibat dalam proses komunikasi berusaha mencapai keadaan satu kesatuan, kesamaan, keadaan umum, universalitas yang disebut sahridayata. Dengan keadaan ini, setiap perbedaan dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan dapat dilampaui menjadi saling pengertian karena kesatuan atau kesamaan telah dicapai melalui proses negosiasi makna. Dalam ranah kesatuan kebenaran trans-empiris (advaita dengan Realitas Tertinggi (disebut Brahman adalah dalam bentuk rasa. Model tidak hanya melibatkan aspek material komunikasi tapi juga spiritual. Selain bersifat spiritual, model ini juga nonlinier.

  3. Clinical decision making-a functional medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzorno, Joseph E

    2012-09-01

    As 21st century health care moves from a disease-based approach to a more patient-centric system that can address biochemical individuality to improve health and function, clinical decision making becomes more complex. Accentuating the problem is the lack of a clear standard for this more complex functional medicine approach. While there is relatively broad agreement in Western medicine for what constitutes competent assessment of disease and identification of related treatment approaches, the complex functional medicine model posits multiple and individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, most or many of which have reasonable underlying science and principles, but which have not been rigorously tested in a research or clinical setting. This has led to non-rigorous thinking and sometimes to uncritical acceptance of both poorly documented diagnostic procedures and ineffective therapies, resulting in less than optimal clinical care.

  4. Innovative Perspectives of Integrated Chinese Medicine on H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Shi, Zong-Ming; Chen, Yao; Yu, Jing; Zhang, Xue-Zhi

    2018-06-08

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment requires the development of more effective therapies, mainly owing to the challenges posed by the bacterial resistance to antibiotics. In China, critically high infection and antibiotic resistance rates have limited the application of classic H. pylori eradication therapies. Consequently, researchers are attempting to find new solutions by drawing from traditional medicine. This article reviews basic scientific and clinical progress in the use of integrated Chinese and Western medicine (IM) to treat H. pylori; describes the conflicting results between in vivo and in vitro studies in this regard; discusses the observed clinical effects of IM, with emphasis on traditional patent medicines; and proposes a role for IM in both the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori, including the use of tongue manifestation as an early diagnostic method and capitalizing on IM's direct and indirect methods for enhancing antibiotic effect.

  5. Recent perspectives on the medicinal potential of ginger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunathilake KDPP

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available KDPP Gunathilake,1 HP Vasantha Rupasinghe2 1Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Livestock, Fisheries and Nutrition, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, Makandura, Gonawila, Sri Lanka; 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, NS, Canada Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale is a globally known food and flavoring ingredient which is also reputed for its wide range of medicinal properties. The rhizome of ginger consists of a unique homologous series of compounds, gingerols, which are the major phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its unique flavor and health benefits. Over the last 2 decades, extensive research has been conducted to identify bioactive constituents and medicinal potential of ginger. This review deliberates chemical composition as well as the most recent research findings on potential health benefits of ginger, including its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, antiplatelet aggregation, chemopreventive, antioxidant, and hypoglycemic properties. Keywords: ginger, gingerols, medicinal properties, Zingiber officinale, health

  6. The future of laboratory medicine - a 2014 perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kricka, Larry J; Polsky, Tracey G; Park, Jason Y; Fortina, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the future is a difficult task. Not surprisingly, there are many examples and assumptions that have proved to be wrong. This review surveys the many predictions, beginning in 1887, about the future of laboratory medicine and its sub-specialties such as clinical chemistry and molecular pathology. It provides a commentary on the accuracy of the predictions and offers opinions on emerging technologies, economic factors and social developments that may play a role in shaping the future of laboratory medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Alternative Medicine. A Doctor's Perspective The ALLSA Handbook ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on their way to or from The Spinney. They also went ... Back in Cape Town, there was no reason or need to ... dimension which unorthodox approaches often seem to provide .... Several authors are epidemiologists or health economists ... and epidemiological perspective (cost-effectiveness, validity, ... from our accountants.

  8. Instrumentation in the nuclear medicine modern achievements and perspective developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narkevich, B.Ya.

    1999-01-01

    Most important achievement and tendencies of development of physical maintenance of modern nuclear medicine are analysed. The urgent problems and directions of researches are considered in the field of development of the equipment, technologies of measurements and software maintenance, and also means and procedures of the warranty of radiodiagnostic researches [ru

  9. Dreams and Medicines: The Perspective of Xhosa Diviners and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in the Eastern Cape, the paper explores the interconnections between dreams (amathongo, amaphupha) and medicines (amayeza, imithi, amachiza) as aspects of the Xhosa diviner's culture, knowledge and experience. Background information is provided in the introduction, ...

  10. Patient perspectives on type 2 diabetes and medicine use during Ramadan among Pakistanis in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Kristiansen, Maria; Wittrup, Inge

    2013-01-01

    of Ramadan without adequate counselling on how to adjust their medicines. Objective To explore patient perspectives on medicine use during Ramadan, reasons for fasting and experiences with counselling on medicine use during Ramadan among people of Pakistani background with type 2 diabetes and at least one...... (six interviewers). Results All interviewees pointed out that Islam allows ill people to refrain from fasting during Ramadan. However, all had fasted during Ramadan despite being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. While fasting, they adapted their use of medicines in different ways, e.g. by changing...... the time of intake or by skipping morning medicines. Fasting during Ramadan meant a feeling of improvement in well-being for all interviewees. Reasons for this improvement included physiological, social and religious aspects. Healthcare professionals were rarely included in the decision-making process...

  11. Mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals in sports medicine: a new perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M

    2017-01-01

    Since mitochondria have been recognized as the cells' key organelles involved in the energy utilization during exercise, targeting the organelle with specifically designed compounds (mitochondria-targeted nutraceuticals, MTNs) may have a great promise in the prevention and treatment of heavy exercise-related mitochondrial dysfunction. In vitro studies suggested that MTNs have antioxidant effects at the molecular level, and might boost mitochondrial biogenesis and organelle bioenergetics, with both processes are known to positively affect exercise performance and recovery. However, while there are a number of different MTNs evaluated for a potential benefit as a therapy for mitochondria-related diseases and conditions, only few human studies evaluated the possible impact of novel MTNs in the field of sports medicine. This mini review summarizes recent research findings regarding the efficacy of different mitochondria-targeted nutritional agents, emphasizing their roles in sports medicine.

  12. [Periodontology from the perspective of holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Q X

    2017-08-09

    Medical diciplines have been gradually differentiated and specialized during its developement, and problems due to deep specialization have been increasingly apparent. Its performance is as follows: dental specialists tends to focus on a certain narrow area and ignore neither the patients as a whole existence nor the role of the environmental factors. In this article, the author tries to show the holistic integrative medicine (HIM) from the point of view of periodontal specialty. In fact, the pathogenesis, the differential diagnosis and the treatment of periodontal diseases along with the role of preventive dentistry and basic medicine for periodontology must be considered as a whole using the philosophy of HIM. The future development of periodontal specialty should absorb the achievements of other medical and dental diciplines. Periodontist should pay more attention to HIM. The author also gives some thoughts and suggestions on how to practice HIM in the field of periodontics.

  13. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Background: The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. Results: According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Conclusion: Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state. PMID:27840513

  14. Depression from the perspective of modern and Persian medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anushiravani, Majid; Manteghi, Ali Akhondpour; Taghipur, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Background Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide Objective The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine. Methods In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine, Al-Hawi Fi Teb, Kamel Al-Sina’a, Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A’azam. Classic medicine sources investigated were Kaplan and Sadock’s Synopsis of Psychiatry and related articles in the Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Research was done from January through April 2017, using keywords. Results To explain the biologic causes, various factors including humoral dystemperaments, cold and hot dystemperaments of chief organs especially heart and brain and some qualitative and quantitative changes in medical spirit should be considered. According to manuscripts some mental-emotional events in life can cause these changes. They independently may cause depression. Semiologically some symptoms and signs happen consequently to in the above-mentioned causes which are in common with depression signs and symptoms including grief, crying, low libido, weight loss, appetite and sleep disorders, exhaustion, slow cognitive processing, indecisiveness and willingness to die. Conclusion The major biological causes of depression is a group of dystemperamental syndromes (hot, cold, dry, and wet) on different bodily structures (humors, organs, and spirits). So preventive and therapeutic strategies for depression couldn’t be the same for all patients and the treatment should be designed according to the exact diagnosis. PMID:29629061

  15. European Medicines Agency initiatives and perspectives on pharmacogenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Falk; Caneva, Laura; Papaluca, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics, the study of variations of DNA and RNA characteristics as related to drug response, has become an integral part of drug development and pharmacovigilance, as reflected by the incorporation of pharmacogenomic data in EU product information. In this short review article, we describe recent European Medicines Agency initiatives intended to support further the implementation of pharmacogenomics in drug development and surveillance so that patients and the public can benefit from advances in genomic science and technology. PMID:24433361

  16. Naturalistic perspectives of traditional Tibetan medicine and contemporary relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Chengxin ZHAO; Li TONG

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM) has unique naturalistic connotation. Understanding naturalism from the TTM helps us to increase our understanding of organic cosmology and naturalism itself. It also helps us to realize the potential of naturalism. Hopefully this will show us a broader Asian naturalism and multidimensional prospect of the international organic cosmology. This paper intends to describe and analyze the naturalism hidden in the TTM by combining the source, theory, system and pr...

  17. Review: Public perspectives on the utilization of human placentas in scientific research and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, R S

    2013-01-01

    Placental tissues are frequently utilized by scientists studying pregnancy and reproduction and in diverse fields including immunology, stem cell research, genetics, cancer research, and tissue engineering, as well as by clinicians in many therapies. Though the utilization of the human placenta in science and medicine has benefitted many people, little is known about public perspectives of this phenomenon. This review addresses placental donation, collection, and utilization in science and medicine, focusing on public perspectives. Cultural values and traditions, ethical paradigms and concerns, public understandings of science and medicine, and political considerations may impact perceptions of the utilization of the placenta in science and medicine, but systematic study is lacking. It is argued that knowledge of public views gained from empirical investigation may underpin the development of collection protocols and research projects that are more responsive to public will, spur more extensive utilization in science and medicine of this unique organ, and/or aid in the realization of the mobilization of knowledge about the placenta for clinical and educational ends. New avenues for research on public perspectives of the placenta are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hospitalist Perspective of Interactions with Medicine Subspecialty Consult Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Traci N; Bonsall, Joanna; Hunt, Daniel; Puig, Alberto; Richards, Jeremy B; Yu, Liyang; McSparron, Jakob I; Shah, Nainesh; Weissler, Jonathan; Miloslavsky, Eli M

    2018-05-01

    Medicine subspecialty consultation is becoming increasingly important in inpatient medicine. We conducted a survey study in which we examined hospitalist practices and attitudes regarding medicine subspecialty consultation. The survey instrument was developed by the authors based on prior literature and administered online anonymously to hospitalists at 4 academic medical centers in the United States. The survey evaluated 4 domains: (1) current consultation practices, (2) preferences regarding consultation, (3) barriers to and facilitating factors of effective consultation, and (4) a comparison between hospitalist-fellow and hospitalist-subspecialty attending interactions. One hundred twenty-two of 261 hospitalists (46.7%) responded. The majority of hospitalists interacted with fellows during consultation. Of those, 90.9% reported that in-person communication occurred during less than half of consultations, and 64.4% perceived pushback at least "sometimes " in their consult interactions. Participants viewed consultation as an important learning experience, preferred direct communication with the consulting service, and were interested in more teaching during consultation. The survey identified a number of barriers to and facilitating factors of an effective hospitalist-consultant interaction, which impacted both hospitalist learning and patient care. Hospitalists reported more positive experiences when interacting with subspecialty attendings compared to fellows with regard to multiple aspects of the consultation. The hospitalist-consultant interaction is viewed as important for both hospitalist learning and patient care. Multiple barriers and facilitating factors impact the interaction, many of which are amenable to intervention.

  19. Camels Milk: Nutrition and Health Perspectives Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.

  20. Holistic approach to functional constipation: Perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-11-23

    Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) proposes a different viewpoint to the chronic diseases. Diagnosis and implemented treatment are based on individual differences among patients. Constipation or Ea'teghal-e-batn is a condition in which the patient develops difficult or painful defecation. Based on TPM concepts, the fifirst digestion step starts from halq (oral cavity), and ends via defecation from the maq'ad (anus). Avicenna believed that four faculties, ha'zemeh (digestive), ja'zebeh (absorptive), ma'sekeh (retentive) and da'fe'eh (propulsive), are involved in the process of digestion and absorption of the ingested food and expelling the waste materials. The bowel movement and appearance of the stool is a measure for evaluating the gastrointestinal healthy function. Defecation should be with no pain and fecal material should have no burning and acuity. Low food intake or foods with dry temperament, dryness of gastrointestinal tract, diaphoresis and heavy exercise as well as intestine sensory loss were discussed as main causes of constipation. Management of constipation in TPM includes dietary schemes, oil massages and subsequently simple herbal medicines. According to TPM theories, the fifirst step in treating a disease is the elimination of disease causes (asbabe- maraz) and also providing the causes of health (asbab-e-sehhat). Health care providers should know the proper condition which the herbal medicines should be administered in and be able to guide the patients about the benefifits and hazards of herbal remedies, commonly used in their living origin.

  1. Molecular hydrogen in sports medicine: new therapeutic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, S M

    2015-04-01

    In the past 2 decades, molecular hydrogen emerged as a novel therapeutic agent, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects demonstrated in plethora of animal disease models and human studies. Beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen in clinical environment are observed especially in oxidative stress-mediated diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, brain stem infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, or neurodegenerative diseases. A number of more recent studies have reported that molecular hydrogen affects cell signal transduction and acts as an alkalizing agent, with these newly identified mechanisms of action having the potential to widen its application in clinical medicine even further. In particular, hydrogen therapy may be an effective and specific innovative treatment for exercise-induced oxidative stress and sports injury, with potential for the improvement of exercise performance. This review will summarize recent research findings regarding the clinical aspects of molecular hydrogen use, emphasizing its application in the field of sports medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Mengungkap Model Pendidikan Hindu Bali Tradisional Aguron-guron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Paramartha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pendidikan aguron-guron dikembangkan atas dua sub model. Model pertama dikembangkan dengan ideologi sakala ‘realis’ dengan tujuan Parartha ‘kesejahtraan’, yaitu agawe suka nikang rat ‘menjadikan siswa berkarakter dan dapat bekerja untuk kebahagiaan bersama di dunia (baca desa pakraman’. Sedangkan yang kedua adalah ideologi  niskala ‘idealis’ dengan tujuan paramartha, yaitu matutur ikang atma ri jatinya ‘menjadikan siswa sadar akan jati dirinya, bahwa ia sesungguhnya adalah roh’ atau sinar Ilahi. Model pendidikan aguron-guron merupakan kearifan lokal yang menjungjung tinggi nilai-nilai keseimbangan dan harmonisasi. Oleh karena itu terus diperhatikan dan dikembangkan untuk memelihara karakter bangsa, membangun landasan teori pendidikan dan pembelajaran berbasis budaya. Penelitian ini merupakan tahun ke dua, yang bertujuan menghasilkan bahan ajar dan VCD sebagai media pendukung pembelajaran model pendidikan Hindu Bali tradisional aguron-guron serta menguji efektivitas bahan ajar dan media VCD model pendidikan Hindu Bali tradisional aguron-guron tersebut. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Pasraman Seruling Dewata Tabanan dan  Pasraman  Griya  Kekeran  Blahbatuh  Gianyar. Metode pengumpulan data digunakan wawancara, studi kepustakaan, dokumentasi dan angket penilaian bahan ajar dan VCD. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan analisis deskriptif kuantitatif teknik prosentase dan kualitatif. Hasil uji ahli dan uji coba pengguna perorangan serta uji coba pengguna kelompok kecil terhadap produk yang dikembangkan berupa bahan ajar dan VCD mencakup materi Ilmu Silat Bali Kuno,Tapak Suci, Tattwa dan Nilai-Nilai Pendidikan Agama Hindu  menunjukkan sangat layak dan masuk dalam kategori tidak perlu direvisi

  3. Food and nutrition security in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra

    2018-01-01

    The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Perspectives in molecular imaging through translational research, human medicine, and veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep

    2014-01-01

    The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy: current overview and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li; Wang, Kui; Li, Qifu; Nice, Edouard C; Zhang, Haiyuan; Huang, Canhua

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a common disease that is a leading cause of death worldwide. Currently, early detection and novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed for more effective management of cancer. Importantly, protein profiling using clinical proteomic strategies, with spectacular sensitivity and precision, offer excellent promise for the identification of potential biomarkers that would direct the development of targeted therapeutic anticancer drugs for precision medicine. In particular, clinical sample sources, including tumor tissues and body fluids (blood, feces, urine and saliva), have been widely investigated using modern high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches combined with bioinformatic analysis, to pursue the possibilities of precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy. Discussed in this review are the current advantages and limitations of clinical proteomics, the available strategies of clinical proteomics for the management of precision medicine, as well as the challenges and future perspectives of clinical proteomics-driven precision medicine for targeted cancer therapy.

  6. Acidic and basic drugs in medicinal chemistry: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charifson, Paul S; Walters, W Patrick

    2014-12-11

    The acid/base properties of a molecule are among the most fundamental for drug action. However, they are often overlooked in a prospective design manner unless it has been established that a certain ionization state (e.g., quaternary base or presence of a carboxylic acid) appears to be required for activity. In medicinal chemistry optimization programs it is relatively common to attenuate basicity to circumvent undesired effects such as lack of biological selectivity or safety risks such as hERG or phospholipidosis. However, teams may not prospectively explore a range of carefully chosen compound pKa values as part of an overall chemistry strategy or design hypothesis. This review summarizes the potential advantages and disadvantages of both acidic and basic drugs and provides some new analyses based on recently available public data.

  7. Metabolomics enables precision medicine: "A White Paper, Community Perspective".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, Richard D; Dunn, Warwick; Schmidt, Michael A; Gross, Steven S; Kirwan, Jennifer A; Cascante, Marta; Brennan, Lorraine; Wishart, David S; Oresic, Matej; Hankemeier, Thomas; Broadhurst, David I; Lane, Andrew N; Suhre, Karsten; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Sumner, Susan J; Thiele, Ines; Fiehn, Oliver; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima

    stratification of patients based on metabolic pathways impacted; (4) reveal biomarkers for drug response phenotypes, providing an effective means to predict variation in a subject's response to treatment (pharmacometabolomics); (5) define a metabotype for each specific genotype, offering a functional read-out for genetic variants: (6) provide a means to monitor response and recurrence of diseases, such as cancers: (7) describe the molecular landscape in human performance applications and extreme environments. Importantly, sophisticated metabolomic analytical platforms and informatics tools have recently been developed that make it possible to measure thousands of metabolites in blood, other body fluids, and tissues. Such tools also enable more robust analysis of response to treatment. New insights have been gained about mechanisms of diseases, including neuropsychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, cancers, diabetes and a range of pathologies. A series of ground breaking studies supported by National Institute of Health (NIH) through the Pharmacometabolomics Research Network and its partnership with the Pharmacogenomics Research Network illustrate how a patient's metabotype at baseline, prior to treatment, during treatment, and post-treatment, can inform about treatment outcomes and variations in responsiveness to drugs (e.g., statins, antidepressants, antihypertensives and antiplatelet therapies). These studies along with several others also exemplify how metabolomics data can complement and inform genetic data in defining ethnic, sex, and gender basis for variation in responses to treatment, which illustrates how pharmacometabolomics and pharmacogenomics are complementary and powerful tools for precision medicine. Our metabolomics community believes that inclusion of metabolomics data in precision medicine initiatives is timely and will provide an extremely valuable layer of data that compliments and informs other data obtained by these important initiatives. Our

  8. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field.

  9. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Asthma: A Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multidatabase electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. Then, the antiasthmatic effectiveness of TPM-recommended plants was verified in view of the findings from modern pharmacological investigations. According to the main TPM texts, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Boswellia oleogumresin, Crocus sativus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis and Ruta graveolens were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma. This finding was confirmed by pharmacological studies which showed counterbalancing effects of the above-mentioned plants on inflammation, oxidative stress, allergic response, tracheal smooth muscle cell constriction and airway remodeling. The strong ethnobotanical background of plants used in TPM could be a valuable tool to find new anti-asthmatic medications. In this review, TPM-suggested anti-asthmatic plants were found to possess several mechanisms relevant to the treatment of respiratory diseases according to the information retrieved from modern pharmacological studies. This high degree of conformity suggested further proof-of-concept trials to ascertain the role of these plants in the routine management of asthmatic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Systems biology of resilience and optimal health: integrating Chinese and Western medicine perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Wietmarschen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Western science has been strong in measuring details of biological systems such as gene expression levels and metabolite concentrations, and has generally followed a bottom up approach with regard to explaining biological phenomena. Chinese medicine in contrast has evolved as a top down approach in which body and mind is seen as a whole, a phenomenological approach based on the organization and dynamics of symptom patterns. Western and Chinese perspectives are developing towards a ‘middle out’ approach. Chinese medicine diagnosis, we will argue, allows bridging the gap between biologists and psychologists and offers new opportunities for the development of health monitoring tools and health promotion strategies.

  11. Improving data retrieval quality: Evidence based medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalov, M; Dobrynin, V; Balykina, J; Kolbin, A; Verbitskaya, E; Kasimova, M

    2015-01-01

    The actively developing approach in modern medicine is the approach focused on principles of evidence-based medicine. The assessment of quality and reliability of studies is needed. However, in some cases studies corresponding to the first level of evidence may contain errors in randomized control trials (RCTs). Solution of the problem is the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Studies both in the fields of medicine and information retrieval are conducted for developing search engines for the MEDLINE database [1]; combined techniques for summarization and information retrieval targeted to solving problems of finding the best medication based on the levels of evidence are being developed [2]. Based on the relevance and demand for studies both in the field of medicine and information retrieval, it was decided to start the development of a search engine for the MEDLINE database search on the basis of the Saint-Petersburg State University with the support of Pavlov First Saint-Petersburg State Medical University and Tashkent Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education. Novelty and value of the proposed system are characterized by the use of ranking method of relevant abstracts. It is suggested that the system will be able to perform ranking based on studies level of evidence and to apply GRADE criteria for system evaluation. The assigned task falls within the domain of information retrieval and machine learning. Based on the results of implementation from previous work [3], in which the main goal was to cluster abstracts from MEDLINE database by subtypes of medical interventions, a set of algorithms for clustering in this study was selected: K-means, K-means ++, EM from the sklearn (http://scikit-learn.org) and WEKA (http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/~ml/weka/) libraries, together with the methods of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) [4] choosing the first 210 facts and the model "bag of words" [5] to represent clustered documents

  12. Idiopathic Scoliosis from Psychopathological and Mind-Body Medicine Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talić, Goran; Ostojić, Ljerka; Bursać, Snježana Novaković; Nožica-Radulović, Tatjana; Stevanović-Papić, Đurđica

    2016-12-01

    Idiopathic scoliosis, defined as a three-dimensional spine and trunk deformity, which appears in otherwise healthy subjects, exhibits complex relations with various forms of personal well-being and psychopathology. Most research studies have documented a higher proportion of psychological disturbances (e.g., self-criticism, negative body image, low self-esteem) and mental disorders (e.g., anxiety and depressive disorders, personality disorders) among idiopathc scoliosis patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, there are some reports, although more systematic research is warranted, on the role of mental health and personality traits in relation to the adherence to conservative treatment. Given the increasing role of surgical treatment in the management of scoliosis, as well as several reports on negative psychological outcomes of such interventions, there is a growing need for ongoing screening and mental health care in this population. It seems this also holds true for non-operative treatments, particularly bracing therapy. One should keep in mind that these scoliosis-psychopathology relations are deduced from a limited number of empirical studies, usually conducted on small sample sizes, suggesting the need for further large-scale investigations, preferrably those with longitudinal research designs. Understanding the complex interplay between personality/psychopathology and spinal deformities within the framework of personalized mind-body medicine, should help clinicians tailor more individualized and specific treatments and predict therapeutic outcomes in this clinical population.

  13. [Intensive care medicine on medical undergraduation: student's perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Alessandro de Moura; Albuquerque, Ligia Carvalho; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Rolim, Carlos Eduardo Cerqueira; Godinho, Tiana Mascarenhas; Liberato, Maurício Valverde; Oliveira Filho, Fernando Cezar Cabral; Azevedo, Ana Bárbara Galvão de; Neves, Ana Paula Soares da Silva; Martins, Marcelo de Jesus; Silva, João Paulo Maciel; Jesuíno, Paulo André; Souza Filho, Sydney Agareno de

    2007-12-01

    There are deficiencies on Intensive Medicine (IM) teaching in most of medical undergraduate schools. Those deficiencies may imply damages on their clinical competence. The objective of this study was to analyze current status of IM teaching and the medical undergraduate student interest in this speciality. A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005. We applied a self-reported questionnaire to enrolled students between the sixth and the last semesters of two medical schools from Salvador-Bahia. The questionnaire contained questions about students' interest and knowledge on IM, and opinion on IM teaching in their schools. We studied 570 students. Most of them (57.5%) had never realized a clerkship in intensive care unit (ICU) despite classifying its usefulness as high (mean of 4.14 ± 1.05, in a scale from 1 to 5). IM interest was high or very high in 53.7% of sample. Almost all students (97%) thought that IM topics should be more explored at their curriculum. Only 42.1% reported to be able to assess a critical care patient and this assurance was higher among students with previous clerkship in ICU (p < 0.001). Shock, cardiopulmonary resuscitation and sepsis were the most interesting topics in ICU for students' opinion. This study revealed a high interest in IM among medical undergraduate students. However, most had never practice a clerkship in ICU, demonstrating to be an important factor on undergraduate student performance faced to a critical care patient.

  14. SINKRETISME DALAM AGAMA HINDU DAN BUDDHA DI BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Kiriana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In religious life, at first the existence of Hindu and Buddhist very harmonious and contradictory in their home country, namely India. But the two religions in Indosesia seem very harmonious, especially in the era of the Majapahit kingdom. Moreover, the existence of Hinduism and Buddhism in Bali very harmony and even complement each other in practice and spiritual order. Buddhism is very much a substance similar to the teachings of Hinduism. In some Hindu literature was found a lot in common with the essence of Buddhism, and vice versa. Very often found literature-literature that reflects the harmony of both religions, among others: Lontar Siwagama, Kekawin Mahabharata, Ramayana Kekawin, Kekawin Arjuna Wiwaha, Kekawin Bharata Yudha and Kekawin Sutasoma, Sanghyang Kamahayanikan, Bubugsah Gagakaking and so on. By looking at it as if the two religions fused in practice in Bali, especially in the implementation of religious activities such as the ritual tawur agung in connection with the celebration of Nyepi Saka as the New Year.

  15. Postmenopausal Health and Disease from the Perspective of Evolutionary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Froehle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Menopause normally occurs between 45-55 years of age, marks the end of a woman’s reproductive lifespan, and is accompanied by a reduction in estrogen that has substantial physiological effects. The standard medical view is that these changes underlie high postmenopausal disease rates, defining menopause as an estrogen deficiency condition needing treatment. This view stems from the idea that extended postmenopausal longevity is a consequence of recent technological developments, such that women now outlive their evolutionarily-programmed physiological functional lifespan.Increasingly, however, researchers employing an evolutionary medicine framework have used data from comparative demography, comparative biology, and human behavioral ecology to challenge the mainstream medical view. Instead, these data suggest that a two-decade human postmenopausal lifespan is an evolved, species-typical trait that distinguishes humans from other primates, and has deep roots in our evolutionary past. This view rejects the inevitability of high rates of postmenopausal disease and the concept of menopause as pathology. Rather, high postmenopausal disease risk likely stems from specific lifestyle differences between industrialized societies and foraging societies of the type that dominated human evolutionary history. Women in industrialized societies tend to have higher estrogen levels during premenopausal life, and experience a greater reduction in estrogen across menopause than do women living in foraging societies, with potentially important physiological consequences. The anthropological approach to understanding postmenopausal disease risk reframes the postmenopausal lifespan as an integral period in the human life cycle, and offers alternative avenues for disease prevention by highlighting the importance of lifestyle effects on health.

  16. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives; Radioterapia em medicina veterinaria: principios e perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: marco@cetea.com.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquisa Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Animal. Curso de Medicina Veterinaria

    2010-06-15

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  17. Advanced therapy medicinal products: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cécile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) are innovative therapies that encompass gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products. These therapies are expected to bring important health benefits, but also to substantially impact the pharmaceuticals budget. The aim of this study was to characterise the ATMPs in development and discuss future implications in terms of market access. Clinical trials were searched in the following databases: EudraCT (EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials), ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP (International Clinical Trials Registry Platform of the World Health Organization). Trials were classified by category of ATMP as defined by European regulation EC No. 1394/2007, as well as by development phase and disease area. The database search identified 939 clinical trials investigating ATMPs (85% ongoing, 15% completed). The majority of trials were in the early stages (Phase I, I/II: 64.3%, Phase II, II/III: 27.9%, Phase 3: 6.9%). Per category of ATMP, we identified 53.6% of trials for somatic cell therapies, 22.8% for tissue-engineered products, 22.4% for gene therapies, and 1.2% for combined products (incorporating a medical device). Disease areas included cancer (24.8%), cardiovascular diseases (19.4%), musculoskeletal (10.5%), immune system and inflammation (11.5%), neurology (9.1%), and others. Of the trials, 47.2% enrolled fewer than 25 patients. Due to the complexity and specificity of ATMPs, new clinical trial methodologies are being considered (e.g., small sample size, non-randomised trials, single-arm trials, surrogate endpoints, integrated protocols, and adaptive designs). Evidence generation post-launch will become unavoidable to address payers' expectations. ATMPs represent a fast-growing field of interest. Although most of the products are in an early development phase, the combined trial phase and the potential to cure severe chronic conditions suggest that ATMPs may reach the market earlier than

  18. Enhancing student perspectives of humanism in medicine: reflections from the Kalaupapa service learning project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Winona K; Harris, Chessa C D; Mortensen, Kawika A; Long, Linsey M; Sugimoto-Matsuda, Jeanelle

    2016-05-09

    Service learning is endorsed by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) as an integral part of U.S. medical school curricula for future physicians. Service learning has been shown to help physicians in training rediscover the altruistic reasons for pursuing medicine and has the potential to enhance students' perspectives of humanism in medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a unique collaboration between disadvantaged post-baccalaureate students with an underserved rural community. This study was conducted to determine whether the Kalaupapa service learning curricula enhanced student perspectives of humanism in medicine at an early stage of their medical training. Program participants between 2008 and 2014 (n = 41) completed written reflections following the conclusion of the service learning project. Four prompts guided student responses. Reflections were thematically analyzed. Once all essays were read, team members compared their findings to condense or expand themes and assess levels of agreement. Emerging themes of resilience and unity were prominent throughout the student reflections. Students expressed respect and empathy for the patients' struggles and strengths, as well as those of their peers. The experience also reinforced students' commitment to service, particularly to populations in rural and underserved communities. Students also gained a deeper understanding of the patient experience and also of themselves as future physicians. To identify and address underserved and rural patients' health care needs, training programs must prepare an altruistic health care workforce that embraces the humanistic element of medicine. The Kalaupapa service learning project is a potential curricular model that can be used to enhance students' awareness and perspectives of humanism in medicine.

  19. Cancer survivors' perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Yang, Zhi-Qi; Liu, Cong; Chen, Si-Jia; Shen, Qian; Zhang, Tian-Rui; Partike, Nancy S; Yuan, Zheng-Ping; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2015-01-01

    In the People's Republic of China, both western medicine (WM) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation. Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis. WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor-patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused. Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM. Meanwhile, marketing management and guidance to consumers regarding use of dietary supplements in the cancer rehabilitation field are also necessary.

  20. Peningkatan Mutu Pembelajaran Agama Hindu Dalam Mewujudkan Perubahan Mental Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewa A. R. Wulandari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Advancement of science and technology is growing rapidly can lead to positive effects and negative effects on mental students, such as the still many students who are less disciplined in dressing at school or even when following the lesson in the classroom and the lower the morale owned of the students themselves. Seeing such a phenomenon is feared will be increasingly declining mental and student behavior. So in this case the improvement of the quality of Hindu religious learning is very important role for Hindus in particular and not limited to students, because religion is a guide in behaving well in accordance with religious norms that will bring good mental changes in improving attitudes and behavior behavior, personality and budhi pekerti and moral existing in learners.

  1. Neotectonic inversion of the Hindu Kush-Pamir mountain region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruleman, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Hindu Kush-Pamir region of southern Asia is one of Earth's most rapidly deforming regions and it is poorly understood. This study develops a kinematic model based on active faulting in this part of the Trans-Himalayan orogenic belt. Previous studies have described north-verging thrust faults and some strike-slip faults, reflected in the northward-convex geomorphologic and structural grain of the Pamir Mountains. However, this structural analysis suggests that contemporary tectonics are changing the style of deformation from north-verging thrusts formed during the initial contraction of the Himalayan orogeny to south-verging thrusts and a series of northwest-trending, dextral strike-slip faults in the modern transpressional regime. These northwest-trending fault zones are linked to the major right-lateral Karakoram fault, located to the east, as synthetic, conjugate shears that form a right-stepping en echelon pattern. Northwest-trending lineaments with dextral displacements extend continuously westward across the Hindu Kush-Pamir region indicating a pattern of systematic shearing of multiple blocks to the northwest as the deformation effects from Indian plate collision expands to the north-northwest. Locally, east-northeast- and northwest-trending faults display sinistral and dextral displacement, respectively, yielding conjugate shear pairs developed in a northwest-southeast compressional stress field. Geodetic measurements and focal mechanisms from historical seismicity support these surficial, tectono-morphic observations. The conjugate shear pairs may be structurally linked subsidiary faults and co-seismically slip during single large magnitude (> M7) earthquakes that occur on major south-verging thrust faults. This kinematic model provides a potential context for prehistoric, historic, and future patterns of faulting and earthquakes.

  2. Medicine use and safety while breastfeeding: investigating the perspectives of community pharmacists in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponti, Martine; Stewart, Kay; Amir, Lisa H; Hussainy, Safeera Y

    2015-01-01

    Consumers and health professionals rely on community pharmacists for accurate information about the safety of medicines. Many breastfeeding women require medications, yet we know little about the advice provided to them by pharmacists in Australia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the perspectives of community pharmacists in Australia on medication use and safety in breastfeeding using a postal survey of a national random sample of 1166 community pharmacies in 2011. One hundred and seventy-six pharmacists responded (51% female). Of the 52% of participants with children, many (70%) had a total breastfeeding duration (self or partner) of 27 weeks or more. The majority (92%) were confident about supplying or counselling on medication during breastfeeding. The most commonly used resources were drug company information, Australian Medicines Handbook and the Royal Women's Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Medicine Guide. Most (80%) believed the available information to be adequate and 86% thought it accessible. Over one-third were unaware that ibuprofen and metronidazole are compatible with breastfeeding. Most (80%) were able to name at least one medicine that may decrease milk supply. We found that community pharmacists discuss medicine use in lactation and are confident of their ability to do so; however, their knowledge may be variable.

  3. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad--to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs

  4. Policy objective of generic medicines from the investment perspective: The case of clopidogrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elek, Péter; Harsányi, András; Zelei, Tamás; Csetneki, Kata; Kaló, Zoltán

    2017-05-01

    The objective of generic drug policies in most countries is defined from a disinvestment perspective: reduction in expenditures without compromising health outcomes. However, in countries with restricted access of patients to original patented drugs, the objective of generic drug policies can also be defined from an investment perspective: health gain by improved patient access without need for additional health budget. This study examines the investment aspect of generic medicines by analyzing clopidogrel utilization in European countries between 2004 and 2014 using multilevel panel data models. We find that clopidogrel consumption was strongly affected by affordability constraints before the generic entry around 2009, but this effect decayed by 2014. After controlling for other variables, utilization had a substantially larger trend increase in lower-income European countries than in the higher-income ones. Generic entry increased clopidogrel consumption only in lower- and average-income countries but not in the highest-income ones. An earlier generic entry was associated with a larger effect. The case of clopidogrel indicates that the entrance of generics may increase patient access to effective medicines, most notably in lower-income countries, thereby reducing inequalities between European patients. Policymakers should also consider this investment aspect of generic medicines when designing pharmaceutical policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychological Treatment Trials for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: A Sexual Medicine Critique and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2015-12-01

    Publications claim efficacy for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in women with cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and mindfulness meditation training (MMT). However, no review has evaluated the evidence for these therapies from the rigorous perspective of sexual medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the published controlled trials of CBT and MMT for disorders of sexual desire from the perspective of sexual medicine standards of control paradigms, risk/benefit ratios, and clinical significance. MEDLINE was reviewed from the last 10 years. Evaluated study quality via 10 metrics and efficacy as mean change, and proportion of responders and remitters. Three controlled trials support CBT and two controlled trials support MMT. The reports of the trials each lacked several scientific requirements: a hierarchy of endpoints with a planned primary endpoint, sufficient information on the intervention to reproduce it, randomization, adequate control, accepted measures of benefits and harms, compliance data, and/or outcomes of clinical relevance. Psychological treatments for HSDD are not yet supported by adequate clinical trials. The current scientific and regulatory standards for drug treatment trials should also be applicable to psychological treatment trials. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  6. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uprety Yadav

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention

  7. Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  8. The Essence of Hindu Doctrine and its Influence on Christianity in America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Corneliu Arion

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the topic of the identity of Hindu religion and its impact on Christianity in the West (i.e. in Europe and USA, which is to be seen, especially through Neo-Hindu movements (that occurred mainly during 1950s–1980s. Thus, features and key terms such as: authority of the Veda, Dharma, moksha, samsāra and karma, the paths to liberation, concept of God, Brahman-ātman, avidyā and māyā and AUM are sketchily presented in the first part of the paper. There are obvious differences between both Hindu schools and Christian faith which regards 1. Ultimate concern: For the Hindu, it is escape from the human condition, whereas for the Christian it is freedom from guilt, sin, and the devil; 2. Human nature: For the Christian it is creaturely and sinful; for the Hindu it is divine; 3. Human problem: It is moral sin for the Christian and intellectual ignorance for the Hindu; 4. Resolution: For the Christian it is a divine act at infinite cost to God; for the Hindu it is human effort, sometimes mixed with grace, without cost to the god. In the second part it is presented the debated problem of Gurus and their movements and Neo-Hindu movements sprung at the second half of 20th century, such as Satya Sai Baba, International Society for Krishna Consciousness and meditation for “transcendental consciousness” (TM. In any case, the Indian offspring demonstrate that we have come to an important moment in the history of religions, one in which new religious landscapes continually emerge like the images of a kaleidoscope and where people will have to learn whether it is possible to share the same planet.

  9. Pattern Of Adolescent Learning Hindu Scholarship Recruits Through Pasraman Widya Dharma Saraswati

    OpenAIRE

    I Nyoman Warsana

    2017-01-01

    Mental development and religious personality is one aspect that needs to get special attention because through it children and adolescents understand the meaning of Religion and its benefits for human life and will later form a person who virtuous noble character. Having grown a noble personality then the teenager has a fortress to face the challenges of his life. In an effort to provide guidance to the younger generation, Parisada Hindu Dharma in Atula Village and Hindu community together at...

  10. From bosentan (Tracleer®) to macitentan (Opsumit®): The medicinal chemistry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Christoph; Bolli, Martin H; Gatfield, John

    2016-08-01

    The endothelin peptides bind to two receptors found on cells of vasculature and in tissues. While the endothelin-A (ETA)-receptor is predominantly expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, the endothelin-B (ETB)-receptor is also found in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and neuronal cells. Activation of the endothelin system plays a driving role in several chronic cardiovascular diseases and several endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) (bosentan (6), ambrisentan (83) and macitentan (43)) have successfully been introduced as oral treatments for the life threatening condition of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This digest highlights the medicinal chemistry of the pyrimidine based ERAs 6 and 43 and describes the story that started with bosentan and culminated in macitentan (43). A condensed overview of the competitive landscape in the field of ERAs puts the different strategies and tactics applied by the medicinal chemists involved in this endeavor into perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular Diagnostics for Precision Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoli Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision medicine, a concept that has recently emerged and has been widely discussed, emphasizes tailoring medical care to individuals largely based on information acquired from molecular diagnostic testing. As a vital aspect of precision cancer medicine, targeted therapy has been proven to be efficacious and less toxic for cancer treatment. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes for cancer related deaths in the United States and worldwide. By far, CRC has been one of the most successful examples in the field of precision cancer medicine, applying molecular tests to guide targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the current guidelines for anti-EGFR therapy, revisit the roles of pathologists in an era of precision cancer medicine, demonstrate the transition from traditional “one test-one drug” assays to multiplex assays, especially by using next-generation sequencing platforms in the clinical diagnostic laboratories, and discuss the future perspectives of tumor heterogeneity associated with anti-EGFR resistance and immune checkpoint blockage therapy in CRC.

  12. Social media in the emergency medicine residency curriculum: social media responses to the residents' perspective article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Bryan D; Kobner, Scott; Trueger, N Seth; Yiu, Stella; Lin, Michelle

    2015-05-01

    In July to August 2014, Annals of Emergency Medicine continued a collaboration with an academic Web site, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM), to host an online discussion session featuring the 2014 Annals Residents' Perspective article "Integration of Social Media in Emergency Medicine Residency Curriculum" by Scott et al. The objective was to describe a 14-day worldwide clinician dialogue about evidence, opinions, and early relevant innovations revolving around the featured article and made possible by the immediacy of social media technologies. Six online facilitators hosted the multimodal discussion on the ALiEM Web site, Twitter, and YouTube, which featured 3 preselected questions. Engagement was tracked through various Web analytic tools, and themes were identified by content curation. The dialogue resulted in 1,222 unique page views from 325 cities in 32 countries on the ALiEM Web site, 569,403 Twitter impressions, and 120 views of the video interview with the authors. Five major themes we identified in the discussion included curriculum design, pedagogy, and learning theory; digital curation skills of the 21st-century emergency medicine practitioner; engagement challenges; proposed solutions; and best practice examples. The immediacy of social media technologies provides clinicians the unique opportunity to engage a worldwide audience within a relatively short time frame. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The German DRG system 2003-2010 from the perspective of intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Dominik; Bunzemeier, Holger; Roeder, Norbert; Reinecke, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Intensive care medicine is extremely heterogeneous, expensive and can only be partially planned and controlled. A correct and fair representation of intensive care medicine in the G-DRG system is an essential requirement for the use as a pricing system. From the perspective of intensive care medicine, pertinent changes of the DRG structure and differentiation of relevant parameters have been established within the G-DRG systems 2003-2010. Analysis of relevant diagnoses, medical procedures, co-payment structures and G-DRGs in the versions 2003-2010 based on the publications of the German DRG Institute (InEK) and the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI). Since the first G-DRG system version 2003, numerous measures improved quality of case allocation of intensive care medicine. Highly relevant to the system version 2010 are duration of mechanical ventilation, the intensive care treatment complex and complicating constellations. The number of G-DRGs relevant to intensive medical care increased from n = 3 (2003) to n = 58 (2010). For standard cases, quality of case allocation and G-DRG reimbursement are adequate in 2010. The G-DRG system gained complexity again. High demands are made on correct and complete coding of complex cases. Nevertheless, further adjustments of the G-DRG system especially for cases with extremely high costs are necessary. Where the G-DRG system is unable to cover extremely high-cost cases, reimbursement solutions beyond the G-DRG structure should be taken into account.

  14. Medical students' perspective about role-plays as a teaching strategy in community medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, Iram; Mukhtar, Fatima; Hashmi, Noreen Rahat

    2012-04-01

    To assess the students' perspective about role-plays conducted as a teaching methodology in community medicine. A quasi-experimental study. Department of Community Medicine at Fatima Memorial College of Medicine and Dentistry from July to November 2010. A probability technique of simple random sampling was used to collect 63 students from the third and fourth year MBBS who were randomly distributed in five sub-groups. They were variously ascribed the roles of obsceners, participants and helpers. A questionnaire was distributed to collect student's responses. The data was analyzed on SPSS version 17 to compare the responses. Chi-square test was applied and p-value was fixed at andragogy (p = 0.005) and 48 (76.2%) said that it provoked critical thinking about the subject (p = 0.038). Fifty-four students (85.7%) admitted that their attention span was better in role-plays as compared to lectures (p = 0.047). Role-plays were well accepted by the students as an effective teaching methodology and can be incorporated as a part of teaching strategies in Community Medicine.

  15. Medical dominance in Canada in historical perspective: the rise and fall of medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, D; Torrance, G M; Kaufert, J M

    1983-01-01

    Freidson's concept of medical dominance is compared to the alternative conceptions of neo-Marxist writers. Dominance is then examined in historical perspective, using medicine in Canada (mainly Ontario) as a case study. Medicine emerged as the dominant health occupation in Canada in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, consolidating its power between World War I and the Saskatchewan doctors' strike of 1962. The authors argue that medical dominance has declined since that time due to such factors as the involvement of the state in health insurance, the rise of other health occupations, increasing public or at least elite skepticism, and possible internal fragmentation. The underlying social explanation for this historical process is sought in changes in the Canadian class structure, specifically the spread of the capitalist mode of production, the decline of the petite bourgeoisie, and the rise of the state. It is suggested that Freidson's specific accounts of the history of medicine must be incorporated for explanatory purposes within the broader neo-Marxist view of medicine as an intermediary rather than an ultimately determining institution.

  16. Molecular Diagnostics for Precision Medicine in Colorectal Cancer: Current Status and Future Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoli; Yang, Zhaohai; Eshleman, James R; Netto, George J; Lin, Ming-Tseh

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine, a concept that has recently emerged and has been widely discussed, emphasizes tailoring medical care to individuals largely based on information acquired from molecular diagnostic testing. As a vital aspect of precision cancer medicine, targeted therapy has been proven to be efficacious and less toxic for cancer treatment. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers and among the leading causes for cancer related deaths in the United States and worldwide. By far, CRC has been one of the most successful examples in the field of precision cancer medicine, applying molecular tests to guide targeted therapy. In this review, we summarize the current guidelines for anti-EGFR therapy, revisit the roles of pathologists in an era of precision cancer medicine, demonstrate the transition from traditional "one test-one drug" assays to multiplex assays, especially by using next-generation sequencing platforms in the clinical diagnostic laboratories, and discuss the future perspectives of tumor heterogeneity associated with anti-EGFR resistance and immune checkpoint blockage therapy in CRC.

  17. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJzerman MJ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maarten J IJzerman,1,3 Andrea Manca,2,3 Julia Keizer,1 Scott D Ramsey4 1Department of Health Technology and Services Research, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands; 2Centre for Health Economics, University of York, York, UK; 3Department of Population Health, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Strassen, Luxembourg, 4Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: Personalized medicine (PM or precision medicine has been defined as an innovative approach that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles in prevention and treatment of disease. In PM, genomic information may contribute to the molecular understanding of disease, to optimize preventive health care strategies, and to fit the best drug therapies to the patient's individual characteristics. Evidence development in the era of genomic medicine is extremely challenging due to a number of factors. These include the rapid technological innovation in molecular diagnostics and targeted drug discoveries, and hence the large number of mutations and multiple ways these may influence treatment decisions. Although the evidence base for PM is evolving rapidly, the main question to be explored in this article is whether existing evidence is also fit for comparative effectiveness research (CER. As a starting point, this paper therefore reflects on the evidence required for CER and the evidence gaps preventing decisions on market access and coverage. The paper then discusses challenges and potential barriers for applying a CER paradigm to PM, identifies common methodologies for designing clinical trials in PM, discusses various approaches for analyzing clinical trials to infer from population to individual level, and presents an example of a clinical trial in PM (The RxPONDER TRIAL demonstrating good practice. The paper concludes with a future perspective, including modeling approaches for evidence synthesis.Keywords: personalized

  18. Gender, mental illness and the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, Soumitra; Nardodkar, Renuka; Shields, Laura; Bunders, Joske F G; Sagade, Jaya

    2015-01-01

    Section 5(ii) of The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 (HMA) states that under certain circumstances, mental illness is accepted as a ground for the annulment of marriage, while Section 13(1) (iii) states that mental illness is a ground for divorce. There is little data on how this provision is used and applied in matrimonial petitions. This paper assesses judicial practices in divorce cases, exploring the extent to which gender and the diagnosis of mental illness affect the decision to grant annulment or divorce. The paper analyses judgments related to annulment and divorce at the Family Court in Pune and at the High Courts in India. In the Family Court at Pune, 85% of the cases were filed by husbands, who alleged that their spouse was mentally ill. Medical evidence of mental illness was presented in only 36% of the cases and in many cases, divorce/nullity was granted even in the absence of medical evidence. In 14% of the cases, nullity/divorce was granted even when both spouses were not present. Of the Family Court cases reaching the High Court, 95% were filed by male petitioners. The High Courts reversed the lower courts' judgments in 50% of the cases. Our analysis highlights the need for standardised guidelines for lower courts on what constitutes adequate medical proof of mental illness when hearing a petition related to nullity or divorce under HMA. It also provides a critical review of Section 5(ii) of HMA.

  19. Divine Intersections: Hindu Ritual and the Incorporation of Religious Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathinka Frøystad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article throws the study of multireligious sociality in Western contexts into sharp relief by examining the case of India. Much of the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism tends to assume that religious beliefs, practices and spaces make the respective religious communities close entirely in upon themselves. While this assumption may hold true for most of the Western settings we study, it does not necessarily give an accurate description of the conditions for multireligious sociality in other parts of the world. In India, for instance, religious boundaries still display signs of malleability despite the religious politicization and occasional interreligious violence of the past decades. Drawing on recent anthropological research, this article shows that people of different religious denominations still visit Sufi shrines, that Hindus still incorporate ritual elements and divine beings from the religious traditions of their Others and that they exercise a wide personal choice in terms of spiritual activities, thus enabling spiritual paths that cross in and out of Hinduism. In a Hindu context rituals do not necessarily have an insulating effect; they may also provide points of intersection that open up toward the Other, thus fostering familiarity and recognition. Similar arguments have been made for Buddhist settings. The question is thus whether the current scholarship of cosmopolitanism may entail a certain monotheistic bias that needs to accounted for, something that is of particular importance when theorizing in ways that make universal claims.

  20. Enhancing the Evidence for Behavioral Counseling: A Perspective From the Society of Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Klesges, Lisa M; Resnicow, Ken; Stone, Amy; Davidson, Karina W

    2015-09-01

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) clinical guidelines at present rarely assign the highest grade recommendation to behavioral counseling interventions for chronic disease prevention or risk reduction because of concerns about the certainty and quality of the evidence base. As a result, the broad integration of behavioral counseling interventions in primary care remains elusive. Thus, there is an urgent need for novel perspectives on how to generate the highest-quality and -certainty evidence for primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. As members of the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM)--a multidisciplinary scientific organization committed to improving population health through behavior change--we review the USPSTF mandate and current recommendations for behavioral counseling interventions and provide a perspective for the future that calls for concerted and coordinated efforts among SBM, USPSTF, and other organizations invested in the rapid and wider uptake of beneficial, feasible, and referable primary care-focused behavioral counseling interventions. This perspective highlights five areas for further development, including (1) behavioral counseling-focused practice-based research networks; (2) promotion of USPSTF evidence standards and the increased use of pragmatic RCT design; (3) quality control and improvement procedures for behavioral counseling training; (4) systematic research on effective primary care-based collaborative care models; and (5) methodologic innovations that capitalize on disruptive technologies and healthcare transformation. Collective efforts to improve the health of all Americans in the 21st century and beyond must ensure that effective, feasible, and referable behavioral counseling interventions are embedded in modern primary care practice. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicine, religion and ayahuasca in Catalonia. Considering ayahuasca networks from a medical anthropology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apud, Ismael; Romaní, Oriol

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychoactive beverage from the Amazon, traditionally used by indigenous and mestizo populations in the region. Widespread international use of the beverage began in the 1990s in both secular contexts and religious/spiritual networks. This article offers an analysis of these networks as health care systems in general and for the case of Spain and specifically Catalonia, describing the emergence and characteristics of their groups, and the therapeutic itineraries of some participants. The medical anthropology perspective we take enables us to reflect on the relationship between medicine and religion, and problematize the tensions between medicalization and medical pluralism. Closely linked to the process of medicalization, we also analyze prohibitionist drug policies and their tensions and conflicts with the use of ayahuasca in ritual and 'health care' contexts. The paper ends with a reflection on the problem of ayahuasca as 'medicine', since the connection between religion and medicine is a very difficult one to separate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Advances in Patient Classification for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Machine Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Chengjun; Niu, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary and alternative medicine in medical field, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has drawn great attention in the domestic field and overseas. In practice, TCM provides a quite distinct methodology to patient diagnosis and treatment compared to western medicine (WM). Syndrome (ZHENG or pattern) is differentiated by a set of symptoms and signs examined from an individual by four main diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation which reflects the pathological and physiological changes of disease occurrence and development. Patient classification is to divide patients into several classes based on different criteria. In this paper, from the machine learning perspective, a survey on patient classification issue will be summarized on three major aspects of TCM: sign classification, syndrome differentiation, and disease classification. With the consideration of different diagnostic data analyzed by different computational methods, we present the overview for four subfields of TCM diagnosis, respectively. For each subfield, we design a rectangular reference list with applications in the horizontal direction and machine learning algorithms in the longitudinal direction. According to the current development of objective TCM diagnosis for patient classification, a discussion of the research issues around machine learning techniques with applications to TCM diagnosis is given to facilitate the further research for TCM patient classification. PMID:26246834

  3. Advances in Patient Classification for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Machine Learning Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Chengjun; Niu, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    As a complementary and alternative medicine in medical field, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has drawn great attention in the domestic field and overseas. In practice, TCM provides a quite distinct methodology to patient diagnosis and treatment compared to western medicine (WM). Syndrome (ZHENG or pattern) is differentiated by a set of symptoms and signs examined from an individual by four main diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation which reflects the pathological and physiological changes of disease occurrence and development. Patient classification is to divide patients into several classes based on different criteria. In this paper, from the machine learning perspective, a survey on patient classification issue will be summarized on three major aspects of TCM: sign classification, syndrome differentiation, and disease classification. With the consideration of different diagnostic data analyzed by different computational methods, we present the overview for four subfields of TCM diagnosis, respectively. For each subfield, we design a rectangular reference list with applications in the horizontal direction and machine learning algorithms in the longitudinal direction. According to the current development of objective TCM diagnosis for patient classification, a discussion of the research issues around machine learning techniques with applications to TCM diagnosis is given to facilitate the further research for TCM patient classification.

  4. Cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience on western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine treatment and rehabilitation: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ji-Wei Wang,1 Zhi-Qi Yang,1 Cong Liu,1 Si-Jia Chen,1 Qian Shen,1 Tian-Rui Zhang,1 Nancy S Partike,2 Zheng-Ping Yuan,3 Jin-Ming Yu1 1School of Public Health, Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Public Health, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI, USA; 3Shanghai Cancer Rehabilitation Club, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Background: In the People’s Republic of China, both western medicine (WM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM are the main treatment and rehabilitation options for cancer patients. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors’ perspectives and experience of treatment and rehabilitation, in order to promote patient-centered activities of treatment and rehabilitation.Methods: Using a qualitative research approach, 68 cancer survivors were recruited from eight community cancer rehabilitation organizations in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. Eight focus group interviews were conducted. All these interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the data were analyzed by theme analysis.Results: WM was the main choice in treatment phase though study participants noted more side effects. TCM was primarily used in the recovery phase. The lack of communication between doctors and cancer patients appears to affect treatment adherence and impair the doctor–patient relationship. WM was expensive for diagnostic procedures and treatment, while the cumulative costs of frequent use of TCM in the long rehabilitation period were also high. Both treatment options created significant perceived economic burden on patients. Conflicting information about dietary supplements tended to make cancer survivors confused.Conclusion: Improving the communication between doctors and cancer patients helps to ameliorate cancer patient adherence and the effect of treatments. It is essential to educate cancer patients about the effect and cost of both WM and traditional TCM

  5. Changing physician perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine: the need for a top-down approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacKinnon TS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas S MacKinnon,1 Norbert F Banhidy,1 Daniel R Tuite21School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, 2Faculty of Medicine, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UKWe read with great interest the article by Patel et al1 discussing the changing perspectives towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, and an impetus for additional physician knowledge of the strengths and drawbacks of CAM. These findings are indeed relevant in the UK, with an estimated 41.1% one-year prevalence of CAM use, responsible for an annual out-of-pocket expenditure of £1.6 billion.2 We agree that improved training and education in medical school and residencies – which can be thought of as a “bottom-up” approach – are fundamental in preparing the health care system for improved integration of CAM. However, we also suggest that “top-down” changes are required to optimize patient care.Authors' reply Sejal J Patel,1 Kathi J Kemper,2 Joseph P Kitzmiller31College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 2Center for Integrative Health and Wellness, The Ohio State Wexner University Medical Center, 3Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAWe agree the letter is worthy of publication but have a little to add: a top-down approach (as suggested and described by the authors of the letter certainly complements the bottom-up approach (described in our article.1View the original paper by Patel et al.

  6. Shakespeare, Macbeth and the Hindu Nationalism of Nineteenth-Century Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Abhishek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay examines a Bengali adaptation of Macbeth, namely Rudrapal Natak (published 1874 by Haralal Ray, juxtaposing it with differently accented commentaries on the play arising from the English-educated elites of 19th Bengal, and relating the play to the complex phenomenon of Hindu nationalism. This play remarkably translocates the mythos and ethos of Shakespeare’s original onto a Hindu field of signifiers, reformulating Shakespeare’s Witches as bhairavis (female hermits of a Tantric cult who indulge unchallenged in ghastly rituals. It also tries to associate the gratuitous violence of the play with the fanciful yearning for a martial ideal of nation-building that formed a strand of the Hindu revivalist imaginary. If the depiction of the Witch-figures in Rudrapal undercuts the evocation of a monolithic and urbane Hindu sensibility that would be consistent with colonial modernity, the celebration of their violence may be read as an effort to emphasize the inclusivity (as well as autonomy of the Hindu tradition and to defy the homogenizing expectations of Western enlightenment

  7. Hindu nation and its muslim other in the work of V. D. Savarkar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Santos Ribeiro de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural encounters generally imply dynamics of (re-elaboration of symbolic universes by the social groups affected. Imperial domination of Asia, from the 18th to the 20th century, furthered the reinterpretation of existing symbolic universes, such as religious communities, as well as the creation of new modes of symbolic organization of social life, as national communities. This paper analyzes the construction of a religious-nationalist symbolic universe in a context strongly influenced by otherness. We consider the discourse on Hindu nation and its Muslim other, by V.D. Savarkar, a Hindu nationalist ideologue that was written in the early decades of the 20th century. We adopt phenomenology as theoretical framework and undertake content analysis of a primary source – Hindutva: Who is a Hindu? We argue that the Hindu nationalist ideologue elaborated a rhetoric of annihilation, in which the other of Hindu nation, the Muslim, is depicted as inferior through a double strategy: selective exaggeration of characteristics attributed to the Muslim; transfer of socially negative definitions to the other.

  8. Language barriers in medical education and attitudes towards Arabization of medicine: student and staff perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbour, S M; Dewedar, S A; Kandil, S K

    2012-12-04

    Students and staff perspectives on language barriers in medical education in Egypt and their attitude towards Arabization of the medical curriculum were explored in a questionnaire survey of 400 medical students and 150 staff members. Many students (56.3%) did not consider learning medicine in English an obstacle, and 44.5% of staff considered it an obstacle only in the 1st year of medical school. Many other barriers to learning other than language were mentioned. However, 44.8% of students translated English terms to Arabic to facilitate studying and 70.6% of students in their clinical study years would prefer to learn patient history-taking in Arabic. While Arabization in general was strongly declined, teaching in Arabic language was suggested as appropriate in some specialties.

  9. Evaluating residents in the nuclear medicine residency training program: an educational perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, T.N.; San Luis, T.O.L.; Leus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The comprehensive evaluation of medical residents in a residency-training program includes the use of educational tools to measure the attainment of competencies in the cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains as prescribed in the training curriculum. Attention is almost always focused on the testing of cognitive domain of the learners with limited attention given on the psychomotor and affective parameters, which are in fact, together with the cognitive domain, integral to the students' learning behaviour. This paper aims to review the principles of test construction, including the perspectives on the roles, types and purpose of tests in the domains of learning (cognitive, psychomotor and affective) as well as the use of Non-Test materials for measuring affective learning outcomes and the construction of Performance Tests and Portfolio Assessment tools which are all essential for the effective and efficient evaluation of residents in a Nuclear Medicine Training Program. (author)

  10. [Organizational forms of emergency medicine from the perspective of DIVI. Discipline-specific or interdisciplinary?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintel, M; Kumle, B

    2011-04-01

    Modern processes in the organization in German hospitals are decisive to the development of emergency departments and as these represent the interface between outpatient and inpatient care, they have been identified as a strategic success factor. In larger hospitals emergency departments are generally run as independent units with their own management. The growing number of patients in emergency rooms each year demonstrates the future importance of these structures and successful hospital management has to face and handle this challenge. Clear job profiles for the leadership, staff members and structures of these units are needed. This article highlights the requirements for these structures from the perspective of the German Interdisciplinary Association of Critical Care Medicine (DIVI).

  11. Licensing of Generic Medicines: Are There Any Challenges Left? A Pharmaceutical Regulatory Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, John Joseph; Tomasi, Paolo; Pani, Luca; Aislaitner, George; Pirozynski, Michal; Leufkens, Hubert; Melchiorri, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    When an innovative product (innovator) is not covered anymore by intellectual property rights, cheaper equivalent medicinal products (generic products) may be marketed and used in clinical practice. The regulation of generic products is well-established, and is primarily based on standard rules for quality, therapeutic equivalence requirements (the latter in most instances proven through a bioequivalence study), and safety data for the innovator. The extensive experience from bringing generic products to the market over the last decades allows the conclusion that they are well-accepted and provide a useful alternative option for cost-effective pharmacotherapy. While supporting this conclusion, there are a number of issues to be considered during the assessment of a generic product application. Six scenarios are described in total, from an efficacy and a safety perspective, where potential concerns with the current regulatory standards could arise in the approval of generic products. We also propose solutions to these scenarios in order to foster debate on these issues.

  12. Deep Learning in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging: Current Perspectives and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon

    2018-04-01

    Recent advances in deep learning have impacted various scientific and industrial fields. Due to the rapid application of deep learning in biomedical data, molecular imaging has also started to adopt this technique. In this regard, it is expected that deep learning will potentially affect the roles of molecular imaging experts as well as clinical decision making. This review firstly offers a basic overview of deep learning particularly for image data analysis to give knowledge to nuclear medicine physicians and researchers. Because of the unique characteristics and distinctive aims of various types of molecular imaging, deep learning applications can be different from other fields. In this context, the review deals with current perspectives of deep learning in molecular imaging particularly in terms of development of biomarkers. Finally, future challenges of deep learning application for molecular imaging and future roles of experts in molecular imaging will be discussed.

  13. Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shada Elalem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionate share of the global economic and human losses caused by environmental shocks is borne by people in the developing nations. The mountain region of Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH in South Asia is threatened by numerous flooding events annually. An efficient disaster risk reduction often needs to rest upon location-based synoptic view of vulnerability. Resolving this deficit improves the ability to take risk reduction measures in a cost-effective way, and in doing so, strengthens the resilience of societies to flooding disasters. The central aim of this research is to identify the vulnerable locations across HKH boundary from the perspective of reported history of economic and human impacts due to occurrence of flooding disasters. A detailed analysis indicates a very high spatial heterogeneity in flooding disaster occurrence in the past 6 decades. The most recent decade reported highest number of disasters and greater spatial coverage as compared to the earlier decades. The data indicates that, in general, economic impacts of flooding disasters were notably higher in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. On the other hand, vulnerability scenarios with respect to human impacts were diverse for different countries. In terms of morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and India were detected to be most susceptible to human impacts. Although Bhutan had seen lesser number of flooding disasters, higher population living within disaster prone region make them vulnerable. In summary, complex interactions between natural and socio-economic conditions play a dominant role to define and characterize the type and magnitude of vulnerability of HKH countries to disaster occurrence and their economic and human impacts.

  14. The use of non-prescription medicines during lactation: A qualitative study of community pharmacists' attitudes and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Tin Fei; Hattingh, H Laetitia; Sherriff, Jillian; Tee, Lisa B G

    2018-05-01

    Community pharmacists play a significant role in the provision of non-prescription medicines. There is evidence that women self-medicate and use non-prescription medicines whilst breastfeeding. Studies have demonstrated that breastfeeding women are likely to seek advice from pharmacists, presenting a unique opportunity for pharmacists to provide on-going support of these women especially in relation to the appropriate use of non-prescription medicines. This study aimed to explore community pharmacists' attitudes and perspectives towards the use of non-prescription medicines during breastfeeding. This exploratory study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with 30 community pharmacists in Western Australia, between July and September 2013. Transcribed data were analysed using descriptive and qualitative approaches. NVivo ® Version 10.0 was used to organise qualitative data and quotations to facilitate thematic analysis. Four major themes emerged. Despite the positive attitudes and favourable perceived knowledge level, participants often found themselves in a dilemma when required to make clinical recommendations especially in situations where there was a therapeutic need for treatment but clear guidelines or evidence to suggest safety of the medicines or treatment in lactation was absent. Despite the popularity of complementary medicines, participants felt more confident in providing advice in relation to conventional over complementary medicines. Whilst medication safety is within the field of expertise of pharmacists, the absence of information and safety data was seen as a major challenge and barrier to enable pharmacists to confidently provide evidence-based recommendations. This study has enhanced our understanding of the attitudes and perspectives of community pharmacists towards the use of non-prescription, including complementary medicines, during breastfeeding. Future studies are warranted to confirm the safety of commonly used or requested

  15. Precision Medicine and Advancing Genetic Technologies—Disability and Human Rights Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling de Paor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technological developments are propelling genetics and genetic technologies into the public sphere. Scientific and technological innovation is becoming more refined, resulting in an increase in the availability and use of genetic testing, and other cutting edge genetic technologies, including gene editing. These genetic advances not only signal a growing trend towards precision medicine, but also provoke consideration of the protection of genetic information as an emerging human rights concern. Particular ethical and legal issues arise from a disability perspective, including the potential for discrimination and privacy violations. In consideration of the intersection of genetics and disability, this article highlights the significant concerns raised as genetic science and technology advances, and the consequences for disability rights, particularly the core concepts of non-discrimination, and respect for diversity and difference. On examining international human rights perspectives, it looks particularly at the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and how it may be used to guide best practice in this area. With an acknowledgement of historical abuses of genetic science, this article highlights the need to maintain caution as to the potential consequences of advancing genetic technologies on persons with disabilities and indeed on society as a whole.

  16. Exploration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of Home Medicines Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Lindy S; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, Home Medicines Review (HMR) has been found to be an important tool to raise awareness of medication safety, reduce adverse events and improve medication adherence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are 'underserviced' by the HMR program and are the most likely of all Australians to miss out on HMRs despite their high burden of chronic disease and high rates of hospitalisation due to medication misadventure. The goal of this study was to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of the Home Medicines Review program and their suggestions for an 'improved' or more readily accessible model of service. Eighteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 102 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients at 11 Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs). Participants who were multiple medication users and understood English were recruited to the study by AHS staff. Seven focus groups were conducted for people who had already used the HMR program (User, n=23) and 11 focus groups were conducted for people who had not had an HMR (Non User, n=79). Focus groups were recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Focus groups continued and concepts were explored until no new findings were being generated and thus saturation of data occurred. Focus group participants who had not had an HMR had little or no awareness of the HMR program. All the participants felt that lack of awareness and promotion of the HMR program were contributing factors to the low uptake of the HMR program by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Most participants felt that an HMR would assist them to better understand their medicines, would empower them to seek information about medicines, would improve relationships with health professionals and would increase the likelihood of medication adherence. Most of the User participants reported that the HMR interview had been very useful for learning more about their

  17. A Global Perspective: Reframing the History of Health, Medicine, and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of global history has been one of the more notable features of academic history over the past three decades. Although historians of disease were among the pioneers of one of its earlier incarnations-world history-the recent "global turn" has made relatively little impact on histories of health, disease, and medicine. Most continue to be framed by familiar entities such as the colony or nation-state or are confined to particular medical "traditions." This article aims to show what can be gained from taking a broader perspective. Its purpose is not to replace other ways of seeing or to write a new "grand narrative" but to show how transnational and transimperial approaches are vital to understanding some of the key issues with which historians of health, disease, and medicine are concerned. Moving on from an analysis of earlier periods of integration, the article offers some reflections on our own era of globalization and on the emerging field of global health.

  18. Innovative Thoughts on Treating Diabetes from the Perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bing; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; He, Li-Sha; Guo, Jing; Chen, Hong-Dong; Zhao, Lin-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue. As one of the important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is promising in treating DM. In this review, we summarize new thoughts on treating DM that aim to improve the clinical efficacy of TCM from the perspectives of principle, methods, formula, herbs, and doses. Our approach is as follows: principle: we use a combination of symptoms, syndromes, and diseases as a new mode for treating diabetes; methods: emphasizing heat-clearing in the early and middle stage of T2DM and invigorating blood circulation throughout the whole process of T2DM are two innovative methods to treat T2DM; formulas and herbs: choosing formulas and herbs based on the combination of TCM theory and current medicine. We will emphasize four strategies to help doctors choose formulas and herbs, including treatment based on syndrome differentiation, choosing herbs of bitter and sour flavors to counteract sweet flavor, choosing formulas and herbs aimed at main symptoms, and using modern pharmacological achievements in clinical practice; dose: reasonable drug dose plays an important role in the treatment of DM and a close relationship exists between dose and clinical efficacy.

  19. Perspectives of resettled African refugees on accessing medicines and pharmacy services in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Australia, from the perspectives of resettled African refugees. A generic qualitative approach was used in this study. Resettled African refugees were recruited via a purposive snowball sampling method. The researcher collected data from different African refugee communities, specifically those from Sudanese, Congolese and Somalian communities. Participants were invited by a community health leader to participate in the study; a community health leader is a trained member of the refugee community who acts as a 'health information conduit' between refugees and the health system. Invitations were done either face-to-face, telephonically or by email. The focus groups were digitally recorded in English and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Transcripts were entered into NVIVO© 11 and the data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four focus groups were conducted between October and November 2014 in the city of Brisbane with African refugees, one with five Somali refugees, one with five Congolese refugees, one with three refugee community health leaders from South Sudan, Liberia and Eritrea and one with three refugee community health leaders from Uganda, Burundi and South Sudan. Eleven sub-themes emerged through the coding process, which resulted in four overarching themes: health system differences, navigating the Australian health system, communication barriers and health care-seeking behaviour. With regard to accessing medicines and pharmacy services, this study has shown that there is a gap between resettled refugees' expectations of health services and the reality of the Australian health system. Access barriers identified included language barriers, issues with the Translating and Interpreter Service, a lack of professional communication and cultural beliefs affecting health care-seeking behaviour. This exploratory study has

  20. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into mainstream healthcare services: the perspectives of health service managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Judy; Adams, Jon

    2014-05-22

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasingly included within mainstream integrative healthcare (IHC) services. Health service managers are key stakeholders central to ensuring effective integrative health care services. Yet, little research has specifically investigated the role or perspective of health service managers with regards to integrative health care services under their management. In response, this paper reports findings from an exploratory study focusing exclusively on the perspectives of health service managers of integrative health care services in Australia regarding the role of CAM within their service and the health service managers rational for incorporating CAM into clinical care. Health service managers from seven services were recruited using purposive and snowball sampling. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the health service managers. The services addressed trauma and chronic conditions and comprised: five community-based programs including drug and alcohol rehabilitation, refugee mental health and women's health; and two hospital-based specialist services. The CAM practices included in the services investigated included acupuncture, naturopathy, Western herbal medicine and massage. Findings reveal that the health service managers in this study understand CAM to enhance the holistic capacity of their service by: filling therapeutic gaps in existing healthcare practices; by treating the whole person; and by increasing healthcare choices. Health service managers also identified CAM as addressing therapeutic gaps through the provision of a mind-body approach in psychological trauma and in chronic disease management treatment. Health service managers describe the addition of CAM in their service as enabling patients who would otherwise not be able to afford CAM to gain access to these treatments thereby increasing healthcare choices. Some health service managers expressly align the notion of treating the whole person

  1. Christian ethic of love and Hindu ethic of dharma: comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to comparative analysis of two ethic systems: Hindu ethic of dharma and Christian ethic of love. If Christian ethic is the ethic of love, love is in the center of Christian moral values, then Hindu ethic is an example of ethic of law. The moral behavior of gods and humans is determined by Karma and cycle of samsara, which is impossible in Christianity. However forgiveness, self-restraint, non-stealing, purity are common moral obligations for Christians and Hindus.

  2. Christian ethic of love and Hindu ethic of dharma: comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pavenkov Oleg Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    This article is devoted to comparative analysis of two ethic systems: Hindu ethic of dharma and Christian ethic of love. If Christian ethic is the ethic of love, love is in the center of Christian moral values, then Hindu ethic is an example of ethic of law. The moral behavior of gods and humans is determined by Karma and cycle of samsara, which is impossible in Christianity. However forgiveness, self-restraint, non-stealing, purity are common moral obligations for Christians and Hindus.

  3. Pattern Of Adolescent Learning Hindu Scholarship Recruits Through Pasraman Widya Dharma Saraswati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Warsana

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mental development and religious personality is one aspect that needs to get special attention because through it children and adolescents understand the meaning of Religion and its benefits for human life and will later form a person who virtuous noble character. Having grown a noble personality then the teenager has a fortress to face the challenges of his life. In an effort to provide guidance to the younger generation, Parisada Hindu Dharma in Atula Village and Hindu community together attempt to form the path of non-formal education of Hinduism namely Pasraman Widya Dharma Saraswati.

  4. Wild canids as sentinels of ecological health: a conservation medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, A Alonso

    2009-03-26

    The extinction of species across the globe is accelerating, directly or indirectly due to human activities. Biological impoverishment, habitat fragmentation, climate change, increasing toxification, and the rapid global movement of people and other living organisms have worked synergistically to diminish ecosystem function. This has resulted in unprecedented levels of disease emergence, driven by human-induced environmental degradation, which poses a threat to the survival and health of biodiversity. The emerging discipline of conservation medicine addresses these concerns through the following entities: humans; global climate; habitat destruction and alteration; biodiversity, including wildlife populations; domestic animals; and pathogens, parasites and pollutants. Furthermore, conservation medicine focuses on explicit linkages between these entities. As a crisis discipline, the usefulness of conservation medicine ultimately will depend on its applicability to solving problems. The perspectives and scientific findings of conservation medicine provide input into biomedical education; and policy and management of ecosystems, habitats and imperiled species. A sentinel species is one that has presented itself, or has been selected, to provide insight into the state (health) of an ecosystem, based on user-defined (e.g., researchers, conservationists or policymakers) objectives (e.g., disease, parasites, toxics, climate change, habitat destruction), coupled with the utility and vulnerability of this species to the perceived stress. The scientific information generated by the sentinel species should empower stakeholders and decision-makers to take mitigative action or support predictive capabilities; the "utility" of the species selected should consider its value and relevance to conservationists and to society at large (e.g., education and outreach; social sciences). Wild canids may serve as excellent sentinel species of emerging canine vector-borne diseases. Several

  5. Broadening our perspectives on complementary and alternative medicine for menopause: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonob, Dunia; Melby, Melissa K

    2017-05-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used for menopause, although not all women disclose use to their healthcare providers. This narrative review aims to expand providers' understanding of cross-cultural approaches to treating and managing menopause by providing an overarching framework and perspective on CAM treatments. Increased provider understanding and awareness may improve not only provider-patient communication but also effectiveness of treatments. The distinction between illness (what patients suffer) and disease (what physicians treat) highlights the gap between what patients seek and doctors provide, and may help clarify why many women seek CAM at menopause. For example, CAM is often sought by women for whom biomedicine has been unsuccessful or inaccessible. We review the relevance to menopause of three CAM categories: natural products, mind-body practices including meditation, and other complementary health approaches including traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and Japanese Kampo. Assessing the effectiveness of CAM is challenging because of the individualized nature of illness patterns and associated treatments, which complicate the design of randomized controlled trials. Because many women seek CAM due to inefficacy of biomedical treatments, or cultural or economic marginalization, biomedical practitioners who make an effort to learn about CAM and ask patients about their CAM use or interest may dramatically improve the patient-provider relationship and rapport, as well as harnessing the 'meaning response' (Moerman, 2002) imbued in the clinical encounter. By working with women to integrate their CAM-related health-seeking behaviors and treatments, providers may also boost the efficacy of their own biomedical treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-year emergency medicine training program in The Netherlands: first evaluation from the residents' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Salomon Willem; Gaakeer, Menno Iskander; Veugelers, Rebekka

    2013-07-26

    The Netherlands' 3-year training in Emergency Medicine (EM) was formally approved and introduced in November 2008. To identify areas for improvement, we conducted the first evaluation of this curriculum from the residents' perspective. A questionnaire was composed on ten aspects of the curriculum. It contained multiple-choice, open and opinion questions; answers to the latter were classified using the Likert scale. The questionnaires were mailed to all enrolled residents. We mailed questionnaires to all 189 enrolled residents, and 105 responded (55.6%). Although they were satisfied with their training overall, 96.2% thought it was currently too short: 18.3% desired extension to 4 years, 76.0% to 5 and 1.9% to 6 years. Nevertheless, residents expected that they would function effectively as emergency physicians (EPs) after finishing their 3-year training program. Bedside teaching was assessed positively by 35.2%. All rotations were assessed positively, with the general practice rotation seen as contributing the least to the program. According to 43.7%, supervising EPs were available for consultation; 40.7% thought that, in a clinical capacity, the EP was sufficiently present during residents' shifts. When EPs were present, 82.5% found them to be easily accessible, and 66.6% viewed them as role models. In the Emergency Medicine Departments (EDs) with a higher number of EPs employed, residents tended to perceive better supervision and were more likely to see their EPs as role models. While residents were stimulated to do research, actual support and assistance needed to be improved. Although overall, the current training program was evaluated positively, the residents identified four areas for improvement: (1) in training hospitals, trained EPs should be present more continuously for clinical supervision; (2) bedside teaching should be improved, (3) scientific research should be facilitated more and (4) the training program should be extended.

  7. Making the Pitrubhumi: Masculine Hegomony and the Formation of the Hindu Nation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.K. Vijayan (Prem Kumar)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHindu nationalism has seen a dramatic growth in India and abroad from the nineteen eighties. This growth has coincided with – and relates in complex ways to – several other highly significant developments, including (in no particular order) the instituting of liberalization in the

  8. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  9. An assessment of basin-scale glaciological and hydrological sensitivities in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shea, Joseph M.; Immerzeel, Walter W.

    2016-01-01

    Glacier responses to future climate change will affect hydrology at sub-basin scales. The main goal of this study is to assess glaciological and hydrological sensitivities of sub-basins throughout the Hindu Kush-Himalaya region. We use a simple geometrical analysis based on a full glacier inventory

  10. The Hindu pañcāyatanapūjā in the aniconism spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    The Hindu pañcāyatanapūjā is the worship of five deities that can be in the form of five stones collected from various locations in South Asia. Each of these stones has visual properties which form points of reference to the iconography of the same gods’ anthropomorphic forms. And although the ri...

  11. Salt and its Role in Health and Disease Prevention from the Perspectives of Iranian Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Masoud; Vahid, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    Salt in Iranian medical sources is mentioned as Malh and has a special place in people's nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of correct use of salt on health and disease prevention in the context of Iranian medicine and its comparison with modern medicine. This article reviews Iranian medicine references on the usage of salt and its benefits. Additionally, modern medicine references were searched to identify the dos and don'ts of salt consumption. Then the results from both approaches were compared and analyzed. The main application salt in Iranian medical resources includes usage in latif supplier, solvent, dryer, laxative of phlegm and melancholy, slimy moisture body repellent, opening obstruction of liver and spleen, aid in digestion, beneficial for seeds and corruption of foods, appetizing, cold foods reformer and improving the flavor of foods. On the other hand, the major benefits of salt according to modern medicine resources are; aiding the balance of electrolytes and fluids, carry nutrients into cells, regulation of acid-base balance, support transfer of nerve impulses, regulate blood pressure, and secretion of gastric acid. According to the Iranian medicine, the amount and type of salt to maintain health and prevent diseases is determined based on factors such as temperament, age, health and disease, season, and location. While a unique approach is not prescribed for every individual, in modern medicine resources, a fixed set of guidelines is recommended for all healthy individuals. Consequently, the modern medicine pays less attention to physiological, structural, and genetic issues. Considering the importance of salt and its undeniable impact on human health, it is apparent that additional research is required to determine factors affecting the actual amount of salt per person.

  12. Knowledge discovery in traditional Chinese medicine: state of the art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Wu, Zhaohui; Zhou, Xuezhong; Zhou, Zhongmei; Fan, Weiyu

    2006-11-01

    As a complementary medical system to Western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provides a unique theoretical and practical approach to the treatment of diseases over thousands of years. Confronted with the increasing popularity of TCM and the huge volume of TCM data, historically accumulated and recently obtained, there is an urgent need to explore these resources effectively by the techniques of knowledge discovery in database (KDD). This paper aims at providing an overview of recent KDD studies in TCM field. A literature search was conducted in both English and Chinese publications, and major studies of knowledge discovery in TCM (KDTCM) reported in these materials were identified. Based on an introduction to the state of the art of TCM data resources, a review of four subfields of KDTCM research was presented, including KDD for the research of Chinese medical formula, KDD for the research of Chinese herbal medicine, KDD for TCM syndrome research, and KDD for TCM clinical diagnosis. Furthermore, the current state and main problems in each subfield were summarized based on a discussion of existing studies, and future directions for each subfield were also proposed accordingly. A series of KDD methods are used in existing KDTCM researches, ranging from conventional frequent itemset mining to state of the art latent structure model. Considerable interesting discoveries are obtained by these methods, such as novel TCM paired drugs discovered by frequent itemset analysis, functional community of related genes discovered under syndrome perspective by text mining, the high proportion of toxic plants in the botanical family Ranunculaceae disclosed by statistical analysis, the association between M-cholinoceptor blocking drug and Solanaceae revealed by association rule mining, etc. It is particularly inspiring to see some studies connecting TCM with biomedicine, which provide a novel top-down view for functional genomics research. However, further developments

  13. Concurrent administration of anticancer chemotherapy drug and herbal medicine on the perspective of pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yi Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With an increasing number of cancer patients seeking an improved quality of life, complementary and alternative therapies are becoming more common ways to achieve such improvements. The potential risks of concurrent administration are serious and must be addressed. However, comprehensive evidence for the risks and benefits of combining anticancer drugs with traditional herbs is rare. Pharmacokinetic investigations are an efficient way to understand the influence of concomitant remedies. Therefore, this study aimed to collect the results of pharmacokinetic studies relating to the concurrent use of cancer chemotherapy and complementary and alternative therapies. According to the National Health Insurance (NHI database in Taiwan and several publications, the three most commonly prescribed formulations for cancer patients are Xiang-Sha-Liu-Jun-Zi-Tang, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San and Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang. The three most commonly prescribed single herbs for cancer patients are Hedyotis diffusa, Scutellaria barbata, and Astragalus membranaceus. Few studies have discussed herb–drug interactions involving these herbs from a pharmacokinetics perspective. Here, we reviewed Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Long-Dan-Xie-Gan-Tang, Curcuma longa and milk thistle to provide information based on pharmacokinetic evidence for healthcare professionals to use in educating patients about the risks of the concomitant use of various remedies. Keywords: Traditional Chinese medicine, Chemotherapy drug, Pharmacokinetics, Herb–drug interaction

  14. Causes and consequences of coagulation activation in sepsis: an evolutionary medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiusa, Maiara Marx Luz; Carvalho-Filho, Marco Antonio; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce M; De Paula, Erich V

    2015-05-06

    Coagulation and innate immunity have been linked together for at least 450 million years of evolution. Sepsis, one of the world's leading causes of death, is probably the condition in which this evolutionary link is more evident. However, the biological and the clinical relevance of this association have only recently gained the attention of the scientific community. During sepsis, the host response to a pathogen is invariably associated with coagulation activation. For several years, coagulation activation has been solely regarded as a mechanism of tissue damage, a concept that led to several clinical trials of anticoagulant agents for sepsis. More recently, this paradigm has been challenged by the failure of these clinical trials, and by a growing bulk of evidence supporting the concept that coagulation activation is beneficial for pathogen clearance. In this article we discuss recent basic and clinical data that point to a more balanced view of the detrimental and beneficial consequences of coagulation activation in sepsis. Reappraisal of the association between coagulation and immune activation from an evolutionary medicine perspective offers a unique opportunity to gain new insights about the pathogenesis of sepsis, paving the way to more successful approaches in both basic and clinical research in this field.

  15. Learning from Multiple Classifier Systems: Perspectives for Improving Decision Making of QSAR Models in Medicinal Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-The, Hai; Nam, Nguyen-Hai; Nga, Doan-Viet; Hai, Dang Thanh; Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Marrero-Poncee, Yovani; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casanola-Martin, Gerardo M; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong

    2018-02-09

    Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship (QSAR) modeling has been widely used in medicinal chemistry and computational toxicology for many years. Today, as the amount of chemicals is increasing dramatically, QSAR methods have become pivotal for the purpose of handling the data, identifying a decision, and gathering useful information from data processing. The advances in this field have paved a way for numerous alternative approaches that require deep mathematics in order to enhance the learning capability of QSAR models. One of these directions is the use of Multiple Classifier Systems (MCSs) that potentially provide a means to exploit the advantages of manifold learning through decomposition frameworks, while improving generalization and predictive performance. In this paper, we presented MCS as a next generation of QSAR modeling techniques and discuss the chance to mining the vast number of models already published in the literature. We systematically revisited the theoretical frameworks of MCS as well as current advances in MCS application for QSAR practice. Furthermore, we illustrated our idea by describing ensemble approaches on modeling histone deacetylase (HDACs) inhibitors. We expect that our analysis would contribute to a better understanding about MCS application and its future perspectives for improving the decision making of QSAR models. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Herbal medicine, radical scavenger and metal detoxification: bioinorganic, complexity and nano science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitro, Sutiman B.; Alit, Sukmaningsih

    2018-03-01

    Developing Complexity Science and Nano Biological perspective giving the ideas of interfacing between modern physical and biological sciences for more comprehensive understanding of life. The study of bioinorganic is a trans-disciplinary, and will initiate the way to more comprehensive and better understanding life. We can talk about energy generation, motive forces and energy transfer at the level of macromolecules. We can then develop understanding biological behavior on nano size biological materials and its higher order using modern physics as well as thermodynamic law. This is a necessity to ovoid partial understanding of life that are not match with holism. In animal tissues, the accumulation or overwhelmed production of free radicals can damage cells and are believed to accelerate the progression of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and age-related diseases. Thus a guarded balance of radical species is imperative. Edward Kosower [1] proposed an idea of biradical in an aromatic organic compounds. Each of which having unpaired electrons. The magnetic force of this compound used for making agregation based on their magnetic characters. Bioinorganic low molecular weight complex compounds composing herbal medicine can bind toxic metals. This low molecular weight complex molecules then easily excerted the metals from the body, removing them from their either intracellular or extracellular existences. This bioinorganic chelation potential is now inspiring a new therapeutic strategies.

  17. Effectiveness of a Formal Mentorship Program in Family Medicine Residency: The Residents’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Andrades

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mentoring is a recognized form of teaching learning strategy in postgraduate medical education. This paper describes the effectiveness of a formal mentorship program from the residents’ perspective after a year of implementation. Methods. The Aga Khan University Family Medicine Residency Program is the first program in Pakistan to our knowledge to implement formal mentorship for all four years of residency. A mentorship program was developed, implemented, and evaluated a year later using a rating scale. The 10-point Likert scale consisted of questions on academics, clinical work, research, administrative issues, and personal/social issues. Results. The response rate was 95% (. Eighty percent ( were women. Satisfaction level in seeking help was the highest for academics (75%. Residents scored mentorship as low in helping to tackle their personal problems (20%. Barriers reported in rapport building with mentor were time constraints and gender difference. The most useful attributes of the mentor which helped rapport building were accessibility, active listening, support for emotional needs, and trustworthiness. Conclusion. Mentoring has a role in trainees’ personal and professional growth especially when their needs are addressed. The effectiveness of the mentorship program in residency can improve if the residents are allowed to choose their own mentors.

  18. Perspectives from the Patient and the Healthcare Professional in Multiple Sclerosis: Social Media and Participatory Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Daniel; Bright, Jeremy R; Burtchell, Jeri

    2018-06-01

    When faced with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS), patients often turn to the Internet and social media to find support groups, read about the experiences of other people affected by MS and seek their advice, and research their condition and treatment options to discuss with their healthcare professionals (HCPs). Here, we examine the use of social media and the Internet among patients with MS, considering its impact on patient empowerment and patient participation in treatment decision-making and MS research. These themes are exemplified with first-hand experiences of the patient author. We also explore the impact of the Internet and social media on the management of patients from the perspective of HCPs, including new opportunities for HCPs to engage in participatory medicine and to improve communication with and among patients. We consider both the benefits afforded to and the potential pitfalls faced by HCPs when interacting with their patients via these routes, and discuss potential concerns around privacy and confidentiality in the use of the Internet and social media in the clinical context. Communication online is driving the evolution of the patient-HCP relationship, and is empowering patients to participate more actively in the decision-making process relating to the provision of their health care. Funding Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation.

  19. Role of PET/CT for precision medicine in lung cancer: perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, Bennett S

    2017-12-01

    This article discusses the role of PET/CT in contributing to precision medicine in lung cancer, and provides the perspective of the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SNMMI) on this process. The mission and vision of SNMMI are listed, along with the guidance provided by SNMMI to promote best practice in precision medicine. Basic principles of PET/CT are presented. An overview of the use of PET/CT imaging in lung cancer is discussed. In lung cancer patients, PET/CT is vitally important for optimal patient management. PET/CT is essential in determining staging and re-staging of disease, detecting recurrent or residual disease, evaluating response to therapy, and providing prognostic information. PET/CT is also critically important in radiation therapy planning by determining the extent of active disease, including an assessment of functional tumor volume. The current approach in tumor imaging is a significant advance over conventional imaging. However, recent advances suggest that therapeutic response criteria in the near future will be based on metabolic characteristics and will include the evaluation of biologic characteristics of tumors to further enhance the effectiveness of precision medicine in lung cancer, producing improved patient outcomes with less morbidity.

  20. Teaching methods in Hawler College of Medicine in Iraq: A qualitative assessment from teachers' perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Abubakir M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Iraq is poorly assessed and there is a general lack of documented knowledge about the challenges facing this field and the needs for its development. This study aimed to assess the existing teaching methods in the Hawler College of Medicine, Iraq from teaching staff perspectives and assess the knowledge of the teaching staff about student-centred learning. Methods A qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of a purposive sample of 83 teaching staff in Hawler Medical University was conducted. The questionnaire addressed the participants’ view on the positive aspects and problems of the current teaching methods and priorities to change it. The qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis. Results The study revealed significant problems facing the existing teaching methods including having large number of students in the lecture hall (45.0 %, having focus on teacher-centred teaching (45.0 % and lack of infrastructures and facilities suitable for proper teaching (26.7 %. The priorities for improving the quality of teaching methods included adoption of small group teaching strategy in all study years (34.6 %, improving the infrastructure and facilities for teaching in the college (34.6 % and provision of continuous academic development programs for the teaching staff (24.3 %. Conclusions The existing medical education system face significant problems and it needs important and comprehensive improvements in different areas. There is a need for further research in this field to explore the identified problems in a more in-depth manner in order to better understand of the problems and needs of this important area of education.

  1. The Development of the Interface between Law, Medicine and Psychiatry: Medico-Legal Perspectives in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Swanepoel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicine and law were related from early times. This relation resulted as a necessity of protecting communities from the irresponsible acts of impostors. Various legal codes dealing with medical malpractice existed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Islam, Greece, Rome, Persia and India. Over the course of the past 30 years, interest in the history of psychiatry has boomed. Much of this proliferation of interest has taken place under the broad influence of postmodernism and has resulted in multiple and diverse histories that no longer seek to provide a linear narrative of constant evolutionary progress. Rather, these new histories explore and disrupt taken for granted assumptions about the past and provide a starting point for discussion and debate about the some of the very foundations of mental health care in South Africa. As a matter of practical importance knowledge of how knowledge accrues and knowledge of the mistakes of the past is of prime importance in preventing similar mistakes in present and future work. An important reason for specifically understanding historical psychiatry is the fact that many of the uncertainties experienced in the present are a direct result of decisions made in the past. The key issue is that while it is tempting to experience current psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered as natural and permanent, an understanding of the past helps mental health and legal practitioners to see things in a different perspective. Psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered have changed over time and can undoubtedly also be changed in future. Therefore, the research conducted in this article focuses on the history and development of law and psychiatry including prehistoric times, the Arabian countries, the Nile Valley as well as Greece and Rome.

  2. Teaching methods in Hawler College of Medicine in Iraq: a qualitative assessment from teachers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abubakir M; Al-Tawil, Namir G; Al-Hadithi, Tariq S

    2012-07-27

    Medical education in Iraq is poorly assessed and there is a general lack of documented knowledge about the challenges facing this field and the needs for its development. This study aimed to assess the existing teaching methods in the Hawler College of Medicine, Iraq from teaching staff perspectives and assess the knowledge of the teaching staff about student-centred learning. A qualitative study based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of a purposive sample of 83 teaching staff in Hawler Medical University was conducted. The questionnaire addressed the participants' view on the positive aspects and problems of the current teaching methods and priorities to change it. The qualitative data analysis comprised thematic analysis. The study revealed significant problems facing the existing teaching methods including having large number of students in the lecture hall (45.0 %), having focus on teacher-centred teaching (45.0 %) and lack of infrastructures and facilities suitable for proper teaching (26.7 %). The priorities for improving the quality of teaching methods included adoption of small group teaching strategy in all study years (34.6 %), improving the infrastructure and facilities for teaching in the college (34.6 %) and provision of continuous academic development programs for the teaching staff (24.3 %). The existing medical education system face significant problems and it needs important and comprehensive improvements in different areas. There is a need for further research in this field to explore the identified problems in a more in-depth manner in order to better understand of the problems and needs of this important area of education.

  3. Communication between physicians and cancer patients about complementary and alternative medicine: exploring patients' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaki, Katsuya; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Shumay, Dianne M; Tatsumura, Yvonne; Kakai, Hisako

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify barriers to communication between physicians and cancer patients regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by exploring the perspectives of patients. In face of the recent popularity of CAM use among cancer patients, the lack of communication is a serious problem. A number of CAM therapies may interfere with conventional treatments and thus impact patients' well-being and chances of survival. In addition, lack of communication is problematic in the health care context because the development of openness and trust between health care providers and clients is contingent upon effective interpersonal communication. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 143 cancer patients to explore their experiences with CAM use. Using a qualitative research method, we examined interview data from 93 CAM users who provided sufficient information about communication issues. As a result, three themes emerged describing barriers to unsuccessful communication as perceived from the patient's point of view: physicians' indifference or opposition toward CAM use, physicians' emphasis on scientific evidence, and patients' anticipation of a negative response from their physician. Increasing education about CAM and regular assessment of CAM use may help physicians to be more aware of their patients' CAM use. As a result, physicians may provide patients with information on risks and benefits of CAM use and refer patients to other services that may address unmet needs. Given a difference in epistemiologic beliefs about cancer and its treatment, the challenge is to find a common ground for an open discussion in which physicians consider that scientific evidence is not all that counts in the life of an individual facing a serious disease. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Perspectives of Oncology Nurses on Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Turkey: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gok Metin, Zehra; Izgu, Nur; Karadas, Canan; Arikan Donmez, Ayse

    In Turkey, between 22.1% and 84.1% of patients with cancer use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). However, few CAM-related studies have focused on the perspective of oncology nurses. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Turkish oncology nurses regarding CAM. A descriptive cross-sectional survey of 127 participants was conducted in Ankara, Turkey. A semistructured questionnaire including characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, and practices of oncology nurses toward CAM was administered to participants. We found that more than half of nurses (54.0%) surveyed had no information on CAM modalities. Most oncology nurses (81.1%) used audiovisual media sources to obtain CAM information. Many nurses (81.3%) reported not using any CAM in cancer care, and only 26.8% recommended CAM to patients. Most nurses used CAM to accelerate wound healing (19.7%) and to manage symptoms, including constipation and diarrhea (8.8%) and anxiety (7.9%). Music (52.8%), massage (49.6%), and exercise (48.8%) were stated to be beneficial. Important barriers to use CAM for patients with cancer involved a lack of knowledge (60.6%); needing physician approval to apply any CAM methods to patients (52.1%); legal and institutional issues (47.2%); and limited educational, training, or certificate programs (44.1%). There is a need for increased knowledge about CAM by oncology nurses, considering their vital role in symptom management of patients with cancer. This can be achieved through solving legal and institutional problems, structured and comprehensive education/training programs, and the integration of CAM therapy into cancer care guidelines.

  5. An in-depth study of patent medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria in a rural Nigerian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Henrietta U

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria remains a major cause of mortality among under five children in Nigeria. Most of the early treatments for fever and malaria occur through self-medication with antimalarial drugs bought from medicine sellers. These have led to increasing calls for interventions to improve treatment obtained in these outlets. However, information about the current practices of these medicine sellers is needed before such interventions. This study aims to determine the medicine sellers' perspectives on malaria and the determinants that underlie their dispensing patterns of antimalarial drugs. Methods The study was conducted in Ugwugo-Nike, a rural community in south-east Nigeria. It involved in-depth interviews with 13 patent medicine sellers. Results A majority of the medicine sellers were not trained health professionals and malaria is recognized as a major health problem by them. There is poor knowledge and poor dispensing behaviour in relation to childhood malaria episodes. Although referral of severe malaria is common, there are those who will not refer. Verbal advice is rarely given to the care-givers. Conclusion More action research and interventions to improve prescription and referral practices and giving verbal advice to care-givers is recommended. Ways to integrate the drug sellers in the health system are also recommended.

  6. Fasts, feasts and festivals in diabetes-1: Glycemic management during Hindu fasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This communication is the first of a series on South Asian fasts, festivals, and diabetes, designed to spread awareness and stimulate research on this aspect of diabetes and metabolic care. It describes the various fasts observed as part of Hindu religion and offers a classification scheme for them, labeling them as infrequent and frequent. The infrequent fasts are further sub-classified as brief and prolonged, to facilitate a scientific approach to glycemic management during these fasts. Pre-fast counseling, non-pharmacological therapy, pharmacological modification, and post-fast debriefing are discussed in detail. All available drug classes and molecules are covered in this article, which provides guidance about necessary changes in dosage and timing of administration. While in no way exhaustive, the brief review offers a basic framework which diabetes care professionals can use to counsel and manage persons in their care who wish to observe various Hindu fasts.

  7. Advancing Regional and Transboundary Cooperation in the Conflict-Prone Hindu Kush–Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Molden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD supports regional and transboundary cooperation to meet challenges of climate change, disaster risks, and sustainable development in the Hindu Kush–Himalaya (HKH. Action to sustain the HKH has the potential to directly improve the lives of more than one fourth of the world's population. However, facilitating cooperation and policy coherence among the countries sharing HKH resources is a persistent challenge in a region that is prone to conflict and is highly variable regarding development. At ICIMOD, we work across HKH countries to help attain common goals related to sustainable development, using our skills in bringing together different groups within programmatic transboundary approaches covering topics such as river basins or transboundary landscapes. In addition, the Hindu Kush Himalayan Monitoring and Assessment Programme and the Himalayan University Consortium have made strides in promoting regional and transboundary cooperation among HKH countries, particularly emphasizing research synthesis and the role of academia.

  8. Electronic Health Record Phenotypes for Precision Medicine: Perspectives and Caveats From Treatment of Breast Cancer at a Single Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongfang; Maxwell, Kara N.; Pathak, Jyotishman; Zhang, Rui

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Precision medicine is at the forefront of biomedical research. Cancer registries provide rich perspectives and electronic health records (EHRs) are commonly utilized to gather additional clinical data elements needed for translational research. However, manual annotation is resource‐intense and not readily scalable. Informatics‐based phenotyping presents an ideal solution, but perspectives obtained can be impacted by both data source and algorithm selection. We derived breast cancer (BC) receptor status phenotypes from structured and unstructured EHR data using rule‐based algorithms, including natural language processing (NLP). Overall, the use of NLP increased BC receptor status coverage by 39.2% from 69.1% with structured medication information alone. Using all available EHR data, estrogen receptor‐positive BC cases were ascertained with high precision (P = 0.976) and recall (R = 0.987) compared with gold standard chart‐reviewed patients. However, status negation (R = 0.591) decreased 40.2% when relying on structured medications alone. Using multiple EHR data types (and thorough understanding of the perspectives offered) are necessary to derive robust EHR‐based precision medicine phenotypes. PMID:29084368

  9. Making the Pitrubhumi: Masculine Hegomony and the Formation of the Hindu Nation

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayan, Prem Kumar

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHindu nationalism has seen a dramatic growth in India and abroad from the nineteen eighties. This growth has coincided with – and relates in complex ways to – several other highly significant developments, including (in no particular order) the instituting of liberalization in the economy; the legislation on reservations for ‘Other Backward Castes’ and its implementation; the intensification of the integration of the middle classes into the global economy; and the intensifying pau...

  10. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  11. Moral hazard and prescription medicine use in Australia--the patient perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Evan; Robertson, Jane; Henry, David

    2005-04-01

    All Australian citizens are provided affordable access to prescription medicines through the nation's system of universal pharmaceutical subsidies--the pharmaceutical benefits scheme. The rapid increase in pharmaceutical related expenditure has generated the concern that Australians are taking advantage of prescription subsidies and are using more medicines than are necessary, thereby creating a 'moral hazard'. This concern is predicated on a number of assumptions about patient behaviour rather than on empirical observation. These assumptions amount to a view that patients are consumers who treat prescription medicines as common goods subject to informed and rational calculation of the cost and benefits of their use. This paper reports the findings of an in-depth interview study undertaken to explore how prescription cost influences Australians' medicine use. Qualitative data were analysed to compare medicine users' descriptions of the role of prescription cost in medicine use against the assumptions that underlie the belief in moral hazard. Moral hazard did not appear to be significantly operating in the accounts of medicine use collected for this study. Interviewees' accounts of medicine use revealed an act characterised by ambivalence, a mix of desire and antipathy, faith and suspicion. Medicines appeared in interviewees' accounts as both pharmacologically and symbolically potent substances, which despite their familiarity as objects, are often mysterious to non-expert patients. Cost appeared as a secondary factor in patients' decision to access a prescription medicine. Using a prescription was predicated on the medicine being necessary, with necessity typically established by an expert doctor prescribing the medicine. Prescription medicines did not appear as 'common goods' where subsidised access motivates a 'consumer' to demand more or make the prospect of prescription use more attractive or necessary.

  12. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah; Reeve, Joanne; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients' experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients' experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients' experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID ® , and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine-related quality of life. None of the identified questionnaires covered all domains. Instruments varied in the extent of patient involvement in both their development and validation. There is a scarcity of psychometrically sound, comprehensive, and generic measures of experiences

  13. Family Medicine in Egypt From Medical Students' Perspective: A Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKot, Mohammad Mahmoud; Gouda, Mohamed Alaa; KhalafAllah, Mahmoud Tawfik; Zahran, Mohamed Salah; Kallaf, Mostafa Mohamed; Zayed, Ahmed Medhat

    2015-01-01

    PHENOMENON: Attitudes of medical students toward family medicine as a specialty choice can provide information on the future supply of family physicians. Due to the current worldwide shortage of family physicians, these attitudes, with their subsequent effects on the state and dynamics of the healthcare system, are important to investigate. A web-based questionnaire was sent to 600 medical students, selected by a systematic random sampling technique, in 7 Egyptian medical schools. Participants were surveyed to assess their perception of the family medicine specialty as a future career and explore the impact of different factors, including undergraduate family medicine clerkships, on their attitudes toward family medicine. We had a response rate of 75.2% (n = 451). Although 90.7% of students believed in the vital role that family medicine can play in Egypt's healthcare system, only 4.7% showed an intention to choose it as a future career. Students choosing family medicine as a first-career choice were more likely to have a prior contact with family physicians as consumers. Exposure to an undergraduate family medicine curriculum was associated with increased knowledge about family medicine but not the intentions to pursue it as a career. INSIGHTS: Medical students in Egypt have a positive perception of family medicine as an important specialty but low interest in its choice as a future career.

  14. A comprehensive review of recent studies on pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicines (2014-2017) and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiying; Lin, Xinhua; Yao, Hong

    2018-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have a long history for safely treating human diseases. Unlike western medicine, TCMs usually contain multiple components synergistically and holistically acting on the diseases. It remains a big challenge to represent rationally the in vivo process of multiple components of TCMs for understanding the relationship between administration and therapeutic effects. For years, efforts were always made to face the challenge, and the achievements were obvious. Here, we give an comprehensive overview of the recent investigation progress (from 2015 to 2017, except the part of 'integrated pharmacokinetics of TCMs' from 2014 to 2017 and the part of 'reverse pharmacokinetics in drug discovery from natural medicines' in 2014) on pharmacokinetics of TCMs, mainly referring to the following six aspects: (1) classical pharmacokinetic studies on TCMs; (2) absorbed components and metabolites identification of TCMs; (3) pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions and herb-herb interactions with TCMs; (4) integrated pharmacokinetics of TCMs; (5) pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic combination studies to dissect the action mechanisms of TCMs; and (6) reverse pharmacokinetics in drug discovery from natural medicines. Finally, based on the insights from the recent progress and our latest efforts, we propose new perspectives on the integrated pharmacokinetics of TCMs.

  15. Cross-country variation in medicines use; a pharmaceutical system perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebert, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Access to effective and affordable medicines (medical care) is considered an equitable right for all (European) citizens. Ensuring access to medical care is a challenge for governments and health care systems across the world. Choices need to be made about which medicine can be used and in what

  16. Implementation of comparative effectiveness research in personalized medicine applications in oncology: current and future perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Manca, Andrea; Keizer, Julia; Ramsey, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM) or precision medicine has been defined as an innovative approach that takes into account individual differences in people's genes, environments, and lifestyles in prevention and treatment of disease. In PM, genomic information may contribute to the molecular understanding

  17. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  18. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Ma, Dik-Lung; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is "experience driven," the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like "looking for a needle in a haystack," is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development.

  19. New Perspectives on How to Discover Drugs from Herbal Medicines: CAM's Outstanding Contribution to Modern Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Gao, Si-Hua; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Zhang, Shuo-Feng; Tang, Min-Ke; Sun, Jian-Ning; Han, Yi-Fan; Fong, Wang-Fun; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2013-01-01

    With tens of thousands of plant species on earth, we are endowed with an enormous wealth of medicinal remedies from Mother Nature. Natural products and their derivatives represent more than 50% of all the drugs in modern therapeutics. Because of the low success rate and huge capital investment need, the research and development of conventional drugs are very costly and difficult. Over the past few decades, researchers have focused on drug discovery from herbal medicines or botanical sources, an important group of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapy. With a long history of herbal usage for the clinical management of a variety of diseases in indigenous cultures, the success rate of developing a new drug from herbal medicinal preparations should, in theory, be higher than that from chemical synthesis. While the endeavor for drug discovery from herbal medicines is “experience driven,” the search for a therapeutically useful synthetic drug, like “looking for a needle in a haystack,” is a daunting task. In this paper, we first illustrated various approaches of drug discovery from herbal medicines. Typical examples of successful drug discovery from botanical sources were given. In addition, problems in drug discovery from herbal medicines were described and possible solutions were proposed. The prospect of drug discovery from herbal medicines in the postgenomic era was made with the provision of future directions in this area of drug development. PMID:23634172

  20. Quantification of scientific output in cardiovascular medicine: A perspective based on global data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); A. Rodriguez (Alfredo Chapin); N. Bruining (Nico); J. Milei (José); J. Aoki (Jiro); K. Tsuchida (Keiichi); R. del Valle-Fernández (Raquel); C.A. Arampatzis (Chourmouzios); A.T.L. Ong (Andrew); P.A. Lemos Neto (Pedro); R. Ayala (Rosa); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); F. Saia (Francesco); M. Valgimigli (Marco); E.S. Regar (Eveline); E. McFadden (Eugene); G.G. Biondi-Zoccai (Giuseppe); E. Barbenza (Ezequiel); P. Schoenhagen (Paul); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAims: We sought to explore whether global and regional scientific output in cardiovascular medicine is associated with economic variables and follows the same trend as medicine and as science overall. Methods and results: We registered the number of documents, number of citations,

  1. Challenges of access to medicine and the responsibility of pharmaceutical companies: a legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadiani, Saeed; Nikfar, Shekoufeh

    2016-05-04

    The right to health as a basic human right- and access to medicine as a part of it- have been a matter of attention for several decades. Also the responsibilities of different parties- particularly pharmaceutical companies- in realization of this right has been emphasized by World Health Organization. This is while many companies find no incentive for research and development of medicines related to rare diseases. Also some legal structures such as "patent agreements" clearly cause huge difficulties for access to medicine in many countries. High prices of brand medicine and no legal production of generics can increase the catastrophic costs- as well as morbidity-mortality of medication in lower income countries. Here we evidently review the current challenges in access to medicine and critically assess its legal roots. How societies/governors can make the pharmaceutical companies responsible is also discussed to have a look on possible future and actions that policy makers- in local or global level- can take.

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine Physicians' Insights into Interprofessional Tensions between Traditional Chinese Medicine and Biomedicine: A Critical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Leanne; Lim, Jing Ci Jill

    2017-11-22

    In Singapore, the institutional preference for biomedicine and the cultural importance of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) have created tensions between the two medical systems and erected barriers to a more collaborative health-care system. This study foregrounds TCM physicians' voice to reveal ideological struggles and power imbalances that underlie the interprofessional tensions and accompanying marginalization of TCM. Through in-depth interviews with 22 TCM physicians in Singapore, this study reveals the incongruences in ideological underpinnings between biomedicine and TCM, reflected in their different worldviews and epistemological approaches to knowledge formation and evaluation. Power differentials between the two medical systems are manifest in TCM physicians' inferior position in relation to their biomedical peers, the patients' internalization of biomedical standards to question the TCM profession and their own interest in seeking TCM treatments, and the state's limited support for TCM research, subsidies, and service provision in hospital settings. The results suggest that more open dialogue about the dichotomous framings of biomedicine and TCM is key to disrupting the mutual reinforcement of ideology and power, as well as to creating increased mutual understanding between the two medical systems.

  3. The Dosage Form of Aragh in Treatment, from the Iranian Traditional Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, Mehdi; Emtiazi, Majid

    2016-05-01

    The Iranian traditional medicine is one of the branches of complementary medicine and it is based on using the dosage forms of plants. One of the most common forms of pharmaceutical plants is Aragh. Due to ease-of-use, distillate is a more acceptable form among the public. In this article, it is attempted to study the usage forms and effects of Aragh according to the valid traditional medicine resources. This article is a review of Iranian traditional medicine textbooks such as Makhzan-ul-dawiah, Gharabadin Kabir, Cannon of Medicine, and other recent texts on medical plants. According to the traditional medicine, the process of getting Aragh is a kind of distillation, which is performed by using Ghar and Alembic (the equipment that are used in distillation). Distillation is the process of extracting and refining the fluid of a plant. Aragh of the plants is much more effective on the body than the plant itself. Traditional medicine regards Aragh as a new kind of drug (medicine) that is rarely mentioned in older texts (except for golab). However, the modern medicine regards it as a dosage form of essence, which is dissolved in water. The more the essence, the better the distillate gets. According to the traditional medicine sources, since the time of Hakim Aghil Khorasani, Aragh was used more and more every day. About 100 kinds of Araghs are mentioned in ancient texts, which are extracted from simple plants. Considering the distillation process and the way it performs, and by knowing that Aragh is a plant's softest and the most influential entity, it seems that it has a huge effect on Arvah and Ghova, the main parts like heart and brain and nervous parts.

  4. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katusiime B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Barbra Katusiime,1 Sarah Corlett,1 Joanne Reeve,2 Janet Krska1 1Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham, Maritime, Kent, UK; 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Background: There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients’ experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients’ experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients’ experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID®, and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Results: Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Gu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.

  6. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shuo; Pei, Jianfeng

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regulatory function of herbal medicine in the treatment of inflammation at network level. Finally, a computational workflow for the network-based TCM study, derived from our previous successful applications, was proposed.

  7. [Highlights of hospital-based internal medicine in 2010: chief residents' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlmann, Marc; Burnard, Jérôme; Cosma Rochat, Monica; Gabus, Vincent; Micheloud, Valérie Geiser; Gobin, Niels; Laurent, Jean-Christophe; Marino, Laura; Méan, Marie; Merz, Laurent; Regamey, Julien; Stadelmann, Raphaël

    2011-02-02

    Applying knowledge acquired from recent medical studies to patient care poses a daily challenge to physicians. Chief residents from the Department of Internal Medicine at the University Hospital of Lausanne carried out a review of some of the issues they considered important. The conclusions of these various publications may have a significant impact on the daily practice of hospital-based internal medicine. Modern medicine based on scientific studies is a reminder that in spite of the essential importance of clinical experience, it is crucial to confront it with the results of relevant publications from the medical literature.

  8. IDENTITY REPRODUCTION AND IMAGE OF MAHAGOTRA PASEK SANAK SAPTA RSI TOWARD HINDU COMMUNITY IN MATARAM CITY, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Ardhi Wirawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Identity reproduction and image which actualized by soroh (clan of Pasekorganized in paguyuban (group of Mahagotra Pasek Sanak Sapta Rsi (MPSSRtoward Hindu community in Mataram City, West Nusa Tenggara has closelyrelation with social religious movement which has the effort to restructurepermanent Hindu practices. This movement has the effort to represent theirancestor practice contemporarily in term of social religious space in whichmonolithic one it is accumulated to restructure the priest symbols. Thisphenomenon is indicated by the struggle in appointing pandita mpu as priestsymbol from MPSSR. Bhisama (spiritual message deriving from their ancestorsoroh Pasek is based on operational basis of social religious movement actualizedby MPSSR which is explicitly narrated that the ancestor of soroh Pasek hasprevilese to be religious priests. Bhisama also says that the generation of sorohPasek can unite their family binding in term of indigenous relations. Thisphenomenon implies reunification among soroh Pasek for disposition torestructure permanent sidhikara system since the history of Hindu community inMataram city.This social religious of MPSSR is legitimated through the image for theeffort to establish positive image to be distributed toward Hindu community inMataram city. The image creation is conducted by applying investment strategy ofany capitals such a economy, culture, social and symbolic one in accordance withcapital concept proposed by Pierre Bourdieu to explain power relations. Identityreproduction and image of MPSSR toward Hindu community in Mataram citythough the appointment of pandita mpu and reunification of indigenous basiswhere it is closely related with the struggle in reaching symbolic power in Hindupractices.

  9. Physics and medicine: at Erice the new perspectives of an ancient cooperation

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    From April the 15th to the 17th, at Ettore Majorana Foundation in Erice, in the context of the International School on Physics and Industry, there will be a congress entitled "Particle accelerators and detectors: from physics to medicine".

  10. The waves of Biotechnological Innovation in Medicine : Interfirm Cooperation Effects and a Venture Capital Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.D.S.-G. Fernald (Kenneth)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Improving medicine and health is the ultimate purpose of biotechnological innovation, where basic science is used to develop new innovative diagnostics and therapeutics to significantly improve the lives of patients worldwide. Concurrently, for three stakeholder groups,

  11. Chinese Herbal Medicine Meets Biological Networks of Complex Diseases: A Computational Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shuo Gu; Jianfeng Pei

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of cheminformatics, computational biology, and systems biology, great progress has been made recently in the computational research of Chinese herbal medicine with in-depth understanding towards pharmacognosy. This paper summarized these studies in the aspects of computational methods, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) compound databases, and TCM network pharmacology. Furthermore, we chose arachidonic acid metabolic network as a case study to demonstrate the regula...

  12. Advances in stem cells and regenerative medicine: single-cell dynamics, new models and translational perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twigger, Alecia-Jane; Scheel, Christina H

    2017-09-01

    An international cohort of over 300 stem cell biologists came together in Heidelberg, Germany in May 2017 as delegates of the 'Advances in Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine' conference run through the European Molecular Biology Organization. This Meeting Review highlights the novel insights into stem cell regulation, new technologies aiding in discovery and exciting breakthroughs in the field of regenerative medicine that emerged from the meeting. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Current Status and Future Perspective in the Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Wan-Ying Wu; Wen-Zhi Yang; Jin-Jun Hou; De-An Guo

    2015-01-01

    Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia) and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA). So far, several TCM herbal quality monogra...

  14. The Current Status and Future Perspectives of Nuclear Medicine in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level.

  15. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Context The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. Evidence Acquisition In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. Results From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Conclusions Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important. PMID:27275398

  16. Stem cells and regenerative medicine in domestic and companion animals: a multispecies perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, N N; Ambrósio, C E; Piedrahita, J A

    2014-10-01

    Since their original isolation, the majority of the work on embryonic stem cells (ESC) has been carried out in mice. While the mouse is an outstanding model for basic research, it also has considerable limitations for translational work, especially in the area of regenerative medicine. This is due to a combination of factors that include physiological and size differences when compared to humans. In contrast, domestic animal species, such as swine, and companion animal species, such as dogs, provide unique opportunities to develop regenerative medicine protocols that can then be utilized in humans. Unfortunately, at present, the state of knowledge related to, and availability of, ESC from domestic animals vary among species such as pig, horse, dog and cat, and without exception lags significantly behind the mouse and human. It is clear that much still needs to be discovered. The 'stem cell-like' cell lines being reported are still not satisfactorily used in regenerative medicine, due to reasons such as heterogeneity and chromosomal instability. As a result, investigators have searched for alternate source of cells that can be used for regenerative medicine. This approach has uncovered a range of adult stem cells and adult progenitor cells that have utility in both human and veterinary medicine. Here, we review a range of stem cells, from ESC to induced pluripotent stem cells, and discuss their potential application in the field of regenerative medicine. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Socializing Identity Through Practice: A Mixed Methods Approach to Family Medicine Resident Perspectives on Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Cafferty, Lauren A; Seehusen, Dean A

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central theme in the practice of medicine and particularly primary care. This study explored how family medicine resident physicians react to uncertainty in their practice. This study incorporated a two-phase mixed methods approach, including semi-structured personal interviews (n=21) and longitudinal self-report surveys (n=21) with family medicine residents. Qualitative analysis showed that though residents described uncertainty as an implicit part of their identity, they still developed tactics to minimize or manage uncertainty in their practice. Residents described increasing comfort with uncertainty the longer they practiced and anticipated that growth continuing throughout their careers. Quantitative surveys showed that reactions to uncertainty were more positive over time; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Qualitative and quantitative results show that as family medicine residents practice medicine their perception of uncertainty changes. To reduce uncertainty, residents use relational information-seeking strategies. From a broader view of practice, residents describe uncertainty neutrally, asserting that uncertainty is simply part of the practice of family medicine.

  18. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-04-01

    The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important.

  19. Perspectives of family medicine physicians on the importance of adolescent preventive care: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime L; Aalsma, Matthew C; Gilbert, Amy L; Hensel, Devon J; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2016-01-20

    The study objective was to identify commonalities amongst family medicine physicians who endorse annual adolescent visits. A nationally weighted representative on-line survey was used to explore pediatrician (N = 204) and family medicine physicians (N = 221) beliefs and behaviors surrounding adolescent wellness. Our primary outcome was endorsement that adolescents should receive annual preventive care visits. Pediatricians were significantly more likely (p family medicine physicians, bivariate comparisons were conducted between those who endorsed an annual visit (N = 164) compared to those who did not (N = 57) with significant predictors combined into two multivariate logistic regression models. Model 1 controlled for: patient race, proportion of 13-17 year olds in provider's practice, discussion beliefs scale and discussion behaviors with parents scale. Model 2 controlled for the same first three variables as well as discussion behaviors with adolescents scale. Model 1 showed for each discussion beliefs scale topic selected, family medicine physicians had 1.14 increased odds of endorsing annual visits (p family medicine physicians had 1.15 increased odds of also endorsing the importance of annual visits (p Family medicine physicians that endorse annual visits are significantly more likely to affirm they hold strong beliefs about topics that should be discussed during the annual exam. They also act on these beliefs by talking to parents of teens about these topics. This group appears to focus on quality of care in thought and deed.

  20. Haramekhala - tantra (the first chapter on medicine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P V

    1986-01-01

    This translation of Haramekhala - tantra of the author is based on Banaras Hindu University manuscript which seems to be a novel one. The manuscript runs into 133 stanzas in all in the form of dialogue between lord Siva and goddess Parvati. This is only the first chapter (of the great work) dealing with medicine. From stanza 109 onwards some magic spells are described and as such those have not been included in this translation.

  1. Patients' perspectives on antiepileptic medication: relationships between beliefs about medicines and adherence among patients with epilepsy in UK primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S C E; Horne, R; Chater, A; Hukins, D; Smithson, W H

    2014-02-01

    Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can result in suboptimal outcomes for patients. This study aimed to assess the utility of a theory-based approach to understanding patient perspectives on AEDs and adherence. Patients with epilepsy, identified by a GP case note review, were mailed validated questionnaires assessing their perceptions of AEDs and their adherence to them. Most (84.9%) of the 398 AED-treated respondents accepted the necessity of AEDs, but over half expressed doubts, with 55% disagreeing or uncertain about the statement 'I would prefer to take epilepsy medication than risk a seizure'. Over a third (36.4%) expressed strong concerns about the potential negative effects of AEDs. We used self-report and medication possession ratio to classify 36.4% of patients as nonadherent. Nonadherence was related to beliefs about medicines and implicit attitudes toward AEDs (pbeliefs about pharmaceuticals (BMQ General: General Harm, General Overuse, and General Benefit scales) and perceptions of personal sensitivity to medicines (PSM scale). We identified salient, adherence-related beliefs about AEDs. Patient-centered interventions to support medicine optimization for people with epilepsy should take account of these beliefs. © 2013.

  2. Individualised medicine from the perspectives of patients using complementary therapies: a meta-ethnography approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzel, Brigitte; Schwiegershausen, Martina; Heusser, Peter; Berger, Bettina

    2013-06-03

    Personalised (or individualised) medicine in the days of genetic research refers to molecular biologic specifications in individuals and not to a response to individual patient needs in the sense of person-centred medicine. Studies suggest that patients often wish for authentically person-centred care and personal physician-patient interactions, and that they therefore choose Complementary and Alternative medicine (CAM) as a possibility to complement standard care and ensure a patient-centred approach. Therefore, to build on the findings documented in these qualitative studies, we investigated the various concepts of individualised medicine inherent in patients' reasons for using CAM. We used the technique of meta-ethnography, following a three-stage approach: (1) A comprehensive systematic literature search of 67 electronic databases and appraisal of eligible qualitative studies related to patients' reasons for seeking CAM was carried out. Eligibility for inclusion was determined using defined criteria. (2) A meta-ethnographic study was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's method for translating key themes in patients' reasons for using CAM. (3) A line-of-argument approach was used to synthesize and interpret key concepts associated with patients' reasoning regarding individualized medicine. (1) Of a total of 9,578 citations screened, 38 studies were appraised with a quality assessment checklist and a total of 30 publications were included in the study. (2) Reasons for CAM use evolved following a reciprocal translation. (3) The line-of-argument interpretations of patients' concepts of individualised medicine that emerged based on the findings of our multidisciplinary research team were "personal growth", "holism", "alliance", "integrative care", "self-activation" and "wellbeing". The results of this meta-ethnographic study demonstrate that patients' notions of individualised medicine differ from the current idea of personalised genetic medicine. Our study

  3. Individualised medicine from the perspectives of patients using complementary therapies: a meta-ethnography approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Personalised (or individualised) medicine in the days of genetic research refers to molecular biologic specifications in individuals and not to a response to individual patient needs in the sense of person-centred medicine. Studies suggest that patients often wish for authentically person-centred care and personal physician-patient interactions, and that they therefore choose Complementary and Alternative medicine (CAM) as a possibility to complement standard care and ensure a patient-centred approach. Therefore, to build on the findings documented in these qualitative studies, we investigated the various concepts of individualised medicine inherent in patients’ reasons for using CAM. Methods We used the technique of meta-ethnography, following a three-stage approach: (1) A comprehensive systematic literature search of 67 electronic databases and appraisal of eligible qualitative studies related to patients’ reasons for seeking CAM was carried out. Eligibility for inclusion was determined using defined criteria. (2) A meta-ethnographic study was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's method for translating key themes in patients’ reasons for using CAM. (3) A line-of-argument approach was used to synthesize and interpret key concepts associated with patients’ reasoning regarding individualized medicine. Results (1) Of a total of 9,578 citations screened, 38 studies were appraised with a quality assessment checklist and a total of 30 publications were included in the study. (2) Reasons for CAM use evolved following a reciprocal translation. (3) The line-of-argument interpretations of patients’ concepts of individualised medicine that emerged based on the findings of our multidisciplinary research team were “personal growth”, “holism”, “alliance”, “integrative care”, “self-activation” and “wellbeing”. Conclusions The results of this meta-ethnographic study demonstrate that patients’ notions of individualised medicine

  4. Generic medicines and generic substitution: contrasting perspectives of stakeholders in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, A; Usher, C; Lynch, M; Hall, M; Hemeryk, L; Spillane, S; Gallagher, P; Barry, M

    2015-12-15

    The Health (Pricing and Supply of Medical Goods) Act 2013 passed into law in July 2013 and legislated for generic substitution in Ireland. The aim of the study was to ascertain the knowledge and perceptions of stakeholders i.e. patients, pharmacists and prescribers, of generic medicines and to generic substitution with the passing of legislation. Three stakeholder specific questionnaires were developed to assess knowledge of and perceptions to generic medicines and generic substitution. Purposive samples of patients, prescribers and pharmacists were analysed. Descriptive quantitative and qualitative analyses were undertaken. A total of 762 healthcare professionals and 353 patients were recruited. The study highlighted that over 84% of patients were familiar with generic medicines and are supportive of the concept of generic substitution. Approximately 74% of prescribers and 84% of pharmacists were supportive of generic substitution in most cases. The main areas of concern highlighted by the healthcare professionals that might impact on the successful implementation of the policy, were the issue of bioequivalence with generic medicines, the computer software systems used at present in general practitioner (GP) surgeries and the availability of branded generics. The findings from this study identify a high baseline rate of acceptance to generic medicines and generic substitution among patients, prescribers and pharmacists in the Irish setting. The concerns of the main stakeholders provide a valuable insight into the potential difficulties that may arise in its implementation, and the need for on-going reassurance and proactive dissemination of the impact of the generic substitution policy. The existing positive attitude to generic medicines and generic substitution among key stakeholders in Ireland to generic substitution, combined with appropriate support and collaboration should result in the desired increase in rates of prescribing, dispensing and use of generic

  5. Directional migration in the Hindu castes: inferences from mitochondrial, autosomal and Y-chromosomal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooding, Stephen; Ostler, Christopher; Prasad, B V Ravi; Watkins, W Scott; Sung, Sandy; Bamshad, Mike; Jorde, Lynn B

    2004-08-01

    Genetic, ethnographic, and historical evidence suggests that the Hindu castes have been highly endogamous for several thousand years and that, when movement between castes does occur, it typically consists of females joining castes of higher social status. However, little is known about migration rates in these populations or the extent to which migration occurs between caste groups of low, middle, and high social status. To investigate these aspects of migration, we analyzed the largest collection of genetic markers collected to date in Hindu caste populations. These data included 45 newly typed autosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs), 411 bp of mitochondrial DNA sequence, and 43 Y-chromosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were assayed in more than 200 individuals of known caste status sampled in Andrah Pradesh, in South India. Application of recently developed likelihood-based analyses to this dataset enabled us to obtain genetically derived estimates of intercaste migration rates. STRPs indicated migration rates of 1-2% per generation between high-, middle-, and low-status caste groups. We also found support for the hypothesis that rates of gene flow differ between maternally and paternally inherited genes. Migration rates were substantially higher in maternally than in paternally inherited markers. In addition, while prevailing patterns of migration involved movement between castes of similar rank, paternally inherited markers in the low-status castes were most likely to move into high-status castes. Our findings support earlier evidence that the caste system has been a significant, long-term source of population structuring in South Indian Hindu populations, and that patterns of migration differ between males and females. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  6. Non-European traditional herbal medicines in Europe: a community herbal monograph perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Liping; Zou, Wenjun; Zhou, Zhenxiang; Zhang, Tingmo; Greef, JanVander; Wang, Mei

    2014-10-28

    The European Directive 2004/24/EC introducing a simplified registration procedure for traditional herbal medicinal products, plays an important role in harmonising the current legislation framework for all herbal medicinal products in the European Union (EU). Although substantial achievements have been made under the new scheme, only a limited number of herbal medicinal products from non-European traditions commonly used in Europe have been registered. Therefore, identification of the obstacles, and determination of appropriate means to overcome the major challenges in the registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products are of critical importance for the EU herbal medicinal product market. The primary aims of this study were to understand the key issues and obstacles to registration of non-European traditional herbal medicinal products within the EU. The findings may identify the need for more attention on the Community herbal monographs elaborated by the Herbal Medicinal Products Committee (HMPC), as well as further evidence based scientific research on non-European herbal substances/preparations by the scientific community. A systematic evaluation of the herbal substances and preparations included in Community herbal monographs and public statements has been carried out. The focus was herbal substances and preparations derived from non-European traditions. Of the 109 adopted Community herbal monographs, 10 are herbal substances used in Chinese traditional medicine. Where the HMPC issued a public statement because it was unable to elaborate a monograph more than half-involved herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions. The main reasons herbal substances/preparations from non-European traditions were not accepted for inclusion in the Community herbal monographs have been identified as due to unfulfilled requirements of Directive 2004/24/EC. The most common reasons were the lack of evidence to demonstrate a 15-year minimum

  7. AJARAN AGAMA HINDU DALAM PENINGKATAN KERUKUNAN RUMAH TANGGA MENUJU KEHARMONISAN HIDUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Gateri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Harmony is a dream for every household that are nurtured with love, compassion, and sincerity.  In improving household harmony  a grounding Hindu religion as guidance is needed. Household harmony is a state of peace, good, friendly, united hearts, agreement that occur in a family life with overcome differences of opinion and differences of understanding. The increase in household harmony creates a peaceful family circumstances that shows happy, life without violence, as well as inner and outer prosperous which are based on realizing the teachings of truth and religion.

  8. Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems.

  9. Social Justice as the Moral Core of Family Medicine: A Perspective from the Keystone IV Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    A recurring conference theme was the essential place of social justice within family medicine, especially the need to focus on denominator populations, exalt the personal and caring qualities of doctoring, and address social determinants of health. Many expressed solidarity with "community," but it is not always easy to define community in our large and diverse nation. Exhortations for health advocacy were frequently voiced, but putting these into meaningful action agendas is a challenge. There was general agreement that medicine is in flux and that the many expressions of "commodity-centered consumerism" have altered organization and financing. The increasing demands by "consumers", who want low cost, instant availability, and shared decision-making, and yet change doctors when health plans alter coverage also differentially impact high-volume, low-margin specialties such as family medicine. Additional challenges were the electronic health record and calibrating an appropriate work/life balance. Five action steps are recommended: 1) speak out on the important social and moral issues; 2) be the experts on personal care; 3) make common cause with potential allies; 4) help institutions perceive the value of generalism; and 5) help find ways to enrich generalist disciplines to increase the joy of medicine and decrease the threat of burn out. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  10. Current Status and Future Perspective in the Globalization of Traditional Chinese Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ying Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. So far, several TCM herbal quality monographs were adopted by the United States Pharmacopoeia including Chinese Salvia, Ganoderma lucidum and Panax notoginseng, etc. Over 45 TCM quality monographs were recorded in the European Pharmacopoeia with 20 more in progress. After the successful registration of the first TCM product named Diao Xin Xue Kang as traditional medicine via the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands, several other TCM herbal products are in the registration process in several European member states. So far, there has been still not any TCM product authorized as a drug by the FDA regardless of a few TCM products in phase III or phase II clinical trials. This review summarizes the progress made in the globalization of traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and future issues in this regard.

  11. Barriers to higher education: commonalities and contrasts in the experiences of Hindu and Muslim young women in urban Bengaluru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N

    2017-03-04

    Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees. Financial constraints, lack of safety for women in public space, and gender bias, gossip and social control within the family and the local community affected Hindu and Muslim interviewees in substantially similar ways. For the Muslim interviewees, however, gender disadvantage was compounded by their minority status. This both underlines the importance of incorporating communal politics into our analysis and undermines popular discourses that stereotype Muslims in India as averse to girls' and young women's education.

  12. Perspectives of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Erin; Sevigny, Marika; Sabarre, Kelley-Anne; Phillips, Karen P

    2014-10-14

    Infertility patients are increasingly using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to supplement or replace conventional fertility treatments. The objective of this study was to determine the roles of CAM practitioners in the support and treatment of infertility. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted in Ottawa, Canada in 2011 with CAM practitioners who specialized in naturopathy, acupuncture, traditional Chinese medicine, hypnotherapy and integrated medicine. CAM practitioners played an active role in both treatment and support of infertility, using a holistic, interdisciplinary and individualized approach. CAM practitioners recognized biological but also environmental and psychosomatic determinants of infertility. Participants were receptive to working with physicians, however little collaboration was described. Integrated infertility patient care through both collaboration with CAM practitioners and incorporation of CAM's holistic, individualized and interdisciplinary approaches would greatly benefit infertility patients.

  13. Yews (Taxus) along the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region: exploring the ethnopharmacological relevance among communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Ram C; Gao, Lian-Ming; Möller, Michael; Baral, Sushim R; Uprety, Yadav; Liu, Jie; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-05-02

    Three species of yews Taxus contorta Griff., Taxus mairei (Lemée & Lév.) S.Y. Hu ex T.S. Liu and Taxus wallichiana Zucc. distributed in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region have been commercially exploited in recent decades to extract an anticancer chemotherapeutic drug 'Taxol'. Additionally, indigenous people of this region are using yews for several other purposes including gastro-intestinal disorders, respiratory problems, skeletal system disorders, and as edible fruit, fodder, fish poison, traditional veterinary medicine, among others. The study was designed to document and evaluate knowledge concerning uses of yews among indigenous communities of Mongol and Caucasian origins. Ethnobotanical knowledge from 10 major ethnic/caste groups of Mongol and Caucasian origins in the Nepal Himalayas was documented in 2010 and 2011 from 27 sites covering the extant distribution range of the three species of Taxus. A total of 72 key informants (60 men, 12 women), recommended by the majority of people in informal group discussions at each study site, were interviewed to collect information on the importance of yews. This study reports multidimensional uses of yews commonly practiced by different indigenous communities of Nepal and compared those with published uses along the HKH region. The key informants cited a total 45 uses under 21 categories. A greater use diversity and high consensus value for use types were recorded for medicinal uses (gastro-intestinal ailments, cough and cold, skeleto-muscular system problem and others medicinal importance) followed by fruit consumption, household tools, agriculture implements and timber. A decline of yew populations and associated traditional knowledge among the younger generations of indigenous people was found. The present study shows a strong agreement of ethnobotanical knowledge on yews between communities of Mongols and Caucasian origins. Our findings further revealed the potential for additional therapeutic applications in

  14. An ethno botanical perspective of traditional medicinal plants from the Khattak tribe of Chonthra Karak, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khalid; Mashwani, Zia-ur-Rehman; Khan, Mubark Ali; Ullah, Zahid; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed

    2015-05-13

    The present study was carried out with an aim to gather, evaluate and analyze the ethno botanical information of medicinal uses of the plant species possessed by the native Khattak tribe of the Chonthra, district Karak Pakistan. The region with poor documentation of traditional knowledge, preserving the local traditional knowledge, reporting new as well as rarely reported medicinal properties of medicinal plants, to be tested experimentally for validation. The medicinal uses of existing plant species were documented by oral communication with 103 people, all over above 60 years of age, born and residing in Chonthra. Information was gathered by semi-structured interviews with further analysis by indices like Relative frequency citation RFC and Medicinal use value MUV. The study resulted with medicinal information on 66 plants species belonging to 34 families (using against 58 health related problems with 83 different preparations mainly administered orally and topical). The dominant families include Brasicaceae and Limiaceae. Withania coagulans and Pegnum harmala were the plant species quoted 100% by the informants with RFC values 1 each. The MUV were scattered between 1.24 and 0.03. The highest MUV were W. coagulans 1.24, Pegnum harmala 1.18, Fagonia cretica 1.14. This study for the first time include Nepeta lagopsis to the ethnobotanical wealth. This study was an extension to the ethnobotanical research conducted in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) Pakistan. The target area being small and less number of plants with limited traditional knowledge can serve basis for further work focusing on rarely or non- reported plant species of pharmacological and phytochemical importance with active metabolite capable of broadening the sources of new drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medicine of Old Russian monasteries from the perspective of a modern medical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Melnychuk

    2017-04-01

    So, it was exactly monastery hospital that was founded by Orthodox Church and where doctors worked. Later, the rapid growth of Old Russian cities, their acquisition of German law contributed to spreading of secular medicine, formation of workshops for doctors and tsiriulniks, opening of pharmacies and educational-medicinal establishments in Lviv, Kyiv and other capitals of Ukraine/Rus. But alongside there was gratuitous, developed and full of practical experience medical branch. Coexistence of both types of medical aids was not a problem but addition to each other.

  16. [Perspective and application of metabonomics in modern study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kun-Ming; Wang, Bin; Chen, Lin-Wei; Zhang, Mao-Sen; Yang, Guang-Ming; Shu, Ya-Chun; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2014-08-01

    Metabonomics is a new method to study on the metabolic network and the relationship between body and environment, which conforms to the way of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research. In the study process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicine, effectively conjunction with metabonomics method will facilitate the integration of TCM with modern biological science and technology, and promote the modernization of TCM. This paper introduce the application of metabonomics in the research of toxicity mechanism of TCM, compatibility mechanism of TCM formula, pharmacology effect of TCM and processing mechanism of TCM. This paper summarize the problems in the TCM metabonomics research and prospect its bright future.

  17. Surgery and Medicine Residents' Perspectives of Morbidity and Mortality Conference: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Improve ACGME Core Competency Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Mandell, Samuel P; Eaton, Erik Van; Schleyer, Anneliese M; McIntyre, Lisa K

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality conferences (MMCs) are often used to fulfill the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education practice-based learning and improvement (PBLI) competency, but there is variation among institutions and disciplines in their approach to MMCs. The objective of this study is to examine the trainees' perspective and experience with MMCs and adverse patient event (APE) reporting across disciplines to help guide the future implementation of an institution-wide, workflow-embedded, quality improvement (QI) program for PBLI. Between April 1, 2013, and May 8, 2013, surgical and medical residents were given a confidential survey about APE reporting practices and experience with and attitudes toward MMCs and other QI/patient safety initiatives. Descriptive statistics and univariate analyses using the chi-square test for independence were calculated for all variables. Logistic regression and ordered logistic regression were used for nominal and ordinal categorical dependent variables, respectively, to calculate odds of reporting APEs. Qualitative content analysis was used to code free-text responses. A large, multihospital, tertiary academic training program in the Pacific Northwest. Residents in all years of training from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited programs in surgery and internal medicine. Survey response rate was 46.2% (126/273). Although most respondents agreed or strongly agreed that knowledge of and involvement in QI/patient safety activities was important to their training (88.1%) and future career (91.3%), only 10.3% regularly or frequently reported APEs to the institution's established electronic incident reporting system. Senior-level residents in both surgery and medicine were more likely to report APEs than more junior-level residents were (odds ratio = 4.8, 95% CI: 3.1-7.5). Surgery residents had a 4.9 (95% CI: 2.3-10.5) times higher odds than medicine residents had to have reported an APE to

  18. Safety and regulation in the use of radiation in medicine: status in India and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, A.; Parthasarathy, K.S.; Ghosh, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the history of radiation protection, regulatory aspects and the status of radiation safety in radiotherapy, radiodiagnosis and nuclear medicine in India. The revised basic safety standards and the future developments envisaged in the safety and regulation are also mentioned. (author). 24 refs., 8 tabs

  19. Personalized Medicine Applied to Forensic Sciences: New Advances and Perspectives for a Tailored Forensic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurro, Alessandro; Vullo, Anna Maria; Borro, Marina; Gentile, Giovanna; La Russa, Raffaele; Simmaco, Maurizio; Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Personalized medicine (PM), included in P5 medicine (Personalized, Predictive, Preventive, Participative and Precision medicine) is an innovative approach to the patient, emerging from the need to tailor and to fit the profile of each individual. PM promises to dramatically impact also on forensic sciences and justice system in ways we are only beginning to understand. The application of omics (genomic, transcriptomics, epigenetics/imprintomics, proteomic and metabolomics) is ever more fundamental in the so called "molecular autopsy". Emerging fields of interest in forensic pathology are represented by diagnosis and detection of predisposing conditions to fatal thromboembolic and hypertensive events, determination of genetic variants related to sudden death, such as congenital long QT syndromes, demonstration of lesions vitality, identification of biological matrices and species diagnosis of a forensic trace on crime scenes without destruction of the DNA. The aim of this paper is to describe the state-of-art in the application of personalized medicine in forensic sciences, to understand the possibilities of integration in routine investigation of these procedures with classical post-mortem studies and to underline the importance of these new updates in medical examiners' armamentarium in determining cause of death or contributing factors to death. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Bioengineering the Uterus: An Overview of Recent Advances and Future Perspectives in Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Hannes; Cervelló, Irene; Simón, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Since the initial in vitro attempts to more complex models, research on uterine regeneration is moving towards the creation of a functional bioengineered uterus with possible clinical applications. We describe here the most relevant advances in bioengineering of the uterus published in the last decades considering the use of stem cells and biomaterials as well as future developing techniques in Regenerative Medicine.

  1. Study of nuclear medicine practices in Portugal from an internal dosimetry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.; Teles, P.; Neves, M.; Santos, A. I.; Cardoso, G.; Barreto, A.; Alves, F.; Guerreiro, C.; Rodrigues, A.; Santos, J. A. M.; Capelo, C.; Parafita, R.; Martins, B.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine practices involve the handling of a wide range of pharmaceuticals labelled with different radionuclides, for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This work intends to evaluate the potential risks of internal contamination of nuclear medicine staff in several Portuguese nuclear medicine services and to conclude about the requirement of a routine internal monitoring. A methodology proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), providing a set of criteria to determine the need, or not, for an internal monitoring programme, was applied. The evaluation of the risk of internal contaminations in a given set of working conditions is based on the type and amount of radionuclides being handled, as well as the safety conditions with which they are manipulated. The application of the IAEA criteria showed that 73.1 % of all the workers included in this study should be integrated in a routine monitoring programme for internal contaminations; more specifically, 100 % of workers performing radioimmunoassay techniques should be monitored. This study suggests that a routine monitoring programme for internal exposures should be implemented in Portugal for most nuclear medicine workers. (authors)

  2. Pharmaceutical policies and access to medicines : a hospital-pharmacy perspective from Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, D.

    2017-01-01

    Access to quality medicines is a universal human right which featured prominently on the agenda of the World Health Organisation (WHO) over the past decades. Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in ensuring that treatment outcomes are optimal. This thesis studied pharmaceutical policies and

  3. Current Perspective in the International Trade of Medicinal Plants Material: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasisht, Karan; Sharma, Neetika; Karan, Maninder

    2016-01-01

    The recent years have seen an increased interest in medicinal plants together with the therapeutic use of phytochemicals. Medicinal plants are utilized by the industry for the production of extracts, phytopharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals and their use is expected to grow faster than the conventional drugs. The enormous demand of medicinal plant material has resulted in huge trade both at domestic and international levels. The trade data of medicinal plant material with commodity code HS 1211 (SITC.4, code 292.4) and their derived/related products which are traded under different commodity codes has been acquired from COMTRADE, Trade Map, country reports, technical documents etc for the period 2001 to 2014. The data was analyzed using statistical tools to draw conclusions. The significant features of the global trade; the leading source, consumer, import and export countries; and the striking trends are presented. The trade of the ten key countries and the selected important items is also discussed in detail. The conservative figure of trade of medicinal plants materials and their derived/related products including extracts, essential oils, phytopharmaceuticals, gums, spices used in medicine, tannins for pharmaceutical use, ingredients for cosmetics etc. as calculated from the global export data for the year 2014 is estimated at USD 33 billion. The average global export in medicinal plants under HS 1211 for the fourteen year period was USD 1.92 billion for 601,357 tons per annum and for the year 2014 it stood at 702,813 tons valued at USD 3.60 billion. For the studied period, an annual average growth rate (AAGR) of 2.4% in volumes and 9.2% in values of export was observed. Nearly 30% of the global trade is made up by top two countries of the import and export. China and India from Asia; Egypt and Morocco from Africa; Poland, Bulgaria and Albania from Europe; Chile and Peru from South America are important supply sources. The USA, Japan and Europe

  4. Medicinal plants in Brazil: Pharmacological studies, drug discovery, challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Rafael C; Campos, Maria M; Santos, Adair R S; Calixto, João B

    2016-10-01

    This review article focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies with some selected Brazilian medicinal plants in different areas of interest, conducted by research groups in Brazil and abroad. It also highlights the Brazilian market of herbal products and the efforts of Brazilian scientists to develop new phytomedicines. This review is divided into three sections. The section I describes the Brazilian large biodiversity and some attempts of Brazilian scientists to assess the pharmacological profile of most plant extracts or isolated active principles. Of note, Brazilian scientists have made a great effort to study the Brazilian biodiversity, especially among the higher plants. In fact, more than 10,000 papers were published on plants in international scientific journals between 2011 and 2013. This first part also discussed the main efforts to develop new medicines from plants, highlighting the Brazilian phytomedicines market. Despite the large Brazilian biodiversity, notably with the higher plants, which comprise over 45,000 species (20-22% of the total worldwide), and the substantial number of scientific publications on medicinal plants, only one phytomedicine is found in the top 20 market products. Indeed, this market is still only worth about 261 million American dollars. This represents less than 5% of the global Brazilian medicine market. The section II of this review focus on the use of Brazilian plant extract and/or active principles for some selected diseases, namely: central nervous systems disorders, pain, immune response and inflammation, respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal tract and metabolic diseases. Finally, section III discusses in more details some selected Brazilian medicinal plants including: Cordia verbenacea, Euphorbia tirucalli, Mandevilla velutina, Phyllanthus spp., Euterpe oleracea, Vitis labrusca, Hypericum caprifoliatum and Hypericum polyanthemum, Maytenus ilicifolia, Protium kleinii and Protium heptaphylium and Trichilia catigua. Most

  5. The Progress of Emergency Medicine in Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong: Perspective from Publications in Emergency Medicine Journals, 1992–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hsing Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective. The progress of emergency medicine (EM in Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong was evaluated from the perspective of publications in EM journals. Methods. This was a retrospective study. All articles published from 1992 to 2011 in all journals in the EM category in the 2010 Journal Citation Reports (JCR were included. A computerized literature search was conducted using the SciVerse Scopus database. The slope (β of the linear regression was used to evaluate the trends in the numbers of articles as well as the ratios to the total number of EM journal articles. Results. The trends in the numbers of articles from Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong were 6.170, 1.908, and 2.835 and the trends in the ratios of their publication numbers to the total number of EM journal articles were 15.0 × 10−4, 4.60 × 10−4, and 6.80 × 10−4, respectively. All P-values were <0.01. The mean, median, and 75th percentiles of the number of citations in all EM journals were greater than those of these three areas. Conclusions. The publications from Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong have increased at a higher rate than those of the overall EM field in the past 20 years and indicated the rapid progress in these three areas.

  6. Consumer perspectives of the Australian Home Medicines Review Program: benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lesley; Klinner, Christiane; Carter, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Home Medicines Review (HMR) is a free consumer service to assist individuals living at home to maximize the benefits of their medicine regimen and prevent medication-related problems. It consists of a pharmacist reviewing a person's medicines and collaborating with the general practitioner to optimize the individual's medicine management. The uptake of this service has remained below the projected use, although the program has shown to successfully identify medication-related problems and improve drug knowledge and adherence of the patient. This study investigates the perceived benefits and barriers of the patients regarding the HMR service who have used the service and who are eligible for it but have never used it. Consumer perceptions were drawn from 14 semistructured focus groups, with patients and carers belonging to the general HMR target population and consumer segments that have been postulated to be underrepresented with regard to this service. The major benefits reported were acquisition of medicine information, reassurance, feeling valued and cared for, and willingness to advocate medication changes to the general practitioner. Perceived barriers were concerns regarding upsetting the general practitioner, pride and independence, confidence issues with an unknown pharmacist, privacy and safety concerns regarding the home visit, and lack of information about the program. Participants agreed that the potential benefits of the service outweighed its potential barriers. It is expected that direct-to-consumer promotion of HMRs would increase the uptake of this valuable service. It would be necessary to ensure that the process and benefits of the service are communicated clearly and sensitively to eligible patients and their carers to obviate common consumer misconceptions and/or barriers regarding the HMR service. Furthermore, any direct-to-consumer promotion of the service must enable patient/carer self-identification of eligibility. Copyright

  7. Cost-effectiveness Analysis Appraisal and Application: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Michael D; Murray, Brian P

    2017-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important goal for emergency care delivery. The many diagnostic, treatment, and disposition decisions made in the emergency department (ED) have a significant impact upon healthcare resource utilization. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is an analytic tool to optimize these resource allocation decisions through the systematic comparison of costs and effects of alternative healthcare decisions. Yet few emergency medicine leaders and policymakers have any formal training in CEA methodology. This paper provides an introduction to the interpretation and use of CEA with a focus on application to emergency medicine problems and settings. It applies a previously published CEA to the hypothetical case of a patient presenting to the ED with chest pain who requires risk stratification. This paper uses a widely cited checklist to appraise the CEA. This checklist serves as a vehicle for presenting basic CEA terminology and concepts. General topics of focus include measurement of costs and outcomes, incremental analysis, and sensitivity analysis. Integrated throughout the paper are recommendations for good CEA practice with emphasis on the guidelines published by the U.S. Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine. Unique challenges for emergency medicine CEAs discussed include the projection of long-term outcomes from emergent interventions, costing ED services, and applying study results to diverse patient populations across various ED settings. The discussion also includes an overview of the limitations inherent in applying CEA results to clinical practice to include the lack of incorporation of noncost considerations in CEA (e.g., ethics). After reading this article, emergency medicine leaders and researchers will have an enhanced understanding of the basics of CEA critical appraisal and application. The paper concludes with an overview of economic evaluation resources for readers interested in conducting ED-based economic evaluation

  8. Impact of Chinese Herbal Medicine on American Society and Health Care System: Perspective and Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston I. Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans, not completely satisfied with traditional western medicine, have turned to alternative and complementary medicine which explains the increasing popularity of the herbal products and the Chinese herbal medicine. The lack of government regulations and the increasing advertisements by the manufactures have created an impression to the common public that the natural herbal remedies are inherently safer and cheaper than conventional medicine. The skyrocketing rise of healthcare cost and the adverse reaction and side effects incurred from the prescribed drugs have both reinforced such an impression. Herbs in the USA and in many European countries have been prepared as capsules, tablets, teas, lozenges, juice extracts, tincture, and ointments. Most of the herbs are administered as a single herb in the USA and Europe. However, the traditional Chinese herbal medicine contains multiple active ingredients from various herbs and is prepared as concoctions by simmering them for hours to produce pharma-therapeutic properties useful for the treatment of a particular disease. Those prepared concoctions are taken gingerly with specific treatment purposes. In the USA and some European counties, herbs are distributed and labeled as dietary supplements and are taken by many individuals for a long period of time creating some medical and dental complex problems among them, especially in terms of anesthesia-surgery complications. This paper provides insight into basic differences in how herbs are prepared before administration to the patients in China versus a single unprepared herb sold in the USA and Europe. Also addressed are the interdisciplinary issues with health professionals, the proper regulations for better quality control of imported herbs, and the proper warning on the labels of the herbs.

  9. Nonlinear time series modeling and forecasting the seismic data of the Hindu Kush region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Yousaf; Mittnik, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we extended the application of linear and nonlinear time models in the field of earthquake seismology and examined the out-of-sample forecast accuracy of linear Autoregressive (AR), Autoregressive Conditional Duration (ACD), Self-Exciting Threshold Autoregressive (SETAR), Threshold Autoregressive (TAR), Logistic Smooth Transition Autoregressive (LSTAR), Additive Autoregressive (AAR), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models for seismic data of the Hindu Kush region. We also extended the previous studies by using Vector Autoregressive (VAR) and Threshold Vector Autoregressive (TVAR) models and compared their forecasting accuracy with linear AR model. Unlike previous studies that typically consider the threshold model specifications by using internal threshold variable, we specified these models with external transition variables and compared their out-of-sample forecasting performance with the linear benchmark AR model. The modeling results show that time series models used in the present study are capable of capturing the dynamic structure present in the seismic data. The point forecast results indicate that the AR model generally outperforms the nonlinear models. However, in some cases, threshold models with external threshold variables specification produce more accurate forecasts, indicating that specification of threshold time series models is of crucial importance. For raw seismic data, the ACD model does not show an improved out-of-sample forecasting performance over the linear AR model. The results indicate that the AR model is the best forecasting device to model and forecast the raw seismic data of the Hindu Kush region.

  10. Studi Etnobotanik Tanaman Upacara Hindu Bali sebagai Upaya Pelestarian Kearifan Lokal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Surata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preservation  the local wisdom of Balinese culture need to continue to do. To begin, the initial knowledge is needed that is able to answer the following questions: How does the local wisdom is obtained? How is this done during scanning to the younger generation? This article tries to answer the above questions with a focus on the study of local wisdom pertaining to ethnobotany of ceremonial  plants on Balinese Hindu communities. Research using exploratory approach. Location of the study includes five Desa Pakraman (Balinese village in the province of Bali. Inventory data is done through the analysis of documents, interviews, and observations. The resource person is determined by snow ball sampling techniques. Data analysis was done through qualitative critical. The results showed that ethnobotany documentation of Balinese Hindu ceremonial plant, still classified as minimal. Identification is done on the basis of morphological characteristics of the plant. Scanning of knowledge belonging to the younger generation to be done through oral techniques and provides hands-on experience through time of preparation, implementation, and post implementation activities of religious rituals. It takes an attempt of documenting through the media, so that available anytime, anywhere.

  11. Abundant aftershock sequence of the 2015 Mw7.5 Hindu Kush intermediate-depth earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyu; Peng, Zhigang; Yao, Dongdong; Guo, Hao; Zhan, Zhongwen; Zhang, Haijiang

    2018-05-01

    The 2015 Mw7.5 Hindu Kush earthquake occurred at a depth of 213 km beneath the Hindu Kush region of Afghanistan. While many early aftershocks were missing from the global earthquake catalogues, this sequence was recorded continuously by eight broad-band stations within 500 km. Here we use a waveform matching technique to systematically detect earthquakes around the main shock. More than 3000 events are detected within 35 d after the main shock, as compared with 42 listed in the Advanced National Seismic System catalogue (or 196 in the International Seismological Centre catalogue). The aftershock sequence generally follows the Omori's law with a decay constant p = 0.92. We also apply the recently developed double-pair double-difference technique to relocate all detected aftershocks. Most of them are located to the west of the hypocentre of the main shock, consistent with the westward propagation of the main-shock rupture. The aftershocks outline a nearly vertical southward dipping plane, which matches well with one of the nodal planes of the main shock. We conclude that the aftershock sequence of this intermediate-depth earthquake shares many similarities with those for shallow earthquakes and infer that there are some common mechanisms responsible for shallow and intermediate-depth earthquakes.

  12. Neo-Hindu Fundamentalism Challenging the Secular and Pluralistic Indian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Battaglia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Secularism seems to require separation between religion and State. Regarding India, it would be better to speak of ‘equidistance’ between State and religious denominations. Nonetheless a ‘balanced treatment’ towards the religions leaves the question open as to what form that equidistance should take. This is the reason of some contradictions in today’s Indian social and political life. It is likely that without the Moghul and British domination Hinduism would not have acquired a militant identity. It was the ‘epiphany’ of well-armed, powerful ‘Others’ (Muslim, Christian or secular which generated frustration and fear to such an extent that a religious nationalism (Hindutva was born. Nehru and the Left of the Congress Party leadership thought that modernity would overcome religion, which is a remnant of the past. They were confident that a political culture based on pluralism and tolerance would become the foundations of the new society. This is exactly what Hindu Nationalism takes issue with: the ‘pseudo-seculars’ project of building the national identity without Hinduism or against Hinduism. Hindutva asserts that Hinduism is the basis of the Indian civilization. The Hindu ethos is the soul of the nation.

  13. Education for a Sustainable Future: Strategies of the New Hindu Religious Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Haigh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, sustainability is conceived as a crisis of the human mind and the key challenge for pro-sustainability education is developing sufficient motivation in learners. The spiritual aspirations of religious communities contain sufficient motivational force, which may be deployed for effective sustainability education. This paper explores the approaches to sustainability and sustainability education of some internationally-oriented Hindu religious movements. These include the rural education initiatives of Gandhian Sarvodaya, which emphasizes non-harming, self-reliance and personal ethics, ISKCON, which emphasizes devotional service, P.R. Sarkar’s Ananda Marg, which emphasizes cooperative enterprise, the Tantric body re-imagined at the social scale, and Swami Vivekananda’s Sri Ramakrishna Order, which emphasizes karma yoga, spiritual development through service to the God in each human. It also describes the British Hindu contribution to the UNDP/ARC’s multi-faith sustainability initiative “Many Heavens, One Earth”; which is the “Bhumi Project” and its two main campaigns, Green Temples and Compassionate Living.

  14. A Positive Psychology Intervention in a Hindu Community: The Pilot Study of the Hero Lab Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Galiatsatos, Panagis

    2016-12-01

    India has high rates of mental health issues among its youth and low-income communities experience a disproportionate amount of depression and suicide. Positive psychology, the act of promoting well-being, could be used as a tool to promote wellness and help improve the mental health of youth living in slum areas of India. A pilot positively psychology program, "The Hero Lab", was conducted in a migratory slum in Worli, Mumbai, with trained Hindu community leaders implementing the interventions toward at-risk Hindu youth. The curriculum's impact showed statistical improvement (p < 0.001) in happiness (General Happiness Scale from 11.24 ± 1.56 to 19.08 ± 3.32), grit (Grit Survey from 2.23 ± 0.34 to 3.24 ± 0.67), empathy (Toronto Empathy Questionnaire from 24.92 ± 3.27 to 41.96 ± 8.41), and gratitude (Gratitude Survey from 16.88 ± 3.47 to 27.98 ± 6.59). While a pilot study, the Hero Lab curriculum demonstrates that positive psychology interventions may be an important tool in improving mental health in at-risk children.

  15. Modernity and its Discontents: Western Catholic Pioneers of the Hindu-Christian Dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Beltramini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a reassessment of the Hindu-Christian dialogue in its relationship with modernity. The focus is on a group of Western Catholic clergymen who relocated to India, specifically during 1940-70, and became involved in the Hindu-Christian dialogue. The article traces the reasons for these Catholics’ relocations to their dissatisfaction with modernity and the predominance of rationality in the West, as well as their aversion to modern scientific thought. It emphasises the dual character of the interfaith dialogue, and the struggles of this group of clergymen to overcome modernity, whereby a modern Weltanschauung was the obstacle along the path to reshaping Catholic theology and establishing a fruitful interfaith dialogue with Hinduism. Although they did not pursue a common agenda and had different goals, these pioneers of interfaith dialogue came to consider such a dialogue with Hinduism as regenerative, as a means of revitalising Western thought, of balancing the modern excesses of a Western civilisation increasingly dominated by technology, and of transcending the rationalised culture of the modern West to achieve higher consciousness.

  16. Hindu Nationalism and the (Not So Easy Art of Being OutragedThe Ram Setu Controversy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Jaffrelot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hindu nationalists have become experts in the art of being outraged after the crystallization of the Hindutva ideology in the 1920s. Articulating a deep rooted inferiority complex, they have tried hard to denounce the disrespectful behaviour of the minorities they feared most – especially the Muslims – in order to mobilize new followers. Such a process was likely to trigger riots and to polarise society along communal lines – and eventually to translate into votes. However, a purely instrumentalist interpretation of the Hindu nationalist use of outrage would be too simplistic. The use of sacred symbols is not that easy, as evident from the case of the Ram Setu movement. It shows that the Sangh Parivar finds it more difficult to mobilize followers when the culprits are not Muslims. It also shows that the exploitation of the outrage is more complicated when its instigators are born Hindus. In any case, the holy character of the outraged symbol is not enough: it has to be historical; and it has to be useful too.

  17. Physician perspectives on education, training, and implementation of complementary and alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel SJ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sejal J Patel,1 Kathi J Kemper,2 Joseph P Kitzmiller3 1College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, 2Center for Integrative Health and Wellness, The Ohio State Wexner University Medical Center, 3Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Over recent decades, the demand for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM has continued to rise in the US. Like the practice of traditional Western medicine, CAM is associated with not only significant health benefits but also significant risks. Unlike traditional Western medicine, however, much of CAM use is less regulated and often occurs unbeknownst to a patient’s medical doctor. The use of herbals, dietary supplements, and over-the-counter (OTC medications can result in adverse effects, and many significant interactions can occur when their use is combined with allopathic medications. Even the more peripheral CAM practices (eg, acupuncture, massage, yoga, and Reiki have associated risk (eg, adverse effects or worsening of physical injury and conditions. There is, however, impetus for change: both patients and physicians favor increasing physician knowledge of CAM and the synergistic implementation of CAM into routine clinical practice. Although improvement has been achieved from contemporary physician educational efforts, recently published results from patient and physician surveys strongly indicate that additional effort to increase physician knowledge of CAM is needed. Utilizing a 37-item survey and convenience-sampling methodology, we collected detailed information from 114 physicians, fellows, and residents from the Ohio State University Medical Center regarding impediments to increasing physician knowledge of CAM and its implementation in routine clinical practice. The aggregate results of our survey data showed that most physicians 1 desired to increase their knowledge of CAM, 2 believed that less

  18. Medicine for the City: Perspective and Solidarity as Tools for Making Urban Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Cantal-Dupart, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The United States has pursued policies of urban upheaval that have undermined social organization, dispersed people, particularly African Americans, and increased rates of disease and disorder. Healthcare institutions have been, and can be, a part of this problem or a part of the solution. This essay addresses two tools that healthcare providers can use to repair the urban ecosystem-perspective and solidarity. Perspective addresses both our ability to envision solutions and our ability to see in the space in which we move. Solidarity is our ability to appreciate our fellowship with other people, a mindset that is at the heart of medical practice. These two tools lay the foundation for structurally competent healthcare providers to act in a restorative manner to create a health-giving built environment.

  19. [Geriatric intensive care patients : Perspectives and limits of geriatric intensive care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Werdan, U; Heppner, H-J; Michels, G

    2018-04-18

    Critically ill geriatric patients are vitally endangered due to the aging processes of organs, the frequently existing multimorbidity with subsequent polypharmacy and the typical geriatric syndrome of functional impairments. Aging processes in organs lower the clinical threshold for organ dysfunction and organ failure. Physiological organ aging processes with practical consequences for intensive care medicine are atypical manifestion of sepsis in immunosenescence, altered pharmacokinetics, reduced tolerance to hypovolemia due to proportionally reduced water compartment of the body in old age, the frequently only apparently normal function of the kidneys and the continuous reduction in pulmonary function in old age. The main reasons for changes in therapeutic targets are the will of the patient and risk-benefit considerations. The guidelines of the ethics section of the German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (DIVI) provide assistance and suggestions for a structured decision-making process.

  20. Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension in traditional Chinese medicine: perspective of modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Yang, Xiaochen; Liu, Yongmei; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Pengqian; Wang, Jie

    2013-07-01

    Hypertension, which directly threatens quality of life, is a major contributor to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Over the past two decades, domestic and foreign scholars have agreed upon various standards in the treatment of hypertension, and considerable progress has been made in the field of antihypertensive drugs. Oral antihypertensive drugs represent a milestone in hypertension therapy. However, the blood pressure standard for patients with hypertension is far from satisfactory. The study of Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension has received much research attention. These studies seek to integrate traditional and Western medicine in China. Currently, Chinese herbal formulas are known to have an outstanding advantage with regard to bodily regulation. Research shows that Chinese medicine has many protective mechanisms. This paper addresses the process of the antihypertensive mechanisms in Chinese herbal formulas for treating hypertension. These mechanisms are to be discussed in future research.

  1. Botulinum toxin in medicine and cosmetology – two hundred years’ history and new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Zbrojkiewicz

    2018-04-01

    of coding genes and by the duration of the therapeutic effect. American physician Allan B. Scott was the first to demonstrate the use of botulinum toxin for medical purposes. Nowadays, botulinum toxin type A is widely used in medicine. Botulinum toxin injections are not only one of the most popular non-surgical aesthetic-cosmetic procedures, but are also widely used in neurology, ophthalmology and dermatology. The therapeutic potential of botulinum toxin has not been exhausted yet. Currently, many clinical trials are underway to extend the therapeutic indications of botulinum toxin and to improve its safety. Due to the huge development in medicine, botulinum toxin is today not only associated with aesthetic procedures and improvement in appearance, but also with raising the quality of life for people suffering from diseases with excessive muscle contraction and with other neuromuscular disorders.

  2. [The development of molecular human genetics and its significance for perspectives of modern medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutelle, C; Speer, A; Grade, K; Rosenthal, A; Hunger, H D

    1989-01-01

    The introduction of molecular human genetics has become a paradigma for the application of genetic engineering in medicine. The main principles of this technology are the isolation of molecular probes, their application in hybridization reactions, specific gene-amplification by the polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing reactions. These methods are used for the analysis of monogenic diseases by linkage studies and the elucidation of the molecular defect causing these conditions, respectively. They are also the basis for genomic diagnosis of monogenic diseases, introduced into the health care system of the GDR by a national project on Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy, Cystic Fibrosis and Phenylketonuria. The rapid development of basic research on the molecular analysis of the human genome and genomic diagnosis indicates, that human molecular genetics is becoming a decisive basic discipline of modern medicine.

  3. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine - recent advances and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80% of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and applications

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells and personalized medicine: current progress and future perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chun, Yong Soon; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2011-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has revolutionized the field of regenerative medicine by providing researchers with a unique tool to derive disease-specific stem cells for study. iPSCs can self-renew and can differentiate into many cell types, offering a potentially unlimited source of cells for targeted differentiation into somatic effector cells. Hence, iPSCs are likely to be invaluable for therapeutic applications and disease-related research. In this review, we summar...

  5. Application and Perspectives of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Mao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is one of the most fatal cancers worldwide, the management of which demands a multidisciplinary approach. Conventional therapies such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy have gained reasonable success. However, most of these patients experience a severe torment, both mentally and physically. Numerous studies have indicated that traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, when used in conjunction with conventional allopathic therapies, can enhance their efficacy and diminish the resulting side effects and complications. Therefore, a deeper understanding of TCM is of immense help to physicians and other health care providers in providing a better care to patients. TCM is proved to be efficacious in terms of suppressing tumor progression, improving immune system function, and increasing the sensitivity to chemo- and radio-therapies. Although TCM can be delivered in various dosage forms, pills, decoctions, and injections are the three most commonly used forms in treating liver cancer. While these traditional dosage forms limits the usage of herbal medicines to their full potential novel TCM delivery forms such as nanoparticles can enhance the bioavailability, reduce any associated side effect, achieve targeted delivery, and improve the acceptance of TCM by patients. This review summarizes the current application of TCM in different prescriptions and dosage forms in the treatment of liver cancer, along with their advantages and disadvantages, all of which is believed to contribute to better understanding of Chinese herbal medicines as an essential part in the treatment of liver cancer and the importance of this trend to combine TCM and western medicine in novel dosage forms for a better management of the condition.

  6. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into cancer care: Canadian oncology nurses′ perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy L Truant; Lynda G Balneaves; Margaret I Fitch

    2015-01-01

    The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs) to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP) education and attitudes about CA...

  7. Marketing Regulatory Oversight of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products (ATMPs) in Europe: The EMA/CAT Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmikangas, Paula; Schuessler-Lenz, Martina; Ruiz, Sol; Celis, Patrick; Reischl, Ilona; Menezes-Ferreira, Margarida; Flory, Egbert; Renner, Matthias; Ferry, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    With the release of Regulation 1394/2007, a new framework for gene and cell therapy medicinal products and tissue-engineered products was established in the European Union. For all three product classes, called advanced therapy medicinal products, a centralised marketing authorisation became mandatory. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) together with its Committee for Advanced Therapies, Committee for Human Medicinal Products and the network of national agencies is responsible for scientific evaluation of the marketing authorisation applications. For a new application, data and information relating to manufacturing processes and quality control of the active substance and the final product have to be submitted for evaluation together with data from non-clinical and clinical safety and efficacy studies. Technical requirements for ATMPs are defined in the legislation, and guidance for different products is available through several EMA/CAT guidelines. Due to the diversity of ATMPs, a tailored approach for regulating these products is considered necessary. Thus, a risk-based approach has been introduced for ATMPs allowing flexibility for the regulatory requirements. Since the regulatory framework for ATMPs was established, five products have been licenced in the European Union. However, the pipeline of new ATMPs is much bigger, as seen from the significant numbers of different products discussed by the CAT in scientific advice and classification procedures. In 2013, a public consultation on the ATMP Regulation was conducted by the European Commission, and the results were published in 2014. The report proposes several improvements for the current framework and established procedures for the regulation of ATMPs.

  8. Botulinum toxin in medicine and cosmetology – two hundred years’ history and new perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Zbrojkiewicz; Agata Lebiedowska; Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska Barbara Błońska-Fajfrowska

    2018-01-01

    It has been nearly 200 years since the discovery of the botulinum toxin and the strain responsible for its synthesis Clostridium botulinum. Over this period, the knowledge about botulism and the use of botulinum toxin in medicine has been significantly expanded. Currently, eight serotypes of botulinum toxin (A-H) are known and they differ from each other by molecular weight, antigenic structure, immunogenicity, receptors, localization of coding genes and by the duration of the therapeutic ...

  9. Role and influence of the patient′s companion in family medicine consultations: "The patient′s perspective"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Andrades

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Companions often accompany the patient in family medicine clinics and may influence the consultation. This study aims to determine the patients′ perspective regarding the role and influence of the companion in the consultation process. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the family medicine clinics of a university hospital. Adult patients accompanied by companions during the consultation were interviewed through a structured questionnaire. Attributes with respect to role and influence of companion on the consultation were assessed. Data was entered and analyzed through IBM Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS software version 18 using the Chi-square test. Results: A total of 100 patients accompanied by companions participated in the study. Majority of companions were present to either provide company (90% and/or emotional support (90%. Immediate relatives had a role in mobility (P = 0.016 and decision making (P = 0.006. Most companions remained passive and did not contribute to the doctor patient relationship (P = 0.058. Male companions were relatively helpful (54% vs. 25%, P = 0.008 in achieving the expectations from the visit. The companion played a supportive role in 62% of the consultations. Conclusion: This study signifies a supportive role of companion in a consultation which emphasizes the need of consultation models to include the "companion."

  10. [Simulation training in pulmonary medicine: Rationale, review of the literature and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureaux, J; Urban, T

    2015-12-01

    Training in pulmonary medicine requires the acquisition of a great deal of knowledge, but also technical know-how and interpersonal skills. The prevailing teaching pattern is mentorship. It implies a direct transmission of knowledge, but also entails some drawbacks such as disparity in learning opportunities, subjective evaluation of the trainee and potential risks for patients. There is growing interest in simulation training as a teaching technique, where students practice their skills in a secure environment, then analyse their performance in a debriefing session. It is complementary to other learning methods (abstraction, observation or mentorship) and forms part of an ethical approach: 'never practice on a real patient for the first time'. We have reviewed the literature related to simulation training in pulmonary medicine and in particular for physical examination, technical skills, pathologies, communication with patients and therapeutic education. In most of the studies, simulation training is a way of speeding up students' training - without necessarily yielding better results - and of respecting the procedures. We then present the French regulations and official guidelines regarding the use of this training method in the teaching of medicine. Finally, we shall consider some prospects of this approach for the community of pulmonologists. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The economic possibilities and perspectives of aromatic and medicinal herbs (Satureja kitaibelii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenković Ljiljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economy in Serbia has not been working at its full capacity for a long time, which had left a great mark in economic stability of the country. The good side is that the environment pollution is less than in case of its full capacity. Therefore there shouldn't try to achieve the developed technologies at all costs, but it should orient to the utmost to agriculture and food production. Economically high developed countries pay a lot of attention to the healthy way of life and nutrition, and therefore the market, on which would sell the food products from Serbia, are with characteristic brand and undoubtable quality. Owing to the expressed trend for the healthy way of living, more and more people in high developed countries turn to aromatic and medicinal herbs which they use as spices, for therapeutic or medicinal purposes. Such trend shows also various industry branches, and they increasingly base their production on natural products. Hereof the aromatic and medicinal herbs start being more and more important economic resource of those countries which have them.

  12. International Perspectives on Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine: Outcomes of an IAEA Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shortt, Ken; Davidsson, Lena; Hendry, Jolyon; Dondi, Maurizio; Andreo, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international conference called, 'Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine' (QANTRM). It dealt with quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of radiation medicine (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy) at the international level. Participants discussed QA issues pertaining to the implementation of new technologies and the need for education and staff training. The advantage of developing a comprehensive and harmonized approach to QA covering both the technical and the managerial issues was emphasized to ensure the optimization of benefits to patient safety and effectiveness. The necessary coupling between medical radiation imaging and radiotherapy was stressed, particularly for advanced technologies. However, the need for a more systematic approach to the adoption of advanced technologies was underscored by a report on failures in intensity-modulated radiotherapy dosimetry auditing tests in the United States, which could imply inadequate implementation of QA for these new technologies. A plenary session addressed the socioeconomic impact of introducing advanced technologies in resource-limited settings. How shall the dual gaps, one in access to basic medical services and the other in access to high-quality modern technology, be addressed?

  13. International perspectives on quality assurance and new techniques in radiation medicine: outcomes of an IAEA conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Ken; Davidsson, Lena; Hendry, Jolyon; Dondi, Maurizio; Andreo, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency organized an international conference called, "Quality Assurance and New Techniques in Radiation Medicine" (QANTRM). It dealt with quality assurance (QA) in all aspects of radiation medicine (diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, and radiotherapy) at the international level. Participants discussed QA issues pertaining to the implementation of new technologies and the need for education and staff training. The advantage of developing a comprehensive and harmonized approach to QA covering both the technical and the managerial issues was emphasized to ensure the optimization of benefits to patient safety and effectiveness. The necessary coupling between medical radiation imaging and radiotherapy was stressed, particularly for advanced technologies. However, the need for a more systematic approach to the adoption of advanced technologies was underscored by a report on failures in intensity-modulated radiotherapy dosimetry auditing tests in the United States, which could imply inadequate implementation of QA for these new technologies. A plenary session addressed the socioeconomic impact of introducing advanced technologies in resource-limited settings. How shall the dual gaps, one in access to basic medical services and the other in access to high-quality modern technology, be addressed?

  14. [Advanced organ failure in the elderly. Some issues from a geriatrics, palliative medicine and bioethics perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Renedo, Francisco Javier; González-Ercilla, Leire; Iráizoz-Apezteguía, Itziar

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the literature as regards the knowledge, skills and attitudes that these disciplines can provide in improving technical, ethical and human quality health care in the elderly with advanced organ failure, multimorbidity, frailty and progressive dementia. A comprehensive review focused on available references on the interrelationship between geriatric medicine and palliative medicine, education in bioethics, prognostic tools, functional status, and the humanization of health care. Advance care planning, comprehensive geriatric assessment, the study of the values of the patient and their introduction in decision-making process, as well as the need to promote moral, care, and healthcare organizational ethics, are essential elements to achieve this objective. Practitioners and healthcare organizations should seek excellence as a moral requirement. To achieve this, there is a priority to acquire virtues of care and fundamental concepts of geriatric and palliative medicine, assessing functional status, advance care planning and patient/family needs as essential issues to protect, care for and promote them in all care settings. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Narrative Medicine perspectives on patient identity and integrative care in neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Robert B; Howard, Tracy A; Villano, John L

    2017-09-01

    Narrative Medicine sessions can encourage patients to rediscover personal identity and meaning by telling or writing their stories. We explored this process to improve care and quality of life for brain cancer patients in an academic neuro-oncology program. Brain cancer and its treatments may threaten a patient's quality of life and sense of self in many ways, including impaired cognitive skills, loss of memory, reduced coordination, and limited capacity for self-expression. The impact of symptoms and side effects on quality of life must be evaluated in terms of each patient's identity and may be understood in terms of each patient's story. Insights from Narrative Medicine visits may also be helpful for the treatment team as they seek to assess patient needs, attitudes, and abilities. We provide case-based histories demonstrating applications of Narrative Medicine in the care of patients with brain tumors whose sense of self and quality of life are challenged. The cases include managing frontal lobe syndrome of loss of initiative and pervasive emotional apathy with his wife and young children, regaining a meaningful activity in a patient, re-establishing self-identity in a young woman with ependymoma, and improving spells with coexistent epilepsy and psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES).

  16. Once in Contact, Always in Contact: Contagious Essence and Conceptions of Purification in American and Hindu Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejmadi, Ahalya; Rozin, Paul; Siegal, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Cultural and age differences in responses to contamination and conceptions of purification were examined in Hindu Indian (N = 125) and American (N = 106) 4- to 5-year-olds and 8-year-olds, who were provided with stories of juice contaminated by contact with a cockroach, a human hair, and a stranger (via sipping). Children who rejected the juice as…

  17. Assessment of permafrost distribution maps in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region using rock glaciers mapped in Google Earth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, M.O.; Baral, P.; Gruber, S.; Shahi, S.; Shrestha, T.; Stumm, D.; Wester, P.

    2015-01-01

    The extent and distribution of permafrost in the mountainous parts of the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region are largely unknown. A long tradition of permafrost research, predominantly on rather gentle relief, exists only on the Tibetan Plateau. Two permafrost maps are available digitally that

  18. Writing against Culture: Unveiling Education and Modernity for Hindu Indian and Muslim Pakistani Women through an "Ethnography of the Particular"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal P.; Khurshid, Ayesha

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we analyze our experiences engaging in a collaborative ethnographic project. This project brings together two ethnographic studies undertaken independently from the other in Gujarat, India and Punjab, Pakistan. We integrate the narratives of young, rural Hindu women in India with those of young, rural Muslim women in Pakistan to…

  19. Challenges and uncertainties in hydrological modelling of remote Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) basins: suggestions for calibration strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Konz, M.; Immerzeel, W.W.; Shresta, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of water resources from remote mountainous catchments plays a crucial role for the development of rural areas in or in the vicinity of mountain ranges. The scarcity of data, however, prevents the application of standard approaches that are based on data-driven models. The Hindu

  20. Book Review: Caplan, Lionel (1970, Land and Social Change in East Nepal: A study of Hindu-tribal relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sewant Kattal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Caplan, Lionel (1970, Land and Social Change in East Nepal: A study of Hindu-tribal relations. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited, (PP 235 with postscript 2000, ISBN 99933 13 07 6DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v6i0.8483 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 6, 2012 139-142

  1. Hindu, Muslim and Sikh Religious Education Teachers' Use of Personal Life Knowledge: The Relationship between Biographies, Professional Beliefs and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everington, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the findings of a qualitative study of Hindu, Muslim and Sikh teachers of religious education and the relationship between their biographies, professional beliefs and use of personal life knowledge in English, secondary school classrooms. This relationship was explored through a study of five beginning teachers and provided…

  2. Barriers to Higher Education: Commonalities and Contrasts in the Experiences of Hindu and Muslim Young Women in Urban Bengaluru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N.

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and…

  3. Diabetes mellitus and its management with medicinal plants: A perspective based on Iranian research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Arezou; Farzadfard, Azad; Amirahmadi, Atefe; Alemi, Maasoomeh; Khademi, Mitra

    2015-12-04

    Complementary and alternative medicine has been increasingly used to treat chronic illnesses, such as diabetes mellitus. However, various limitations in terms of their application and efficacies exist. Furthermore, there is still much to be done to discover the right herbal medicine for diabetes. This paper aims to evaluate previous herbal studies on the management of diabetes mellitus, to address their strengths and weaknesses and propose a general framework for future studies. Data sources such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SpringerLink, and Wiley were searched, limited to Iran, using 36 search terms such as herbal, traditional, medicine, and phytopharmacy in combination with diabetes and related complications. Reviewed articles were evaluated regarding the use of botanical nomenclature and included information on (1) identity of plants and plant parts used, (2) the processing procedure, and (3) the extraction process. The main outcomes were extracted and then surveyed in terms of the efficacies of herbs in the management of diabetes mellitus. Then a comparative study was performed between Iranian and non-Iranian studies with respect to herbs best studied in Iran. Of the 82 herbs studied in Iran, only six herbs were endemic and 19 were studied in detail. Although most of the reviewed herbs were found to decrease the level of blood glucose (BG) and/or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) in both Iranian and non-Iranian studies, information on their pharmacological mechanisms is scarce. However, the level of HbA1C was measured in a limited number of clinical trials or animal studies. Available information on both short- and long-term use of studied herbs on diabetes related complications and functions of involved organs as well as comorbid depression and/or simultaneous changes in lifestyle is also insufficient. Furthermore, little or no information on their phytochemical, toxicological, and herb-drug interaction properties is available. It is worth noting that the

  4. Person-centered approaches in medicine: clinical tasks, psychological paradigms, and postnonclassic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezzich J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to demonstrate advances in methodological means suggested by Vygotsky’s cultural-historical concept in association with a theoretical model of a Person-centered diagnosis and practical use of the construct for clinical psychology and medicine. This, to a greater extent, arises from the fact that the cultural-historical concept (due to its humanistic nature and epistemological content is closely related to the person-centered integrative approach. But for all that the concept corresponds to the ideals of postnonclassical model of scientific rationality with a number of ‘key’ features. Above all it manifests its “methodological maturity” to cope with open self-developing systems, which is most essential at the modern stage of scientific knowledge.The work gives consideration to ‘defining pillars’ of Person-centered approach in modern medicine, to humanistic traditions of the Russian clinical school, and high prospects in diagnostics of such mental constructs as “subjective pattern of disease” and “social situation of personal development in disease” - within the context of person-centered integrative diagnosis.This article discusses the need for implementation a cross-cultural study of subjective pattern of disease and its correlation with a particular “social situation of personality development under disease conditions”. It aims at development and substantiation of the model of person-centered integrative approach, enhancement of its diagnostic scope and, consequently, improvement of the model of person-centered care in modern psychiatry and medicine.

  5. The development and use of radionuclide generators in nuclear medicine. Recent advances and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Although the trend in radionuclide generator research has declined, radionuclide generator systems continue to play an important role in nuclear medicine. Technetium-99m obtained from the molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator system is used in over 80 per cent of all diagnostic clinical studies and there is increasing interest and use of therapeutic radioisotopes obtained from generator systems. This paper focuses on a discussion of the major current areas of radionuclide generator research, and the expected areas of future research and application. (author)

  6. Stroke: pathophysiology from the biomedical system perspective and its equivalent in the traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Fernanda Ruiz-Mejía

    2017-01-01

    Despite this, stroke is not limited to a molecular event, but also encompasses the life story of the patients who suffer from this condition and have to integrate it into their physical, emotional and mental dimensions. With this in mind, the needs of the approach and treatment of patients can be satisfied by other medical systems such as traditional Chinese medicine, which considers the signs and symptoms of stroke as the result of a disharmony created and perpetuated by environmental, emotional and mental causes, as well as by lifestyle.

  7. [The German Museum for the History of Medicine: a museum tour from the perspective of urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruisinger, M M

    2012-08-01

    In 1973, Germany's first museum of the history of medicine was founded in the former anatomical theatre of Ingolstadt University. Today, the baroque building with its beautiful medical garden is one of the attractions of the old city of Ingolstadt. The paper gives a round tour through the permanent exhibition, the medical technology wing and the herbal garden. The emphasis is put on those objects and plants which have a connection to the history of urology, from a "ladies urinal" to the world's first ESWL apparatus.

  8. The Clinician in Leadership. Perceptions of Style. Perspectives from Rural Primary Medicine in Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Hana, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The papers of this thesis are not available in Munin I: Hana, J. & Rudebeck, C. A.: 'Leadership in rural medicine: The organization on thin ice?', Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 2011; 29: 122–128. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/02813432.2011.577148 II: Hana, J. & Kirkhaug, R.: ‘Physicians’ leadership styles in rural primary medical care: how are they perceived by staff?’, Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, 2014; 32: 4–10. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/...

  9. Gender perspective in occupational medicine and workplace risk assessment: state of the art and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, C; Magrini, A; Vitali, M; Sernia, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current situation and the research agenda in the field of gender differences, both generically in the occupational settings and in the specific activity of risk assessment. Gender is a key determinant of health; the evaluation of documents and scientific literature shows increasing attention to a gender oriented approach, as demonstrated by the development of Gender Medicine, actually cross-oriented in all medical specialties, the publication of books dedicated to this topic and the birth of "ad hoc" new scientific societies and journals. Even today, however, the gender differences are not considered as they should in the context of health disciplines, including occupational medicine. In this respect, in fact, the critical issues to be overcome are numerous, such as the phenomena of "segregation", the exposure to risk factors and their effects, related also to non-professional, socio-cultural features that differentiate male and female workers. All these factors can lead to situations of inequality in health. In fact, the European directives on safety at work repeatedly highlight the attention to gender differences in prevention, assessment and management of risks. In this regard, the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work advocates an approach "more sensitive" to gender in all the processes of assessment and risk management, from the research of all potential sources of risk to the decision-making processes, in order to address the prevention of risks in a holistic manner.

  10. Hospitalist and Internal Medicine Leaders' Perspectives of Early Discharge Challenges at Academic Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hemali; Fang, Margaret C; Mourad, Michelle; Green, Adrienne; Wachter, Robert M; Murphy, Ryan D; Harrison, James D

    2018-06-01

    Improving early discharges may improve patient flow and increase hospital capacity. We conducted a national survey of academic medical centers addressing the prevalence, importance, and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives. We assembled a list of hospitalist and general internal medicine leaders at 115 US-based academic medical centers. We emailed each institutional representative a 30-item online survey regarding early-discharge initiatives. The survey included questions on discharge prioritization, the prevalence and effectiveness of early-discharge initiatives, and barriers to implementation. We received 61 responses from 115 institutions (53% response rate). Forty-seven (77%) "strongly agreed" or "agreed" that early discharge was a priority. "Discharge by noon" was the most cited goal (n = 23; 38%) followed by "no set time but overall goal for improvement" (n = 13; 21%). The majority of respondents reported early discharge as more important than obtaining translators for non-English-speaking patients and equally important as reducing 30-day readmissions and improving patient satisfaction. The most commonly reported factors delaying discharge were availability of postacute care beds (n = 48; 79%) and patient-related transport complications (n = 44; 72%). The most effective early discharge initiatives reported involved changes to the rounding process, such as preemptive identification and early preparation of discharge paperwork (n = 34; 56%) and communication with patients about anticipated discharge (n = 29; 48%). There is a strong interest in increasing early discharges in an effort to improve hospital throughput and patient flow. © 2017 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Tissue engineering and microRNAs: future perspectives in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Manuele; Trombetta, Marcella; Santini, Daniele; Rainer, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering is a growing area of biomedical research, holding great promise for a broad range of potential applications in the field of regenerative medicine. In recent decades, multiple tissue engineering strategies have been adopted to mimic and improve specific biological functions of tissues and organs, including biomimetic materials, drug-releasing scaffolds, stem cells, and dynamic culture systems. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding small RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of downstream target mRNAs, are considered a novel class of molecular targets and therapeutics that may play an important role in tissue engineering. Herein, we highlight the latest achievements in regenerative medicine, focusing on the role of miRNAs as key modulators of gene expression, stem cell self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation, and eventually in driving cell fate decisions. Finally, we will discuss the contribution of miRNAs in regulating the rearrangement of the tissue microenvironment and angiogenesis, and the range of strategies for miRNA delivery into target cells and tissues. Manipulation of miRNAs is an alternative approach and an attractive strategy for controlling several aspects of tissue engineering, although some issues concerning their in vivo effects and optimal delivery methods still remain uncovered.

  12. Seeing the unseen of Chinese herbal medicine processing (Paozhi): advances in new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Wang, Shengpeng; Lu, Junrong; Jing, Yong; Li, Mingxing; Cao, Jiliang; Bian, Baolin; Hu, Changjiang

    2018-01-01

    Processing ( Paozhi ) represents a unique Chinese pharmaceutic technique to facilitate the use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) for a specific clinical need in the guidance of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory. Traditionally, most CHMs require a proper processing to meet the needs of specific clinical syndromes before being prescribed by TCM practitioners. During processing, significant changes in chemical profiles occur, which inevitably influence the associated pharmacological properties of a CHM. However, although processing is formed in a long-term practice, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear for most CHMs. The deepening understanding of the mechanism of processing would provide scientific basis for standardization of processing. This review introduced the role of processing in TCM and several typical methods of processing. We also summarized the up-to-date efforts on the mechanistic study of CHM processing. The processing mechanisms mainly include the following aspects: (i) directly reducing contents of toxic constituents; (ii) structural transformation of constituents; (iii) improving solubility of constituents; (iv) physically changing the existing form of constituents; (v) and influence by excipients. These progress may give new insights into future researches.

  13. Compatibility art of traditional Chinese medicine: from the perspective of herb pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengpeng; Hu, Yangyang; Tan, Wen; Wu, Xu; Chen, Ruie; Cao, Jiliang; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2012-09-28

    Over the past decades, research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) mainly focused on developing potential candidates from Chinese medicinal herbs, while the wisdom of applying these traditional herbs has not been paid as much attention as it deserves. As is well-known, multi-herb therapy is one of the most important characteristics of TCM, but the modernization drive of this conventional wisdom has faced many obstacles due to its unimaginable complexity. Herb pairs, the most fundamental and the simplest form of multi-herb formulae, are a centralized representative of Chinese herbal compatibility. In light of their simplicity and the basic characteristics of complex formulae, herb pairs are of great importance in the studies of herb compatibility. A systematic search of herb pair related research was carried out using multiple online literature databases, books and monographs published in the past 20 years. A comprehensive introduction to the compatibility of TCM, the position of herb pairs in TCM and the progresses of several famous herb pairs were provided in this review. Furthermore, the clinical study and the future research trends of herb pairs were also discussed. Herb pairs have played, and may continue to play a key role in full investigation of general herb compatibility for their indispensable position in TCM. Much more research is needed for the standardization, safety evaluation, and mechanism exploration of herb pairs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Was it worth it? Patients' perspectives on the perceived value of genomic-based individualized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Colin Me; Clift, Kristin E; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2016-04-01

    The value of genomic sequencing is often understood in terms of its ability to affect diagnosis or treatment. In these terms, successes occur only in a minority of cases. This paper presents views from patients who had exome sequencing done clinically to explore how they perceive the utility of genomic medicine. The authors used semi-structured, qualitative interviews in order to study patients' attitudes toward genomic sequencing in oncology and rare-disease settings. Participants from 37 cases were interviewed. In terms of the testing's key values-regardless of having received what clinicians described as meaningful results-participants expressed four qualities that are separate from traditional views of clinical utility: Participants felt they had been empowered over their own health. They felt they had contributed altruistically to the progress of genomic technology in medicine. They felt their suffering had been legitimated. They also felt a sense of closure, having done everything they could. Patients expressed overwhelmingly positive attitudes toward sequencing. Their rationale was not solely based on the results' clinical utility. It is important for clinicians to understand this non-medical reasoning as it pertains to patient decision-making and informed consent.

  15. Role of nuclear medicine and AIDS: Overview and perspective for future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, W.I.; Serafini, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the causative agent for the expanding epidemic of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Sixteen million individuals were estimated to be infected worldwide with HIV by the World Health Organization in 1995, with over 10 million in Africa and one million in the USA. As the HIV cost in dollars and lives continues to rise it will become more important to understand AIDS and to foresee the potential role of nuclear medicine in HIV diseases. Nuclear medicine may have a role in the assessment of immune function, including the ability to predict if individuals can avoid progression to HIV+ status, if pre-AIDS to AIDS conversion can be prevented, and if an individual's immune status requires addition of prophylaxis. Also it can be used for disease detection at an early stage and determination of the extent of disease. It is especially useful to assist clinicians in optimizing therapy and assessing its efficacy. In the future new radiopharmaceuticals for detecting a specific infections and tumors will be needed. This will require collaborative efforts with basic scientists and clinicians working hand in hand to address specific issues related to AIDS

  16. Anasakti, the Hindu ideal, and its relationship to well-being and orientations to happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banth, Sudha; Talwar, Charu

    2012-09-01

    Anasakti, a Sanskrit term for traits like non-attachment, equipoise, selfless duty orientation, and effort in the absence of concern for the outcome, can be regarded as a Hindu-ideal cluster of personality traits. The relationship of Anasakti with well-being and the three distinct happiness orientations was explored through a study of 676 college students and a sample of 65 yogic practitioners in India. The findings revealed that the yogic practitioners were markedly higher in Anasakti than the secular population. For the yogic population, there was a large correlation between Anasakti and the Orientation to Meaningful Life, and it accounted for more than 20% of the variance in the regression of Anasakti against all the measures of well-being. The yogic population's scores also correlated with several other measures of well-being. The scores of the secular population were less strongly related to the well-being scores; though, several correlation coefficients were statistically significant.

  17. The Colour of Saffron: The Road Taken by the Hindu Nationalism towards Illiberalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Petre

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Placed in the middle of controversies, Narendra Modi’s rise to prominence sparked numerous reaction both inside India as well as on the international scene. His opponents, frequently reproach his authoritarianism and his links with an extreme brand of Hindu nationalism. On the other side, the plea of his supporters emphasize the new Prime minister’s managerial abilities brandished during his twelve years of governance in the state of Gujarat. This article tries to explain the electoral success of the incumbent chief of executive in India along with his party of allegiance- BJP. Here I argue that Modi’s triumph is largely explainable through a set of demographic, social, economic and cultural factors persistent throughout the world which also tell us the emergence of other illiberal strongman regimes in countries like: Hungary, Russia or Turkey. The conclusion draws a warning against the proliferation of aggressive ultranationalism and the reservoirs of intolerance it seems to harbor.

  18. Muslim and Hindu Women's public and private behaviors: gender, family, and communalized politics in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender.

  19. Paola Bacchetta, Gender in the Hindu Nation. RSS Women as Ideologues

    OpenAIRE

    Woerkens, Martine Van

    2006-01-01

    En 2004, à la surprise générale, la « plus grande démocratie du monde » votait contre la coalition au pouvoir dominée par le parti d’extrême droite (Bharatyia Janata Party, BJP). L’historique parti du Congrès reprit alors en main le destin de plus d’un milliard d’Indiens. Cependant, la droite nationaliste hindoue dont le BJP est l’émanation politique, continue d’être puissante. De nombreux ouvrages lui sont consacrés, en Inde, aux États-Unis, en Europe. Gender in the Hindu Nation de Paola Bac...

  20. New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao) Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Chen, Si-Bao; Dong, Hong-Guang; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Dong, Ji-Cui; Long, Zhi-Xian; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery. PMID:21785622

  1. New Perspectives on Chinese Herbal Medicine (Zhong-Yao Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic chemical drugs, while being efficacious in the clinical management of many diseases, are often associated with undesirable side effects in patients. It is now clear that the need of therapeutic intervention in many clinical conditions cannot be satisfactorily met by synthetic chemical drugs. Since the research and development of new chemical drugs remain time-consuming, capital-intensive and risky, much effort has been put in the search for alternative routes for drug discovery in China. This narrative review illustrates various approaches to the research and drug discovery in Chinese herbal medicine. Although this article focuses on Chinese traditional drugs, it is also conducive to the development of other traditional remedies and innovative drug discovery.

  2. New perspectives on evolutionary medicine: the relevance of microevolution for human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühli, Frank Jakobus; Henneberg, Maciej

    2013-04-29

    Evolutionary medicine (EM) is a growing field focusing on the evolutionary basis of human diseases and their changes through time. To date, the majority of EM studies have used pure theories of hominin macroevolution to explain the present-day state of human health. Here, we propose a different approach by addressing more empirical and health-oriented research concerning past, current and future microevolutionary changes of human structure, functions and pathologies. Studying generation-to-generation changes of human morphology that occurred in historical times, and still occur in present-day populations under the forces of evolution, helps to explain medical conditions and warns clinicians that their current practices may influence future humans. Also, analyzing historic tissue specimens such as mummies is crucial in order to address the molecular evolution of pathogens, of the human genome, and their coadaptations.

  3. Tackling the global mental health challenge: a psychosomatic medicine/consultation-liaison psychiatry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Amy M; Fielke, Ken; Brayley, John; Araya, Mesfin; Alem, Atalay; Frankel, Bernard L; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2010-01-01

    Consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry, informed by principles of psychosomatic medicine, is well-positioned to address the global impact of mental disorders through primary care C-L models. The authors review the international burden of mental disorders, highlighting medical comorbidity, undertreatment, and the rationale for enhancing primary-care management. C-L psychiatry fosters the skills required for global mental health work. The authors describe successful C-L models developed in a low-income country (Ethiopia) and an under-resourced region of a high-income country (Australia). C-L psychiatrists have the potential to marshal their unique skill-set to reduce the global burden of mental disorders.

  4. Recombinant human TSH in differentiated thyroid cancer: a nuclear medicine perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P. [CEA, DSV, I2BM, SHFJ, LMNRB, Orsay (France); Rubello, D. [Osped S Maria Misericordia, IRCCS, IOV, Dept Nucl Med, PET Ctr, I-45100 Rovigo (Italy); Hindie, E. [Hop St Louis, Dept Nucl Med, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is widely discussed in the literature with regard to the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the management of DTC patients. However, some controversy about the appropriate indications, advantages and potential disadvantages of the use of rhTSH may still exist within the community of nuclear medicine physicians. In our opinion, the clinical benefits of rhTSH in avoiding hypothyroidism outweigh its somewhat lesser diagnostic accuracy. However, we disagree on designating rhTSH as the 'golden standard' to obtain TSH stimulation, as suggested by some authors. Thus, the first follow-up examination after ablation, which is determinant for patients' prognostic classification, can be either done under rhTSH stimulation or after hormone withdrawal. In our practice, and for higher risk patients, we still favour performing the initial follow-up after thyroid hormone withdrawal. rhTSH also shows the ability to enhance radioiodine concentration into thyroid cells. This characteristic is obviously of great interest among the nuclear medicine community. In clinical practice, it seems preferable to perform {sup 131}I treatment for metastatic disease during hypothyroidism. rhTSH may find its utility for the treatment of specific populations of patients, i.e. those in whom hormone withdrawal is medically contraindicated or in whom adequate endogenous TSH levels cannot be obtained due to reduced pituitary reserve or continued thyroxine production by metastatic tissue. In conclusion, rhTSH has demonstrated to be a reliable alternative to hypothyroidism for the stimulation of Tg in the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. However, its use must be more carefully chosen in the therapeutic setting. Our feeling is that rhTSH should no tbe used for remnant ablation in high-risk patients and for the treatment of metastatic disease, except for specific populations of

  5. Recombinant human TSH in differentiated thyroid cancer: a nuclear medicine perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanotti-Fregonara, P.; Rubello, D.; Hindie, E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is widely discussed in the literature with regard to the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of the management of DTC patients. However, some controversy about the appropriate indications, advantages and potential disadvantages of the use of rhTSH may still exist within the community of nuclear medicine physicians. In our opinion, the clinical benefits of rhTSH in avoiding hypothyroidism outweigh its somewhat lesser diagnostic accuracy. However, we disagree on designating rhTSH as the 'golden standard' to obtain TSH stimulation, as suggested by some authors. Thus, the first follow-up examination after ablation, which is determinant for patients' prognostic classification, can be either done under rhTSH stimulation or after hormone withdrawal. In our practice, and for higher risk patients, we still favour performing the initial follow-up after thyroid hormone withdrawal. rhTSH also shows the ability to enhance radioiodine concentration into thyroid cells. This characteristic is obviously of great interest among the nuclear medicine community. In clinical practice, it seems preferable to perform 131 I treatment for metastatic disease during hypothyroidism. rhTSH may find its utility for the treatment of specific populations of patients, i.e. those in whom hormone withdrawal is medically contraindicated or in whom adequate endogenous TSH levels cannot be obtained due to reduced pituitary reserve or continued thyroxine production by metastatic tissue. In conclusion, rhTSH has demonstrated to be a reliable alternative to hypothyroidism for the stimulation of Tg in the follow-up of thyroid cancer patients. However, its use must be more carefully chosen in the therapeutic setting. Our feeling is that rhTSH should no tbe used for remnant ablation in high-risk patients and for the treatment of metastatic disease, except for specific populations of patients. (O.M.)

  6. Female Physicians in Maternal-Fetal Medicine: A 32-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Jacquelyn; Will, Vanessa K; Rayburn, William F

    2018-05-07

     To examine trends of female physicians either pursuing fellowships or in active practice in maternal-fetal medicine (MFM).  This observational study examined complete sets of MFM fellows and active members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) between 1985 and 2016. Databases from SMFM, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were used. Analysis of covariance testing was used to assess interactions over time between groups.  The proportion of female MFM fellows increased steadily from 17.1% in 1985 to 72.5% in 2016. The proportion of females grew more rapidly among the MFM fellows than obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) residents (2.1 vs. 1.4% per year; p  = 0.001) and among those who were active SMFM members than ACOG Fellows (1.4 vs. 1.2% per year; p  = 0.013). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of all SMFM members are now female and will approach two-thirds (64.4%) by 2025 (compared with 53.4% in 2016 and 65.3% in 2025 of ACOG fellows).  The rising proportion of female MFM fellows is directly related to the high number of female ob-gyn residents. Females comprise slightly more than half of all active SMFM members now and projected to approach two-thirds by 2025. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Quality Improvement Practices in Academic Emergency Medicine: Perspectives from the Chairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DelliFraine, Jami L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess academic emergency medicine (EM chairs’ perceptions of quality improvement (QI training programs.Methods: A voluntary anonymous 20 item survey was distributed to a sample of academic chairs of EM through the Association of Academic Chairs of Emergency Medicine. Data was collected to assess the percentage of academic emergency physicians who had received QI training, the type of training they received, their perception of the impact of this training on behavior, practice and outcomes, and any perceived barriers to implementing QI programs in the emergency department.Results: The response rate to the survey was 69% (N = 59. 59.3% of respondents report that their hospital has a formal QI program for physicians. Chairs received training in a variety of QI programs. The type of QI program used by respondents was perceived as having no impact on goals achieved by QI (χ2 = 12.382; p = 0.260, but there was a statistically significant (χ2 = 14.383; p = 0.006 relationship between whether or not goals were achieved and academic EM chairs’ perceptions about return on investment for QI training. Only 22% of chairs responded that they have already made changes as a result of the QI training. 78.8% of EM chairs responded that quality programs could have a significant positive impact on their practice and the healthcare industry. Chairs perceived that QI programs had the most potential value in the areas of understanding and reducing medical errors and improving patient flow and throughput. Other areas of potential value of QI include improving specific clinical indicators and standardizing physician care.Conclusion: Academic EM chairs perceived that QI programs were an effective way to drive needed improvements. The results suggest that there is a high level of interest in QI but a low level of adoption of training and implementation.[West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(5:479-485.

  8. Neuroimaging of love: fMRI meta-analysis evidence toward new perspectives in sexual medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Patel, Nisa; Frum, Chris; Lewis, James W

    2010-11-01

    Brain imaging is becoming a powerful tool in the study of human cerebral functions related to close personal relationships. Outside of subcortical structures traditionally thought to be involved in reward-related systems, a wide range of neuroimaging studies in relationship science indicate a prominent role for different cortical networks and cognitive factors. Thus, the field needs a better anatomical/network/whole-brain model to help translate scientific knowledge from lab bench to clinical models and ultimately to the patients suffering from disorders associated with love and couple relationships. The aim of the present review is to provide a review across wide range of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies to critically identify the cortical networks associated with passionate love, and to compare and contrast it with other types of love (such as maternal love and unconditional love for persons with intellectual disabilities). Retrospective review of pertinent neuroimaging literature. Review of published literature on fMRI studies of love illustrating brain regions associated with different forms of love. Although all fMRI studies of love point to the subcortical dopaminergic reward-related brain systems (involving dopamine and oxytocin receptors) for motivating individuals in pair-bonding, the present meta-analysis newly demonstrated that different types of love involve distinct cerebral networks, including those for higher cognitive functions such as social cognition and bodily self-representation. These metaresults provide the first stages of a global neuroanatomical model of cortical networks involved in emotions related to different aspects of love. Developing this model in future studies should be helpful for advancing clinical approaches helpful in sexual medicine and couple therapy. © 2010 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  10. Female role models in medicine: a medical student’s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIYA KAPILA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of role models in medical education cannot be understated. They allow for professional development, aid in career motivation and inspire and educate through example. Unfortunately, I cannot admit knowing more than three female role models throughout my time at medical school, and now as a final year student, I am more disappointed than ever for this deficit. My admiration and respect for doctors remains sky high, but from the age of 15, I remember being put off and discouraged from a career in medicine. My first work experience placement was met with disgruntled medical students and doctors warning me to ‘steer clear’ of this career choice. Notably, female doctors would state their reservations about whether they could adequately bring up a stable family together with the demands of this profession. This was an extremely frustrating resolution for me to see as a young, inspired medic- who passionately felt I would work hard to do both. I sought to find out more about the challenges for women in medicine. There lies no dispute that having a stable family life and successful career is no easy feat for women. Yet, the mere choice between a family and/or career is far more intricate than it may seem; it is really a question exploring personal life priorities, resolute character traits and, most importantly, equal gender opportunities and the necessity for greater support for women with families (1. Gender equity and empowerment are inextricably linked to a woman’s entitlement and contribution to the workplace. Evidently, the endless unpaid hours of bringing up a family need greater recognition- arguably a full time job in itself; some people still don’t deem the demanding work of a mother as a career- illustrated by Catherine Deveny’s Guardian article (2. Women are often invited to defend their life choices, or fulfil gender expectations. Maybe, as women we need to alter our own insight into what it means to be a successful

  11. Proceedings of INC 02. International Nuclear Conference 2002: Global Trends and Perspectives, Seminar II: Medicine and Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The papers discuss the uses of radiations and radioisotopes in Medicine and Health, it included the area of nuclear medicine, biomedical radiography, radiopharmaceuticals; isotope production; cancer treatment, etc

  12. An industrial perspective on the design and development of medicines for older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Sharon; Coupe, Alastair; Barrett, Andrew

    2016-10-30

    An increasing elderly population is leading to a change in the global demographics. This presents a new challenge to society and the pharmaceutical industry. This demographic shift is providing an opportunity for the pharmaceutical industry to meet the specific needs of the changing patient population. One issue that has been identified is defining what is meant by "an older patient", since this definition cannot be simply limited to chronological age. The fundamental purpose of the design and development process is to create a product that can be used by the patient group in a safe and efficacious manner. In the pharmaceutical industry ICH Q8 is used to guide the design and development of medicines. The process leads to the definition of the Quality Target Product Profile (QTPP) for a specific drug product and patient population. One can imagine a product with various presentations described in the QTPP which suit paediatrics, adults and older patients. It is recognised that designing medicines for smaller population groups will result in multiple presentations that could lead to smaller manufacturing batch sizes. In the short to medium term; dose flexibility, easy-to-swallow formulations, and easier access packaging are all factors under consideration. Dose flexibility could be achieved with various dosage forms such as oral liquids, mini-tablets, or multi-particulates. Whilst patient dosage preferences are beginning to be understood, further investigation is needed to balance the needs of the patient, care giver, prescriber, and payer. There also remain a number of challenges with the engineering solutions and delivery device for mini-tablets and multi-particulates (aside from filled capsules) to accurately and robustly deliver the dose, and issues with handling the device and the packaging for an older patient. It is also recognised that there are numerous challenges, not least of which is the definition of the older patient and a generic QTPP for an older

  13. Muslim patients and cross-gender interactions in medicine: an Islamic bioethical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Rodriguez del Pozo, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    As physicians encounter an increasingly diverse patient population, socioeconomic circumstances, religious values and cultural practices may present barriers to the delivery of quality care. Increasing cultural competence is often cited as a way to reduce healthcare disparities arising from value and cultural differences between patients and providers. Cultural competence entails not only a knowledge base of cultural practices of disparate patient populations, but also an attitude of adapting one's practice style to meet patient needs and values. Gender roles, relationship dynamics and boundaries are culture specific, and are frequently shaped by religious teachings. Consequently, religion may be conceptualised as a cultural repertoire, or dynamic tool-kit, by which members of a faith adapt and negotiate their identity in multicultural societies. The manner in which Islamic beliefs and values inform Muslim healthcare behaviours is relatively under-investigated. In an effort to explore the impact of Islam on the relationship between patients and providers, we present an Islamic bioethical perspective on cross-gender relations in the patient-doctor relationship. We will begin with a clinical scenario highlighting three areas of gender interaction that bear clinical relevance: dress code, seclusion of members of the opposite sex and physical contact. Next, we provide a brief overview of the foundations of Islamic law and ethical deliberation and then proceed to develop ethicolegal guidelines pertaining to gender relations within the medical context. At the end of this reflection, we offer some practice recommendations that are attuned to the cultural sensitivities of Muslim patient populations.

  14. [Simulation-based learning and internal medicine: Opportunities and current perspectives for a national harmonized program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galland, J; Abbara, S; Terrier, B; Samson, M; Tesnières, A; Fournier, J P; Braun, M

    2018-03-13

    Simulation-based learning (SBL) is developing rapidly in France and the question of its use in the teaching of internal medicine (IM) is essential. While HAS encourages its integration into medical education, French Young Internists (AJI) set up a working group to reflect on the added-value of this tool in our specialty. Different sorts of SBL exist: human, synthetic and electronic. It enables student to acquire and evaluate technical skills (strengths, invasive procedures, etc.) and non-technical skills (relational, reasoning…). The debriefing that follows the simulation session is an essential time in pedagogical terms. It enables the acquisition of knowledge by encouraging the students' reflection to reshape their reasoning patterns by self-correcting. IM interns are supportive of its use. The simulation would allow young internists to acquire skills specific to our specialty such as certain gestures, complex consulting management, the synthesis of difficult clinical cases. SBL remains confronted with human and financial cost issues. The budgets allocated to the development and maintenance of simulation centres are uneven, making the supply of training unequal on the territory. Simulation sessions are time-consuming and require teacher training. Are faculties ready to train and invest their time in simulation, even though the studies do not allow us to conclude on its pedagogical validity? Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. A pharma perspective on the systems medicine and pharmacology of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Schnizler, Katrin; Eissing, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Biological systems are complex and comprehend multiple scales of organisation. Hence, holistic approaches are necessary to capture the behaviour of these entities from the molecular and cellular to the whole organism level. This also applies to the understanding and treatment of different diseases. Traditional systems biology has been successful in describing different biological phenomena at the cellular level, but it still lacks of a holistic description of the multi-scale interactions within the body. The importance of the physiological context is of particular interest in inflammation. Regulatory agencies have urged the scientific community to increase the translational power of bio-medical research and it has been recognised that modelling and simulation could be a path to follow. Interestingly, in pharma R&D, modelling and simulation has been employed since a long time ago. Systems pharmacology, and particularly physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models, serve as a suitable framework to integrate the available and emerging knowledge at different levels of the drug development process. Systems medicine and pharmacology of inflammation will potentially benefit from this framework in order to better understand inflammatory diseases and to help to transfer the vast knowledge on the molecular and cellular level into a more physiological context. Ultimately, this may lead to reliable predictions of clinical outcomes such as disease progression or treatment efficacy, contributing thereby to a better care of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Communicating with pediatricians about complementary/alternative medicine: perspectives from parents of children with down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prussing, Erica; Sobo, Elisa J; Walker, Elizabeth; Dennis, Kimberly; Kurtin, Paul S

    2004-01-01

    Barriers to communication about complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) between parents and pediatricians are frequently documented, yet the scope of these barriers remains poorly understood. Such barriers are especially troubling when they involve children with special health needs, among whom CAM use is especially common. This pilot study of parents of children with Down syndrome (DS) used qualitative methods to explore parents' perceptions of the extent and quality of communication about CAM with pediatricians, to elicit parents' recommendations for improvement, and to formulate new research questions. Semistructured interviews were conducted with parents from 30 families with children with DS. Data were audiotaped and analyzed with assistance from qualitative data analysis software. Parents described how they advocated vigorously with their pediatricians about biomedical concerns such as the American Academy of Pediatrics healthcare guidelines for DS, but often avoided discussion of nonbiomedical concerns such as CAM. Many parents looked to pediatricians to initiate conversations about CAM. Even parents who assertively advocate for biomedical concerns in their children's health care may be unlikely to disclose and discuss CAM use with their pediatricians. Attending to parents' experiences helps to illuminate the nature and scope of current communication barriers and poses new research questions for assessing and improving parent-physician collaboration about health-related issues that may be prioritized differently by parents and pediatricians.

  17. Agrimonia – biological activity and perspectives for medicinal application. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Saluk-Juszczak1,2

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The menopause-related alteration in a woman’s body may include a variety of disorders, such as obesity,metabolic syndrome, changes in immune response or haemostatic parameters, and oxidative stress. Some plantderivedsubstances have been used for many years as an alternative for oestrogen therapy in the treatment ofvarious menopausal symptoms. Among these compounds, the best known are isoflavones. However, also otherbiologically active compounds, that are present in herbs, should be taken into account as potential therapeuticagents. The growing number of reports has confirmed favourable effects of plants belonging to the Agrimoniagenus. Three species of them occur in Poland: Agrimonia eupatoria L., Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb., and Agrimoniaprocera Wallr. In the present review, the available data and recent findings on the potential use of differentplants from Agrimonia genus in prevention and therapy of various disturbances of the inflammatory systemand cardiovascular disorders are described. One of the most important aspects of the medicinal application ofAgrimonia plants is their possible role in the protection of the cardiovascular system against changes associatedwith menopause.

  18. Integrating complementary and alternative medicine into cancer care: Canadian oncology nurses′ perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L Truant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM and conventional cancer care in Canada is in its nascent stages. While most patients use CAM during their cancer experience, the majority does not receive adequate support from their oncology health care professionals (HCPs to integrate CAM safely and effectively into their treatment and care. A variety of factors influence this lack of integration in Canada, such as health care professional(HCP education and attitudes about CAM; variable licensure, credentialing of CAM practitioners, and reimbursement issues across the country; an emerging CAM evidence base; and models of cancer care that privilege diseased-focused care at the expense of whole person care. Oncology nurses are optimally aligned to be leaders in the integration of CAM into cancer care in Canada. Beyond the respect afforded to oncology nurses by patients and family members that support them in broaching the topic of CAM, policies, and position statements exist that allow oncology nurses to include CAM as part of their scope. Oncology nurses have also taken on leadership roles in clinical innovation, research, education, and advocacy that are integral to the safe and informed integration of evidence-based CAM therapies into cancer care settings in Canada.

  19. Diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives in nuclear medicine: radiolabelled biomolecules; Perspectivas diagnosticas y terapeuticas en medicina nuclear: biomoleculas radiomarcadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G. [Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud. ININ, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendez A, L. [Facultad de Medicina, UAEM, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    From their beginning, the radiopharmaceuticals chemistry has gone to the study of the molecular chemistry. The radiopharmaceuticals are only in their capacity to detect such specific biochemical places as the receivers and the enzymes. With the recent obtaining of the complete structural sequence of the genome, it doesn't fit doubt of the importance that they have acquired the molecular images for the study from the genetic information to the alterations phenotypic in the chemistry of the human body. So, the future of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, practically is based in the study of protein fragments, peptide structures and chains of DNA radiolabelled for the study of the metabolism In vivo. These investigations represent a substantial change in those paradigms of the pharmaceutical development, when using the own organic capacities as source of medications, instead of considering to the organism like a simple assay tube where molecules act, like they are most of the traditional medications. The investigation of new techniques to design complex stable of Tc-99m, Re-188, Lu-177, Y-90 and Dy-166/Ho-l66 with biomolecules that don't alter the specificity and in general the molecular properties of the same ones. it is a topic of world interest in the environment of the radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this work some achievements and perspectives are presented on those main diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals of third generation. (Author)

  20. Diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives in nuclear medicine: radiolabelled biomolecules; Perspectivas diagnosticas y terapeuticas en medicina nuclear: biomoleculas radiomarcadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro F, G [Gerencia de Aplicaciones Nucleares en la Salud. ININ, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear. Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Melendez A, L [Facultad de Medicina, UAEM, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    From their beginning, the radiopharmaceuticals chemistry has gone to the study of the molecular chemistry. The radiopharmaceuticals are only in their capacity to detect such specific biochemical places as the receivers and the enzymes. With the recent obtaining of the complete structural sequence of the genome, it doesn't fit doubt of the importance that they have acquired the molecular images for the study from the genetic information to the alterations phenotypic in the chemistry of the human body. So, the future of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, practically is based in the study of protein fragments, peptide structures and chains of DNA radiolabelled for the study of the metabolism In vivo. These investigations represent a substantial change in those paradigms of the pharmaceutical development, when using the own organic capacities as source of medications, instead of considering to the organism like a simple assay tube where molecules act, like they are most of the traditional medications. The investigation of new techniques to design complex stable of Tc-99m, Re-188, Lu-177, Y-90 and Dy-166/Ho-l66 with biomolecules that don't alter the specificity and in general the molecular properties of the same ones. it is a topic of world interest in the environment of the radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this work some achievements and perspectives are presented on those main diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals of third generation. (Author)

  1. Professionalism and Communication Education in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: The Learner Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David A; Fleming, Geoffrey M; Winkler, Margaret; Lee, K Jane; Hamilton, Melinda F; Hornik, Christoph P; Petrillo-Albarano, Toni; Mason, Katherine; Mink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Communication and professionalism are often challenging to teach, and the impact of the use of a given approach is not known. We undertook this investigation to establish pediatric critical care medicine (PCCM) trainee perception of education in professionalism and communication and to compare their responses from those obtained from PCCM fellowship program directors. The Education in Pediatric Intensive Care (E.P.I.C.) Investigators used the modified Delphi technique to develop a survey examining teaching of professionalism and communication. After piloting, the survey was sent to all 283 PCCM fellows in training in the United States. Survey response rate was 47% (133 of 283). Despite high rates of teaching overall, deficiencies were noted in all areas of communication and professionalism assessed. The largest areas of deficiency included not being specifically taught how to communicate: as a member of a nonclinical group (reported in 24%), across a broad range of socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds (19%) or how to provide consultation outside of the intensive care unit (17%). Only 50% of fellows rated education in communication as "very good/excellent." However, most felt confident in their communication abilities. For professionalism, fellows reported not being taught accountability (12%), how to conduct a peer review (12%), and how to handle potential conflict between personal beliefs, circumstances, and professional values (10%). Fifty-seven percent of fellows felt that their professionalism education was "very good/excellent," but nearly all expressed confidence in these skills. Compared with program directors, fellows reported more deficiencies in both communication and professionalism. There are numerous components of communication and professionalism that PCCM fellows perceive as not being specifically taught. Despite these deficiencies, fellow confidence remains high. Substantial opportunities exist to improve teaching in these areas. Copyright © 2015

  2. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for children: a parents' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Ashry; Al-Faris, Eiad; Al-Rowais, Noura; Al-Rukban, Mohamed

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to detect the frequency and types of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies used for children and to explore parental motivating factors for using CAM for their children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This is a cross-sectional study that involved 462 families selected through a multistage cluster-sampling technique covering Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. The sample was selected from 40 clusters, distributed proportionally according to the size of the population in the catchment area of primary health care centres (PHCCs). A structured questionnaire that contains items fulfilling the research objectives was used to collect data by research assistants. The study included 926 parents, comprising 351 fathers and 575 mothers; 37.3% of them reported the use of CAM for their children including reciting the Quran, honey and Ferula asafoetida (26.1%, 21.5% and 18.8%, respectively). CAM was used six times higher for children of parents using CAM for themselves than children of parents who did not use CAM themselves (odds ratio (OR)=6.03, 3.9-9.37). Multivariate logistic regression showed that parental use of CAM (OR=3.0, 2.2-4.0), keeping CAM remedies at home (OR=2.3, 1.8-3.1), perceived success of CAM in practice (OR=1.8, 1.3-2.4) and preference of use of natural materials (OR=1.7, 1.2-2.5) were independent predictors of use of CAM for children. In this study, around one-third of the parents used CAM for their children. Quran (Muslims' holy book) was the most common CAM type used for children. Parents' use of CAM for themselves is the most important predictor of its use for children. An in-depth study to investigate CAM use for specific diseases in children is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Personalized Medicine: New Perspectives for the Diagnosis and the Treatment of Renal Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gluba-Brzózka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of renal diseases is rising and reaching 5–15% of the adult population. Renal damage is associated with disturbances of body homeostasis and the loss of equilibrium between exogenous and endogenous elements including drugs and metabolites. Studies indicate that renal diseases are influenced not only by environmental but also by genetic factors. In some cases the disease is caused by mutation in a single gene and at that time severity depends on the presence of one or two mutated alleles. In other cases, renal disease is associated with the presence of alteration within a gene or genes, but environmental factors are also necessary for the development of disease. Therefore, it seems that the analysis of genetic aspects should be a natural component of clinical and experimental studies. The goal of personalized medicine is to determine the right drug, for the right patient, at the right time. Whole-genome examinations may help to change the approach to the disease and the patient resulting in the creation of “personalized medicine” with new diagnostic and treatment strategies designed on the basis of genetic background of each individual. The identification of high-risk patients in pharmacogenomics analyses will help to avoid many unwarranted side effects while optimizing treatment efficacy for individual patients. Personalized therapies for kidney diseases are still at the preliminary stage mainly due to high costs of such analyses and the complex nature of human genome. This review will focus on several areas of interest: renal disease pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rate of progression and the prediction of prognosis.

  4. Developing an administrative plan for transfusion medicine--a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick

    2005-10-01

    Throughout the world blood services aim to provide a life-saving service by ensuring an adequate supply of safe blood. However, across the world blood services are at very different levels of development. Consequently, the actions taken in one country or region would not be appropriate in another. This paper aims to identify how suitable solutions can be developed to match the different prevailing circumstances of an individual country or region. In trying to do this it is important to look at the whole of the supply chain within a blood service and identify the part where a change could make the biggest impact. Four key areas are identified that are integral to this. These are the donor, testing of blood, hemovigilance, and overall management arrangements. Whilst the first two have largely been addressed in highly developed countries, there is still much work that could be done in these areas in developing countries. In particular, a move to voluntary nonremunerated donors worldwide would significantly improve overall safety. Hemovigilance systems are identified as a powerful tool to influence policy development, yet these are largely under developed throughout the world. In order to make high impact and sustainable changes it is important that those in the blood industry across the world work together to improve education and training, to share experience of best practice, and to move to develop agreed standards in transfusion medicine. It is imperative that developed countries recognize the importance of working with developing countries if the safety of the global blood supply is to be maintained and improved.

  5. Penerapan Metode Pembelajaran Diskusi Dan Resitasi Dalam Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Pendidikan Agama Hindu Siswa Kelas Iv Sd Negeri 2 Tumbu Karangasem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Putu Suci Lestari

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims: (1 to know the application of the use of methods of discussion and recitation can improve the learning outcomes of Hindu religious education fourth graders Elementary School 2 Tumbu. (2 to find out constraints faced in using the method of assignment and recitation in the learning of Hindu religious education fourth grade students of SD Negeri 2 Tumbu.The type of this research is Classroom Action Research (PTK with the subject of this research is the fourth grader of SD Negeri 2 Tumbu, the Hindu of 17 people from 22 students, consist of 10 men, and 7 women. The research was conducted at SD Negeri 2 Tumbu Karangasem. This research was conducted in two cycles. One cycle consists of preparation, execution, observation and reflection. Data collection is done by test method. Then the data is analyzed by quantitative descriptive technique.The results of this study is an increase in learning outcomes, the initial reflection of the average learning outcomes of Hindu religious education amounted to 54.7 with 29,41% complete learning. Then, in the first cycle the average learning outcomes of Hindu religious education increased to 69.4 and the classical completeness of 64.71% is still less than the classical completeness set 85%. Thus, learning in cycle I has not been completed. In cycle II the average learning outcomes of Hindu religious education increased to 79.1 and 100% classical completeness, thus the learning cycle II completed.

  6. What’s in a name? An enquiry about the interpretation of Agama Hindu as “Hinduism”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Picard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, I question the conceptual categories of“religion”, “agama”, “dharma”, and “Hinduism”, in orderto investigate through which processes and within whichcontexts the Balinese religion resulted in being construedas agama Hindu. After having investigated how theSanskrit loanword agama came to designate in Indonesiaan Islamic conception of what “religion” is about, I assessthe similarities between the construction of Indian Neo-Hinduism and the interpretation of the Balinese religion asagama Hindu. In particular, I pay attention to the controversywhich has been dividing the Balinese intelligentsia overthe proper name of their religion, as it reveals a perennialconflict between the Balinese who want to retain thespecificity of their customary ritual practices, and thosewho aspire to reform the Balinese religion by conformingit to what they think Hinduism is about.

  7. Case-based studies in teaching medicinal chemistry in PharmD curriculum: Perspectives of students, faculty, and pharmacists from academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joydip; Fernandez, Julianna; Shah, Dhara; Williams, Louis; Zagaar, Munder

    Pharmacy practice has evolved tremendously over the years to meet the demands of the growing healthcare system. Foundational sciences like, medicinal chemistry can enhance the critical-thinking and therapeutic decision-making skills of today's professional pharmacists. The importance of medicinal chemistry for the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum has been discussed from the perspectives of medicinal chemistry and practicing clinical faculty whose focused practices vary from infectious diseases to geriatrics. An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved perception survey and a year-end course evaluation were given to the second and third professional year students. Eighty-eight percent of the participating second-year students and 92% of the participating third-year students thought that the introduction of case studies in the medicinal chemistry curriculum enhanced their learning and appreciation for the subject. The Pharmacy Curriculum Outcomes Assessment (PCOA) exams, given at the University of Houston College of Pharmacy during the years of 2013-2015, were briefly discussed. Since the requirement to administer the PCOA went into effect in early 2016, the authors felt that not enough time existed to establish meaningful controls to conduct a correlation study with the student perspective survey results obtained and PCOA data provided in 2015. This study, therefore, highlights the importance of integrated approaches to pharmacy teaching at the University of Houston. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Devaki syndrome: a culture-bound psychological reaction in Indian Hindu women in response to repeated pregnancy loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Sinha, Prakriti; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Depression and anxiety are observed in pregnant women with previous foetal loss due to spontaneous abortions. Culture has important influence on the expression of psychopathology. We report two Hindu women during second trimester of pregnancy with symptoms of depression and anxiety along with identification with a mythological figure - Devaki, with extreme preoccupations with child Krishna and expecting a male child, which precipitated after a series of unfortunate foetal losses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic applications of Rhenium-188 in nuclear medicine and oncology - Current status and expected future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The increasing use of unsealed radioactive targeting agents for cancer treatment requires the routine availability of cost-effective radioisotopes. Rhenium-188 (Re-188; half-life 16.9 hours) is a high-energy beta-emitter (E max 2.12 MeV), readily available no- max carrier-added from the alumina-based tungsten-188 (half-life 69 days)/rhenium-188 generator system. Rhenium-188 also emits a 155 keV (15%) gamma photon, permitting gamma camera imaging for biodistribution and dosimetry evaluation. The versatile chemistry of rhenium allows attachment to a wide variety of targeting molecules for Re-188 applications in nuclear oncology for both palliative metastatic treatment and targeted tumor therapy - radionuclide synovectomy, and coronary restenosis therapy. The long parent half-life and consistent performance provide an indefinite generator shelf-life of several months with high Re-188 elution yields (75-85 %) and consistently low W-188 parent breakthrough ( -6 ). Simple post-elution concentration methods have been developed which provide very high specific volume solution of Re-188 for radiolabeling (> 700 mCi/mL saline/1 Ci generator). Over 60 physician-sponsored clinical trials are currently in progress worldwide with applications in nuclear medicine, nuclear oncology and interventional cardiology. A variety of Re-188-labeled therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and devices are being developed for clinical trials currently in progress for treatment of both benign and metastatic oncological disorders. Palliation of metastatic bone pain with Re-188-HEDP - prepared from a simple 'kit' - has been demonstrated as a cost-effective alternative to similar agents. Recent studies have in fact demonstrated the enhancement of progression-free interval and survival time by repeated Re-188-HEDP injections to patients with metastatic disease from prostate cancer. The use of the Re-188-labeled antiNCA95 (CD66) antibody in conjunction with external beam irradiation is an

  10. Unearthing Nusantara’s Concept of Religious Pluralism: Harmonization and Syncretism in Hindu-Buddhist and Islamic Classical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Makin

    2016-06-01

    [Artikel ini mencoba menemukan rumusan pluralisme dengan membaca ulang teks klasik Jawa dengan memilih bagian tertentu dari sastra Hindu-Buddha yang disebut kakawin dan karya Islami yang disebut serat dan babad. Praktik dinamis sinkretisme dan penyelarasan antara tradisi keagamaan lokal dan asing ditemui dalam Sutasoma, Kertagama, Dewa Ruci, Babad Tanah Jawa, dan Centini. Dari hasil bacaan teks-teks di atas, tulisan ini menemukan bahwa sejak masa kuno Singasari dan Majapahit, penyelarasan dan sinkretisme antara banyak tradisi keagamaan telah dipraktikkan sebagai bagian penting dari konsep pluralisme. Hindu-Buddha datang pertama lalu disusul oleh karya Islam yang menambah nuansa sinkretis. Studi ini juga menemukan bahwa tokoh Hindu-Buddha diceritakan ulang dalam karya Islam dengan berbagai modifikasi. Cerita tentang Sunan Kalijaga mencerminkan sumber yang lebih tua seperti Sutasoma, Ken Arok, Bhima, dan tokoh-tokoh lain. Kisah mereka mengajarkan kepada kita tentang relativitas antara kejahatan dan kebaikan; kejahatan tidak dimusnahkan tetapi diubah menjadi kebaikan. Artikel ini merupakan contoh usaha  untuk merumuskan konsep pluralisme berdasarkan kebijakan lokal dengan membaca kembali teks-teks klasik dengan semangat penafsiran ulang ajaran lokal dengan perspektif baru.

  11. Brahmacharya: a vida escolar hinduísta na Índia Antiga.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O brahmacharya trata-se de uma ordem (ashrama que representa miticamente os pés do demiurgo e da sociedade no hinduísmo clássico, constituída por estudantes das camadas superiores, celibatários e castos, entre a faixa etária média de 5 a 25 anos. Nessa fase da vida, a continência e a obediência absoluta são seus pilares. Leva-se uma vida shramana (ascética e faz-se voto de pobreza e castidade, o qual pode se estender até o final de sua vida (para os intelectuais e sacerdotes ou brahmanas, caso decida não se casar; o que era raro de acontecer e socialmente desmotivado. Além disso, vive-se estritamente em uma situação de internato com um casal guru (homem e mulher mestres em sua kula (casa até sua total formação educacional, seja como comerciante, guerreiro ou intelectual. Na análise atual, observamos como esse processo educacional se constituía e quais os seus arcabouços religiosos envolvidos para a sua total coordenação, envolta de tradição, magia e sentido de vida.

  12. An ‘infiltration’ of time? Hindu Chauvinism and Bangladeshi migration in/to Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Ghosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the growth of Hindu chauvinism (Hindutva in India, this article explores the ways Bengali middle-class caste-Hindus have become increasingly anti-Bangladeshi and, in particular, increasingly hostile to immigrants into India from Bangladesh. The aim is two-fold. First, to show that a main reason for the increasingly anti-Bangladeshi sentiment is these Bengali Hindus’ particular experience of or, more precisely, their particular interpretation of, their own location in Indian history. This group, at times referred to as the bhadralok, had once seen itself, not without reason, as India’s national elite and has sought to re-establish that status. Second, it is suggested that the Bangladeshi immigrants represent an “infiltration” or “interruption” of time as much as territory, providing the temporal backdrop for anti-Bangladeshi resentment. In this case the temporality at issue is the postcolonial imperative of progress. The paper suggests that attention to issues of temporality can shed light on key aspects of nationalism — postcolonial nationalism and perhaps more broadly liberal nationalism — in relation to, among other matters, the legitimation of leadership.

  13. Ecological wisdom of Hindu-Javanese community settlement in Cetho Hamlet, Lawu Mountains, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhsan, Fauzan Ali; Setioko, Bambang; Suprapti, Atiek

    2017-12-01

    Dwelling culture of Java community has a long history. In Javanese community point of view, Javanese culture is not a homogeneous entity. There is a diversity characteristic of a regional nature of Javanese culture, which is caused by differences in the natural environment on the island of Java. Dwelling Culture settled in the mountains is a variant form of Javanese culture that has its own uniqueness. This study aimed to describe the local values of the rural settlement structure of in Lawu mountains with Hindu-Javanese culture background. This study used a qualitative approach with case study strategy. The locus of research is in the Cetho hamlet on the slopes of Mount Lawu Karanganyar, Central Java. The results showed that local values in the neighborhoods of Cetho hamlet is based on the Memayu Hayuning Bawana philosophy. These concepts are abstracted into various aspects of settlements in Cetho hamlet such as aspects of dwelling house setting, water management, and ritual activities related to environmental management. Memayu Hayuning Bawana philosophy becomes a cultural space coloring the ecological action of the population of Cetho hamlet. The comprehensive motivation of ecological action ultimately leads to one final goal, namely the desire to maintain a harmonic atmosphere with the surroundings.

  14. Perspectives in regenerative medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Ray Banerjee, Ena

    2014-01-01

    The information given in this book tries to capture the essence of the sheer dynamicity of the cell along with useful tips on how to address critical rate limiting steps in the process of exploration and investigation of its capacity to regenerate, rebuild and replenish from within. The definitions of stem cells, stemness, and the niche concept continue to undergo revisions. In adult vertebrates, hematopoietic and some non-hematopoietic progenitors are synthesized within specialized niches of bone marrow. They migrate to designated tissues, and are either trans-differentiated or become quiescent and settle down. These form the stem cell niche reservoir in all tissues. Not only the primary hematopoietic tissue but all organs and tissues are also capable of generating progenitors which are either synthesized from these migrants or are direct recruits from other tissues. In the niches, the cells settle down and await their turn to either make more clones like themselves or differentiate and mobilize in an exigen...

  15. Perspectives in football medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldén, M; Hägglund, M; Bengtsson, H; Ekstrand, J

    2018-04-12

    The high injury rate among men's professional football players is well-known. Therefore, the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) launched an injury study already in 2001. This study, the UEFA Elite Club Injury Study (ECIS), currently includes data from a total of 51 clubs from 18 European countries with more than 14,000 registered injuries. With the 21 st  World Cup (WC) in Russia just around the corner, we have from our study identified a higher match injury rate and a higher proportion of severe injuries in the European Championships compared to the preceding club competitive seasons. Moreover, we have also recently showed that the muscle injury rate is higher when players are given a recovery window of five days or less between two matches. Considering the congested match schedule of the upcoming WC, it is therefore likely that injuries and fatigue once again will be a topic of discussion this summer.

  16. Economic viability of Stratified Medicine concepts : An investor perspective on drivers and conditions that favour using Stratified Medicine approaches in a cost-contained healthcare environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a natural result of advances in biomedical science and a promising path for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry to create new investment opportunities. While the use of biomarkers to improve R&D efficiency and productivity is very much

  17. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...... at different time points along this longitudinal investigation are performed with a comprehensive set of omics platforms. These data sets are generated in a biological context, rather than biochemical compound class-driven manner, which we term "systems omics."...

  18. The differing perspectives of workers and occupational medicine physicians on the ethical, legal and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I; Brandt-Rauf, Elka; Gershon, Robyn; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing in the workplace holds the promise of improving worker health but also raises ethical, legal, and social issues. In considering such testing, it is critical to understand the perspectives of workers, who are most directly affected by it, and occupational health professionals, who are often directly involved in its implementation. Therefore, a series of focus groups of unionized workers (n=25) and occupational medicine physicians (n=23) was conducted. The results demonstrated strikingly different perspectives of workers and physicians in several key areas, including the goals and appropriateness of genetic testing, and methods to minimize its risks. In general, workers were guided by a profound mistrust of the employer, physician, and government, while physicians were guided primarily by scientific and medical concerns, and, in many cases, by the business concerns distrusted by the workers.

  19. Formative feedback from the first-person perspective using Google Glass in a family medicine objective structured clinical examination station in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youm, Julie; Wiechmann, Warren

    2018-01-01

    This case study explored the use of Google Glass in a clinical examination scenario to capture the first-person perspective of a standardized patient as a way to provide formative feedback on students' communication and empathy skills 'through the patient's eyes.' During a 3-year period between 2014 and 2017, third-year students enrolled in a family medicine clerkship participated in a Google Glass station during a summative clinical examination. At this station, standardized patients wore Google Glass to record an encounter focused on communication and empathy skills 'through the patient's eyes.' Students completed an online survey using a 4-point Likert scale about their perspectives on Google Glass as a feedback tool (N= 255). We found that the students' experiences with Google Glass 'through the patient's eyes' were largely positive and that students felt the feedback provided by the Google Glass recording to be helpful. Although a third of the students felt that Google Glass was a distraction, the majority believed that the first-person perspective recordings provided an opportunity for feedback that did not exist before. Continuing exploration of first-person perspective recordings using Google Glass to improve education on communication and empathy skills is warranted.

  20. VIHARA DI TENGAH-TENGAH SERIBU PURA (STUDI KASUS TENTANG KONVERSI AGAMA DARI AGAMA HINDU KE AGAMA BUDHA DI DESA ALASANGKER, KECAMATAN BULELENG, KABUPATEN BULELENG-BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Sedana Arta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah (1 Untuk mengetahui latar belakang adanya anggota masyarakat di Desa Alasangker yang beralih agama dari agama Hindu ke Agama Budha; (2 Untuk mengetahui proses konversi agama dan perkembangan Agama Budha di Desa Alasangker dari awal masuknya sampai sekarang; (3 Untuk mengetahui implikasi konversi agama terhadap keluarga dan desa pakraman Penelitian ini secara metodologis menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, teknik penentuan informan dengan purposive sampling dan informan terus dikembangkan dengan teknik snowball. Dalam pengumpulan data peneliti menggunakan: (1 Wawancara mendalam dengan membuat pedoman wawancara; (2 Observasi partisipasi. (3 Studi dokumen. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa latar belakang konversi agama di Desa Alasangker disebabkan oleh faktor Interen:1 untuk memperbaiki citra diri, hal ini disebabkan masyarakat yang berkonversi agama pada zaman Orde Lama adalah anggota PKI dan Partindo, sehingga segala aktivitasnya dicurigai oleh masyarakat desa. 2 Kurangnya pemahaman terhadap ajaran agama Hindu, yang disebabkan sumber ajaran agama hanya berasal dari lontar dan buku-buku agama Hindu sulit didapatkan di awal tahun 1970-an ditambah pihak PHDI kurang mengadakan pembinaan ke desa-desa tentang agama Hindu. 3 Faktor kemiskinan, kepapaan disebabkan mereka kehilangan orang tua maupun saudara yang menjadi tulang punggung keluarga. Sedangkan faktor eksternal adalah adanya pengaruh ajaran tokoh-tokoh agama Budha yang mempunyai keahlian dan kharisma, kemiripan ajaran agama Hindu dan Budha seperti ajaran hukum karma, punarbawa, dan tujuan akhir agama hidup manusia, kemudahan-kemudahan yang diberikan dari lembaga agama Budha,  seperti pemberian buku-buku secara gratis.

  1. Problem-Based Learning at the Faculty of Medicine of the Université de Montréal: A Situated Cognition Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntyonga-Pono, Marie-Pierrette

    2006-12-01

    This study describes the typical case of problem-based learning (PBL) application at the Faculty of Medicine of the Université de Montréal and its analysis from the perspective of situated cognition. I used a typical case study to determine the general model of PBL application and performed my analysis by a global processing of information, against to the conceptual model of situated cognition. A typical PBL tutorial case consists of a meeting of a group of about 8 students with a tutor to discuss a medical problem. Learning objectives are predetermined by faculty and recorded in the tutor's handbook. Broadly speaking, the analysis revealed a certain kind of scaffolding within a "zone of proximal development" (ZPD). The adaptation of PBL at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Montreal is hybrid, original, and can be related to the model of cognitive apprenticeship, but the tutor's role, however, does not fit the model of cognitive apprenticeship completely.

  2. PENJAMINAN MUTU PENDIDIKAN MELALUI TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI DI INSTITUT HINDU DHARMA NEGERI DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Triyana

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Institut Hindu Dharma Negeri (IHDN Denpasar utilize information technology to support the vision and mission. Besides utilized to assist in the administration of education, information technology is also used for the development of quality IHDN. For example, the implementation of SPMI by the Lembaga Penjaminan Mutu (LPM IHDN Denpasar by utilizing information technology in empowering educators, staff, service for learners. Information technology can make SPMI process becomes more transparent and accountable, so as to improve the quality of education in IHDN Denpasar.In 2016, the lecturers of IHDN Denpasar have been using applications Beban Kerja Dosen (BKD so that the implementation of the Tri Dharma Perguruan Tinggi of each Lecturer can be calculated in a professional manner. Application Beban Kerja Dosen (BKD which uses Microsoft Access greatly assist the lecturers of IHDN Denpasar in preparing the report of BKD, which became the basis allowances of lecturer certification. Scientific Journal Publication as research journals have been managed by using information technology in website’s form http://www.ejournal.ihdn.ac.id. Process research and community service in IHDN Denpasar, ranging from proposals to reporting already using online application that Management Information Systems Institute of Research and Community Service (LPPM. Implementation of the obligations of officials in Denpasar IHDN in education have used the system of financial information which relating to applications such as SPAN and SILABI, and for IHDN affairs personnel data in Denpasar using http://ropeg.kemenag.go.id information system. whereas for asset management or inventory in IHDN Denpasar is managed by using the application of State Property (BMN. Services to students, starting from recruitment of new students, the learning process through graduation in Denpasar IHDN also have been managed through a new Student Information System Admissions, Academic Information

  3. Behavioral medicine perspectives on the design of health information technology to improve decision-making, guideline adherence, and care coordination in chronic pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midboe, Amanda M; Lewis, Eleanor T; Cronkite, Ruth C; Chambers, Dallas; Goldstein, Mary K; Kerns, Robert D; Trafton, Jodie A

    2011-03-01

    Development of clinical decision support systems (CDSs) has tended to focus on facilitating medication management. An understanding of behavioral medicine perspectives on the usefulness of a CDS for patient care can expand CDSs to improve management of chronic disease. The purpose of this study is to explore feedback from behavioral medicine providers regarding the potential for CDSs to improve decision-making, care coordination, and guideline adherence in pain management. Qualitative methods were used to analyze semi-structured interview responses from behavioral medicine stakeholders following demonstration of an existing CDS for opioid prescribing, ATHENA-OT. Participants suggested that a CDS could assist with decision-making by educating providers, providing recommendations about behavioral therapy, facilitating risk assessment, and improving referral decisions. They suggested that a CDS could improve care coordination by facilitating division of workload, improving patient education, and increasing consideration and knowledge of options in other disciplines. Clinical decision support systems are promising tools for improving behavioral medicine care for chronic pain.

  4. Religious leaders' perceptions of advance care planning: a secondary analysis of interviews with Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Islamic, Jewish, Sikh and Bahá'í leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Salgado, Amanda; Mader, Patrick; O'Callaghan, Clare; Boyd, Leanne; Staples, Margaret

    2017-12-28

    International guidance for advance care planning (ACP) supports the integration of spiritual and religious aspects of care within the planning process. Religious leaders' perspectives could improve how ACP programs respect patients' faith backgrounds. This study aimed to examine: (i) how religious leaders understand and consider ACP and its implications, including (ii) how religion affects followers' approaches to end-of-life care and ACP, and (iii) their implications for healthcare. Interview transcripts from a primary qualitative study conducted with religious leaders to inform an ACP website, ACPTalk, were used as data in this study. ACPTalk aims to assist health professionals conduct sensitive conversations with people from different religious backgrounds. A qualitative secondary analysis conducted on the interview transcripts focussed on religious leaders' statements related to this study's aims. Interview transcripts were thematically analysed using an inductive, comparative, and cyclical procedure informed by grounded theory. Thirty-five religious leaders (26 male; mean 58.6-years-old), from eight Christian and six non-Christian (Jewish, Buddhist, Islamic, Hindu, Sikh, Bahá'í) backgrounds were included. Three themes emerged which focussed on: religious leaders' ACP understanding and experiences; explanations for religious followers' approaches towards end-of-life care; and health professionals' need to enquire about how religion matters. Most leaders had some understanding of ACP and, once fully comprehended, most held ACP in positive regard. Religious followers' preferences for end-of-life care reflected family and geographical origins, cultural traditions, personal attitudes, and religiosity and faith interpretations. Implications for healthcare included the importance of avoiding generalisations and openness to individualised and/ or standardised religious expressions of one's religion. Knowledge of religious beliefs and values around death and dying

  5. Expectations and responsibilities regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies: perspectives of consumers and pharmacy support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Priya; McFarland, Reanna; La Caze, Adam

    2017-08-01

    Most sales of complementary medicines within pharmacies are conducted by pharmacy support staff. The absence of rigorous evidence for the effectiveness of many complementary medicines raises a number of ethical questions regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies. Explore (1) what consumers expect from pharmacists/pharmacies with regard to the sale of complementary medicines, and (2) how pharmacy support staff perceive their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of pharmacy support staff and consumers in pharmacies in Brisbane. Consumers were asked to describe their expectations when purchasing complementary medicines. Pharmacy support staff were asked to describe their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. Interviews were conducted and analysed using the techniques developed within Grounded Theory. Thirty-three consumers were recruited from three pharmacies. Consumers described complementary medicine use as a personal health choice. Consumer expectations on the pharmacist included: select the right product for the right person, expert product knowledge and maintaining a wide range of good quality stock. Twenty pharmacy support staff were recruited from four pharmacies. Pharmacy support staff employed processes to ensure consumers receive the right product for the right person. Pharmacy support staff expressed a commitment to aiding consumers, but few evaluated the reliability of effectiveness claims regarding complementary medicines. Pharmacists need to respect the personal health choices of consumers while also putting procedures in place to ensure safe and appropriate use of complementary medicines. This includes providing appropriate support to pharmacy support staff. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Challenges and opportunities of applying P4 medicine and traditional Chinese medicine for cancer treatment and prevention in the 21st century:Amedical oncologist’s perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H. Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the deadliest diseases, cancer needs a stronger dose of P4 medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory first proposed by Dr. Hood and TCM intervention, as cancer treatment still largely relies on the decade-old cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. This overview uses colorectal cancer model to discuss pitfalls in current cancer prevention and treatment strategies, which saw many randomized phase III studies failing to meet the study primary endpoints or marginally meeting the study objectives. Complete sequencing of whole human genome provided much of the hopes as well as hypes for precision medicine, as genomic diversity, ever changing tumor mutation landscape, SNP and complex microRNA regulation from the intron region and epigenetics make genotype to phenotype correlation study increasingly challenging. As a participant of One hundred Persons Pioneers Project, I witnessed first hand how a comprehensive scientific wellness study that integrates whole genomics, microbiome, and metabolome nutrition along with comprehensive laboratory examinations can be used to diagnose pre-illness in all “healthy” participants. Pre-illness can be best intervened by none pharmaceutical means and traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM adept in restoring internal healing mechanisms, opening up the blocked network and balancing the five-elements homeostasis. Following TCM principles, we were able to design a therapy that effectively targets colon cancer stem cells and its microenvironment leading to more doubling of overall survival with reduction in overall toxicities. Pre-illness diagnosis, cancer immunotherapy, TCM medicine is about restoring internal healing power by letting go brakes on “good” immune systems to go after the “bad” cancer cells. Time is ripe to integrate our knowledge in genomics immune systems, stem cell biology, nutrition, inflammation, metabolism, systems medicine, and modern TCM to deliver a

  7. Changing food habits in a South Indian Hindu Brahmin community: a case of transitioning gender roles and family dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Meena; Blair, Dorothy; Raines, Emily Rose

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the perceptions of 20 South Indian Hindu Brahmin women on the factors influencing their food habits upon immigrating to America. The competing demands of juggling a new career and managing their family's nutritional needs at the same time, all without the support of extended family members, played an important role in steering these women away from cooking traditional healthy meals, and resorting to fast foods instead. Intervention strategies should be directed toward improving the barriers to eating healthy that were specifically identified within the confines of shifting gender roles and limited family support networks.

  8. Comparative analysis of seismic persistence of Hindu Kush nests (Afghanistan) and Los Santos (Colombia) using fractal dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, D. A.; Sanabria, M. P.; Torres, A. F.; Álvarez, M. A.; Gómez, J.

    2018-04-01

    The study of persistence in time series in seismic events in two of the most important nets such as Hindu Kush in Afghanistan and Los Santos Santander in Colombia generate great interest due to its high presence of telluric activity. The data were taken from the global seismological network. Using the Jarque-Bera test the presence of gaussian distribution was analyzed, and because the distribution in the series was asymmetric, without presence of mesocurtisity, the Hurst coefficient was calculated using the rescaled range method, with which it was found the fractal dimension associated to these time series and under what is possible to determine the persistence, antipersistence and volatility in these phenomena.

  9. Seismic Tomography of the Northwest Himalayas, Western Syntaxis and Pamir-Hindu Kush Region: Implications for Underlying Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2017-12-01

    Travel time tomography of the study region using regional as well as local earthquake data illuminate a very heterogeneous structure of this geologically and tectonically complex region. The tomographic image is well resolved up to 150 km depth in the Western Himalayas and up to 300 km depth in the Pamir and Hindu Kush region. The top low velocity anomaly imaged up to 80 km depth correlates well with the thicker crust with deeper low density roots under the high mountains in the northwest Himalayas as well as in the Pamir and Hindu Kush region. Average crustal thickness increases from south to north in the Himalayas as well as along the tectonic trend of the Himalayas. This might be an effect of first collision between Indian and Eurasian plates in the NW and then subsequent anticlockwise rotation of Indian plate, leading to crumpling of the crust. This could also be due to variable thickness of more rigid portion of the incoming crust of Indian plate. The Indian lithospheric slab is imaged as a gently underthrusting high velocity anomaly under the northwest Himalayas and subducted Indian lithospheric slab which follows the trend of intermediate depth seismicity under the Pamir and Hindu Kush region. On the other hand beneath the Pamir-Tien Shan the dipping high velocity anomaly which follows the trend of intermediate depth seismicity, represents the remnant of the southward subducted Asian slab. In the southwest of Hindu Kush the Indian lithospheric slab rolls over and overturns at a depth of 250 km and dips southward. The Delhi-Haridwar Ridge (DHR) and Salt Ranges orthogonal to the strike of the Himalayas are well imaged as high velocity structures. The DHR is butting against the northwest Himalayas that led to ramming and locally buckling of the crust below the Higher Himalayas just NE of DHR. Seismicity pattern follows this trend of the crust. It shows for the first time the effect of ramming of the Himalayas by DHR and most importantly how the Indian plate

  10. Systematic review on traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria in Ethiopia: trends and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebie, Getachew; Urga, Befikadu; Worku, Amha

    2017-08-01

    Ethiopia is endowed with abundant medicinal plant resources and traditional medicinal practices. However, available research evidence on indigenous anti-malarial plants is highly fragmented in the country. The present systematic review attempted to explore, synthesize and compile ethno-medicinal research evidence on anti-malarial medicinal plants in Ethiopia. A systematic web search analysis and review was conducted on research literature pertaining to medicinal plants used for traditional malaria treatment in Ethiopia. Data were collected from a total of 82 Ethiopian studies meeting specific inclusion criteria including published research articles and unpublished thesis reports. SPSS Version 16 was used to summarize relevant ethno-botanical/medicinal information using descriptive statistics, frequency, percentage, tables, and bar graphs. A total of 200 different plant species (from 71 families) used for traditional malaria treatment were identified in different parts of Ethiopia. Distribution and usage pattern of anti-malarial plants showed substantial variability across different geographic settings. A higher diversity of anti-malarial plants was reported from western and southwestern parts of the country. Analysis of ethno-medicinal recipes indicated that mainly fresh leaves were used for preparation of remedies. Decoction, concoction and eating/chewing were found to be the most frequently employed herbal remedy preparation methods. Notably, anti-malarial herbal remedies were administered by oral route. Information on potential side effects of anti-malarial herbal preparations was patchy. However, some anti-malarial plants were reported to have potentially serious side effects using different local antidotes and some specific contra-indications. The study highlighted a rich diversity of indigenous anti-malarial medicinal plants with equally divergent herbal remedy preparation and use pattern in Ethiopia. Baseline information gaps were observed in key geographic

  11. Application of remote sensing and GIS in environmental monitoring in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finu Shrestha

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH region encompasses the largest mountain system in the world extending from Myanmar in the East to Afghanistan in the West and covering the whole or part of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. The region plays a vital role in providing ecosystem services and is the basis of the livelihoods of over 200 million people. The water and other ecosystem services provided by the HKH forms lifeline for one third of humanity. In the past few decades, human activities and global warming have contributed to environmental degradation in significant portion of the region. Decreasing glacier area, growth in glacial lake size, unprecedented rainfall, changes in land use and land cover, forest degradation, floods and glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, landslides, and shortfalls in agricultural crop production are among the many problems brought on by such change. These issues need timely monitoring and supervision if they are to lead to a better understanding of the state of the environment, and the scale of the damages that has already been done. Effective monitoring of the environment, and an improved understanding of the same requires valuable information and data that can be extracted through the application of geospatial technologies such as remote sensing (RS and geographic information system (GIS. This paper provides an overview of such research conducted in the HKH region. It shows how change assessment has been undertaken in thematic areas such as glacier, glacial lake, land use, land cover, and disaster events like floods, landslides and droughts and how sets of data collected over specific intervals of time are being used to identify and monitor the condition of the environment from the past to the present, and in the long run. Complete database sets and analyses pertaining to these areas are made available online to facilitate access to information. Data formulation and further research are necessary

  12. McJimsey Award Winner: Ideologies of the Shri Meenakshi Goushala: Hindu and Jain Motivations for a Madurai Cow Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyzes the motivations underlying the creation and current organization of a recently constructed 'goshala '(cow home in the south Indian city of Madurai.  Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork carried out in 2012, I highlight the divergent visions of the 'goshala'’s purpose and future that were articulated by the institution’s Hindu and Jain members.  Interviews and informal conversations with participants indicate that many individuals conceptualize only one “authentic” tradition of animal homes.  However, within Madurai’s 'goshala 'and likely many others like it, these stakeholders referred to distinctly different traditions.  I argue that Hindu and Jain understandings of 'ahimsa '(nonviolence and the cow vary significantly, and this strongly affects individual expectations of the mission of animal homes.  Utilizing Hobsbawm and Ranger’s framework (1983, I note that the many “invented traditions” of animal homes may be difficult to accommodate within one institution, especially one with a religiously diverse membership.  I further suggest that transparent discussions which clearly indicate an animal home’s goals and mission are necessary and that the outcomes of these discussions should be effectively communicated to the wider community supporting the institution.

  13. Knowledge of ancient Hindu surgeons on Hirschsprung disease: evidence from Sushruta Samhita of circa 1200-600 BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveenthiran, Venkatachalam

    2011-11-01

    Congenital megacolon is eponymously named after Harold Hirschsprung, who accurately described the clinical features in 1886. Recent research revealed that this condition is perhaps well known for centuries before him. This article is intended to examine if ancient Hindu surgeons knew about congenital megacolon. Sushruta Samhita is an ancient tome of Ayurvedic surgery compiled by Sushruta (circa 1200-600 bc). Passages of interest were identified by browsing the authentic English translation of the compendium. Accuracy of translation was verified by comparing to the original Sanskrit verses with the help of a Sanskrit scholar. A condition called Baddha Gudodaram, described in the Samhita, closely resembles Hirschsprung disease. There are indications that ancient Indians even deciphered the etiology as defective vayu alias vata (nerves). Although the ailment was considered incurable, a palliative operation has been discussed. Descriptive details of the operation match with that of sigmoid colostomy. Evidence from Sushruta Samhita indicates that Hindu surgeons of prehistoric India probably had considerable knowledge about Hirschsprung disease. Further research, corroborating other sources of evidence, is required to confirm this claim. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. What is the role of exotic medicinal plants in local medical systems? A study from the perspective of utilitarian redundancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nélson Leal Alencar

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are an important aspect of local medical systems. The composition of a medicinal plant collection is influenced by cultural and environmental factors. Additionally, the functionality of a local medical system can be threatened by the replacement of native species with exotic ones, as well as by cultural factors such as the erosion of knowledge. The objectives of this study are: 1 examine the composition of the medicinal plant collection of two rural communities settled in the caatinga (savanna-like vegetation of the state of Pernambuco (Brazil; 2 observe the role of exotic plants in the local medical systems; and 3 identify the profile of the species utilized according to the Utilitarian Redundancy Model. Similarities were observed between the medicinal floras of the communities studied, emphasizing the importance of the surrounding biome within the possibilities of species selection, although exotic species appear to contribute by increasing the diversity of species considered in the communities to be medicinal. The native species act broadly among the body systems recognized in the two communities, whereas exotic species act in specific body systems, for which there are few associated native species.

  15. Why women go to medical college but fail to practise medicine: perspectives from the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazam, Farhat; Shekhani, Sualeha

    2018-07-01

    Female medical students outnumber men in countries such as Saudi Arabia, India and Pakistan, yet many fail to practise medicine following graduation. In Pakistan, 70% of medical students are women, yet it is estimated that half of them will not pursue medicine following graduation. This is considered a major reason for physician shortages in the country. We conducted a qualitative study drawing upon the 'role strain' theory to explore the views of final-year medical students from four medical colleges in Karachi, Pakistan, on female graduates not entering the medical field. Data were obtained through 20 individual in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. Themes were developed inductively from the data using the constant comparison method. Pakistani parents actively channel daughters into medical education, considering medicine to be the most 'respectable' field. However, in a patrilocal society with norms of early, arranged marriages for daughters, there is a significant influence of in-laws and a husband on a woman's professional future. Parents perceive the medical degree as a 'safety net' should something go wrong with the marriage, rather than a step toward a medical career. Female respondents experience significant role conflict between their socially rooted gender roles as homemakers and mothers and their careers in medicine. Postgraduate training systems that are unfriendly to women provide further deterrents for women wishing to work. Contrary to popular belief, women not practising medicine is not the sole contributor to physician shortages. A significant factor appears to be male graduates migrating abroad for better training and financial prospects. Acceptance of traditional cultural values, including entrenched gender roles in society, deters women from practising medicine. To enable greater participation of women in the medical field, steps are required that will allow women to better manage family and work conflicts. © 2018 John Wiley

  16. Economic viability of Stratified Medicine concepts: An investor perspective on drivers and conditions that favour using Stratified Medicine approaches in a cost-contained healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugel, Hans-Joerg; Nuijten, Mark; Postma, Maarten

    2016-12-25

    Stratified Medicine (SM) is becoming a natural result of advances in biomedical science and a promising path for the innovation-based biopharmaceutical industry to create new investment opportunities. While the use of biomarkers to improve R&D efficiency and productivity is very much acknowledged by industry, much work remains to be done to understand the drivers and conditions that favour using a stratified approach to create economically viable products and to justify the investment in SM interventions as a stratification option. In this paper we apply a decision analytical methodology to address the economic attractiveness of different SM development options in a cost-contained healthcare environment. For this purpose, a hypothetical business case in the oncology market has been developed considering four feasible development scenarios. The article outlines the effects of development time and time to peak sales as key economic value drivers influencing profitability of SM interventions under specific conditions. If regulatory and reimbursement challenges can be solved, decreasing development time and enhancing early market penetration would most directly improve the economic attractiveness of SM interventions. Appropriate tailoring of highly differentiated patient subgroups is the prerequisite to leverage potential efficiency gains in the R&D process. Also, offering a better targeted and hence ultimately more cost-effective therapy at reimbursable prices will facilitate time to market access and allow increasing market share gains within the targeted populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Herbal medicinal products versus botanical-food supplements in the European market: state of art and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilia, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    Botanical products marketed in Europe are diverse, classified as herbal medicinal products, dietary supplements, cosmetics, foods and beverages depending on the relevant applicable legislation. Many factors are taken into account in the classification of a botanical product (e.g. intended use, labeling, preparations and dosages) according to how it is placed on the market. Herbal medicinal products (HMPs) can only be sold in pharmacies, under the supervision of a pharmacist, and are marketed after full or simplified registration procedures according to their classification, i.e. as over-the-counter drugs (OTC) available without special restrictions and prescription only medicine (POM), which must be prescribed by a licensed medical practitioner. The dietary supplement segment is also sold in the market in dose form (such as capsules, tablets, ampoules of liquids, drops etc) and represents 15-20% of the botanical market at the European level with high variability among each country (i.e. in Italy it reaches up to 80%). In many cases the distinction between medicinal products and food supplements has generated borderline botanical-sourced products, which generally produce confusion and mislead the consumers. As a consequence, there is an urgent need of consumer education and in addition to collect comprehensive data and make this database systematically available to herbalists, nutritionists and medical specialists for a proper classification and harmonization of the use of botanical ingredients, and, as consequence, a correct use of these products.

  18. Gene/Environment Interaction in Atherosclerosis: An Example of Clinical Medicine as Seen from the Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Mertens

    2010-01-01

    The chronic multifactorial disease of atherosclerosis clearly illustrates the Darwinian paradigm. Recent research, combining the effects of genes and environment, has provided surprising clues to the pathogenesis of this major public health problem. This example makes a strong case for recognizing evolution biology as a basic science for medicine.

  19. Clinical nuclear medicine in radiation therapy - state and perspectives; Klinische Nuklearmedizin in der Strahlentherapie - Stand und Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze, J. [Kiel Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie (Radioonkologie)

    1995-08-01

    Clinical nuclear medicine has severely changed due to the technical and pharmacological developments within the last 15 years. An evaluation of the importance of nuclear medicine for treatment planning purposes in radiation therapy revealed in 20.6% of the cases relevant new information due to the scans. That nevertheless the demand for nuclearmedical examinations is decreasing might be a result of an increasing alienation between nuclear medicine and referring physicians of other specialities. Therefore a reapproach of nuclear medicine with her main clinical partners is desireable which could be achieved e.g. by exchange of rotating house officers, participation in tumor conferences and consiliary statements to scan indications. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die klinische Nuklearmedizin hat sich durch die technischen und pharmakologischen Entwicklungen der letzten 15 Jahre erheblich veraendert. Eine Evaluation der Bedeutung nuklearmedizinischer Verfahren fuer die Bestrahlungsplanung in der Strahlentherapie hat in 20,6% der Faelle eine untersuchungsbedingte, planungsrelevante Information erbracht, auf die nicht verzichtet werden konnte. Dass die Nachfrage nach nuklearmedizinischen Untersuchungen in diesem Bereich trotzdem ruecklaeufig ist, duerfte Ergebnis einer zunehmenden Entfremdung der Zuweiser aus den verwandten Faechern von der Nuklearmedizin sein. Es ist deshalb eine Wiederannaeherung der Nuklearmedizin an ihre klinischen Hauptpartner wuenschenswert, die durch Austausch von Rotationsassistenten, die Beteiligung an Tumorkonferenzen und die konsiliarische Stellungnahme zu Untersuchungsindikationen erreicht werden koennte. (orig.)

  20. Profile of diseases prevalent in a tribal locality in Jharkhand, India: A family medicine practitioner′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Majority of Indian population is dependent on general practitioners (GPs for medical services at primary care level in India. They are most preferred and considered to be first contact person for medical services at primary care level. But advances in medical science has put more emphasis on specialist culture and average Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS graduates who are working as general physician are gradually feeling themselves less competent because they are less exposed to latest advances in treatment of diseases. Amidst such scenario, Christian Medical College (CMC has come up with an idea: "The refer less and resolve more initiative". It has started a decentralized 2-year family medicine distance diploma course (Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine (PGDFM now accredited by Dr. MGR Medical University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, that trains the GPs to become family medicine specialist. Materials and Methods: As component of PGDFM course, this study was conducted to provide better understanding of prevalent ailments and common treatment provided by the GPs in the community at present giving key insight of current practice in rural area by a registered family medicine practitioner. Results: As part of study, among 500 patients evaluated, three most common diagnosis were upper respiratory infections (URIs; 18%, acute gastroenteritis including water-borne diseases (15.8%, and anemia (10.4%. Treatment given to these patients comprised of mostly of antipyretic, analgesic, and antimicrobial agents. Most common drug prescribed was paracetamol for fever. Other common drugs prescribed were amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, chloroquine, artemisin derivative, doxycycline, co-trimoxazole, miltefosine, cephalexin, ceftriaxone sodium, cefixime, oral rehydration salts, ranitidine, omeprazole, pantoprazole, metronidazole, albendazole, ondansetron, diclofenac sodium, piroxicam, ibuprofen, diphenhydramine, codeine-sulfate, amlodipine

  1. Patients' perspectives on antiepileptic medication: relationships between beliefs about medicines and adherence among patients with epilepsy in UK primary care.

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, S. C.; Horne, R.; Chater, A.; Hukins, D.; Smithson, W. H.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nonadherence to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) can result in suboptimal outcomes for patients. AIM: This study aimed to assess the utility of a theory-based approach to understanding patient perspectives on AEDs and adherence. METHOD: Patients with epilepsy, identified by a GP case note review, were mailed validated questionnaires assessing their perceptions of AEDs and their adherence to them. RESULTS: Most (84.9%) of the 398 AED-treated respondents accepted the necessity of AEDs, bu...

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome defies the mind-body-schism of medicine. New perspectives on a multiple realisable developmental systems disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Elling

    2008-09-01

    The article maintains that chronic fatigue syndrome can be properly understood only by taking an integrated perspective in which evolutionary, developmental and ecological aspects are considered. The integrative approach, supplemented by a complexity theory and psychoneuroimmunological research, is capable of explaining why there are so few structural aberrations to be found in chronic fatigue syndrome and why specific treatment is so difficult to establish. A major outcome of the investigation, that all individuals with chronic fatigue syndrome are diseased in their own way, emphasises the need to study the development of personalised life histories. It also highlights an ethical dimension; personalised disease defies essentialist thinking on patient management. Another major outcome, which follows from the developmental systems perspective, is the dissolution of ontological mind-body dualism. This in turn allows for a methodological complementation of the biological and phenomenological approaches to knowledge. New research strategies that may help to resolve chronic fatigue syndrome, grounded in the revised perspective on individual development, are suggested.

  3. Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundle Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity continge...

  4. The Perspective of Psychosomatic Medicine on the Effect of Religion on the Mind–Body Relationship in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2012-01-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is ti...

  5. Muslim and Hindu Women’s Public and Private Behaviors: Gender, Family and Communalized Politics in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2015-01-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship between gender, family and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of “doing gender”, it argues that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors such as household decision making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender. PMID:25143018

  6. Past, present and perspectives of Manipur traditional medicine: A major health care system available for rural population in the North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Lokesh; Laishram, Surbala; Khumukcham, Nongalleima; Ningthoukhongjam, Dhaneshwor; Nameirakpam, Surjit Singh; Dey, Amitabha; Moirangthem, Dinesh Singh; Talukdar, Narayan Chandra; Ningthoukhongjam, Tombi Raj

    2015-07-01

    Traditional health care practices are still being followed extensively in Manipur, North-East India. This is the major or the only medical facility available in some rural areas of Manipur. Cross cultural ethno-pharmacological survey was conducted to document traditional health care practices by Maiba-Maibi (male-female traditional health care practitioners of Manipur). All together 59 traditional practitioners belonging to 12 ethnic communities in nine districts of the Manipur state were interviewed. A predesigned questionnaire was used for interviews, which included queries for type of ailments treating, symptoms, bioresources used, method of preparation, dosage forms, formulation, unit doses. The entire interviews were done in the residence of respective Maiba-Maibi, their patient handing and preparation of medicinal formulations were documented in written and audio-visual format. The survey recorded traditional knowledge on 949 formulations used for 66 human ailments. Five hundred forty six plant products, 42 animal products and 22 organic/inorganic materials were found to be used in these 949 formulations. Five plant species - Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae), Oroxylum indicum (Bignonaceae), Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) and Allium sativum (Liliaceae) used by maximum number of Maiba and Maibi in maximum number of formulations. This particular method of documentation keeps traditional knowledge alive. The WHO estimated perspective of traditional medicine across the world. These observations support therapeutic worth of Manipur Traditional medicines (MTM). Having generated a large database in course of this survey, next focus targeted for the scientific justification of MTM with an aim to develop commercially viable products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Detection of the timing and duration of snowmelt in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya using QuikSCAT, 2000-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panday, Prajjwal K; Frey, Karen E; Ghimire, Bardan

    2011-01-01

    The Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region holds the largest mass of ice in Central Asia and is highly vulnerable to global climate change, experiencing significant warming (0.21 ± 0.08 deg. C/decade) over the past few decades. Accurate monitoring of the timing and duration of snowmelt across the HKH region is important, as this region is expected to experience further warming in response to increased greenhouse gas forcing. Despite the many advantages and applications of satellite-derived radar scatterometer data shown for capturing ice and snow melt dynamics at high latitudes, similar comprehensive freeze/thaw detection studies at lower latitudes (including the HKH region) are still absent from the scientific literature. A comprehensive freeze/thaw detection study is utilized on perennial snow/ice and seasonal snow cover for the first time in the Himalayan and Karakoram regions. A dynamic threshold-based method is applied to enhanced QuikSCAT Ku-band backscatter observations from 2000 to 2008 that (a) provides spatial maps of the timing of melt, freeze, and melt season duration, and (b) emphasizes regional variability in freeze/thaw dynamics. The resulting average melt durations for 2000-2008 are 161 ± 11 days (early May-mid-October) for the eastern Himalayas, 130 ± 16 days (late May-early October) for the central Himalayas, 124 ± 13 days (mid-May-mid-September) for the western Himalayas, and 124 ± 12 days (late May-late September) for the Karakoram region. The eastern Himalayan region has on average an earlier melt onset, a later freeze-up, and therefore a longer melt season (∼5 weeks) relative to the central and western Himalayan and the Karakoram regions. Snowmelt dynamics exhibit regional and interannual variability with clear connections to terrain features, in particular elevation and aspect. With respect to ongoing controversies surrounding melt in the Himalayan region, this study provides an overall perspective of regional differences in melt onset

  8. Detection of the timing and duration of snowmelt in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya using QuikSCAT, 2000-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panday, Prajjwal K; Frey, Karen E; Ghimire, Bardan, E-mail: ppanday@clarku.edu [Graduate School of Geography, Clark University, 950 Main Street, Worcester, MA 01610 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    The Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region holds the largest mass of ice in Central Asia and is highly vulnerable to global climate change, experiencing significant warming (0.21 {+-} 0.08 deg. C/decade) over the past few decades. Accurate monitoring of the timing and duration of snowmelt across the HKH region is important, as this region is expected to experience further warming in response to increased greenhouse gas forcing. Despite the many advantages and applications of satellite-derived radar scatterometer data shown for capturing ice and snow melt dynamics at high latitudes, similar comprehensive freeze/thaw detection studies at lower latitudes (including the HKH region) are still absent from the scientific literature. A comprehensive freeze/thaw detection study is utilized on perennial snow/ice and seasonal snow cover for the first time in the Himalayan and Karakoram regions. A dynamic threshold-based method is applied to enhanced QuikSCAT Ku-band backscatter observations from 2000 to 2008 that (a) provides spatial maps of the timing of melt, freeze, and melt season duration, and (b) emphasizes regional variability in freeze/thaw dynamics. The resulting average melt durations for 2000-2008 are 161 {+-} 11 days (early May-mid-October) for the eastern Himalayas, 130 {+-} 16 days (late May-early October) for the central Himalayas, 124 {+-} 13 days (mid-May-mid-September) for the western Himalayas, and 124 {+-} 12 days (late May-late September) for the Karakoram region. The eastern Himalayan region has on average an earlier melt onset, a later freeze-up, and therefore a longer melt season ({approx}5 weeks) relative to the central and western Himalayan and the Karakoram regions. Snowmelt dynamics exhibit regional and interannual variability with clear connections to terrain features, in particular elevation and aspect. With respect to ongoing controversies surrounding melt in the Himalayan region, this study provides an overall perspective of regional differences in

  9. [The concept of complementary and alternative medicine from the perspective of the philosophy of science and bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöne-Seifert, Bettina; Reichardt, Jan-Ole; Friedrich, Daniel R; Hucklenbroich, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Decisions about therapeutic interventions to be made by physicians, patients, and healthcare purchasers essentially depend on their classification in a credible context of justification, especially in a world dominated by contradicting experts. To some extent, this framing is done by sorting terms and their undertones, including the case of so-called CAM measures. In this paper, the authors reflect on ways to deal with the term CAM and the underlying supply-side approaches to healthcare from a primarily science-oriented perspective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Development of electronic medical record charting for hospital-based transfusion and apheresis medicine services: Early adoption perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Levy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs provide universal access to health care information across multidisciplinary lines. In pathology departments, transfusion and apheresis medicine services (TAMS involved in direct patient care activities produce data and documentation that typically do not enter the EMR. Taking advantage of our institution′s initiative for implementation of a paperless medical record, our TAMS division set out to develop an electronic charting (e-charting strategy within the EMR. Methods: A focus group of our hospital′s transfusion committee consisting of transfusion medicine specialists, pathologists, residents, nurses, hemapheresis specialists, and information technologists was constituted and charged with the project. The group met periodically to implement e-charting TAMS workflow and produced electronic documents within the EMR (Cerner Millenium for various service line functions. Results: The interdisciplinary working group developed and implemented electronic versions of various paper-based clinical documentation used by these services. All electronic notes collectively gather and reside within a unique Transfusion Medicine Folder tab in the EMR, available to staff with access to patient charts. E-charting eliminated illegible handwritten notes, resulted in more consistent clinical documentation among staff, and provided greater real-time review/access of hemotherapy practices. No major impediments to workflow or inefficiencies have been encountered. However, minor updates and corrections to documents as well as select work re-designs were required for optimal use of e-charting by these services. Conclusion: Documentation of pathology subspecialty activities such as TAMS can be successfully incorporated into the EMR. E-charting by staff enhances communication and helps promote standardized documentation of patient care within and across service lines. Well-constructed electronic documents in the EMR may also

  11. The perspective of psychosomatic medicine on the effect of religion on the mind-body relationship in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Ohara, Chisin

    2014-02-01

    Shintoism, Buddhism, and Qi, which advocate the unity of mind and body, have contributed to the Japanese philosophy of life. The practice of psychosomatic medicine emphasizes the connection between mind and body and combines the psychotherapies (directed at the mind) and relaxation techniques (directed at the body), to achieve stress management. Participation in religious activities such as preaching, praying, meditating, and practicing Zen can also elicit relaxation responses. Thus, it is time for traditional religions to play an active role in helping those seeking psychological stability after the Great East Japan Earthquake and the ongoing crisis related to the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan, to maintain a healthy mind-body relationship.

  12. Medicine in South India

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  13. Medicine in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, M M

    1978-10-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives.

  14. A perspective on complementary/alternative medicine use among survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant: Benefits and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Rajshekhar; Savani, Bipin N; Litzow, Mark; Mohty, Mohamad; Hashmi, Shahrukh

    2015-07-15

    The widespread use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in cancer survivors is well known despite a paucity of scientific evidence to support its use. The number of survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) is growing rapidly and HCT clinicians are aware that many of their patients use CAM therapies consistently. However, due to a paucity of data regarding the benefits and harms of CAM therapies in these survivors, clinicians are reluctant to provide specific recommendations for or against particular CAM therapies. A systematic literature review was conducted with a search using PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Ovid online for each CAM therapy as defined by the National Center of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. The search generated 462 references, of which 26 articles were deemed to be relevant for the review. Due to extensive heterogeneity in data and limited randomized trials, a meta-analysis could not be performed but a comprehensive systematic review was conducted with specified outcomes for each CAM therapy. In randomized controlled trials, certain mind and body interventions such as relaxation were observed to be effective in alleviating psychological symptoms in patients undergoing HCT, whereas the majority of the other CAM treatments were found to have mixed results. CAM use is an understudied area in HCT survivorship and clinicians should convey the benefits and uncertainties concerning the role of CAM therapies to their patients. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Self-management support at the end of life: Patients', carers' and professionals' perspectives on managing medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campling, N; Richardson, A; Mulvey, M; Bennett, M; Johnston, B; Latter, S

    2017-11-01

    Pain is a frequently reported symptom by patients approaching the end of life and well-established that patients and carers hold fears relating to opioids, and experience side effects related to their use. The management of medicines is intrinsic to achieving effective pain relief. The concept of self-management support whilst well characterised in the context of chronic illness has not been elaborated with respect to end of life care. To identify patient, carer and professional views on the concept of self-management support at end of life, specifically in relation to analgesia and related medicines (for side-effect management) in order to describe, characterise and explain self-management support in this context. Qualitative design, data collection methods involved focus groups and interviews. Topics included the meaning of self-management support in this context, roles and behaviours adopted to manage pain-related medicines, and factors that influence these. A largely deductive approach was used, involving verification and validation of key frameworks from the literature, but with capacity for new findings to emerge. Participants were drawn from two different localities in England, one North, the other South. Interviews with patients and carers took place in their own homes and focus groups with healthcare professionals were held at local hospices. 38 individuals participated. 15 patients, in the last year of life, and 4 carers under the care of community-based specialist palliative care services and 19 specialist palliative care health professionals (predominantly community palliative care nurses). The concept of self-management support had salience for patients, carers and specialist nurses alongside some unique features, specific to the end of life context. Specifically self-management was identified as an ever-changing process enacted along a continuum of behaviours fluctuating from full to no engagement. Disease progression, frequent changes in symptoms and

  16. Thinking ethical and regulatory frameworks in medicine from the perspective of solidarity on both sides of the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prainsack, Barbara; Buyx, Alena

    2016-12-01

    This article provides a concise overview of the history of scholarship on solidarity in Europe and North America. While recent decades have seen an increase in conceptual and scholarly interest in solidarity in North America and other parts of the Anglo-Saxon world, the concept is much more strongly anchored in Europe. Continental European politics in particular have given rise to two of the most influential traditions of solidarity, namely, socialism and Christian ethics. Solidarity has also guided important public instruments and institutions in Europe (e.g., welfare, healthcare, etc.). Despite the much stronger affinity of continental European societies to solidaristic thinking, we argue that solidarity has much to offer for addressing societal challenges on both sides of the Atlantic and beyond. After proposing a working definition of solidarity that highlights its utility for guiding policy and practice, we give an example of how a solidarity-based perspective can shape instruments for the governance of data use.

  17. What's the Original Concept of Meridian and Acupuncture Point in Oriental Medicine? - A Perspective of Medical History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN Chang- Shik

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Meridian and acupuncture point(MAP is a core theory of acupuncture and essential building blocks of oriental medicine. There still continue theoretic or experimental arguments and controversies on the origination or original concept of MAP, without any definite approval or disapproval of a hypothesis. The theory of MAP is an historic product and has never been outside of historic influences. This study discusses the original concept of meridian and acupuncture point theory and its historical evolution, based on the review of classic literatures on meridian including the mawangdui medical texts of Han dynasty. The concept of MAP served as a empirical reference system in clinical settings irrespective of the anatomical entity of MAP.

  18. [A Perspective on Innovation for Efficient Medical Practice in View of Undergraduate and Postgraduate Education and Training in Laboratory Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Tadashi

    2015-10-01

    Continuous advances in medical laboratory technology have driven major changes in the practice of laboratory medicine over the past two decades. The importance of the overall quality of a medical laboratory has been ever-increasing in order to improve and ensure the quality and safety of clinical practice by physicians in any type of medical facility. Laboratory physicians and professional staff should challenge themselves more than ever in various ways to cooperate and contribute with practicing physicians for the appropriate utilization of laboratory testing. This will certainly lead to a decrease in inappropriate or unnecessary laboratory testing, resulting in reducing medical costs. In addition, not only postgraduate, but also undergraduate medical education/training systems must be markedly innovated, considering recent rapid progress in electronic information and communication technologies.

  19. How to create innovation by building the translation bridge from basic research into medicinal drugs: an industrial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, Paul G; Schuhmacher, Alexander; Harrison, Juan; Law, Ronald; Haug, Kevin; Wong, Gordon

    2013-03-05

    The global healthcare industry is undergoing substantial changes and adaptations to the constant decline of approved new medical entities. This decrease in internal research productivity is resulting in a major decline of patent-protected sales (patent cliff) of most of the pharmaceutical companies. Three major global adaptive trends as driving forces to cope with these challenges are evident: cut backs of internal research and development jobs in the western hemisphere (Europe and USA), following the market growth potential of Asia by building up internal or external research and development capabilities there and finally, 'early innovation hunting' with an increased focus on identifying and investing in very early innovation sources within academia and small start-up companies. Early innovation hunting can be done by different approaches: increased corporate funding, establishment of translational institutions to bridge innovation, increasing sponsored collaborations and formation of technology hunting groups for capturing very early scientific ideas and concepts. This emerging trend towards early innovation hunting demands special adaptations from both the pharmaceutical industry and basic researchers in academia to bridge the translation into new medicines which deliver innovative medicines that matters to the patient. This opinion article describes the different modalities of cross-fertilisation between basic university or publicly funded institutional research and the applied research and development activities within the pharmaceutical industry. Two key factors in this important translational bridge can be identified: preparation of both partnering organisations to open up for new and sometime disruptive ideas and creation of truly trust-based relationships between the different groups allowing long-term scientific collaborations while acknowledging that value-creating differences are an essential factor for successful collaboration building.

  20. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Gurusamy; Park, SeonJoo

    2015-01-01

    Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp) genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC) region (82,805 bp), with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA)/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19) was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA) and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23) genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP) gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  1. Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Medicinal Plant, Dianthus superbus var. longicalyncinus, from a Comparative Genomics Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurusamy Raman

    Full Text Available Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicinal plant that is also used for ornamental purposes. In this study, D. superbus was compared to its closely related family of Caryophyllaceae chloroplast (cp genomes such as Lychnis chalcedonica and Spinacia oleracea. D. superbus had the longest large single copy (LSC region (82,805 bp, with some variations in the inverted repeat region A (IRA/LSC regions. The IRs underwent both expansion and constriction during evolution of the Caryophyllaceae family; however, intense variations were not identified. The pseudogene ribosomal protein subunit S19 (rps19 was identified at the IRA/LSC junction, but was not present in the cp genome of other Caryophyllaceae family members. The translation initiation factor IF-1 (infA and ribosomal protein subunit L23 (rpl23 genes were absent from the Dianthus cp genome. When the cp genome of Dianthus was compared with 31 other angiosperm lineages, the infA gene was found to have been lost in most members of rosids, solanales of asterids and Lychnis of Caryophyllales, whereas rpl23 gene loss or pseudogization had occurred exclusively in Caryophyllales. Nevertheless, the cp genome of Dianthus and Spinacia has two introns in the proteolytic subunit of ATP-dependent protease (clpP gene, but Lychnis has lost introns from the clpP gene. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of individual protein-coding genes infA and rpl23 revealed that gene loss or pseudogenization occurred independently in the cp genome of Dianthus. Molecular phylogenetic analysis also demonstrated a sister relationship between Dianthus and Lychnis based on 78 protein-coding sequences. The results presented herein will contribute to studies of the evolution, molecular biology and genetic engineering of the medicinal and ornamental plant, D. superbus var. longicalycinus.

  2. Developing a complex systems perspective for medical education to facilitate the integration of basic science and clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, David C

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of medical education is to produce competent and capable professional practitioners who can combine the art and science of medicine. Moreover, this process must prepare individuals to practise in a field in which knowledge is increasing and the contexts in which that knowledge is applied are changing in unpredictable ways. The 'basic sciences' are important in the training of a physician. The goal of basic science training is to learn it in a way that the material can be applied in practice. Much effort has been expended to integrate basic science and clinical training, while adding many other topics to the medical curriculum. This effort has been challenging. The aims of the paper are (1) to propose a unifying conceptual framework that facilitates knowledge integration among all levels of living systems from cell to society and (2) illustrate the organizing principles with two examples of the framework in action - cybernetic systems (with feedback) and distributed robustness. Literature related to hierarchical and holarchical frameworks was reviewed. An organizing framework derived from living systems theory and spanning the range from molecular biology to health systems management was developed. The application of cybernetic systems to three levels (regulation of pancreatic beta cell production of insulin, physician adjustment of medication for glycaemic control and development and action of performance measures for diabetes care) was illustrated. Similarly distributed robustness was illustrated by the DNA damage response system and principles underlying patient safety. Each of the illustrated organizing principles offers a means to facilitate the weaving of basic science and clinical medicine throughout the course of study. The use of such an approach may promote systems thinking, which is a core competency for effective and capable medical practice. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Communication and integration: a qualitative analysis of perspectives among Middle Eastern oncology healthcare professionals on the integration of complementary medicine in supportive cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arye, Eran; Popper-Giveon, Ariela; Samuels, Noah; Mutafoglu, Kamer; Schiff, Elad; Omran, Suha; Charalambous, Haris; Dweikat, Tahani; Ghrayeb, Ibtisam; Turker, Ibrahim; Hassan, Azza; Hassan, Esmat; Nimri, Omar; Kebudi, Rejin; Silbermann, Michael

    2016-05-01

    The use of complementary and traditional medicine (CTM ) in Middle Eastern countries is widespread, including among patients with cancer. Perspectives of oncology healthcare professionals (HCPs) in this region regarding the integration of CTM within conventional supportive cancer care were explored. An 11-item questionnaire with an open-ended question asking respondents to comment about the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care was sent to Middle Eastern oncology HCPs, using snowball sampling methodology. The narratives provided were examined using thematic analysis. A total of 339 oncology HCPs completed and returned the study tool (80.3 % response rate ), of which 178 from 15 Middle Eastern countries responded to the open-ended question. The majority of respondents are in favor of the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, though ideas on how this should be implemented varied. Thematic analysis identified multifactorial barriers to integration, which focused on HCPs' perspectives (e.g., a lack of knowledge and training; a skeptical approach to CTM), attitudes of patients and caregivers (e.g., unrealistic expectations regarding the outcomes of CTM treatments) and HCP-patient communication. In order to overcome these barriers, respondents suggested education and training programs for oncology HCPs which would focus on improving patients' quality-of-life-related outcomes. Middle Eastern oncology HCPs support the integration of CTM within supportive cancer care, while recognizing the need for education and training in this field. A better understanding of CTM would provide the knowledge and skills which would promote a non-judgmental, evidence-based approach, fostering better communication with patients.

  4. Specialization training in Malawi: a qualitative study on the perspectives of medical students graduating from the University of Malawi College of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Parekh, Natasha; Muula, Adamson S; Bui, Thuy

    2014-01-06

    There is a critical shortage of healthcare workers in sub-Saharan Africa, and Malawi has one of the lowest physician densities in the region. One of the reasons for this shortage is inadequate retention of medical school graduates, partly due to the desire for specialization training. The University of Malawi College of Medicine has developed specialty training programs, but medical school graduates continue to report a desire to leave the country for specialization training. To understand this desire, we studied medical students' perspectives on specialization training in Malawi. We conducted semi-structured interviews of medical students in the final year of their degree program. We developed an interview guide through an iterative process, and recorded and transcribed all interviews for analysis. Two independent coders coded the manuscripts and assessed inter-coder reliability, and the authors used an "editing approach" to qualitative analysis to identify and categorize themes relating to the research aim. The University of Pittsburgh Institutional Review Board and the University of Malawi College of Medicine Research and Ethics Committee approved this study and authors obtained written informed consent from all participants. We interviewed 21 medical students. All students reported a desire for specialization training, with 12 (57%) students interested in specialties not currently offered in Malawi. Students discussed reasons for pursuing specialization training, impressions of specialization training in Malawi, reasons for staying or leaving Malawi to pursue specialization training and recommendations to improve training. Graduating medical students in Malawi have mixed views of specialization training in their own country and still desire to leave Malawi to pursue further training. Training institutions in sub-Saharan Africa need to understand the needs of the country's healthcare workforce and the needs of their graduating medical students to be able to

  5. Perspectives on medicine adherence in service users and carers with experience of legally sanctioned detention and medication: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris Gault,1 Ann Gallagher,2 Mary Chambers31Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, Kingston, Surrey, UK; 2International Centre for Nursing Ethics, School of Health and Social Care, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, UK; 3Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences, Kingston University and St George's University of London, St George's University of London, Tooting, London, UKAim: To explore and analyze perceptions of service users and caregivers on adherence and nonadherence to medication in a mental health care context.Background: Mental health medication adherence is considered problematic and legal coercion exists in many countries.Design: This was a qualitative study aiming to explore perceptions of medication adherence from the perspective of the service user (and their caregiver, where possible.Participants: Eighteen mental health service users (and six caregivers with histories of medication nonadherence and repeated compulsory admission were recruited from voluntary sector support groups in England.Methods: Data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Using qualitative coding techniques, the study analyzed interview and focus group data from service users, previously subjected to compulsory medication under mental health law, or their caregivers.Results: The process of medication adherence or nonadherence is encapsulated in an explanatory narrative. This narrative constitutes participants' struggle to negotiate acceptable and effective routes through variable quality of care. Results indicated that service users and caregivers eventually accepted the reality of their own mental illness and their need for safety and treatment. They perceived the behavior of professionals as key in their recovery process. Professionals could be enabling or disabling with regard to adherence to medication.Conclusion: This study investigated service user

  6. Stakeholders' perspectives on the regulation and integration of complementary and alternative medicine products in Lebanon: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The regulation of the markets for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) products presents a global challenge. There is a dearth of studies that have examined or evaluated the regulatory policies of CAM products in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). We investigate the regulatory frameworks and the barriers for the proper regulation and integration of CAM products in Lebanon, as an example of an EMR country with a weak public infrastructure. Methods We utilized a qualitative study design involving a series of semi-structured interviews with stakeholders of the CAM market in Lebanon. Snowball sampling was used to identify interviewees; interviews continued until the "saturation" point was reached. A total of 16 interviews were carried out with decision makers, representatives of professional associations, academic researchers, CAM product importers, policy makers and a media representative. Interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis of scripts was carried out. Results There was a consensus among all stakeholders that the regulation of the market for CAM products in Lebanon needs to be strengthened. Thematic analysis identified a number of impediments jeopardizing the safety of public consumption and hindering the integration of CAM therapies into mainstream medicine; including: weak infrastructure, poor regulation, ineffective policies and politics, weak CAM awareness and sub-optimal coordination and cooperation among stakeholders. With respect to policy instruments, voluntary instruments (self regulation) were deemed ineffective by stakeholders due to poor awareness of both users and providers on safe use of CAM products. Stakeholders' rather recommended the adoption of a combination of mixed (enhancing public awareness and integration of CAM into medical and nursing curricula) and compulsory (stricter governmental regulation) policy instruments for the regulation of the market for CAM products. Conclusions The current status quo with

  7. Perspectives on medicine adherence in service users and carers with experience of legally sanctioned detention and medication: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Iris; Gallagher, Ann; Chambers, Mary

    2013-01-01

    To explore and analyze perceptions of service users and caregivers on adherence and nonadherence to medication in a mental health care context. Mental health medication adherence is considered problematic and legal coercion exists in many countries. This was a qualitative study aiming to explore perceptions of medication adherence from the perspective of the service user (and their caregiver, where possible). Eighteen mental health service users (and six caregivers) with histories of medication nonadherence and repeated compulsory admission were recruited from voluntary sector support groups in England. Data were collected between 2008 and 2010. Using qualitative coding techniques, the study analyzed interview and focus group data from service users, previously subjected to compulsory medication under mental health law, or their caregivers. The process of medication adherence or nonadherence is encapsulated in an explanatory narrative. This narrative constitutes participants' struggle to negotiate acceptable and effective routes through variable quality of care. Results indicated that service users and caregivers eventually accepted the reality of their own mental illness and their need for safety and treatment. They perceived the behavior of professionals as key in their recovery process. Professionals could be enabling or disabling with regard to adherence to medication. This study investigated service user and caregiver perceptions of medication adherence and compulsory treatment. Participants described a process perceived as variable and potentially doubly faceted. The behavior of professionals was seen as crucial in collaborative decision making on medication adherence.

  8. Continental lithospheric subduction and intermediate-depth seismicity: Constraints from S-wave velocity structures in the Pamir and Hindu Kush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Chen, Yun; Yuan, Xiaohui; Schurr, Bernd; Mechie, James; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon; Fu, Bihong

    2018-01-01

    The Pamir has experienced more intense deformation and shortening than Tibet, although it has a similar history of terrane accretion. Subduction as a primary way to accommodate lithospheric shortening beneath the Pamir has induced the intermediate-depth seismicity, which is rare in Tibet. Here we construct a 3D S-wave velocity model of the lithosphere beneath the Pamir by surface wave tomography using data of the TIPAGE (Tien Shan-Pamir Geodynamic program) and other seismic networks in the area. We imaged a large-scale low velocity anomaly in the crust at 20-50 km depth in the Pamir overlain by a high velocity anomaly at a depth shallower than 15 km. The high velocity anomalies colocate with exposed gneiss domes, which may imply a similar history of crustal deformation, partial melting and exhumation in the hinterland, as has occurred in the Himalaya/Tibet system. At mantle depths, where the intermediate-depth earthquakes are located, a low velocity zone is clearly observed extending to about 180 km and 150 km depth in the Hindu Kush and eastern Pamir, respectively. Moreover, the geometry of the low-velocity anomaly suggests that lower crustal material has been pulled down into the mantle by the subducting Asian and Indian lithospheric mantle beneath the Pamir and Hindu Kush, respectively. Metamorphic processes in the subducting lower crust may cause the intermediate-depth seismicity down to 150-180 km depth beneath the Pamir and Hindu Kush. We inverted focal mechanisms in the seismic zone for the stress field. Differences in the stress field between the upper and lower parts of the Indian slab imply that subduction and detachment of the Indian lithosphere might cause intense seismicity associated with the thermal shear instability in the deep Hindu Kush.

  9. Suitable Assimilation Model of Culture, Beliefs and Rites Concerning Deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism for Peace of Thai Society in Bangkok and Circumferences

    OpenAIRE

    Phra M.K. Kaewchaiya; Suoneth Photisan; Makhawin Purisuttamo

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: At present, Thai society widely assimilates culture, beliefs and rites concerning deities of Buddhism and Hindu-Brahmanism by worshipping the deity images at the temples or the abodes of gods in Bangkok and circumferences. A typical worship is to pray the deity for help. As a matter of fact, people should help themselves first and use a prayer as willpower. The purpose of this research were these; (1) to investigate the background of culture, belief and rites concerning dei...

  10. Regeneration of articular cartilage by adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells: perspectives from stem cell biology and molecular medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Cai, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Shu; Karperien, Marcel; Lin, Yunfeng

    2013-05-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been discovered for more than a decade. Due to the large numbers of cells that can be harvested with relatively little donor morbidity, they are considered to be an attractive alternative to bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells. Consequently, isolation and differentiation of ASCs draw great attention in the research of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Cartilage defects cause big therapeutic problems because of their low self-repair capacity. Application of ASCs in cartilage regeneration gives hope to treat cartilage defects with autologous stem cells. In recent years, a lot of studies have been performed to test the possibility of using ASCs to re-construct damaged cartilage tissue. In this article, we have reviewed the most up-to-date articles utilizing ASCs for cartilage regeneration in basic and translational research. Our topic covers differentiation of adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes, increased cartilage formation by co-culture of ASCs with chondrocytes and enhancing chondrogenic differentiation of ASCs by gene manipulation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Answers to if the lead aprons are really helpful in nuclear medicine from the perspective of spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.; Zhao, R.; Rong, L.; Yao, K.; Wei, B.; Chen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Wearing lead X-ray-protective aprons is a routine in nuclear medicine department in parts of China. However, the staff are often perplexed by questions such as if it is imperative to wear aprons when injecting radioactive drugs, how much radiation dosage can be shielded and if the apron will produce secondary radiation instead? To answer these questions, a semiconductor detector was employed to record different gamma and X-ray spectra with and without the lead apron or lead sheet. Then, we could estimate the signal shielding ratio to different photons for the lead apron and compare with the hospitals measured data. In general, the two results coincided well. The spectral results showed that the detrimental secondary X-rays irradiation rises when the energy of gamma rays exceeds the K absorption edge of lead (88 keV). Moreover, the aprons are not so effective for gamma rays of 364 keV emitted from "1"3"1I and 511 keV emitted from the positron radioactive nuclides. This work is purely a physical measurement in the laboratory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study on the level of gamma rays protection offered by the medical lead aprons and the importance of the spectroscopic measurements is discussed in this paper. (authors)

  12. From fission to fusion: a perspective on the research that won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Krishanu

    2014-03-01

    Secretion is widespread in all eukaryotic cells: all of us experience this in the course of daily life--saliva, mucus, sweat, tears, bile juice, adrenalin, etc.--the list is extremely long. How does a cell manage to repeatedly spit out some stuff without losing the rest? The answer is: through regulated vesicle trafficking within the cell. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013 was awarded to Drs Randy Schekman, James E Rothman and Thomas C Südhof for their 'discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells'. Dr Randy Schekman and his colleagues discovered a number of genes required for vesicle trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi; the James E Rothman group unravelled the protein machinery that allows vesicles to bud off from the membrane and fuse to their targets; and Dr Thomas C Südhof along with his colleagues revealed how calcium ions could instruct vesicles to fuse and discharge their contents with precision. These enabled the biotechnology industry to produce a variety of pharmaceutical and industrial products like insulin and hepatitis B vaccines, in a cost-efficient manner, using yeast and tissue cultured cells.

  13. Perspective: adopting an asset bundles model to support and advance minority students' careers in academic medicine and the scientific pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-11-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in academic medicine, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics requires the adoption of a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students as they navigate the scientific pipeline. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support to continue toward careers in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, socioeconomic status). The authors define "asset bundles" as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach.

  14. Perspective: Adopting an Asset Bundle Model to Support and Advance Minority Students’ Careers in Academic Medicine and the Scientific Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Japera; Bozeman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    The authors contend that increasing diversity in the scientific pipeline (e.g., academic medicine, science, technology, engineering and mathematics) requires a systematic approach to retain minority high school and college students. Such an approach should focus on the interrelated and multilayered challenges that these students face. The authors fuse an alternative conceptualization of the scientific and technical human capital theoretical framework and the theory of social identity contingencies to offer a conceptual model for targeting the critical areas in which minority students may need additional support in order to continue toward a career in science. Their proposed asset bundles model is grounded in the central premise that making greater progress in recruiting and retaining minorities likely requires institutions to respond simultaneously to various social cues that signal devaluation of certain identities (e.g., gender, race, or socioeconomic status). The authors define “asset bundles” as the specific sets of abilities and resources individuals develop that help them succeed in educational and professional tasks, including but not limited to science and research. The model consists of five asset bundles, each of which is supported in the research literature as a factor relevant to educational achievement and, the authors contend, may lead to improved and sustained diversity: educational endowments, science socialization, network development, family expectations, and material resources. Using this framework, they suggest possible ways of thinking about the task of achieving diversity as well as guideposts for next steps. Finally, they discuss the feasibility of implementing such an approach. PMID:23018329

  15. Preparation in the business and practice of medicine: perspectives from recent gynecologic oncology graduates and program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlumbrecht, Matthew; Siemon, John; Morales, Guillermo; Huang, Marilyn; Slomovitz, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Preparation in the business of medicine is reported to be poor across a number of specialties. No data exist about such preparation in gynecologic oncology training programs. Our objectives were to evaluate current time dedicated to these initiatives, report recent graduate perceptions about personal preparedness, and assess areas where improvements in training can occur. Two separate surveys were created and distributed, one to 183 Society of Gynecologic Oncology candidate members and the other to 48 gynecologic oncology fellowship program directors. Candidate member surveys included questions about perceived preparedness for independent research, teaching, job-hunting, insurance, and billing. Program director surveys assessed current and desired time dedicated to the topics asked concurrently on the candidate survey. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-squared (or Fisher's exact test if appropriate) and logistic regression. Survey response rates of candidate members and program directors were 28% and 40%, respectively. Candidate members wanted increased training in all measures except retrospective protocol writing. Female candidates wanted more training on writing letters of intent (LOI) ( p  = 0.01) and billing ( p  communication between the two may serve to achieve the educational goals of each.

  16. Stream Flow Prediction and Flood Mapping in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya with the ICIMOD Water Resources App Portal (IWRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Ames, D. P.; Jones, N.; Souffront, M.

    2016-12-01

    Earth observations of precipitation, temperature, moisture, and other atmospheric and land surface conditions form the foundation of global hydrologic forecasts that are increasingly available in native as well as other derived products. The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) have developed such products for global flood awareness which can be downscaled to smaller regions and used for stream flow prediction in underserved areas such as the Hindu Kush-Himalaya. Combined with digital elevation data, now available at 30 meters through the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) reconnaissance-level flood maps can be generated across wide regions that would otherwise not be possible and where increased information to drive higher resolution models are available the same forecasts can be used to provide forcing inflows for improved flood maps. Advances in cloud computing offer a unique opportunity to facilitate deployment of water resources models as decision-making tools in the cloud-based ICIMOD Water Resources App Portal or IWRAP. The interactive nature of web apps makes this an excellent medium for creating decision support tools that harness cutting edge modeling techniques. Thin client apps hosted in a cloud portal eliminates the need for the decision makers to procure and maintain the high performance hardware required by the models, deal with issues related to software installation and platform incompatibilities, or monitor and install software updates, a problem that is exacerbated in the Hindu Kush-Himalaya where both financial and technical capacity are limited. All that is needed to use the system is an Internet connection and a web browser. We will take advantage of these technologies to develop tools which can be centrally maintained but openly accessible. Advanced mapping and visualization will make results intuitive and information derived actionable. We will also take advantage of the emerging standards for sharing water

  17. Breast cancer patients' perspectives on and use of complementary and alternative medicine: a study by the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, John A; Reilly, Colleen; Perkins, Cheryl; Child, Wendy L

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns and predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among breast cancer patients. A review of the existing survey literature on CAM use for breast cancer was conducted with a series of eight focus groups (N = 67) to further examine the perspectives of breast cancer patients on CAM. The rates of CAM use varied from 17 to 75%, with a mean of 45%. Vitamins and minerals and herbs were the most frequently cited categories. Users tended to be younger, more educated, and more likely to have used CAM prior to their diagnosis. Focus group data indicate that breast cancer patients use a wide array of CAM for a variety of reasons, including symptom management, improving quality of life, and enhancing immune function. Although women rely on a variety of resources for information, they frequently experience frustration owing to the absence or conflicting nature of such information. Communication with conventional providers about CAM is frequently experienced as either unsupportive or not helpful by many patients. The results point to the value of developing better evidence-based informational resources related to CAM and cancer and the need for physicians to become better educated about CAM and how to communicate more effectively with their breast cancer patients about it.

  18. Is there a need for a universal benefit-risk assessment framework for medicines? Regulatory and industry perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, James; McAuslane, Neil; Walker, Stuart; Salek, Sam

    2013-09-01

    To explore the current status and need for a universal benefit-risk framework for medicines in regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 14 mature regulatory agencies and 24 major companies. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, for a minority of questions preceded by manual grouping of the responses. Overall response rate was 82%, and study participants included key decision makers from agencies and companies. None used a fully quantitative system, most companies preferring a qualitative method. The major reasons for this group not using semi-quantitative or quantitative systems were lack of a universal and scientifically validated framework. The main advantages of a benefit-risk framework were that it provided a systematic standardised approach to decision-making and that it acted as a tool to enhance quality of communication. It was also reported that a framework should be of value to both agencies and companies throughout the life cycle of a product. They believed that it is possible to develop an overarching benefit-risk framework that should involve relevant stakeholders in the development, validation and application of a universal framework. The entire cohort indicated common barriers to implementing a framework were resource limitations, a lack of knowledge and a scientifically validated and acceptable framework. Stakeholders prefer a semi-quantitative, overarching framework that incorporates a toolbox of different methodologies. A coordinating committee of relevant stakeholders should be formed to guide its development and implementation. Through engaging the stakeholders, these outcomes confirm sentiments and need for developing a universal benefit-risk assessment framework. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Influential aspects of glacial resource for establishing Kuhl system (gravity flow irrigation) in the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Arshad; Iqbal, Ayesha

    2018-04-27

    The meltwater components play an important role in the hydrological regime of the Hindu Kush, Karakorum and Himalaya (HKH) region, in terms of high demand of water for food and fiber from snow and glacial resource. The communities of Himalayan mountains are facing challenges of food security owing to lack of the resource information for meeting their water requirements. In this study, suitability index approach was adopted to assess glacier resource potential for establishing kuhl irrigation system in HKH ranges of Pakistan. The basis of indexing is glacier accessibility and water yield potential of the glacial resource for irrigation estimated in terms of number and ice reserve of the glaciers. The suitability index was found good for about 1.4% glaciers constituting about 80% of the total ice reserves of the HKH region. Medium suitability constitutes about 36.1% glaciers with 12.6% of the total ice reserves, while low suitability was assessed for about 60% glaciers containing 1.5% ice reserves only. Maximum unit glacial reserve was estimated for Shigar basin, i.e., 1.44 km 3 , and among HKH ranges, 0.46 km 3 for the Karakoram range. A regular monitoring of the glacial resource would prove helpful in assessing vulnerability of this resource to climate change in the high Himalayan region in future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  1. Gender and climate change in the Indian Hindu-Kush Himalayas: global threats, local vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogra, M. V.; Badola, R.

    2014-11-01

    Global climate change has numerous implications for members of mountain communities who feel the impacts in both physical and social dimensions. In the Western Himalayas of India, a majority of residents maintain a livelihood strategy that includes a combination of subsistence or small-scale agriculture, seasonal pastoral migration, male out-migration, and localized natural resource extraction. Particularly under conditions of heavy male outmigration, but throughout the region, mountain women play a key role in providing labor and knowledge related to the management of local natural resources, yet often lack authority in related political and economic decision-making processes. This gap has important implications for addressing the impacts of climate change: while warming temperatures, irregular patterns of precipitation and snowmelt, and changing biological systems present challenges to the viability of these traditional livelihood portfolios throughout the region, mountain women increasingly face new challenges in their roles as household managers that have not adequately been emphasized in larger scale planning for climate change adaptation and mitigation. These challenges are complex in nature, and are shaped not only by gender issues but also interacting factors such as class, caste, ethnicity, and age (among others). In this paper, we review the main arguments behind the discursive gender/climate change nexus, discuss the implications for gendered vulnerabilities and transformation of adaptive capacities in the region, and suggest ways that researchers and policymakers seeking to promote "climate justice" can benefit from the incorporation of gender-based perspectives and frameworks.

  2. New perspectives on patient expectations of treatment outcomes: results from qualitative interviews with patients seeking complementary and alternative medicine treatments for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Clarissa; Sherman, Karen J; Eaves, Emery R; Turner, Judith A; Cherkin, Daniel C; Cromp, DeAnn; Schafer, Lisa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl

    2014-07-30

    Positive patient expectations are often believed to be associated with greater benefits from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. However, clinical studies of CAM treatments for chronic pain have not consistently supported this assumption, possibly because of differences in definitions and measures of expectations. The goal of this qualitative paper is to provide new perspectives on the outcome expectations of patients prior to receiving CAM therapies for chronic low back pain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 64 individuals receiving massage, chiropractic, acupuncture or yoga for chronic low back pain. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed by a team of experienced qualitative researchers using an immersion/crystallization approach to coding and analysis. Overall, participants' expectations of treatment outcomes tended to cluster in four key domains: pain relief, improved function (including an increase in ability to engage in meaningful activities), improved physical fitness, and improved overall well-being (including mental well-being). Typically, patients had modest expectations for outcomes from treatment. Furthermore, outcome expectations were complex on several levels. First, the concept of expectations overlapped with several related concepts; in particular, hopes. Participants sometimes used expectations and hopes interchangeably and at other times made clear distinctions between these two terms depending on context. A related finding was that participants were cautious about stating that they expected positive outcomes. Finally, participants articulated strong interrelationships among the four key domains and often discussed how changes in one domain might affect other domains. Overall, these findings contribute to a growing body of literature exploring the role of expectations in patient outcomes. This paper provides important guidance that may help refine the way treatment expectations are

  3. Using Morphological, Molecular and Climatic Data to Delimitate Yews along the Hindu Kush-Himalaya and Adjacent Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Ram C.; Möller, Michael; Gao, Lian-Ming; Ahrends, Antje; Baral, Sushim R.; Liu, Jie; Thomas, Philip; Li, De-Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the availability of several studies to clarify taxonomic problems on the highly threatened yews of the Hindu Kush-Himalaya (HKH) and adjacent regions, the total number of species and their exact distribution ranges remains controversial. We explored the use of comprehensive sets of morphological, molecular and climatic data to clarify taxonomy and distributions of yews in this region. Methodology/Principal Findings A total of 743 samples from 46 populations of wild yew and 47 representative herbarium specimens were analyzed. Principle component analyses on 27 morphological characters and 15 bioclimatic variables plus altitude and maximum parsimony analysis on molecular ITS and trnL-F sequences indicated the existence of three distinct species occurring in different ecological (climatic) and altitudinal gradients along the HKH and adjacent regions Taxus contorta from eastern Afghanistan to the eastern end of Central Nepal, T. wallichiana from the western end of Central Nepal to Northwest China, and the first report of the South China low to mid-elevation species T. mairei in Nepal, Bhutan, Northeast India, Myanmar and South Vietnam. Conclusion/Significance The detailed sampling and combination of different data sets allowed us to identify three clearly delineated species and their precise distribution ranges in the HKH and adjacent regions, which showed no overlap or no distinct hybrid zone. This might be due to differences in the ecological (climatic) requirements of the species. The analyses further provided the selection of diagnostic morphological characters for the identification of yews occurring in the HKH and adjacent regions. Our work demonstrates that extensive sampling combined with the analysis of diverse data sets can reliably address the taxonomy of morphologically challenging plant taxa. PMID:23056501

  4. Effects of Absorbing Aerosols on Accelerated Melting of Snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kyu-Myong, Kim; Yasunari, Teppei; Gautam, Ritesh; Hsu, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of absorbing aerosol on melting of snowpack in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayas-Tibetan Plateau (HKHT) region are studied using in-situ, satellite observations, and GEOS-5 GCM. Based on atmospheric black carbon measurements from the Pyramid observation ( 5 km elevation) in Mt. Everest, we estimate that deposition of black carbon on snow surface will give rise to a reduction in snow surface albedo of 2- 5 %, and an increased annual runoff of 12-34% for a typical Tibetan glacier. Examination of satellite reflectivity and re-analysis data reveals signals of possible impacts of dust and black carbon in darkening the snow surface, and accelerating spring melting of snowpack in the HKHT, following a build-up of absorbing aerosols in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Results from GCM experiments show that 8-10% increase in the rate of melting of snowpack over the western Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau can be attributed to the elevated-heat-pump (EHP) feedback effect, initiated from the absorption of solar radiation by dust and black carbon accumulated to great height ( 5 km) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and Himalayas foothills in the pre-monsoon season (April-May). The accelerated melting of the snowpack is enabled by an EHP-induced atmosphere-land-snowpack positive feedback involving a) orographic forcing of the monsoon flow by the complex terrain, and thermal forcing of the HKHT region, leading to increased moisture, cloudiness and rainfall over the Himalayas foothills and northern India, b) warming of the upper troposphere over the Tibetan Plateau, and c) an snow albedo-temperature feedback initiated by a transfer of latent and sensible heat from a warmer atmosphere over the HKHT to the underlying snow surface. Results from ongoing modeling work to assess the relative roles of EHP vs. snow-darkening effects on accelerated melting of snowpack in HKHT region will also be discussed.

  5. Observed changes in surface air temperature and precipitation in the Hindu Kush Himalayan region over the last 100-plus years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yu Ren

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyzed the long-term changes in temperature and precipitation in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH region based on climate datasets LSAT-V1.1 and CGP1.0 recently developed by the China Meteorological Administration. The analysis results show that during 1901–2014 the annual mean surface air temperature over the whole HKH has undergone a significant increasing trend. We determined the change rates in the mean temperature, mean maximum temperature, and mean minimum temperature to be 0.104 °C per decade, 0.077 °C per decade, and 0.176 °C per decade, respectively. Most parts of the HKH have experienced a warming trend, with the largest increase occurring on the Tibetan Plateau (TP and south of Pakistan. The trend of precipitation for the whole HKH is characterized by a slight decrease during 1901–2014. During 1961–2013, however, the trend of the annual precipitation shows a statistically significant increase, with a rate of 5.28% per decade and has a more rapid increase since the mid-1980s. Most parts of northern India and the northern TP have experienced a strong increase in the number of precipitation days (daily rainfall ≥1 mm, whereas Southwest China and Myanmar have experienced a declining trend in precipitation days. Compared to the trends in precipitation days, the spatial pattern of trends in the precipitation intensity seems to be more closely related to the terrain, and the higher altitude areas have shown more significant upward trends in precipitation intensity during 1961–2013.

  6. Special series on "The meaning of behavioral medicine in the psychosomatic field" establishment of a core curriculum for behavioral science in Japan: The importance of such a curriculum from the perspective of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Nakao, Mutsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the core curriculum for behavioral science, from the perspective of psychology, recommended by the Japanese Society of Behavioral Medicine and seeks to explain how the curriculum can be effectively implemented in medical and health-related departments. First, the content of the core curriculum is reviewed from the perspective of psychology. We show that the curriculum features both basic and applied components and that the basic components are closely related to various aspects of psychology. Next, we emphasize two points to aid the effective delivery of the curriculum: 1) It is necessary to explain the purpose and significance of basic components of behavioral science to improve student motivation; and 2) it is important to encourage student self-efficacy to facilitate application of the acquired knowledge and skills in clinical practice.

  7. Os mentores intelectuais do confucionismo, do taoísmo e do hinduísmo na perspectiva weberiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arilson Silva de Oliveira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Analisaremos os literati confucionistas e taoístas (intelectuais chineses e os mestres brahmanas (intelectuais indianos, apresentados por Max Weber, no intuito de apreendermos as imagens de mundo religiosas nos "jardins intelectuais e encantados" da China e da Índia. Para tanto, temos como base as duas primeiras monografias que fazem parte da obra Gesammelte Aufsätse zur Religionssoziologie (Ensaios sobre sociologia da religião a propósito das religiões chinesas e indianas, as quais foram as primeiras a serem lançadas na série de sociologia comparativa das religiões mundiais de Weber. Verificamos que os intelectuais chineses contribuem para a preservação e continuidade de sua civilização, fortalecendo suas alianças com o Estado, enquanto os intelectuais indianos, na condição de agentes puramente religiosos, participam significativamente da integração cultural de seu país, preservando sua própria autonomia social. Palavras-chave: Confucionismo; Taoísmo; Hinduísmo; Intelectuais; Max Weber.Abstract This article analyzes the Confucian and Taoist literati (Chinese intellectuals and Brahmin masters (Indian intellectuals presented by Max Weber, in order to apprehend religious world images in the “enchanted intellectual gardens” of China and India. For such, the first two monographs which are part of the work entitled Gesammelte Aufsätse zur Religionssoziologie (Essays on the sociology of religion are considered in what concerns the Chinese and Indian religions, which were the first to be published in Weber’s world religions comparative sociology series. It was verified that Chinese intellectuals contribute to the preservation and continuity of their civilization, strengthening their alliances with the State, whereas Indian intellectuals, as purely religious agents, significantly take part in the process of the country’s cultural integration, preserving their own social autonomy. Key words: Confucianism; Taoism

  8. Law, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine: Issues in Supply and Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, Eva C.

    Expansion in the South for providing professional education in medicine, veterinary medicine, and law was undertaken to extend access to desirable professionals to young people and to increase the supply of needed professionals in underserved areas. How these objectives have been met is analyzed from an economist's perspective by relating supply…

  9. Trends and challenges towards integration of traditional medicine in formal health care system: Historical perspectives and An Appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Innocent

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The population residing Sub Sahara Africa (SSA continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, Malaria, Tuberculosis, various Neglected Tropical as well as Non-Communicable Diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medicine and medical devices. Also, the population in most countries in this region still and has minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian traditional medicine system is one of the oldest documented form of traditional medicine practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health care system. Challenging issues that drags back integration is the development of education curricula for training Traditional medicine experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana has managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone and Tanzania have traditional medicine products being sold over the counters due to availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should taken in the integration process in order to safeguard the Sub-Sahara Africa population from disease burdens [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 312-316

  10. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine.

  11. THE LONG ROAD TO THE USE OF MICROSCOPE IN CLINICAL MEDICINE IN VIVO: FROM EARLY PIONEERING PROPOSALS TO THE MODERN PERSPECTIVES OF OPTICAL BIOPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Ponti, Giovanni; Muscatello, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    For a long period the scientists did not recognized the potentialities of the compound microscope in medicine. Only few scientists recognized the potentialities of the microscope for the medicine; among them G. Campani who proposed the utilization of his microscope to investigate the skin lesions directly on the patient. The proposal was illustrated in a letter Acta Eruditorum of 1686. The recent development of optical techniques, capable of providing in-focus images of an object from differe...

  12. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  13. Emergency supply of prescription-only medicines to patients by community pharmacists: a mixed methods evaluation incorporating patient, pharmacist and GP perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecroft, Charles W; Mackridge, Adam J; Stokes, Elizabeth C; Gray, Nicola J; Wilson, Sarah E; Ashcroft, Darren M; Mensah, Noah; Pickup, Graham B

    2015-07-10

    To evaluate and inform emergency supply of prescription-only medicines by community pharmacists (CPs), including how the service could form an integral component of established healthcare provision to maximise adherence. Mixed methods. 4 phases: prospective audit of emergency supply requests for prescribed medicines (October-November 2012 and April 2013); interviews with CPs (February-April 2013); follow-up interviews with patients (April-May 2013); interactive feedback sessions with general practice teams (October-November 2013). 22 community pharmacies and 6 general practices in Northwest England. 27 CPs with experience of dealing with requests for emergency supplies; 25 patients who received an emergency supply of a prescribed medicine; 58 staff at 6 general practices. Clinical audit in 22 pharmacies over two 4-week periods reported that 526 medicines were requested by 450 patients. Requests peaked over a bank holiday and around weekends. A significant number of supplies were made during practice opening hours. Most requests were for older patients and for medicines used in long-term conditions. Difficulty in renewing repeat medication (forgetting to order, or prescription delays) was the major reason for requests. The majority of medicines were 'loaned' in advance of a National Health Service (NHS) prescription. Interviews with CPs and patients indicated that continuous supply had a positive impact on medicines adherence, removing the need to access urgent care. General practice staff were surprised and concerned by the extent of emergency supply episodes. CPs regularly provide emergency supplies to patients who run out of their repeat medication, including during practice opening hours. This may aid adherence. There is currently no feedback loop, however, to general practice. Patient care and interprofessional communication may be better served by the introduction of a formally structured and funded NHS emergency supply service from community pharmacies, with

  14. The Paradox of Religion: The (reConstruction of Hindu and Muslim Identities amongst South Asian Diasporas in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminah Mohammad-Arif

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the process of (reconstructing their identities in an alien society, South Asians have tended to give to religion a significant importance. This salience of religion owes as much to the dislocation and the stigmatization engendered by the migration experience as to the local context, the United States, who, while promoting a policy of multiculturalism, sees religion as an ‘acceptable’ identity marker. Drawing on this process, this article examines the implications on the inter-ethnic relationships, in particular between Hindus and Muslims (both Indian and Pakistani, as two opposite and competing trends are underway: on the one hand, separate, if not confrontational, Hindu and Muslim identities are arising, while on the other hand, a South Asian identity, ignoring the borders of Partition, is shaping up.

  15. PERANAN SENTRAL GURU AGAMA HINDU DALAM PENCAPAIAN TUJUAN PENDIDIKAN NASIONAL DI INDONESIA DAN PEMBANGUNAN KARAKTER BANGSA YANG BERAKHLAK MULIA, JUJUR, TERAMPIL, BERHATI SUCI DAN BERSIH LAHIR BATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Nengah Selasih

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The teachers of Hindu religion classes play central role in the effort to reach the goal of the national education as well as to build the characters that include honesty, skillfullness, clean and good-heartedness, as described in the national standard of education regulation No 20/2003 in which it states that the curriculum has to provide religious education (Pasal 37 UU Sisdiknas. The government attention to the education is implemented too by the issue of the Regulation on Teachers and Lecturers which states that teachers are professional educators with main duty to educate, teach, guide, train, and evaluate the students in the formal elementary, secondary, and high schools (UU RI No. 14/2005 Purwanto (2004:10.Education is the intentional enlightening from the adult to the younger ones in relation to their development in order to make them useful for themselves and in the society“The Indonesian national education systemas stated in UU No.2/1989 Bab, II, pasal 4,  states that the goal of the education is to develop a complete Indonesia people who are religious, good in their characters, have good knowledge and skills, healthy physically and mentally, independent, responsible for the society and nation. In line with that, the Hindu teachers should refer to the Vedic teachings and consider the physical, psychological, and social environments of study, the life as students (Sisya/Brahmacari, their roles (Acarya, the curriculum, the mteaching methods, as well as the goal of the education. These all should be centered on teaching with the emphasis on directing and motivating to reach the character buildingfacilitating that through learning experience helping to develop attitudes, values, and self adaptation At schools teachers should commit themselves to be 1 role models, 2 inspirators, 3 motivators, 4 regulator, 5 evaluator besides having good vision. Without these all, the goal of education will fail.

  16. The long road to the use of microscope in clinical medicine in vivo: from early pioneering proposals to the modern perspectives of optical biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Muscatello, Umberto; Sgantzos, Markos

    2015-01-01

    For a long period the scientists did not recognized the potentialities of the compound microscope in medicine. Only few scientists recognized the potentialities of the microscope for the medicine; among them G. Campani who proposed the utilization of his microscope to investigate the skin lesions directly on the patient. The proposal was illustrated in a letter Acta Eruditorum of 1686. The recent development of optical techniques, capable of providing in-focus images of an object from different planes with high spatial resolution, significantly increased the diagnostic potential of the microscope directly on the patient.

  17. Making doctor‐patient communication more effective from a patient’s perspective : A European mixed‐method study in general medicine settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzi, Maria Angela

    2017-01-01

    The thesis investigated what in the eye of European citizens and primary care patients matters in doctor-patient communication. To include the public’s perspective in evaluating the communication quality of doctors is fundamental as patients often report quality problems in the area of communication

  18. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  19. An alternative perspective on how laboratory medicine can contribute to solve the health care crisis: a model to save costs by acquiring excellence in diagnostic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussap, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The rapid escalation in health care costs has led to the idea to deliver better care at lower costs, reshaping the responsibilities of the health care system to achieve the goal of creating value for the patient. The pressure for fiscal containment and the progressive reduction in available health care resources originated very short term strategies consisting of abrupt reductions in expenditure, specifically in the provision of clinical pathology laboratory medicine services. However, the impact of laboratory test results on diagnostic and therapeutic interventions has increased enormously in the past decade, due to advances in personalized medicine and to the strictly correlated requirement to use new biomarkers with increasing sensitivity and specificity in clinical practice. In order to create savings by delivering better care there is the need to invest financial resources in purchasing high technology and new sophisticated tests and to promote the expertise of clinical pathologists and laboratory medicine professionals. This approach to creating value in patient health care is more productive and sustainable ethically, morally and economically as a long-term strategy. It can be successfully achieved by applying defined rules that make public-private cooperation clearer, skipping incompatible solutions such as transforming clinical laboratories to 'industrially productive premises', outsourcing laboratory medicine services and using central acquisition of diagnostic systems. © 2013.

  20. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world’s medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens. PMID:27366358

  1. Trends and challenges toward integration of traditional medicine in formal health-care system: Historical perspectives and appraisal of education curricula in Sub-Sahara Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocent, Ester

    2016-01-01

    The population residing Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) continues to suffer from communicable health problems such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and various neglected tropical as well as non-communicable diseases. The disease burden is aggravated by shortage of medical personnel and medical supplies such as medical devices and minimal access to essential medicine. For long time, human beings through observation and practical experiences learned to use different plant species that led to the emergence of traditional medicine (TM) systems. The ancient Pharaonic Egyptian TM system is one of the oldest documented forms of TM practice in Africa and the pioneer of world's medical science. However, the medical practices diffused very fast to other continents being accelerated by advancement of technologies while leaving Africa lagging behind in the integration of the practice in formal health-care system. Challenging issues that drag back integration is the development of education curricula for training TM experts as the way of disseminating the traditional medical knowledge and practices imbedded in African culture. The few African countries such as Ghana managed to integrate TM products in the National Essential Medicine List while South Africa, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania have TM products being sold over the counters due to the availability of education training programs facilitated by research. This paper analyses the contribution of TM practice and products in modern medicine and gives recommendations that Africa should take in the integration process to safeguard the SSA population from disease burdens.

  2. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  3. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  4. Understanding the challenges to facilitating active learning in the resident conferences: a qualitative study of internal medicine faculty and resident perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Adam P; Zickmund, Susan L; Berlacher, Kathryn; Lesky, Dan; Granieri, Rosanne

    2015-01-01

    In the Next Accreditation System, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education outlines milestones for medical knowledge and requires regular didactic sessions in residency training. There are many challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, and we need to better understand resident learning preferences and faculty perspectives on facilitating active learning. The goal of this study was to identify challenges to facilitating active learning in resident conferences, both through identifying specific implementation barriers and identifying differences in perspective between faculty and residents on effective teaching and learning strategies. The investigators invited core residency faculty to participate in focus groups. The investigators used a semistructured guide to facilitate discussion about learning preferences and teaching perspectives in the conference setting and used an 'editing approach' within a grounded theory framework to qualitative analysis to code the transcripts and analyze the results. Data were compared to previously collected data from seven resident focus groups. Three focus groups with 20 core faculty were conducted. We identified three domains pertaining to facilitating active learning in resident conferences: barriers to facilitating active learning formats, similarities and differences in faculty and resident learning preferences, and divergence between faculty and resident opinions about effective teaching strategies. Faculty identified several setting, faculty, and resident barriers to facilitating active learning in resident conferences. When compared to residents, faculty expressed similar learning preferences; the main differences were in motivations for conference attendance and type of content. Resident preferences and faculty perspectives differed on the amount of information appropriate for lecture and the role of active participation in resident conferences. This study highlights several

  5. Strategic Medicines Planning in Primary Health Care | Adindu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strategic medicines planning requires broad understanding of health and medicines realities within a context. Pharmacists viewing the community from a holistic perspective promote effectiveness in pharmacy, and facilitate synergy among the various groups to solve intractable medicines problems. Strategic medicines ...

  6. Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. If you can't control your diabetes with wise food choices and physical activity, you may need diabetes medicines. The kind of medicine you take depends ...

  7. Herbal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are ... extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. ...

  8. Anticipation and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    In this book, practicing physicians and experts in anticipation present arguments for a new understanding of medicine. Their contributions make it clear that medicine is the decisive test for anticipation. The reader is presented with a provocative hypothesis: If medicine will align itself with the anticipatory condition of life, it can prompt the most important revolution in our time. To this end, all stakeholders—medical practitioners, patients, scientists, and technology developers—will have to engage in the conversation. The book makes the case for the transition from expensive, and only marginally effective, reactive treatment through “spare parts” (joint replacements, organ transplants) and reliance on pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, opiates) to anticipation-informed healthcare. Readers will understand why the current premise of treating various behavioral conditions (attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, schizophrenia) through drugs has to be re-evaluated from the perspective of anticipation...

  9. Medicinal chemistry for 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayanajois, Seetharama D; Hill, Ronald A

    2011-01-01

    Rapid advances in our collective understanding of biomolecular structure and, in concert, of biochemical systems, coupled with developments in computational methods, have massively impacted the field of medicinal chemistry over the past two decades, with even greater changes appearing on the horizon. In this perspective, we endeavor to profile some of the most prominent determinants of change and speculate as to further evolution that may consequently occur during the next decade. The five main angles to be addressed are: protein–protein interactions; peptides and peptidomimetics; molecular diversity and pharmacological space; molecular pharmacodynamics (significance, potential and challenges); and early-stage clinical efficacy and safety. We then consider, in light of these, the future of medicinal chemistry and the educational preparation that will be required for future medicinal chemists. PMID:22004084

  10. Re-engineering the nuclear medicine residency curriculum in the new era of PET imaging: Perspectives on PET education and training in the Philippine context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascual, T.N.; Santiago, J.F.; Leus, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: There is rapid development in PET Imaging and Molecular Nuclear Medicine. In the context of a residency training program, there is a need to incorporate these technologies in the existing Nuclear Medicine Residency Training Curriculum. This will ensure that trainees are constantly updated with the latest innovations in Nuclear Medicine making them apply this progress in their future practice hence making them achieve the goals and objectives of the curriculum. In residency training programs wherein no PET facilities are existing, these may be remedied by re-engineering the curriculum to include mandatory /electives rotations to other hospitals where the facilities are available. In order to ensure the integrity of the training program in this process of development, a proper sequence of this re-engineering process adhering to educational principles is suggested. These steps reflect the adoption of innovations and developments in the field of Nuclear Medicine essential for nuclear medicine resident learning. Curriculum re-engineering is a scientific and logical method reflecting the processes of addressing changes in the curriculum in order to deliver the desired goals and objectives of the program as dictated by time and innovations. The essential steps in this curriculum re-engineering process, which in this case aim to incorporate and/or update PET Imaging and Molecular Nuclear Imaging education and training, include (1) Curriculum Conceptualization and Legitimatisation, (2) Curriculum Diagnosis, (3) Curriculum Engineering, Designing and Organization, (4) Curriculum Implementation, (5) Curriculum Evaluation, (6) Curriculum Maintenance and (7) Curriculum Re-engineering. All of these sequences consider the participation of the different stakeholders of the training program. They help develop the curriculum, which seeks to promote student learning according to the dictates of the goals and objectives of the program and technology development. Once the

  11. Folk Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead’s effects on health. How to tell if herbal medicines or folk medicines contain lead You only can ... as high as 90%. Ghasard, an Indian folk medicine, has also been found to contain lead. It is a brown powder used as a tonic. Ba-baw-san is a Chinese herbal remedy that contains lead. It is used to ...

  12. The Role of Cultural Values in Motivating the Competencies of Hindu Balinese Human Resources in Tourism to Gain Manager Level Positions in Rated Hotels in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyawati .

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In response to the new era of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC since year 2015 – Bali, as the primary gateway of Indonesian tourism, must improve the quality of Hindu Balinese human resources in tourism (HB HRT. Winata (2014: 6 explained that adat istiadat (customs and traditions is one of the cause for their low commitment in their job, as HB HRT often take leave due to adat obligations. Therefore, one of the impact, as in the case of a hotel in Kuta, is that hotels often  avoid recruiting HB HRT. Hence, issue to be discussed in this study is to understand the role of Balinese Cultural Values as a potential and as an obstacle in HBHRT’s competency to achieve managerial positions in star-rated hotels in Bali. The research will use a concurrent triangulation method on data collected through interviews and questionaires.While sampling will be done with Purposive Sampling method on star-rated hotels located in Sanur, Kuta and Nusa Dua. Finally, the data analysis will be carried out by referring to Motivation Theory (McClelland, 1976, Competency Theory (Spencer and Spencer, 1993, Value Orientations Theory (Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck, 1961, through a descriptive interpretative qualitative approach as well as a quantitative approach based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA statistics. The research results will show that based on the data, HB HRT have good set of competencies, and these good competencies are inseparable from their background of Balinese Cultural Values (BCV, mainly derived from Hindu culture and religion. As part of upholding their culture, a HB HRT is a person with pawongan concept of harmonious relationship between human beings indicated by 79.1% people with tresna (love, the parhyangan concept of harmonious relationship between human beings and God indicated by 75% people engaging in dharma yatra pilgrimages and study, and the palemahan concept of harmonious relationship between human beings and nature indicated by 69

  13. Status and progress of family health in Latin America and the Caribbean: the Ibero-American Confederation of Family Medicine (ICPM perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inez Padula Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century, much of humanity does not have access to comprehensive health care, or even basic equitable health care. If studies show that countries with organized health systems based on a qualified and inclusive model of Primary Health Care (PHC and family physicians as permanent staff are achieving unquestionable results, why a large part of the countries with lower socio-economic development have not committed strongly to implement an efficient reform of their health systems based on PHC and family medicine (FM? These issues are at the core of the Latin American Confederation of Family Medicine’s concerns, an international non-profit organization composed of national associations of countries of FM from Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Its primary mission is to drive the implementation of a proper PHC system in all countries of the region and to ensure that family medicine, as a specialty, is considered critical to health systems, thereby transforming it into a public policy.

  14. Examining critical factors affecting graduate retention from an emergency medicine training program in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a qualitative study of stakeholder perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Jane Kuipers

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Ethiopia, improvement and innovation of the emergency care system is hindered by lack of specialist doctors trained in emergency medicine, underdeveloped emergency care infrastructure, and consumable resource limitations. Our aim was to examine the critical factors affecting retention of graduates from the Addis Ababa University (AAU post-graduate emergency medicine (EM training program within the Ethiopian health care system. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with current AAU EM residents and stakeholders in Ethiopian EM. Mixed-methods inductive thematic analysis was performed. Results: Resident and stakeholder participants identified critical factors in three domains: the individual condition, the occupational environment, and the national context. Within each domain, priority themes emerged from the responses, including the importance of career satisfaction over the career continuum (individual condition, the opportunity to be involved in the developing EM program and challenges associated with resource, economic, and employment constraints (occupational environment, and perceptions regarding the state of awareness of EM and the capacity for change at the societal level (national context. Conclusions: This work underscores the need to resolve multiple systemic and cultural issues within the Ethiopian health care landscape in order to address EM graduate retention. It also highlights the potential success of a retention strategy focused on the career ambitions of keen EM doctors.

  15. Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prescription Medicines 1 of 7 sections The Basics: Prescription Medicines There are different types of medicine. The 2 ... medicine are prescription and over-the-counter (OTC). Prescription medicines Prescription medicines are medicines you can get only ...

  16. Parental perspectives on use, benefits, and physician knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine in children with autistic disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela; Seshadri, Kapila; Matthews, Tara Anne; Ostfeld, Barbara M

    2013-09-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use appears to be increasing in children with developmental disorders. However, it is not clear whether parents perceive their healthcare providers as resources who are knowledgeable about CAM therapies and are interested in further developing their knowledge. (1) To establish and compare use of, and perceived satisfaction with, traditional medicine and CAM in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and (2) to assess parental perceptions of physician knowledge of CAM and physician interest in continuing education about CAM for the two groups of parents. Families of children with a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD were surveyed regarding the frequency of use of traditional treatment and CAM, parental perceptions of the helpfulness of each therapy, parental perceptions regarding physicians' knowledge level about CAM, and physician interest in continuing education. Thirty-six percent (n=135) of 378 surveys were returned: 41 contained a diagnosis of ADHD and 22 of ASD. Traditional therapies were used by 98% of children with ADHD and 100% of those with ASD. Perceived helpfulness of medication was 92% for children with ADHD and 60% for children with ASD (p<0.05). CAM was used for 19.5% of children with ADHD and 82% of children with ASD. Perceived satisfaction for any form of CAM in the children with ADHD was at an individual patient level. Satisfaction for two of the most commonly used CAM treatments in children with ASD ranged from 50% to 78%. In children with ASD (the diagnostic group with the highest use of and satisfaction with CAM), physician's perceived knowledge of CAM was lower (14% versus 38%; p<0.05), as was perceptions of the physician's interest in learning more (p<0.05). CAM use is significant, especially in children with ASD. Physicians are not perceived as a knowledgeable resource.

  17. What is precision medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Inke R; Fuchs, Oliver; Hansen, Gesine; von Mutius, Erika; Kopp, Matthias V

    2017-10-01

    The term "precision medicine" has become very popular over recent years, fuelled by scientific as well as political perspectives. Despite its popularity, its exact meaning, and how it is different from other popular terms such as "stratified medicine", "targeted therapy" or "deep phenotyping" remains unclear. Commonly applied definitions focus on the stratification of patients, sometimes referred to as a novel taxonomy, and this is derived using large-scale data including clinical, lifestyle, genetic and further biomarker information, thus going beyond the classical "signs-and-symptoms" approach.While these aspects are relevant, this description leaves open a number of questions. For example, when does precision medicine begin? In which way does the stratification of patients translate into better healthcare? And can precision medicine be viewed as the end-point of a novel stratification of patients, as implied, or is it rather a greater whole?To clarify this, the aim of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive definition that focuses on precision medicine as a process. It will be shown that this proposed framework incorporates the derivation of novel taxonomies and their role in healthcare as part of the cycle, but also covers related terms. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  18. Nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S M [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Medicine Centre

    1967-01-01

    The article deals with the growth of nuclear medicine in India. Radiopharmaceuticals both in elemental form and radiolabelled compounds became commercially available in India in 1961. Objectives and educational efforts of the Radiation Medicine Centre setup in Bombay are mentioned. In vivo tests of nuclear medicine such as imaging procedures, dynamic studies, dilution studies, thyroid function studies, renal function studies, linear function studies, blood flow, and absorption studies are reported. Techniques of radioimmunoassay are also mentioned.

  19. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Medical Radiation Safety Research Center, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  20. Radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Ja Hae; Song, Ho Chun

    2017-01-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed

  1. Faculty perspectives regarding the importance and place of nontechnical competencies in veterinary medical education at five North American colleges of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady

    2010-07-01

    To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.

  2. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The area of nuclear medicine, the development of artificially produced radioactive isotopes for medical applications, is relatively recent. Among the subjects covered in a lengthy discussion are the following: history of development; impact of nuclear medicine; understanding the most effective use of radioisotopes; most significant uses of nuclear medicine radioimmunoassays; description of equipment designed for use in the field of nuclear medicine (counters, scanning system, display systems, gamma camera); description of radioisotopes used and their purposes; quality control. Numerous historical photographs are included. 52 refs

  3. The Symbiotic Relationship Between Operational Military Medicine, Tactical Medicine, and Wilderness Medicine: A View Through a Personal Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Craig H

    2017-06-01

    There are direct and indirect linkages and a form of symbiosis between operational military medicine from World War II and present wilderness medicine, from the beginnings to contemporary practice, and the more recently evolved field of tactical emergency medical support. Each of these relationships will be explored from the historical perspective of the Department of Military & Emergency Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences from 1982 to the present. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used in the Traditional Treatment of Gastrointestinal Pain, Inflammation and Diarrhea in Africa: Future Perspectives for Integration into Modern Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onesmo B. Balemba

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to find the most appropriate and effective treatment options for a variety of painful syndromes, including conditions affecting the gastrointestinal tract, for treating both veterinary and human patients. The most successful regimen may come through integrated therapies including combining current and novel western drugs with acupuncture and botanical therapies or their derivatives. There is an extensive history and use of plants in African traditional medicine. In this review, we have highlighted botanical remedies used for treatment of pain, diarrheas and inflammation in traditional veterinary and human health care in Africa. These preparations are promising sources of new compounds comprised of flavonoids, bioflavanones, xanthones, terpenoids, sterols and glycosides as well as compound formulas and supplements for future use in multimodal treatment approaches to chronic pain, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammation. The advancement of plant therapies and their derivative compounds will require the identification and validation of compounds having specific anti-nociceptive neuromodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, there is need for the identification of the presence of compounds that affect purinergic, GABA, glutamate, TRP, opioid and cannabinoid receptors, serotonergic and chloride channel systems through bioactivity-guided, high-throughput screening and biotesting. This will create new frontiers for obtaining novel compounds and herbal supplements to relieve pain and gastrointestinal disorders, and suppress inflammation.

  5. Collective health and family medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico, the arrangement of clinical practice has been influenced by a decision-making process that seeks to improve health indicators, thus transforming the patient into a number. Family medicine has been practiced within the limits of an institutional biomedical model where the health-disease process is approached from a biologist perspective. On the other hand, collective health understands this process as stemming from the collective sphere and includes social and biological perspectives, giving an important standing to society. Likewise, it puts policy as a determinant in bettering social health bringing together public policy with health matters. Family medicine must become the axis around which health needs are catered to, together with social conditioning factors that affect families and individuals. This leads to a trans-disciplinary approach to communities set free from a mere biomedical profile. In this context, collective health provides theoretical support to the upcoming debate on family medicine.

  6. Characteristics of an ideal practice educator: Perspectives from practice educators in diagnostic radiography, nuclear medicine, nutrition and dietetics, occupational therapy and physiotherapy and radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, A.; Hills, C.; MacDonald-Wicks, L.; Johnston, C.; James, D.; Surjan, Y.; Warren-Forward, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practice education is a compulsory component of health programs with practice educators playing a critical role in the education of students. Practice educator characteristics may positively or negatively affect student learning in practice settings. This study aimed to identify characteristics of the ideal practice educator that lead to successful practical experiences as perceived by current practice educators working in the Australian context of diagnostic radiography, nuclear medicine, nutrition and dietetics, occupational therapy, physiotherapy and radiation therapy. Methods: All practice educators (n = 1063) on the University of Newcastle Practice Educator Database were invited to participate in this prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study via online link or paper format. Results: There was a 52% response rate. The five most valued characteristics were feedback skills, non-judgemental, professionalism, clarity and listening skills. The five least valued characteristics were scholarly activity, respect for students' autonomy, well-prepared, availability and being a role model. Comparisons between disciplines, genders, ages, years in practice and levels of supervisory experience indicated some statistically significant differences, though actual differences were small. Discussion: Overall there was a high degree of agreement within and between disciplines on the characteristics of the ideal practice educator. The top five skills could be classed as generic skills and not specific clinical and practice skills, thus formal training and certification schemes may enhance practice educator competence. - Highlights: • The most important characteristics were feedback skills and non-judgmental. • The least important characteristics were scholarly activity and respects student autonomy. • Female educators valued all characteristics except scholarly activities as being more important. • Older participants valued availability, and

  7. Mentoring perception, scientific collaboration and research performance: is there a 'gender gap' in academic medicine? An Academic Health Science Centre perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Thanos; Patel, Vanash; Garas, George; Ashrafian, Hutan; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick; Harding, Sian; Darzi, Ara; Paroutis, Sotirios

    2016-10-01

    The 'gender gap' in academic medicine remains significant and predominantly favours males. This study investigates gender disparities in research performance in an Academic Health Science Centre, while considering factors such as mentoring and scientific collaboration. Professorial registry-based electronic survey (n=215) using bibliometric data, a mentoring perception survey and social network analysis. Survey outcomes were aggregated with measures of research performance (publications, citations and h-index) and measures of scientific collaboration (authorship position, centrality and social capital). Univariate and multivariate regression models were constructed to evaluate inter-relationships and identify gender differences. One hundred and four professors responded (48% response rate). Males had a significantly higher number of previous publications than females (mean 131.07 (111.13) vs 79.60 (66.52), p=0.049). The distribution of mentoring survey scores between males and females was similar for the quality and frequency of shared core, mentor-specific and mentee-specific skills. In multivariate analysis including gender as a variable, the quality of managing the relationship, frequency of providing corrective feedback and frequency of building trust had a statistically significant positive influence on number of publications (all presearch to investigate the relationship between mentoring perception, scientific collaboration and research performance in the context of gender. It presents a series of initiatives that proved effective in marginalising the gender gap. These include the Athena Scientific Women's Academic Network charter, new recruitment and advertisement strategies, setting up a 'Research and Family Life' forum, establishing mentoring circles for women and projecting female role models. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Vulnerable Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Arthur P.

    2009-01-01

    In "Narrative Medicine: Honoring the Stories of Illness," Rita Charon paints an original and humane portrait of what it can mean to be a doctor, to live a life immersed in sickness and dedicated to wellness. Charon drops the veil, inviting readers to look at the secret, subjective, emotional face of medicine, a zone of self-censored feelings and…

  9. Medicinal claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Under EU medicinal law, substances presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease are medicinal products by virtue of their presentation. EU food law prohibits attributing to any food the property of preventing, treating or curing a disease. However, if certain conditions are

  10. Cyanobacteria: an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, N.K.; Rai, A.K.; Stal, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    Written by leading experts in the field, Cyanobacteria: An Economic Perspective is a comprehensive edited volume covering all areas of an important field and its application to energy, medicine and agriculture. Issues related to environment, food and energy have presented serious challenge to the

  11. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  13. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  14. [Information and Communication Technology in medicine in Italy: problems and perspectives. A document by the "e-cardio" area of the Italian Association of Hospital Cardiologists (ANMCO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero, Antonio; Posteraro, Alfredo; Giordano, Guido; Tonti, Gianni; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    adequate connection speed. In this respect, inhomogeneous availability of broadband in Italy is at present a major challenging issue. Finally, current training programs in medicine do not allow for widespread application of ICT among young physicians. Some essential topics should be covered by university formative credits. It is crucial to address different needs: the patient needs, making data on "biological heritage" always available; the physician needs, providing them with professional tools able to improve their daily quality of work; the managers' and public decision makers' needs, helping to optimize costs of the healthcare system.

  15. Cooling, exhumation, and deformation in the Hindu Kush, NW Pakistan: New constraints from preliminary 40Ar/39Ar and fission track analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Shah; Larson, Kyle P.; Camacho, Alfredo; Coutand, Isabelle

    2018-06-01

    Asian crust in the Hindu Kush region in northern Pakistan records a protracted history of rifting, subduction and collision not commonly preserved within the Himalaya. Because of this, it is key to understanding the development of the southern Eurasian margin both prior to and after collision with India. New mica 40Ar/39Ar and apatite fission track geochronologic data from this region provide constraints on the kinematics of the Hindu Kush. 40Ar/39Ar muscovite and biotite ages from the late Cambrian Kafiristan pluton are 379.7 ± 1.7 Ma and 47.2 ± 0.3 Ma, respectively. The muscovite age may record cooling or partial resetting, while the biotite age is interpreted to record a thermal disruption associated with the early stages of continental collision in the Himalayan system. A 111.0 ± 0.6 Ma muscovite age from the northern part of the Tirich Mir pluton (∼123 Ma old; U-Pb) is interpreted to indicate a recrystallization event ∼12 Myrs after its intrusion. In addition, a younger muscovite age of 47.5 ± 0.2 Ma was derived from the opposite side of the same pluton in the immediate hanging wall of the Tirich Mir fault. This Eocene age is interpreted to represent the time of recrystallization during fault (re)activation in the early stages of India-Asia continent-continent collision. 40Ar/39Ar biotite analysis from the Buni-Zom pluton yields an age of 61.6 ± 1.1 Ma and is interpreted to reflect cooling at mid-upper crustal levels subsequent to the pluton's emplacement in the middle Cretaceous. Finally, 17.1-21.3 Ma 40Ar/39Ar ages from the Garam Chasma pluton and surrounding metapelites indicate cooling immediately following crystallization of the leucogranite body in the earliest Miocene/latest Oligocene. The younger cooling history is resolved by fission track dating of apatite (AFT). In the vicinity of the bounding Tirich Mir fault, the Tirich Mir pluton yields an AFT age of 1.4 ± 0.3 Ma, which is consistent with active exhumation associated with the surface

  16. Operationalizing land cover/land use data products to support decision making in the forestry sector of Hindu Kush Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Gilani, H.; Uddin, K.; Pradhan, S.; Murthy, M.; Bajracharya, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayan mountain ecosystem is under severe stress due to population pressure and overexploitation, which is now being further compounded by climate change. Particularly the Himalayan mountain forests has been degrading since the 1850s, in the early years of British administration. Consistent country-wide and local level data are needed to show the patterns and processes of degradation as a basis for developing management strategies to halt degradation and ensure long-term sustainability. Realizing the need for developing consistent national and regional databases in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region, with adequate spatial and temporal resolutions to be used by resource managers for informed decision making, time series land cover maps were developed for 1990, 2000, and 2010 based on the Landsat images. Considering forest sector as a primary user, a special attention was given to forest cover interpretation and relevant professional from national forestry institutions of Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan were closely engaged in developing standardized data products. With the use of consistent datasets and interpretation methods, this study provides first systematic assessment on forest cover distribution and change patterns during last two decades in these countries. At the same time, the results compiled at sub-district administrative unit, may facilitate institutions in developing appropriate forest conservation strategies, ecosystem vulnerability assessment and ecosystem services valuation at local level. To promote such usages, national forestry institutions are being closely engaged in a number of capacity building activities at national and regional level. In context of Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) initiatives, these datasets are also being evaluated to be considered as baseline for deforestation and degradation rates in the respective countries. To promote easy and open access, a web system was

  17. The Hindu view on facts (Karman as reflected in Bhagavad Gītā and Upanishads and their role in Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PhD. Alexandru-Corneliu ARION

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of the four fundamental concepts or pillars of Indian religious thinking the present paper aims at disclosing the meaning and significance of the law of universal causality that binds man and cosmos, and condemns the former to an indefinite transmigration, i.e. the law of karma. This pan-Indian term will be underlined as it is reflected in the most important Upanishads and in Bhagavad Gītā, the gospel of Hindu spirituality. On the final part a parallel – between this concept and the teaching about the role of facts in the process of salvation according to the Orthodox Christian theology – will be drawn. In short, karma is a sort of law of causality that makes any action committed by individual leaving behind it a kind of force that causes the joys and sorrows of life, as the action was good or bad. According to Orthodox Church’s teaching good deeds is, along with faith and grace the subjective conditions of salvation, i.e. personal appropriation by every man of the objective redemption brought about by Jesus Christ, the God-man. This appropriation called salvation or sanctification is not simply a gift from God, but a permanent action that lasts throughout human life. If the law of karma acts implacably and independently to the will of man, stamping a fatalist character to life and undermining the human freedom, in Orthodoxy, however, man is not alone, but permanently assisted by the divine grace. But grace does not work irresistibly; it respects human freedom, so the facts present an obvious synergetic character. Therefore, between the Christian teaching on facts and the philosophy of the act, as it emerges from the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gītā is an abysmal distance that comes to differentiate these two religions on this level as well.

  18. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  19. Ayurvedic Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the biologic humors of the ancient Greek system. Using these concepts, Ayurvedic physicians prescribe individualized treatments, including compounds of herbs or proprietary ingredients, and diet, exercise, and lifestyle recommendations. The majority of India’s population uses Ayurvedic medicine ...

  20. COPD Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Treatment & Programs Medications COPD Medications COPD Medications Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer ... control the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most people with COPD take long-acting medicine ...

  1. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanquet, Paul; Blanc, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    The applications of radioisotopes in medical diagnostics are briefly reviewed. Each organ system is considered and the Nuclear medicine procedures pertinent to that system are discussed. This includes, the principle of the test, the detector and the radiopharmaceutical used, the procedure followed and the clinical results obtained. The various types of radiation detectors presently employed in Nuclear Medicine are surveyed, including scanners, gamma cameras, positron cameras and procedures for obtaining tomographic presentation of radionuclide distributions [fr

  2. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    Despite an aggressive, competitive diagnostic radiology department, the University Hospital, London, Ontario has seen a decline of 11% total (in vivo and in the laboratory) in the nuclear medicine workload between 1982 and 1985. The decline of in vivo work alone was 24%. This trend has already been noted in the U.S.. Nuclear medicine is no longer 'a large volume prosperous specialty of wide diagnostic application'

  3. Substance and materiality? The archaeology of Talensi medicine shrines and medicinal practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-08-01

    Talensi materia medica is varied, encompassing plant, mineral, and animal substances. Healing, medicines, and medicinal practices and knowledge can be shrine-based and linked with ritual practices. This is explored utilising ethnographic data and from an archaeological perspective with reference to future possibilities for research both on Talensi medicine and, by implication, more generally through considering the archaeology of Talensi medicine preparation, use, storage, spread, and disposal. It is suggested that configuring the archaeology of medicine shrines and practices more broadly in terms of health would increase archaeological visibility and research potential.

  4. Sasang constitutional medicine as a holistic tailored medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc

    2009-09-01

    Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM) is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i) sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii) equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii) physical features and (iv) psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids) are equivalent to the process of internal-external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  5. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  6. The new final Clinical Skills examination in human medicine in Switzerland: Essential steps of exam development, implementation and evaluation, and central insights from the perspective of the national Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berendonk, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Since 2011, the new national final examination in human medicine has been implemented in Switzerland, with a structured clinical-practical part in the OSCE format. From the perspective of the national Working Group, the current article describes the essential steps in the development, implementation and evaluation of the Federal Licensing Examination Clinical Skills (FLE CS as well as the applied quality assurance measures. Finally, central insights gained from the last years are presented. Methods: Based on the principles of action research, the FLE CS is in a constant state of further development. On the foundation of systematically documented experiences from previous years, in the Working Group, unresolved questions are discussed and resulting solution approaches are substantiated (planning, implemented in the examination (implementation and subsequently evaluated (reflection. The presented results are the product of this iterative procedure.Results: The FLE CS is created by experts from all faculties and subject areas in a multistage process. The examination is administered in German and French on a decentralised basis and consists of twelve interdisciplinary stations per candidate. As important quality assurance measures, the national Review Board (content validation and the meetings of the standardised patient trainers (standardisation have proven worthwhile. The statistical analyses show good measurement reliability and support the construct validity of the examination. Among the central insights of the past years, it has been established that the consistent implementation of the principles of action research contributes to the successful further development of the examination.Conclusion: The centrally coordinated, collaborative-iterative process, incorporating experts from all faculties, makes a fundamental contribution to the quality of the FLE CS. The processes and insights presented here can be useful for others planning a

  7. When the Reading Room Meets the Team Room: Resident Perspectives From Radiology and Internal Medicine on the Effect of Personal Communication After Implementing a Resident-Led Radiology Rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klobuka, Andrew J; Lee, John; Buranosky, Raquel; Heller, Matthew

    2018-02-13

    Current radiology and internal medicine (IM) residents have trained to varying degrees depending on program in the post picture archiving and communication systems implementation era and thus have largely missed out on the benefits of in-person, 2-way communication between radiologists and consulting clinicians. The purpose of this study is to broadly explore resident perspectives from these groups on the desire for personal contact between radiologists and referring physicians and the effect of improved contact on clinical practice. A radiology rounds was implemented in which radiology residents travel to the IM teaching service teams to discuss their inpatients and review ordered imaging biweekly. Surveys were given to both cohorts following 9 months of implementation. A total of 23/49 diagnostic radiology (DR) and 72/197 IM residents responded. In all, 83% of DR and 96% of IM residents desired more personal contact between radiologists and clinicians. Of all, 92% of DR residents agree that contact with referring clinicians changes their approach to a study, 96% of IM residents agree that personal contact with a radiologist has changed patient management in a way that they otherwise would not have done having simply read a report, 85% of DR residents report that more clinician contact will improve resource use, and 96% report that it will improve care quality. Furthermore, 99% of IM residents report that increased access to a radiologist would make selecting the most appropriate imaging study easier in various clinical scenarios. A majority of IM residents prefer radiology reports that provide specific next-step recommendations and that include arrows/key-image series. We conclude that the newest generation of physicians is already attuned to the value of a radiologist who plays an active, in-person role in the clinical decision-making process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  9. Mesopotamian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots.

  10. Medicines by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Medicines By Design Medicines By Design Spotlight Nature's Medicine Cabinet A Medicine's Life Inside ... hunt for drugs of the future. Medicines By Design in PDF | E-PUB Tell Us What You ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  13. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  17. Estimation of Sector-Resolved Effects of Dust and Black Carbon Emissions on Water Resources in the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, T. M.; Alvarado, M. J.; Kleiman, G.; Winijkul, E.; Shindell, D. T.; Adams-Selin, R.; Hunt, E. D.; Brodowski, C. M.; Lonsdale, C. R.; Faluvegi, G.

    2017-12-01

    Global climate change from greenhouse gases (GHGs) and regional changes caused by aerosols, including dust and black carbon, are impacting seasonal snowpacks, long-term mass balance of glaciers, and water availability in mountain regions. In particular, the basins originating in the Himalayas, Karakoram, and Hindu Kush (HKHK) are home to over 1 billion people who depend on water resources from these mountain headwaters for a wide variety of purposes. Disentangling the effects of GHGs and aerosols on water resources is therefore important to facilitate the design of regional aerosol emissions policies that positively impact water resources - as well as air quality - over multiple time horizons. To assess the atmospheric transport of aerosols, we run WRF-Chem v3.6.1 for South Asia, with aerosol emissions corresponding to a modified version of the ECLIPSE 5a emissions inventory and global climate simulated by GISS-E2-R with prognostic aerosol characterization including aerosol-cloud interactions with cloud microphysics. The future scenarios include a no further controls (NFC) scenario, as well as a mitigation (MIT) scenario, in which aerosol emissions within South Asia are reduced substantially but emissions outside the region are maintained at NFC levels. Using tagged tracers, we estimate the emissions contributions from diesel fuel, industry, solid fuel, open burning, and biomass burning; we also track emissions by country within the region and emissions from outside the region. These simulations are used as boundary conditions to the modular, process-based Conceptual Cryosphere Hydrology Framework (CCHF) v2. To account for effects of black carbon and dust on snow and ice albedo, we add a light absorbing impurities (LAI) module to CCHF. By combining WRF-Chem boundary conditions and CCHF land process representations we are able to efficiently run multiple 1 km multi-year simulations with a daily time step for the entire HKHK region and assess the relative

  18. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giussani, Augusto; Hoeschen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Presents the most recent developments in nuclear medicine imaging, with emphasis on the latest research findings. Considers the latest advances in imaging systems, image reconstruction, noise correction, and quality assurance. Discusses novel concepts, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA project. Lists rules of thumb for imaging of use to both beginners and experienced researchers. This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  19. Personalized Medicine and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and more than 1.5 million new cases and more than 0.5 million deaths were reported during 2010 in the United States alone. Following completion of the sequencing of the human genome, substantial progress has been made in characterizing the human epigenome, proteome, and metabolome; a better understanding of pharmacogenomics has been developed, and the potential for customizing health care for the individual has grown tremendously. Recently, personalized medicine has mainly involved the systematic use of genetic or other information about an individual patient to select or optimize that patient’s preventative and therapeutic care. Molecular profiling in healthy and cancer patient samples may allow for a greater degree of personalized medicine than is currently available. Information about a patient’s proteinaceous, genetic, and metabolic profile could be used to tailor medical care to that individual’s needs. A key attribute of this medical model is the development of companion diagnostics, whereby molecular assays that measure levels of proteins, genes, or specific mutations are used to provide a specific therapy for an individual’s condition by stratifying disease status, selecting the proper medication, and tailoring dosages to that patient’s specific needs. Additionally, such methods can be used to assess a patient’s risk factors for a number of conditions and to tailor individual preventative treatments. Recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives of personalized medicine in cancer are discussed.

  20. Imaging in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giussani, Augusto [BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Protection and Health; Hoeschen, Christoph (eds.) [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany). Research Unit Medical Raditation Physics and Diagnostics

    2013-08-01

    Presents the most recent developments in nuclear medicine imaging, with emphasis on the latest research findings. Considers the latest advances in imaging systems, image reconstruction, noise correction, and quality assurance. Discusses novel concepts, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA project. Lists rules of thumb for imaging of use to both beginners and experienced researchers. This volume addresses a wide range of issues in the field of nuclear medicine imaging, with an emphasis on the latest research findings. Initial chapters set the scene by considering the role of imaging in nuclear medicine from the medical perspective and discussing the implications of novel agents and applications for imaging. The physics at the basis of the most modern imaging systems is described, and the reader is introduced to the latest advances in image reconstruction and noise correction. Various novel concepts are then discussed, including those developed within the framework of the EURATOM FP7 MADEIRA research project on the optimization of imaging procedures in order to permit a reduction in the radiation dose to healthy tissues. Advances in quality control and quality assurance are covered, and the book concludes by listing rules of thumb for imaging that will be of use to both beginners and experienced researchers.

  1. [Medicinal cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  2. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, H.G.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear medicine as a complex diagnostical method is used mainly to detect functional organic disorders, to locate disorders and for radioimmunologic assays (RIA) in vitro. In surgery, its indication range comprises the thyroid (in vivo and in vitro), liver and bile ducts, skeletal and joint diseases, disorders of the cerebro-spinal liquor system and the urologic disorders. In the early detection of tumors, the search for metastases and tumor after-care, scintiscanning and the tumor marcher method (CEA) can be of great practical advantage, but the value of myocardial sciritiscanning in cardiac respectively coronary disorders is restricted. The paper is also concerned with the radiation doses in nuclear medicine. (orig.) [de

  3. The Medicinal Chemistry of Dengue Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnam, Mira A M; Nitsche, Christoph; Boldescu, Veaceslav; Klein, Christian D

    2016-06-23

    The dengue virus and related flaviviruses are an increasing global health threat. In this perspective, we comment on and review medicinal chemistry efforts aimed at the prevention or treatment of dengue infections. We include target-based approaches aimed at viral or host factors and results from phenotypic screenings in cellular assay systems for viral replication. This perspective is limited to the discussion of results that provide explicit chemistry or structure-activity relationship (SAR), or appear to be of particular interest to the medicinal chemist for other reasons. The discovery and development efforts discussed here may at least partially be extrapolated toward other emerging flaviviral infections, such as West Nile virus. Therefore, this perspective, although not aimed at flaviviruses in general, should also be able to provide an overview of the medicinal chemistry of these closely related infectious agents.

  4. Mountain medicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bjørn; Hjuler, Kasper Fjellhaugen

    2016-01-01

    medicine. The first part covered high-altitude physiology and medical aspects of objective alpine dangers and the increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This part covers altitude sickness, fluid balance, nutrition, and precautions for patients with pre-existing medical conditions, pregnant women...

  5. Personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtzen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    engineered anti-TNF-alpha antibody constructs now constitute one of the heaviest medicinal expenditures in many countries. All currently used TNF antagonists may dramatically lower disease activity and, in some patients, induce remission. Unfortunately, however, not all patients respond favorably, and safety...

  6. Predictive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boenink, Marianne; ten Have, Henk

    2015-01-01

    In the last part of the twentieth century, predictive medicine has gained currency as an important ideal in biomedical research and health care. Research in the genetic and molecular basis of disease suggested that the insights gained might be used to develop tests that predict the future health

  7. Medicinal Mushrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindequist, U.; Won Kim, H.; Tiralongo, E.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Since beginning of mankind nature is the most important source of medicines. Bioactive compounds produced by living organisms can be used directly as drugs or as lead compounds for drug development. Besides, the natural material can be used as crude drug for preparation of powder or extracts. Plants

  8. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  9. Facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use in Accra, Ghana: an inductive exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Aziato, Lydia; Antwi, Hannah Ohemeng

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of complementary and alternative medicine including herbal medicine is increasing in many countries including Ghana. However, there is paucity of research on the perspectives of patrons of herbal medicine regarding the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine use. This study sought to investigate the facilitators and barriers of herbal medicine among Ghanaian adults who use one form of herbal medicine or the other. Methods The study employed an inductive exploratory qua...

  10. Molecular shape and medicinal chemistry: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Anthony; McGaughey, Georgia B; Sheridan, Robert P; Good, Andrew C; Warren, Gregory; Mathieu, Magali; Muchmore, Steven W; Brown, Scott P; Grant, J Andrew; Haigh, James A; Nevins, Neysa; Jain, Ajay N; Kelley, Brian

    2010-05-27

    The eight contributions here provide ample evidence that shape as a volume or as a surface is a vibrant and useful concept when applied to drug discovery. It provides a reliable scaffold for "decoration" with chemical intuition (or bias) for virtual screening and lead optimization but also has its unadorned uses, as in library design, ligand fitting, pose prediction, or active site description. Computing power has facilitated this evolution by allowing shape to be handled precisely without the need to reduce down to point descriptors or approximate metrics, and the diversity of resultant applications argues for this being an important step forward. Certainly, it is encouraging that as computation has enabled our intuition, molecular shape has consistently surprised us in its usefulness and adaptability. The first Aurelius question, "What is the essence of a thing?", seems well answered, however, the third, "What do molecules do?", only partly so. Are the topics covered here exhaustive, or is there more to come? To date, there has been little published on the use of the volumetric definition of shape described here as a QSAR variable, for instance, in the prediction or classification of activity, although other shape definitions have been successful applied, for instance, as embodied in the Compass program described above in "Shape from Surfaces". Crystal packing is a phenomenon much desired to be understood. Although powerful models have been applied to the problem, to what degree is this dominated purely by the shape of a molecule? The shape comparison described here is typically of a global nature, and yet some importance must surely be placed on partial shape matching, just as the substructure matching of chemical graphs has proved useful. The approach of using surfaces, as described here, offers some flavor of this, as does the use of metrics that penalize volume mismatch less than the Tanimoto, e.g., Tversky measures. As yet, there is little to go on as to how useful a paradigm this will be because there is less software and fewer concrete results.Finally, the distance between molecular shapes, or between any shapes defined as volumes or surfaces, is a metric property in the mathematical sense of the word. As yet, there has been little, if any, application of this observation. We cannot know what new application to the design and discovery of pharmaceuticals may yet arise from the simple concept of molecular shape, but it is fair to say that the progress so far is impressive.

  11. Melatonin in perioperative medicine: Current perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Maitra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, a new addition to the armamentarium of anesthesiologist, has some unique properties that are highly desirable in routine peri-operative care. Available clinical data show that preoperative melatonin is as effective as benzodiazepines in reducing preoperative anxiety with minimal action on psychomotor performance and sleep wake cycle. It may be considered as a safe and effective alternative of benzodiazepines as preoperative anxiolytic. It may have opioid sparing effect, may reduce intraocular pressure, and have role in prevention of postoperative delirium. The short-term administration of melatonin is free from significant adverse effects also.

  12. Expedition medicine: A southern African perspective | Hofmeyr ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine general practice complaints and accidental trauma are ubiquitous; travel medical issues such as blisters, diarrhoea, insomnia, sunburn and dehydration occur commonly; area/activity-specific issues such as infectious disease risks and altitude illnesses must be addressed; and women's health and dental problems ...

  13. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perspectives of powerful laser technique for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konov, Vitali I.; Prokhorov, Alexander M.; Shcherbakov, Ivan A.

    1991-11-01

    The optimum laser-system parameters are being selected for several types of surgical operations using ablation techniques. The choice is based on the specific demands of the operation performed, knowledge of the ablation laws, limitations on laser-beam intensity which come from the necessity to transport high-intensity light through flexible fiber, and the peculiarities of different laser systems. At present it is more expedient to develop laser medical setups oriented to the solution of one task or a limited number of problems. The choice of a concrete installation should be based on the investigation results of interaction of radiation with biological tissues and its transmission through the fiber, the analysis of the level of development of laser and fiber technique, specificity of the operation, and compatibility of laser facilitates and traditional medical equipment. The paper illustrates such an approach by way of several concrete examples and notes the corresponding laser systems, which were developed or are in the developmental stage in the General Physics Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences and in organizations connected with the Institute.

  15. Nuclear power in human medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuczera, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    The public widely associate nuclear power with the megawatt dimensions of nuclear power plants in which nuclear power is released and used for electricity production. While this use of nuclear power for electricity generation is rejected by part of the population adopting the polemic attitude of ''opting out of nuclear,'' the application of nuclear power in medicine is generally accepted. The appreciative, positive term used in this case is nuclear medicine. Both areas, nuclear medicine and environmentally friendly nuclear electricity production, can be traced back to one common origin, i.e. the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech by U.S. President Eisenhower to the U.N. Plenary Assembly on December 8, 1953. The methods of examination and treatment in nuclear medicine are illustrated in a few examples from the perspective of a nuclear engineer. Nuclear medicine is a medical discipline dealing with the use of radionuclides in humans for medical purposes. This is based on 2 principles, namely that the human organism is unable to distinguish among different isotopes in metabolic processes, and the radioactive substances are employed in amounts so small that metabolic processes will not be influenced. As in classical medicine, the application of these principles serves two complementary purposes: diagnosis and therapy. (orig.)

  16. Paśu Ayurvĕda (veterinary medicine) in Garudapurăņa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda.

  17. Environmental medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steneberg, A.

    1996-01-01

    'Environmental medicine' deals with the manifold health problems from environmental factors of chemical, physical and psychosocial origin that are possible or have been observed. The book gives insight into the current state of knowledge of environmental medicine institutions, possibilities of diagnosis and therapeutic methods. It offers a systematic overview of pollutant sources and pollutant effects and points out, inter alia, syndromes that are discussed in connection with environmental factors: not only allergies and carcinogenous diseases but also symptom complexes that are hard to diagnose by ordinary methods such as the sick-building syndrome, multiple sensitivity to chemicals, electrosensitivity, amalgam intoxications, disorders due to wood preservatives and fungal diseases. The lingering course of a disease and a set of symptoms varying from one patient to another are the rule, not the exception, because environmental diseases are due above all to the chronic uptake of low pollutant doses (orig./MG) [de

  18. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, L.; Nalda, E.; Collombier, L.; Kotzki, P.O.; Boudousq, V.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty using the properties of radioactivity. Radioactive markers associated with vectors are used as a tracer or radiopharmaceutical for diagnostic purposes and/or therapy. Since its birth more than half a century ago, it has become essential in the care of many patients, particularly in oncology. After some definitions, this paper presents the main nuclear techniques - imaging for diagnostic, radiopharmaceuticals as therapeutic agents, intra-operative detection, technique of radioimmunoassay - and the future of this field. (authors)

  19. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  20. ENERGY MEDICINE

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, T. M.

    1987-01-01

    Energy medicine is the most comprehensive concept introduced in medical diagnostics and therapy to account for a whole range of phenomena and methods available to help an individual proceed from sickness to health. The modern medical theories do not account for, much less accept many traditional therapies due to deep suspicion that the older methods are not scientific. However, the Holistic Health groups around the world have now created an environment for therapies which work at subtle energ...