WorldWideScience

Sample records for medicine fifty years

  1. Fifty years of sociological leadership at Social Science and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Stefan; Tietbohl, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, we examine some of the conceptual contributions of sociology of health and illness over the past fifty years. Specifically, we focus on research dealing with medicalization, the management of stigma, research on adherence and compliance, and patient-doctor interaction. We show how these themes that originated within sociology, diffused in other disciplines. Sociology in Social Science and Medicine started as an applied research tradition but morphed into a robust, stand-alone social science tradition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anniversary Paper: Nuclear medicine: Fifty years and still counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Lawrence E.

    2008-01-01

    The history, present status, and possible future of nuclear medicine are presented. Beginning with development of the rectilinear scanner and gamma camera, evolution to the present forms of hybrid technology such as single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography/CT is described. Both imaging and therapy are considered and the recent improvements in dose estimation using hybrid technologies are discussed. Future developments listed include novel radiopharmaceuticals created using short chains of nucleic acids and varieties of nanostructures. Patient-specific radiotherapy is an eventual outcome of this work. Possible application to proving the targeting of potential chemotherapeutics is also indicated

  3. The next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldwell, Reg

    1995-01-01

    The General Manager of the reactor division of Centronics, a world class manufacturer of reactor control systems and radiation detectors, describes its achievements and looks forward to speculate on what the next fifty years may mean in terms of technological development. Tables are given of the locations of Centronics Fission Chambers and of reactors controlled with Centronic Detectors. (UK)

  4. Fifty Years of Insulin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has since saved millions of lives throughout the world. The year 197I is the 50th anniversary of Banting's historic discovery. The story of insulin ... He found no evidence of injury. An impaired ... Prize in medicine for his discovery of insulin.

  5. Fifty years after Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, R.

    1997-01-01

    Any discussion of the nuclear-proliferation regime in the post-Cold War era, its present role and expected function in the future must take into account the outcome of the New York Non-proliferation Treaty Review Conference held in 1995, and the four factors that shaped the twentieth century: fascism and communism, nuclear energy and environmental concerns, as well as the interaction between them. none of the factors can be handled within the boundaries of a single state. After fifty years of nuclear competition both for military and energy generation purposes, international conferences on disarmament, Non-proliferation Treaty, Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, START negotiations and agreements, there are still remaining nuclear issues. Population growth, energy demands and supplies, all related to global environmental changes must be taken into account

  6. [Fifty years of the Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh (1941-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, W

    1994-01-01

    The Polish School of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh started in 1941 on the initiative of the University. It was destined for soldier-students in the Polish Forces in Great Britain. This academic institution, unique in the history of universities, was a joint Scottish-Polish enterprise. An Agreement was concluded between the Polish Government in London and the University of Edinburgh. The School was an independent Polish academic institution and, at the same time, an integral part of the University of Edinburgh. The students matriculated at the University. The University provided all the laboratory and clinical facilities necessary for teaching. Due to a lack of Polish professors for some chairs a few of them were held by Scottish professors. Attached to them were Polish lecturers but the examinations were then held in English. The diploma, originally valid only in Poland, became recognised in Great Britain following an Act of Parliament in 1947. There were 337 students, a number of them women. 227 obtained the degree M.B., Ch.B. The war ended in 1945. The School continued up till 1949. Poland was not free. The Nazi occupation of Poland was replaced by Soviet domination which was to last for over 40 years. Only 22 of the graduates returned home, about 100 settled in G. Britain, another 100 dispersed world wide. The "magnanimous gesture" of the University of Edinburgh was thereafter remembered with gratitude by the members of the Polish School. In 1961, on the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the School, the first reunion of the graduates was organised in Birmingham for those settled in Gr. Britain. The success of the reunion prompted decision on organising annual "English" gatherings of the Polish graduates in Gr. Britain. The first world reunion of the graduates took place in Edinburgh in 1966, attracting a large number of participants on this occasion of the 25th anniversary of the School. That immensely successful anniversary of the Polish School

  7. Fifty years of ILO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    'Poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere. This is the motto of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) which in June this year was celebrating the 50th anniversary of its foundation. It was initiated to advance the cause of social justice as a way of contributing to peace. (author)

  8. Fifty years of ILO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    'Poverty anywhere constitutes a danger to prosperity everywhere. This is the motto of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) which in June this year was celebrating the 50th anniversary of its foundation. It was initiated to advance the cause of social justice as a way of contributing to peace. (author)

  9. PAs: Fifty years young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Ellen D; North, Shannon

    2017-10-01

    The PA profession is 50 years young. Practicing PAs and current students hail from several generational categories ranging from Builders to Generation Z. This article reviews how different generations may have experienced PA program expansion, professional identity, state licensing, and prescription delegation. The authors sampled a cohort of PA program applicants about their views on what evokes optimism and concern for the PA profession. These themes mirror the recently paved professional road, while posing the all-important question: What construction lies on the horizon?

  10. Fifty years of Erlangen radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morell, W.

    2007-01-01

    On June 29, 2006, the Radiochemical Laboratory of AREVA NP GmbH (formerly Siemens AG) in Erlangen celebrated its fiftieth anniversary. The occasion was marked by an event attended by more than 1,000 guests, among them Werner Gebauhr, the 85-year-old founder and first head of the Laboratory; the Managing Directors of AREVA NP GmbH, Ralf Gueldner and Ruediger Steuerlein; representatives of universities, research institutions, power utilities, and public authorities. The present head of the Radiochemical Laboratory, Wilfred Morell, sketched the highlights of the work performed over the past fifty years, which ranged from solid-state and very-high-purity materials technologies to development and service activities for nuclear technology. Manfred Erve, head of the Technical Center of AREVA NP GmbH, of which the Radiochemical Laboratory is a part, emphasized the changes in priorities over the past fifty years, which had always been met successfully by Radiochemistry. In the scientific part of the event, Wolfgang Schwarz (E.ON Kernkraftwerk GmbH, KKW Isar), Ulf Ilg (EnBW Kraftwerk AG, KKW Philippsburg), and Hans-Josef Allelein (Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH) explained 3 major subject areas in which Erlangen Radio-chemistry over many years has contributed basic findings (see other articles in this atw issue). On the occasion of the anniversary, a comprehensive booklet was published under the title of '50 Jahre Radiochemie Erlangen - 1956-2006'. (orig.)

  11. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nucler fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fiftieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ''Fifty years with nuclear fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent developments in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicating a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two full days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main sites of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered by Volume 2 of this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled, Nuclear fission -- a prospective; reactors II; fission science II; medical and industrial applications by by-products; reactors and safeguards; general research, instrumentation, and by-products; and fission data, astrophysics, and space applications. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  12. Fifty years with nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, J.W.; Carlson, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The news of the discovery of nuclear fission, by Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in Germany, was brought to the United States by Niels Bohr in January 1939. Since its discovery, the United States, and the world for that matter, has never been the same. It therefore seemed appropriate to acknowledge the fifieth anniversary of its discovery by holding a topical meeting entitled, ''Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission,'' in the United States during the year 1989. The objective of the meeting was to bring together pioneers of the nuclear industry and other scientists and engineers to report on reminiscences of the past and on the more recent development in fission science and technology. The conference highlighted the early pioneers of the nuclear industry by dedicated a full day (April 26), consisting of two plenary sessions, at the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) in Washington, DC. More recent developments in fission science and technology in addition to historical reflections were topics for two fully days of sessions (April 27 and 28) at the main site of the NIST in Gaithersburg, Maryland. The wide range of topics covered in this Volume 1 by this topical meeting included plenary invited, and contributed sessions entitled: Preclude to the First Chain Reaction -- 1932 to 1942; Early Fission Research -- Nuclear Structure and Spontaneous Fission; 50 Years of Fission, Science, and Technology; Nuclear Reactors, Secure Energy for the Future; Reactors 1; Fission Science 1; Safeguards and Space Applications; Fission Data; Nuclear Fission -- Its Various Aspects; Theory and Experiments in Support of Theory; Reactors and Safeguards; and General Research, Instrumentation, and By-Product. The individual papers have been cataloged separately

  13. Fifty years of polymer science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du Prez, Filip; Hoogenboom, Richard; Klumperman, Bert; Meier, Michael; Monteiro, Michael; Müller, Alejandro; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    The European Polymer Journal (EPJ) has been serving the scientific community for 50 years, which makes it one of the older macromolecular journals with a broad focus. Since its launch 50 years ago, EPJ has provided a distinguished forum for publications in polymer research, including chemistry,

  14. Fifty years of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    On 21 March 1957, the Steering Committee for Nuclear Energy of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation established the Working Party on Public Health and Safety. From this early date onwards, radiological protection formed a central part of the work of what was to become the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Now, 50 years later, the Committee on Radiation Protection and Public Health (CRPPH) has commissioned this historical review of half a century of work and accomplishments. Over this period, the key topics in radiological protection have been identified, debated and addressed by the CRPPH. This report brings this history to life, presenting the major questions in the context of their time, and of the personalities who worked to address them. The developments and views of the past condition how we are able to assess and manage radiological risks today, as well as how we may adjust to challenges that will or could emerge in the coming years. This heritage is thus an important element for the CRPPH to consider as it looks forward to its next 50 years of accomplishments. (author)

  15. Fifty years of symmetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigner, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The author begins by discussing the application of symmetry principles in classical physics, which began 150 years ago. He then offers a few remarks on the essence of these principles and their role in the structure of physics; events, laws of nature, and invariance principles - kinematic and then dynamic - are treated. After this general discussion of the various types of symmetries, he considers the fundamental differences in their application in classical and quantum physics; the symmetry principles have greater effectiveness in quantum theory. After a few critical remarks of a general nature on the invariance principles, the author reviews the application of symmetry principles in various areas of quantum mechanics: atomic spectra, molecular physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. He notes that the role of the different symmetries recognized to be approximate provide the most interesting conclusions

  16. Fifty years of radiochemical tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    During the past 50 years radiochemical tracers, usually in the form of isotopically labelled organic compounds, have been essential tools to further advance our knowledge at the frontiers of a great variety of scientific developments in the life sciences. This plenary lecture reviews necessarily selected highlights in the synthesis and applications of such radiochemical tracers. Included are examples where important advances, made possible by using radiochemicals, have contributed to improving the quality of life on this planet. The principal radioisotopes involved, 14 C, 3 H, 35 S, 32 P, 125 I, are all relatively safe to handle and are commercially available at maximum theoretical specific activity (carrier free). The compounds labeled with these radioisotopes are used in many fields of research which include biosynthesis and biotechnology studies, cell biology, drug metabolism, clinical research and environmental applications, and are briefly reviewed. (author). 55 refs

  17. Homo cyborg: fifty years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While the term “cyborg” is only 50 years old, the process that has produced cyborgization is much older: the evolution of the human. Humans have evolved to modify ourselves and our environment, especially through evolving culture and the technologies it creates. Culture is part of nature. Today’s mundane i-cyborgs, military drones, intimate human-machine merging and genetic engineering are a result of this; which in turn produce feelings of uncanniness, hubris, and fear. Contemporary politics must take this complex dynamic into account if we are to secure a sustainable, survivable, future for ourselves and our descendents. Social experiments such as Burning Man are a prefiguration of the kinds of (self conscious techno-social creativity needed.

  18. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  19. Fifty years of Technical Cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was established in Vienna in 1957. The Statute of the IAEA, approved by 81 nations, founded the organization on three pillars: nuclear verification; safety and security; and the transfer of technology. Today, these three pillars still remain at the heart of the organization's work. However, the way in which the IAEA carries out this work, particularly with regard to technology transfer, has changed greatly over the years. When the IAEA opened for business, nuclear science and technology were in their infancy. Many Member States had no nuclear capacity at all. The IAEA's 'technical assistance' programme, as it was then known, was modest. Early projects were small in scale and short lived, focusing mainly on building human capacities and creating institutions and facilities that would support the introduction of nuclear technology in a safe and effective manner. Today, the picture is more complex. Instead of merely offering assistance, the IAEA focuses on cooperation for sustainable socioeconomic development, building on the skills and infrastructure that Member States have acquired over the past five decades. Member States are full partners in the process, guiding the IAEA's technical cooperation activities, setting national and regional priorities, and offering training opportunities and technical support to the IAEA and to other Member States. Technical cooperation between developing countries is facilitated and supported through regional cooperative agreements. Regional centres of expertise play an important role in sharing the benefits of nuclear science and technology among Member States

  20. Fifty years of shear zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Rodney

    2017-04-01

    We are here, of course, because 1967 saw the publication of John Ramsay's famous book. Two years later a memorable field trip from Imperial College to the Outer Hebrides saw John on a bleak headland on the coast of North Uist where a relatively undeformed metadolerite within Lewisian (Precambrian) gneisses contained ductile shear zones with metamorphic fabrics in amphibolite facies. One particular outcrop was very special - a shear zone cutting otherwise completely isotropic, undeformed metadolerite, with an incremental foliation starting to develop at 45° to the deformation zone, and increasing in intensity as it approached the shear direction. Here was proof of the process of simple shear under ductile metamorphic conditions - the principles of simple shear outlined in John Ramsay's 1967 book clearly visible in nature, and verified by Ramsay's mathematical proofs in the eventual paper (Ramsay and Graham, 1970). Later work on the Lewisian on the mainland of Scotland, in South Harris, in Africa, and elsewhere applied Ramsay's simple shear principles more liberally, more imprecisely and on larger scale than at Caisteal Odair, but in retrospect it documented what seems now to be the generality of mid and lower crustal deformation. Deep seismic reflection data show us that on passive margins hyper-stretched continental crust (whether or not cloaked by Seaward Dipping Reflectors) seems to have collapsed onto the mantle. Crustal faults mostly sole out at or above the mantle - so the Moho is a detachment- an 'outer marginal detachment', if you like, and, of course, it must be a ductile shear. On non-volcanic margins this shear zone forms the first formed ocean floor before true sea floor spreading gets going to create real oceanic crust. Gianreto Manatschal, Marcel Lemoine and others realised that the serpentinites described in parts of the Alps are exposed remnants of this ductile shear zone. Associated ophicalcite breccias tell of sea floor exposure, while high

  1. Fifty years of nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Valderrama, Juan Crisostomo

    1997-01-01

    Short information about the main developments of nuclear magnetic resonance during their fifty existence years is presented. Beside two examples of application (HETCOR and INADEQUATE) to the structural determination of organic compounds are described

  2. Information Systems Curricula: A Fifty Year Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Herbert E., Jr.; Feinstein, David; Clark, Jon D.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the results of research to explore the nature of changes in skills over a fifty year period spanning the life of Information Systems model curricula. Work begun in 1999 was expanded both backwards in time, as well as forwards to 2012 to define skills relevant to Information Systems curricula. The work in 1999 was based on job…

  3. Fifty years ago - nuclear physics at Cambridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burcham, W.E.

    1982-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the Cavendish saw the first nuclear transformations using artificially accelerated particles, and was soon to provide confirmation of the discovery of the positron. In 1932, the Cavendish Laboratory under the guiding hand of Rutherford was a world focus for research and with these discoveries saw the birth of modern particle physics. (orig.).

  4. First Fifty Years of Chemoresistive Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Neri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The first fifty years of chemoresistive sensors for gas detection are here reviewed, focusing on the main scientific and technological innovations that have occurred in the field over the course of these years. A look at advances made in fundamental and applied research and leading to the development of actual high performance chemoresistive devices is presented. The approaches devoted to the synthesis of novel semiconducting materials with unprecedented nanostructure and gas-sensing properties have been also presented. Perspectives on new technologies and future applications of chemoresistive gas sensors have also been highlighted.

  5. Nuclear fission discovered fifty years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann discovered the process of nuclear fission which, more than other scientific discoveries to date, profoundly has changed the world and continues to influence our life significantly: This discovery made the up to then incontestable physicists' view of the atom as an inseparable whole suddenly shatter to pieces. It has brought about the invaluable advantages of a peaceful utilization of nuclear energy, and at the same time put scientists in the position to build the most terrible weapon ever, threatening mankind and earth with complete destruction. All this certainly is reason enough to recall the scientists, their work and the spirit of the time. (orig.) [de

  6. Nuclear spin: Fifty years of ups and downs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pines, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Rumors of its demise notwithstanding, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) continues to flourish fifty years after our birth. The lecture will be a reminiscence about moments of excitation, coherence and relaxation in the history of NMR which produced, among other developments, spin echoes and time reversal, Fourier transform and multidimensional spectroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and high resolution solid state NMR. Applications of modern NMR spectroscopy cut across the boundaries of physics, chemistry, materials, biology and medicine.

  7. Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1996-01-01

    factors such as those mentioned above must be considered in interpreting the effect of the atomic bombing, instead of ascribing all the effects solely to ionizing radiation. Fifty years ago, in 1945, the first three atomic bombs in human history were produced by the United States; one of these bombs was exploded experimentally at the testing ground in the desert 80 km from Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 July. The remaining two were used against Japan; the one called L ittle Boy , using Uranium 235 was dropped on Hiroshima on 6 August, the other F at Man , using Plutonium 239 on Nagasaki on 9 August, 1945

  8. Fifty years of 'Atoms for Peace'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty years ago, on December 8, 1953, the then U.S. President, Dwight D. Eisenhower, in his famous speech before the General Assembly of the United Nations proclaimed his 'Atoms for Peace' program, which was to initiate a policy of international cooperation. The event had been preceded by a policy of the United States intended to guarantee to the United States the monopoly in the production and use of nuclear weapons, which ultimately failed because of the resistance of the Soviet Union. The doctrine of a technological monopoly in the nuclear field was to be changed in favor of cooperative ventures under the rigorous control of the United States. The 1954 Atomic Energy Act clearly formulated the will to cooperate. Following a U.S. initiative, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) was founded in 1956 to assist in transfers of nuclear technology and assume controlling functions to prevent abuse for non-peaceful purposes. Quite a number of countries used the 'Atoms for Peace' offer to develop nuclear power in very close cooperation with American industry and depending on U.S. nuclear fuel supply. On the whole, 'Atoms for Peace' has paved the way to a worldwide peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.)

  9. The Kramers problem: Fifty years of development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mel'nikov, V.O.

    1990-09-01

    In the last fifty years the seminal work by Kramers of 1940 has been greatly extended both by elaboration of new theoretical approaches and through applications to new experimental systems. The most interesting case turns out to be the regime of weak-to-medium damping, in which case the Fokker-Planck equation can be reduced to an equation or to a system of integral equations of the Wiener-Hopf type. Exact solutions can then be given for the escape rate from single- and double-well potentials. This general scheme can be naturally extended to include quantum penetration through a semiclassical barrier and the effect of quantum noise. Finally, we consider the Brownian motion in a tilted washboard potential using Josephson junctions as an illustrative example. In that context we calculate (i) fluctuation-induced voltage-current characteristics, (ii) the lifetime of a zero-voltage state, (iii) the lifetime of the running state, (iv) partial probabilities of the phase jumps by 2πn (n is an integer) and (v) retrapping current distribution in both classical and quantum regimes. (author). 61 refs, 17 figs

  10. Fifty years of science, memories, and events

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    In 2004 CERN celebrates its 50th anniversary. More precisely, on Wednesday 29 September 2004, the signature of the convention that established CERN will be 50 years old. During this special year, CERN's public web site will host a celebratory Fiftieth Anniversary web site.

  11. Fifty years of driving safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John D

    2008-06-01

    This brief review covers the 50 years of driving-related research published in Human Factors, its contribution to driving safety, and emerging challenges. Many factors affect driving safety, making it difficult to assess the impact of specific factors such as driver age, cell phone distractions, or collision warnings. The author considers the research themes associated with the approximately 270 articles on driving published in Human Factors in the past 50 years. To a large extent, current and past research has explored similar themes and concepts. Many articles published in the first 25 years focused on issues such as driver impairment, individual differences, and perceptual limits. Articles published in the past 25 years address similar issues but also point toward vehicle technology that can exacerbate or mitigate the negative effect of these issues. Conceptual and computational models have played an important role in this research. Improved crash-worthiness has contributed to substantial improvements in driving safety over the past 50 years, but future improvements will depend on enhancing driver performance and perhaps, more important, improving driver behavior. Developing models to guide this research will become more challenging as new technology enters the vehicle and shifts the focus from driver performance to driver behavior. Over the past 50 years, Human Factors has accumulated a large base of driving-related research that remains relevant for many of today's design and policy concerns.

  12. Fifty years of allergy: 1965-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dianne E; Mehr, Sam

    2015-01-01

    The last 50 years in allergy could almost be considered the first 50 years. Over this time period, we have witnessed the emergence of allergy as a subspecialty, have seen and continue to observe a tremendous change in prevalence of allergic disease and have gained insight into the mechanisms that underlie allergic predisposition and disease manifestation. We have improved the care of children with many forms of allergic disease and now sit poised to be able to alter the natural history of allergic disease with the use of specific immunotherapy. There is much left to do in the next 50 years including understanding what underlies both the predisposition to atopic disease and its natural resolution and identifying the environmental cofactors involved in the 'allergic epidemic' and therefore targets for effective primary prevention. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Environment and Change, The Next Fifty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, William R., Jr.

    As the second of three volumes published in connection with the American Institute of Planners' two-year study program, this book offers realistic goals toward which urban planning must direct itself if human society is to fulfill its need and capability for advancement. It stresses the fact that the nation can no longer afford the haphazard urban…

  14. Fifty years of atoms for peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.; Tuniz, C.

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear community around the world will be marking the 50th anniversary of President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace Speech on 8 December 2003. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is organising a series of seminars in the US, Japan and France which will culminate in consensus statement Atoms for Peace after 50 Years; New Challenges and Opportunities. A separate initiative has seen the foundation of the World Nuclear University with the mission to strengthen international institutions to guide the ongoing development of the peaceful nuclear technology. The challenge for the nuclear community over the next 50 years is to redefine and recommit to the old vision in a new world challenged by new dimensions in national security, by environmental degradation and by the impacts of population pressures coupled with predicted climate change

  15. Fifty years of progress in acoustic phonetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kenneth N.

    2004-10-01

    Three events that occurred 50 or 60 years ago shaped the study of acoustic phonetics, and in the following few decades these events influenced research and applications in speech disorders, speech development, speech synthesis, speech recognition, and other subareas in speech communication. These events were: (1) the source-filter theory of speech production (Chiba and Kajiyama; Fant); (2) the development of the sound spectrograph and its interpretation (Potter, Kopp, and Green; Joos); and (3) the birth of research that related distinctive features to acoustic patterns (Jakobson, Fant, and Halle). Following these events there has been systematic exploration of the articulatory, acoustic, and perceptual bases of phonological categories, and some quantification of the sources of variability in the transformation of this phonological representation of speech into its acoustic manifestations. This effort has been enhanced by studies of how children acquire language in spite of this variability and by research on speech disorders. Gaps in our knowledge of this inherent variability in speech have limited the directions of applications such as synthesis and recognition of speech, and have led to the implementation of data-driven techniques rather than theoretical principles. Some examples of advances in our knowledge, and limitations of this knowledge, are reviewed.

  16. Fifty Years of Innovation in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M Kwasnicki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInnovation has molded the current landscape of plastic surgery. However, documentation of this process only exists scattered throughout the literature as individual articles. The few attempts made to profile innovation in plastic surgery have been narrative, and therefore qualitative and inherently biased. Through the implementation of a novel innovation metric, this work aims to identify and characterise the most prevalent innovations in plastic surgery over the last 50 years.MethodsPatents and publications related to plastic surgery (1960 to 2010 were retrieved from patent and MEDLINE databases, respectively. The most active patent codes were identified and grouped into technology areas, which were subsequently plotted graphically against publication data. Expert-derived technologies outside of the top performing patents areas were additionally explored.ResultsBetween 1960 and 2010, 4,651 patents and 43,118 publications related to plastic surgery were identified. The most active patent codes were grouped under reconstructive prostheses, implants, instruments, non-invasive techniques, and tissue engineering. Of these areas and other expert-derived technologies, those currently undergoing growth include surgical instruments, implants, non-invasive practices, transplantation and breast surgery. Innovations related to microvascular surgery, liposuction, tissue engineering, lasers and prostheses have all plateaued.ConclusionsThe application of a novel metric for evaluating innovation quantitatively outlines the natural history of technologies fundamental to the evolution of plastic surgery. Analysis of current innovation trends provides some insight into which technology domains are the most active.

  17. Fifty years of German nuclear legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    The political situation and the state of legislation after World War II make it difficult to pinpoint a precise date of origin of German nuclear legislation. The restrictions imposed by the Allied High Commission (AHC) without any exception put a ban on the production of uranium and thorium metal as well as the construction of nuclear reactors. These restrictions were lifted expressly when the German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) entered into force on January 1, 1960, i.e. much later than the formal step of gaining sovereignty, which was marked by the protocol of May 5, 1955 terminating the Occupation Statute. In October 1955, the German federal government established the then Federal Ministry for Atomic Matters also in an attempt to reconnect to developments in nuclear fission in other parts of the Western world. To supersede the AHC law, the German federal government in December 1956 publicized a draft Atomic Energy Act. It is safe, therefore, to consider that year the starting point of German atomic legislation. This step was followed by deliberations preparatory to the adoption of the Atomic Energy Act. In 1957, however, adoption failed because no two-thirds majority was reached to amend the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. As a consequence, some federal states saw the need to adopt state legislation to regulate this area. On December 3, 1959, a new draft Atomic Energy Act was adopted by the German federal parliament after the second and third readings - coupled with an amendment to the Basic Law on that same day - with the votes of the opposition and with one abstention. (orig.)

  18. Atoms for Peace after Fifty Years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joeck, N.; Lehman, R.; Vergino, E.; Schock, R.

    2004-01-01

    President Eisenhower's hopes for nuclear technology still resonate, but the challenges to fulfilling them are much different today. On December 8, 1953, President Eisenhower, returning from his meeting with the leaders of Britain and France at the Bermuda Summit, flew directly to New York to address the United Nations General Assembly. His presentation, known afterwards as the ''Atoms for Peace'' speech, was bold, broad, and visionary. Eisenhower highlighted dangers associated with the further spread of nuclear weapons and the end of the thermonuclear monopoly, but the president also pointed to opportunities. Earlier that year, Stalin had died and the Korean War armistice was signed. Talks on reunification of Austria were about to begin. The speech sought East-West engagement and outlined a framework for reducing nuclear threats to security while enhancing the civilian benefits of nuclear technology. One specific proposal offered to place surplus military fissile material under the control of an ''international atomic energy agency'' to be used for peaceful purposes, especially economic development. Eisenhower clearly recognized the complex interrelationships between different nuclear technologies and the risks and the benefits that accrue from each. The widespread use of civilian nuclear technology and absence of any use of a nuclear weapon during the next half-century reflects success in his approach. Today, the world faces choices about nuclear technology that have their parallels in the Eisenhower calculus and its legacy. Although his specific fissile material proposal was never implemented, his broader themes gave impetus to agreements such as the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and institutions such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The resulting governance process has promoted some and restricted other nuclear technology. Perhaps even more influential was Eisenhower's overarching recommendation that we try to reduce the risks and seek

  19. Fifty Years of Lightning Observations from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Some of the earliest satellites, starting with OSO (1965), ARIEL (1967), and RAE (1968), detected lightning using either optical and RF sensors, although that was not their intent. One of the earliest instruments designed to detect lightning was the PBE (1977). The use of space to study lightning activity has exploded since these early days. The advent of focal-plane imaging arrays made it possible to develop high performance optical lightning sensors. Prior to the use of charged-coupled devices (CCD), most space-based lightning sensors used only a few photo-diodes, which limited the location accuracy and detection efficiency (DE) of the instruments. With CCDs, one can limit the field of view of each detector (pixel), and thus improve the signal to noise ratio over single-detectors that summed the light reflected from many clouds with the lightning produced by a single cloud. This pixelization enabled daytime DE to increase from a few percent to close to 90%. The OTD (1995), and the LIS (1997), were the first lightning sensors to utilize focal-plane arrays. Together they detected global lightning activity for more than twenty years, providing the first detailed information on the distribution of global lightning and its variability. The FORTE satellite was launched shortly after LIS, and became the first dedicated satellite to simultaneously measure RF and optical lightning emissions. It too used a CCD focal plane to detect and locate lightning. In November 2016, the GLM became the first lightning instrument in geostationary orbit. Shortly thereafter, China placed its GLI in orbit. Lightning sensors in geostationary orbit significantly increase the value of space-based observations. For the first time, lightning activity can be monitored continuously, over large areas of the Earth with high, uniform DE and location accuracy. In addition to observing standard lightning, a number of sensors have been placed in orbit to detect transient luminous events and

  20. Fifty years of Jaynes-Cummings physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Koch, Jens; Larson, Jonas

    2013-11-01

    electromagnetic modes, arrays of coupled cavities [5-7], and optomechanical systems [8] have further enriched the physics of the Jaynes-Cummings model. From the early interests in masers and the consistent quantum description of radiation and atom-photon interaction, the Jaynes-Cummings model has evolved into a cornerstone of quantum state engineering [9]. The authors of this editorial had not been born when Jaynes and Cummings wrote their remarkable paper. It is, therefore, a special honour for us to be able to draw the reader's attention to the accompanying reminiscence contributed by Frederick Cummings where he gives us a glimpse of the early history of the Jaynes-Cummings model from his perspective [11]. By now, the original 1963 paper by Jaynes and Cummings has gathered numerous citations and, at the time of writing, the number of articles involving Jaynes-Cummings physics is approaching 15 000.1 This special issue does not attempt to review this impressive wealth of research. The interested reader, however, is urged to consult the definitive article by Shore and Knight [10] for a comprehensive review of the first 30 years of Jaynes-Cummings physics. The collection of 26 papers presented in this issue, showcases a snapshot of some of the most recent and continuing research devoted to Jaynes-Cummings physics. We begin our special issue with Professor Cumming's recollections [11]. We then have six papers on quantum information aspects of the Jaynes-Cummings model [12-17]. The next topic includes seven papers on the Dicke and generalized Jaynes-Cummings models [18-24], followed by six papers on circuit QED, which is one of the most important experimental frameworks for Jaynes-Cummings systems [25-30]. Finally, we have six papers on the extension to many cavities, the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model [31-36]. The snapshot of research captured in this special issue illustrates the unifying language provided by the Jaynes-Cummings model, tying together research in a number of

  1. EDITORIAL: Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years Semiconductor lasers: the first fifty years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvez, S.; Adams, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    Anniversaries call for celebrations. Since it is now fifty years since the first semiconductor lasers were reported, it is highly appropriate to celebrate this anniversary with a Special Issue dedicated to the topic. The semiconductor laser now has a major effect on our daily lives since it has been a key enabler in the development of optical fibre communications (and hence the internet and e-mail), optical storage (CDs, DVDs, etc) and barcode scanners. In the early 1960s it was impossible for most people (with the exception of very few visionaries) to foresee any of these future developments, and the first applications identified were for military purposes (range-finders, target markers, etc). Of course, many of the subsequent laser applications were made possible by developments in semiconductor materials, in the associated growth and fabrication technology, and in the increased understanding of the underlying fundamental physics. These developments continue today, so that the subject of semiconductor lasers, although mature, is in good health and continues to grow. Hence, we can be confident that the pervasive influence of semiconductor lasers will continue to develop as optoelectronics technology makes further advances into other sectors such as healthcare, security and a whole host of applications based on the global imperatives to reduce energy consumption, minimise environmental impact and conserve resources. The papers in this Special Issue are intended to tell some of the story of the last fifty years of laser development as well as to provide evidence of the current state of semiconductor laser research. Hence, there are a number of papers where the early developments are recalled by authors who played prominent parts in the story, followed by a selection of papers from authors who are active in today's exciting research. The twenty-fifth anniversary of the semiconductor laser was celebrated by the publication of a number of papers dealing with the early

  2. Fifty years of Cuba's medical diplomacy: from idealism to pragmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinsilver, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Medical diplomacy, the collaboration between countries to simultaneously produce health benefits and improve relations, has been a cornerstone of Cuban foreign policy since the outset of the revolution fifty years ago. It has helped Cuba garner symbolic capital (goodwill, influence, and prestige) well beyond what would have been possible for a small, developing country, and it has contributed to making Cuba a player on the world stage. In recent years, medical diplomacy has been instrumental in providing considerable material capital (aid, credit, and trade), as the oil-for-doctors deals with Venezuela demonstrates. This has helped keep the revolution afloat in trying economic times. What began as the implementation of the one of the core values of the revolution, namely health as a basic human right for all peoples, has continued as both an idealistic and a pragmatic pursuit. This article examines the factors that enabled Cuba to conduct medical diplomacy over the past fifty years, the rationale behind the conduct of this type of soft power politics, the results of that effort, and the mix of idealism and pragmatism that has characterized the experience. Moreover, it presents a typology of medical diplomacy that Cuba has used over the past fifty years.

  3. Fifty years in fusion and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquinot, J.

    2010-01-01

    This particular 'Fusion Pioneers Memorial lecture' was given 50 years after the first historical FEC conference in 1958. It was a unique occasion to perform a global reflection on thermonuclear fusion which is summarized in this paper. We first consider the case for fusion energy then move on to the scientific achievements during the past five decades. Finally, the lessons drawn from the past give a framework to consider the challenges ahead of us. The 1958 pioneers had the vision of the vital importance of international collaboration to succeed in this unique endeavour. Fifty years later, this vision has amply proven its worth. Looking at the way forward, this vision constitutes a strong basis to harness fusion energy in the decades to come.

  4. Fifty years of hemodialysis access literature: The fifty most cited publications in the medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripochnik, Edvard; O'Connor, David J; Trestman, Eric B; Lipsitz, Evan C; Scher, Larry A

    2018-02-01

    Objectives The modern era of hemodialysis access surgery began with the publication in 1966 by Brescia et al. describing the use of a surgically created arteriovenous fistula. Since then, the number of patients on chronic hemodialysis and the number of publications dealing with hemodialysis access have steadily increased. We have chronicled the increase in publications in the medical literature dealing with hemodialysis access by evaluating the characteristics of the 50 most cited articles. Methods We queried the Science Citation Index from the years 1960-2014. Articles were selected based on a subject search and were ranked according to the number of times they were cited in the medical literature. Results The 50 most frequently cited articles were selected for further analysis and the number of annual publications was tracked. The landmark publication by Dr Brescia et al. was unequivocally the most cited article dealing with hemodialysis access (1109 citations). The subject matter of the papers included AV fistula and graft (9), hemodialysis catheter (9), complications and outcomes (24), and other topics (8). Most articles were published in nephrology journals (33), with fewer in surgery (7), medicine (7), and radiology (3) journals. Of the 17 journals represented, Kidney International was the clear leader, publishing 18 articles. There has been an exponential rise in the frequency of publications regarding dialysis access with 42 of 50 analyzed papers being authored after 1990. Conclusion As the number of patients on hemodialysis has increased dramatically over the past five decades, there has been a commensurate increase in the overall number of publications related to hemodialysis access.

  5. Fifty years of mathematical physics selected works of Ludwig Faddeev

    CERN Document Server

    Faddeev, Ludwig; Niemi, Antti J

    2016-01-01

    This unique volume summarizes with a historical perspective several of the major scientific achievements of Ludwig Faddeev, with a foreword by Nobel Laureate C N Yang. The volume that spans over fifty years of Faddeev's career begins where he started his own scientific research, in the subject of scattering theory and the three-body problem. It then continues to describe Faddeev's contributions to automorphic functions, followed by an extensive account of his many fundamental contributions to quantum field theory including his original article on ghosts with Popov. Faddeev's contributions to soliton theory and integrable models are then described, followed by a survey of his work on quantum groups. The final scientific section is devoted to Faddeev's contemporary research including articles on his long-term interest in constructing knotted solitons and understanding confinement. The volume concludes with his personal view on science and mathematical physics in particular.

  6. The fifty-year-old woman and midlife stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S

    It has been assumed that the fifties are a relatively stable decade; however, women in their fifties are susceptible to many stresses, internal and external. The possibilities of widowhood, divorce, or poverty, combined with intra- and interpersonal strains, make this a time of insecurity about aging for many women. Some suggestions as to why women nonetheless cope successfully with aging are considered.

  7. The anomaly of Marquesan ceramics : a fifty year retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.S.; Dickinson, W.R.; Huebert, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago pioneering archaeologist Robert Suggs reported a small number of pottery sherds from the Marquesas Islands. The first such finds in East Polynesia, at the time they were considered indicative of both a Marquesan homeland and local ceramic manufacture. In the intervening years, additional sherds have been recovered from three other Marquesan localities resulting in a total of 14 specimens. Prior petrographic studies demonstrate unambiguously that some derive from Fiji. Others have been interpreted historically as representative of an indigenous Marquesan ceramic industry. Here we bring together key petrographic analyses from Polynesia, recent chronological assessments of the Marquesan sequence, and insights from new field research to reassess the origins and chronology of Marquesan pottery. We suggest that there is little support for an indigenous Marquesan ceramic industry, and most likely all of the specimens are imports. With respect to the timing of ceramic arrivals, three hypotheses are explored: 1) with founding settlers, 2) as a component of long-distance exchange networks operating between the 12th to 16th centuries AD, or 3) as late prehistoric or historic imports. The preponderance of evidence points to the second alternative, although the other two cannot be completely discounted for the assemblage as a whole. (author). 63 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. The Proton Synchrotron, going strong at fifty years

    CERN Multimedia

    Django Manglunki

    It was on the evening of 24 November 1959 that an incredulous Hildred Blewett, on detachment to CERN from the Brookhaven laboratory, exclaimed “Yes! We’re through transition!” The first beam of ten billion protons had not only broken through the 5.2 GeV barrier but gone on all the way to 24 GeV, the machine’s top energy at that time.   An operational screenshot from the PS, taken on its 50th anniversary. The three white peaks depict different phases (cycles) of the PS’s operation. In the first and third cycle, the PS is producing a very low-intensity beam for LHC commissioning. In the second cycle, protons are being spilled out for use in the East Area. Fifty years ago the PS, the first strong-focusing proton synchrotron using alternating gradient technology, first began to circulate beams at an unprecedented level of energy. Over the years, a complex of linear and circular accelerators and storage rings grew up around the PS. In the mid-1990s ...

  9. Fifty years of fuzzy logic and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rishe, Naphtali; Kandel, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive report on the evolution of Fuzzy Logic since its formulation in Lotfi Zadeh’s seminal paper on “fuzzy sets,” published in 1965. In addition, it features a stimulating sampling from the broad field of research and development inspired by Zadeh’s paper. The chapters, written by pioneers and prominent scholars in the field, show how fuzzy sets have been successfully applied to artificial intelligence, control theory, inference, and reasoning. The book also reports on theoretical issues; features recent applications of Fuzzy Logic in the fields of neural networks, clustering, data mining, and software testing; and highlights an important paradigm shift caused by Fuzzy Logic in the area of uncertainty management. Conceived by the editors as an academic celebration of the fifty years’ anniversary of the 1965 paper, this work is a must-have for students and researchers willing to get an inspiring picture of the potentialities, limitations, achievements and accomplishments...

  10. Student Interviews Fifty Years Later: An Oral History

    OpenAIRE

    2018-01-01

    The Regional History Project at UC Santa Cruz has rich collections of interviews with generations of narrators, ranging across the administration, faculty, and staff. In the early years of the campus, founding director Elizabeth Spedding Calciano conducted two rounds of interviews focused on the student experience at what was then the newest campus of the University of California. Those interviews, conducted in 1967 and 1969 as the campus was still adding a new college every year, give a wind...

  11. Fifty years of CERN history in the spotlight

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The programme of events for CERN's Golden Jubilee year was officially unveiled at a press conference on 8 March. The first of these events took place the following day, when the Swiss commemorative postage stamp issued in the Laboratory's honour went on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland.

  12. Fifty years of invasion ecology: The legacy of Charles Elton

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Richardson, D. M.; Pyšek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 2 (2008), s. 161-168 ISSN 1366-9516 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bibliometric analysis * biological invasions * citation analysis Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.446, year: 2008

  13. Fifty years of Tsetse control in Tanzania: challenges and prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even after 50 years of independence, Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) or Sleeping Sickness is still one of the major public health problems with about 300 cases being reported annually. Tsetse control has been sporadic and uncoordinated hence no tangible results have been accrued since independence despite ...

  14. Fifty Years of Boundary-Layer Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1955-01-01

    The year 1954 marked the 50th anniversary of the Prandtl boundary-layer theory from which we may date the beginning of man's understanding of the dynamics of real fluids. A backward look at this aspect of the history of the last 50 years may be instructive. This paper (1) attempts to compress the events of those 50 years into a few thousand words, to tell in this brief space the interesting story of the development of a new concept, its slow acceptance and growth, its spread from group to group within its country of origin, and its diffusion to other countries of the world. The original brief paper of Prandtl (2) was presented at the Third International Mathematical Congress at Heidelberg in 1904 and published in the following year. It was an attempt to explain the d'Alembert paradox, namely, that the neglect of the small friction of air in the theory resulted in the prediction of zero resistance to motion. Prandtl set himself the task of computing the motion of a fluid of small friction, so small that its effect could be neglected everywhere except where large velocity differences were present or a cumulative effect of friction occurred This led to the concept of boundary layer, or transition layer, near the wall of a body immersed in a fluid stream in which the velocity rises from zero to the free-stream value. It is interesting that Prandtl used the term Grenzsehicht (boundary layer) only once and the term Ubergangsschicht (transition layer) seven times in the brief article. Later writers also used Reibungsschicht (friction layer), but most writers today use Grenzschicht (boundary layer).

  15. Bibliometric analysis of fifty years of physica status solidi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, Werner [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Hoffmann, Dieter [Max Planck Institute for the History of Sciences, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Bibliometric methods are used to analyze quantitatively the journal physica status solidi (pss) 50 years after its inception. First, the coverage of the journal by the relevant citation indices accessible under the Web of Science (WoS) and the field-specific INSPEC database is examined. The number of papers published per year by the journal as a whole and by the specific pss series is given. The time evolution of the pss output in terms of papers per year is compared with the output evolution of some major competing journals in the field of condensed-matter physics. The top-12 most frequently cited pss papers published within the complete time period 1961-2010 and within the two separate time periods 1974-1989 and 1990-2010 (before and after the German reunification) are listed. The citation time curves (citation history) of the three most frequently cited pss papers are presented. Furthermore, the Journal Impact Factors (JIFs) of the pss journal series (a) and (b) are discussed and their time evolution is shown. Moreover, the distribution of the pss papers over their document types and the authors is given. The countries of authors are ranked for the complete time period 1961-2010 as well as for the time periods 1973-1989 and 1990-2010. The complete ensemble of the citing papers of the pss papers is analyzed and discussed. The journals citing most often the pss papers published in the year 2000 are listed. Finally, the distribution of the pss papers over the various subject areas and classification terms based on the INSPEC database is tabled. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. DMPD: Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mmunity. 2006 Sep;25(3):343-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target. Pubm...edID 16979566 Title Fifty years of interferon research: aiming at a moving target.

  17. Fifty years of IAA History Symposia (1967-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, A. Ingemar; Hall, R. Cargill

    2017-05-01

    The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) Symposia on the History of Rocketry and Astronautics have been held annually at the International Astronautical Congresses since 1967. During these past 50 years nearly 800 papers have been presented and subsequently published in the proceedings. With a 20-year rule imposed for historical presentations, the first 10 symposia concentrated on pre-World War II and early 1950s activities. A surprisingly large number of papers on early, less well-known Soviet-Russian contributions to rocketry and astronautics were presented in the first symposia, despite the ongoing Space Race between the U.S and USSR. Another important element in these symposia involved memoir papers offered by pre- and post-war rocket and astronautics pioneers from many countries, and the participation of many of these pioneers in person. In sum, the history of national space and rocket projects from some 40 countries were presented over the years in IAA History Symposia. These 50 symposia have provided a platform for scholars and professional and non-professional historians to meet and discuss the history of rocketry and astronautics, and to personally interview many space pioneers, most of whom today are deceased. Their personal recollections have since been shared with a large audience. Over time, IAA history papers divided into recognizable periods: ancient times through the 19th century, and the 20th and 21st centuries, which separate among actions and events that took place before 1945, in 1945 to 1957, and after 1957 (which marked the beginning of the space age). Proceedings of the IAA History Symposia have been published in English, ultimately in the History Series of the American Astronautical Society (AAS) and its publishing arm, Univelt Inc., under an agreement secured with the IAA. This paper presents an overview of the IAA History Symposia. It examines the early years of the history committee and its first symposium, the evolution of

  18. Fifty years of fuel quality and vehicle emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-01

    In the late 1970s, with growing emphasis on urban air quality in Europe, CONCAWE embarked on new research related to fuels and vehicles. After only a few years, it became clear that fuel properties and specifications would be increasingly important to the future of the European refining industry, and considerable research was completed in the 1970s to better understand the impact of fuel composition on vehicle performance and emissions. This early work led to the formation of the first Fuels and Emissions Management Group (FEMG) in 1982, almost 20 years after the formation of the CONCAWE Association. Since these early days, FEMG has been responsible for ensuring CONCAWE's strategic outlook on future vehicle and fuel developments, monitoring regulatory and vehicle developments, and overseeing a diverse portfolio of fuel quality and vehicle emissions research. Since the 1980s, tremendous progress has been made in improving European air quality, in part by reducing emissions from road transport and other sectors, and major improvements in European fuel qualities have contributed to these reductions. Nevertheless, many challenges are still ahead, especially further reductions in pollutant emissions from vehicles while also reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transport. In the near-term, these GHG reductions will largely come from improvements in engine and vehicle fuel consumption and by blending of GHG-reducing bio-blending components. Dealing with these challenges to fuel quality and performance will require a continuing focus on CONCAWE's founding principles: sound science, cost effectiveness and transparency.

  19. Perspectives on Erving Goffman's "Asylums" fifty years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, John; Gill, Irwin; Glackin, Shane N; Kelly, Brendan D; Scanlon, Christopher; Mac Suibhne, Seamus

    2013-08-01

    Erving Goffman's "Asylums" is a key text in the development of contemporary, community-orientated mental health practice. It has survived as a trenchant critique of the asylum as total institution, and its publication in 1961 in book form marked a further stage in the discrediting of the asylum model of mental health care. In this paper, some responses from a range of disciplines to this text, 50 years on, are presented. A consultant psychiatrist with a special interest in cultural psychiatry and mental health legislation, two collaborating psychotherapists in adult and forensic mental health, a philosopher, and a recent medical graduate, present their varying responses to the text. The editors present these with the hope of encouraging further dialogue and debate from service users, carers, clinicians, and academics and researchers across a range of disciplines.

  20. Changes in sunflower breeding over the last fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vear Felicity

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses changes in sunflower breeding objectives since the introduction of hybrid varieties 50 years ago. After a reminder of the importance of some early programmes, Canadian in particular, the present situation for each breeding objective is compared with those encountered earlier. Breeding for yield has changed from maximum possible yield under intensive agriculture to yield with resistance to abiotic stresses, moderate droughts and shallow soils in particular, helped by collaboration with agronomists to produce crop models. Breeding for oil has changed from quantity to quality and the value of seed meal is again becoming economically important. Necessary disease resistances vary with agronomic practises and selection pressure on pathogens according to varietal genetics. The possibilities of new types of sunflower are also discussed. Advances in genomics will change breeding procedures, but with rapidly changing molecular techniques, international collaboration is particularly important.

  1. FIFTY YEARS OF MELPHALAN USE IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayraktar, Ulas D.; Bashir, Qaiser; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan O.

    2015-01-01

    Melphalan remains the most widely used agent in preparative regimens for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. From its initial discovery more than 50 years ago, it has been gradually incorporated in the conditioning regimens for both autologous and allogeneic transplantation due to its myeloablative properties and broad antitumor effects as a DNA alkylating agent. Melphalan remains the mainstay conditioning for multiple myeloma and lymphomas; and has been used successfully in preparative regimens of a variety of other hematological and non-hematological malignancies. The addition of newer agents to conditioning like bortezomib or lenalidomide for myeloma, or clofarabine for myeloid malignancies, may improve antitumor effects for transplantation, while in combination with alemtuzumab may represent a backbone for future cellular therapy due to reliable engraftment and low toxicity profile. This review summarizes the development and the current use of this remarkable drug in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. PMID:22922522

  2. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission`s program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance.

  3. Fifty years of federal radioactive waste management: Policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides a chronological history of policies and practices relating to the management of radioactive waste for which the US Atomic Energy Commission and its successor agencies, the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Department of Energy, have been responsible since the enactment of the Atomic Energy Act in 1946. The defense programs and capabilities that the Commission inherited in 1947 are briefly described. The Commission undertook a dramatic expansion nationwide of its physical facilities and program capabilities over the five years beginning in 1947. While the nuclear defense activities continued to be a major portion of the Atomic Energy Commission's program, there was added in 1955 the Atoms for Peace program that spawned a multiplicity of peaceful use applications for nuclear energy, e.g., the civilian nuclear power program and its associated nuclear fuel cycle; a variety of industrial applications; and medical research, diagnostic, and therapeutic applications. All of these nuclear programs and activities generated large volumes of radioactive waste that had to be managed in a manner that was safe for the workers, the public, and the environment. The management of these materials, which varied significantly in their physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics, involved to varying degrees the following phases of the waste management system life cycle: waste characterization, storage, treatment, and disposal, with appropriate transportation linkages. One of the benefits of reviewing the history of the waste management program policies and practices if the opportunity it provides for identifying the lessons learned over the years. Examples are summarized at the end of the report and are listed in no particular order of importance

  4. Fifty years of progress in speech coding standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard

    2004-10-01

    Over the past 50 years, speech coding has taken root worldwide. Early applications were for the military and transmission for telephone networks. The military gave equal priority to intelligibility and low bit rate. The telephone network gave priority to high quality and low delay. These illustrate three of the four areas in which requirements must be set for any speech coder application: bit rate, quality, delay, and complexity. While the military could afford relatively expensive terminal equipment for secure communications, the telephone network needed low cost for massive deployment in switches and transmission equipment worldwide. Today speech coders are at the heart of the wireless phones and telephone answering systems we use every day. In addition to the technology and technical invention that has occurred, standards make it possible for all these different systems to interoperate. The primary areas of standardization are the public switched telephone network, wireless telephony, and secure telephony for government and military applications. With the advent of IP telephony there are additional standardization efforts and challenges. In this talk the progress in all areas is reviewed as well as a reflection on Jim Flanagan's impact on this field during the past half century.

  5. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domnin, Y.; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G.

    2005-01-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI-the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH 4 laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard. (authors)

  6. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domnin, Y.; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G. [VNIIFTRI (Russian Federation)

    2005-06-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI-the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH{sub 4} laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard. (authors)

  7. Fifty years of atomic time-keeping at VNIIFTRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnin, Yu; Gaigerov, B.; Koshelyaevsky, N.; Poushkin, S.; Rusin, F.; Tatarenkov, V.; Yolkin, G.

    2005-06-01

    Time metrology in Russia in the second half of the twentieth century has been marked, as in other advanced countries, by the rapid development of time and frequency quantum standards and the beginning of atomic time-keeping. This brief review presents the main developments and studies in time and frequency measurement, and the improvement of accuracy and atomic time-keeping at the VNIIFTRI—the National Metrology Institute keeping primary time and frequency standards and ensuring unification of measurement. The milestones along the way have been the ammonia and hydrogen masers, primary caesium beam and fountain standards and laser frequency standards. For many years, VNIIFTRI was the only world laboratory that applied hydrogen-maser clock ensembles for time-keeping. VNIIFTRI's work on international laser standard frequency comparisons and absolute frequency measurements contributed greatly to the adoption by the CIPM of a highly accurate value for the He-Ne/CH4 laser frequency. VNIIFTRI and the VNIIM were the first to establish a united time, frequency and length standard.

  8. Nuclear chemistry fifty years after the discovery of artificial radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefort, M.

    1984-01-01

    In January 1934, the observation and the chemical identification of radiophosphorus as a reaction product in the bombardment of Aluminium by alpha particles have been the first step of a new scientific branch: Nuclear Chemistry. We describe here how this discovery in itself contains the frame of all the development which has followed. It consisted in four stages, each of them being a crucial starting point. The first one is the possibility for a total balance of the nuclear reaction in the exit channels, so that reaction mechanisms can be studied. The second, the most important perhaps, is the opening of nuclear synthesis. Nuclear chemists can now interfere into nuclear matter and instead of staying as observers of the radioactive decays of natural isotopes, they were able to build up a numerous chart of various nuclear species, going step by step further and further away from the nuclear stability conditions. The third aspect of the discovery was the appearance of a new mode of radioactive decay with the production of the first particle an antimater. 50 years later, the instability due to a much larger excess of protons is known to induce the proton emission radioactivity for new species like 109 I or 115 Cs, in the vicinity of proton unstability. Finally, the last point, so fertile for the future, was the observation of a neutron in the exit channel, so that neutron fluxes could result from alpha induced nuclear reactions and became such a strong tool for the production of transuranium elements and for nuclear fission. In the present survey, the wide interest of the second point, i.e. the nuclear synthesis, is emphasized, as well as the huge change in the technical methods

  9. Fifty Years of Water Sensitive Urban Design, Salisbury, South Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John C.Radcliffe; Declan Page; Bruce Naumann; Peter Dillon

    2017-01-01

    Australia has developed extensive policies and guidelines for the management of its water.The City of Salisbury,located within metropolitan Adelaide,South Australia,developed rapidly through urbanisation from the 1970s.Water sensitive urban design principles were adopted to maximise the use of the increased run-off generated by urbanisation and ameliorate flood risk.Managed aquifer recharge was introduced for storing remediated low-salinity stormwater by aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in a brackish aquifer for subsequent irrigation.This paper outlines how a municipal government has progressively adopted principles of Water Sensitive Urban Design during its development within a framework of evolving national water policies.Salisbury's success with stormwater harvesting led to the formation of a pioneering water business that includes linking projects from nine sites to provide a non-potable supply of 5 × 106 m3 ·year-1.These installations hosted a number of applied research projects addressing well configuration,water quality,reliability and economics and facilitated the evaluation of its system as a potential potable water source.The evaluation showed that while untreated stormwater contained contaminants,subsurface storage and end-use controls were sufficient to make recovered water safe for public open space irrigation,and with chlorination,acceptable for third pipe supplies.Drinking water quality could be achieved by adding microfiltration,disinfection with UV and chlorination.The costs that would need to be expended to achieve drinking water safety standards were found to be considerably less than the cost of establishing dual pipe distribution systems.The full cost of supply was determined to be AUD$1.57 m-3 for non-potable water for public open space irrigation,much cheaper than mains water,AUD $3.45 m-3 at that time.Producing and storing potable water was found to cost AUD$1.96 to $2.24 m-3.

  10. Fifty Years of THERP and Human Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    In 1962 at a Human Factors Society symposium, Alan Swain presented a paper introducing a Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction (THERP). This was followed in 1963 by a Sandia Laboratories monograph outlining basic human error quantification using THERP and, in 1964, by a special journal edition of Human Factors on quantification of human performance. Throughout the 1960s, Swain and his colleagues focused on collecting human performance data for the Sandia Human Error Rate Bank (SHERB), primarily in connection with supporting the reliability of nuclear weapons assembly in the US. In 1969, Swain met with Jens Rasmussen of Risø National Laboratory and discussed the applicability of THERP to nuclear power applications. By 1975, in WASH-1400, Swain had articulated the use of THERP for nuclear power applications, and the approach was finalized in the watershed publication of the NUREG/CR-1278 in 1983. THERP is now 50 years old, and remains the most well known and most widely used HRA method. In this paper, the author discusses the history of THERP, based on published reports and personal communication and interviews with Swain. The author also outlines the significance of THERP. The foundations of human reliability analysis are found in THERP: human failure events, task analysis, performance shaping factors, human error probabilities, dependence, event trees, recovery, and pre- and post-initiating events were all introduced in THERP. While THERP is not without its detractors, and it is showing signs of its age in the face of newer technological applications, the longevity of THERP is a testament of its tremendous significance. THERP started the field of human reliability analysis. This paper concludes with a discussion of THERP in the context of newer methods, which can be seen as extensions of or departures from Swain’s pioneering work.

  11. Serving the Nation for Fifty Years: 1952 - 2002 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory [LLNL], Fifty Years of Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For 50 years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been making history and making a difference. The outstanding efforts by a dedicated work force have led to many remarkable accomplishments. Creative individuals and interdisciplinary teams at the Laboratory have sought breakthrough advances to strengthen national security and to help meet other enduring national needs. The Laboratory's rich history includes many interwoven stories -- from the first nuclear test failure to accomplishments meeting today's challenges. Many stories are tied to Livermore's national security mission, which has evolved to include ensuring the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear weapons without conducting nuclear tests and preventing the proliferation and use of weapons of mass destruction. Throughout its history and in its wide range of research activities, Livermore has achieved breakthroughs in applied and basic science, remarkable feats of engineering, and extraordinary advances in experimental and computational capabilities. From the many stories to tell, one has been selected for each year of the Laboratory's history. Together, these stories give a sense of the Laboratory -- its lasting focus on important missions, dedication to scientific and technical excellence, and drive to made the world more secure and a better place to live.

  12. Laser applications for energy. Fifty years since advent of laser and next thirty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sadao

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of light has been changed since the advent of lasers about fifty years ago. Now in the twenty first century, laser science is being applied in every industry as the fundamental technology. In the recent years, remarkable progresses have been made in the semiconductor lasers of high power and wide wavelength region. The amazing developments of ceramics laser materials like YAG and nonlinear optics materials of organic crystals have been achieved as well as the big progress in the fiber lasers. It is also to be pointed out that very high power ultra short laser pulses have become available. In the field of power photonics, which is based on the power semiconductor lasers, fiber lasers and new laser materials, various industrial applications are expected to be constructed further in civil engineering, manufacturing technology, agricultural and biological applications, medical utilization and space sciences. It is expected, by the development of ultra short pulse and ultra high mean power lasers, that particle accelerations, ultra high density sciences, nuclear fusion neutron sources and laser fusion power reactors are to be advanced drastically. Recent development and future prospects of high power lasers are illustrated. Lasers are now regarded as one of the key technologies in line with the national policy toward the creation of innovative industries. Realization of the laser fusion reactor is the most challenging target in the coming thirty years. (S. Funahashi)

  13. Deterrence, denuclearization, and proliferation: Alternative visions of the next fifty years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, R.F. II

    1994-02-12

    The great library of Alexandria may have contained fewer volumes than the number which have been written on the subject of nuclear weapons in the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, a new nuclear library is in the making. Much thought is being given to the next steps in nuclear policy, strategy, forces, arms control, and nonproliferation. For this very distinguished conference, however, I have been asked to look further ahead indeed, forward fifty-years. Prognostication is always a risky business. Detailed predictions beyond the shortest duration are difficult to label as ``scientific`` even in the social sciences. Forecasting ahead fifty years in an age of ever accelerating change would seem to be hopeless. Projecting the future of nuclear weapons, however, may not be as complex as one might think. Detailing the future fifty years from now is not necessary. We want to inform upcoming decisions by examining the possibilities, not write a history in advance of what is to happen. Our look forward con benefit from a brief look back fifty years. In retrospect, those years passed quickly, and with each additional year, analysts make them appear more simple than they seemed at the time. This paper contributes further to this process of oversimplification, as we say, ``for heuristic purposes.`` When in doubt, I have erred on the side of being provocative.

  14. Deterrence, denuclearization, and proliferation: Alternative visions of the next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehman, R.F. II.

    1994-01-01

    The great library of Alexandria may have contained fewer volumes than the number which have been written on the subject of nuclear weapons in the Cold War. With the end of the Cold War, a new nuclear library is in the making. Much thought is being given to the next steps in nuclear policy, strategy, forces, arms control, and nonproliferation. For this very distinguished conference, however, I have been asked to look further ahead indeed, forward fifty-years. Prognostication is always a risky business. Detailed predictions beyond the shortest duration are difficult to label as ''scientific'' even in the social sciences. Forecasting ahead fifty years in an age of ever accelerating change would seem to be hopeless. Projecting the future of nuclear weapons, however, may not be as complex as one might think. Detailing the future fifty years from now is not necessary. We want to inform upcoming decisions by examining the possibilities, not write a history in advance of what is to happen. Our look forward con benefit from a brief look back fifty years. In retrospect, those years passed quickly, and with each additional year, analysts make them appear more simple than they seemed at the time. This paper contributes further to this process of oversimplification, as we say, ''for heuristic purposes.'' When in doubt, I have erred on the side of being provocative

  15. What history tells us XIII. Fifty years of the Central Dogma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-05-14

    May 14, 2008 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 33; Issue 2. What history tells us XIII. Fifty years of the Central Dogma. Michel Morange. Series Volume 33 Issue 2 June 2008 pp 171-175. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/033/02/0171-0175 ...

  16. Fifty years of continuous improvement: (What has DOE done for analytical chemistry?)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shults, W.D.

    1993-11-01

    Over the past fifty years, analytical scientist within the DOE complex have had a tremendous impact on the field of analytical chemistry. This paper suggests six ``high impact`` research/development areas that either originated within or were brought to maturity within the DOE laboratories. ``High impact`` means they lead to new subdisciplines or to new ways of doing business.

  17. Domain analysis of computational science - Fifty years of a scientific computing group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, M.

    2010-02-23

    I employed bibliometric- and historical-methods to study the domain of the Scientific Computing group at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for an extended period of fifty years, from 1958 to 2007. I noted and confirmed the growing emergence of interdisciplinarity within the group. I also identified a strong, consistent mathematics and physics orientation within it.

  18. The history of fifty years of institute of electrical engineers 1947-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This book starts with the survey of a century of Korea electrical industry. It includes a business of electric power and electrical machinery industry. Next, it deals with the survey of fifty years of Korea institute electrical engineers. Then, it enumerates the articles of association, organization, board members, the role of the administrative organization, study and institute business activities in detail.

  19. Fifty years of entomological publications in the Revista de Biología Tropical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Over its fifty year history nearly twenty percent of the papers published in the Revista de Biología Tropical have been about insects and arachnids. In the 1950's papers on arthropods of medical importance were dominant, in the 1960's there was a poliferation of papers on bees, and in more recent years the subjects have become increasingly diverse. In terms of nationality of contributing authors, the journal appears to have become increasingly international in later years.

  20. Fifty years experiences in nuclear engineering education at Tokyo Institute of Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yasuhiko; Saito, Masaki; Aritomi, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear engineering education has been initiated in 1957 at the graduate school of Tokyo Institute of Technology. Educational activities have been conducted for fifty years under the support of the Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors. In the past fifty years, about 1000 Master students and 200 Doctoral students and 200 Doctoral students graduated from our Nuclear Engineering Department at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Many of them found their jobs in nuclear industries and institutes. International course of nuclear engineering was initiated in 1994, and so far about 90 students from 15 overseas countries have graduated from our Master and Doctoral Programs. In 2003, our proposal of 'Innovative Nuclear Energy System for the Sustainable World' was adopted as the Center of Excellent Program sponsored by Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Recently a collaborative education network has been developed among Kanazawa University, Fukui University, Ibaraki University, Okayama University, Tokyo Institute of Technology and Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  1. L'etat, c'est moi. Fifty years of history and philosophy of evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Michael

    2016-01-01

    I reflect on my fifty-year history as a philosopher of biology, showing how it has taken me from rather narrow analytic studies, through the history of ideas, and now on to issues to do with science and religion. I argue that moral concerns were and still are a major motivation behind what I do and write. Copyright: © 2016 by Fabrizio Serra editore, Pisa · Roma.

  2. The Henderson Question? The Melbourne Institute and fifty years of welfare policy

    OpenAIRE

    R. G. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    We discuss selected research contributions of the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economics and Social Research, to fifty years of welfare policy for those of work force age and focus particularly on the policy focus of R. F. Henderson, the inaugural director. Following the spirit of his 1960s poverty research, government, in the mid-1970s, doubled unemployment allowances in real terms and increased pensions by approximately forty per cent. Both income support payments were to be indexed by av...

  3. One hundred and fifty years of combustion of fossil hydrocarbons: The emergent alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    After one hundred fifty years of drilling first commercial petroleum wells that led to the intensive use of liquid fuels to move transport vehicles, we are arriving at the peak of the world-wide petroleum reserves. Yet, we still have a good portion for spending, with the hope that the consequences will be better than in the first part, which has implied several wars and deteriorations of the environment. This assay brings a review about the history of fossil fuels and with the prospective of the emergent energetic alternatives, placing emphasis on bioenergy as an alternative for the transition between the actual combustion age and the new age of clean energy.

  4. The continuous time random walk, still trendy: fifty-year history, state of art and outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Ryszard; Masoliver, Jaume

    2017-03-01

    In this article we demonstrate the very inspiring role of the continuous-time random walk (CTRW) formalism, the numerous modifications permitted by its flexibility, its various applications, and the promising perspectives in the various fields of knowledge. A short review of significant achievements and possibilities is given. However, this review is still far from completeness. We focused on a pivotal role of CTRWs mainly in anomalous stochastic processes discovered in physics and beyond. This article plays the role of an extended announcement of the Eur. Phys. J. B Special Issue [open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on">http://epjb.epj.org/open-calls-for-papers/123-epj-b/1090-ctrw-50-years-on] containing articles which show incredible possibilities of the CTRWs. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  5. The Research of Dr. Joanne Simpson: Fifty Years Investigating Hurricanes, Tropical Clouds and Cloud Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W. -K.; Halverson, J.; Adler, R.; Garstang, M.; Houze, R., Jr.; LeMone, M.; Pielke, R., Sr.; Woodley, W.; O'C.Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This AMS Meteorological Monographs is dedicated to Dr. Joanne Simpson for her many pioneering research efforts in tropical meteorology during her fifty-year career. Dr. Simpson's major areas of scientific research involved the "hot tower" hypothesis and its role in hurricanes, structure and maintenance of trade winds, air-sea interaction, and observations and the mechanism for hurricanes and waterspouts. She was also a pioneer in cloud modeling with the first one-dimensional model and had the first cumulus model on a computer. She also played a major role in planning and leading observational experiments on convective cloud systems. The launch of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite, a joint U.S.-Japan project, in November of 1997 made it possible for quantitative measurements of tropical rainfall to be obtained on a continuous basis over the entire global tropics. Dr. Simpson was the TRAM Project Scientist from 1986 until its launch in 1997. Her efforts during this crucial period ensured that the mission was both well planned scientifically and well engineered as well as within budget. In this paper, Dr. J. Simpson's nine specific accomplishments during her fifty-year career: (1) hot tower hypothesis, (2) hurricanes, (3) airflow and clouds over heated islands, (4) cloud models, (5) trade winds and their role in cumulus development, (6) air-sea interaction, (7) cloud-cloud interactions and mergers, (8) waterspouts, and (9) TRMM science, will be described and discussed.

  6. Fifty years of fat: news coverage of trends that predate obesity prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brennan; Wansink, Brian

    2015-07-10

    Obesity prevalence has risen in fifty years. While people generally expect media mentions of health risks like obesity prevalence to follow health risk trends, food consumption trends may precede obesity prevalence trends. Therefore, this research investigates whether media mentions of food predate obesity prevalence. Fifty years of non-advertising articles in the New York Times (and 17 years for the London Times) are coded for the mention of less healthy (5 salty and 5 sweet snacks) and healthy (5 fruits and 5 vegetables) food items by year and then associated with annual obesity prevalence in subsequent years. Time-series generalized linear models test whether food-related mentions predate or postdate obesity prevalence in each country. United States obesity prevalence is positively associated with New York Times mentions of sweet snacks (b = 55.2, CI = 42.4 to 68.1, p = .000) and negatively associated with mentions of fruits (b = -71.28, CI -91.5 to -51.1, p = .000) and vegetables (b = -13.6, CI = -17.5 to -9.6, p = .000). Similar results are found for the United Kingdom and The London Times. Importantly, the "obesity followed mentions" models are stronger than the "obesity preceded mentions" models. It may be possible to estimate a nation's future obesity prevalence (e.g., three years from now) based on how frequently national media mention sweet snacks (positively related) and vegetables or fruits (negatively related) today. This may provide public health officials and epidemiologists with new tools to more quickly assess the effectiveness of current obesity interventions based on what is mentioned in the media today.

  7. Nuclear power: A look at the future. International Conference on Fifty Years of Nuclear Power: The Next Fifty Years, 27 June 2004, Moscow, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    2004-01-01

    other electricity sources. Critical Issues in Shaping the Future are: Carbon Emissions and the Growth in Demand; Security of Supply; Public Perceptions and Misconceptions: Shaping National Choices; Performance in Addressing Key Concerns: Nuclear Safety, Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, Nuclear Security, Technological and Policy Innovation, Fuel for Transportation (Growing Interest in the Potential for a 'Hydrogen Economy'). Although it is difficult to predict with any confidence what the next fifty years holds for nuclear power, the factors that will shape the future of nuclear power are relatively evident, and action should ne taken to address those factors, to enhance the prospects that nuclear energy remains a viable source of safe, secure and environmentally benign energy

  8. [Fifty years of psychiatry at the interface between psyche and soma: a SWOT analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houdenhove, B; Luyten, P

    2008-01-01

    During the past 50 years the border area between psychiatry and somatic medicine has undergone remarkable changes. Theories have become better-founded, both psychologically and neurobiologically, research has become more sophisticated, and liaison-psychiatrists and health psychiatrist/behavioural medicine psychologists have played an increasingly active role in this domain. At the beginning of the 21st century modern psychosomatic medicine is facing new challenges; these include how to create a workable diagnostic classification system, how to instruct and educate both health professionals and lay-persons to an adequate level, how to utilize innovative research paradigms without having recourse to reductionism and how to implement in medical practice treatments that are geared to the needs of the individual patient.

  9. The richness of discovery : Amoco's first fifty years in Canada (1948-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie-Brown, P.

    1998-01-01

    A review of Amoco's first fifty years of operations in Canada, including investments, discoveries, and policies was presented. While no claim is made for this attractively produced slim volume to be a definitive history, it does manage to shed light on some of the great achievements and outstanding deeds of the people behind the company. The book provides a glimpse into how Amoco contributed to the growth of the Canadian petroleum industry in diverse areas including the manufacturing sector, the petroleum service sector, oil field technology, oil field infrastructure and petrochemical development. The company enjoyed spectacular success during the 1950s and 1960s. As evidence of that success, in 1997 Amoco Canada was the largest Canadian producer and exporter of natural gas and NGLs, the largest cold producer of heavy oil, the second largest in situ producer of heavy oil, and one of the 10 largest producers of conventional oil. refs., tabs., figs

  10. Gauge evolution of elementary particles physics during the last fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjaev, L.Sh

    2002-01-01

    Gauge evolution of the elementary particle physics has been remarked by outstanding and exiting discoveries during the last fifty years of X X century. We review a new tendency in the development of the modern elementary particle physics. The phenomenological basis for the formulation of Standard Model has been reviewed. The Standard Model based on the fundamental postulates has been formulated. The concept of the fundamental symmetries has been introduced to look for not fundamental particles but fundamental symmetries. The Standard Model is renormalizable and therefore potentially consistent in all energy scales. The Standard Model in principle can describe the properties of the Universe beginning at 10 -43 sec. after Big Bang. In searching of more general theory obvious program is to searching the first of all global symmetries and then learn consequences connected with the localization of these global symmetries

  11. Venice: Fifty years after the great flood of November 4, 1966

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fifty years ago Venice and its lagoon suffered the most devastating flood in their millennial history. The causes of the increasingly recurring floods will be examined, namely the man-induced subsidence in the period 1925-1970 and the storm surges of the Adriatic sea. The engineering solution designed for their protection , named the MOSE system, will be discussed in detail. The MOSE was started in 2003 and is near completion. It consists of four barriers , invisible in normal conditions, which will close the inlets to the lagoon under the prediction of a forthcoming flood. Finally, the perspective of the MOSE capability of protecting the city under scenarios of future global sea level rise will be assessed. This assessment must critically take into account that Venice and its lagoon are confined in the northernmost corner of the semi-enclosed, marginal Mediterranean sea for which the uncertainties of future sea level rise greatly exceed the uncertainties of the global averages.

  12. Organ Transplantation and the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act: A Fifty-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Blair L; Sadler, Alfred M

    2018-03-01

    Fifty years ago this summer, the Uniform Anatomical Gift Act was adopted by the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and approved by the American Bar Association. The UAGA has provided a sound and stable legal platform on which to base an effective nationwide organ donation system. The cardinal principles of altruism, autonomy, and public trust are still important. At a time when confidence and trust in our government and many private institutions has declined, maintaining trust and confidence in our health care system and its commitment to "first, do no harm" has never been more important. Any policies that override these core ethical principles could cause irreparable damage to the public's faith in our transplant system. While progress has been made to increase organ registration and the number of organs transplanted, much more must be done to realize the potential of life-saving therapy without jeopardizing ethical principles. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  13. Fifty years of herbicide research: comparing the discovery of trifluralin and halauxifen-methyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Jeffrey B; Schmitzer, Paul R; Crouse, Gary D

    2018-01-01

    Fifty years separate the commercialization of the herbicides trifluralin and halauxifen-methyl. Despite the vast degree of technological change that occurred over that time frame, some aspects of their discovery stories are remarkably similar. For example, both herbicides were prepared very early in the iterative discovery process and both were developed from known lead compound structures by hypothesis-driven research efforts without the use of in vitro assays or computer-aided molecular design. However, there are aspects of the halauxifen-methyl and trifluralin discovery stories that are substantially different. For example, the chemical technology required for the cost-effective production of halauxifen-methyl simply did not exist just two decades prior to its commercial launch. By contrast, the chemical technology required for the cost-effective production of trifluralin was reported in the chemical literature more than two decades prior to its commercial launch. In addition, changes in regulatory environment since the early 1960s ensured that their respective discovery to commercial launch stories would also differ in substantial ways. Ultimately, the time and cost required to develop and register halauxifen-methyl demanded a global initial business case while the lower registration hurdles that trifluralin cleared enabled a narrow initial business case mainly focused on the USA. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. A vision for the second fifty years of nuclear energy. Vision and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, M.

    1997-01-01

    The paper is the Polish issue of the report worked out by International Nuclear Societies Council published in 1996. The report contains the experts opinion on development of nuclear energy and applications of radiation techniques and sources worldwide during the next 50 years. The worldwide energy demand prognosis as well as needs of different branches of industry, agriculture, medicine, etc. have been taken into account. The broad spectrum of aspects (safety assurance, economy, environmental impacts) connected with nuclear technology utilization has been also discussed

  15. Age-dependent salt hypertension in Dahl rats: fifty years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicha, J; Dobešová, Z; Vokurková, M; Rauchová, H; Hojná, S; Kadlecová, M; Behuliak, M; Vaněčková, I; Kuneš, J

    2012-01-01

    Fifty years ago, Lewis K. Dahl has presented a new model of salt hypertension - salt-sensitive and salt-resistant Dahl rats. Twenty years later, John P. Rapp has published the first and so far the only comprehensive review on this rat model covering numerous aspects of pathophysiology and genetics of salt hypertension. When we summarized 25 years of our own research on Dahl/Rapp rats, we have realized the need to outline principal abnormalities of this model, to show their interactions at different levels of the organism and to highlight the ontogenetic aspects of salt hypertension development. Our attention was focused on some cellular aspects (cell membrane function, ion transport, cell calcium handling), intra- and extrarenal factors affecting renal function and/or renal injury, local and systemic effects of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial and smooth muscle changes responsible for abnormal vascular contraction or relaxation, altered balance between various vasoconstrictor and vasodilator systems in blood pressure maintenance as well as on the central nervous and peripheral mechanisms involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis. We also searched for the age-dependent impact of environmental and pharmacological interventions, which modify the development of high blood pressure and/or organ damage, if they influence the salt-sensitive organism in particular critical periods of development (developmental windows). Thus, severe self-sustaining salt hypertension in young Dahl rats is characterized by pronounced dysbalance between augmented sympathetic hyperactivity and relative nitric oxide deficiency, attenuated baroreflex as well as by a major increase of residual blood pressure indicating profound remodeling of resistance vessels. Salt hypertension development in young but not in adult Dahl rats can be attenuated by preventive increase of potassium or calcium intake. On the contrary, moderate salt hypertension in adult Dahl rats is

  16. Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Yousif A

    2011-01-01

    The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of "medical and pharmacy education" is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established only half a century ago. This period has seen major changes in the dimension of "pharmacy education" to keep pace with the education systems in the United States and Europe. As our knowledge and perceptions about pharmaceuticals change with time, this motivates educators to search for better teaching alternatives to the ever increasing number of enthusiastic and budding pharmacists. Recently, the academic system in Saudi Arabian Pharmacy has adopted a more clinically-oriented Pharm. D. curriculum. This paper deals with the major changes from the inception of a small pharmacy faculty in 1959, the College of Pharmacy at the King Saud University, Riyadh, to the model of progress and a prototype of pharmacy colleges in Saudi Arabia. The fifty year chronological array can be regarded as an epitome of progress in pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia from its traditional curriculum to the modern day Pharm. D. curriculum with a high population growth and expanding health care sector, the demand for qualified pharmacists is growing and is projected to grow considerably in the future. The number of pharmacy graduates is increasing each year by many folds and to meet the needs the system lays stress upon a constant revising and updating of the current curriculum from a global perspective.

  17. Fifty Years of Safeguards under the EURATOM Treaty. A Regulatory Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.; Chare, P.

    2007-01-01

    March 2007 marked the 50th anniversary of the signing of one of the founding treaties of the European Community. The EURATOM Treaty has its origins at a time when the stability of energy supplies in Europe was a major concern. Recently, much debate has centred on the possible reform or repeal of some parts of the treaty, given that its original aim was to promote and oversee the development of nuclear energy in Europe. This debate has focused attention on the future contribution of nuclear power to increasing energy demands in an enlarged Europe. However, despite these issues there is near universal agreement that the EURATOM Treaty has played a vital role in the protection of European citizens through the controls required for nuclear materials. Chapter 7 of the treaty (Safeguards) confers wide regulatory powers to the European Commission to ensure that civil nuclear materials are not diverted from their intended use as declared by the operators. This paper describes the early period of operation of the safeguards inspectorate, and gives statistics on the numbers and types of inspections carried out by the EURATOM inspectors, and discusses from an operational point of view the value of inspection activities. Further, a critical appraisal of Articles 77-85 within Chapter 7 is made. The paper also considers those safeguards requirements that are important to strengthen, in order to maintain a strong regulatory system to oversee future challenges, particularly in the context of increasing decommissioning activities within Europe. It is noteworthy that fifty-years after the founding of the treaty, many of the concerns about security of energy supply have re-emerged. It is a measure of the vision and forward thinking of its founders that the treaty has successfully overseen the safe and secure development of nuclear power in Europe (which currently provides a third of its electricity needs) and despite the many changes and developments that have occurred, that the

  18. Celebrating fifty years of research and applications in reminiscence and life review: State of the art and new directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years ago, psychiatrist Robert Butler (1963) published an influential article on the recollection and evaluation of personal memories in later life. We discuss the major insights and applications in psychological gerontology that were inspired by Butler. Reminiscence and life review serve to

  19. [Trends in the mortality of liver cancer in Qidong, China: an analysis of fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-guo; Zhu, Jian; Zhang, Yong-hui; Chen, Yong-sheng; Ding, Lu-lu; Lu, Jian-hua; Zhu, Yuan-rong

    2012-07-01

    To describe and analyze the charecteristics and trends of liver cancer mortality during the past fifty years in Qidong, China. Retrospective mortality survey was conducted to get the data on liver cancer death in the period of 1958-1971, and the data from 1972 to 2007 were obtained from the records of cancer registration in Qidong. The crude mortality rate (CR) of liver cancer, and age-standardized rate by Chinese population (CASR) and by world population (WASR) were calculated and analyzed. The total percent changes (PC) and annual percent changes (APC) were used for evaluating the increasing trends of the mortality. The sex-specific rate, age-specific rate, truncated rate of the age group 35 - 64, cumulative rate of the age group 0-74, cumulative risk, period-rate, and the rate for age-birth cohort were compared. The natural death rate in Qidong residents for the past five-decade period experienced a wave interval of 8.62‰ in 1958 down to 5.37‰ in 1979, and up to 7.75‰ in 2007. The mortality rate for all-site cancers was increased from 56.69 per 100, 000 to 234.97 per 100, 000. The mortality rate of liver cancer, being 20.45 per 100, 100 in 1958 was increased to 49.04 per 100, 000 in 1972, and up to 69.29 per 100, 000 in 2007. According to the registration data of 1972 - 2007, the death from liver cancer was accounted for 34.88% of all deaths due to cancers, with a CR of 58.86 per 100, 000, CASR of 38.36 per 100, 000, and WASR, 49.37 Per 100, 000 in Qidong. The truncated rate for the age group 35 - 64 was 117.08 per 100, 000, and the cumulative rate for the age group 0-74 and the cumulative risk were 5.15% and 5.02%, respectively. The CRs for males was 90.52 per 100, 000 and for females was 27.93 per 100, 000, with a sex ratio of 3.24:1. For the period of 1972 - 2007, the PC for CR was 49.71%, and APC was +1.41%, showing an increasing variation tendency. The APCs for CASR and WASR, however, were decreasing, with a percentage of -1.11%, and -0

  20. Fifty years of discovery of alpha-fetoprotein as the first tumor marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulina Dina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-fetoprotein represents the most prominent oncobiomarker, widely used in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma for monitoring of tumor progression, presence of metastasis, assessment of cancer prognosis and successful antitumor therapeutic measures. Yuri Semenovich Tatarinov is a Russian scientist who first published antigen specific for human hepatocellular carcinoma in 1963. To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the discovery of alpha-fetoprotein, 9th International Scientific- Practical Conference entitled “Achievements of fundamental science and translational medicine capabilities in solving actual problems of practical public health”, was held from May 6-8th, 2013 in Astrakhan, Russia. The conference was held in memory of historical scientific work of Yuri Semenovich Tatarinov. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175056

  1. Isotopes and innovation: MDS Nordion's first fifty years, 1946-1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litt, P.

    2000-01-01

    Few people realize that Canada leads in the world in the production of radio isotopes, the raw material of nuclear medicine and high-tech scanners, and in their use in medicine and industry. In Isotopes and Innovation the author gives an in-depth look at MDS Nordion, a company that started as the radium sales department of Eldorado Mining and Refining, the Canadian uranium producer that was a key strategic resource for the Allies during the race to build the nuclear bomb, and went on to become the world?s leading producer of radioisotopes. When radium began to be used as a cancer treatment, Eldorado quickly became familiar with the medical marketplace and adept at developing products that could solve clinical problems and, more important, save lives. When Canadian nuclear reactors at Chalk River began producing radioisotopes that outperformed radium, Eldorado's radium sales department was transferred to a new crown corporation, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, created to manage Canada's nuclear research establishment. The new company developed many useful applications for radioisotopes, including cobalt-60 cancer therapy machines and industrial sterilization plants. Bought by Medical Data Services Inc. in the early 1990s, MDS Nordion was a runaway success, creator and sole proprietor of several market-leading products. Isotopes and Innovation describes how a company capitalized on the byproducts of Canada's unique nuclear research program to attain a commanding international position in extremely specialized and demanding high-tech markets, a saga in which innovative research and enterprising global marketing have brought commercial success and saved countless lives around the world

  2. Isotopes and innovation: MDS Nordion's first fifty years, 1946-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litt, P

    2000-07-01

    Few people realize that Canada leads in the world in the production of radio isotopes, the raw material of nuclear medicine and high-tech scanners, and in their use in medicine and industry. In Isotopes and Innovation the author gives an in-depth look at MDS Nordion, a company that started as the radium sales department of Eldorado Mining and Refining, the Canadian uranium producer that was a key strategic resource for the Allies during the race to build the nuclear bomb, and went on to become the world?s leading producer of radioisotopes. When radium began to be used as a cancer treatment, Eldorado quickly became familiar with the medical marketplace and adept at developing products that could solve clinical problems and, more important, save lives. When Canadian nuclear reactors at Chalk River began producing radioisotopes that outperformed radium, Eldorado's radium sales department was transferred to a new crown corporation, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, created to manage Canada's nuclear research establishment. The new company developed many useful applications for radioisotopes, including cobalt-60 cancer therapy machines and industrial sterilization plants. Bought by Medical Data Services Inc. in the early 1990s, MDS Nordion was a runaway success, creator and sole proprietor of several market-leading products. Isotopes and Innovation describes how a company capitalized on the byproducts of Canada's unique nuclear research program to attain a commanding international position in extremely specialized and demanding high-tech markets, a saga in which innovative research and enterprising global marketing have brought commercial success and saved countless lives around the world.

  3. SINGAPORE'S DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION, THE LABOR FORCE AND GOVERNMENT POLICIES: THE LAST FIFTY YEARS

    OpenAIRE

    MUI TENG YAP; CHRISTOPHER GEE

    2015-01-01

    The trajectory of Singapore's population size and composition can be mapped out with its progression through the various phases of demographic transition from high birth and death rates in the post-war years to very low birth and death rates today, all within the context of rapid economic and social development that has taken place in the past 50 years. Population planning has been integral in Singapore's national development strategy, balancing the economy's needs for more and better qualifi...

  4. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, P; Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first...... placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without...

  5. Fifty-Year Trends in the Chemical Industry: What Do They Mean for Chemical Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Chadwick A.; Parshall, George W.

    1999-01-01

    Describes major changes that have occurred in the chemical industry over the last 50 years including trends in the development of products and processes, changes in chemical manufacturing, the globalization of business, and modifications of research laboratory practices. Discusses implications for chemistry education and predictions for future…

  6. Rosalind Franklin: The Woman Scientist of DNA It is fifty years since ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    milind1

    awarded the Nobel Prize as it is not given posthu- mously. ... photographs are among the most beautiful of any substance ... during World War II, and Franklin investigated why some ... fered her only a three-year fellowship, with nei- ther rank ...

  7. The Kitty Genovese Story in Introductory Psychology Textbooks: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the many inaccuracies in the original "New York Times" 38-witnesses version of the Kitty Genovese story, this study examined the accuracy of this story in current introductory psychology textbooks, 50 years later. Recent studies have shown that there is no evidence for the following three key features of the original story: (1)…

  8. Open oakwoods facing modern threats: Will they survive the next fifty years?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chudomelová, Markéta; Hédl, Radim; Zouhar, V.; Szabó, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 210, Part A (2017), s. 163-173 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-09283S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278065 - LONGWOOD Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : community change * open oakwoods * canopy closure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016

  9. Fifty years of solid-phase extraction in water analysis--historical development and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liska, I

    2000-07-14

    The use of an appropriate sample handling technique is a must in an analysis of organic micropollutants in water. The efforts to use a solid phase for the recovery of analytes from a water matrix prior to their detection have a long history. Since the first experimental trials using activated carbon filters that were performed 50 years ago, solid-phase extraction (SPE) has become an established sample preparation technique. The initial experimental applications of SPE resulted in widespread use of this technique in current water analysis and also to adoption of SPE into standardized analytical methods. During the decades of its evolution, chromatographers became aware of the advantages of SPE and, despite many innovations that appeared in the last decade, new SPE developments are still expected in the future. A brief overview of 50 years of the history of the use of SPE in organic trace analysis of water is given in presented paper.

  10. Introduction to the focus issue: fifty years of chaos: applied and theoretical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikihara, Takashi; Holmes, Philip; Kambe, Tsutomu; Rega, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of deterministic chaos in the late nineteenth century, its subsequent study, and the development of mathematical and computational methods for its analysis have substantially influenced the sciences. Chaos is, however, only one phenomenon in the larger area of dynamical systems theory. This Focus Issue collects 13 papers, from authors and research groups representing the mathematical, physical, and biological sciences, that were presented at a symposium held at Kyoto University from November 28 to December 2, 2011. The symposium, sponsored by the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, was called 50 Years of Chaos: Applied and Theoretical. Following some historical remarks to provide a background for the last 50 years, and for chaos, this Introduction surveys the papers and identifies some common themes that appear in them and in the theory of dynamical systems.

  11. Financial requirements and manpower needs of nuclear energetics for the next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spital'nik, Dzh.

    1997-01-01

    Forecasts on financial and manpower requirements of rich and poor countries for NPPs construction by 2050 showed that the NPPs capacities will increase from 320 up to 2500 GW, whereby the ratio between the rich and poor countries will constitute approximately 2:1. Investments in NPPs construction will equal from 1600 up to 2700 billions dollars. Global need in manpower for NPPs will constitute by 2050 240000 man/year

  12. The urban and territorial planning during the last fifty years in mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Macedo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The urban and territorial planning in Mexico started late, and always federal, state and local governments haven’t been able to forecast the long term issues, but instead the long seventy years in which the governors were supported by the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (PRI) started urban structures that were never finished by their successors. However, depending on successive Secretaries of State planning programs have been made relying on national and international specialists, but th...

  13. Carbon Stocks across a Fifty Year Chronosequence of Rubber Plantations in Tropical China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition from forest to rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. plantation has occurred in tropical China for decades. Rubber has been planted on 1 million ha to provide raw materials to the rubber industry. The role of various-aged rubber plantations in carbon (C sequestration remains unclear. The biomass C accumulation including latex C and C distribution in soil of five different-aged stands (7, 13, 19, 25 and 47 years old were examined. The total biomass C stock (TBC and total net primary productivity (NPPtotal, whether with or without latex C, had a close quadratic relationship with stand age. Regardless of stand age, around 68% of the C was stored in aboveground biomass, and NPPlatex contributed to approximately 18% of C sequestration. Soil organic carbon stock in the 100-cm depth remained relatively stable, but it lost about 16.8 Mg ha−1 with stand age. The total ecosystem C stock (TEC across stands averaged 159.6, 174.4, 229.6, 238.1 and 291.9 Mg ha−1, respectively, of which more than 45% was stored in the soil. However, biomass would become the major C sink rather than soil over a maximal rubber life expectancy. Regression analysis showed that TEC for rubber plantation at 22 years is comparable to a baseline of 230.4 Mg ha−1 for tropical forest in China, and would reach the maximum value at around 54 years. Therefore, rubber plantation can be considered as alternative land use without affecting net forest ecosystem C storage. In addition to the potential C gains, a full set of ecosystem and economic properties have to be quantified in order to assess the trade-offs associated with forest-to-rubber transition.

  14. Age-dependent salt hypertension in Dahl rats: fifty years of research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zicha, Josef; Dobešová, Zdenka; Vokurková, Martina; Rauchová, Hana; Hojná, Silvie; Kadlecová, Michaela; Behuliak, Michal; Vaněčková, Ivana; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, Suppl.1 (2012), S35-S87 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0336; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/12/0259 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : blood pressure * cell membrane transport * hemodynamics * vasoactive systems * cell calcium handling Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  15. The 1953 Stanley L. Miller Experiment: Fifty Years of Prebiotic Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio; Bada, Jeffrey L.

    2003-01-01

    The field of prebiotic chemistry effectively began with a publication in Science 50 years ago by Stanley L. Miller on the spark discharge synthesis of amino acids and other compounds using a mixture of reduced gases that were thought to represent the components of the atmosphere on the primitive Earth. On the anniversary of this landmark publication, we provide here an accounting of the events leading to the publication of the paper. We also discuss the historical aspects that lead up to the landmark Miller experiment.

  16. A Fifty-Year Sustainability Assessment of Italian Agro-Forest Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Recanatesi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As cropland management and land use shifted towards more intensive practices, global land degradation increased drastically. Understanding relationships between ecological and socioeconomic drivers of soil and landscape degradation within these landscapes in economically dynamic contexts such as the Mediterranean region, requires multi-target and multi-scalar approaches covering long-term periods. This study provides an original approach for identifying desertification risk drivers and sustainable land management strategies within Italian agro-forest districts. An Environmental Sensitivity Area (ESA approach, based on four thematic indicators (climate, soil, vegetation and land-use and a composite index of desertification risk (ESAI, was used to evaluate changes in soil vulnerability and landscape degradation between the years 1960 and 2010. A multivariate model was developed to identify the most relevant drivers causing changes in land susceptibility at the district scale. Larger districts, and those with a higher proportion of their total surface area classified as agro-forest, had a significantly lower increase in land susceptibility to degradation during the 50 years when compared with the remaining districts. We conclude that preserving economic viability and ecological connectivity of traditional, extensive agricultural systems is a key measure to mitigate the desertification risk in the Mediterranean region.

  17. Fifty Years of Burn Care at Shriners Hospitals for Children, Galveston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čapek, Karel D; Culnan, Derek M; Desai, Manubhai H; Herndon, David N

    2018-03-01

    More than 50 years ago, Shriners Hospitals for Children expanded their philanthropy to include care for burned children. In so doing, the effects of their work weightily expanded from rehabilitation and quality of life outcomes to include survival proper. As the first facility dedicated to the care of burned children, originally designated the Shriners Burn Institute, the Galveston hospital remains the cornerstone of this endeavor. Shriners maintains charitable pediatric hospitals, provide care irrespective of the patient's or the family's ability to pay, and promote research. The sole criterion for admission at Shriners Hospitals for Children is the determination by a surgeon at a Shriners hospital that "the child's trouble may be corrected or improved." This philanthropic effort to provide medical care for children is one expression of the human commonality recognized by Shriners. In this article, we provide some background information on how this hospital came into existence as well as a global summary of its interventions toward greater survival and more complete rehabilitation of burned children. Based on the findings presented herein, we assert that there is less suffering and less loss of life due to childhood burns today than in previous years. We attribute much of this improvement to the simple voluntary collective decision by Shriners to provide alms for burned children.

  18. Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, P

    2009-01-01

    From the moment Max Hamilton started his psychiatric education, he considered psychometrics to be a scientific discipline on a par with biochemistry or pharmacology in clinical research. His clinimetric skills were in operation in the 1950s when randomised clinical trials were established as the method for the evaluation of the clinical effects of psychotropic drugs. Inspired by Eysenck, Hamilton took the long route around factor analysis in order to qualify his scales for anxiety (HAM-A) and depression (HAM-D) as scientific tools. From the moment when, 50 years ago, Hamilton published his first placebo-controlled trial with an experimental anti-anxiety drug, he realized the dialectic problem in using the total score on HAM-A as a sufficient statistic for the measurement of outcome. This dialectic problem has been investigated for more than 50 years with different types of factor analyses without success. Using modern psychometric methods, the solution to this problem is a simple matter of reallocating the Hamilton scale items according to the scientific hypothesis under examination. Hamilton's original intention, to measure the global burden of the symptoms experienced by the patients with affective disorders, is in agreement with the DSM-IV and ICD-10 classification systems. Scale reliability and obtainment of valid information from patients and their relatives were the most important clinimetric innovations to be developed by Hamilton. Max Hamilton therefore belongs to the very exclusive family of eminent physicians celebrated by this journal with a tribute. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. One hundred and fifty years of Coulomb stress history along the California-Nevada border, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdecchia, Alessandro; Carena, Sara

    2015-02-01

    The region north of the Garlock Fault between the Sierra Nevada and Death Valley has experienced at least eight Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes in historical times, beginning with the 1872, Mw 7.5, Owens Valley earthquake. Furthermore, since 1978, the Long Valley Caldera has been undergoing periods of unrest, with earthquake swarms and resurgence. Our goal is to determine whether the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake and the caldera unrest have influenced the evolution of seismicity in the area. We model the evolution of coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic Coulomb stress change (Coulomb failure stress (ΔCFS)) in the region due to both Mw ≥ 6 earthquakes and caldera inflation in the last 150 years. Our results show that the 1872 Owens Valley earthquake has an important influence on subsequent events, strongly encouraging faulting in northern Owens Valley while inhibiting it elsewhere. There is also a correlation between caldera inflation and seismicity in northern Owens Valley, evidenced by the west-to-east migration of earthquakes from the Long Valley Caldera toward the White Mountains immediately following the 1978 caldera inflation event. Finally, we show that a total ΔCFS increase of up to 30 bars in the last 150 years has occurred on part of the White Mountains fault, making it a possible candidate for the next major earthquake in this region.

  20. White paper on science and technology, 1995. Fifty years of postwar science and technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This August marks 50 years since the end of World War II. Japan emerged from the ruins to overcome the post-war devastation to achieve a high level of economic growth and become the second largest economy in the world. Science and technology have played major roles as a driving force behind this quest for prosperity. However, it seems as though true prosperity is not necessarily being enjoyed by citizens of Japan today. Japan is becoming an aging society. To realize a truly rich and prosperous society in which people can live comfortably, it is important to further raise the level of science and technology. It is also necessary to ensure this development by revitalizing the economy, and to continue to utilize science and technology as an endless resource to create assets for society as a whole which will be inherited by future generations. With this viewpoint in mind, this White Paper looks back on Japan's scientific and technological development over the last 50 years, and considers the future of science and technology with a view toward realizing the true prosperity for its people. It is our hope that this White Paper will be helpful for considering the scientific and technological activities needed to bring about a Japan whose people are truly prosperous, and we will, as a government, continually increase our efforts toward the promotion of science and technology. (J.P.N.)

  1. Oil prices touch fifty year low - industry gears up for further cuts in operating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    International crude oil prices hit a 50-year low (inflation adjusted) in December 1998. Prices are now lower than in 1973 and are expected to remain low for several years; so much so that the future of production activities are under threat. The paper goes on to discuss the UK Government's initiative to tackle the problem and of the activities of the CRINE (Cost Reduction in the New Era) Network to reduce operating costs. The Government Oil and Gas Task Force aimed to develop strategies to reduce the cost base of UK gas and oil operations and recommend action by Government and/or the industry by summer 1999. The concern is that current costs of production on the UK continental shelf will make new offshore development uneconomic. A meeting in January 1999 agreed six key areas for action. The work of the Task Force overlaps that of Crine which, since 1992 has been working to drive down capital costs of developing oil and gas fields by innovative approaches including cooperation between companies. (UK)

  2. Fifty years of levelling measurements at Askja volcano, Iceland: New Bayesian interpretations of a unique dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnie, Talfan; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Sturkell, Erik

    2017-04-01

    The year 2016 marks the 50th anniversary of the start of geodetic levelling surveys at Askja volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland. Askja has produced frequent basaltic fissural eruptions and rarer silicic caldera forming eruptions during the Holocene, the most recent of each type in 1961 and 1875 respectively. The potential for widespread disruption from larger eruptions and the popularity of the site with tourists makes Askja an important target for observation. Geodetic monitoring started in 1966 with the installation of a 12 station survey line on the 1961 lava flow, which provided a stable, extensive surface close to the putative source of magma. This was infilled and extended over the following two decades to give a finished levelling line of 35 stations spaced approximately 50 m apart (Tryggvason, Nordic Volcanological Institute, 1989). With the exception of the period 1972 to 1983, this line has been surveyed every year, providing a unique record of post eruptive deformation at a spreading rift segment capable of capturing magma motions at depth and any potential recharging in anticipation of future activity. The levelling has so far revealed that after an initial period of complicated inflations and deflations the volcano settled into a pattern of slowly decaying deflation from 1983 onwards (Sturkell and Sigmundsson, JGR, 105, 2000), a pattern that has been confirmed by newer geodetic techniques as they have become available (e.g. Pagli et al., JVGR, 152, 2005). The strength of the levelling data at Askja is its long time span, high accuracy and same measurement type over a period of 50 years. However, the small extent of the levelling line limits the power of the network to resolve changes in the magma plumbing system and requires the addition of constraints from other sources. This lends itself to Bayesian modelling techniques where assumptions are made explicit as priors and uncertainties in retrieved parameters can be comprehensibly modelled

  3. Fifty years of mapping the Balkan flora for Atlas Florae Europaeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uotila Pertti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Atlas Florae Europaeae (AFE, a programme for mapping the distribution of vascular plants in Europe, was launched in 1965 as a collaborative effort between European botanists. A historical review of the mapping for AFE in the Balkan countries, cited in the last volume (16 from 2013 as Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Former Yugoslav Republic (F. Y. R. of Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, Slovenia, and Turkey (European part, is presented and achievements and problems discussed. The special challenges facing mapping of the Balkan area during the past 50 years include the extremely rich flora, diverse and mountainous relief, political and economic difficulties, inaccessibility of available data, and scarcity of botanists contributing and collecting data for mapping.

  4. [Fifty years of population growth and absorbing manual labor in Brazil, 1950-2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, P D

    1986-01-01

    The economically active population has grown rapidly in Brazil, resulting either from population growth or increased female participation in the work force. This rhythm of growth will continue at least until the end of this century. The authors suggest that the impact of the recent decline in fertility will be moderate and will only affect the younger age groups. Despite the rapid growth of employment in the processing industry, the relative size of the so-called informal sector has remained stable since 1950. It is further predicted that, given the economically active population's rate of growth and the decrease in employment in agriculture, there will be a great demand for urban employment in the next 20 years.

  5. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ``flagship`` of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program.

  6. Cognitive function fifty-six years after surgical treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jane Banks

    2014-01-01

    Our investigation at 56 postoperative years focused on cognitive skills, with some emphasis on learning and memory; a clinical examination was also performed, and the anatomical extent of the resection was determined on 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Four age- and IQ-appropriate women were tested as healthy control subjects. The patient showed material-specific impairments in language and verbal memory compared with the control subjects and also compared with her own earlier performance, but her performance on other cognitive tasks did not differ from that of the control subjects. Thus, her specific deficits had worsened over time, and she was also impaired compared with healthy individuals of her age, but her deficits remained confined to the verbal sphere, consistent with her temporal lobe seizure focus and surgery.

  7. Fifty years of computer analysis in chest imaging: rule-based, machine learning, deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginneken, Bram

    2017-03-01

    Half a century ago, the term "computer-aided diagnosis" (CAD) was introduced in the scientific literature. Pulmonary imaging, with chest radiography and computed tomography, has always been one of the focus areas in this field. In this study, I describe how machine learning became the dominant technology for tackling CAD in the lungs, generally producing better results than do classical rule-based approaches, and how the field is now rapidly changing: in the last few years, we have seen how even better results can be obtained with deep learning. The key differences among rule-based processing, machine learning, and deep learning are summarized and illustrated for various applications of CAD in the chest.

  8. Legend and legacy: Fifty years of defense production at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-09-01

    Today, the Hanford Site is engaged in the largest waste cleanup effort ever undertaken in human history. That in itself makes the endeavor historic and unique. The Hanford Site has been designated the ''flagship'' of Department of Energy (DOE) waste remediation endeavors. And, just as the wartime Hanford Project remains unmatched in history, no counterpart exists for the current waste cleanup enterprise. This report provides a summary of the extensive historical record, however, which does give a partial road map. The science of environmental monitoring pioneered at the Hanford Site, and records of this type are the most complete of any in the world, from private companies or public agencies, for the early years of Site operations. The Hanford Site was unique for establishing a detailed, scientific, and multi-faceted environmental monitoring program

  9. One hundred and fifty years of sprint and distance running – Past trends and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Martin; Newman, Alexandra; Whitmore, Ceri; Weiss, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Sprint and distance running have experienced remarkable performance improvements over the past century. Attempts to forecast running performances share an almost similarly long history but have relied so far on relatively short data series. Here, we compile a comprehensive set of season-best performances for eight Olympically contested running events. With this data set, we conduct (1) an exponential time series analysis and (2) a power-law experience curve analysis to quantify the rate of past performance improvements and to forecast future performances until the year 2100. We find that the sprint and distance running performances of women and men improve exponentially with time and converge at yearly rates of 4% ± 3% and 2% ± 2%, respectively, towards their asymptotic limits. Running performances can also be modelled with the experience curve approach, yielding learning rates of 3% ± 1% and 6% ± 2% for the women's and men's events, respectively. Long-term trends suggest that: (1) women will continue to run 10–20% slower than men, (2) 9.50 s over 100 m dash may only be broken at the end of this century and (3) several middle- and long-distance records may be broken within the next two to three decades. The prospects of witnessing a sub-2 hour marathon before 2100 remain inconclusive. Our results should be interpreted cautiously as forecasting human behaviour is intrinsically uncertain. The future season-best sprint and distance running performances will continue to scatter around the trends identified here and may yield unexpected improvements of standing world records. PMID:26088705

  10. Fifty years dynamics of Russian forests: Impacts on the earth system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvidenko, Anatoly; Schepaschenko, Dmitry; Kraxner, Florian

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents a succinct history of Russian forests during the time period of 1960-2010 and reanalysis of their impacts on global carbon and nitrogen cycles. We present dynamics of land cover change (including major categories of forest land) and biometric characteristics of forests (species composition, age structure, growing stock volume etc.) based on reconciling all relevant information (data of forest and land inventories, official forest management statistics, multi-sensor remote sensing products, data of forest pathological monitoring etc.). Completeness and reliability of background information was different during the period of the study. Forest inventory data and official statistics were partially modified based on relevant auxiliary information and used for 1960-2000. The analysis for 2001-2010 was provided with a crucial use of multi-sensor remote sensing data. For this last period a hybrid forest mask was developed at resolution of 230m by integration of 8 remote sensing products and using geographical weighted regression and data of crowdsourcing. During the considered 50 years forested areas of Russia substantially increased by middle of 1990s and slightly declined (at about 5%) after. Indicators needed for assessment of carbon and nitrogen cycles of forest ecosystems were defined for the entire period (aggregated estimates by decades for 1960-2000 and yearly for 2001-2010) based on unified methodology with some peculiarities following from availability of information. Major results were obtained by landscape-ecosystem method that uses as comprehensive as possible empirical and semi-empirical information on ecosystems and landscapes in form of an Integrated Land Information System and complimentary combines pool- and flux-based methods. We discuss and quantify major drivers of forest cover change (socio-economic, environmental and climatic) including forest management (harvest, reforestation and afforestation), impacts of seasonal weather on

  11. Fifty-year trends in a box turtle population in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.; Bunck, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey conducted in 1995 investigated long term declines reported in a population of box turtles Terrapene Carolina monitored each decade since 1945 in bottomland hardwood forest at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Maryland. Methods duplicated past surveys in most respects, but were supplemented by radiotelemetry and a survey of dominant vegetation. Seventy different turtles were found on the 11.8 ha study area, a decline of >75% since peak populations were recorded in 1955. Searchers were less efficient in 1995 than in 1945-1975 for a variety of possible reasons. Among turtles recorded, approximately equal numbers persisted from each of the past five decades, with some individuals surviving >70 years. A sex ratio strongly favoring males was first recorded in 1975 and continued in 1995, but juveniles and subadults were found in greater proportion in 1995 than in any other survey. Six of nine radio-marked turtles left the bottomland study area and migrated to the adjoining bluffs to hibernate, suggesting more extensive movements and perhaps less stable home ranges than formerly thought. Age structure of trees indicated a gradual change to more shade-tolerant species. Examination of rates of change from survey data suggested that major losses probably resulted from changes in hydrology that exacerbated flooding in 1972, with recovery only beginning in 1995 and perhaps limited both by repeated flood events and successional changes in the forest. Slow recovery from losses may indicate that populations of the species would respond poorly to exploitation.

  12. Fifty years of population growth and absorption of labor in Brazil: from 1950 to 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, P D

    1997-01-01

    For a long time, the Brazilian population has grown at a relatively high rate, and only recently has the process of demographic transition intensified in the country. While the associated decline in fertility could result in a future decline in the size of the working-age population, it could also lead to an increase in female participation in the labor market. Brazil's economy is performing well, with gross domestic product (GDP) growing at an average annual rate of 7.1% during 1947-80. Marked growth in industrial employment opportunities has accompanied this growth in GDP. The size of the informal sector, however, has not decreased in similar proportion, while the 1981-83 economic crisis caused urban employment levels to drop, especially in industry and construction. Moreover, the level of rural-urban migration has increased and the agricultural employment index has fallen. The author evaluates past growth trends of the Economically Active Population (EAP) and of employment in Brazil, and assesses the potential growth of the labor force until the year 2000.

  13. Fifty years old, and still going strong: Transmission electron optical studies of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Highlights in the history of transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy include the introduction of diffraction contrast, resolution of periodic lattices by phase contrast and incoherent imaging via the high-angle annular dark-field detector. Convergent-beam electron diffraction and analytical electron microscopy, especially the application of energy-dispersive X-ray and electron energy-loss spectrometry, have provided structural and chemical information in addition to strain contrast from lattice defects. From the outset, novel specimen stages and improvements to aid the operator enhanced the electron-optical engineering provided by the instrument makers. The spatial resolution achieved was mainly determined by the way the instrument was used, and not by the basic resolution limit set by the electron optics. However, the application of computer controlled correction of spherical (and higher order) aberration has resulted in a new generation of instruments capable of sub-Angstrom point-to-point resolution. This improved performance, combined with electron energy-loss spectrometry, promises genuine three-dimensional determination of atomic and electronic structure: an indispensable weapon in the battle to fabricate and control useful nanostructures. The uncertainty principle now fundamentally restricts some of the observations one can make, but much more technical development over the next decades must occur before one can say that the techniques of electron-optical imaging of material structure have reached their fundamental limitations. One can expect remarkable progress over the next few years

  14. Science that connects the past and the future. Fifty years of 14C dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, M.

    2006-01-01

    Major contribution of radiochemistry in archaeological sciences is the dating which provides the most essential information in studies of prehistory. In particular the method of 14 C dating revolutionized the theory of civilization in the world. In this talk I will review 50 years of 14 C dating, techniques and applications, and then the possibilities in contemporary world. The technical developments are featured by ultra-sensitive method of accelerator mass spectrometry in 1977 and its developments, and an introduction of international calibration datasets for 14 C dates started in 1986. Both contributed greatly to improvements in versatility and precision for dating. As for the applications, several interesting topics are reviewed such as the origin of agriculture and its propagation in the western world, the oldest pottery production in Japanese archipelago and its relation to world climate, paddy-rice agriculture and its propagation in Japanese archipelago. Since 14 C studies in nature is also well known as key information on carbon dynamics in earth's surface, it may be said that 14 C play an extraordinary role in understanding our past, present and the future. (author)

  15. THE CLIMATE OF LAGO MAGGIORE AREA DURING THE LAST FIFTY YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Rolla

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Data collected in over 50 years' activity at the C.N.R. meteorological station of Pallanza were analysed to see whether any changes have taken place in some climatic elements and to quantify the extent of such changes. A statistical analysis of the respective historical series was performed on nine meteorological parameters (solar radiation, insolation, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, cloud cover, precipitation, evaporation and wind, and on two other strictly limnological features: the level of Lago Maggiore and its water temperature at six different depths. In particular, we evaluated the means and the extremes (maxima and minima on an annual, seasonal, monthly and daily level, with the results presented uniformly for all the parameters, also in graphic form. We especially highlighted the trend lines, even though they were not always statistically significant owing to the extreme variability of the meteorological data; in the absence of statistical validity, their significance is an approximate indication of their increasing or decreasing trend. Results showed that insolation, air temperature and atmospheric pressure had increased markedly over time, at least on an annual level, with the trends for solar radiation, humidity and cloud cover also showing an increase, though very slight. Evaporation and wind showed a steady, marked decrease, while precipitation and lake level were essentially stable. Water temperature showed a more varied picture, with the temperature of the topmost levels (to a depth of 10 m continuing to increase.

  16. Fifty years of HgCdTe at Texas Instruments and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael A.

    2009-05-01

    Work on HgCdTe began at Texas Instruments in the early 1960s, and continued through 1997 when TI's defense business was sold first to Raytheon, and subsequently in 1998 to DRS Technologies. This presentation traces the history of HgCdTe's evolution throughout this timeframe to the present day, as viewed through the eyes of the author and several of his TI contemporaries who have survived the experience. The materials technology will be traced from the early days of bulk growth by the solid state recrystalization technique, through the traveling heater method of growth, to liquid phase epitaxy from large Te-rich melts, to vapor phase growth by molecular beam epitaxy and metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The evolution of detector device architectures at TI over the years will be discussed, from the early, successful days of photoconductors and the Common Module System, through the somewhat problematic and relatively unsuccessful foray into charge coupled and charge injection devices for 2nd generation FPAs for the Javelin program, to the outstandingly successful development of the vertically integrated photodiode (VIP) and high density VIP FPA architectures for mono-color and multi-color 3rd generation systems. The versatile, and unique nature of this infrared semiconductor materials system will be highlighted by reference to current work at DRS Technologies into electron avalanche photodiodes (EAPDs), for use in active/passive IR systems, and high operating temperature (HOT) detectors, which threaten to eventually offer BLIP photon detection at uncooled operating temperatures, over the whole IR spectrum from 1 to 12um.

  17. Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of Television in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinjka Peruško

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934 for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.

  18. Homo cyborg: fifty years old Homo Ciborg: Cincuenta años después

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Hables Gray

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available While the term “cyborg” is only 50 years old, the process that has produced cyborgization is much older: the evolution of the human. Humans have evolved to modify ourselves and our environment, especially through evolving culture and the technologies it creates. Culture is part of nature. Today’s mundane i-cyborgs, military drones, intimate human-machine merging and genetic engineering are a result of this; which in turn produce feelings of uncanniness, hubris, and fear. Contemporary politics must take this complex dynamic into account if we are to secure a sustainable, survivable, future for ourselves and our descendents. Social experiments such as Burning Man are a prefiguration of the kinds of (self conscious techno-social creativity needed.Mientras la terminología “ciborg” tiene apenas 50 años, son mucho más antiguos los procesos de “ciborgización”: la evolución humana. Los humanos evolucionaron para modificar su entorno y a sí mismos, especialmente a través de la cultura y las tecnologías. La cultura es parte de la naturaleza. De ella resultan los i-ciborgs mundanos de la actualidad,  los aviones militares no tripulados, la fusión íntima humano-máquina y la ingeniería genética: lo que a su vez produce sensaciones de inquietud, arrogancia y miedo. La política contemporánea debe de considerar si estamos asegurando un futuro sostenible y vivible para nuestros descendientes. Algunos experimentos sociales como el Burning Man son una prefiguración de esta necesidad creativa por la concienciación tecno-social.

  19. Ocean climate coupling in the tropical Pacific Ocean over the past fifty years: implications and feedbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiujun; Murtugudde, Ragu; Busalacchi, Antonio J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The tropical Pacific plays an important role in climate because of its significant air-sea exchanges of heat, freshwater, and carbon dioxide (C02), and because of its direct linkage to climate variability. There are two dominant modes of climate variability in the Tropics: the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). There has been strong evidence of ENSO and PDO impacts on tropical Pacific physics and biogeochemistry, including heat content, ocean circulation (McPhaden and Zhang 2002), and carbon fluxes (Feely ef al. 2006; Wang ef al. 2006). In this study, we apply a basin-scale ocean circulation-ecosystem-carbon model (Wang ef al. 2006) to study the responses of the tropical Pacific ecosystem, biogeochemistry and carbon cycle to climate forcing over the past 50 years. The model produces strong spatial and temporal variability in surface nutrient concentration, phytoplankton biomass, carbon uptake, and sea-to-air C02 flux, which are largely associated with the ENSO phenomenon. In particular, the size of the tropical Pacific C02 source is large during the ENSO cold phase but small during the ENSO warm phase. There are significant decadal variations in tropical Pacific carbon fluxes, reflecting physical and biogeochemical changes associated with the 1977 and 1997/98 PDO shifts. The 1977 regime shift caused 1 0 C warming in sea surface temperature and -50% reduction in surface iron concentration in the Niho3.4 area, leading to decreased biological activity. While there is a large decrease in phytoplankton growth and biomass, reduction in carbon uptake is smaller than expected, due to phytoplankton photoadaption, which increases the carbon to chlorophyll ratio in the upper euphotic zone and enhances sub-surface production. Photoadaption also results in clearer water near the surface, leading to less heating near the ocean surface and allowing more solar radiation to penetrate the subsurface. Our studies

  20. The big and little of fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westfall, C.

    2005-01-01

    Using radioactive materials obtained by chance, a turntable employing gears from Heidelberg's mechanical toy shops, and other minimal equipment available in post World War II Germany, in 1959 Rudolf Moessbauer confirmed his suspicion that his graduate research had yielded ground-breaking results. He published his conclusion: an atomic nucleus in a crystal undergoes negligible recoil when it emits a low energy gamma ray and provides the entire energy to the gamma ray. In the beginning Moessbauer's news might have been dismissed. As Argonne nuclear physicist Gilbert Perlow noted: ''Everybody knew that nuclei were supposed to recoil when emitting gamma rays--people made those measurements every day''. If any such effect existed, why had no one noticed it before? The notion that some nuclei would not recoil was ''completely crazy'', in the words of the eminent University of Illinois condensed matter physicist Frederich Seitz. Intrigued, however, nuclear physicists as well as condensed matter (or solid state) physicists in various locations--but particularly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in Britain and at Argonne and Los Alamos in the U.S.--found themselves pondering the Moessbauer spectra with its nuclear and solid state properties starting in late 1959. After an exciting year during which Moessbauer's ideas were confirmed and extended, the physics community concluded that Moessbauer was right. Moessbauer won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1961. In the 1960s and 1970s Argonne physicists produced an increasingly clear picture of the properties of matter using the spectroscopy ushered in by Moessbauer. The scale of this traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy, which required a radioactive source and other simple equipment, began quite modestly by Argonne standards. For example Argonne hosted traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy research using mostly existing equipment in the early days and equipment that cost $100,000 by the 1970s alongside work at

  1. The big and little of fifty years of Moessbauer spectroscopy at Argonne.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, C.

    2005-09-20

    Using radioactive materials obtained by chance, a turntable employing gears from Heidelberg's mechanical toy shops, and other minimal equipment available in post World War II Germany, in 1959 Rudolf Moessbauer confirmed his suspicion that his graduate research had yielded ground-breaking results. He published his conclusion: an atomic nucleus in a crystal undergoes negligible recoil when it emits a low energy gamma ray and provides the entire energy to the gamma ray. In the beginning Moessbauer's news might have been dismissed. As Argonne nuclear physicist Gilbert Perlow noted: ''Everybody knew that nuclei were supposed to recoil when emitting gamma rays--people made those measurements every day''. If any such effect existed, why had no one noticed it before? The notion that some nuclei would not recoil was ''completely crazy'', in the words of the eminent University of Illinois condensed matter physicist Frederich Seitz. Intrigued, however, nuclear physicists as well as condensed matter (or solid state) physicists in various locations--but particularly at the Atomic Energy Research Establishment at Harwell in Britain and at Argonne and Los Alamos in the U.S.--found themselves pondering the Moessbauer spectra with its nuclear and solid state properties starting in late 1959. After an exciting year during which Moessbauer's ideas were confirmed and extended, the physics community concluded that Moessbauer was right. Moessbauer won the Nobel Prize for his work in 1961. In the 1960s and 1970s Argonne physicists produced an increasingly clear picture of the properties of matter using the spectroscopy ushered in by Moessbauer. The scale of this traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy, which required a radioactive source and other simple equipment, began quite modestly by Argonne standards. For example Argonne hosted traditional Moessbauer spectroscopy research using mostly existing equipment in the early days and

  2. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Inge Storgaard; Tøssebro, Jan; Teittinen, Antti

    2012-01-01

    toward larger group homes and congregations, inequality across municipalities, marketization, and new public management, but also an increasing emphasis on consumer rights and the use of the personal assistance scheme in services for people with ID. The authors conclude that diverging trends coexist...

  3. [National Academy of Medicine, one hundred and fifty-four academic year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansilla-Olivares, Armando

    2017-01-01

    El incalculable valor que atesora la Academia Nacional de Medicina, su enorme influencia y repercusión sobre la toma de decisiones médico-científico-epidemiológicas, radica única y exclusivamente en el dominio del conocimiento, la mente científica y el talento de todos y cada uno de sus miembros, desde su fundación en 1864 hasta nuestros días.

  4. Florence Richardson Wyckoff (1905-1997), Fifty Years of Grassroots Social ActivismVolume III: Watsonville Years 1960-1985

    OpenAIRE

    Wyckoff, Florence Richardson; Jarrell, Randall

    1990-01-01

    Florence Wyckoff's three-volume oral history documents her remarkable, lifelong work as a social activist, during which she has become nationally recognized as an advocate of migrant families and children. From the depression years through the 1970s, she pursued grassroots, democratic, community-building efforts in the service of improving public health standards and providing health care, education, and housing for migrant families. Major legislative milestones in her career of advocacy were...

  5. From conditioning to learning communities: implications of fifty years of research in e-learning interaction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ravenscroft

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider e-learning in terms of the underlying learning processes and interactions that are stimulated, supported or favoured by new media and the contexts or communities in which it is used. We will review and critique a selection of research and development from the past fifty years that has linked pedagogical and learning theory to the design of innovative e-learning systems and activities, and discuss their implications. It will include approaches that are, essentially, behaviourist (Skinner and Gagné, cognitivist (Pask, Piaget and Papert, situated (Lave, Wenger and Seely-Brown, socioconstructivist (Vygotsky, socio-cultural (Nardi and Engestrom and community-based (Wenger and Preece. Emerging from this review is the argument that effective elearning usually requires, or involves, high-quality educational discourse, that leads to, at the least, improved knowledge, and at the best, conceptual development and improved understanding. To achieve this I argue that we need to adopt a more holistic approach to design that synthesizes features of the included approaches, leading to a framework that emphasizes the relationships between cognitive changes, dialogue processes and the communities, or contexts for e-learning.

  6. A vision for the second fifty years of nuclear energy. Vision and strategies; Wizja drugiego piecdziesieciolecia energetyki jadrowej

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M. [International Nuclear Societies Council (Poland)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The paper is the Polish issue of the report worked out by International Nuclear Societies Council published in 1996. The report contains the experts opinion on development of nuclear energy and applications of radiation techniques and sources worldwide during the next 50 years. The worldwide energy demand prognosis as well as needs of different branches of industry, agriculture, medicine, etc. have been taken into account. The broad spectrum of aspects (safety assurance, economy, environmental impacts) connected with nuclear technology utilization has been also discussed. Transl., 24 refs, 6 figs, 6 tabs.

  7. An Ode to Stuart Hall's "The Supply of Demand": The Case of Post-Secondary Education in Ontario Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald Murphy, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that over fifty years have passed since its publication, Stuart Hall's article "The Supply of Demand" (1960), is remarkably relevant today. The central message that society must not be blinded by "prosperity" such that it no longer envisions and demands a better world is especially pertinent in light of the…

  8. Quality in laboratory medicine: 50years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebani, Mario

    2017-02-01

    The last 50years have seen substantial changes in the landscape of laboratory medicine: its role in modern medicine is in evolution and the quality of laboratory services is changing. The need to control and improve quality in clinical laboratories has grown hand in hand with the growth in technological developments leading to an impressive reduction of analytical errors over time. An essential cause of this impressive improvement has been the introduction and monitoring of quality indicators (QIs) such as the analytical performance specifications (in particular bias and imprecision) based on well-established goals. The evolving landscape of quality and errors in clinical laboratories moved first from analytical errors to all errors performed within the laboratory walls, subsequently to errors in laboratory medicine (including errors in test requesting and result interpretation), and finally, to a focus on errors more frequently associated with adverse events (laboratory-associated errors). After decades in which clinical laboratories have focused on monitoring and improving internal indicators of analytical quality, efficiency and productivity, it is time to shift toward indicators of total quality, clinical effectiveness and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Deutsches Atomforum turns fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisler, Maja

    2009-01-01

    Fifty years ago, the Deutsches Atomforum e. V. was founded to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. On July 1, 2009, the organization celebrated its fiftieth birthday in Berlin. The anniversary was celebrated in the Berlin electricity plant, Germany's oldest existing building for commercial electricity generation. DAtF President Dr. Walter Hohlefelder welcomed some 200 high-ranking guests from politics, industry, and from the nuclear community, above all, the Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, Dr. Angela Merkel, and, as keynote speaker, Professor Dr. Arnulf Baring. (orig.)

  10. Fifty years ago, the black coal mine Barsinghausen was shut down; Vor 50 Jahren wurde das Steinkohlenbergwerk Barsinghausen stillgelegt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Konrad

    2008-09-09

    In the year 1957, the black coal mine Barsinghausen of the former Preussag AG was shut down. Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration recalls this event. Substantial aspects of this contribution are: (a) The mine in the year 1955; (b) How did it come to the shutdown? (c) Reactions in the publicity; (d) Settlement of alternative industry; (e) Works council; (f) Social plan; (g) Where is the staff?.

  11. An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned from Fifty Years of Observing Hardware and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMann, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Pica Kahn conducted "An Interview with Joe McMann: Lessons Learned in Human and Hardware Behavior" on August 16, 2011. With more than 40 years of experience in the aerospace industry, McMann has gained a wealth of knowledge. This presentation focused on lessons learned in human and hardware behavior. During his many years in the industry, McMann observed that the hardware development process was intertwined with human influences, which impacted the outcome of the product.

  12. 'Suddenly the First Fifty Years of My Life Made Sense': Experiences of Older People with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Aoife; Crabtree, Jason; Stott, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Research on the experience of growing older with autism is very limited. In this study, 13 people with autism aged over 50 years participated in semi-structured interviews about their experiences of diagnosis, social support and getting older. Interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Three overarching themes were generated: difference,…

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL] Review, Vol. 25, Nos. 3 and 4, 1992 [The First Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, C.(ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In observation of the 50th anniversary of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, this special double issue of the Review contains a history of the Laboratory, complete with photographs, drawings, and short accompanying articles. Table of contents include: Wartime Laboratory; High-flux Years; Accelerating Projects; Olympian Feats; Balancing Act; Responding to Social Needs; Energy Technologies; Diversity and Sharing; Global Outreach; Epilogue

  14. The Meta-Analysis of Clinical Judgment Project: Fifty-Six Years of Accumulated Research on Clinical Versus Statistical Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; White, Michael J.; Spengler, Paul M.; Maugherman, Alan S.; Anderson, Linda A.; Cook, Robert S.; Nichols, Cassandra N.; Lampropoulos, Georgios K.; Walker, Blain S.; Cohen, Genna; Rush, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    Clinical predictions made by mental health practitioners are compared with those using statistical approaches. Sixty-seven studies were identified from a comprehensive search of 56 years of research; 92 effect sizes were derived from these studies. The overall effect of clinical versus statistical prediction showed a somewhat greater accuracy for…

  15. Rhode Island hurricanes and tropical storms: A fifty-six year summary 1936-1991. Technical memo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, D.R.

    1993-03-01

    The paper was compiled to provide a general overview of all tropical cyclone activity near Rhode Island since 1936. The year of 1936 is arbitrary, chosen mainly to include a 'not so well known' system prior to the well documented Great New England Hurricane of 1938. Thirty-one such storms have affected the state in the past 56 years, either making landfall along the coast of southern New England, or passing close enough over the offshore waters to spread tropical storm or hurricane force conditions into the area. The intensities of these systems have ranged from weak, disorganized tropical storms to full fledged major hurricanes. The one feature common to almost all of the storms was a rapid acceleration toward Rhode Island, which greatly reduced the time to prepare and evacuate

  16. Pile burning creates a fifty-year legacy of openings in regenerating lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Rhoades; Paula J. Fornwalt

    2015-01-01

    Pile burning is a common means of disposing the woody residues of logging and for post-harvest site preparation operations, in spite of the practice’s potential negative effects. To examine the long-term implications of this practice we established a 50-year sequence of pile burns within recovering clear cuts in lodgepole pine forests. We compared tree, shrub and...

  17. Journal of Limnology Vol. 65 (Suppl. 1): The climate of Lago Maggiore area during the last fifty years

    OpenAIRE

    Giussani, Gianluigi; Bertoni, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Data collected in over 50 years' activity at the C.N.R. meteorological station of Pallanza were analysed to see whether any changes have taken place in some climatic elements and to quantify the extent of such changes. A statistical analysis of the respective historical series was performed on nine meteorological parameters (solar radiation, insolation, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, cloud cover, precipitation, evaporation and wind), and on two other strictly limnological fe...

  18. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Advances in Nuclear Physics. Fifty Years of Institutional Physics Research in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, Dorin; Stoica, Sabin

    2000-01-01

    This Symposium was devoted to the cerebration of 50 years of Institutional Physics Research in Romania. The inaugural talk was given by professor W. Greiner on development in fission, fusion, cluster radioactivity and the extension of the periodic system of elements. Seven divisions followed on the items: super heavy nuclei (4 talks); new fission modes (4 talks); astrophysics and cosmic rays (5 talks); particle and high energy physics (6 talks); hadronic matter (6 talks); nuclear structure and reactions (13 talks); atomic physics (4 talks); applications and history. Many of these talks highlighted the substantial Romanian contributions to the scientific achievements in these fields

  19. Suicides in Serbia at the beginning of the 21st century and trends in the past fifty years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penev Goran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 in Serbia, 1444 persons committed suicide (19.5 per 100.000 population. Compared to the early 50s of the 20th century, the number of suicides has nearly doubled, but there has been a moderate decrease in the last 15 years. Similar, but somewhat more moderate tendencies are noted in the change of the value of the suicide rates. The lowest suicide rates were recorded during the 1950s, around 12 per 100.000, and the highest in the last decade of the 20th century when the rate reached 20 suicides per 100.000 inhabitants. The highest suicide rate is among the elderly, and there is also a noticeable tendency of increase in the share of the elderly in the total number of suicides, which is primarily the consequence of intense demographic aging. With youth, the last thirty years note a decline of both the number of suicides and the value of the suicide rates. The number of young people aged 15-24 who have committed suicide in 2006 is less than half of the number from 1971 (decreased from 150 to 66, and the values of suicide rates are also significantly low (decreased from 11.5 to 6.9 per 100.000. Despite certain changes in the values of age-specific suicide rates achieved in the last 50 years, their age patterns of suicide mortality can be characterized as stable. Men are dominant among persons who have committed suicide, with double the number of women, and the highest recorded value of the suicide rate of women never surpassed the value of the lowest suicide rate in men. In terms of marital status, the total rate of suicides is highest with widowers then divorced persons, married persons, and lowest rates are with celibates. In all four groups, suicide rates are at least 3 times higher for men. There is also a clear connection between the level of education and suicide rates for both sexes, with the suicide rate decreasing with higher educational level. In terms of total suicide rate, Serbia is currently in the top half of the European list of

  20. Fifty years of violent war deaths from Vietnam to Bosnia: analysis of data from the world health survey programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeyer, Ziad; Murray, Christopher J L; Gakidou, Emmanuela

    2008-06-28

    To provide an accurate estimate of violent war deaths. Analysis of survey data on mortality, adjusted for sampling bias and censoring, from nationally representative surveys designed to measure population health. Estimated deaths compared with estimates in database of passive reports. 2002-3 World health surveys, in which information was collected from one respondent per household about sibling deaths, including whether such deaths resulted from war injuries. Estimated deaths from war injuries in 13 countries over 50 years. From 1955 to 2002, data from the surveys indicated an estimated 5.4 million violent war deaths (95% confidence interval 3.0 to 8.7 million) in 13 countries, ranging from 7000 in the Republic of Congo [corrected] to 3.8 million in Vietnam. From 1995 to 2002 survey data indicate 36,000 war deaths annually (16,000 to 71,000) in the 13 countries studied. Data from passive surveillance, however, indicated a figure of only a third of this. On the basis of the relation between world health survey data and passive reports, we estimate 378,000 globalwar deaths annually from 1985-94, the last years for which complete passive surveillance data were available. The use of data on sibling history from peacetime population surveys can retrospectively estimate mortality from war. War causes more deaths than previously estimated, and there is no evidence to support a recent decline in war deaths.

  1. Fifty years on: against the stigmatising myths, taboos and traditions embedded within the Suicide Act 1961 (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Julia J A

    2011-06-01

    Although assisted suicide carries a maximum of 14 years imprisonment in England, courts and juries have historically demonstrated a reluctance to convict, most specifically in relation to those travelling abroad to accompany a terminally ill person seeking assisted dying. The possibility of prosecution is still present, however, and there have recently been a number of challenges to the law on assisted dying. During the consultation period of the Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (UK) an amendment was proposed that would have legalised, among other things, assisting suicide overseas. However, it was voted down by peers who believed it to be dangerously radical. In 2008 a multiple sclerosis sufferer requested a clear policy statement, should her partner help her to seek assisted dying abroad in the future. After her application was initially rejected, Mrs Purdy was granted leave to appeal and following a favourable ruling by the House of Lords in 2009, the Director of Public Prosecutions clarified the law on assisted suicide, introducing a Full Code Test which includes the consideration of "public interest factors". Although the new guidelines are not a direct threat to the 50-year-old Suicide Act 1961 (UK), it is clearly an historic development: the latest in a series of high-profile cases and debates which have taken place over the last decade. It is suggested that English law on assisted dying continues to rely on a range of inappropriate concepts, taboos and superstitions, and it is from this perspective that the implications for future legislative reform are addressed.

  2. Summary of Symposium on Cloud Systems, Hurricanes and TRMM: Celebration of Dr. Joanne Simpson's Career, The First Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, W.-K.; Adler, R.; Braun, S.; Einaudi, F.; Ferrier, B.; Halverson, J.; Heymsfield, G.; Kummerow, C.; Negri, A.; Kakar, R.; hide

    2000-01-01

    A symposium celebrating the first 50 years of Dr. Joanne Simpson's career took place at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center from December 1 - 3, 1999. This symposium consisted of presentations that focused on: historical and personal points of view concerning Dr. Simpson's research career, her interactions with the American Meteorological Society, and her leadership in TRMM; scientific interactions with Dr. Simpson that influenced personal research; research related to observations and modeling of clouds, cloud systems and hurricanes; and research related to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). There were a total of 36 presentations and 103 participants from the US, Japan and Australia. The specific presentations during the symposium are summarized in this paper.

  3. A fifty year record of winter glacier melt events in southern Chile, 38°–42°S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, Ben W; Burger, Flavia; Montecinos, Aldo; Rivera, Andrés

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the frequency and potential mass balance impact of winter glacier melt events. In this study, daily atmospheric temperature soundings from the Puerto Montt radiosonde (41.43°S) are used to reconstruct winter melting events at the glacier equilibrium line altitude in the 38°–42°S region of southern Chile, between 1960 and 2010. The representativeness of the radiosonde temperatures to near-surface glacier temperatures is demonstrated using meteorological records from close to the equilibrium line on two glaciers in the region over five winters. Using a degree-day model we estimate an average of 0.28 m of melt and 21 melt days in the 15 June–15 September period each year, with high inter-annual variability. The majority of melt events are associated with midlatitude migratory high pressure systems crossing Chile and northwesterly flows, that force adiabatic compression and warm advection, respectively. There are no trends in the frequency or magnitude of melt events over the period of record, but the annual frequency of winter melt days shows a significant, although rather weak and probably non-linear, relationship to late winter and early spring values of a multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation Index (MEI). (letter)

  4. Fifty years of coiled-coils and alpha-helical bundles: a close relationship between sequence and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, David A D; Fraser, R D Bruce; Squire, John M

    2008-09-01

    alpha-Helical coiled coils are remarkable for the diversity of related conformations that they adopt in both fibrous and globular proteins, and for the range of functions that they exhibit. The coiled coils are based on a heptad (7-residue), hendecad (11-residue) or a related quasi-repeat of apolar residues in the sequences of the alpha-helical regions involved. Most of these, however, display one or more sequence discontinuities known as stutters or stammers. The resulting coiled coils vary in length, in the number of chains participating, in the relative polarity of the contributing alpha-helical regions (parallel or antiparallel), and in the pitch length and handedness of the supercoil (left- or right-handed). Functionally, the concept that a coiled coil can act only as a static rod is no longer valid, and the range of roles that these structures have now been shown to exhibit has expanded rapidly in recent years. An important development has been the recognition that the delightful simplicity that exists between sequence and structure, and between structure and function, allows coiled coils with specialized features to be designed de novo.

  5. Fifty Years of Flight Research: An Annotated Bibliography of Technical Publications of NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, 1946-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.

    1999-01-01

    Titles, authors, report numbers, and abstracts are given for more than 2200 unclassified and unrestricted technical reports and papers published from September 1946 to December 1996 by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and its predecessor organizations. These technical reports and papers describe and give the results of 50 years of flight research performed by the NACA and NASA, from the X-1 and other early X-airplanes, to the X-15, Space Shuttle, X-29 Forward Swept Wing, and X-31 aircraft. Some of the other research airplanes tested were the D-558, phase 1 and 2; M-2, HL-10 and X-24 lifting bodies; Digital Fly-By-Wire and Supercritical Wing F-8; XB-70; YF-12; AFTI F-111 TACT and MAW; F-15 HiDEC; F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle, and F-18 Systems Research Aircraft. The citations of reports and papers are listed in chronological order, with author and aircraft indices. In addition, in the appendices, citations of 233 contractor reports, more than 200 UCLA Flight System Research Center reports and 25 video tapes are included.

  6. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  7. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; Silva, Tiago Machado; Lima, Giana da Silveira; Silva, Adriana Fernandes; Piva, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in countries such as Brazil.

  8. Radiation Protection in Slovenia Over the Past Fifty Years (1963-2013) and the Slovenian Society of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omahen, G.; Krizman, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the ionizing radiation sources in Slovenia started as early as 1900 when X-ray device was put in operation; the first radioactive source was used two years later. Artificial radioactive sources were introduced from 1954 onwards. The use of radioactive sources in industry started in the middle of the 1950's when industrial radiography was introduced due to strong metal industry in Slovenia. Four nuclear facilities were built in Slovenia: the research reactor TRIGA (1966), the Krško nuclear power plant (1983), the mining and milling uranium complex at Žirovski Vrh (1984) and the low and intermediate level radioactive waste storage (1986). The infrastructure of radiation protection (RP) in the former Yugoslavia was established as late as the first Law on RP was adopted in 1959, the competent authorities were defined and technical support organisations for RP were designated. But the whole infrastructure could not follow the rapid development of nuclear industry and the extent uses of sources. After joining EU, the changes in legislation made a significant shift ahead in radiation protection, as regards the quality of the implementation of radiation protection measures as the intensity of administrative and inspection controls. Slovenian Radiation Protection Society was established in 1981 during the 11th symposium of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Society. The role of the Slovenian Society for Radiation Protection has never been significant, mostly due to a small critical mass of membership. This is sometimes advantageous since everyone knows each other and can easily come with the problem to be solved. This feature reduces the need for the Society to be active as a formal association. The main role of the Society is the distribution of actual information on RP and related important events.(author)

  9. [Fifty years of residency in Psychiatry at the University of Montreal: relevance and necessity of the Residents' Association].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the fiftieth anniversary celebrations of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal, the present article offers to retrace the history of the Psychiatry Resident's Association (ARPUM). Since the Association's activities and demands reflected the concerns of the time, a depiction of the Residency Program and exploration of the historical and administrative context, in each key period, is also undertaken. Multiple psychiatrists from every decade, who were once active members of the Association, were interviewed and asked to describe the Residency Program at their time, with its positive and negative aspects, based on their own personal experience as a resident, but also as a member of the organization. The interviewees were also invited to share their recollections of the various Association's demands, representations, activities and functioning, depending on the issues and periods. Various private and public archives were also used, in order to contextualize the residents' experiences and the Association's work. A brief exploration of the historical and political context that led to the creation of the organization is explained. Training and working conditions of residents at that time are reported, enabling the understanding of the first demands when the group was born. Historical jumps are then proposed, from decades to decades, in order to depict key issues, whether they were academic, clinical or organizational, through which the Association worked, over the evolution of the Residency Program. The internal functioning and its occasional problems throughout the years are also described, as is the role in organizing social and educational events. The Residency Program is in constant mutation, and the Association has played its part in shaping the psychiatric training at the Université de Montréal. Multiple positive and tangible impacts were and are still made possible from the collaborative work between the Département de

  10. The National Institute of Research and Development for Isotopic and Molecular Technologies at Cluj - Napoca - Fifty Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasaru, Gh.

    2000-01-01

    , 15 N, has been separated for the first time by means of a cascade of 4 columns of 10 m total length. Later on a 19 column cascade was used to obtained 13 C. By using the same method the neon isotopes ( 20 Ne, 22 Ne) were separated obtaining enrichment levels of up to 99%. Similar enrichment levels were obtained for 36 Ar, 78 Kr and 86 Kr. A special effort was devoted to enrichment of 15 N, up to 99.8%, with a production yield of 1000 g/year, an isotope largely used in agricultural research and required on external market. The report presents also the separation methodologies for other isotopes. In direct connection with the isotope separation works extremely high precision isotopic and chemical analytical methods for extreme concentration were developed. High performance mass spectrometers were also devised, the institute becoming the most important producer of such equipment in this country. Routine deuterium analyses at Heavy Water plant at Drobeta- Turnu Severin are carried out with high precision mass spectrometers produced at ITIM. Finally, the report presents the works on novel applications of stable isotopes separated or enriched at ITIM

  11. Fifty Years of Matter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Heinrich A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the origin of de Broglie's concept and its influences on his contemporaries, notably on Einstein, Schrodinger, Elsasser, Davisson, and Thomson. Indicates that the theory served not only as the starting point of quantum mechanics, but also opened new experimental possibilities. Historical inaccuracies are corrected with new material…

  12. Fifty years of genetic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, B.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses the radiation effects on Drosophila. It was originally thought that irradiating Drosophila would decrease the average fitness of the population, thereby leading to information about the detrimental effects of mutations. Surprisingly, the fitness of the irradiated population turned out to be higher than that of the control population. The original motivation for the experiment was as a test of genetic load theory. The average fitness of a population is depressed by deleterious alleles held in the population by the balance between mutation and natural selection. The depression is called the genetic load of the population. The load dose not depend on the magnitude of the deleterious effect of alleles, but only on the mutation rate

  13. Fifty years of pacemaker advancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, David

    2008-12-01

    A 1957 power blackout in Minnesota prompted C. Walton Lillehei, MD, a pioneer in open heart surgery, to ask Earl Bakken, the co-founder of Medtronic, Inc., to create a battery-operated pacemaker for pediatric patients. That conversation led to the development of the first external battery-operated pacemaker. That first bulky device is far removed from the tiny implantable computers available to heart patients today. Now, the size of two silver dollars stacked on top of one another, a pacemaker is prescribed for a person whose heart beats too slowly or pauses irregularly. Slightly larger devices have more recently evolved from pacing and regulating the heartbeat to being able to provide therapeutic high voltage shocks when needed to stop runaway fast heart rates, recording heart activity, and other physiologic functions, even resynchronizing the heart's chambers-all while providing information on the patient's condition and device performance to the doctor remotely or in the office.

  14. Regulating Medicines in Croatia: Five-year Experience of Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Siniša; Filipović Sučić, Anita; Plazonić, Ana; Truban Žulj, Rajka; Macolić Šarinić, Viola; Čudina, Branka; Ilić Martinac, Adrijana

    2010-01-01

    Aim To present the activities of the Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices in the first 5 years of its existence and to define its future challenges. Methods Main activities within the scope of the Agency as a regulatory authority were retrospectively analyzed for the period from 2004-2008. Data were collected from the Agency’s database and analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results The number of issued medicine authorizations rose from 240 in 2004 to 580 in 2008. The greatest number of new chemical and biological entities was approved in 2005. The greatest number of regular quality controls (n = 5833) and special quality controls was performed in 2008 (n = 589), while the greatest number of off-shelf quality controls (n = 132) was performed in 2007. The greatest number of medicine labeling irregularities was found in 2007 (n = 19) and of quality irregularities in 2004 (n = 9). The greatest number of adverse reactions was reported in 2008 (n = 1393). The number of registered medical devices rose from 213 in 2004 to 565 in 2008. Conclusion Over its 5 years of existence, the Agency has successfully coped with the constant increase in workload. In the future, as Croatia enters the European Union, the Agency will have to face the challenge of joining the integrated European regulatory framework. PMID:20401952

  15. Fifty-five years (1955-2010) of the Coagulation Section at Laboratory of Hematology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital, and its founder, hematologist Ljubomir Popović.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancić, Vladimir; Stancić, Nevenka; Vucelić, Vesna; Lang, Nada; Grbac, Ljiljana

    2011-09-01

    The Coagulation Section at Laboratory of Hematology, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb, was founded in 1955 by Ljubomir Popović, hematologist and assistant at School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, in cooperation with hard-working laboratory technicians. Apart from papers on hematologic neoplasms, plasmacytoma and lymphoma, Ljubomir Popović published a number of papers in the field of anticoagulant therapy with heparin and oral anticoagulants, some of which are also in use today. After Ljubomir Popović left the Hospital in 1964, the Laboratory was run by Professor Nedjeljko Milić, head of the newly founded Division of Hematology. In 1968, the management of the Laboratory of Hematology was taken over by Biserka Raić, MS, medical biochemist, until her retirement in 2007. Great development in morphological and cytometric studies of blood and blood cells has been paralleled by continuous progress and almost dominating activities in the diagnosis of hemostasis disorders. In the 1970s, Marko Koprcina, hematologist, and Biserka Raić introduced the then latest tests in practice at all Hospital departments. In that golden age of the Coagulation Section, M. Koprcina, B. Raić and their associates transferred their knowledge to all colleagues in the Hospital. Through that collaboration, high standards in the diagnosis of hemostasis disorders were achieved, from which the currently high level of clinical knowledge about coagulation disorders and their treatment has derived, making Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital one of the leading hospitals in this field in the country. By describing development of the Coagulation Section and the life of its founder Ljubomir Popović, the authors tried to provide an answer to the following question: can today's clinicians still have a deciding role in laboratory development, considering that assessments of different phenomena are always initiated by an interested clinician who is trying to interpret and understand

  16. Il clima dell'areale del Lago Maggiore durante gli ultimi cinquant'anni (The climate of Lago Maggiore area during the last fifty years)

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosetti, Walter; Barbanti, Luigi; Rolla, Angelo

    2006-01-01

    Data collected in over 50 years' activity at the C.N.R. meteorological station of Pallanza were analysed to see whether any changes have taken place in some climatic elements and to quantify the extent of such changes. A statistical analysis of the respective historical series was performed on nine meteorological parameters (solar radiation, insolation, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, humidity, cloud cover, precipitation, evaporation and wind), and on two other strictly limnological fe...

  17. Changes in drought tolerance in maize associated with fifty years of breeding for yield in the US Corn Belt [Zea mays L.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, H.; Cooper, M.; Edmeades, G.O.; Löffler, C.; Schussler, J.R.; Ibanez, M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the changes underlying past breeding progress may help to focus research efforts and accelerate future genetic gains. The major abiotic stress affecting maize production on a worldwide basis is drought. We addressed the improvements in drought tolerance over a 50-year period of hybrid breeding by evaluating, under targeted stress conditions, a set of 18 Pioneer-brand hybrids that had been released during the 1953-2001 period. Stress treatments were designed as overlapping windows of water deficit covering the pre-flowering to late grain filling development stages. Data were collected on grain yield, yield components and anthesis-silking interval (ASI) and were analyzed using a linear mixed model approach. Genetic gain was measured as the slope of the regression of the trait on the year of hybrid release. Significant, positive genetic gains of varying magnitude were observed for grain yield in all windows of stress evaluated. The largest genetic gains for grain yield were observed under conditions of full irrigation and severe flowering stress. ASI and barrenness, especially under stress at flowering, were significantly reduced by selection. Though flowering remains the most susceptible stage to drought in maize, selection has reduced its negative effects and susceptibility during early grain filling is now of similar importance in many modern hybrids. Yield under drought at flowering has more than kept pace with the increase in yield potential because of the emphasis breeders have placed on improved floral synchrony [it

  18. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwin, K.S.; Hafner, S.D.; Buff, M.F.

    2003-01-01

    Sodium and chloride have increased in the last 50 years in this river ecosystem. - Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km 2 ) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations of Na + and Cl - have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km -2 day -1 , appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km -2 day -1 over the 47-year period. Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na + and Cl - still increased during the 1990s

  19. The National Library of Medicine: 175 Years of Innovation | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. The National Library of Medicine 175 Years of Information Innovation Past ... than 40 years! Today, thanks to the National Library of Medicine, virtually any bit of information ever ...

  20. Fifty-three years' experience with randomized clinical trials of emergency portacaval shunt for bleeding esophageal varices in Cirrhosis: 1958-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orloff, Marshall J

    2014-02-01

    Emergency treatment of bleeding esophageal varices (BEV) consists mainly of endoscopic and pharmacologic measures, with transjugular intrahepatic portal-systemic shunt (TIPS) performed when bleeding is not controlled. Surgical shunt has been relegated to salvage. At the University of California, San Diego, Medical Center, our group has conducted 10 studies of emergency portacaval shunt (EPCS) during 46 years. To describe 2 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted from 1988 to 2011 in unselected consecutive patients who received emergency treatment for BEV. In RCT No. 1, a total of 211 unselected consecutive patients with cirrhosis and acute BEV were randomized to emergency endoscopic sclerotherapy (EEST) (n=106) or EPCS (n=105). In RCT No. 2, a total of 154 unselected consecutive patients with cirrhosis and acute BEV were randomized to TIPS (n=78) or EPCS (n=76). Diagnostic workup was completed within 6 hours of initial contact, and primary treatment was initiated within 8 to 12 hours. Regular follow-up for up to 10 years was accomplished in 100% of the patients. In RCT No. 1, EEST or EPCS; in RCT No. 2, TIPS or EPCS. The 2 groups were compared with regard to survival, control of bleeding, portal-systemic encephalopathy, and direct cost of care. RESULTS Distribution in Child risk classes was almost identical. One-third of patients were in Child class C. Permanent control of bleeding was achieved by EEST in only 20% of the patients and by TIPS in only 22%. In contrast, EPCS permanently controlled bleeding in 97% and 100% of the patients in RCT No. 2 and RCT No. 1, respectively (Pcases. Recurrent portal-systemic encephalopathy developed in 35% of the patients who underwent EEST and 61% of those who received TIPS. In contrast, portal-systemic encephalopathy occurred in 15% of the patients who received EPCS in RCT No. 1 and 21% of those in RCT No. 2. Direct costs of care were 5 to 7 times greater in the EEST ($168100) and TIPS ($264800) groups than in the EPCS

  1. The 1.3-m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) at Kitt Peak - A Fifty year old dream Realized: Telescope Characteristics, Current Research and Education Progr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinan, Edward; Gelderman, Richard; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Carini, Michael T.; McGruder, Charles, III; Campbell, Rachel; Walter, Donald K.; Davis, Donald R.; Tedesco, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2011-03-01

    The 1.3 m Robotically Controlled Telescope (RCT) on Kitt Peak has a rich history, including its role as a prototype for remotely controlled telescopes during the 1960s. As such, the RCT could be considered one of the first - Telescopes from Afar. The telescope, originally called the Remotely Controlled Telescope, has been renamed the Robotically Controlled Telescope to reflect the change in operational control and mode of use. The RCT was a conceptual precursor of today's robotic telescopes, but the actual operation of a remotely controlled telescope was technologically premature for its time, and was subsequently manually operated primarily to conduct optical and infrared observations as well being used as a test bed for new spectroscopic and photometric instruments. In 1995 budget constraints forced the closing of the telescope as part of the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), following nearly 30 years of distinguished service to KPNO. A request for proposals to operate this telescope was issued to the science community. The RCT consortium, lead by Western Kentucky University, was the successful proposer for operation of the telescope. After several difficult years of retrofitting, refurbishing, and automating the telecope and observatory dome, the telescope has returned to routine science operations in November 2009. The RCT has operated smoothly since that time, with no major interruptions. Observations of objects of interest to the consortium partners (including: comets & asteroids, variable & binary stars, exoplanets, supernovae, quasars & blazars) are being routinely obtained and evaluated. One of the distinguishing features of the RCT is that it is an autonomous observatory designed to handle diverse optical imaging and photometry programs. These include being able to automatically deal with a wide range of observing parameters such as -integration time, sky conditions, repetitions, return visits, filters, air mass, non-sidereal objects, transients etc

  2. Long-term trends in sodium and chloride in the Mohawk River, New York: the effect of fifty years of road-salt application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, K S; Hafner, S D; Buff, M F

    2003-01-01

    Ecological studies have demonstrated the adverse effects of road-salt, primarily NaCl, on water quality, flora, and fauna. In this study, we quantified changes in ionic composition and solute flux of water draining the Mohawk River Basin (9103 km(2)) in New York State, from 1952 to 1998. Using various statistical, graphical, and modeling techniques, we showed that concentrations ofNa+ and Cl- have increased by 130 and 243%, respectively, while other constituents have decreased or remained constant. The use of de-icing salt on roads within the watershed, which we estimate at 39 kg km(-2) day(-1), appears to be the primary mechanism responsible for reported increases, accounting for the increase in NaCl export from 16 to 46 kg km(-2) day(-1) over the 47-year period.Moreover, despite population decline within this rural upstate watershed, increased environmental stewardship, and The Clean Water Act, concentrations of Na+ and Cl- still increased during the 1990s.

  3. [Effects of fire recurrence on fire behaviour in cork oak woodlands (Quercus suber L.) and Mediterranean shrublands over the last fifty years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffhauser, Alice; Pimont, François; Curt, Thomas; Cassagne, Nathalie; Dupuy, Jean-Luc; Tatoni, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Past fire recurrence impacts the vegetation structure, and it is consequently hypothesized to alter its future fire behaviour. We examined the fire behaviour in shrubland-forest mosaics of southeastern France, which were organized along a range of fire frequency (0 to 3-4 fires along the past 50 years) and had different time intervals between fires. The mosaic was dominated by Quercus suber L. and Erica-Cistus shrubland communities. We described the vegetation structure through measurements of tree height, base of tree crown or shrub layer, mean diameter, cover, plant water content and bulk density. We used the physical model Firetec to simulate the fire behaviour. Fire intensity, fire spread, plant water content and biomass loss varied significantly according to fire recurrence and vegetation structure, mainly linked to the time since the last fire, then the number of fires. These results confirm that past fire recurrence affects future fire behaviour, with multi-layered vegetation (particularly high shrublands) producing more intense fires, contrary to submature Quercus woodlands that have not burnt since 1959 and that are unlikely to reburn. Further simulations, with more vegetation scenes according to shrub and canopy covers, will complete this study in order to discuss the fire propagation risk in heterogeneous vegetation, particularly in the Mediterranean area, with a view to a local management of these ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impossible Sustainability of the Bay of Brest? Fifty Years of Ecosystem Changes, Interdisciplinary Knowledge Construction and Key Questions at the Science-Policy-Community Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ragueneau

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution, the study of the Bay of Brest ecosystem changes over the past 50 years is used to explore the construction of interdisciplinary knowledge and raise key questions that now need to be tackled at the science-policy-communities interface. The Bay of Brest is subject to a combination of several aspects of global change, including excessive nutrient inputs from watersheds and the proliferation of invasive species. These perturbations strongly interact, affecting positively or negatively the ecosystem functioning, with important impacts on human activities. We first relate a cascade of events over these five decades, linking farming activities, nitrogen, and silicon biogeochemical cycles, hydrodynamics of the Bay, the proliferation of an exotic benthic suspension feeder, the development of the Great scallop fisheries and the high biodiversity in maerl beds. The cascade leads to today's situation where toxic phytoplankton blooms become recurrent in the Bay, preventing the fishery of the great scallop and forcing the fishermen community to switch pray and alter the maerl habitat and the benthic biodiversity it hosts, despite the many scientific alerts and the protection of this habitat. In the second section, we relate the construction of the interdisciplinary knowledge without which scientists would never have been able to describe these changes in the Bay. Interdisciplinarity construction is described, first among natural sciences (NS and then, between natural sciences and human and social sciences (HSS. We finally ask key questions at the science-policy interface regarding this unsustainable trend of the Bay: How is this possible, despite decades of joint work between scientists and fishermen? Is adaptive co-management a sufficient condition for a sustainable management of an ecosystem? How do the different groups (i.e., farmers, fishermen, scientists, environmentalists, with their diverse interests, take charge of this situation

  5. School Finance: Fifty Years of Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes the increases in per-pupil expenditures in elementary and secondary education since World War II and discusses factors contributing to the increase. A significant cause is the 86% inflation-adjusted increase in teacher salaries between 1949-50 and 1971-72, although teacher salaries have increased little since that time. (SLD)

  6. The Pentagon: The First Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Secretary of War Stimson reviewed it. Initially "skeptical," Stimson finally concurrcd. He wrote in his diary that "it will cost a lot of money, but it will...wrote in his diary : "It struck me as so fantastic that I did not express myself to him, but I told Somervell afterwards... I should absolutely refuse to...8217l Jill10 i"Il LtW ILI il Ih( "IM Ol*110 II )’(1 ol11 ,(\\ o n u l tl,1 + Rivci Eqttancc At ’M AyA I’wP e Pentagon Lore The Pentagon entered into

  7. Chemists in Rijeka Together for Fifty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin, C.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Whatever part of the World you come from, when you come to Rijeka you came to the heart of Europe. Rijeka is waiting for you with the scent of its sea and the hospitality of its people. Rijeka is a town of unusual, turbulent and intersected history. At the end of the IX Century the area of Rijeka was one of the most powerful industrial zones in Europe. Prof. Eugen Cerkovnikov, Ph. D., a much-respected chemist, first Head of the Department for Chemistry and Biochemistry on the then newly established Medical School in Rijeka, launched the initiative to form a branch-office of the Croatian Chemist Society in Rijeka. On 18 January, 1958 in the Big Classroom of the Medical School in Rijeka the Founding Assembly was held, and many respected scientists of that period were present.In 1960, the Rijeka branch-office of the Croatian Chemist Society merged with the Society of Chemists and Technologists and in 1973 the Biochemists section joined. In the five decades of its existence, the love towards chemistry, biochemistry, molecular biology, technology and chemical engineering, the love towards the basis of natural sciences and the wish to educate new, progressive generations formed the mission of the Society. The Society does not want to be closed in a guild organisation; its aim is to open its doors towards all those striving to progress.Former presidents of the Society were: Eugen Cerkovnikov (1958-1974, Marijan Kolombo (1974-1980, Josip Šilipeter (1980-1984, Marinko Oršia (1984-1996 i Nikola Bla?evia (1996-; and each one of them marked his era. Transitional circumstances have shut down forever many, until recently, extremely powerful industries in Rijeka. Today, Rijeka is searching for new paths, and we believe that our Society will continue to work on and give its contribution to this search.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: The First Fifty Years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MORA,CARL J.

    1999-11-03

    On Nov. 1, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories celebrates its 50th birthday. Although Sandia has its roots in the World War II-era Manhattan Project, Sandia began operating as a separate nuclear weapons engineering laboratory under the management of AT&T on Nov. 1, 1949. Today the lab employs more than 7,000 people at its two sites in Albuquerque and Livermore, California, and has research and development missions in national security, energy and environmental technologies, and U.S. economic competitiveness. Lockheed Martin Corporation operates Sandia for the US. Department of Energy.

  9. The Fifty Year Rehabilitation of the Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald J. McNamara

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The 1968 American Heart Association announced a dietary recommendation that all individuals consume less than 300 mg of dietary cholesterol per day and no more than three whole eggs per week. This recommendation has not only significantly impacted the dietary patterns of the population, but also resulted in the public limiting a highly nutritious and affordable source of high quality nutrients, including choline which was limited in the diets of most individuals. The egg industry addressed the egg issue with research documenting the minimal effect of egg intake on plasma lipoprotein levels, as well as research verifying the importance of egg nutrients in a variety of issues related to health promotion. In 2015 dietary cholesterol and egg restrictions have been dropped by most health promotion agencies worldwide and recommended to be dropped from the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  10. Strategies for the next fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents a professional, global and unrestricted overview of the nuclear energy development and using, and the worldwide related research. The document also presents the strategies for the next half-century

  11. Fifty Years of HF Doppler Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Ogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High frequency Doppler observations of the ionosphere began in August of 1957 in Kyoto. The number of the observation points worldwide were about 40 in 1980 and are about 20 at present. By this method the movement of the ionosphere reflection height and electron density below the height can be observed. Such variations are occurred by a wide variety of sources.

  12. Immunotoxicology: fifty years of global scientific progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKarns, Susan C; Kerkvliet, Nancy I; Dean, Jack H; Bonn, Michael B; Cohen, Mitchell D; Franko, Jennifer; Laiosa, Michael D; Lawrence, B Paige; Luebke, Robert W; Luster, Michael I; Miller, Patrick G; Palmer, Rachel K; Pfau, Jean C; Raman, Priyadarshini; Regal, Jean F; Rodgers, Kathleen E; Schondelmeyer, Rio S; Zhang, Xiaochu; Burns-Naas, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The Immunotoxicology Specialty Section of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) celebrated the 50(th) Anniversary of the SOT by constructing a poster to highlight the milestones of Immunotoxicology during that half-century period. This poster was assembled by an ad hoc committee and intertwines in words, citations, graphics, and photographs our attempts to capture a timeline reference of the development and progressive movement of immunotoxicology across the globe. This poster was displayed during the 50(th) Annual SOT Meeting in Washington DC in March, 2011. The poster can be accessed by any Reader at the SOT Website via the link http://www.toxicology.org/AI/MEET/AM2011/posters_rcsigss.asp#imss. We dedicate this poster to all of the founders and the scientists that followed them who have made the discipline of Immunotoxicology what it is today.

  13. Fifty Years of Physics of Living Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2016-01-01

    The equilibrium-point hypothesis and its more recent version, the referent configuration hypothesis, represent the physical approach to the neural control of action. This hypothesis can be naturally combined with the idea of hierarchical control of movements and of synergic organization of the abundant systems involved in all actions. Any action starts with defining trajectories of a few referent coordinates for a handful of salient task-specific variables. Further, referent coordinates at hierarchically lower levels emerge down to thresholds of the tonic stretch reflex for the participating muscles. Stability of performance with respect to salient variables is reflected in the structure of inter-trial variance and phenomena of motor equivalence. Three lines of recent research within this framework are reviewed. First, synergic adjustments of the referent coordinate and apparent stiffness have been demonstrated during finger force production supporting the main idea of control with referent coordinates. Second, the notion of unintentional voluntary movements has been introduced reflecting unintentional drifts in referent coordinates. Two types of unintentional movements have been observed with different characteristic times. Third, this framework has been applied to studies of impaired movements in neurological patients. Overall, the physical approach searching for laws of nature underlying biological movement has been highly stimulating and productive.

  14. Fifty Years of Scholarship in Media Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christians, Clifford G.

    1977-01-01

    Describes changing attitudes toward the role of mass media ethics, as reflected in the literature. Available from: Journal of Communication, The Annenberg School of Communications, University of Pennsylvania, 3620 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, $15.00 yr; $4.00 sc. (KS)

  15. History * Autobiography * Growth: (Fifty Years since Dartmouth)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doecke, Brenton

    2016-01-01

    This essay explores how my professional experiences as an English educator have been shaped by the values and beliefs that are typically associated with the Dartmouth Seminar of 1966 as they were presented by John Dixon in his immensely influential report of that seminar, "Growth Through English." Rather than seeing "Growth"…

  16. Fifty years chlorpromazine: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Thomas A

    2007-08-01

    Chlorpromazine was synthesized in December 1951 in the laboratories of Rhône-Poiulenc, and became available on prescription in France in November 1952. Its effectiveness was reflected in the transformation of disturbed wards; its commercial success stimulated the development of other psychotropic drugs. Recognition of chemical mediation at the site of the synapse, followed by the introduction of the spectrophotofluorimeter first, and receptor assays subsequently, led to the demonstration that chlorpromazine blocks dopamine receptors. Treatment with chlorpromazine focused attention on the heterogeneity of schizophrenia in terms of responsiveness to treatment. By the mid-1980s there was sufficient evidence to believe that resolving this heterogeneity is a prerequisite for developing more effective treatments. Chlorpromazine was instrumental in the development of neuropsychopharmacology, a new discipline dedicated to the study of mental pathology with the employment of centrally acting drugs.

  17. Atoms for peace plus fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, S.

    2003-01-01

    One of Dwight Eisenhower's most significant political legacies stemmed from his management of the nuclear question. Five decades after Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' speech before the United Nations, the nuclear dilemma persists but the world is a different, and I would submit, a better place today than it might have been had that vision not been articulated, or its proposals not advanced. The 'Atoms for Peace' speech had a number of objectives, but it is over arching goal was to propose a set of ideas, a nuclear strategy, which would call on the Soviets to cooperate internationally for the betterment of mankind. This would reengage the Soviets in discussions on nuclear matters at a time when arms control talks had stalled, but it would also offer hope, and a practical set of ideas, to the developing world. 'Atoms for Peace' spawned many developments, including the establishment of the International Atomic Energy Agency, and eventually the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. While 'Atoms for Peace', as well as the institutions it created, has come under fire in recent years, it is hard to imagine what the world would have been like without it. Largely through the international Atomic Energy Agency, nations around the world have participated in research and development programs, including the use of nuclear energy in important civilian applications. Nuclear electric power accounts for nearly one-fifth of the world's electricity - reducing global tensions by replacing oil in many applications, and providing much of the world's electricity that is generated without the release of greenhouse gases or other destructive emissions. Many other nuclear and radiation-related technologies, especially radiopharmaceuticals and medical advances involving radiation, have resulted in large part from research spawned by 'Atoms for Peace'. Millions of lives have been saved in the process. While the 'nuclear dilemma' remains a challenge almost as complex as it was fifty years ago, the

  18. Thirty years from now: future physics contributions in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, Dale L [School of Physics and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, 2006 (Australia); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal North Shore Hospital, St. Leonards, NSW 2065 (Australia)

    2014-05-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine physician each take a backward and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here, we provide a forward look from the medical physicist’s perspective. The author examines a number of developments in nuclear medicine and discusses the ways in which physics has contributed to these. Future developments are postulated in the context of an increasingly personalised approach to medical diagnostics and therapies. A skill set for the next generation of medical physicists in nuclear medicine is proposed in the context of the increasing complexity of ‘Molecular Imaging’ in the next three decades. The author sees a shift away from ‘traditional’ roles in instrumentation QA to more innovative approaches in understanding radiobiology and human disease.

  19. Thirty years from now: future physics contributions in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Dale L

    2014-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine physician each take a backward and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here, we provide a forward look from the medical physicist’s perspective. The author examines a number of developments in nuclear medicine and discusses the ways in which physics has contributed to these. Future developments are postulated in the context of an increasingly personalised approach to medical diagnostics and therapies. A skill set for the next generation of medical physicists in nuclear medicine is proposed in the context of the increasing complexity of ‘Molecular Imaging’ in the next three decades. The author sees a shift away from ‘traditional’ roles in instrumentation QA to more innovative approaches in understanding radiobiology and human disease.

  20. Regenerative medicine: looking backward 10 years further on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Paul

    2016-12-01

    The last decade has seen considerable changes in the Regenerative Medicine industry, but unfortunately the hope for numerous treatments that 'replace or regenerate human cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function' has not yet emerged. In contrast to this, there have been major advances in the field of cellular immunotherapy though some do not consider these to be Regenerative Medicines. Regulatory changes have in some cases improved the route to a marketing license but they have not been matched by clarification of the complex, national reimbursement processes for cell-based treatments and this has adversely affected a number of leading Regenerative Medicine Companies. The review considers the direction that the industry may go in the future in relation to scientific, manufacturing and clinical strategies which may improve the rate of success of new therapies..

  1. A 15-year review of the Stanford Internal Medicine Residency Program: predictors of resident satisfaction and dissatisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahn JS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available James S Kahn,1–3 Ronald M Witteles,3,4 Kenneth W Mahaffey,3–5 Sumbul A Desai,2,3 Errol Ozdalga,2,3 Paul A Heidenreich1,3 1Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, 2Division of Primary Care and Population Health, 3Department of Medicine, 4Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 5Stanford Center for Clinical Research, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Introduction: Satisfaction with training and with educational experiences represents important internal medicine (IM programmatic goals. Graduates from IM residency programs are uniquely poised to provide insights into their educational and training experiences and to assess whether these experiences were satisfactory and relevant to their current employment. Methods: We surveyed former IM residents from the training program held during the years 2000–2015 at the Department of Medicine, Stanford University. The first part of the survey reviewed the IM residency program and the second part sought identifying data regarding gender, race, ethnicity, work, relationships, and financial matters. The primary outcome was satisfaction with the residency experience. Results: Of the 405 individuals who completed the Stanford IM residency program in the study period, we identified 384 (95% former residents with a known email address. Two hundred and one (52% former residents responded to the first part and 185 (48% answered both the parts of the survey. The mean age of the respondents was 36.9 years; 44% were female and the mean time from IM residency was 6.1 (±4.3 years. Fifty-eight percent reported extreme satisfaction with their IM residency experience. Predictors associated with being less than extremely satisfied included insufficient outpatient experience, insufficient international experience, insufficient clinical research experience, and insufficient time spent with family and peers. Conclusion: The residents expressed an overall high satisfaction rate with

  2. Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  3. Medicine 2000 years ago: the case of Qumran and other biblical sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, G A

    2000-12-01

    Since the eighteenth century, the dominance of orthodox or allopathic medicine in the West led to the branding of other forms of medicine as alternative. However, research shows a narrowing in the gap in popularity of the two methods and it is possible to envision a time when alternative medicine and mainstream medicine will work in tandem. As the West completes a year of millennium celebrations and looks back to the events that shaped the founding of the first millennium two thousand years ago, it is appropriate to increase our understanding of the form medicine took at that time. Research on Qumran and other biblical sites shows that the therapies offered there were based on alternative therapies such as herbal medicine and hydrotherapy as well as conventional therapy such as surgery. The article shows that the twin reliance on alternative and orthodox methods emerging today, marks a return to a pattern of provision which prevailed at the time the first millennium was born.

  4. History of space medicine: the formative years at NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Charles A; Hoffler, G Wyckliffe; Jernigan, Clarence A; Kerwin, Joseph P; Mohler, Stanley R

    2009-04-01

    Almost nothing was known about the effects of spaceflight on human physiology when, in May of 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to land a man on the Moon and return him safely to Earth within the decade. There were more questions than answers regarding the effects of acceleration, vibration, cabin pressure, CO2 concentration, and microgravity. There were known external threats to life, such as solar and ultraviolet radiation, meteorites, and extreme temperatures as well as issues for which the physicians and scientists could not even formulate the questions. And there was no time for controlled experiments with the required numbers of animal or human subjects. Of necessity, risks were evaluated and mitigated or accepted based on minimal data. This article summarizes presentations originally given as a panel at the 79th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Aerospace Medical Association in Boston in 2008. In it, five pioneers in space medicine at NASA looked back on the development of their field. The authors related personal anecdotes, discussed the roles of various people and presented examples of contributions to emerging U.S. initiatives for human spaceflight. Topics included the development of quarantine facilities for returning Apollo astronauts, the struggles between operational medicine and research personnel, and observations from the first U.S. medical officer to experience weightlessness on orbit. Brief biographies of the authors are appended to document their participation in these historic events.

  5. Use of individualized learning plans among fourth-year sub-interns in pediatrics and internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Michelle E; Sastre, Elizabeth A; Davidson, Mario A; Fleming, Amy E

    2012-01-01

    Individualized Learning Plans (ILPs) are an effective tool for promoting self-directed learning among residents. However, no literature details ILP use among medical students. Fifty fourth-year sub-interns in pediatrics and internal medicine created ILPs, including a self-assessment of strengths and weaknesses based on ACGME core competencies and the setting of learning objectives. During weekly follow-up meetings with faculty mentors and peers, students discussed challenges and revised goals. Upon completion of the rotation, students completed a survey of Likert-scale questions addressing satisfaction with and perceived utility of ILP components. Students most often self-identified strengths in the areas of Professionalism and Interpersonal and Communication Skills and weaknesses in Patient Care and Systems-Based Practice. Eighty-two percent set at least one learning objective in an identified area of weakness. Students expressed high confidence in their abilities to create achievable learning objectives and to generate strategies to meet those objectives. Students agreed that discussions during group meetings were meaningful, and they identified the setting learning objectives and weekly meetings as the most important elements of the exercise. Fourth-year sub-interns reported that ILPs helped them to accomplish rotation goals, with the setting of learning objectives and weekly discussions being the most useful elements.

  6. Thirty year celebration of the contribution of nuclear medicine physicists in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, B. M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The intention of this article is to describe the contributions of the many nuclear medicine physicists who in a large or small way have added to the ongoing development of nuclear medicine in Australia from the first years of the discipline in the late 1960s to the present time. Unlike our colleagues in radiation oncology physics, the nuclear medicine physicist fraternity has always been a very small group which unfortunately has not expanded greatly over the 30 years and beyond. This is emphasized in the survey by W.H.Round 1 which showed the bias towards older physicists being involved in the discipline. Because of the small numbers of nuclear medicine physicists in the public hospital system, mostly one or two per teaching hospital, most physicists are heavily involved in clinical duties to keep up the high standard of equipment and software performance required. Many nuclear medicine physicists also have the dual role of hospital radiation safety officers which is becoming more demanding as radiation legislation increases. For this reason much of the pure research has been confined to the hospitals with larger numbers of physicists. However a high proportion of nuclear medicine physicists across the country have contributed greatly to clinical research and development as part of their job. Unfortunately these cannot all be recognised in this article. Young physicists may not realise how much 'in house' research and development was carried out by physicists in the early years of nuclear medicine when equipment companies did not provide the software which is now available to purchase. Many of these innovative techniques and software, described in this article, are still in use today. Some of the 'big events' in the history of nuclear medicine in Australia in which physicists have played a leading role will also be highlighted. This will serve to emphasize how physicists have worked closely with clinicians and technologists in the ongoing development of

  7. Medicinal plants used as home remedies: a family survey by first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R; Mammen, Marykutty

    2014-01-01

    There is a hierarchical organisation of knowledge in the use of medicinal plants in communities. Medicinal use knowledge starts in the home and is passed on to family members. Next in the hierarchy are neighbours, village elders and finally, traditional healers being the most knowledgeable. For primary health care this hierarchy is actively followed in seeking remedies for ailments. This study was a survey of medicinal plant knowledge from family members of 1(st) year medical students registered at Walter Sisulu University. A total of 206 first year medical students participated in this study in 2010 and 2011. Results revealed 47 species used as home remedies, 32% of which are food plants. Leaves and roots were reported as most commonly used. The top five ailments managed at home were gastrointestinal problems (25 plants), wounds (19 plants), respiratory tract problems (19 plants), infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (19 plants) and pain including headaches (19 plants). Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use. From this study, first year medical students were made aware of the relationship between common ailments and associated home remedies. This study forms a basis for further study of medicinal plants to validate their use as medicinal remedies.

  8. Year-End Clinic Handoffs: A National Survey of Academic Internal Medicine Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Erica; Harris, Christina; Lee, Wei Wei; Pincavage, Amber T; Ouchida, Karin; Miller, Rachel K; Chaudhry, Saima; Arora, Vineet M

    2017-06-01

    While there has been increasing emphasis and innovation nationwide in training residents in inpatient handoffs, very little is known about the practice and preparation for year-end clinic handoffs of residency outpatient continuity practices. Thus, the latter remains an identified, yet nationally unaddressed, patient safety concern. The 2014 annual Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine (APDIM) survey included seven items for assessing the current year-end clinic handoff practices of internal medicine residency programs throughout the country. Nationwide survey. All internal medicine program directors registered with APDIM. Descriptive statistics of programs and tools used to formulate a year-end handoff in the ambulatory setting, methods for evaluating the process, patient safety and quality measures incorporated within the process, and barriers to conducting year-end handoffs. Of the 361 APDIM member programs, 214 (59%) completed the Transitions of Care Year-End Clinic Handoffs section of the survey. Only 34% of respondent programs reported having a year-end ambulatory handoff system, and 4% reported assessing residents for competency in this area. The top three barriers to developing a year-end handoff system were insufficient overlap between graduating and incoming residents, inability to schedule patients with new residents in advance, and time constraints for residents, attendings, and support staff. Most internal medicine programs do not have a year-end clinic handoff system in place. Greater attention to clinic handoffs and resident assessment of this care transition is needed.

  9. Fifty consecutive pancreatectomies without mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Campos Amico

    Full Text Available Objective: to report the group's experience with a series of patients undergoing pancreatic resection presenting null mortality rates. Methods: we prospectively studied 50 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic resections for peri-ampullary or pancreatic diseases. Main local complications were defined according to international criteria. In-hospital mortality was defined as death occurring in the first 90 postoperative days. Results: patients' age ranged between 16 and 90 years (average: 53.3. We found anemia (Hb < 12g/dl and preoperative jaundice in 38% and 40% of cases, respectively. Most patients presented with peri-ampullary tumors (66%. The most common surgical procedure was the Kausch - Whipple operation (70%. Six patients (12% needed to undergo resection of a segment of the mesenteric-portal axis. The mean operative time was 445.1 minutes. Twenty two patients (44% showed no clinical complications and presented mean hospital stay of 10.3 days. The most frequent complications were pancreatic fistula (56%, delayed gastric emptying (17.1% and bleeding (16%. Conclusion : within the last three decades, pancreatic resection is still considered a challenge, especially outside large specialized centers. Nevertheless, even in our country (Brazil, teams seasoned in such procedure can reach low mortality rates.

  10. Sustainable Foods and Medicines Support Vitality, Sex and Longevity for a 100-Year Starship Expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. R.

    Extended space flight requires foods and medicines that sustain crew health and vitality. The health and therapeutic needs for the entire crew and their children for a 100-year space flight must be sustainable. The starship cannot depend on resupply or carry a large cargo of pharmaceuticals. Everything in the starship must be completely recyclable and reconstructable, including food, feed, textiles, building materials, pharmaceuticals, vaccines, and medicines. Smart microfarms will produce functional foods with superior nutrition and sensory attributes. These foods provide high-quality protein and nutralence (nutrient density), that avoids obesity, diabetes, and other Western diseases. The combination of functional foods, lifestyle actions, and medicines will support crew immunity, energy, vitality, sustained strong health, and longevity. Smart microfarms enable the production of fresh medicines in hours or days, eliminating the need for a large dispensary, which eliminates concern over drug shelf life. Smart microfarms are adaptable to the extreme growing area, resource, and environmental constraints associated with an extended starship expedition.

  11. The Biology of Emergency Medicine: what have 30 years meant for Rosen's original concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Brian J

    2011-03-01

    In 1979 Peter Rosen, MD, a leading academic figure in the developing field of emergency medicine (EM), wrote an article, "The Biology of Emergency Medicine," in response to criticism from other specialties and medical leaders that there was no unique biology of EM that would qualify it as a legitimate medical specialty. This essay received much attention at the time and served as rallying cry for emergency physicians (EPs) who were trying to find their places in the house of medicine and especially in medical schools and academic teaching hospitals. Thirty years later, the opposition that prompted many of Rosen's strongly worded impressions and observations on the biology of EM, clinical emergency department (ED) practice, education, and research has largely faded. Many of Rosen's predictions on the eventual success of EM have come true. However, core issues that existed then continue to present challenges for academic EM and clinical emergency practice. © 2011 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Community medicine in action: an integrated, fourth-year urban continuity preceptorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, John R; Jackson, Thomas C; Stearns, Marjorie A

    2002-07-01

    To provide an opportunity for fourth-year students at the University of Wisconsin Medical School in Madison to immerse in urban community medicine during a 34-week program. This experience enhances the integrity of the fourth year as well as merges medicine and public health perspectives in medical education as called for by the Medicine and Public Health Initiative. A limited number of fourth-year Wisconsin medical students have the opportunity to select a one-year, continuity-based preceptorship at the Milwaukee clinical campus with a focus in one of three domains: family medicine, internal medicine, or women's health. Students participate in the following clinical activities: a one-year, integrated preceptorship (one to three half days per week in a primary preceptor's office), medicine subinternship, senior surgery clerkship, selectives (16-20 weeks of clerkships relevant to preceptorship focus area), and one month of out-of-city electives. Complementing this community-based clinical experience is the opportunity to develop an increased appreciation for urban community health issues and resources by participating in a required urban community medicine clerkship and a mentored student scholarly project focusing on an aspect of urban community medicine and population health. All students begin the year in July with a four-week urban community medicine clerkship, which is based on the St. Luke's family practice residency's community medicine rotation and arranged by residency faculty. They conduct a "windshield survey" of a Milwaukee neighborhood, observing health hazards and identifying assets, and then present these observations to others in the clerkship. During this first month, students are introduced to the work of a variety of social service agencies, the Milwaukee City Health Department, and the Aurora Health Care/UW community clinics, which serve the state's most diverse zip codes. They meet with providers and researchers who share their expertise in

  13. Analysis of Personal Dosimetry for Nuclear Medicine Staff in Ten-Year Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poropat, M.; Dodig, D.; Ciglar, M.; Tezak, S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of personal dosimetry for nuclear medicine personnel in our department in a ten-year period. We have analyzed personal doses for 80 employees in nuclear medicine in a ten year period that we divided into two five year periods (from 2000 to 2004 and from 2005 to 2009). The personnel was dived into 8 groups according to their working assignments due to different radiation exposure from various radioisotopes in different wards in nuclear medicine: nuclear medicine specialists, technologists in scintigraphy ward, personnel of physics ward, ward for radiochemistry and radioimmunology, clinical ward and ultrasound ward, cleaning personnel, administrative personnel. We have compared average dose per person in particular ward in two five year periods. All doses for all personnel were in the permissible limits prescribed by the authorities. Higher average dose per person in a first five year period was detected in two wards, scintigraphy ward and ward for radiochemistry and radioimmunology due to the nature of their working assignments (preparation and application of radiopharmaceuticals, contact with patients who have received radiopharmaceutical). The decrease in the average dose per person was noticed in a second five-year period, especially in the wards with personnel that had no prior education in ionizing radiation protection. The decrease of dose was from 7.5 % to 84.2 %. We think that the decrease of average dose per person in a second five-year period was not only the result of the increased personal protection measures but also the result of continuing education of nuclear medicine personnel that is obligatory by the Law for ionizing radiation protection from year 1999, and the results from a ten-year period show its positive effect on radiation protection. (author)

  14. Trends in National Emergency Medicine Conference Didactic Lectures Over a 6-Year Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Michael; Riddell, Jeff; Njie, Abdoulie

    2017-01-01

    National conference didactic lectures have traditionally featured hour-long lecture-based presentations. However, there is evidence that longer lectures can lead to both decreased attention and retention of information. The authors sought to identify trends in lecture duration, lecture types, and number of speakers at four national emergency medicine (EM) conferences over a 6-year period. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of the length, number of speakers, and format of didactic lectures at four different national EM conferences over 6 years. The authors abstracted data from the national academic assemblies for the four largest not-for-profit EM organizations in the United States: American Academy of Emergency Medicine, American College of Emergency Physicians, Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors, and Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. There was a significant yearly decrease in the mean lecture lengths for three of the four conferences. There was an increase in the percentage of rapid fire sessions over the preceding 2 years with a corresponding decrease in the percentage of general educational sessions. There was no significant difference in the mean number of speakers per lecture. An analysis of 4210 didactic lecture sessions from the annual meetings of four national EM organizations over a 6-year period showed significant decreases in mean lecture length. These findings can help to guide EM continuing medical education conference planning and research.

  15. Four years of training in family medicine: implications for residency redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, J Lewis; McPherson, Vanessa; Little, John M

    2012-09-01

    In light of the ongoing consideration for extending the length of residency education in family medicine in the United States, this paper reports the findings from a retrospective, qualitative study of six family physicians that elected to extend their residency training from 3 to 4 years. Each participant completed a written questionnaire and a structured personal interview focusing on various aspects of career development resulting from the additional year of training. The authors independently evaluated these interviews to identify major themes. All the participants were found to have been involved in teaching medicine, valued a more flexible and expanded curriculum, and appreciated their individualized curricula-based on their respective career interests. Given the opportunity, each would opt again for a fourth year of training. There were mixed opinions as to whether the fourth year should be required of all family medicine residents. Other perceived benefits reported were: a better opportunity to find a personally satisfactory practice, additional time for gaining clarity about career plans, and a higher beginning salary as a result of the additional skills and experiences gained. This study of mid-career physicians supports that a fourth-year (PGY4) curriculum in family medicine may enhance subsequent career satisfaction. Further studies of residents in other PGY4 training programs are necessary to assess outcomes comparing our findings as well as guide the discipline's leaders in residency redesign.

  16. Self-reported recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among 15-year olds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobina, I; Villberg, J; Villerusa, A

    2015-01-01

    -old adolescents internationally; (2) to investigate the association between recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among boys and girls; and (3) to evaluate the consistency of these associations across countries. METHODS: The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative international Health Behaviour......BACKGROUND: There is considerable variation in adolescent pain prevalence across epidemiological studies, with limited information on pain-related behaviours among adolescents, including medicine use. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of recurrent pain among 15-year...... in School-aged Children 2009/2010 study collects data about self-reported aches and medicine use from 36,762 15-year-old adolescents from 22 countries/regions in Europe and the United States. Multi-level multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, was used to analyse the association between...

  17. Women in Academic Medicine Leadership: Has Anything Changed in 25 Years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Paula A; Davidoff, Frank; Levinson, Wendy

    2016-08-01

    Over the past 25 years, the number of women graduating from medical schools in the United States and Canada has increased dramatically to the point where roughly equal numbers of men and women are graduating each year. Despite this growth, women continue to face challenges in moving into academic leadership positions. In this Commentary, the authors share lessons learned from their own careers relevant to women's careers in academic medicine, including aspects of leadership, recruitment, editorship, promotion, and work-life balance. They provide brief synopses of current literature on the personal and social forces that affect women's participation in academic leadership roles. They are persuaded that a deeper understanding of these realities can help create an environment in academic medicine that is generally more supportive of women's participation, and that specifically encourages women in medicine to take on academic leadership positions.

  18. Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: 10-year updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarris, Jerome

    2018-03-25

    This paper provides a 10-year update of the 2007 systematic review of herbal medicines studied in a broad range of psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, seasonal affective, bipolar, psychotic, phobic, somatoform, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Ovid Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library were searched for herbal medicines with both pharmacological and clinical evidence of psychotropic activity. This updated review now covers clinical trial evidence for 24 herbal medicines in 11 psychiatric disorders. High-quality evidence was found to exist for the use of Piper methysticum (Kava), Passiflora spp. (passionflower) and Galphimia glauca (galphimia) for anxiety disorders; and Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort) and Crocus sativus (saffron) for major depressive disorder. Other encouraging herbal medicines with preliminary evidence include Curcuma longa (turmeric) in depression, Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) in affective disorders, and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo) as an adjunctive treatment in Schizophrenia. Although depression and anxiety are commonly researched, many other mental disorders still require further prospective investigation. Although the previous review suggested increasing the adjunctive study of select herbal medicines with pharmaceuticals, this was still only found to sparingly occur in research designs. Aside from this, future focus should involve the incorporation of more biomarker analysis, in particular pharmacogenomics, to determine genetic factors moderating response to herbal medicines. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Benchmarks for Support and Outcomes for Internal Medicine-Pediatrics Residency Programs: A 5-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Michael; Williams, Ronald; Dennar, Princess E.; Hopkins, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Combined internal medicine and pediatrics (medicine-pediatrics) residencies were Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited separately from their corresponding categorical residencies in June 2006. Objective We investigated how ACGME accreditation of medicine-pediatrics programs has affected the levels of support (both financial and personnel), the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) match rate, performance on the board examination, and other graduate outcomes. Methods From 2009 through 2013 we sent an annual SurveyMonkey online survey to members of the Medicine-Pediatrics Program Directors Association. Questions pertained to program characteristics, program director support, recruitment, ambulatory training, and graduate data. More than 79% of responders completed the entire survey for each year (sample size was 60 program directors). Results Compared to the time prior to accreditation of the specialty, there was an increase in program directors who are dually trained (89% versus 93%), an increase in program director salary ($134,000 before accreditation versus $185,000 in 2013, P medicine. Conclusions Our data show widespread improved support for medicine-pediatrics programs since the 2006 start of ACGME accreditation. PMID:26692969

  20. Benchmarks for Support and Outcomes for Internal Medicine-Pediatrics Residency Programs: A 5-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronica, Michael; Williams, Ronald; Dennar, Princess E; Hopkins, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    Combined internal medicine and pediatrics (medicine-pediatrics) residencies were Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited separately from their corresponding categorical residencies in June 2006. We investigated how ACGME accreditation of medicine-pediatrics programs has affected the levels of support (both financial and personnel), the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) match rate, performance on the board examination, and other graduate outcomes. From 2009 through 2013 we sent an annual SurveyMonkey online survey to members of the Medicine-Pediatrics Program Directors Association. Questions pertained to program characteristics, program director support, recruitment, ambulatory training, and graduate data. More than 79% of responders completed the entire survey for each year (sample size was 60 program directors). Compared to the time prior to accreditation of the specialty, there was an increase in program directors who are dually trained (89% versus 93%), an increase in program director salary ($134,000 before accreditation versus $185,000 in 2013, P Pediatrics examination was comparable to that for pediatrics residents. Since accreditation, a larger number of residents are choosing careers in hospital medicine. Our data show widespread improved support for medicine-pediatrics programs since the 2006 start of ACGME accreditation.

  1. The Benjamin H. Kean Travel Fellowship in Tropical Medicine: Assessment of Impact at 15 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, Aubri S; John, Chandy C

    2017-09-01

    The Benjamin H. Kean Fellowship in Tropical Medicine is an American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene initiative that provides medical students with funding for international clinical or research experiences lasting at least 1 month. Of the 175 Kean fellows from 1998 to 2013, 140 had current available e-mails, and 70 of the 140 (50%) responded to a survey about their fellowship experience. Alumni indicated that the Kean Fellowship had a high impact on their career plans with regard to preparation for ( N = 65, 94.2%) and inspiration to pursue ( N = 59, 88.1%) a career in tropical medicine and global health. Continued involvement in tropical medicine and global health was common: 52 alumni (74.3%) were currently working in tropical medicine or global health, 49 (71.0%) had done so in the interim between the Kean fellowship and their current position; and 17 of 19 Kean fellows (89.4%) who had completed all medical training and were now in professional practice continued to work in tropical medicine and global health. Alumni had been highly productive academically, publishing a total of 831 PubMed-indexed manuscripts, almost all on tropical medicine or global health topics, in the period between their fellowship year and 2013. Alumni reported strengths of the fellowship including funding, networking, and flexibility, and suggested that more networking and career mentoring would enhance the program. The Benjamin H. Kean fellowship program has been highly successful at inspiring and fostering ongoing work by trainees in tropical medicine and global health.

  2. [Analysis on reasons for disapproval of registration application of new traditional Chinese medicines in recent years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hainan

    2012-08-01

    To analyze reasons for disapproval of registration application of new traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and discuss potential problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China. All applications of new traditional Chinese medicines for registrations that had been disapproved by Center for Drug Evaluation of State Food Drug Administration from 2006 to 2008 were searched in data bank. Specific reasons for disapproval of each variety were inquired and sorted out. The statistics involved the proportion of each type (kind) disapproval reasons in all disapprovals in order to analyze which were the main reasons. The results were analyzed to find out potential problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China. There were totally 247 disapproved registration applications for new traditional Chinese medicines. Among them, there were 218 applications for clinical trials and 29 applications for launch in the market There were 9 categories (29 types) of reasons for the applications for clinical trials applications, mainly including such problems as R&D proposal, non-clinical effectiveness and non-clinical safety; while there were 5 categories (9 types) of reasons for the applications for launch in the market, with clinical effectiveness as the main reason. There were many kinds of reasons for the disapproval registration applications of new traditional Chinese medicines in recent years in China, mainly including such problems as effectiveness, safety and proposal basis. This reflects problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China to some extent.

  3. Effect of ambulatory medicine tutorial on clinical performance of 5th year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Pandejpong, Denla

    2013-02-01

    The present study provided a group learning activity called "Ambulatory Medicine Tutorial-AMT" for 5th year medical students in order to facilitate learning experience at ambulatory setting and to improve medical students' clinical performance. This research aimed specifically to study the effect of AMT. Two groups of twenty 5th-year medical students were enrolled during their ambulatory medicine blocks. Each medical student was assigned to have 8 ambulatory sessions. AMT was assigned to one group while the other group only used conventional learning activity. At the end of the present study, total internal medicine scores, patient satisfaction surveys, and data on average time spent on each clinical encounter were collected and compared. The AMT group received a higher total internal medicine score as compared to the conventional group (76.2 +/- 3.6 vs. 72.9 +/- 2.8, p = 0.003). The AMT group could reduce average time spent on each clinical encounter within their first-6 ambulatory sessions while the conventional group could acquire the same skill later in their last 2 ambulatory sessions. There was no significant difference found on comparing patient satisfaction scores between the 2 groups. AMT helped improving medical students' outcomes as shown from higher total internal medicine score as well as quicker improvement during real-life clinical encounters, AMT could be a good alternative learning activity for medical students at ambulatory setting.

  4. An Integrated Visualization and Basic Molecular Modeling Laboratory for First-Year Undergraduate Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    A 3D model visualization and basic molecular modeling laboratory suitable for first-year undergraduates studying introductory medicinal chemistry is presented. The 2 h practical is embedded within a series of lectures on drug design, target-drug interactions, enzymes, receptors, nucleic acids, and basic pharmacokinetics. Serving as a teaching aid…

  5. An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jofre, M J; Sierralta, M P [Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department, Santiago (Chile); Del Campo, G; Ide, A; Wiener, R [Department of Endocrinology of the Military Hospital, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-09-01

    An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Since the beginning of Nuclear Medicine, the thyroid gland has been an important subject for study. In the fifties, the complimentary use of 131 radioiodine after differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) surgery was postulated. The aim of the study was to analyze our experience of the management of patients with DTC. Material and methods: An 18-year retrospective analysis was made including 109 patients with previous diagnosis of DTC, 90 % females, mean age 47 +/- 17 y.o. (range: 19-85 y.o). Tumoral histology was 67 % papillary, 28 % follicular and 5% non-determined in the medical record. First doses of 131 radioiodine were between 50 and 200 mCi. In all, 156 radioiodine doses were given and 6 patients received 4 doses or more, with total doses between 300 and 570 mCi. Results: The distribution of first and total radioiodine doses is presented in the table below. Of the group of patients who received a first radioiodine dose of less than 100 mCi post surgery, 79% were treated before 1990. Those who received 150mCi or more had cervical ganglionar compromise, trachea invasion or subtotal thyroidectomy. In 50% of the patients who received 4 or more doses, the first two doses were 50 mCi. It is important to mention that there was one patient who received 8 radioiodine doses in 4 years , seven of them were 50 mCi ( total dose 438 mCi). This patient presented trachea and larynx invasion in the early stages, with a persistent focus in the left supraclavicular region. She later developed pulmonary fibrosis, for which she was treated with complimentary radiotherapy (30 Gy), before dying. Distribution of radioiodine doses is presented. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize the validity of a first 131 radioiodine dose after surgery of DTC patients of 100 mCi or more, to obtain the ablation of the remaining thyroid tissue. This

  6. An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.; Del Campo, G.; Ide, A.; Wiener, R.

    2002-01-01

    An eighteen year experience of differentiated thyroid carcinoma treatment with 131 radioiodine at the Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department. Since the beginning of Nuclear Medicine, the thyroid gland has been an important subject for study. In the fifties, the complimentary use of 131 radioiodine after differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) surgery was postulated. The aim of the study was to analyze our experience of the management of patients with DTC. Material and methods: An 18-year retrospective analysis was made including 109 patients with previous diagnosis of DTC, 90 % females, mean age 47 +/- 17 y.o. (range: 19-85 y.o). Tumoral histology was 67 % papillary, 28 % follicular and 5% non-determined in the medical record. First doses of 131 radioiodine were between 50 and 200 mCi. In all, 156 radioiodine doses were given and 6 patients received 4 doses or more, with total doses between 300 and 570 mCi. Results: The distribution of first and total radioiodine doses is presented in the table below. Of the group of patients who received a first radioiodine dose of less than 100 mCi post surgery, 79% were treated before 1990. Those who received 150mCi or more had cervical ganglionar compromise, trachea invasion or subtotal thyroidectomy. In 50% of the patients who received 4 or more doses, the first two doses were 50 mCi. It is important to mention that there was one patient who received 8 radioiodine doses in 4 years , seven of them were 50 mCi ( total dose 438 mCi). This patient presented trachea and larynx invasion in the early stages, with a persistent focus in the left supraclavicular region. She later developed pulmonary fibrosis, for which she was treated with complimentary radiotherapy (30 Gy), before dying. Distribution of radioiodine doses is presented. Conclusion: It is important to emphasize the validity of a first 131 radioiodine dose after surgery of DTC patients of 100 mCi or more, to obtain the ablation of the remaining thyroid tissue. This

  7. Self-reported medicine use among 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys in Denmark 1988-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Holme Hansen, Ebba; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep.......To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep....

  8. Self-reported medicine use among 11-to 15-year-old girls and boys in Denmark 1988-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, BE; Hansen, EH; Due, P

    2003-01-01

    To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep.......To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep....

  9. The earlier the better: An evaluation of changes to teaching year 1 Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, E.J.; Kilburn-Watt, E.; Cowell, S.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Changes were made to the content and mode of delivery of the Year 1 Nuclear Medicine degree program at The University of Sydney in 1996. Changes included increased study of skeletal, respiratory and cardiac Nuclear Medicine and the use of problem based learning to increase independent learning and clinical reasoning skills. Learning outcomes were qualitatively assessed to determine the educational value of the changes. The project aimed to evaluate whether changes made to the Year 1 program in 1996 raised clinical abilities of students entering their first clinical placement in Year 2. Retrospective surveys were conducted on both the 1995 and 1996 Year 1 students after completion of their first Year 2 clinical placement. Surveys were designed to assess the students perception of how well Year 1 had prepared them for both understanding and application of content studied in Year 1. Clinical Supervisors who assessed both cohorts of students were surveyed to determine if 1996 students presented with any appreciable difference in understanding and application to areas studied in Year 1. Results of the student survey indicated the 1996 students were more positive than the 1995 students about their clinical readiness. Clinical Supervisor survey results showed a positive response to the level of understanding and application of skills by the 1996 students. In conclusion, the 1996 Year 1 students were perceived to have a higher level of clinical abilities at the commencement of their Year 2 clinical placement. This result demonstrated worthwhile learning outcomes for the changes to content and mode of delivery in the Year 1 Nuclear Medicine degree program

  10. Doses from nuclear medicine examinations: A 25-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kairemo, K.J.A.; Korpela, H.

    2001-01-01

    New radiopharmaceuticals have been introduced in nuclear medicine examinations, and on the other hand, the amount of many routine nuclear medicine procedures have been replaced with clinical methods utilising non-ionisating radiation (ultrasonography, MRI). To clarify the situation in Finland, a country wide survey on the use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostics and therapy was made in 1975, 1982, 1989, 1994, 1997 and will be made in 2000. A questionnaire was sent to all hospitals and institutes using unsealed sources in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. For each procedure, the pharmaceutical used, the number of procedures and the typical administered activities were recorded. The collective effective doses from nuclear medicine examinations were calculated according to the ICRP formulae similarly for each survey. In Finland, in each of these years, more than 50,000 procedures in more than 30 different laboratories were performed. Significant changes in collective doses were observed: for example, the collective dose from I-131 was 350 manSv in 1975, and 20 manSv in 1997. In 1975, 68% (n=23967) of collective dose originated from I-131, whereas in 1997 the percentage of I-131 in collective dose was 10 % (n=1118). In 1994 and 1997, the use of the three radionuclides (Tc-99m, I-131 and Tl-201) accounted for 96% and 95% of the collective effective dose. Our results indicate that the collective effective dose from nuclear medicine examinations has decreased in last 25 years. National surveys form the basis when setting reference levels for typical nuclear medicine examinations. By introducing reference levels based on national practice it is possible to even decrease the collective effective dose. (author)

  11. Integrating population health into a family medicine clerkship: 7 years of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverzagt, Mark; Wallerstein, Nina; Benson, Jeffrey A; Tomedi, Angelo; Palley, Toby B

    2003-01-01

    A population health curriculum using methodologies from community-oriented primary care (COPC) was developed in 1994 as part of a required third-year family medicine clerkship at the University of New Mexico. The curriculum integrates population health/community medicine projects and problem-based tutorials into a community-based, ambulatory clinical experience. By combining a required population health experience with relevant clinical training, student careers have the opportunity to be influenced during the critical third year. Results over a 7-year period describe a three-phase evolution of the curriculum, within the context of changes in medical education and in health care delivery systems in that same period of time. Early evaluation revealed that students viewed the curricular experience as time consuming and peripheral to their training. Later comments on the revised curriculum showed a higher regard for the experience that was described as important for student learning.

  12. The American oil industry and the Fifty-Fifty Agreement of 1950

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper traces the history of the Fifty-fifty Agreement of 1950, and the role of the American oil industry in that agreement. Regardless of the definition one chooses for the term foreign policy, it can now be argued with considerable force that the Fifty-fifty Agreement was, in fact, the product of American foreign policy. Defining the term narrowly as the enunciated policy of the Executive Branch of Government on matters outside the national boundary, it is clear that a consistent policy had been in place for a long time supporting exactly the type of action which was taken hear. Defining the term broadly, as the defacto cumulative thrust of all competing interest groups within a nation-state (both governmental and private) outside the national boundary, makes the assertion even more clear. Including Aramco and the parent companies in the equation leaves little doubt that the Fifty-fifty Agreement was the product of American foreign policy

  13. [100 years with certificates: Danish Society of Insurance Medicine 1902-2002].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Danish Society of Insurance Medicine was formed in 1902 as an association between the Danish Society of Accident Insurance and the Danish Society of Life Insurance Medicine, both founded a year before. The purpose of the society is to apply and to further the scientific basis of insurance medicine. The meetings also play a role as a forum for discussions. The members of the society are all working part-time in an insurance company in Denmark (in contrast to many other countries where it is a full-time job). The members are mainly specialists in medicine and surgery. During the first half life of the society nearly all members were high-qualified doctors, i.e. professors and consultants at a university hospital in Copenhagen usually with a doctoral degree. These prominent doctors had a significant influence on insurance medicine in Denmark. The managing directors of the Insurance Companies were invited to the meetings. Many scientific works and textbooks were written on the subject. The society arranges two meetings yearly - one concerning with life insurance and one with accident-insurance medicine. Previously, the question put to the medical adviser was always "Which impairments can still be insured?", but today the question is the opposite "Which impairments are not insurable?" The members have increased to currently 112, still only men, but today the members are younger, comprise fewer professors and fewer with a doctoral degree. During the last 6 years, all interested members in the insurance companies have been invited to the meetings, providing a broader input for the discussions. The topic of the meeting is of current interest: new laws or a new treatment of a disease (medication, surgery) which has been introduced. One to three speakers open the meeting, followed by a discussion. The meetings are always concluded with a light meal and a glass of wine, in earlier days also with cigars and Danish schnaps. 190 meetings have been held during the last 100 years

  14. Feasibility of an innovative third-year chief resident system: an internal medicine residency leadership study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor O. Kolade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The role of the internal medicine chief resident includes various administrative, academic, social, and educational responsibilities, fulfillment of which prepares residents for further leadership tasks. However, the chief resident position has historically only been held by a few residents. As fourth-year chief residents are becoming less common, we considered a new model for rotating third-year residents as the chief resident. Methods: Online surveys were given to all 29 internal medicine residents in a single university-based program after implementation of a leadership curriculum and specific job description for the third-year chief resident. Chief residents evaluated themselves on various aspects of leadership. Participation was voluntary. Descriptive statistics were generated using SPSS version 21. Results: Thirteen junior (first- or second-year resident responses reported that the chief residents elicited input from others (mean rating 6.8, were committed to the team (6.8, resolved conflict (6.7, ensured efficiency, organization and productivity of the team (6.7, participated actively (7.0, and managed resources (6.6. Responses from senior residents averaged 1 point higher for each item; this pattern repeated itself in teaching evaluations. Chief resident self-evaluators were more comfortable running a morning report (8.4 than with being chief resident (5.8. Conclusion: The feasibility of preparing internal medicine residents for leadership roles through a rotating PGY-3 (postgraduate year chief residency curriculum was explored at a small internal medicine residency, and we suggest extending the study to include other programs.

  15. Columbia physics in the fifties: Untold tales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sucher

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Eyvind Wichmann and I were both graduate students at Columbia University in the fifties, a decade of remarkable creativity by a star-studded physics faculty, which included some ten Nobel Laureates. I share some reminiscences about our time there and explain the role played in our relationship by an eightball.

  16. Sustainable harvesting strategy of medicinal plant species in Nepal results of a six-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Z.; Dostálek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2017), s. 239-252 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : scrophulariiflora pennell hong * population viability analysis * nardostachys-grandiflora dc. * comparative demography * allium-tricoccum * growth rates * models * conservation * dynamics * forest * conservation * elasticity * Himalayan region * medicinal plants * NTFPs * population dynamics * rhubarb * sustainability Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  17. First-Year Residents Outperform Third-Year Residents after Simulation-Based Education in Critical Care Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Benjamin D.; Corbridge, Thomas C.; Schroedl, Clara J.; Wilcox, Jane E.; Cohen, Elaine R.; McGaghie, William C.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Prior research shows that gaps exist in internal medicine residents’ critical care knowledge and skills. The purpose of this study was to compare the bedside critical care competency of first-year residents who received a simulation-based educational intervention plus clinical training to third-year residents who received clinical training alone. Methods During their first three months of residency, a group of first-year residents completed a simulation-based educational intervention. A group of traditionally-trained third-year residents who did not receive simulation-based training served as a comparison group. Both groups were evaluated using a 20-item clinical skills assessment at the bedside of a patient receiving mechanical ventilation at the end of their medical intensive care unit rotation. Scores on the skills assessment were compared between groups. Results Simulator-trained first-year residents (n=40) scored significantly higher compared to traditionally-trained third-year residents (n=27) on the bedside assessment, 91.3% (95% CI 88.2% to 94.3%) vs. 80.9% (95% CI 76.8% to 85.0%), P = simulation-based educational intervention demonstrated higher clinical competency than third-year residents who did not undergo simulation training. Critical care competency cannot be assumed after clinical ICU rotations; simulation-based curricula can help ensure residents are proficient to care for critically ill patients. PMID:23222546

  18. German Atomic Energy Act turns fifty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Horst

    2009-01-01

    The German Atomic Energy Act entered into force on January 1, 1960. It turns fifty at the beginning of 2010. Is this a reason to celebrate or rather the opposite? Lawyers, in principle, can view old pieces of legislation from 2 perspectives: On the one hand, aged laws are treated in a spirit of veneration and are celebrated as proven. On the other hand, an anniversary of this kind can be a welcome reason for demands to abolish or, at least, fundamentally renew that law. Over the past half century, the German Atomic Energy Act went through stormy and varied phases both of a legal and a political character. Its 50 th anniversary is likely to spark off very conflicting evaluations as well. A review of legal history shows that the German or, rather, the Federal German Atomic Energy Act (AtG) was not a first-of-its-kind piece of legislation but stemmed from the 1957 EURATOM Treaty, in a way representing a latecomer of that treaty. The Atomic Energy Act experienced a number of important developments throughout its history: - In 1975, compulsory licensing of fuel element factories was introduced. - The back end of the fuel cycle, especially final storage, were incorporated in the Atomic Energy Act comprehensively first in 1976. - In 1985, legislators decided in favor of unlimited nuclear liability. - In 1994 and 1998, only some innovations in special items were introduced under the headings of environmental impact assessment and suitability for repository storage because the controversy about nuclear power did not permit a fundamental alignment towards a more comprehensive modern safety law. - The decision to opt out of the peaceful uses of nuclear power in 2002 drew the final line so far of decisions about directions of nuclear law in a major amendment. In parallel, the decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court and the Federal Administrative Court in the late 1970s and, above all, the 1980s provided important assistance which has remained valid to this day. What is

  19. Seven years of teenage pregnancy in an inner London genitourinary medicine service - a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazi, Aseel; Daley, Natalie; Williams, Elizabeth; McLeod, Felicity; Rafiezadeh, Saba; Prime, Katia

    2014-12-01

    Young people attending genitourinary medicine services are at high risk of unplanned pregnancy. We performed a retrospective cohort study to identify characteristics of pregnant teenagers accessing an inner London genitourinary medicine service. There were 481 pregnancies in 458 teenagers with 54 previous pregnancies and 46 previous terminations of pregnancy. The under-18 and under-16 teenage pregnancy rates were 92.1 and 85.8 per 1000 age-matched clinic attendees, respectively. Median age was 17.1 years. 'Black Other' teenagers ('Black British', 'Mixed White-Black Caribbean' and 'Mixed White-Black African') were over-represented, compared to our clinic population, while those of White ethnicity were under-represented. Few pregnancies (1.5%) were planned with the majority (64%) intending terminations of pregnancy. Most teenagers did not use consistent contraception. Two-thirds of patients had attended genitourinary medicine services in the past and sexually transmitted infection prevalence at presentation was high. Effectively targeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of teenage genitourinary medicine clinic attendees may have a significant impact on reducing sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancy and terminations of pregnancy in this group. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Effectiveness of a 2-year menopause medicine curriculum for obstetrics and gynecology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Mindy S; Washington, Chantel I; Stewart, Katherine I; Shen, Wen

    2016-03-01

    Previous work has shown American obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) residents are lacking in menopause training. Our objective was to assess the effectiveness of a 2-year menopause medicine curriculum in improving OB/GYN residents' knowledge and self-assessed competency in menopause topics. We developed a menopause medicine-teaching curriculum for OB/GYN residents at our academic hospital-based residency program. The 2-year curriculum was composed of year 1: four 1-hour lectures and one 2-hour lab with cases presentations, and year 2: three 1-hour lectures and one 2-hour lab. Core topics included menopause physiology, hormone therapy, breast health, bone health, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disease. Pre- and posttests assessed resident knowledge and comfort in core topics, and a pre- and postcurriculum survey assessed utility and learning satisfaction. From July 2011 to June 2013, 34 OB/GYN residents completed the menopause curriculum annually with an average attendance at each module of 23 residents. Pre-/posttest scores improved from a mean pretest score of 57.3% to a mean posttest score of 78.7% (P menopause patients with 75.8% reporting feeling "barely comfortable" and 8.4% feeling "not at all comfortable." After the 2-year curriculum, 85.7% reported feeling "comfortable/very comfortable" taking care of menopause patients. The majority of residents (95.2%) reported the menopause curriculum was "extremely useful." A 2-year menopause medicine curriculum for OB/GYN residents utilizing lectures and a lab with case studies is an effective modality to improve resident knowledge required to manage menopause patients.

  1. The evolution of integration: innovations in clinical skills and ethics in first year medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunger, Fern; Duke, Pauline S

    2012-01-01

    Critical self-reflection, medical ethics and clinical skills are each important components of medical education but are seldom linked in curriculum development. We developed a curriculum that builds on the existing integration of ethics education into the clinical skills course to more explicitly link these three skills. The curriculum builds on the existing integration of clinical skills and ethics in first year medicine. It refines the integration through scheduling changes; adds case studies that emphasise the social, economic and political context of our province's patient population; and introduces reflection on the "culture of medicine" as a way to have students articulate and understand their own values and moral decision making frameworks. This structured Clinical Skills course is a model for successfully integrating critical self-reflection, reflection on the political, economic and cultural contexts shaping health and healthcare, and moral decision making into clinical skills training.

  2. [Quality assurance systems and occupational medicine system: an history twenty years along].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostoli, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Along the last tventy years, in our country the quality assurance systems and the occupational medicine deeply interacted both in theoretical and practical fields of interest at three levels: (i) the need of preventive and therefore of occupational medicine in quality assurance systems; (ii) the need on reverse of quality in prevention and occupational mnedicine mainly in qualification and updating process; (iii) the evidence, proofs of efficacy or appropriateness of different preventive procedures and occupational physician activities; (iv) the connection with European and national legal directives and with technical or good practice norms. Finally we discuss about the role of occupational physician as the global consultant for enterprise, as a mandatory strategic technical figure in a typical multidisciplinary processes as the implementation of the quality systems.

  3. Required internship in diagnostic radiology in the fifth year of medicine at Montreal University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Georges, G.; Raymond-Tremblay, D.; Danais, S.; Dussault, R.; Grignon, A.; Lafortune, M.; Saltiel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of methodology, organization, and evaluation confronting the radiology departments of the university hospitals affiliated with the University of Montreal, the medical students, and the University itself in connection with an elective internship in radiology offered in the fifth year of medicine, resulted in the formation of a committee to reorganize the course of study. In this concise article the authors describe this and other measures taken by the University to solve these problems. The committees' main purpose was to restructure the internship which was made compulsory so that future physicians would be prepared to draw on the resources of diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. To this end, the committee formulated the objectives, content, evaluation system, and pedagogical methods to be used in those courses. The 25 self-teaching modules, together with the observation and practical interpretation of radiology sessions, proved highly useful in solving the initial problems, and were of particular interest to the students. (author)

  4. Early experience with dual mobility acetabular systems featuring highly cross-linked polyethylene liners for primary hip arthroplasty in patients under fifty five years of age: an international multi-centre preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epinette, Jean-Alain; Harwin, Steven F; Rowan, Fiachra E; Tracol, Philippe; Mont, Michael A; Chughtai, Morad; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate early performance of contemporary dual mobility acetabular systems with second generation annealed highly cross-linked polyethylene for primary hip arthroplasty of patients under 55 years of age. A prospective observational five years study across five centers in Europe and the USA of 321 patients with a mean age of 48.1 years was performed. Patients were assessed for causes of revision, hip instability, intra-prosthetic dissociation, Harris hip score and radiological signs of osteolysis. There were no dislocations and no intra-prosthetic dissociations. Kaplan Meier analysis demonstrated 97.51% survivorship for all cause revision and 99.68% survivorship for acetabular component revision at five years. Mean Harris hip score was 93.6. Two acetabular shells were revised for neck-rim implant impingement without dislocation and ten femoral stems were revised for causes unrelated to dual mobility implants. Contemporary highly cross-linked polyethylene dual mobility systems demonstrate excellent early clinical, radiological, and survivorship results in a cohort of patients that demand high performance from their implants. It is envisaged that DM and second generation annealed HXLPE may reduce THA instability and wear, the two most common causes of THA revision in hip arthroplasty.

  5. The European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine in 2008: a year in a paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, S

    2009-05-01

    In 2007, the European Society of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (ESPRM) established the European Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine Journal Network (EPRMJN) with a view to increase scientific knowledge among physical and rehabilitation medicine (PRM) specialists and to foster collaboration among the national, regional (multinational) and European PRM journals. In this connection, this paper gives the readers of national and regional, and European PRM journals a complete overview of the European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (EJPRM), the official ESPRM journal, and a review of the papers published in 2008. The evolution of the EJPRM in the last five years was analyzed, and the papers published in 2008 were systematically reviewed and classified by content and discussed. The EJPRM is listed in PubMed and Current Contents; at now the unofficial 2008 Impact Factor is 1.14, like the Impact Factor, also the independent SCImago Journal Rate and Cites per Doc (two years) have increased steadily since 2005. The EJPRM published 72 papers in 2008, with a well balanced coverage of different rehabilitation topics. The rejection rate is around 40%; the review and publication times are 1.2 and 10.0 months, respectively. The published papers are presented here by topic, highlighting multi-journal initiatives (such as the EPRMJN and the Euro-American Focus with the American Journal of PRM), monographic Special Sections, systematic Cochrane PRM reviews, original papers and case reports, and other contents including the Internet Bookshelf. This paper represents the start of the EPRMJN collaborative efforts to increase scientific knowledge among PRM specialists in Europe, independently of the language in which papers are published.

  6. Turkey's top publications in cardiovascular medicine in the past 25 years: evaluation of its impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Altan

    2017-12-01

    To identify "genuine" publications from Turkey's institutions since 1992 that have cumulatively contributed the most to global cardiovascular medicine. Based on data from the Web of Science, 146 publications from Turkey were identified having received ≥50 citations as of late July, 2017. Papers with more than a minor share by international authors were excluded. Hundred and ten primary authors generated 147 medical papers which received ≥50 (interquartile range, 54; 86) citations. These articles corresponded in quality to the top 12% global papers. Half of the articles were published from 2002 to late 2007, with a median exposure period of 12 years. Peak performance was reached in 2004-'07, with a mean of 15-20 papers annually, which then regressed to five papers in 2008-'13, representing an estimated 50% decline. Cardiology generated 105 articles (20 in collaboration with other branches), cardiovascular surgery generated 27 articles, and pediatric cardiology generated 5 articles. Publications arose from 26 medical faculties, Gülhane Military Academy, and 9 hospitals not which were not academically affiliated. The performance of many related Turkish institutions was disappointing. Turkey's contribution to cardiovascular medicine has further declined slightly in the current assessment, particularly since 2007. To prevent a further gap in Turkey's contribution to the field, an undelayed return is needed by building an environment that allows focusing on research with a potential to contribute to medicine.

  7. National Medicines Policy in retrospective: a review of (almost) 20 years of implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Daniela Moulin Maciel de; Chaves, Gabriela Costa; Azeredo, Thiago Botelho; Silva, Rondineli Mendes da

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceutical services and the formulation of a medicines policy are SUS areas ensured by the organic health care law 8,080/90. Thus, after a widely participative process, involving stakeholders, the National Medicines Policy (NMP) was approved in 1998 by Ordinance 3,916.The NMP presents directives and priorities, aligned with organic health care law, which should guide the federal, states and municipals entities actions to achieve the policy goals. Considering almost 20 years of the NMP, this paper took stock discussed some of the directives in light of the SUS principles. It was not the objective to provide an exhaustive review of all the activities performed during this period. The authors tried to get close to those that have brought advances and dilemmas, with potential risk of regression. Efforts to implement an ambitious agenda applied to pharmaceutical services were identified. This agenda tried to deal with different challenges like the dynamics of the pharmaceutical market and the operation of pharmaceutical services to guarantee the supply of medicines aligned with principles and directives of SUS.

  8. [50 years anniversary of Research Institute for Occupational Medicine and Human Ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Shaiakhmetov, S F; Gus'kova, T M

    2010-01-01

    The article covers main steps of establishment and development of Research Institute for Occupational medicine and Human ecology with Siberian Division of RAMSc over 50 years of activities, major results of research, contribution of the Institute personnel into development of hygienic science and practical medicine in Siberia.

  9. Thirty years of artificial intelligence in medicine (AIME) conferences: A review of research themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Niels; Combi, Carlo; Marin, Roque; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    Over the past 30 years, the international conference on Artificial Intelligence in MEdicine (AIME) has been organized at different venues across Europe every 2 years, establishing a forum for scientific exchange and creating an active research community. The Artificial Intelligence in Medicine journal has published theme issues with extended versions of selected AIME papers since 1998. To review the history of AIME conferences, investigate its impact on the wider research field, and identify challenges for its future. We analyzed a total of 122 session titles to create a taxonomy of research themes and topics. We classified all 734 AIME conference papers published between 1985 and 2013 with this taxonomy. We also analyzed the citations to these conference papers and to 55 special issue papers. We identified 30 research topics across 12 themes. AIME was dominated by knowledge engineering research in its first decade, while machine learning and data mining prevailed thereafter. Together these two themes have contributed about 51% of all papers. There have been eight AIME papers that were cited at least 10 times per year since their publication. There has been a major shift from knowledge-based to data-driven methods while the interest for other research themes such as uncertainty management, image and signal processing, and natural language processing has been stable since the early 1990s. AIME papers relating to guidelines and protocols are among the most highly cited. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: declarations of adverse reactions in the year 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Stürer, A; Althaus, F R; Caduff-Janosa, P

    2010-12-01

    During the year 2009, 134 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) were received (106 in the year 2008). The distribution according to species and drug classes remained in line with previous years. Companion animals were involved in most of the reports (46 % dogs, 19 % cats), followed by cattle or calves (22 %). Antiparasitic drugs made the biggest part with 30 % of the reports, followed by antiinfectives (19 %) and hormones (13 %). Some reactions following their use are specifically discussed. 95 additional enquiries about ADRs of VMPs were received by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich. Most of them concerned dogs or cats and antiparasitics or anti-inflammatory drugs. In the vaccinovigilance program, a total of 1020 reports were received, of which 1000 were related to the vaccination against blue tongue disease. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were aborts, mastitis or alterations of milk quality and they are specifically discussed.

  11. The European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine – The First Two Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kellett

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Journal of Case Reports in Internal Medicine (EJCRIM is just over two years old. To date 400 reports have been submitted and just under half have been accepted for publication. In order to keep costs down our initial policy was to charge a small fee for all submissions, and a further small publication fee for papers that were accepted. However, we have now abolished the submission charge and replaced it with a single, slightly increased, publication charge for all accepted papers.

  12. A Formalized Three-Year Emergency Medicine Residency Ultrasound Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience and type of curriculum: The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Emergency Medicine Residency Program Ultrasound Education Curriculum is a three-year curriculum for PGY-1 to PGY-3 learners. Introduction/Background: Each year of the three-year The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Emergency Medicine Ultrasound Curriculum focuses on different aspects of emergency ultrasonography, thereby promoting progressive understanding and utilization of point-of-care ultrasound in medical decision-making during residency training. Ultrasound is an invaluable bedside tool for emergency physicians; this skill must be mastered by resident learners during residency training, and ultrasound competency is a required ACGME milestone.1 The American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP currently recommends that 11 applications of emergency ultrasound be part of the core skills of an emergency physician.2 This curriculum acknowledges the standards developed by ACEP and the ACGME. Objectives: Learners will 1 know the indications for each the 11 ACEP point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS applications; 2 perform each of the 11 ACEP POCUS applications; 3 integrate POCUS into medical decision-making. Methods: The educational strategies used in this curriculum include: independent, self-directed learning (textbook and literature reading, brief didactic sessions describing indications and technique for each examination, hands-on ultrasound scanning under the direct supervision of ultrasound faculty with real-time feedback, and quality assurance review of ultrasound images. Residents are expected to perform a minimum of 150 ultrasound examinations with associated quality assurance during the course of their residency training. The time requirements, reading material, and ultrasound techniques taught vary depending on the year of training. Length of curriculum: The entirety of the curriculum is three years; however, each year of residency training has

  13. Summary of fifty years research on the late effects of atomic bomb irradiation in Japan with special reference to possible similar late effects by nuclear weapons tests in Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, M.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation clearly demonstrated statistically significant increases of risks for acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors including thyroid cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, lung cancer, hepatoma and skin cancer. The excess relative risks was highest for acute lymphoid leukemia, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid cancer. The increased risk for leukemia has almost completely disappeared after 50 years, whereas the risks for cancers are apparently persisting giving a great threat to general health of atomic bomb survivors. These observations can be directly referred to the possible late effects of the acute and chronic exposure to irradiation caused by nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk region. Recent dose-estimation efforts by Kazakhstan, US and Japanese scientists indicated that there had been Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bomb equivalent high-dose exposure in some residents around the test sites. Some researchers suggested increased risks for malignant diseases such as leukemia and cancers. Unfortunately there was a lack of high-quality statistics in the Semipalatinsk survey, providing a considerable difficulty in interpreting the estimated incidences of such malignant diseases

  14. Fifty challenging problems in probability with solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Mosteller, Frederick

    1987-01-01

    Can you solve the problem of ""The Unfair Subway""? Marvin gets off work at random times between 3 and 5 p.m. His mother lives uptown, his girlfriend downtown. He takes the first subway that comes in either direction and eats dinner with the one he is delivered to. His mother complains that he never comes to see her, but he says she has a 50-50 chance. He has had dinner with her twice in the last 20 working days. Explain. Marvin's adventures in probability are one of the fifty intriguing puzzles that illustrate both elementary ad advanced aspects of probability, each problem designed to chall

  15. UK-trained junior doctors' intentions to work in UK medicine: questionnaire surveys, three years after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surman, Geraldine; Goldacre, Michael J; Lambert, Trevor W

    2017-12-01

    Objective To report on the career intentions, three years after qualification, of 12 national cohorts of UK-trained doctors who qualified between 1974 and 2012, and, specifically, to compare recent UK medical graduates' intentions to work in medicine in the UK with earlier graduates. Design Questionnaire surveys of cohorts of UK medical graduates defined by year of graduation. Setting UK. Participants 30,272 UK medical graduates. Main outcome measures Stated level of intention to pursue a long-term career in medicine in the UK. Results The response rate was 62% (30,272/48,927). We examined responses to the question ' Apart from temporary visits abroad, do you intend to practise medicine in the United Kingdom for the foreseeable future?' Of doctors from UK homes, 90% had specified that they would 'definitely or probably' practise medicine in the UK in the surveys of 1977-1986, 81% in 1996-2011 and 64% in 2015. Those who said that they would probably or definitely not practise medicine in the UK comprised 5% in 1977-1986, 8% in 1996-2011 and 15% in 2015. Most who were not definite about a future career in UK medicine indicated that they would wish to practise medicine outside the UK rather than to leave medicine. Conclusions The wish to remain in UK medical practice in the 2015 survey was unprecedentedly low in this unique series of 40 years of surveys.

  16. Imperial Medicine in a Changing World: The Fourth International Congresses on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, 1948.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Julia

    2016-01-01

    The close connections between colonialism and tropical medicine have been widely discussed by historians over the last fifty years. However, few authors consider the relationship between tropical medicine and European and North American imperialism in the immediate post-World War II period. This article examines the Fourth International Congresses on Tropical Medicine and Malaria, held jointly in Washington in 1948. Using the research presented during the conference, it questions to what degree the specialisation had changed in the postwar period. It argues that although some changes are discernable, imperial traditions and relationships remained firmly embedded within the tropical medicine of the congress.

  17. Self-reported medicine use among 11- to 15-year-old girls and boys in Denmark 1988-1998

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn E; Holme Hansen, Ebba; Due, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To describe the self-reported medicine use for common health complaints among 11-15-year-olds in Denmark during a ten year period, 1988-1998. The paper focuses on medicine for headache, stomach ache, cough, cold, nervousness, and difficulties in getting to sleep. METHODS: Four cross......: A large proportion of 11-15-year-olds reported medicine use during the past month. It was most common to take medicines for headache (used by 55% of 15-year-old girls and 36% of 15-year-old boys in 1998) and stomach ache (33% among 15-year-old girls in 1998). Pain reliever use was higher among girls than...... difficulties. CONCLUSION: A high proportion of 11-15-year-old girls and boys reported medicine use in relation to common health complaints. The proportion of users increased during the past decade. It is suggested that more information about medicine be built into health education programs in the future....

  18. Three-year emergency medicine training program in The Netherlands: first evaluation from the residents' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Salomon Willem; Gaakeer, Menno Iskander; Veugelers, Rebekka

    2013-07-26

    The Netherlands' 3-year training in Emergency Medicine (EM) was formally approved and introduced in November 2008. To identify areas for improvement, we conducted the first evaluation of this curriculum from the residents' perspective. A questionnaire was composed on ten aspects of the curriculum. It contained multiple-choice, open and opinion questions; answers to the latter were classified using the Likert scale. The questionnaires were mailed to all enrolled residents. We mailed questionnaires to all 189 enrolled residents, and 105 responded (55.6%). Although they were satisfied with their training overall, 96.2% thought it was currently too short: 18.3% desired extension to 4 years, 76.0% to 5 and 1.9% to 6 years. Nevertheless, residents expected that they would function effectively as emergency physicians (EPs) after finishing their 3-year training program. Bedside teaching was assessed positively by 35.2%. All rotations were assessed positively, with the general practice rotation seen as contributing the least to the program. According to 43.7%, supervising EPs were available for consultation; 40.7% thought that, in a clinical capacity, the EP was sufficiently present during residents' shifts. When EPs were present, 82.5% found them to be easily accessible, and 66.6% viewed them as role models. In the Emergency Medicine Departments (EDs) with a higher number of EPs employed, residents tended to perceive better supervision and were more likely to see their EPs as role models. While residents were stimulated to do research, actual support and assistance needed to be improved. Although overall, the current training program was evaluated positively, the residents identified four areas for improvement: (1) in training hospitals, trained EPs should be present more continuously for clinical supervision; (2) bedside teaching should be improved, (3) scientific research should be facilitated more and (4) the training program should be extended.

  19. Fifty Years of A-Level Mathematics: Have Standards Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ian; Wheadon, Chris; Humphries, Sara; Inglis, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Advanced-level (A-level) mathematics is a high-profile qualification taken by many school leavers in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and around the world as preparation for university study. Concern has been expressed in these countries that standards in A-level mathematics have declined over time, and that school leavers enter university or the…

  20. Tribology - friction, lubrication and wear: fifty years on. 2 v

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the proceedings of the International Tribology Conference held in London (United Kingdom), 1987, and organised by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. The aim of the conference was to address the current status and future developments in all aspects of tribology. The conference proceedings contained 121 papers, and the sessions were structured under six headings: hydrodynamic, elastohydrodynamic and mixed lubrication; friction and wear; contact mechanics; materials; design and applications; and lubricants. Four papers were chosen for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  1. Theoretical nuclear fission: The evolution of the first fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of the dynamical theory of nuclear fission is reviewed through four recognizable major phases. Its conceptual structure was from the outset shaped by the Bohr-Wheeler idea of the nucleus as a liquid drop. On the other hand, today's nuclear drop is a system which has under study repeatedly revealed remarkable and unexpected properties, especially with respect to the dependence of its energy upon its shape. Although some of these special properties arise from quantal effects, the theory of fission is still expressed largely in terms of classical dynamics. This situation leaves open the question whether our theoretical success flows entirely from physical truth or in part from the great phenomenological flexibility of the drop model. It leads one also to wonder whether in the next phase connections with the quantal many-body dynamics might finally find a firm place in the theory, and tie its predictions quantitatively to the deeper microscopic reality

  2. Fifty years of CFD for room air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2015-01-01

    the principle behind CFD, the development in numerical schemes, turbulence models and the importance of the increased computer size since the 1970s. Special attention is given to the selection of the correct governing equations, to the understanding of low turbulent flow, to the selection of turbulence models...

  3. MAYAK production association ``the fifty year old secret''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikshov, A. I.; Glagolenko, Y. V.; Malykh, Y. A.; Langley, Roger; Latham, Ian

    1998-06-01

    This paper details the history, production capability, facilities and capacity of MAYAK Production Association. The paper also gives technical details of reactors, storage ponds and handling facilities used for fabrication of Co-60 and Cs-137 sources for Gamma Irradiation Plants and other applications, and describes the quality assurance system and methods.

  4. The lure of local SETI: Fifty years of field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailleris, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    With the commemoration in October 2007 of the Sputnik launch, space exploration celebrated its 50th anniversary. Despite impressive technological and scientific achievements the fascination for space has weakened during the last decades. One contributing factor has been the gradual disappearance of mankind's hope of discovering extraterrestrial life within its close neighbourhood. In striking contrast and since the middle of the 20th century, a non-negligible proportion of the population have already concluded that intelligent beings from other worlds do exist and visit Earth through space vehicles popularly called Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). In light of the continuous public interest for the UFO enigma symbolized by the recent widely diffused media announcements on the release of French and English governmental files; and considering the approach of broadening the strategies of the "Active SETI" approach and the existence of a rich multi-disciplinary UFO documentation of potential interest for SETI; this paper describes some past scientific attempts to demonstrate the physical reality of the phenomena and potentially the presence on Earth of probes of extraterrestrial origin. Details of the different instrumented field studies deployed by scientists and organizations during the period 1950-1990 in the USA, Canada and Europe are provided. In conclusion it will be argued that while continuing the current radio/optical SETI searches, there is the necessity to maintain sustaining attention to the topic of anomalous aerospace phenomena and to develop new rigorous research approaches.

  5. International conference on fifty years research in nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    These proceedings contain extended abstracts of the papers presented at the named conference. They deal with static properties of fission, instrumentation for fission studies, fission in compound-nucleus reactions, fission dynamics, fission-like heavy ion reactions, and fusion reactions. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  6. Fifty years of illumination about the natural levels of adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Jacobus Jan

    2016-01-01

    A visionary Darwinian ahead of his time, George C. Williams developed in his 1966 book Adaptation and Natural Selection the essentials of a unifying theory of adaptation that remains robust today and has inspired immense progress in understanding how natural selection works.......A visionary Darwinian ahead of his time, George C. Williams developed in his 1966 book Adaptation and Natural Selection the essentials of a unifying theory of adaptation that remains robust today and has inspired immense progress in understanding how natural selection works....

  7. Fifty years of forest hydrology in the Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Rhett Jackson; Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Wayne T. Swank; Mark Riedel; Jim Patric; Tom Williams; Jim M. Vose; Carl Trettin; W. Michael Aust; R. Scott Beasley; Hamlin Williston; George G. Ice

    2004-01-01

    The forests of the southeastern United States are incredibly valuable and diverse, both for timber production and for the aquatic habitat they provide. These overlapping values and diverse conditions have spawned numerous studies to assess how forest management affects hydrology and water quality. In the mountains, key watershed studies include those conducted at USDA...

  8. [Fifty years of green memory: nursing care for the environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wächter, Maria Isaura Fradera; Piccinini, Gema Conte; Matzenbacher, Nelson Ivo

    2003-08-01

    This paper describes the activities related to the 50th anniversary celebration of the Nursing School of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. It aimed at surveying the trees of the florula of the green area that surrounds the School and rescuing the memory of those who planted each specimen. The orphan trees were offered to the teaching and administrative staff for adoption. Adding up the erva-mate and the pau-brasil trees planted during the celebration, there are a total of 100 trees distributed into 18 families and 29 species out of which 15 are native and 14 are exotic trees. The erva-mate tree and its monument represent the landmark of this significant date.

  9. Metallography at the Met Lab -- The first fifty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.H.

    1995-01-01

    The Met Lab at the University of Chicago was established to build the world's first nuclear reactor. The object was to see if a pile (CP-1) could be built to create a sustained chain reaction, i.e., controlled nuclear fission. New materials of the very best quality were needed and people of many skills worked together to achieve the goal as quickly as possible. This is the story of a select group of people who were scientific and engineering pioneers in this new field. Research continued at new sites on more advanced reactors and cooling systems. Many problems were encountered in the fabrication of reactor components, and metallography was a crucial method of analyzing the reactions and quality of consolidation. 1996 will be the 50th anniversary of the beginning of the National Laboratories, so it is appropriate to commemorate and recall some pioneering achievements

  10. Maternal health in fifty years of Tanzania independence: Challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High rate of maternal death is one of the major public health concerns in Tanzania. ... had been on a downward trend from 453 to 200 per 100,000 live births. ... Current statistics indicate that maternal mortality ratio has dropped slightly in 2010 ...

  11. Fifty years of studies on environmental radioactivity in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osores, Jose M.; Gonzales, Susana; Martinez, Jorge; Lopez, Edith; Jara, Raul; Anaya, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    In May of 1962, due to the explosions carried out by the Commission of Atomic Energy of the United States in the Christmas Island, a group of professionals of the 'Junta de Control de Energia Atomica' of Peru, created in 1957, carried out experimental evaluations of atmospheric radioactivity, obtaining acceptable results regarding those of Naval US Research Laboratory, this was the beginning of the Laboratory of Atmospheric Radioactivity that begins to operate permanently in February of 1964. In 1966, France began a program of nuclear tests in the French Polynesian, generating concern due to the meteorological conditions that could affect the peruvian population. With the support of experts and equipments on the part of the government from France, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity began their activities in August of 1966. At the present time, the Laboratory of Environmental Radioactivity is located in the Nuclear Center RACSO of the 'Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear' and it carries out the following programs: Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Influence Area of the Nuclear Center, Nationwide Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Marine Radiological Environmental Surveillance, Radiological Environmental Surveillance in the Peruvian Antarctic Region and Surveillance of the Radioactive Contamination of Foods. The results of the evaluations of the programs of radiological environmental surveillance, developed nationwide from 1962, show one gradual decrease of the levels of environmental radioactivity. Significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Be-7 were found in the Antarctic region, and, in the area of influence of the nuclear center RACSO, environmental discharges of I-131, Cs-137, Co-60, Cs- 134 and Te-123m were detected, however, the concentrations did not present radiological risk for the population. (author)

  12. History for fifty years of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-15

    This introduces establishment, foundation, technical independent, puberty and preview of KAERI. It is divided six chapters, which deals with research and development on nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, cycle of nuclear fuel and research of nuclear safety, nuclear business and technical development, activity on nuclear safe regulation like establishment and role module for nuclear safety center and check of the safety of nuclear power plant, study of radio therapeutics and cancer treatment, development of human resources for nuclear power and training, general management about regulations, organization, person, contract, facility and building, welfare and establishment and activity of labor union.

  13. Fifty-year study of the Peierls-Nabarro stress

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-30

    Full Text Available , North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1979, pp. 33. [9] E. Orowan, in: Cyril Stanley Smith (Ed.), The Sorby Centennial Symposium on the History of Metallurgy, Gordon and Breach, New York, 1965, pp. 359. [lo] R.E. Peierls, in: A...

  14. Fifty years of oxacalix[3]arenes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Cottet

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexahomotrioxacalix[3]arenes, commonly called oxacalix[3]arenes, were first reported in 1962. Since then, their chemistry has been expanded to include numerous derivatives and complexes. This review describes the syntheses of the parent compounds, their derivatives, and their complexation behaviour towards cations. Extraction data are presented, as are crystal structures of the macrocycles and their complexes with guest species. Applications in fields as diverse as ion selective electrode modifiers, fluorescence sensors, fullerene separations and biomimetic chemistry are described.

  15. The Sociological Imagination and Its Promise Fifty Years Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frade

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a restatement of Wright Mills’ The Sociological Imagination and tries to judge whether its promise can be credibly renewed today by addressing the question about the present and future possibilities of the social sciences as free forms of enquiry. Relying on Weber, Mills and other thinkers, the paper sustains that the possibilities for a truly free social science essentially depend on three major ‘conditions’: the subjective stance or vocation, the sociological imagination proper, and an independent social science politics, conditions whose apt names can also be ‘love’, ‘insight’ and ‘courage’. An analysis of the presence and strength of each of these conditions in contemporary social science and in academia shows the magnitude of the task faced for the existence of a free social science.

  16. Hashing in computer science fifty years of slicing and dicing

    CERN Document Server

    Konheim, Alan G

    2009-01-01

    Written by one of the developers of the technology, Hashing is both a historical document on the development of hashing and an analysis of the applications of hashing in a society increasingly concerned with security. The material in this book is based on courses taught by the author, and key points are reinforced in sample problems and an accompanying instructor s manual. Graduate students and researchers in mathematics, cryptography, and security will benefit from this overview of hashing and the complicated mathematics that it requires

  17. Fifty-four Years of Adventures in Infrared Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becklin, Eric Eric

    2018-01-01

    My adventures in infrared astronomy started when I was a grad student in 1965 with the discovery of an infrared-bright object (now known as the Becklin-Neugebauer Object) in the Orion Nebula. In 1966, I made the first measurements of the infrared radiation from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. I was fortunate enough to be able to take advantage of the 2.2 micron sky survey carried out by Neugebauer and Leighton (1969), which produced many remarkable discoveries, the most spectacular being the heavily dust-embedded carbon star IRC+10216, thebrightest object in the sky at 5 microns outside the solar system. In the 1970’s there was a growth in Infrared astronomy with the availability of many new facilities such as the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, (KAO) which I used extensively with Mike Werner and Ian Gatley for many unique observations. In 1977, I moved to Hawaii to work on the NASA IRTF 3- meter telescope. Many discoveries were made, including the first direct measurements of the rings of Jupiter at 2.2 microns (with Gareth Wynn-Williams) and the discovery of the first L dwarf star around a white dwarf (with Ben Zuckerman). In the 1980’s the introduction of large format arrays changed the way we did infrared astronomy. With Ian McLean, I moved to UCLA in 1990 to start the IR lab and get involved in Keck development and science. In 1995, Andrea, Ghez, Mark Morris and I started looking for evidence of a possible massive Black Hole in the Galactic Center. Spectacular observations using the Keck10 meter telescopes with large format near-infrared arrays and adaptive optics led to the confirmation of the presence of such a black hole and an estimate of its mass (4xE6 M (Sun)). In 1996, I began working on the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) and I will finish my talk by discussing SOFIA observations of the ring of dust and gas orbiting the massive black hole in the center

  18. Fifty-one years of Los Alamos Spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-04

    From 1963 to 2014, the Los Alamos National Laboratory was involved in at least 233 spacecraft. There are probably only one or two institutions in the world that have been involved in so many spacecraft. Los Alamos space exploration started with the Vela satellites for nuclear test detection, but soon expanded to ionospheric research (mostly barium releases), radioisotope thermoelectric generators, solar physics, solar wind, magnetospheres, astrophysics, national security, planetary physics, earth resources, radio propagation in the ionosphere, and cubesats. Here, we present a list of the spacecraft, their purpose, and their launch dates for use during RocketFest

  19. Fifty Years of Institutional Rehabilitation Outcomes: Inventory and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; Fields, Donald L.

    1983-01-01

    Temporal variability within the record was more easily attributed to the adequacy of past accountability research and to public policy than to program effects, socioeconomic climate, or changing receiver group attitudes. (Author/SEW)

  20. Fifty years later - still not enough early external involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.

    1992-01-01

    When it comes to nuclear issues, public participation is like the weather: We talk a lot but we do not do anything meaningful about it. This does not need to be the situation, however. If the program leaders were to make an open commitment to listening to the concerns and requests of the public and then changing their programs in response to what they hear, there would be improved programs and greater public support for them. This paper addresses one such nuclear issue: involving the public effectively in decision making about the transportation of spent nuclear fuel

  1. Inner-shell physics after fifty years of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzbacher, E.

    1976-01-01

    A historical view is given of how the development of quantum mechanics has been affected by the information relating to inner shells, gathered by physicists since the early days of atomic physics, and of the impact of quantum mechanics on the physics of inner atomic shells. 25 refs

  2. Fifty years of nuclear fission: Nuclear data and measurements series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    This report is the written version of a colloquium first presented at Argonne National Laboratory in January 1989. The paper begins with an historical preamble about the events leading to the discovery of nuclear fission. This leads naturally to an account of early results and understanding of the fission phenomena. Some of the key concepts in the development of fission theory are then discussed. The main theme of this discussion is the topography of the fission barrier, in which the interplay of the liquid-drop model and nucleon shell effects lead to a wide range of fascinating phenomena encompassing metastable isomers, intermediate-structure effects in fission cross-sections, and large changes in fission product properties. It is shown how study of these changing effects and theoretical calculations of the potential energy of the deformed nucleus have led to broad qualitative understanding of the nature of the fission process. 54 refs., 35 figs

  3. Fifty years of crop protection, 1950-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    We detected the presence of fructosamine in human and bovine semen. In seminal plasma of healthy normozoospermic men (N = 17) fructosamine was found in 53% of the cases (fru+). In fru+ semen samples the concentration of fructosamine was (mean ± S.E.M., N = 9) 0.45 ± 0.09 mmol/L and varied from 0.15

  4. Fifty years of particle physics at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1997-01-01

    A historical review of researches at the CEA (and more particularly at Saclay) in particle physics, is presented. Contributions in themes such as polarized targets, bubble chambers, classic and superconductive magnets, etc. resulted in cooperation to the design of various machines such as Van de Graaff accelerator, cyclotron, Saturne, etc. Collaborations between CEA and CERN had led to numerous experiments in high energy physics, such as electronic experiments with the SPS accelerator. CEA was also involved in the intermediate boson discovery on the SppS collision apparatus, and is participating in two CERN's programs, neutrino physics (NOMAD) and CP violation (NA48). CEA is also collaborating with Russian, German and American laboratories in these domains

  5. Coral seas in fifty years: Need for local policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, P.; Cheng, N. S.; Fontaine, R. M.; Horton, K.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arising stressors from both global and local sources threaten coral reefs, with studies indicating that local and global sources might reduce coral resilience. Local sources include sediment stress and nutrient stress from fishing; global sources include increasing sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Through an in-depth review and re-analysis of published work, conducted under the scope of a course in the spring of 2017 semester and follow up research over the summer of 2017 and fall of 2017, students in Environmental Studies Course, ENVS 4100: Coral reefs, at the University of Colorado Boulder have developed a framework to initiate a discussion of global and local policies focused on protection of coral reefs. The research aims to assess current threats and suggest mitigation efforts. The paper uses secondary research to analyze impact of ocean acidification on aragonite saturation levels, current thermal stress, nutrient stress, and sediment factors that influence the health of coral and its surrounding ecosystem over the Common Era. Case studies in this paper include the Caribbean and Red Sea coral reefs, due to the variation of the atmosphere, temperature, and human activity in these regions. This paper intends to offer sufficient evidence that will lead to appropriate policy decisions that pertain to reef conservation.

  6. Trends in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Publications Over the Past 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimouni, Michael; Cismariu-Potash, Keren; Ratmansky, Motti; Shaklai, Sharon; Amir, Hagay; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva

    2016-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that the number of publications in the field of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) has increased over the last 16 years in a linear fashion, and to compare the trends in publication between the pediatric and adult literature. We evaluated all MEDLINE articles from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2013, using Medical Subject Headings categories of rehabilitation. An age filter separated adult and pediatric articles. We divided articles into those with a low level of scientific evidence such as letters and editorials, and those with a high level of evidence such as controlled trials and meta-analyses. We used regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the year of publication on the number of publications of each type. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. Not applicable. MEDLINE reported a total of 98,501 adult publications and 30,895 pediatric publications during the evaluated period. There was a significant linear increase in the total number of publications in adult and pediatric rehabilitation publications with multiplication factors of 3.3 and 2.9, respectively. Importantly, publications with a high level of evidence showed larger multiplication factors compared with those with a low level of evidence (5.5 and 5.1 vs 2.1 and 2.0) for the adult and pediatric literature. The number of publications in the PMR field, especially those with a high level of scientific evidence, has increased linearly over the years, reflecting the rapid evolution of both adult and pediatric PMR. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 150 years of the New York Academy of Medicine: a series of exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L F; North, M J

    1996-01-01

    As the New York Academy of Medicine celebrates its 150th year as a leader in the field of urban health, it is instructive to review the events and decisions that influenced and shaped it. Since its inception, the Academy has taken an active role in lobbying state and local governments to enact more-effective public health laws and in educating the public about improving health conditions. During 1996 and 1997, the Academy Library's Historical Collections is mounting a series of six exhibitions that are intended to tell the story of public health in New York as influenced by the New York Academy of Medicine. The story will be told using printed books, pamphlets, posters, photographs, and manuscripts drawn from the Library's collections, as well as the Academy's archives. Each exhibition will highlight the Academy's accomplishments in the subject areas presented. In this article, we summarize all six of the exhibitions and offer an in-depth look at the first two exhibitions.

  8. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krautter M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Markus Krautter,1 Sven Andreesen,2 Nadja Köhl-Hackert,2 Katja Hoffmann,3 Wolfgang Herzog,2 Christoph Nikendei2 1Department of Nephrology, University of Heidelberg, 2Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, University of Heidelberg Medical Hospital, 3Department of General Practice and Health Services Research, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany Background: Peer-assisted learning (PAL has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective.Purpose: To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors.Methods: A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80. The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants. The discussions were analyzed using content analysis.Results: The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available.Conclusion: On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor–student working alliance

  9. RECALMIN II. Eight years of hospitalisation in Internal Medicine Units (2007-2014). What has changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero-Gaviria, A; Barba-Martín, R; Canora Lebrato, J; Fernández-Pérez, C; Gómez-Huelgas, R; Bernal-Sobrino, J L; Díez-Manglano, J; Marco-Martínez, J; Elola-Somoza, F J

    2017-11-01

    To analyse the evolution of care provided by the internal medicine units (IMU) of the Spanish National Health System from 2007 to 2014. We analysed all discharges from the IMU of the Spanish National Health System in 2007 and 2014, using the Minimum Basic Data Set. We compared the risk factors by episode, mortality and readmissions between the two periods. We prepared specific fits for the risk for mortality and readmissions in heart failure, pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as the Charlson index for all activity. Discharges from the IMU between the two periods increased 14%. The average patient age increased by 2.8 years (71.2±17.1 vs. 74±16.2; pde Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  10. Frontiers in biophotonics for translational medicine in the celebration of year of light (2015)

    CERN Document Server

    Dinish, U

    2016-01-01

    The present book provides recent developments in various in vivo imaging and sensing techniques such as photo acoustics (PA) imaging and microscopy, ultrasound-PA combined modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and micro OCT, Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) techniques and nanoparticle enabled endoscopy etc. There is also a contributing chapter from leading medical instrumentation company on their view of optical imaging techniques in clinical laparoscopic surgery. The UN proclaimed 2015 as the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies, emphasizing achievements in the optical sciences and their importance to human beings. In this context, this book focusses on the recent advances in biophotonics techniques primarily focused towards translational medicine contributed by thought leaders who have made cutting edge developments in various photonics techniques.

  11. Female Physicians in Maternal-Fetal Medicine: A 32-Year Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Jacquelyn; Will, Vanessa K; Rayburn, William F

    2018-05-07

     To examine trends of female physicians either pursuing fellowships or in active practice in maternal-fetal medicine (MFM).  This observational study examined complete sets of MFM fellows and active members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) between 1985 and 2016. Databases from SMFM, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education were used. Analysis of covariance testing was used to assess interactions over time between groups.  The proportion of female MFM fellows increased steadily from 17.1% in 1985 to 72.5% in 2016. The proportion of females grew more rapidly among the MFM fellows than obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) residents (2.1 vs. 1.4% per year; p  = 0.001) and among those who were active SMFM members than ACOG Fellows (1.4 vs. 1.2% per year; p  = 0.013). Slightly more than half (52.4%) of all SMFM members are now female and will approach two-thirds (64.4%) by 2025 (compared with 53.4% in 2016 and 65.3% in 2025 of ACOG fellows).  The rising proportion of female MFM fellows is directly related to the high number of female ob-gyn residents. Females comprise slightly more than half of all active SMFM members now and projected to approach two-thirds by 2025. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  12. Deutsches Atomforum turns fifty; 50 Jahre Deutsches Atomforum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Maja [Deutsches Atomforum e.V., Berlin (Germany). Bereich Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit, Informationskreis KernEnergie

    2009-07-15

    Fifty years ago, the Deutsches Atomforum e. V. was founded to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear power in Germany. On July 1, 2009, the organization celebrated its fiftieth birthday in Berlin. The anniversary was celebrated in the Berlin electricity plant, Germany's oldest existing building for commercial electricity generation. DAtF President Dr. Walter Hohlefelder welcomed some 200 high-ranking guests from politics, industry, and from the nuclear community, above all, the Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, Dr. Angela Merkel, and, as keynote speaker, Professor Dr. Arnulf Baring. (orig.)

  13. Fifty shades of exploitation: Fan labor and Fifty Shades of Grey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethan Jones

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This exploration of the debates that have taken place in fandom over the ethics of pulling fan fiction and publishing it as original work draws on the notion of the fannish gift economy, which postulates that gifts such as fan fiction and fan art have value in the fannish community because they are designed to create and cement its social structure. Tension exists between fans who subscribe to the notion of a fannish gift economy and those who exploit fandom by using it to sell their pulled-to-publish works. An examination of E. L. James's 2012 Fifty Shades trilogy (comprising the books Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker, and Fifty Shades Freed, which began as Twilight fan fiction, in addition to Twilight fan art sold through sites such as Redbubble and Etsy, demonstrates a tension between the two modes of fan expression: sale of artworks appears to be an acceptable practice in fandom, but the commercial sale of fan fic, even when marketed as original fiction, is widely contested.

  14. 50th Year Anniversary of Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertakyamanee, Jariya

    2016-05-01

    Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, has started to be a formal anesthesia division, divided from division of Surgery in 1965; hence our 50th year anniversary in 2015. Research is now a priority and mandatory mission, according to the vision of Mahidol University. Second mission is to teach and train, and we produce the highest number of states-of-the-art anesthesiologists and anesthetic nurses each year Curriculum and training are being continuously improved. From a small unit, now it is one of the largest departments and extends the service, our third mission, to more than only in the operating theaters. We look after pre-anesthesia assessment, inside and outside operating room anesthesia, post-operative pain relief Intensive Care Unit, and chronic pain management. The number of patients and their diseases increase; so do the complexities of surgeries. There are tremendous changes in drugs and equipment. There is the fourth mission on administration, IT and resource management. And the fifth mission which is corporate social responsibility. However, we still believe that compassion, responsibility and integrity are most important. We have taught and tried to live by the teaching of HRH the King's Father. And these will contribute to our progress and shine in the next 50 years.

  15. Occupational exposure at the Department of Nuclear Medicine as a work environment: A 19-year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Piwowarska-Bilska, Hanna; Birkenfeld, Bożena; Gwardyś, Aleksandra; Supińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Maria H.; Elbl, Bogumiła; Cichoń-Bańkowska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background: This study assessed the radiation safety at Nuclear Medicine Department being a work environment. Ionizing radiation exposure of the employees in the last 19 years and the effects of legislative changes in radiological protection were analyzed. Material/Methods: All employees of the investigated department were regularly and individually monitored using chest badges equipped with Kodak film type 2. Overall, 629 annual doses of the employees of nuclear medicine department, ...

  16. Drug-use pattern of Chinese herbal medicines in insomnia: a 4-year survey in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-C; Chen, I-C; Wang, B-R; Shao, C-H

    2009-10-01

    Insomnia is a common complaint in the general population. Interest in the use of alternative treatments for insomnia is increasing exponentially and is fairly common in Taiwan. We undertook a survey to define the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines (CM) for insomnia in Taiwan. The survey was conducted over a period of 4 years, from January 2003 to December 2006. Outpatients with primary insomnia and being treated with CM were studied. Core drug-use indicators were the number of CM items per prescription, the dosing frequency and duration of CM prescriptions, the most common prescribed CM herbs and CM formulae used. Six thousand eight hundred and sixty patients, using 37,046 CM herb items, were screened during the study period. The average CM items per prescription was 5.40. Most of prescriptions (95.23%) were prescribed for administration three times a day. The most often prescribed Chinese herbal products were Hong-Hwa (Carthamus tinctorius) and Jia-Wey-Shiau-Yau-San, which includes Angelica sinensis, Atractylodes macrocephala, Paeonia lactiflora, Bupleurum chinense, and Poria coco. This is the first extensive survey examining the drug utilization patterns of Chinese herbal medicines in the treatment of insomnia. Although the data were generated in Taiwan, the herbs and practices identified are likely to be widely generalizable wherever Chinese herbal remedies are used for insomnia. Multiple herbs and complex formulae were commonly used. The baseline data generated should be of use in informing subsequent studies, including those aimed at a thorough evaluation of the herbs' effectiveness.

  17. Resident experience of abuse and harassment in emergency medicine: ten years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siu Fai; Grant, Kelly; Bhoj, Tanuja; Lent, Gretchen; Garrick, Jocelyn Freeman; Greenwald, Peter; Haber, Marc; Singh, Malini; Prodany, Karla; Sanchez, Leon; Dickman, Eitan; Spencer, James; Perera, Tom; Cowan, Ethan

    2010-02-01

    In 1995, a Society for Academic Emergency Medicine in-service survey reported high rates of verbal and physical abuse experienced by Emergency Medicine (EM) residents. We sought to determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment 10 years later to bring attention to these issues and determine if there has been a change in the prevalence of abuse over this time period. To determine the prevalence of abuse and harassment in a sample of EM residencies. We conducted a cross-section survey of EM residents from 10 residencies. EM residents were asked about their experience with verbal abuse, verbal threats, physical threats, physical attacks, sexual harassment, and racial harassment; and by whom. The primary outcome of the study was the prevalence of abuse and harassment as reported by EM residents. There were 196 of 380 residents (52%) who completed the survey. The prevalence of any type of abuse experienced was 91%; 86% of residents experienced verbal abuse, 65% verbal threats, 50% physical threats, 26% physical attacks, 23% sexual harassment, and 26% racial harassment. Women were more likely than men to encounter sexual harassment (37% [38/102] vs. 8% [7/92]; p harassment was not limited to minorities (23% [16/60] for Caucasians vs. 26% [29/126] for non-Caucasians; p = 0.59). Senior residents were more likely to have encountered verbal and physical abuse. Only 12% of residents formally reported the abuse they experienced. Abuse and harassment during EM residency continues to be commonplace and is underreported. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. FIFTY-FIVE GALLON DRUM STANDARD STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puigh, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-five gallon drums are routinely used within the U.S. for the storage and eventual disposal of fissionable materials as Transuranic or low-level waste. To support these operations, criticality safety evaluations are required. A questionnaire was developed and sent to selected Endusers at Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site to solicit current practices. This questionnaire was used to gather information on the kinds of fissionable materials packaged into drums, the models used in performing criticality safety evaluations in support of operations involving these drums, and the limits and controls established for the handling and storage of these drums. The completed questionnaires were reviewed and clarifications solicited through individual communications with each Enduser to obtain more complete and consistent responses. All five sites have similar drum operations involving thousands to tens of thousands of fissionable material waste drums. The primary sources for these drums are legacy (prior operations) and decontamination and decommissioning wastes at all sites except Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The results from this survey and our review are discussed in this paper

  19. Why doctors consider leaving UK medicine: qualitative analysis of comments from questionnaire surveys three years after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Trevor W; Smith, Fay; Goldacre, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Objective To report the reasons why doctors are considering leaving medicine or the UK. Design Questionnaire survey. Setting UK. Participants Questionnaires were sent three years after graduation to all UK medical graduates of 2008 and 2012. Main outcome measures Comments from doctors about their main reasons for considering leaving medicine or the UK (or both). Results The response rate was 46.2% (5291/11,461). Among the 60% of respondents who were not definitely intent on remaining in UK medicine, 50% were considering working in medicine outside the UK and 10% were considering leaving medicine. Among those considering working in medicine outside the UK, the most commonly cited reasons were to gain wider experience, that things would be 'better' elsewhere and a negative view of the National Health Service and its culture, state and politics. Other reasons included better training or job opportunities, better pay and conditions, family reasons and higher expectations. Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were significantly more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite factors related to the National Health Service, to pay and conditions, to their expectations and to effects on work-life balance and patient care. Among those considering leaving medicine, the dominant reason for leaving medicine was a negative view of the National Health Service (mentioned by half of those in this group who commented). Three years after graduation, doctors surveyed in 2015 were more likely than doctors surveyed in 2011 to cite this reason, as well as excessive hours and workload, and financial reasons. Conclusions An increasingly negative view is held by many doctors of many aspects of the experience of being a junior doctor in the National Health Service, and the difficulty of delivering high-quality patient care within what many see as an under-funded system. Policy changes designed to encourage more doctors to remain should be motivated by a desire to address

  20. ``Fifty-fifty`` - an unexpectedly successful start. Implementation of Agenda 21 results in energy savings in school buildings; ``Fifty-fifty`` - ein erfreulich erfolgreicher Start. Energieeinsparung durch praktizierte Agenda 21 in Schulen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafhausen, F. [Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit, Bonn (Germany)

    1998-10-01

    The idea of the `Fifty-Fifty` pilot project was conceived at the environmental department of the Hamburg municipal authority; its implementation took place in close cooperation with the department for schools, the young, and vocational training (`BSJB`). It started in October 94 and was finalized in June 97. After its successful completion, `Fifty-Fifty` meanwhile has the status of a permanent project.- For decades it has been known that public buildings consume added energy (power and heat) as well as water not only because technical devices are lacking or obsolete but also because of negligence and carelessness. `Fifty-Fifty` endeavours to bring about a change. (orig.) [Deutsch] Geschichte des `Fifty-fifty`-Modells: Die Idee wurde von der Hamburger Umweltbehoerde entwickelt und in enger Zusammenarbeit mit der Behoerde fuer Schule, Jugend und Berufsbildung (BSJB) umgesetzt. Der Modellversuch wurde im Oktober 1994 gestartet und im Juni 1997 abgeschlossen. Nach der erfolgreichen Beendigung des Modellversuchs hat `Fifty-fifty` mittlerweile den Status eines Dauerprojekts. Seit Jahrzehnten ist bekannt, dass in oeffentlich genutzten Gebaeuden nicht nur aufgrund fehlender oder veralteter technischer Ausstattung, sondern insbesondere auch wegen eines unsachgemaessen oder gedankenlosen Verhaltens mehr Energie (Strom und Waerme) und mehr Wasser verbraucht werden. `Fifty-fifty` tut etwas dagegen. (orig.)

  1. 40 years of biannual family medicine research meetings--the European General Practice Research Network (EGPRN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Nicola; Thulesius, Hans; Petrazzuoli, Ferdinando; Van Merode, Tiny; Koskela, Tuomas; Le Reste, Jean-Yves; Prick, Hanny; Soler, Jean Karl

    2013-12-01

    To document family medicine research in the 25 EGPRN member countries in 2010. Semi-structured survey with open-ended questions. Academic family medicine in 23 European countries, Israel, and Turkey. 25 EGPRN national representatives. Demographics of the general population and family medicine. Assessments, opinions, and suggestions. EGPRN has represented family medicine for almost half a billion people and > 300,000 general practitioners (GPs). Turkey had the largest number of family medicine departments and highest density of GPs, 2.1/1000 people, Belgium had 1.7, Austria 1.6, and France 1.5. Lowest GP density was reported from Israel 0.17, Greece 0.18, and Slovenia 0.4 GPs per 1000 people. Family medicine research networks were reported by 22 of 25 and undergraduate family medicine research education in 20 of the 25 member countries, and in 10 countries students were required to do research projects. Postgraduate family medicine research was reported by 18 of the member countries. Open-ended responses showed that EGPRN meetings promoted stimulating and interesting research questions such as comparative studies of chronic pain management, sleep disorders, elderly care, healthy lifestyle promotion, mental health, clinical competence, and appropriateness of specialist referrals. Many respondents reported a lack of interest in family medicine research related to poor incentives and low family medicine status in general and among medical students in particular. It was suggested that EGPRN exert political lobbying for family medicine research. Since 1974, EGPRN organizes biannual conferences that unite and promote primary care practice, clinical research and academic family medicine in 25 member countries.

  2. Traditional Chinese medicine and cancer: History, present situation, and development

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Fan, Hui-ting; Lin, Hong-sheng

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has a long history. Heritage provides general conditions for the innovation and development of TCM in oncology. This article reviews the development of TCM in oncology, interprets the position and function of TCM for cancer prevention and treatment, summarizes the innovations of TCM in oncology over nearly fifty years, and suggests the development direction.

  3. Appraisal by Year Six French medical students of the teaching of forensic medicine and health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchitto, Nicolas; Rougé, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Legal medicine is a cross-sectional specialty in which medico-legal situations very frequently combine with routine medical practice. A total of 132 students in the last year of the second cycle of medical studies (Year 6) replied anonymously and voluntarily to a questionnaire corresponding to the topics in the curriculum for the national ranking examination: law relating to death and the dying, examination of assault victims, medical malpractice liability rules, writing death certificates, respect of medical confidentiality and the principles of medical deontology. The most frequently cited activities of the forensic physician were autopsy (87.9%), writing certificates (75.8%) and consultations with victims of violence (60.6%). Students did not often come into contact with a medico-legal situation during Years 2-6 of medical studies. Assiduity in attending lectures was low. Students preferred the standard textbooks available in specialized bookshops. They were severe in their appraisal of their own competence at the end of the second cycle, and did not feel ready to examine a corpse (95.5%) or to examine victims of assault (92.4%). Knowledge of the law and of the risks of medical practice was felt to be inadequate by 60.5% of students, and of the writing of a medical certificate by 56.8%. Training medical students in this field is a major challenge in view of the limited number of teaching hours and the need to acquire increasingly specialized knowledge. Complementary initiatives appear to be necessary, such as partnership with other clinical specialties which are frequently confronted with medico-legal situations.

  4. Teaching science throughout the six-year medical curriculum: Two-year experience from the University of Split School of Medicine, Split, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marušić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this article is to present the introduction of a mandatory, vertically integrated course in research methodology into medical curriculum. At the School of Medicine in Split (Croatia we organized this course in 2010, with the total of 270 hours in the 6-year curriculum. In the first year (50 hours students learned basic principles of scientific method, structure of scientific article, basic statistical concepts, data analysis, interpretation and presentation. In the second year (25 hours students applied the knowledge from the first year in real examples of research data to answer a research hypothesis and present the results and conclusions. Students were guided through the process of making a hypothesis, analyzing data, interpreting them, constructing tables and figures, and writing a short research report. At the end of the course they formally presented the results to other students and course teachers, using PowerPoint slides. The third year (25 hours was devoted to mastering concepts and basic skills of evidencebased medicine (EBM. The course in the fourth year (25 hours was integrated with the clinical courses (internal medicine, neurology, and psychiatry and structured as a “journal club”. In the fifth year (25 hours, the teaching was devoted to developing a research plan for the graduation thesis that the students had to conduct during the sixth year. The sixth year (120 hours was devoted to the execution of research planned in the fifth year, including data collection, data analysis, interpretation, and thesis writing and defense. Conclusion. The new course succeeded in increasing students’ knowledge and skills for critical thinking and EBM, and prepared them for life-long learning in medicine.

  5. Essential medicines: an overview of some milestones in the last forty years (1975-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Pagés

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite progress in the last four decades in terms of access to essential medicines, more than a third of the world population especially from the poorest countries have serious difficulties in accessing the medicines they need at an affordable price and with the right quality. Already in 1975 the 28th World Health Assembly discussed the need to set recommendations regarding selection and acquisition of medicines at reasonable prices and proven quality to meet national health needs. Consequently in 1977, the first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was prepared by an expert committee. Since then, the list has been subjected to a series of updating and dissemination processes, together with discussion about the cost, patents and quality of medicines, as well as information on safety and effectiveness of each drug that is listed. The article addresses how this process has evolved from the beginning to present day.

  6. Cross-year peer tutoring on internal medicine wards: results of a qualitative focus group analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Andreesen, Sven; Köhl-Hackert, Nadja; Hoffmann, Katja; Herzog, Wolfgang; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become a well-accepted teaching method within medical education. However, descriptions of on-ward PAL programs are rare. A focus group analysis of a newly established PAL program on an internal medicine ward was conducted to provide insights into PAL teaching from a student perspective. To provide insights into students' experiences regarding their on-ward training with and without accompanying PAL tutors. A total of N=168 medical students in their sixth semester participated in the investigation (intervention group: N=88; control group: N=80). The intervention group took part in the PAL program, while the control group received standard on-ward training. There were seven focus groups with N=43 participants (intervention group: four focus groups, N=28 participants; control group: three focus groups, N=15 participants). The discussions were analyzed using content analysis. The intervention group emphasized the role of the tutors as competent and well-trained teachers, most beneficial in supervising clinical skills. Tutors motivate students, help them to integrate into the ward team, and provide a non-fear-based working relationship whereby students' anxiety regarding working on ward decreases. The control group had to rely on autodidactic learning strategies when neither supervising physicians nor final-year students were available. On-ward PAL programs represent a particularly valuable tool for students' support in training clinical competencies on ward. The tutor-student working alliance acts through its flat hierarchy. Nevertheless, tutors cannot represent an adequate substitute for experienced physicians.

  7. Meta analysis of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of dry eye in recent years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Jiang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the traditional Chinese medicine(TCMfor the treatment of dry eye effect in the past five years by using meta analysis method. METHODS: According to the Cochrane evaluation system method, we searched Medline(January 2013 to October 2017, EMbase(2013-2017, Cochrane Library(2017, Wanfang database(2013-2017, VIP(2013-2017, and CNKI(2013-2017for studies published. We included randomized controlled trials conducted the TCM in the treatment of dry eye. RevMan 5.0 statistical software data extraction and Meta analysis were conducted. RESULTS: A total of 10 studies were identified, nine were from Chinese literature and one was from English literature, of which including 1 229 eyes. Nine of these studies performed BUT measurements at the end of the course of treatment. The results showed a statistically significant difference(PPP=0.25. Three studies performed dry eye symptoms after the end of the course of treatment; the results showed that the differences were statistically significant(P=0.0003; the overall efficacy comparison, the difference between the two groups was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: TCM treatment can significantly prolong BUT and increase tear flow, and has more advantages in the treatment of dry eye.

  8. Coumarin Compounds in Medicinal Chemistry: Some Important Examples from the Last Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Thiago Moreira; Franco, Daiana Portella; Vitorio, Felipe; Kummerle, Arthur Eugen

    2018-01-01

    Coumarins are natural products characterized as 1,2 benzopyrones widely distributed in plants, as well as, in many species of fungi and bacteria. Nowadays, many synthetic procedures allow the discovery of coumarins with expanded chemical space. The ability to exert noncovalent interactions with many enzymes and receptors in live organisms lead the coumarins to exhibit a wide range of biological activities and applications. Then, this manuscript provides an overview of the use of coumarins compounds in medicinal chemistry in treating many diseases. Important examples of the last years have been selected concerning the activities of coumarins as anticoagulant, anticancer, antioxidant, antiviral, anti-diabetics, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-neurodegerative agents. Additionally, it also includes applications of coumarins as fluorescent sensors for biological systems. Thus, this work aims to contribute to the development of new rational research projects for the treatment and diagnosis of pathologies using coumarin derivatives. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Ten Years of Medicinal Chemistry (2005-2014) in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry: Country of Contributors, Topics, and Public-Private Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Luca; Barlocco, Daniela

    2016-08-25

    This review analyzes the articles that have appeared during the past 10 years in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, the leading journal in the field of medicinal chemistry, to provide a picture of the changing trends in this research area. Our analysis involved the country of the corresponding author, assuming that he/she was the leader of the research group, the interaction between private and public sectors, and the research topics. This analysis provides information on the contributions to the journal of authors from each country and highlights the differences between the public and private sectors regarding the research topics pursued. Moreover, changes in the number of articles that describe work on hits, leads, or clinical candidates during these years have been correlated with the affiliation of the contributors (public or private). An analysis of top-cited articles that have appeared in the journal has also been included. The data will provide the basis for understanding the evolution that is taking place in medicinal chemistry.

  10. A dozen years of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) International Mini-Fellowship: program evaluation and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioachimescu, Octavian C; Wickwire, Emerson M; Harrington, John; Kristo, David; Arnedt, J Todd; Ramar, Kannan; Won, Christine; Billings, Martha E; DelRosso, Lourdes; Williams, Scott; Paruthi, Shalini; Morgenthaler, Timothy I

    2014-03-15

    Sleep medicine remains an underrepresented medical specialty worldwide, with significant geographic disparities with regard to training, number of available sleep specialists, sleep laboratory or clinic infrastructures, and evidence-based clinical practices. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) is committed to facilitating the education of sleep medicine professionals to ensure high-quality, evidence-based clinical care and improve access to sleep centers around the world, particularly in developing countries. In 2002, the AASM launched an annual 4-week training program called Mini-Fellowship for International Scholars, designed to support the establishment of sleep medicine in developing countries. The participating fellows were generally chosen from areas that lacked a clinical infrastructure in this specialty and provided with training in AASM Accredited sleep centers. This manuscript presents an overview of the program, summarizes the outcomes, successes, and lessons learned during the first 12 years, and describes a set of programmatic changes for the near-future, as assembled and proposed by the AASM Education Committee and recently approved by the AASM Board of Directors. Ioachimescu OC; Wickwire EM; Harrington J; Kristo D; Arnedt JT; Ramar K; Won C; Billings ME; DelRosso L; Williams S; Paruthi S; Morgenthaler TI. A dozen years of American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) international mini-fellowship: program evaluation and future directions.

  11. Effects of safety warnings on prescription rates of cough and cold medicines in children below 2 years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.F. Sen (Fatma); K.M.C. Verhamme (Katia); M. Felisi (Mariagrazia); G.W. 't Jong (Geert); C. Giaquinto (Carlo); G. Picelli (Gino); A. Ceci (Adriana); M.C.J.M. Sturkenboom (Miriam)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAIM: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of national and international warnings on the prescription rates of cough and cold medicines (CCMs) in the youngest children (<2 years) in the Netherlands and Italy. METHODS: Analysis of outpatient electronic medical records of

  12. THE SPECIALTY OF EMERGENCY MEDICINE IN CHILE: 20 YEARS OF HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WK Mallon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile is uniquely situated to be a leader in South American development of the specialty of Emergency Medicine. Chilean emergency medicine has successfully transitioned from a novelty training idea to a nationally and internationally recognized entity with serious public health goals. There are more residency training programs in Chile than in any other South American or Latin American country, and the specialty is formally recognized by the Ministry of Health. Chilean emergency medicine thought leaders have networked internationally with multiple groups, intelligently used outside resources, and created durable academic relationships. While focusing on locally important issues and patient care they have successfully advanced their agenda. Despite this, the specialty faces many new challenges and remains fragile but sustainable. Policy makers and the Chilean MOH need to be acutely aware of this fragility to preserve the progress achieved so far, and support ongoing maturation of the specialty of Emergency Medicine.

  13. Knowledge and perception of senior year pharmacy students about generic medicines in public Universities of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Wei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The findings highlight that pharmacy students needs a better understanding of the principles and concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence if they are to contribute appropriately to generic medicine use.

  14. Mathematical card magic fifty-two new effects

    CERN Document Server

    Mulcahy, Colm

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical card effects offer both beginning and experienced magicians an opportunity to entertain with a minimum of props. Featuring mostly original creations, Mathematical Card Magic: Fifty-Two New Effects presents an entertaining look at new mathematically based card tricks. Each chapter contains four card effects, generally starting with simple applications of a particular mathematical principle and ending with more complex ones. Practice a handful of the introductory effects and, in no time, you'll establish your reputation as a "mathemagician." Delve a little deeper into each chapter and the mathematics gets more interesting. The author explains the mathematics as needed in an easy-to-follow way. He also provides additional details, background, and suggestions for further explorations.Suitable for recreational math buffs and amateur card lovers or as a text in a first-year seminar, this color book offers a diverse collection of new mathemagic principles and effects.

  15. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy: a study of fifty cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, M. S.; Moin, S.; Shoaib, F.

    2003-01-01

    To review and critically evaluated the incidence, epidemiology, clinical pattern, diagnosis, management, complications and outcome of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy in hospital based study. Results: Total number of women delivered were 11271. Fifty cases of diabetes mellitus during pregnancy were studied. Mostly the patients were more than 30 years of age, multiparous ladies with gestational diabetes in 80% of cases, Type-II diabetes in 16% and only in 4% Type-I diabetes was reported. Insulin was required in 40% of patients. Eight women out of 50 had spontaneous miscarriage, 5 underwent preterm delivery while 36 reached term with one intrauterine death. Total number of babies delivered alive were 41. There was one stillbirth and 3 neonatal deaths. Conclusion: Management of diabetes mellitus in pregnancy involves teamwork of obstetricians, physicians and neonatologists. (author)

  16. Chevy Corvette: Icon Of American Life In The Fifties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishnoebroto Wishnoebroto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Cars not only function simply as a mean of transportation. Like paintings, the design of a car could represent a certain cultural and social phenomenon of a country. The design of Chevrolet (Chevy Corvette is very different compared to its competitors in the 50s. The size, engine, weight, and the materials of this car were chosen based on the assumption that speed and agility is on top of everything. It was not surprising that in the 50s, the year when the first Corvette was designed and launched, The US was involved in a cold war with the Soviets. Arm race and competition to be the first was the major issue and Corvette was the first car that suggests this spirit. This paper tries to show the distinctiveness of Corvette and how it can be used to explain the character of American people in the fifties

  17. The Hospitalist Huddle: a 1-year experience of teaching Hospital Medicine utilizing the concept of peer teaching in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhassan, Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    The relatively new specialty of Hospital Medicine in the USA is one of the fastest growing fields in internal medicine. Academic hospitalists are largely involved in the medical education of postgraduate residents and medical students. Little is known about the effectiveness of peer-to-peer teaching in internal medicine residency training programs and how the medical residents perceive its educational value in learning Hospital Medicine. The Hospitalist Huddle is a weekly educational activity newly established by our Hospitalist Division to facilitate the concept of peer-to-peer teaching. It requires medical residents to teach and educate their peers about the clinical topics related to Hospital Medicine. Faculty hospitalists serve as facilitators during the teaching sessions. A survey disseminated at the end of the first year of its implementation examined the residents' perception of the educational value of this new teaching activity. Most residents reported that they see the Huddle as a useful educational forum which may improve their skills in teaching, create a better educational and learning environment during their inpatient rotation, and improve their understanding of Hospital Medicine. Most residents also prefer that their peers, rather than faculty hospitalists, run the activity and do the teaching. The survey results support the notion that teaching and learning with flat hierarchies can be an appealing educational method to medical residents to help them understand Hospital Medicine during their medical wards rotation. Some areas need to be improved and others need to be continued and emphasized in order to make this novel educational activity grow and flourish in terms of its educational value and residents' satisfaction.

  18. Fifty Cases of Parkinson's Disease Treated by Acupuncture Combined with Madopar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Xiao-ming

    2008-01-01

    objective;To search for an effective therapy for trealing motor disorder due to Parkinson's disease(PD).Methods;Fifty cases in a treatrnent group were treated by acupuncture combined with madopar,and 30 cases in a control group treated by madopar only.Results;A total effective rate of 92%was achieved with obvious alleviation of motor disorder in the treatment group,which was significantly higher than that in the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion;Acupuncture can enhance therapeutic effects of western medicine and lessen the dose of the medicine needed.

  19. Nuclear histochemistry: Its history in fifty volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Manfredi Romanini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fiftieth anniversary of the double helix was marked two years ago. The elucidation of the structure of DNA by Watson and Crick can rightfully be considered to be "the" milestone in modern biology because it has conditioned the explosive growth in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the structural and functional organization of single cells and multicellular organisms....

  20. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  1. Scientific publications in laboratory medicine from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: A ten-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ding-Hua; Cui, Wei; Yao, Yun-Tai; Jiang, Qi-Qi

    2010-10-09

    We investigated scientific publications in laboratory medicine originating from mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan over the past 10 years. The information about articles published in the included journals were determined by computer-searching on PubMed and data were extracted independently and analyzed in relation to the number of articles. From 2000 to 2009 there were 1166 articles published in laboratory medicine journals from the major Chinese regions (mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan). This exceeded Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom and France from 2005 onwards. Also, the number of articles from mainland China exceeded those from Hong Kong and Taiwan from 2004 onwards. The average impact factor (IF) from Hong Kong ranked the first, followed by mainland China, and then Taiwan. Clinica Chimica Acta seems to be the most popular laboratory medicine journal among Chinese authors. Over the past 10 years, Chinese authors have been more and more active in the field of laboratory medicine. Mainland China seems to have caught up to Hong Kong and Taiwan regarding publication of papers in this field. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Cases Admitted for Age Estimation to Forensic Medicine Department Between 2006 and 2010 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Yildirim

    2011-06-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion age determination continues to be one of the important issues of forensic medicine. In cases of age determination, more accurate estimates can be accomplished when radiologically determined age is considered in conjunction with clinical findings such as dental, mental, and psychologic development. [J Contemp Med 2011; 1(2.000: 56-61

  3. Celebrating the Year of Light….. from medicine to security with Optical Coherence Tomography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available medicine to security with Optical Coherence Tomography Ann Singh1, Ameeth Sharma1, Ted Roberts1, Rethabile Khutlang2, Rocky Ramokolo1, Nico Marome1, Leandra Webb2, Natasha Botha2,Aletta Karsten3, Hencharl Strauss1 1 CSIR, National Laser Centre, P.O Box...

  4. The National Library of Medicine Programs and Services, Fiscal Year 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Library of Medicine (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    The activities and projects of the National Library of Medicine are described. New and continuing programs in library services and operations, on-line computer retrieval services, grants for library assistance, audiovisual programs, and health communications research are included. International activities of the Library are outlined. Summary…

  5. Workplace immersion in the final year of an undergraduate medicine course: the views of final year students and recent graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen Gupta, Tarun; Hays, Richard; Woolley, Torres; Kelly, Gill; Jacobs, Harry

    2014-06-01

    Most medical schools require formal competence assessment of students immediately prior to graduation, but variation exists in the approach to endpoint assessments. This article reports perceptions of senior students and graduates from a school with a six-year program which has introduced final year workplace immersion placements following a barrier examination at the end of the penultimate Year 5. Final year students (22) and recent graduates (4) attended focus groups and in-depth interviews exploring their perceptions of the value of the curriculum experience during the final two years, the structure and timing of assessment, and their preparation for internship. Participants felt that the penultimate year was more pressured, and focused on passing "artificial" examinations. In contrast, the final year was more relaxed, building skills for postgraduate work and later career development. As a result, students felt well prepared for internship with some indication that the self-directed nature of the final year promoted a lifelong learning approach. The final year workplace immersion model was regarded positively by senior students of this medical school. This model may be a better way of preparing students to be junior doctors than a traditional final year heavy on theoretical learning and assessment.

  6. Industrial and medicine accelerators and prospects of their development in the 11 five year plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhrushin, Yu.P.; Glukhikh, V.A.; Svin'in, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    The data on development and introduction of accelerators into industry and medicine, improvement of their technical-and-econmic factors are presented. A parametric series of high-voltage electron accelerators which includes seven models covering the 0.15-4 MeV energy range, is developed. A common series of linear resonance accelerators for non-destructive testing, radio-therapy, activation analysis and radiation technology cover the 3-40 MeV electron energy range. The series includes 12 modifications of accelerators made of unified modules. A linear induction accelerator with up to 200 kW average beam power for using in an installation for liquid waste decontamination is under development. A parametric series of cyclotrons for industry and medicine using electron beams at 6-220 MeV energy and up to 200 μmA current is developed [ru

  7. Forensic Emergency Medicine - Six-Year Experience of 13823 Cases in a University Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCAN, Ahmet; KELEŞ, Ayfer; GÜRBÜZ, Neslihan; BİLDİK, Fikret

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Clinical forensic medicine deals with cases involving both the legal and medical aspects of patient care, such as motor vehicle trauma or poisoning. In this study, we aimed to draw attention to the forensic issues by retrospective investigation of 13823 emergency cases and to share our experiences on this topic. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in a university Emergency Department (ED) in Ankara, Turkey. The data were collected from official hospital polic...

  8. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine in applied research: a year in review of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xunxun; Huang, Jia; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) remains to be one of the fastest growing fields, which covers a wide scope of topics of both basic and applied biological researches. This overview article summarized the advancements in applied researches of TERM area, including stem cell-mediated tissue regeneration, material science, and TERM clinical trial. These achievements demonstrated the great potential of clinical regenerative therapy of tissue/organ disease or defect through stem cells and tissue engineering approaches.

  9. Tweeting the meeting: A comparative analysis of an Australian emergency medicine conference over four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Udovicich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Social media allows user-generated content and dialog between users and has also entered into the domain of healthcare. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of Twitter at the Australasian College of Emergency Medicine Annual Scientific Meeting (ACEM ASM from 2011 to 2014 and analyze its ability to spread emergency medicine education. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, TweetReach was utilized to analyze relevant tweets. Each Annual Scientific Meeting (ASM had an associated Twitter account/s from, which data were collected. Duplicate tweets were excluded from the analysis. Information on the number of total tweets (regular tweets, retweets, and replies and contributors was gathered. The potential audience, the reach, was calculated. Results: From 2011 to 2014 the number of tweets rose from 460 to 4694, a 920% increase. Only 54 Twitter users contributed to the 2011 ASM. This rose to 252 (2012, 291 (2013 and 572 (2014. The average number of tweets per contributor ranged from 8.2 to 10.9. The reach, the potential number of Twitter users exposed to posts, rose >30 times from 2011 (15,502 users to 2014 (471,166. Conclusion: The use of Twitter at the ACEM ASM rose significantly from 2011 to 2014. It is a highly useful tool for the dissemination of emergency medicine education. Twitter has been harnessed by the ASM to enhance the conference experience by further generating interaction between delegates as well as those worldwide.

  10. Tweeting the meeting: A comparative analysis of an Australian emergency medicine conference over four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovicich, Cristian; Barberi, Anthony; Perera, Kalpa

    2016-01-01

    Social media allows user-generated content and dialog between users and has also entered into the domain of healthcare. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of Twitter at the Australasian College of Emergency Medicine Annual Scientific Meeting (ACEM ASM) from 2011 to 2014 and analyze its ability to spread emergency medicine education. Retrospectively, TweetReach was utilized to analyze relevant tweets. Each Annual Scientific Meeting (ASM) had an associated Twitter account/s from, which data were collected. Duplicate tweets were excluded from the analysis. Information on the number of total tweets (regular tweets, retweets, and replies) and contributors was gathered. The potential audience, the reach, was calculated. From 2011 to 2014 the number of tweets rose from 460 to 4694, a 920% increase. Only 54 Twitter users contributed to the 2011 ASM. This rose to 252 (2012), 291 (2013) and 572 (2014). The average number of tweets per contributor ranged from 8.2 to 10.9. The reach, the potential number of Twitter users exposed to posts, rose >30 times from 2011 (15,502 users) to 2014 (471,166). The use of Twitter at the ACEM ASM rose significantly from 2011 to 2014. It is a highly useful tool for the dissemination of emergency medicine education. Twitter has been harnessed by the ASM to enhance the conference experience by further generating interaction between delegates as well as those worldwide.

  11. An Evaluation on Medical Education, Research and Development of AYUSH Systems of Medicine through Five Year Plans of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya; Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Indian system of medicine has its origin in India. The system is currently renamed as AYUSH, an acronym for Ayurveda, Yoga & Naturopathy, Unani, Sidha and Homeopathy. These are the six Indian systems of medicine prevalent and practiced in India and in few neighboring Asian countries. The primary objective of this review was to gain insight in to the prior and existing initiatives which would enable reflection and assist in the identification of future change. A review was carried out based on the five year plan documents, obtained from the planning commission web portal of Govt. of India, on medical education, research and development of AYUSH systems of medicine. Post independence, the process of five year planning took its birth with the initiation of long term planning in India. The planning process embraced all the social and technology sectors in it. Since the beginning of five year planning, health and family welfare planning became imperative as a social sector planning. Planning regarding Indian Systems of Medicine became a part of health and family welfare planning since then. During the entire planning process a progressive path of development could be observed as per this evaluation. A relatively sluggish process of development was observed up to seventh plan however post eighth plan the growth took its pace. Eighth plan onwards several innovative development processes could be noticed. Despite the relative developments and growth of Indian systems of medicine these systems have to face lot of criticism and appraisal owing to their various characteristic features. In the beginning the system thrived with great degree of uncertainty, as described in 1(st) five year plan, however progressed ahead with a vision to be a globally accepted system, as envisaged in 11(th) five year plan. A very strong optimistic approach in spreading India's own medical heritage is the need of the hour. The efforts are neither completely insufficient nor sufficient enough; hence

  12. "Biospheric medicine" as viewed from the two-year first closure of Biosphere 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walford, R L; Bechtel, R; MacCallum, T; Paglia, D E; Weber, L J

    1996-07-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre, 7-million ft. enclosed ecological space near Tucson, AZ. It contains five wilderness and two domestic biomes (rain forest, savanna, desert, ocean, marsh; agricultural station, living quarters), an original introduction of 3,800 species (approximately 20% extinctions have occurred), and a large basement "technosphere." Sealed inside Biosphere 2 in September 1991, four women and four men, including two of the authors, maintained themselves and the various systems for 2 yr, the longest-sustained "isolated confined environment" period on record. MMPI psychological profile scores for Biosphere 2 crewmembers correlated closely with those reported for astronauts and shuttle applicants. Major medical problems encountered during the 2 yr included adaptation to a low-calorie (1800-2200 kcal.d-1 per person) but otherwise nutritionally adequate diet, with substantial weight loss (18% for men, 10% for women), and a declining oxygen atmosphere (down to 14.2%). Life in a miniworld such as Biosphere 2 may differ substantially from life in a space station or temporary planetary base. These differences include multiple, shifting, sometimes opposing post-launch objectives; complete self-sustenance with recycling of virtually all materials within a highly complex biologic system; retooling of some areas of practical medicine; an attention to "culture" as a social dynamic and how that may influence crew and leadership selection in a societal rather than a quasi-military community. Assuming that long-term planetary colonies must be largely self-sustaining (due to costs of supply over great distances), they must of necessity approach the condition of biospheres. Subject to chaos dynamic (nonlinear dynamic) perturbations, the behavior of complex biospheres will be inherently non-predictable--as opposed to the linear dynamic situation of most space missions--and will require of the inhabitants, including the medical team, a wide range of coping abilities. Under

  13. The use of medicinal leeches in fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis - case report of a 4-year-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, L; Dvořák, Z; Novák, O; Stiborová, S; Veselý, J

    2014-01-01

    Replantation of amputated fingertip is a technical challenge to the microsurgeons. The success rate depends directly on the availability and the size of preserved vessels and on the degree of their damage. In distal digital amputations, veins are usually not easily recovered or even absent, and thus high number of replantation procedures fails because of the venous congestion. The use of medicinal leeches is a treatment option for venous congestion of replanted fingers. A case report of a 4-year-old patient after fingertip replantation without venous anastomosis when temporary venous drainage was provided by an application of medicinal leeches is reported together with literature review. We observed an unusually short duration of venous congestion (48 hours) and there was no need of blood transfusion.

  14. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  15. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800. Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35, Lamiaceae (25, and Solanaceae (21. Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species, followed by respiratory disorders (95, problems of the urinary tract (85, infections of female organs (66, liver ailments (61, inflammations (59, stomach problems (51 and rheumatism (45. Most of the plants used (83% were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  16. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-11-07

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

  17. Job-sharing in nuclear medicine: an 8-year experience (1998-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Als, Claudine; Brautigam, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Job-sharing is generally defined as a situation in which a single professional position is held in common by two separate individuals, who alternatively, on a timely basis, deal with the workload and the responsibilities. The aim of the present paper is to discuss prerequisites and characteristics of job-sharing by medical doctors and implications in a department of nuclear medicine. Job-sharing facilitates the combination of family life with professional occupation and prevents burnout. The time schedule applied by job-sharers is relevant: will both partners work for half-days, half-weeks, or rather alternatively during one to two consecutive weeks? This crucial choice, depending on personal as well as on professional circumstances, certainly influences the workflow of the department.

  18. Frequency of bullying perceived in clinical practices of last year interns of a medicine school: cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Fernanda Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During the medical internship year, students attend several hospitals and are observed and influenced by postgraduate students, general practitioners and other interns, who provide them with fundamental support regarding professional training. Bullying is defined as an aggressive behavior that occurs between a perpetrator and a victim in different scenarios and authority relationships, such as clinical practices at Medicine programs. Objective: To describe the perceived frequency of bullying among a group of interns of the Faculty of Medicine from Universidad Nacional de Colombia during internship. Materials and methods: A transversal analytical study was performed through a questionnaire applied to 82 medical interns of the School of Medicine from Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Results: The perceived frequency of bullying was 90%. Statistically significant differences were not found in the stratified analysis by sex or place of practice. In most cases, bullying was perpetrated by other interns, while residents and specialists showed a lower frequency. Conclusion: Perceived frequency of bullying was higher than expected according to the existing literature. These results can be used as a basis for new studies.

  19. Changing the formula of residents' work hours in internal medicine: moving from "years in training" to "hours in training".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-03-01

    In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from "years of residency" to "hours of residency." For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of "multipliers" based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the "final adjusted accredited hours" that count toward graduation. Substituting "years of training" with "hours of training" may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education.

  20. Las notas al pie en la traducción de Fifty Shades (Footnotes in the Translation of Fifty Shades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Valverde Jara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el recurso de las notas a pie de página insertas en la traducción independiente de literatura comercial en versión digital, de la trilogía Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker y Fifty Shades Freed, de E. L. James. Se examina el grado de influencia de esos elementos extratextuales, y se concluye que todos ellos, organizados en un complejo proceso de traducción, en especial los del contexto de llegada, condicionan la estrategia traductológica. Abstract This study examines the use of footnotes as a translation strategy in the independent translation of commercial literature in digital format, based on the trilogy written by E. L. James, Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed. The analysis measures the influence of these extratextual elements within the complex translation process, specifically those of the target language context, and it is concluded that they condition the translation strategies used.

  1. Strategies to define performance specifications in laboratory medicine: 3 years on from the Milan Strategic Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteghini, Mauro; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Jones, Graham; Oosterhuis, Wytze; Plebani, Mario; Sandberg, Sverre

    2017-10-26

    Measurements in clinical laboratories produce results needed in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients. These results are always characterized by some uncertainty. What quality is needed and what measurement errors can be tolerated without jeopardizing patient safety should therefore be defined and specified for each analyte having clinical use. When these specifications are defined, the total examination process will be "fit for purpose" and the laboratory professionals should then set up rules to control the measuring systems to ensure they perform within specifications. The laboratory community has used different models to set performance specifications (PS). Recently, it was felt that there was a need to revisit different models and, at the same time, to emphasize the presuppositions for using the different models. Therefore, in 2014 the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) organized a Strategic Conference in Milan. It was felt that there was a need for more detailed discussions on, for instance, PS for EQAS, which measurands should use which models to set PS and how to set PS for the extra-analytical phases. There was also a need to critically evaluate the quality of data on biological variation studies and further discussing the use of the total error (TE) concept. Consequently, EFLM established five Task Finish Groups (TFGs) to address each of these topics. The TFGs are finishing their activity on 2017 and the content of this paper includes deliverables from these groups.

  2. Differences and similarities in medicine use, perceptions and sharing among adolescents in two different educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestergaard, Stense; Ravn, Pernille; Hallgreen, Christine Erikstrup; Kaae, Susanne

    2017-11-23

    Background Evidence suggests that there are differences in medicine habits among adolescents with different sociodemographic backgrounds and that peers might also influence medicine use. More knowledge is needed regarding how these aspects together affect how different young people use medicines. Objective To explore the differences in medicine use, perceptions and sharing between adolescents at two different educational (and socio-demographic) settings and assess the influence of parents and peers. Subjects Fifty-nine students from a private high school (HS) and 34 students from a public vocational school (VS) in Denmark between the ages of 15 and 19 years old were subjects in this study. Methods A questionnaire was used that included background, medicine consumption, perceptions and social interaction. Descriptive analyses along with a Fishers test were used to determine differences and similarities between students' medicine patterns at the school settings. Results Of the 93 respondents, 74% used medicine within the past month, with females using more medicines. A significant difference was found with students at the VS using a higher number of medicines. Analgesics were the most frequently consumed medicine; however, reasons for using medicines appear to vary between the schools. Similarities between the schools were identified for perception of safety, sharing medicine and talking primarily with parents about medicine. Conclusion Fewer differences between students' medicine use at two educational settings than expected were identified, showing that aspects other than social background influence adolescents' use of medicine. A general tendency among young people believing that using medicines is a safe might explain these findings.

  3. ‘One Medicine - One Health’ at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania - the first 125 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Hendricks, VMD, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine (Penn Vet, in partnership with other veterinary schools and health professions, is positioned well to advance an international ‘One Medicine - One Health’ initiative. Founded in 1884 by the University's Medical Faculty, the School has been a leader in moulding the education and practice of veterinary medicine in the nation and the world. Successfully integrating biomedical research into all aspects of veterinary medical education, the School has made significant contributions to basic and clinical research by exemplifying ‘One Medicine’. In looking to the future, Penn Vet will embrace the broader ‘One Health’ mission as well.

  4. Foundation Year 2 doctors’ reasons for leaving UK medicine: an in-depth analysis of decision-making using semistructured interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Samantha E.; Tallentire, Victoria R.; Pope, Lindsey M.; Laidlaw, Anita H.; Morrison, Jill

    2018-01-01

    This work was funded by a Scottish Medical Education Research Consortium grant. Objectives:  To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. Setting : All four regions of Scotland. Participants:  Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. Primary and secondary outc...

  5. Sustainable harvesting strategy of medicinal plant species in Nepal - results of a six-year study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Dostálek, Tomáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 2 (2017), s. 239-252 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10280S; GA ČR GA526/09/0549 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : population dynamics * sustainable harvesting * Himalayan region Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2016

  6. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liao, Zhuan; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-10-01

    People of Chinese ethnicity are the largest population in the world. Critical care medicine in China is developing rapidly and has achieved great advances in recent 20 years. The research contribution in critical care medicine among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China--Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW)--is unknown. Articles published in 18 journals on critical care medicine originating from ML, TW, and HK from 1999 to 2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Science Citation Index Expanded. Quantity and quality analyses were conducted for the total numbers of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were 932 articles from ML (268), TW (506), and HK (158) from 1999 to 2008. The annual total numbers of articles of the three regions increased gradually from 1999 to 2008 (from 57 to 157). From 2002 onward, the number of articles published from ML exceeded that from HK, but TW still has the dominance in both annual and total number of articles published compared with ML and HK. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (1676.67) was higher than that from ML (708.25) and HK (449.51). TW had the highest average IF of 3.31 followed by HK of 2.85 and ML of 2.64. HK had the highest average citations of each article of 10.73, followed by TW of 6.74 and ML of 5.34. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions. The total numbers of articles in China increased markedly from 1999 to 2008. TW published the most number of articles, clinical trials, and randomised controlled trials among the three regions. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions.

  7. A 9-year analysis of bibliographical trends for journals in the subject category of general and internal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jong Yong Abdiel

    2009-05-01

    For academic research outcomes, an important bibliometric scoring termed as the journal impact factor (JIF) is used when assessment of the quality of research is required. No known study has been conducted to explore the bibliographical trends of 'Medicine, General & Internal' journals indexed by the annual Journal Citation Reports. Data from the Journal Citation Reports and Web of Science database were extracted to formulate a comprehensive analysis. In this study, the trends of 15 journals (5 top ranked and 10 low ranked; 5 English and 5 non-English based) were selected and analysed over a 9-year period (starting from year 1999 to 2007). Using the year 1999 as the base year, the results showed that the JIF rose significantly for the selected top ranked journals (up to 180.9%) while the low ranked ones slipped in their JIF value (down to -44.4%). The observed upward or downward trend was caused by a combination of other bibliographical measures like citations, number of citable, and total items published. It is postulated that changes in bibliographical trends can be classified as editorial and non-editorial influences. The impacts of these influences on the 15 selected journals over the 9-year period were also discussed retrospectively.

  8. Metabolic Analysis of Medicinal Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense during Different Growth Years

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Qing; Jiao, Chunyan; Sun, Shiwei; Song, Cheng; Cai, Yongping; Lin, Yi; Fan, Honghong; Zhu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics technology has enabled an important method for the identification and quality control of Traditional Chinese Medical materials. In this study, we isolated metabolites from cultivated Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense stems of different growth years in the methanol/water phase and identified them using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). First, a metabolomics technology platform for Dendrobium was constructed. The metabolites in the Dendrobium...

  9. Metabolic Analysis of Medicinal Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense during Different Growth Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qing; Jiao, Chunyan; Sun, Shiwei; Song, Cheng; Cai, Yongping; Lin, Yi; Fan, Honghong; Zhu, Yanfang

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics technology has enabled an important method for the identification and quality control of Traditional Chinese Medical materials. In this study, we isolated metabolites from cultivated Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense stems of different growth years in the methanol/water phase and identified them using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). First, a metabolomics technology platform for Dendrobium was constructed. The metabolites in the Dendrobium methanol/water phase were mainly sugars and glycosides, amino acids, organic acids, alcohols. D. officinale and D. huoshanense and their growth years were distinguished by cluster analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). Eleven metabolites that contributed significantly to this differentiation were subjected to t-tests (PDendrobium species revealed that the polysaccharide content of D. huoshanense was higher than that of D. officinale, indicating that the D. huoshanense was of higher quality. Based on the accumulation of Dendrobium metabolites, the optimal harvest time for Dendrobium was in the third year. This initial metabolic profiling platform for Dendrobium provides an important foundation for the further study of secondary metabolites (pharmaceutical active ingredients) and metabolic pathways.

  10. Metabolic Analysis of Medicinal Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense during Different Growth Years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Jin

    Full Text Available Metabolomics technology has enabled an important method for the identification and quality control of Traditional Chinese Medical materials. In this study, we isolated metabolites from cultivated Dendrobium officinale and Dendrobium huoshanense stems of different growth years in the methanol/water phase and identified them using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. First, a metabolomics technology platform for Dendrobium was constructed. The metabolites in the Dendrobium methanol/water phase were mainly sugars and glycosides, amino acids, organic acids, alcohols. D. officinale and D. huoshanense and their growth years were distinguished by cluster analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA. Eleven metabolites that contributed significantly to this differentiation were subjected to t-tests (P<0.05 to identify biomarkers that discriminate between D. officinale and D. huoshanense, including sucrose, glucose, galactose, succinate, fructose, hexadecanoate, oleanitrile, myo-inositol, and glycerol. Metabolic profiling of the chemical compositions of Dendrobium species revealed that the polysaccharide content of D. huoshanense was higher than that of D. officinale, indicating that the D. huoshanense was of higher quality. Based on the accumulation of Dendrobium metabolites, the optimal harvest time for Dendrobium was in the third year. This initial metabolic profiling platform for Dendrobium provides an important foundation for the further study of secondary metabolites (pharmaceutical active ingredients and metabolic pathways.

  11. Occupational exposure at the Department of Nuclear Medicine as a work environment: A 19-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwowarska-Bilska, H.; Birkenfeld, B.; Gwardys, A.; Listewnik, M. H.; Elbl, B.; Cichon-Bankowska, K.; Supinska, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the radiation safety at Nuclear Medicine Department being a work environment. Ionizing radiation exposure of the employees in the last 19 years and the effects of legislative changes in radiological protection were analyzed. Material/Methods: All employees of the investigated department were regularly and individually monitored using chest badges equipped with Kodak film type 2. Overall, 629 annual doses of the employees of nuclear medicine department, registered in the period 1991 - 2009, were analyzed statistically. Results: Technicians were found to be the largest exposed professional group, whereas nurses received the highest annual doses. Physicians received an average annual dose at the border detection methods. Ancillary and administration staff occasionally received doses above the method detection limit (MDL). The average annual dose for all dosimetry records was 0.7 mSv, and that for dosimetry records equal and higher than MDL was 2.2 mSv. Conclusions: There was no case of an exceeded dose limit for a worker. Furthermore, improvement of radiological protection had a significant impact on the reduction of doses for the most exposed employees. (authors)

  12. Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency Program: Relationship between Lifestyle Behaviors and Burnout and Wellbeing Measures in First-Year Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClafferty, Hilary; Brooks, Audrey J; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Brenner, Michelle; Brown, Melanie; Esparham, Anna; Gerstbacher, Dana; Golianu, Brenda; Mark, John; Weydert, Joy; Yeh, Ann Ming; Maizes, Victoria

    2018-04-23

    It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in professionalism and personal development recognize the unacceptably high resident burnout rates and present an important opportunity for programs to improve residents experience throughout training. These competencies encourage healthy lifestyle practices and cultivation of self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, mindfulness, and compassion—a paradigm shift from traditional medical training underpinned by a culture of unrealistic endurance and self-sacrifice. To date, few successful and sustainable programs in resident burnout prevention and wellness promotion have been described. The University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR) curriculum, developed in 2011, was designed in part to help pediatric programs meet new resident wellbeing requirements. The purpose of this paper is to detail levels of lifestyle behaviors, burnout, and wellbeing for the PIMR program’s first-year residents ( N = 203), and to examine the impact of lifestyle behaviors on burnout and wellbeing. The potential of the PIMR to provide interventions addressing gaps in lifestyle behaviors with recognized association to burnout is discussed.

  13. Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency Program: Relationship between Lifestyle Behaviors and Burnout and Wellbeing Measures in First-Year Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary McClafferty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME core competencies in professionalism and personal development recognize the unacceptably high resident burnout rates and present an important opportunity for programs to improve residents experience throughout training. These competencies encourage healthy lifestyle practices and cultivation of self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, mindfulness, and compassion—a paradigm shift from traditional medical training underpinned by a culture of unrealistic endurance and self-sacrifice. To date, few successful and sustainable programs in resident burnout prevention and wellness promotion have been described. The University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR curriculum, developed in 2011, was designed in part to help pediatric programs meet new resident wellbeing requirements. The purpose of this paper is to detail levels of lifestyle behaviors, burnout, and wellbeing for the PIMR program’s first-year residents (N = 203, and to examine the impact of lifestyle behaviors on burnout and wellbeing. The potential of the PIMR to provide interventions addressing gaps in lifestyle behaviors with recognized association to burnout is discussed.

  14. A 6-year update of the health policy and advocacy priorities of the Society of Behavioral Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Joanna; Bennett, Gary G; Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; Pagoto, Sherry L; Sallis, James F; Wilson, Dawn K; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2017-12-01

    Government policy affects virtually every topic of interest to health behavior researchers, from research funding to reimbursement for clinical services to application of evidence to impact health outcomes. This paper provides a 6-year update on the expansion of Society of Behavioral Medicine's (SBM) public policy and advocacy agenda and proposed future directions. SBM's Health Policy Council is responsible for ensuring coordination of the policy-related activities of the Health Policy Committee (HPC), the Civic and Public Engagement Committee (CPEC), and the Scientific and Professional Liaison Council (SPLC). These committees and councils have written letters to Congress, signed onto advocacy letters with hundreds of organizations, and developed and disseminated 15 health policy briefs, the majority of which have been presented to legislative staffers on Capitol Hill. With the assistance of the SPLC, SBM has collaborated on policy efforts with like-minded organizations to increase the impact of the Society's policy work. Moving forward, SBM plans to continue to increase efforts to disseminate policy work more broadly and develop long-term relationships with Congressional staffers. SBM leadership realizes that to remain relevant, demonstrate impact, and advance the role of behavioral medicine, we must advance a policy agenda that reflects our mission of better health through behavior change.

  15. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from East Asia: A 10-year survey of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhenyu; Ou, Chongyang; Teng, Hongfei; Liu, Xiguang; Tang, Hongxin

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and quality of publications in critical care medicine from East Asia haven't been reported. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of publications from East Asia. Articles from China, Japan and South Korea in 2005 to 2014 were retrieved from Web of Science and Pubmed. The number of publications, impact factor, citation, and article types were analyzed. There were 3076 publications from East Asia (1720 from China, 913 from Japan, and 443 from South Korea). There were a significant decrease in publications from Japan (p = 0.024) and significant increases from China (p = 0.000) and South Korea (p = 0.009). From 2006, the number of articles from China exceed Japan. China had the highest total impact factor (6618.48) and citation (18416), followed by Japan (4566.03; 15440) and South Korea (1998.19; 5599). Japan had the highest mean impact factor (5.00) and citations (16.91), followed by South Korea (4.51; 12.64) and China (3.85; 10.71). China and South Korea`s contributions to critical care medicine had significant increases during the past 10 years, while Japan had a significant decrease. China was the most productive region in East Asia since 2006. Japan had the highest quality research output.

  16. 1977 flywheel technology symposium proceedings. [Fifty-two papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, G.C.; Stone, R.G. (eds.)

    1978-03-01

    Fifty-two papers, four paper abstracts, and four brief summaries of panel discussions are presented on flywheel energy storage technology. A separate abstract was prepared for each of 41 papers for inclusion in DOE Energy Research Abstracts (ERA). Eleven papers were processed previously for inclusion in the data base. (PMA)

  17. A seasonal variation of the three Leading diagnoses over fifty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A seasonal variation of the three Leading diagnoses over fifty months at the Duk Lost. Boys Clinic, South Sudan reed, williama, Dannan, Tomb, Friedman Danielc, MD, Manyok gabrield, Connor Barbarae, MD, reed Davidf, MD. Introduction. The Duk Lost Boys Clinic, a Primary Health Care Clinic in Duk Payuel, is the only ...

  18. Staff radiation doses during eight years in a nuclear medicine radiopharmacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Aswegen, A. van; Loetter, M.G.; Herbst, C.P.; Otto, A.C.; Orange Free State Univ., Bloemfontein

    1994-01-01

    Staff working in the radiopharmacy and nursing staff responsible for injecting radionuclides are being monitored constantly in our department. We report here on the effective doses and doses to the hands received by staff at two hospitals during 8 years from January 1985 to December 1992. In addition to the doses determined monthly by the South African Bureau of Standards' Radiation Protection Service (SABS), radiation doses received to the hands and whole body were measured every week using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). The highest total radiation dose received in any one year by any one person at hospital A was 233.53 mSv to the hands, and 10.20 mSv and 8.37 mSv to the whole body depending on the dosemeter used. The corresponding values for hospital B were 54.05 mSv to the hands and 6.94 mSv and 4.43 mSv to the whole body. If only one radiographer should do all the work calculated highest dose received would be 447.06 mSv to the hands and 9.68 mSv SABS effective dose. The radiation doses to staff were well within the limits prescribed. (Author)

  19. Implementation of an Emergency Medicine Research Associates Program: Sharing 20 Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent DeRienzo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of research associates (RA programs to facilitate study enrollment in the emergency department was initiated during the mid-1990s. The University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC was an early adopting site for this model, which has experienced considerable growth and development over the past 20 years. Methods: Our goal was to detail the Emergency Department Research Associates (EDRA program processes developed at the URMC that has led to our program’s sustainability and productivity. These processes, and the lessons learned during their development, can assist institutions seeking to establish an RA program or refine an existing program. Results: Defined procedures for selecting, training, and monitoring EDRAs have been created and refined with the goal of maximizing study enrollment and minimizing protocol deviations. Our EDRA program functions as a paid service center for investigators, and our EDRAs engage in a variety of study-related activities including screening and enrolling patients, administering surveys, collecting bio-specimens, and making follow-up calls. Over the past two years, our program has averaged 222 enrollments/month (standard deviation = 79.93, gathering roughly 25 participants per study per month. Conclusion: Our EDRA model has consistently resulted in some of the highest number of enrollments across a variety of recently funded, multi-center studies. Maintaining a high-quality EDRA program requires continual investment on the part of the leadership team, though the benefits to investigators within and outside the department outweigh these costs.

  20. Sexist Attitudes Among Emerging Adult Women Readers of Fifty Shades Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Lauren E; Carotta, Christin L; Bonomi, Amy E; Snyder, Anastasia

    2017-02-01

    Stereotypical sexist representations of men and women in popular culture reinforce rigid views of masculinity (e.g., males as being strong, in control, masterful, and aggressive) and femininity (e.g., women as being fragile and weak, unassertive, peaceful, irrational, and driven by emotions). The present study examined associations between the fictional series Fifty Shades-one popular culture mechanism that includes pervasive traditional gender role representations-and underlying sexist beliefs among a sample of 715 women ages 18-24 years. Analyses revealed associations between Fifty Shades readership and sexism, as measured through the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. Namely women who reported reading Fifty Shades had higher levels of ambivalent, benevolent, and hostile sexism. Further, those who interpreted Fifty Shades as "romantic" had higher levels of ambivalent and benevolent sexism. Our findings support prior empirical studies noting associations between interacting with aspects of popular culture, such as television and video games, and individual beliefs and behaviors.

  1. Three-year customer satisfaction survey in laboratory medicine in a Chinese university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siqi; Duan, Yifei; Liu, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Yongmei

    2018-04-25

    Customer satisfaction is a key quality indicator of laboratory service. Patients and physicians are the ultimate customers in medical laboratory, and their opinions are essential components in developing a customer-oriented laboratory. A longitudinal investigation of customer satisfaction was conducted through questionnaires. We designed two different questionnaires and selected 1200 customers (600 outpatients and 600 physicians) to assess customer satisfaction every other year from 2012 to 2016. Items with scores satisfaction in 2014 was better, which illustrated our strategy was effective. However, some items remained to be less than 4, so we repeated the survey after modifying questionnaires in 2016. However, the general satisfaction points of the physicians and patients reduced in 2016, which reminded us of some influential factors we had neglected. By using dynamic survey of satisfaction, we can continuously find deficiencies in our laboratory services and take suitable corrective actions, thereby improving our service quality.

  2. Gender Disparities in Medical Student Research Awards: A Thirteen-Year Study From the Yale School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph T; Angoff, Nancy R; Forrest, John N; Justice, Amy C

    2017-11-14

    Instruction in research conduct is currently required, and many U.S. medical schools require students to complete a research project. Each year all Yale School of Medicine (YSM) graduating students submit a research thesis, and ~5% are awarded highest honors. Gender disparities exist in areas related to physician research productivity, including academic rank, research funding, and publications. The authors asked whether gender disparities exist for medical student research. The authors conducted a retrospective review of 1,120 theses submitted by graduating medical students from 2003-2015 at YSM and collected data on gender, mentoring, research type, sponsoring department, and other characteristics. Multivariate logistic regression modeling examined gender differences in medical student research awards. Women authored 50.9% of theses, but earned only 30.9% of highest honors awards (OR 0.41, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.74). Among factors associated with increased receipt of highest honors that differed by gender, men were more likely than women to work with a mentor with a history of 3 or more thesis honorees, take a fifth year of study, secure competitive research funding, undertake an MD-Master of Health Science degree, and conduct laboratory research (for all, P < .001). After adjustment for these factors, and for underrepresented in medicine status and sponsoring department, women remained less likely to receive highest honors (OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.27, 0.98). Women medical students at YSM were less likely to receive highest honors for medical research. Gender disparities in postgraduate biomedical research success may start during undergraduate medical education.Written work prepared by employees of the Federal Government as part of their official duties is, under the U.S. Copyright Act, a "work of the United States Government" for which copyright protection under Title 17 of the United States Code is not available. As such, copyright does not extend to the contributions of

  3. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years in Kampala city, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Ocan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A recall period of two weeks (14 days was used in during data collection. Results The prevalence of giving children non-prescription antimicrobial medicines was 44.8% (38.3-52.2. The most common disease symptoms that the children reportedly had included flu, 84.9% (331/390, cough, 83.1% (324/390, and undefined fever, 69.7% (272/390. Medicines commonly given to children included, paracetamol 53.1% (207/390, Coartem 29.7% (116/390, cough linctus 20.8% (81/390, amoxicillin 18.9% (74/390, Co-trimoxazole 18.5% (72/390, and diphenhydramine 15.4% (60/390. The major sources of medicines given to the children was hospital/clinic, 57.26% (223/390. Most of the children, 81% were given more than one medicine at a time. The majority, 62.3% (243/390 of the care takers who gave the children medicine during the recent illness were not aware of any medicine (s that should not be given to children. The predictors of non-prescription use of antimicrobial medicines in managing symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children included, medicines obtained from drug shop (PR: 1.45, CI: 1.14-1.85, medicines at home (PR: 1.8, CI: 0.83-1.198 and type of medicine (antimalarial (PR: 2.8, CI: 1.17-6.68. Conclusion Children are commonly given multiple medicines during episodes of acute upper respiratory

  4. Medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children (≤12 years) in Kampala city, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocan, Moses; Aono, Mary; Bukirwa, Clare; Luyinda, Emmanuel; Ochwo, Cathy; Nsambu, Elastus; Namugonza, Stella; Makoba, Joseph; Kandaruku, Enock; Muyende, Hannington; Nakawunde, Aida

    2017-09-21

    Medicines are commonly accessed and used for management of illness in children without a prescription. This potentially increases the risk of unwanted treatment outcomes. We investigated medicine use practices in management of symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections among children (≤12 years) in households in Nakawa division, Kampala city. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 390 randomly selected children. Data on use of medicines in children (≤12 years) during recent episode of acute upper respiratory tract infection was collected from their care takers using an interviewer administered questionnaire. A recall period of two weeks (14 days) was used in during data collection. The prevalence of giving children non-prescription antimicrobial medicines was 44.8% (38.3-52.2). The most common disease symptoms that the children reportedly had included flu, 84.9% (331/390), cough, 83.1% (324/390), and undefined fever, 69.7% (272/390). Medicines commonly given to children included, paracetamol 53.1% (207/390), Coartem 29.7% (116/390), cough linctus 20.8% (81/390), amoxicillin 18.9% (74/390), Co-trimoxazole 18.5% (72/390), and diphenhydramine 15.4% (60/390). The major sources of medicines given to the children was hospital/clinic, 57.26% (223/390). Most of the children, 81% were given more than one medicine at a time. The majority, 62.3% (243/390) of the care takers who gave the children medicine during the recent illness were not aware of any medicine (s) that should not be given to children. The predictors of non-prescription use of antimicrobial medicines in managing symptoms of acute upper respiratory tract infections in children included, medicines obtained from drug shop (PR: 1.45, CI: 1.14-1.85), medicines at home (PR: 1.8, CI: 0.83-1.198) and type of medicine (antimalarial) (PR: 2.8, CI: 1.17-6.68). Children are commonly given multiple medicines during episodes of acute upper respiratory tract infections with most antimicrobial

  5. Exploring the Knowledge and Perception of Generic Medicines among Final Year Undergraduate Medical, Pharmacy, and Nursing Students in Sierra Leone: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bai James

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.

  6. Availability and affordability of essential medicines: exploring the health seeking behaviours and health service utilisation for children under-5 years living in squatter settlement of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, Yasir; Shaikh, Babar Tasneem; Kumar, Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Child health outcomes in the poor communities are largely affected by the non-availability of essential medicines at government health facilities and non-affordability of prescribed medicines at private retail pharmacies. This phenomenon largely defines health seeking behaviours and health service utilisation patterns of the families of the children. Using observational visits, we examined the shelf-availability of medicines for children less than 5 years of age at a rural health centre and conducted focus group discussions with the mothers to explore the effects of non-availability and non-affordability of medicines. We also validated all information by interviewing the health care providers of the area. We found that erratic and insufficient supply of essential medicines at the government health facility and a limited purchasing power to buy medicines from a retail pharmacy, led to considerable 'financial burden' on the poor people, non-compliance with the treatment, health care seeking from informal health providers and healer shopping. This trend has a serious repercussion on the health seeking behaviours and of course the health outcomes, especially among children. On the users' side, health education and health promotion campaign must be instituted to explain the adverse effects on child health ensure appropriate health care seeking behaviours. For the supply side, the health care authorities must ensure the availability of essential medicines for the children at the government facilities. Local community representatives must be involved in the matters related to medicines stock management at the facility.

  7. Training medical students in health promotion: twenty years of experience at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mattig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In most cases, the work of medical doctors, be they general practitioners or specialists, involves some dimension of health promotion (HP. There is thus ample justification for increasing the awareness of medical students vis-à-vis HP and its relevance for their future practice.Methods: In the context of a major curriculum reform (problem-based learning [PBL] at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Geneva in the mid-1990s, several steps were taken to strengthen HP throughout the curriculum and include HP in its key domains as defined by the Ottawa Charter (OC.Results: First, the political dimension of HP was developed in a series of first- and fifth-year lectures and third-year workshops; second, community action was strengthened through a third year one-month community immersion program; third, the development of personal skills was integrated into second- and third-year PBL cases and into fourth-and fifth-year learning activities in clinical settings as well as second- and third-year HP electives; in terms of reorienting health services, the chosen approach included the development of a HP-specific track in the context of a Certificate of Advanced Studies (CAS in Community Health and a Master of Advanced Studies(MAS in Public Health. Furthermore, a supportive intra-university environment was created through a collaborative convention with Health Promotion Switzerland, which is in charge of coordinating HP in Switzerland.Conclusion: In our view, HP teaching for medical students seems all the more relevant given that future medical doctors will have to take care of an increasing number of patients likely to develop chronic non-communicable diseases.

  8. The Mecklenburg County Interlocal Agreement: An 18-Year Collaboration Between Medicine and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Crystal N; Plescia, Marcus; Keener, Stephen R; DeHaven, Mark

    Better integration of public health and medical services has been a long-standing goal in the United States and has been widely discussed in the scientific literature. To identify key lessons and outcomes of the Mecklenburg County Interlocal Agreement, one of the longest running efforts integrating health care delivery and public health services in a major metropolitan area. In-depth key informant interviews and brief questionnaires of leaders involved in the Mecklenburg County Interlocal Agreement. Charlotte-Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. Convenience sample of 15 past and present employees and administrative leaders of the Mecklenburg County Privatization Initiative from the Mecklenburg County Health Department (N = 7) and Carolinas Healthcare System (N = 8). Attitudes reflecting the effects of the Mecklenburg County Privatization Initiative, based on 6 "synergies" for evaluating the effectiveness of health care and public health system collaboration. Mean scores were calculated for 21 questionnaire items, using 5-point Likert scales (1 = no impact; 5 = great impact). Mean scores were calculated by averaging the multiple-item question sets reflecting each of the 6 synergies. Synergy scores ranged from a low of 3.1 (3 items reflecting whether the collaboration "Used clinical practice to identify and address community health problems") to a high of 3.7 (3 items reflecting whether the collaboration "Improved health care by coordinating services for individuals"). The in-depth interviews indicated a clear impact for the 2 synergies linked to individual care. Increased access to care emerged as a strong theme, along with the belief that medical care services were improved and that these improvements persist. The findings of this study provide perspective from an 18-year contractual agreement for a large health care system to operate county public health functions. Implications include the need to incorporate well-defined public health principles in any

  9. use of traditional medicinal plants by people of 'boosat'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    Ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants was obtained from informants by semi-structured interview, observations, group discussions, and guided field walks. RESULTS: Fifty-two medicinal ... Indigenous knowledge systems, can guide.

  10. Patent medicine vendors are major providers antimalaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of malaria by this informal sector of healthcare delivery is however ... Methods: Fifty-five patent medicine vendors selected through a multistage sampling ... training of the patent medicine vendors, the overall appropriate treatment ...

  11. Medicine use among 11- and 13-year-olds: agreement between parents' reports and children's self-reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anette; Krølner, Rikke; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity of children's self-reports on medicine use has not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the agreement between parents' and children's reports of medicine use for 5 common complaints and to analyze predictors for disagreement. METHODS: We used the child-parent validation......, difficulties in falling asleep, nervousness, and asthma. RESULTS: The percent agreement was lowest with medicine use for headache (64.6%), but was very high for the other 4 complaints (85.3-91.8%). The simple kappa coefficients were moderate to good for medicine use for headaches, stomachache, and asthma (0...

  12. Serotonin 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 ligands: an update of medicinal chemistry research in the last few years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modica, M N; Pittalà, V; Romeo, G; Salerno, L; Siracusa, M A

    2010-01-01

    The biogenic amine serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is one of the most studied neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. It acts through the activation of at least fourteen 5-HT receptor subtypes. Over the last two decades, high attention was devoted to the 5-HT(3) and 5-HT(4) receptors due to their colocalization in the gastrointestinal tract and because their ligands are useful in the treatment of intestinal serotonergic system dysfunctions. The focus of this review is to discuss the literature concerning recent advances on 5-HT(3)R and 5-HT(4)R ligands and their structure-activity relationships from a medicinal chemistry perspective. During the last few years, new and significant progresses have been made in the field of novel potent and selective ligands, mixed ligands, agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists, and a number of patents have been filed. Furthermore several ligands targeting the 5-HT(3)R and 5-HT(4)R have been proposed for novel therapeutic indications such as the treatment of various psychiatric disorders.

  13. [User's perceived quality in an internal medicine service after a five-year period application of a user's satisfaction survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aparicio, J; Herrero-Herrero, J; Corral-Gudino, L; Jorge-Sánchez, R

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the quality perceived by users of the 'Los Montalvos' Internal Medicine Service (Salamanca, Spain), over its first five years of operation. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2004 to January 2009. All in-patients (6,997) were given a survey model SERVQHOS at the time of discharge, which was anonymous and voluntary. We collected 2,435 surveys. Participation was 34.8%. Except for the item regarding accessibility, the other questions of the survey were perceived "as expected" or above expectations by over 85% of the users. A total of 90.6% of patients who completed the survey were satisfied with the care received, and 83.9% would recommend the hospital to others. The variables with higher predictive capability, in relation to overall satisfaction, were "personalised care', and the interests of staff to solve problems. The easy access to the hospital' was seen by 33.6% as below expectations. After introducing several improvement measures, the percentage of dissatisfaction regarding accessibility was 24.8% (p=0.02). Nine out of ten patients surveyed were satisfied or very satisfied with the care received, and would recommend the hospital to others. The variables more strongly associated with overall satisfaction were those related to service personnel. After identifying deficiencies and implementing measures to improve, the survey detected an increase in the level of satisfaction. Copyright 2009 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient safety incident reports related to traditional Japanese Kampo medicines: medication errors and adverse drug events in a university hospital for a ten-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Fujimoto, Makoto; Nogami, Tatsuya; Watari, Hidetoshi; Kitahara, Hideyuki; Misawa, Hiroki; Kimbara, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-21

    Kampo medicine is traditional Japanese medicine, which originated in ancient traditional Chinese medicine, but was introduced and developed uniquely in Japan. Today, Kampo medicines are integrated into the Japanese national health care system. Incident reporting systems are currently being widely used to collect information about patient safety incidents that occur in hospitals. However, no investigations have been conducted regarding patient safety incident reports related to Kampo medicines. The aim of this study was to survey and analyse incident reports related to Kampo medicines in a Japanese university hospital to improve future patient safety. We selected incident reports related to Kampo medicines filed in Toyama University Hospital from May 2007 to April 2017, and investigated them in terms of medication errors and adverse drug events. Out of 21,324 total incident reports filed in the 10-year survey period, we discovered 108 Kampo medicine-related incident reports. However, five cases were redundantly reported; thus, the number of actual incidents was 103. Of those, 99 incidents were classified as medication errors (77 administration errors, 15 dispensing errors, and 7 prescribing errors), and four were adverse drug events, namely Kampo medicine-induced interstitial pneumonia. The Kampo medicine (crude drug) that was thought to induce interstitial pneumonia in all four cases was Scutellariae Radix, which is consistent with past reports. According to the incident severity classification system recommended by the National University Hospital Council of Japan, of the 99 medication errors, 10 incidents were classified as level 0 (an error occurred, but the patient was not affected) and 89 incidents were level 1 (an error occurred that affected the patient, but did not cause harm). Of the four adverse drug events, two incidents were classified as level 2 (patient was transiently harmed, but required no treatment), and two incidents were level 3b (patient was

  15. Use of Medicinal Plants in Monterrey, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Enrique GONZÁLEZ-STUART

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a rich tradition in medicinal plant use within its diverse traditional healing practices. Many people have used medicinal herbs to treat a variety of diseases and ailments for many generations. Located in the northeast, Monterrey is Mexico’s third largest city and one of the most industrialized cities in Latin America. In spite of widespread use of modern pharmaceuticals, and the availability of "scientific" or mainstream medicine in this city, many people still rely on traditional healers, as well as the use medicinal plants to combat illness. This study was undertaken in order to obtain information regarding the most popular medicinal plants used in Monterrey, as well as their uses, forms of application, and origin. Thirteen herbal providers voluntarily accepted to be interviewed within 2 of the city’s largest popular herbal marketplaces. A questionnaire written in the Spanish language was provided to all interviewees, regarding their years in business, their source of information or expertise in recommending herbs, as well as the type of herbs employed for the treatment of various diseases or afflictions. Fifty-six medicinal plants belonging to 27 botanical families, mostly sold as crude herbs, were mentioned by the herbal providers as being the most commonly used to treat various ailments.

  16. What makes a champion! over fifty extraordinary individuals share their insights

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    What drives great and successful individuals — be they athletes, artists, or scientists — or businesses, to achieve the extraordinary? Over fifty champions from all walks of life, brought together by Allan Snyder, draw on their experiences to explore the secrets of success in this inspiring, revealing and thought-provoking book. Hear from the authors what made a McDonalds' branch become the most successful in the world; how a cottage business is catapulted into a world brand; how a visual artist's works crosses almost every medium imaginable; how an Ernst and Young setup becomes a top-notch employer; or why many geniuses or brilliant individuals never become champions, while many 'ordinary' individuals do; why many people don't know about their talent; what constitutes a champion outcome; and the neurological explanation for championship. Straddling academia and practitioners in all fields — government, entertainment, sports, business, arts, education, medicine, media — the authors include business...

  17. Important Skills for Internship and the Fourth-Year Medical School Courses to Acquire Them: A National Survey of Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anne G; Harrell, Heather E; Weissman, Arlene; Smith, Cynthia D; Dupras, Denise; Kane, Gregory C

    2016-06-01

    To obtain feedback from internal medicine residents, a key stakeholder group, regarding both the skills needed for internship and the fourth-year medical school courses that prepared them for residency. This feedback could inform fourth-year curriculum redesign efforts. All internal medicine residents taking the 2013-2014 Internal Medicine In-Training Examination were asked to rank the importance of learning 10 predefined skills prior to internship and to use a dropdown menu of 11 common fourth-year courses to rank the 3 most helpful in preparing for internship. The predefined skills were chosen based on a review of the literature, a national subinternship curriculum, and expert consensus. Chi-square statistics were used to test for differences in responses between training levels. Of the 24,820 internal medicine residents who completed the exam, 20,484 (83%) completed the survey, had complete identification numbers, and consented to have their responses used for research. The three skills most frequently rated as very important were identifying when to seek additional help and expertise, prioritizing clinical tasks and managing time efficiently, and communicating with other providers around care transitions. The subinternship/acting internship was most often selected as being the most helpful course in preparing for internship. These findings indicate which skills and fourth-year medical school courses internal medicine residents found most helpful in preparing for internship and confirm the findings of prior studies highlighting the perceived value of subinternships. Internal medicine residents and medical educators agree on the skills students should learn prior to internship.

  18. Intended Career Choice in Family Medicine in Slovenia: An Issue of Gender, Family Background or Empathic Attitudes in Final Year Medical Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ster, Marija Petek; Selic, Polona

    2017-06-01

    Among a variety of complex factors affecting a decision to take family medicine as a future specialisation, this study focused on demographic characteristics and assessed empathic attitudes in final year medical students. A convenience sampling method was employed in two consecutive academic years of final year medical students at the Faculty of Medicine in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in May 2014 and May 2015. A modified version of the 16-item Jefferson Scale of Empathy - Student Version (JSE-S) was administered to examine self-reported empathic attitudes. An intended career in family medicine was reported using a five-point Likert scale. Of the 175 medical school seniors in study year 2013/14, there were 64 (36.6%) men and 111 (63.4%) women, while in the second group (study year 2014/5), there were 68 (40.5%) men and 100 (59.5%) women; 168 students in total. They were 24.9±1.6 (generation 2013/4) and 24.9±1.7 (generation 2014/15) years old. Thirty-six percent of the students in the academic year 2013/14 intended to choose family medicine as a future career, and a similar proportion in academic year 2014/15 (31.7%). Gender (χ 2 =6.763, p=0.034) and empathic attitudes (c 2 =14.914; p=0.001) had a bivariate association with an intended career choice of family medicine in the 2014/15 generation. When logistic regression was applied to this group of students, an intended career choice in family medicine was associated with empathic attitudes (OR 1.102, 95% CI 1.040-1.167, p=0.001), being single (OR 3.659, 95% CI 1.150-11.628, p=0.028) and the father having only primary school education (OR 142.857 95% CI 1.868, p=0.025), but not with gender (OR 1.117, 95% CI 0.854-1.621, p=0.320). The level of students' father's education, and not living in an intimate partnership, increased the odds on senior medical students to choose family medicine, yet we expected higher JSE-S scores to be associated with interest in this speciality. To deepen our understanding, this study should be

  19. The fifty highest cited papers in anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielgut, Ines; Dauwe, Jan; Leithner, Andreas; Holzer, Lukas A

    2017-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most common injured knee ligaments and at the same time, one of the most frequent injuries seen in the sport orthopaedic practice. Due to the clinical relevance of ACL injuries, numerous papers focussing on this topic including biomechanical-, basic science-, clinical- or animal studies, were published. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently cited scientific articles which address this subject, establish a ranking of the 50 highest cited papers and analyse them according to their characteristics. The 50 highest cited articles related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury were searched in Thomson ISI Web of Science® by the use of defined search terms. All types of scientific papers with reference to our topic were ranked according to the absolute number of citations and analyzed for the following characteristics: journal title, year of publication, number of citations, citation density, geographic origin, article type and level of evidence. The 50 highest cited articles had up to 1624 citations. The top ten papers on this topic were cited 600 times at least. Most papers were published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine. The publication years spanned from 1941 to 2007, with the 1990s and 2000s accounting for half of the articles (n = 25). Seven countries contributed to the top 50 list, with the USA having by far the most contribution (n = 40). The majority of articles could be attributed to the category "Clinical Science & Outcome". Most of them represent a high level of evidence. Scientific articles in the field of ACL injury are highly cited. The majority of these articles are clinical studies that have a high level of evidence. Although most of the articles were published between 1990 and 2007, the highest cited articles in absolute and relative numbers were published in the early 1980s. These articles contain well established scoring- or classification systems. The

  20. A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Tokishakuyakusan, Reduces the Worsening of Impairments and Independence after Stroke: A 1-Year Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirozo Goto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In post-stroke patients, the recurrence of stroke and progression of impairments lead to a bedridden state and dementia. As for their treatments, only anti-hypertension and anti-coagulation therapies to prevent the recurrence of stroke are available. In Asia, post-stroke patients with impairments are often treated with herbal medicine. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of tokishakuyakusan (TS in improving the impairment and independence in post-stroke patients. Thirty-one post-stroke patients (mean age = 81.4 years were recruited and enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to the TS group (n = 16 or non-treatment (control group (n = 15 and treated for 12 months. Impairments were assessed using the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS. Independence was evaluated using the functional independence measure (FIM. For each outcome measure, mean change was calculated every 3 months. The results were that impairments according to SIAS did not significantly change in the TS group. In contrast, SIAS significantly worsened in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups. In each term of SIAS, affected lower extremity scores, abdominal muscle strength, function of visuospatial perception, and so forth. in the TS group were better than those in the control group. Independence according to FIM did not change significantly in the TS group. In contrast, FIM significantly worsened in the control group. There was also a significant difference between the two groups. In conclusion, TS was considered to suppress the impairments of lower limbs and to exert a favorable effect on cerebral function for post-stroke patients.

  1. A Qualitative Analysis of Stress and Relaxation Themes Contributing to Burnout in First-Year Psychiatry and Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Nicole M; Chaukos, Deanna; Vestal, Heather; Chad-Friedman, Emma F; Denninger, John W; Borba, Christina P C

    2018-05-14

    Qualitative research on trainee well-being can add nuance to the understanding of propagators of burnout, and the role for interventions aimed at supporting well-being. This qualitative study was conducted to identify (i) situations and environments that cause stress for trainees, (ii) stress-reducing activities that trainees utilize, and (iii) whether trainees who report distress (high burnout and depression scores) describe different stressors and relaxation factors than those who do not. The study was conducted with a convenience sample of first-year medicine and psychiatry residents at a large urban teaching hospital. Participants were asked to complete electronic stress and relaxation diaries daily for 1 week. Diary entries were coded for recurrent themes. Participants were screened for burnout and depression. Codes were compared by subgroup based on baseline burnout and depression status to elucidate if specific themes emerged in these subgroups. Study sample included 51 interns. Sixteen (16/50, 32%) screened positive for burnout and three (3/50, 14%) had a positive depression screen. The most common stressors related to aspects of the learning environment, compounded by feeling under-equipped, overwhelmed, or out of time. The majority of relaxation activities involved social connection, food, other comforts, and occurred outside of the hospital environment. This study reveals that interns (regardless of burnout or depression screen) identify stressors that derive primarily from organizational, interpersonal, and cultural experiences of the learning environment; whereas relaxation themes are diversely represented across realms (home, leisure, social, health), though emphasize activities that occur outside of the work place.

  2. A selective review of the first 20 years of instrumental variables models in health-services research and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2015-01-01

    The method of instrumental variables (IV) is useful for estimating causal effects. Intuitively, it exploits exogenous variation in the treatment, sometimes called natural experiments or instruments. This study reviews the literature in health-services research and medical research that applies the method of instrumental variables, documents trends in its use, and offers examples of various types of instruments. A literature search of the PubMed and EconLit research databases for English-language journal articles published after 1990 yielded a total of 522 original research articles. Citations counts for each article were derived from the Web of Science. A selective review was conducted, with articles prioritized based on number of citations, validity and power of the instrument, and type of instrument. The average annual number of papers in health services research and medical research that apply the method of instrumental variables rose from 1.2 in 1991-1995 to 41.8 in 2006-2010. Commonly-used instruments (natural experiments) in health and medicine are relative distance to a medical care provider offering the treatment and the medical care provider's historic tendency to administer the treatment. Less common but still noteworthy instruments include randomization of treatment for reasons other than research, randomized encouragement to undertake the treatment, day of week of admission as an instrument for waiting time for surgery, and genes as an instrument for whether the respondent has a heritable condition. The use of the method of IV has increased dramatically in the past 20 years, and a wide range of instruments have been used. Applications of the method of IV have in several cases upended conventional wisdom that was based on correlations and led to important insights about health and healthcare. Future research should pursue new applications of existing instruments and search for new instruments that are powerful and valid.

  3. A 4-year non-randomized comparative phase-IV study of early rheumatoid arthritis: integrative anthroposophic medicine for patients with preference against DMARDs versus conventional therapy including DMARDs for patients without preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamre HJ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Harald J Hamre,1 Van N Pham,2 Christian Kern,3 Rolf Rau,4 Jörn Klasen,3 Ute Schendel,5 Lars Gerlach,6 Attyla Drabik,2 Ludger Simon6,† 1Institute for Applied Epistemology and Medical Methodology at the Witten/Herdecke University, Freiburg, Germany; 2Institute of Statistics in Medicine, Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany; 3Department of Integrative Medicine, Asklepios Westklinikum, Hamburg, Germany; 4Department of Rheumatology, Evangelisches Fachkrankenhaus Ratingen, Ratingen, Germany; 5Department of Rheumatology, m&i-Fachklinik Bad Pyrmont, Bad Pyrmont, Germany; 6Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, Filderklinik, Filderstadt, Germany †Dr Ludger Simon passed away on June 10, 2016 Background: While disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs are a mainstay of therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA, some patients with early RA refuse DMARDs. In anthroposophic medicine (AM, a treatment strategy for early RA without DMARDs has been developed. Preliminary data suggest that RA symptoms and inflammatory markers can be reduced under AM, without DMARDs. Patients and methods: Two hundred and fifty-one self-selected patients aged 16–70 years, starting treatment for RA of <3 years duration, without prior DMARD therapy, participated in a prospective, non-randomized, comparative Phase IV study. C-patients were treated in clinics offering conventional therapy including DMARDs, while A-patients had chosen treatment in anthroposophic clinics, without DMARDs. Both groups received corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Primary outcomes were intensity of RA symptoms measured by self-rating on visual analog scales, C-reactive protein, radiological progression, study withdrawals, serious adverse events (SAE, and adverse drug reactions in months 0–48. Results: The groups were similar in most baseline characteristics, while A-patients had longer disease duration (mean 15.1 vs 10.8 months, p<0

  4. The impact of social media on the academic performance of second year medical students at College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Tawfeeq Alahmar

    2016-01-01

    Social media applications and their use among students have witnessed dramatic increase in the last decade and data on their effect on students academic performance are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media on the academic performance and grades of second year medical students at the College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Iraq. Second year medical students (n=57) completed online questionnaire about the type of social media they use frequently, time...

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance evaluation of fifty children with cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Klatte, E.C.; Smith, J.A.; Carr, B.E.; Martin-Simmerman, P.

    1985-01-01

    Fifty children with cancer have been studied by MR. The patients studied include ten with lymphoma, nine with neuroblastoma, five with rhabdomyosarcoma, six with leukemia, five with Ewings sarcoma, four with Wilms tumor and several with other miscellaneous tumors. The results of scanning show that MR is well tolerated by children. Primary tumor has been identified in every case. Metastases have been identified in many patients. MR has proved helpful in identifying the organ of origin of a tumor. Because of excellent vessel visualization it is helpful in planning surgical resection of a tumor. In addition, in a number of patients MR has proved helpful in monitoring the response of tumor to nonsurgical therapy. With continued improvement in image quality it is believed that MR has a major role to play in pediatric tumor imaging [fr

  6. The decision book fifty models for strategic thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Krogerus, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Most of us face the same questions every day: What do I want? And how can I get it? How can I live more happily and work more efficiently? A worldwide bestseller, The Decision Book distils into a single volume the fifty best decision-making models used on MBA courses and elsewhere that will help you tackle these important questions - from the well known (the Eisenhower matrix for time management) to the less familiar but equally useful (the Swiss Cheese model). It will even show you how to remember everything you will have learned by the end of it. Stylish and compact, this little black book is a powerful asset. Whether you need to plot a presentation, assess someone's business idea or get to know yourself better, this unique guide will help you simplify any problem and take steps towards the right decision.

  7. Results of chart reviews conducted to evaluate primary care patients seen by second and third year family medicine residents for potential adverse polypharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang LF

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prescribing patterns of family medicine residents for patients aged more than 60 years with 2 or more chronic diseases and seen at least twice in a 12 month timeframe.Methods: This is a descriptive analysis which was based on chart reviews. The setting was the University of Illinois-Rockford Family Practice Residency. Patients aged 60 years with 2 or more chronic diseases who were seen at least twice by second and third year residents.Results: Findings from this chart review include: 28.8% of the prescribed medications were not effective for the documented condition, 26.3% of the prescribed doses were incorrect, and 44.5% of the drugs prescribed were not the least expensive alternative.Discussion: This preliminary study suggests a need for a focused intervention with family medicine residents regarding inappropriate polypharmacy issues with older patients.

  8. Scientific publications from departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine in Denmark. A bibliometric analysis of "impact' in the years 1989-1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, HB; Brinch, K; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1996-01-01

    This study reports a bibliometric analysis of scientific publications emanating from departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine, Denmark, during the years 1989-1994. The total number of publications during this period was 860 (763 scientific journal papers, 71 book/book chapters and 26...... a collaboration between two or more departments of clinical physiology and nuclear medicine, but the collaboration with other medical specialities and institutions was much greater (85%). The 763 papers were published in 239 different scientific journals, 80% in journals with an official 'impact factor......', a bibliometric measure of quality (the average number of times a paper is cited in a journal in the publishing year and the subsequent year). Twenty per cent (20%) and 8.4% were printed in journals with an impact factor, respectively, of above 2.1 (the 500 journals most cited) and 3.7 (the 200 most cited), which...

  9. Conference on Nuclear Energy and Science for the 21st Century: Atoms for Peace Plus Fifty - Washington, D.C., October 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfaltzgraff, Robert L [Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis

    2006-10-22

    This conference's focus was the peaceful uses of the atom and their implications for nuclear science, energy security, nuclear medicine and national security. The conference also provided the setting for the presentation of the prestigious Enrico Fermi Prize, a Presidential Award which recognizes the contributions of distinguished members of the scientific community for a lifetime of exceptional achievement in the science and technology of nuclear, atomic, molecular, and particle interactions and effects. An impressive group of distinguished speakers addressed various issues that included: the impact and legacy of the Eisenhower Administration’s “Atoms for Peace” concept, the current and future role of nuclear power as an energy source, the challenges of controlling and accounting for existing fissile material, and the horizons of discovery for particle or high-energy physics. The basic goal of the conference was to examine what has been accomplished over the past fifty years as well as to peer into the future to gain insights into what may occur in the fields of nuclear energy, nuclear science, nuclear medicine, and the control of nuclear materials.

  10. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kand, Purushottam

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to examine organ function and structure. Nuclear medicine is older than CT, ultrasound and MRI. It was first used in patients over 60-70 years ago. Today it is an established medical specialty and offers procedures that are essential in many medical specialities like nephrology, pediatrics, cardiology, psychiatry, endocrinology and oncology. Nuclear medicine refers to medicine (a pharmaceutical) that is attached to a small quantity of radioactive material (a radioisotope). This combination is called a radiopharmaceutical. There are many radiopharmaceuticals like DTPA, DMSA, HIDA, MIBI and MDP available to study different parts of the body like kidneys, heart and bones etc. Nuclear medicine uses radiation coming from inside a patient's body where as conventional radiology exposes patients to radiation from outside the body. Thus nuclear imaging study is a physiological imaging, whereas diagnostic radiology is anatomical imaging. It combines many different disciplines like chemistry, physics mathematics, computer technology, and medicine. It helps in diagnosis and to treat abnormalities very early in the progression of a disease. The information provides a quick and accurate diagnosis of wide range of conditions and diseases in a person of any age. These tests are painless and most scans expose patients to only minimal and safe amounts of radiation. The amount of radiation received from a nuclear medicine procedure is comparable to, or often many times less than, that of a diagnostic X-ray. Nuclear medicine provides an effective means of examining whether some tissues/organs are functioning properly. Therapy using nuclear medicine in an effective, safe and relatively inexpensive way of controlling and in some cases eliminating, conditions such as overactive thyroid, thyroid cancer and arthritis. Nuclear medicine imaging is unique because it provides doctors with

  11. Long-Term Course of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS Patients Receiving Integrative Korean Medicine Treatment: A 1 Year Prospective Observational Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinho Lee

    Full Text Available With increase of spine surgeries, failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS prevalence is also rising. While complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is commonly used for low back pain (LBP, there are no studies reporting use of integrative Korean medicine in FBSS patients.Patients with pain continuing after back surgery or recurring within 1 year and visual analogue scale (VAS of LBP or leg pain of ≥6 (total n = 120 were recruited at 2 hospital sites from November 2011 to September 2014. Weekly sessions of integrative Korean medicine treatment were conducted for 16 weeks (herbal medicine, acupuncture/electroacupuncture, pharmacopuncture/bee venom pharmacopuncture, and Chuna manual therapy with additional follow-ups at 24 weeks and 1 year. Outcome measures included VAS of LBP and leg pain (primary outcome, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, Short-Form 36 (SF-36, medical use, and patient global impression of change (PGIC.VAS of LBP and leg pain improved at 6 months (LBP from 6.1±2.0 at baseline to 2.9±2.3; and leg pain from 5.4±2.6 to 2.4±2.5, respectively. Eighty patients (66.7% showed improvement of 50% or more in main pain of LBP or leg pain from baseline. Disability and quality of life also improved at 6 months (ODI from 41.3±12.3 at baseline to 23.6±13.6; and SF-36 from 42.8±14.5 to 62.7±16.8. At 1 year follow-up, conventional medical management use decreased, improvement in pain and disability was maintained, and 79.2% reported improvement of PGIC.Despite limitations as an observational study, integrative Korean medicine treatment showed positive results in pain, function, and quality of life of FBSS patients.

  12. Self-Perception of Medical Students' Knowledge and Interest in Disaster Medicine: Nine Years After the Approval of the Curriculum in German Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Robert; Ragazzoni, Luca; Ingrassia, Pier Luigi; Corte, Francesco Della; Grundgeiger, Jan; Bickelmayer, Jens Werner; Domres, Bernd

    2017-08-01

    Following the recommendations of the World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM; Madison, Wisconsin USA) to develop standards for training the undergraduates in disaster-relevant fields (2004), a German curriculum was approved in 2006. This paper aims to describe the level of training and interest of medical students nine years later. Problem The aim of this study was to assess the self-perception of medical students' knowledge and interest in disaster medicine nine years after the implementation of a standardized disaster medicine curriculum in German medical schools. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted with medical students in Germany using a web-based, purpose-designed questionnaire consisting of 27 mandatory and 11 optional questions. Nine hundred ninety-two students from 36 of 37 medical schools in Germany participated. More than one-half of medical students were aware of the field of disaster medicine. One hundred twenty-one students undertook training internally within their university and 307 undertook training externally at other institutions. Only a small content of the curriculum was taught. A difference in self-perception of knowledge between trained and untrained participants was found, despite the level of training being low in both groups. Participants were generally highly motivated to learn disaster medicine in a variety of institutions. German students are still largely not well educated regarding disaster medicine, despite their high motivation. The curriculum of 2006 was not implemented as originally planned and the number of trained students still remains low as the self-perception of knowledge. Currently, there is no clear and standardized training concept in place. A renewal in the agreement of implementation of the curriculum at medical schools should be targeted in order to follow the recommendation of WADEM. Wunderlich R Ragazzoni L Ingrassia PL Della Corte F Grundgeiger J Bickelmayer JW

  13. [A difficult stabilisation. Chlorpromazine in the fifties in Belgium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Through a Belgian case study the article tries to trace the gradual stabilisation of chlorpromazine as an antipsychotic in the 1950s. By varying ranges and angles of approach it shows the heterogeneity of actors involved and the semantic bricolage that accompany the marketing of the first antipsychotic. Far from being a revolution, the presence of Largactil in psychiatric practice is rather characterised by integration into a wider range of medicines and sinuous searching to give sense to this new drug.

  14. Electronic Health Record Impacts on Family Medicine Teachers: Survey of Third-Year Medical Student Clerkship Preceptors at an Academic Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Elizabeth; Oser, Tamara K; Oser, Sean M

    2017-10-01

    Electronic Health Record (EHR) use in clinical practice has accelerated in recent years. While several aspects of EHR use have been extensively studied, there is little data on EHR impacts on medical student educators, especially those involved in outpatient family medicine. This study evaluated perceived impacts of EHR use on clinician teachers of outpatient family medicine. The study used a mixed methods survey of clinicians who teach third-year medical students during the required family and community medicine outpatient clerkship at a Mid-Atlantic medical school. Among 50 completed surveys, most respondents reported that the EHR had impacted their teaching (70% reported at least one negative effect; 84% reported at least one positive effect). Positive impacts included more easily viewing information, more effectively teaching evidence-based medicine, and teaching about EHR use itself. Negative impacts included less time teaching or interacting with students, and a perception that EHR use impedes development of students' critical thinking and clinical integration skills. Providers who have taught medical students both with and without EHR in place (>P=.024), those over 50 years old (>P=.019), and those with at least 5 years teaching experience (>P=.006) were more likely to report negative impacts. Most preceptors reported that EHR use had both positive and negative impacts on their teaching of medical students, though the negative effects were perceived by respondents as more substantial, consistent with a theme of decreased enthusiasm for teaching due to EHR use. These findings can be used to help inform faculty development and education initiatives.

  15. Scientific publications from mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong in integrative and complementary medicine journals: a ten-year literature survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qian; Tao, Kun-Ming; Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners and researchers from China, the largest user of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), have been publishing an increasing number of scientific articles in world-famous CAM journals in recent years. However, the status of CAM research in the three major regions of China, the Mainland, Taiwan and Hong Kong has, until now, not been reported. In this study, we compared articles from these three regions published in international CAM journals from 2000 to 2009 using PubMed database and the Journal Citation Reports. The study results showed that the number of published articles from Mainland China increased significantly from 2000 to 2009, particularly since 2005. Meanwhile, the number of published articles from Taiwan also increased, whereas those from Hong Kong remained steady. Clinical trials and randomized controlled trials from Chinese authors both took a small percentage of the total. The impact factors of the journals in which these articles were published suggested similar academic levels whereas the average number of citation of articles from the Mainland was less than those from the other two regions. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine and Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine were the most popular journals for Chinese authors.

  16. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  17. Muscular variations during axillary dissection: A clinical study in fifty patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasna

    2015-01-01

    Methods: The anatomy of axilla regarding muscular variations was studied in 50 patients who had an axillary dissection for the staging and treatment of invasive primary breast cancer over one year. Results: In a period of one year, two patients (4% with axillary arch and one patient (2% with absent pectoralis major and minor muscles among fifty patients undergoing axillary surgery for breast cancer were identified. Conclusions: Axillary arch when present should always be identified and formally divided to allow adequate exposure of axillary contents, in order to achieve a complete lymphatic dissection. Complete absence of pectoralis major and minor muscles precludes the insertion of breast implants and worsens the prognosis of breast cancer.

  18. Military medicine and the ethics of war: British colonial warfare during the Seven Years War (1756-63).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, Erica

    2010-01-01

    This article examines 18th-century European warfare, tracing the first formal codifications of conventions of war, frequently introduced by military physicians and initially regarding the treatment of the sick and wounded. It outlines to what extent these conventions were followed in practice, particularly in the challenging environment of American irregular warfare, with a focus on the most well-known incident of "biological warfare" in the period: the deliberate spread of smallpox by British officers among Amerindians in 1763. More broadly, it demonstrates that the history of military medicine provides a fruitful method with which to uncover assumptions about the ethics of war.

  19. One hundred years since the birth of academician Dimitar Arsov, founder and nestor of the modern internal medicine in the Republic of Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenaković, M

    2013-01-01

    Dimitar Arsov was born in Kriva Palanka on September 28, 1908 and died on July 2, 1974 in Skopje; he had finished elementary education in Kriva Palanka, high school (1922-1926) in Kumanovo, Macedonia and Col-lege of Medicine (1926-1932), Ph. D. University of Paris, Sorbone, France, 1936. He returned to Macedonia in 1937. In 1947 he was elected and Assistant Professor and in 1950 a Docent at the Faculty of Medicine in Skopje. He was appointed Director of the Clinic of Medicine and Head of the Chair of Internal Medicine, who served at those positions in the period 1952-74. In 1958 he was elected Professor of Internal Medicine. The first habilitation of the Medical Faculty in Skopje was defended by D. Arsov in 1954, titled: "The Effects of the Intravenous Epinephrine on the Hypersplenism of Malaria and Cala-Azar". On August 18, 1967, D. Arsov was elected Full Member and also the first member in the field of medicine of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts. The excellent experience in the work with the patients, precise observation of the symptoms and syndromes of the diseases in each patient, knowing the most advanced therapy at that time enabled D. Arsov to make conclusion for possibility of new therapy and gave him the material for writing scientific papers. In the first half of the 50s, during his regular work, Arsov discovers a new, internationally recognized therapy for rheumatism. Patients of both Cala-Azar and inflammatory rheumatism were treated with small doses of adrenaline therapy and they felt drastic decrease in rheumatism inflammation within one week. This therapy was used a couple of years in several countries around the world. He participated in the undergraduate and graduate studies. He contributed to the development of 2,240 graduated doctors and under his management over 300 doctors specialized in internal medicine and became specialists internists. Under his management, numerous habilitations and dissertations in internal medicine were

  20. [50 years' of the Institute of Sports Medicine at the Charles University Medical School on the 650th anniversary of its founding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, V

    1999-01-01

    . In 650 years history of pedagogic and scientific success of Charles University, 50-year activity of Institute of Sports Medicine means only tiny part. In view of healthy risks, which brings modern life style and in view of worsening of environment, an important task stand before the discipline with new prevention conception.

  1. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan - a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Khalid G; Hunskaar, Steinar; Abdelrahman, Samira Hamid; Malik, Elfatih M

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master's programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa.

  2. Scaling up family medicine training in Gezira, Sudan – a 2-year in-service master programme using modern information and communication technology: a survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2010 the Gezira Family Medicine Project (GFMP) was initiated in Gezira state, Sudan, designed as an in-service training model. The project is a collaboration project between the University of Gezira, which aims to provide a 2-year master’s programme in family medicine for practicing doctors, and the Ministry of Health, which facilitates service provision and funds the training programme. This paper presents the programme, the teaching environment, and the first batch of candidates enrolled. Methods In this study a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect baseline data at the start of the project from doctors who joined the programme. A checklist was also used to assess the health centres where they work. A total of 188 out of 207 doctors responded (91%), while data were gathered from all 158 health centres (100%) staffed by the programme candidates. Results The Gezira model of in-service family medicine training has succeeded in recruiting 207 candidates in its first batch, providing health services in 158 centres, of which 84 had never been served by a doctor before. The curriculum is community oriented. The mean age of doctors was 32.5 years, 57% were males, and 32% were graduates from the University of Gezira. Respondents stated high confidence in practicing some skills such as asthma management and post-abortion uterine evacuation. They were least confident in other skills such as managing depression or inserting an intrauterine device. The majority of health centres was poorly equipped for management of noncommunicable diseases, as only 10% had an electrocardiography machine (ECG), 5% had spirometer, and 1% had a defibrillator. Conclusions The Gezira model has responded to local health system needs. Use of modern information and communication technology is used to facilitate both health service provision and training. The GFMP represents an example of a large-volume scaling-up programme of family medicine in Africa. PMID:24443978

  3. [In honour of Asclepius and Orpheus - ten years of activities on the popularization of connections between medicine and music].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarević, Tin; Štefanac Nadarević, Vesna

    2017-12-01

    Art is defined as the expression or application of the human creative skill and imagination, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power. "Ars medica" and "Ars musica" represent two concepts which have been mutually intertwined since the ancient times. Through history, many extraordinary physicians have shown talent towards making and performing music. Guided by the passion for medicine and music, since 2006 the students from the University of Rijeka, Faculty of Medicine have founded an informal group named "In honour of Asclepius and Orpheus" under the aegis of the Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture. The group organizes many musical activities such as concerts, musical recitals and events, among which are the most important - the traditional annual concert of Croatian medical students and the European Medical Students Orchestra and Choir project. Apart from Rijeka, they performed several times in Ljubljana, Zagreb, Pula, Karlovac, Krk, Opatija and Crikvenica. The members of this group plan their future work guided by the principles that motivate every physician-musician - art.

  4. Performance evaluation of the activity meters of the Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services in the country during 16 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, B.C. de; Oliveira, A.E. de; Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Delgado, J.U.

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of radionuclide activity are a very intense routine in the Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) of Brazil. In order to guarantee the quality of these measurements, the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD) has developed an activity measurement comparison program aiming at the improvement of these services. The evaluation methodology was the criterion of accuracy of the CNEN NN 3.05 standard. The reference value was established by the National Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMR) of the IRD, RJ, Brazil. The results showed that 77% of the NMS reached a performance within the range of acceptance, whereas values obtained for the activity in the activity meters with Geiger-Müller (GM) type detectors, presented insufficient performance, supporting the prohibition of these calibrators

  5. [Levels of emotional intelligence and types of attachment among third year students of the Faculty of Health Science and the Faculty of Medicine--a comparative analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszkiewicz-Bandur, Monika

    2013-01-01

    For the purposes of this research attachment theory was incorporated into the concept of emotional intelligence. The methodological starting point of this study was the assumption that the level of emotional intelligence and social competence is related to a steady feature, namely the type of attachment. Standardized questionnaires available in the Laboratory of Psychological Tests of the Polish Psychological Association were chosen to measure the level of emotional intelligence. However, the type of attachment was studied by Bartholomew's Self Description Test in my own translation. The study involved two groups of students, who were compared: 147 people from the Faculty of Health Sciences/Faculty of Nursing (nursing, midwifery, health promotion, cosmetology, emergency medicine, dietetics), and 181 people from the Faculty of Medicine (medicine), students in their second and third years of studies. A total of 328 people, aged 19-24, were tested. On the basis of the results it was stated that students of the Faculty of Health Sciences/Faculty of Nursing, as compared to students of the Faculty of Medicine, received significantly higher scores on the scale of the social competence scale, which investigated the efficiency of their behaviour in intimate situations. Moreover, statistical analysis proved that students of the Faculty of Health Sciences showed significantly higher scores than those studying at the Faculty of Medicine in the following fields: KKS-I subscale assessing social competencies in--conditioning effective behaviour in intimate situations, emotional intelligence measured with the INTE questionnaire,--awareness of their own emotional states and understanding their causes (DINEMO-I),--ability to recognize emotions in other people and understanding the reasons for the reactions expressed by them (DINEMO-Others)--emotional intelligence measured with the DINEMO questionnaire (DINEMO-general score). Women from both faculties showed higher social competence

  6. Changing the Formula of Residents' Work Hours in Internal Medicine: Moving From “Years in Training” to “Hours in Training”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansi, Ishak A

    2011-01-01

    Background In a recent report, the Institute of Medicine recommended more restrictions on residents' working hours. Several problems exist with a system that places a weekly limit on resident duty hours: (1) it assumes the presence of a linear relationship between hours of work and patient safety; (2) it fails to consider differences in intensity among programs; and (3) it does not address increases in the scientific content of medicine, and it places the burden of enforcing the duty hour limits on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Proposal An innovative method of calculating credit hours for graduate medical education would shift the focus from “years of residency” to “hours of residency.” For example, internal medicine residents would be requested to spend 8640 hours of total training hours (assuming 60 hours per week for 48 weeks annually) instead of the traditional 3 years. This method of counting training hours is used by other professions, such as the Intern Development Program of the National Council of Architectural Registration Boards. The proposed approach would allow residents and program directors to pace training based on individual capabilities. Standards for resident education should include the average number of patients treated in each setting (inpatient or outpatient). A possible set of “multipliers” based on these parameters, and possibly others such as resident evaluation, is devised to calculate the “final adjusted accredited hours” that count toward graduation. Anticipated Benefits Substituting “years of training” with “hours of training” may resolve many of the concerns with the current residency education model, as well as adapt to the demands of residents' personal lives. It also may allow residents to pace their training according to their capabilities and learning styles, and contribute to reflective learning and better quality education. PMID:22379516

  7. Selection and Classification of United States Military Officers: A fifty-Year Bibliography (1937-1986)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    orientation in Naval aviation cadets. Journal of Educational Psychology , 45, 91-109. 908 Creelman , J.A. (1954). An analysis of the physical fitness index...International Index to Periodicals. (e) Military Testing Association Proceedings, and (f) Psychological Abstracts. The research organizations of the armed...Texas, can trace its beginning to a number of Psychological Research Units of the Medical Division of the United States Army Air Corps. Some of the

  8. Fifty Years since the Coleman Report: Rethinking the Relationship between Schools and Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Douglas B.; Condron, Dennis J.

    2016-01-01

    In the half century since the 1966 Coleman Report, scholars have yet to develop a consensus regarding the relationship between schools and inequality. The Coleman Report suggested that schools play little role in generating achievement gaps, but social scientists have identified many ways in which schools provide better learning environments to…

  9. Fifty years contribution to research and technological development of Argentina. Part 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Fernando; Boselli, Alfredo; Colangelo, Luis J.; Coll, Jorge A.; Espejo, Hector; Mattei, Clara E.; Ornstein, Roberto M.; Palacios, Tulio A.; Radicella, Renato; Rodrigo, Felix

    2004-01-01

    The paper is the seventh part of a short history of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The future of the nuclear activities in the country is outlined, mainly of those related to the energy generation. The completion of the Atucha II nuclear power plant now under construction is supported. (author)

  10. Fifty years contribution to research and technological development of Argentina. Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Fernando; Boselli, Alfredo; Colangelo, Luis J.; Coll, Jorge A.; Espejo, Hector; Mattei, Clara E.; Ornstein, Roberto M.; Palacios, Tulio A.; Radicella, Renato; Rodrigo, Felix

    2003-01-01

    The paper is the forth part of a short history of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The activities concerning the radioactive waste management are reviewed as well as the research and development programs in the sciences related to nuclear energy. (author)

  11. Fifty years contribution to research and technological development of Argentina. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Fernando; Boselli, Alfredo; Colangelo, Luis J.; Coll, Jorge A.; Espejo, Hector; Mattei, Clara E.; Ornstein, Roberto M.; Palacios, Tulio A.; Radicella, Renato; Rodrigo, Felix

    2001-01-01

    The paper is the first part of a short history of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The activities concerning the fuel cycle are reviewed. The uranium production as well as the manufacturing of nuclear fuel elements is described. (author)

  12. Fifty years contribution to research and technological development of Argentina. Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Fernando; Boselli, Alfredo; Colangelo, Luis J.; Coll, Jorge A.; Espejo, Hector; Mattei, Clara E.; Ornstein, Roberto M.; Palacios, Tulio A.; Radicella, Renato; Rodrigo, Felix

    2001-01-01

    This paper is the third part of a short history of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The activities concerning the radioisotope and radiation applications are reviewed as well as the radiation protection program

  13. Fifty years contribution to research and technological development of Argentina. Part 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Fernando; Boselli, Alfredo; Colangelo, Luis J.; Coll, Jorge A.; Espejo, Hector; Mattei, Clara E.; Ornstein, Roberto M.; Palacios, Tulio A.; Radicella, Renato; Rodrigo, Felix

    2004-01-01

    The paper is the sixth part of a short history of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The international relations and the nuclear technology exports of the CNEA are reviewed. A short description of the Argentine nuclear centers and nuclear enterprises is also given. The present structure of the CNEA is briefly outlined. (author)

  14. Fifty years contribution to research and technological development of Argentina. Part 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Fernando; Boselli, Alfredo; Colangelo, Luis J.; Coll, Jorge A.; Espejo, Hector; Mattei, Clara E.; Ornstein, Roberto M.; Palacios, Tulio A.; Radicella, Renato; Rodrigo, Felix

    2003-01-01

    The paper is the fifth part of a short history of the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The activities concerning the development of the institutional infrastructure and the education and training activities are reviewed as well as the legal and regulatory aspects of nuclear energy in Argentina. (author)

  15. Fifty years contribution to research and technological development of Argentina. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, Fernando; Boselli, Alfredo; Colangelo, Luis J.; Coll, Jorge A.; Espejo, Hector; Mattei, Clara E.; Ornstein, Roberto M.; Palacios, Tulio A.; Radicella, Renato; Rodrigo, Felix

    2002-01-01

    The paper is the second part of a short history of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). The activities concerning research reactors are reviewed as well as the nuclear power program. The heavy water program is also is described. (author)

  16. Reforecasting the ENSO Events in the Past Fifty-Seven Years (1958-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, B.; Shin, C. S.; Shukla, J.; Marx, L.; Balmaseda, M.; Halder, S.; Dirmeyer, P.; Kinter, J. L.

    2016-12-01

    A set of ensemble seasonal reforecasts for 1958-2014 is conducted using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Climate Forecast System, version 2 (CFSv2), initialized with observation-based ocean, atmosphere, land and sea ice reanalyses, including the Eu­ropean Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global ocean reanalysis version 4, the ERA-40 atmospheric reanalysis, the NCEP CFS Reanalysis for atmosphere, land and sea ice, and the NASA Global Land Data Assimilation System reanalysis version 2.0 for land. The purpose is to examine a long and continuous seasonal reforecast dataset from a modern seasonal forecast system to be used by the research community. In comparison with other current reforecasts, this dataset allows us to evaluate the degree to which El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can be predicted, using a larger sample of events. Furthermore, we can directly compare the predictability of the ENSO events in 1960s-70s with the more widely studied ENSO events occurring since the 1980s to examine the state-of-the-art seasonal forecast system's capability at different phases of global climate change and multidecadal variability. A major concern is whether the seasonal reforecasts before 1979 have useful skill when there were fewer ocean observations. Our preliminary examination of the reforecasts shows that, although the reforecasts have lower skill in predicting the SST anomalies in the North Pacific and North Atlantic before 1979, the prediction skill of the ENSO onset and development for 1958-1978 is comparable to that for 1979-2014. The skill of the earlier predictions declines faster in the ENSO decaying phase because the reforecasts initialized after the summer season persistently predict lingering wind and SST anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific during the decaying phase of several major ENSO events in the 1960s-70s. Since the 1980s, the reforecasts initialized in fall overestimate the peak SST anomalies in strong El Niño events. Both facts imply that the model air-sea feedback is overly active in the eastern Pacific before ENSO termination, likely induced by the model warm bias in the eastern Pacific during boreal winter and spring.

  17. FIFTY YEARS OF YANG-MILLS THEORIES: A Phenomenological Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rújula, Alvaro

    On the occasion of the celebration of the first half-century of Yang-Mills theories, I am contributing a personal recollection of how the subject, in its early times, confronted physical reality, that is, its "phenomenology". There is nothing original in this work, except, perhaps, my own points of view. But I hope that the older practitioners of the field will find here grounds form nostalgia, or good reasons to disagree with me. Younger addicts may learn that history does not resemble at all what is reflected in current textbooks: it was orders of magnitude more fascinating.

  18. How Development Assistance from France and the United Kingdom Has Evolved: Fifty Years on from Decolonisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Pacquement

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available France and the United Kingdom are influential backers when it comes to the global governance of aid to developing countries. A short history of the contributions made by these former colonial powers to ODA is presented, covering the institutions concerned, strategies conducted and funding provided. These institutions have undergone complex changes since the initial phase of making “improvements” in the colonies up until recent reforms. Their ambitious strategies, grounded on considerable research, have received attention from a multilateral audience, turning the colonial question into a global issue. The vision of aid in both France and the UK is broader than is conveyed by the calculations that are carried out by the OECD’s DAC. Though subject to political contingencies, aid from these countries amounts to a substantial contribution that seeks to respond to various development needs.

  19. Fifty years of plutonium exposure to the Manhattan Project plutonium workers: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelz, G L; Lawrence, J N; Johnson, E R

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-six white male workers who did the original plutonium research and development work at Los Alamos have been examined periodically over the past 50 y to identify possible health effects from internal plutonium depositions. Their effective doses range from 0.1 to 7.2 Sv with a median value of 1.25 Sv. As of the end of 1994, 7 individuals have died compared with an expected 16 deaths based on mortality rates of U.S. white males in the general population. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is 0.43. When compared with 876 unexposed Los Alamos workers of the same period, the plutonium worker's mortality rate was also not elevated (SMR = 0.77). The 19 living persons have diseases and physical changes characteristic of a male population with a median age of 72 y (range = 69 to 86 y). Eight of the twenty-six workers have been diagnosed as having one or more cancers, which is within the expected range. The underlying cause of death in three of the seven deceased persons was from cancer, namely cancer of prostate, lung, and bone. Mortality from all cancers was not statistically elevated. The effective doses from plutonium to these individuals are compared with current radiation protection guidelines.

  20. Fifty years working to improve food and nutrition in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available El Instituto de Nutrición de Centroamérica y Panamá (INCAP, un centro especializado de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud con sede en la ciudad de Guatemala (Guatemala, cumple este año medio siglo de trabajo dedicado a mejorar la alimentación y nutrición en Centroamérica. El Instituto ha conseguido importantes logros en diferentes áreas, que incluyen la investigación, la cooperación técnica, la formación y la diseminación de información científica y técnica.

  1. Fifty Years of Research in ARDS. Respiratory Mechanics in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, William R; Chen, Lu; Amato, Marcelo B P; Brochard, Laurent J

    2017-10-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a multifactorial lung injury that continues to be associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Mechanical ventilation, although lifesaving, is associated with new iatrogenic injury. Current best practice involves the use of small Vt, low plateau and driving pressures, and high levels of positive end-expiratory pressure. Collectively, these interventions are termed "lung-protective ventilation." Recent investigations suggest that individualized measurements of pulmonary mechanical variables rather than population-based ventilation prescriptions may be used to set the ventilator with the potential to improve outcomes beyond those achieved with standard lung protective ventilation. This review outlines the measurement and application of clinically applicable pulmonary mechanical concepts, such as plateau pressures, driving pressure, transpulmonary pressures, stress index, and measurement of strain. In addition, the concept of the "baby lung" and the utility of dynamic in addition to static measures of pulmonary mechanical variables are discussed.

  2. The jewel on the mountaintop the European Southern Observatory through fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Authored by ESO senior advisor Claus Madsen, the present book comprises 576 action-packed pages of ESO history and dramatic stories about the people behind the organisation. This is the ultimate historical account about ESO and its telescopes in the southern hemisphere, but also about a truly remarkable European success story in research. Spanning the range from the first telescopes to the future platforms of the next generation, it shows how the improvement of the telescopes leads to a continuously changing view of the Universe. With 150 photos and illustrations. Produced especially for ESO's

  3. The Armed Forces Epidemiological Board: Its First Fifty Years, 1940-1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    measles; (9 mumps; (g) diphtheria and tetanus toxoids; (I) enteric infections such as bacillary dysentery, Shigella, Sahnonella typhosa, Vibrio cholerae ...pestis that followed the kissing of the dead. Once he remarked that a patient in New Mexico did not die of plague but of "too many antibiotics." Another...interests shifted to hog cholera and the f’eld of virology. This interest continued for the next thirty-eight y’ears. A key obs,’.%ation (with Dr. Paul

  4. International Nuclear Societies Council vision for the second fifty years of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    A vision of the future is presented in the context of ongoing social and technological development. The most compelling moral and ethical issue facing the world at the close of the 20th Century is to help the peoples of the poorer countries in their struggle for a reasonable quality of life, while at the same time they face a dramatic increase in their population. The new society will need vastly more energy than the world of today. It will need all supply options that can provide the energy in an economic environmentally sustainable manner. Nuclear energy will be a vital element in this supply pattern, provided that it continues to demonstrate the imperatives of safe operation and economic competitiveness. Other applications of nuclear energy will add their own impact to the improving quality of life. 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becke, Axel D., E-mail: axel.becke@dal.ca [Department of Chemistry, Dalhousie University, 6274 Coburg Rd., P.O. Box 15000, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2 (Canada)

    2014-05-14

    Since its formal inception in 1964–1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development.

  6. Pasolini fifty years ago: «Mi è tornata la fantasia del narratore»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Barberis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An interview with Pier Paolo Pasolini by Alfredo Barberi, published by «il Giorno» in 1964 and since then only republished once in a now exrtemely rare collection by Oronzo Panageli.

  7. IAEA fifty years: more than just safeguards. Interview with Professor Werner Burkart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Professor Werner Burkart, IAEA Deputy Director General and head of the Nuclear Sciences and Applications Division, comments upon matters associated with the fiftieth anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Agency was founded on July 29, 1957. Today it is a worldwide organization of the United Nations with 144 member countries and manifold duties in the field of nuclear power utilization. The mandate of IAEA is based on the 'Atoms for Peace' initiative, its essence being support of all member countries in the use of nuclear power as long as IAEA safeguards on the spot ensure that no military aims are pursued in those activities. The safeguards work serves to prevent military uses. IAEA recommendations for a global nuclear safety culture, the so-called Safety Standards, are employed by member countries as a basis of legislation and ordinances. The emerging renaissance of nuclear power will be accompanied by the IAEA especially with regard to the important aspects of harmonization, safeguards, safety, security, and readiness for emergencies. The interview took place in Vienna on September 20, 2007. The questions were asked by the President of the Swiss Nuclear Forum, Dr. Bruno Pellaud, former Deputy Director General of IAEA. (orig.)

  8. Perspective: Fifty years of density-functional theory in chemical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becke, Axel D.

    2014-01-01

    Since its formal inception in 1964–1965, Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) has become the most popular electronic structure method in computational physics and chemistry. Its popularity stems from its beautifully simple conceptual framework and computational elegance. The rise of KS-DFT in chemical physics began in earnest in the mid 1980s, when crucial developments in its exchange-correlation term gave the theory predictive power competitive with well-developed wave-function methods. Today KS-DFT finds itself under increasing pressure to deliver higher and higher accuracy and to adapt to ever more challenging problems. If we are not mindful, however, these pressures may submerge the theory in the wave-function sea. KS-DFT might be lost. I am hopeful the Kohn-Sham philosophical, theoretical, and computational framework can be preserved. This Perspective outlines the history, basic concepts, and present status of KS-DFT in chemical physics, and offers suggestions for its future development

  9. CASTLE BRAVO: Fifty Years of Legend and Lore. A Guide to Off-Site Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    depressions , may grow rapidly from small beginnings—from small perturbations in a broad, unstable air stream—has led to the suggestion that the...Hygiene and Toxicology 25(7)253–274. ——. 1974. Paper presented in Radiology Centennial . Radiology Centennial , Inc., Reston, VA. Fehner, T. R., and F. G

  10. History of initial fifty years of ARIES: A Major National Indian Facility for Optical Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanwal, Basant Ballabh; Pandey, Anil Kumar; Uddin, Wahab; Kumar, Brijesh; Joshi, Santosh

    2018-04-01

    The idea of starting an astronomical observatory in the state of Uttar Pradesh in India germinated through the initiative of a scholarly statesman Babu Sampurnanandji. His interest in astrology coupled with his academic bent of mind got him interested in modern astronomy. Being then Education Minister and later Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, he established an astronomical observatory at Varanasi on April 20, 1954. Later on it was shifted to Manora Peak, Nainital. Four reflectors were commissioned at Manora Peak. For solar research an H alpha petrol unit and a horizontal solar spectrograph was setup. A detailed project report for installation of a 4-m class optical telescope was prepared indigenously in late 1980, however, the project could not take off. With the generous support of the Department of Science and Technology, the institute established a 3.6-m new technology optical telescope and a 1.3-m wide field optical telescope at a new observing site called Devasthal. Now a 4-m liquid mirror telescope is also being installed at the same observing site. I present here a brief journey of the observatory beginning right from its birth in 1954 till now.

  11. Fifty years of chasing lizards: new insights advance optimal escape theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samia, Diogo S M; Blumstein, Daniel T; Stankowich, Theodore; Cooper, William E

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses often examine data from diverse taxa to identify general patterns of effect sizes. Meta-analyses that focus on identifying generalisations in a single taxon are also valuable because species in a taxon are more likely to share similar unique constraints. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic meta-analysis of flight initiation distance in lizards. Flight initiation distance (FID) is a common metric used to quantify risk-taking and has previously been shown to reflect adaptive decision-making. The past decade has seen an explosion of studies focused on quantifying FID in lizards, and, because lizards occur in a wide range of habitats, are ecologically diverse, and are typically smaller and differ physiologically from the better studied mammals and birds, they are worthy of detailed examination. We found that variables that reflect the costs or benefits of flight (being engaged in social interactions, having food available) as well as certain predator effects (predator size and approach speed) had large effects on FID in the directions predicted by optimal escape theory. Variables that were associated with morphology (with the exception of crypsis) and physiology had relatively small effects, whereas habitat selection factors typically had moderate to large effect sizes. Lizards, like other taxa, are very sensitive to the costs of flight. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  12. Fifty Interesting Years: Higher Education Funding and Financial Management 1961-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    During the half century of the AUA's existence UK universities have experienced the fastest rate of growth and most far-reaching changes in their history. Funding arrangements in particular have changed radically. Since 1961 the finance office has been transformed from a small group of bean counters into a key management group at the heart of all…

  13. An Appreciation of Clinton B. Ford and the AAVSO of Fifty Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, T.

    2012-06-01

    This is a rather personal story about Clinton B. Ford, my boyhood mentor in astronomy, and about the influence of the AAVSO and Clint on my life and career. While much has been written on Clint, this addresses the man, and his kindness. Naturally I joined the AAVSO (a little early, I was fifteen) and attended the AAVSO 50th Annual Meeting at Harvard College Observatory. Remembrance of Clint and the 50th Annual Meeting is given.

  14. Educating the Educators: A Fifty-Year Retrospective of Religious Education in the Catholic Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The progressive spirit of the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) spawned a myriad of graduate departments of religious education in American Catholic colleges and universities. These departments evolved to include other master degrees (e.g., pastoral studies, pastoral counseling, divinity, spirituality, and social justice). As the numbers of…

  15. The Premise of Black Inferiority: An Enduring Obstacle Fifty Years Post-"Brown"

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Carla

    2006-01-01

    Gloria Ladson-Billings explains in her chapter that, in part, the promise of "Brown v. Board of Education" has not been realized because it was premised on black inferiority. She elaborates that "instead of addressing the underlying pathology of the defendant--White supremacy"--the evidence, case, and accordant ruling…

  16. Fifty-thousand-year vegetation and climate history of Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Rachel E.; Mayle, Francis E.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2004-03-01

    Pollen and charcoal records from two large, shallow lakes reveal that throughout most of the past 50,000 yr Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, in northeastern lowland Bolivia (southwestern Amazon Basin), was predominantly covered by savannas and seasonally dry semideciduous forests. Lowered atmospheric CO 2 concentrations, in combination with a longer dry season, caused expansion of dry forests and savannas during the last glacial period, especially at the last glacial maximum. These ecosystems persisted until the mid-Holocene, although they underwent significant species reassortment. Forest communities containing a mixture of evergreen and semideciduous species began to expand between 6000 and 3000 14C yr B.P. Humid evergreen rain forests expanded to cover most of the area within the past 2000 14C yr B.P., coincident with a reduction in fire frequencies. Comparisons between modern pollen spectra and vegetation reveal that the Moraceae-dominated rain forest pollen spectra likely have a regional source area at least 2-3 km beyond the lake shore, whereas the grass- and sedge-dominated savanna pollen spectra likely have a predominantly local source area. The Holocene vegetation changes are consistent with independent paleoprecipitation records from the Bolivian Altiplano and paleovegetation records from other parts of southwestern Amazonia. The progressive expansion in rain forests through the Holocene can be largely attributed to enhanced convective activity over Amazonia, due to greater seasonality of insolation in the Southern Hemisphere tropics driven by the precession cycle according to the Milankovitch Astronomical Theory.

  17. Fifty years of advances in sarcoma treatment: moving the needle from conventional chemotherapy to targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shreyaskumar R

    2014-01-01

    Much of the progress in systemic therapy for sarcomas was accomplished in the first half of the last 5 decades. Various chemotherapeutic agents were tested in the 70s through the 80s and became part of the standard of care for this patient population. During the decade of the 90s, dose intensification became feasible as a result of improved supportive care and the availability of growth factors, thus maximizing the therapeutic potential of this class of agents. However, response rates and survival plateaued and it became obvious that newer and mechanistically different agents were needed to improve the therapeutic index and gain further enhancement of outcomes. Since early 2000, primarily inspired by the experience with imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), several targeted therapies have been tested in sarcomas with modest success. The major limitations encountered include the lack of drivers and actionable targets for bone and soft tissue sarcomas with complex genomic profiles. Continued investigations and sequencing of larger numbers of these rare and heterogeneous malignancies could shed some light on a path toward improved outcomes.

  18. Fifty Years of Quasars From Early Observations and Ideas to Future Research

    CERN Document Server

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack

    2012-01-01

    The 50th anniversary of the discovery of quasars in 1963 presents an interesting opportunity to ask questions about the current state of quasar research. Formatted as a series of interviews with noted researchers in the field, each of them asked to address a specific set of questions covering topics selected by the editors, this book deals with the historical development of quasar research and discusses how advances in instrumentation and computational capabilities have benefitted quasar astronomy and have changed our basic understanding of quasars. In the last part of the book the interviews address the current topic of the role of quasars in galaxy evolution. They summarise open issues in understanding active galactic nuclei and quasars and present an outlook regarding what future observational facilities both on the ground and in space might reveal. Its interview format, the fascinating topic of quasars and black holes, and the lively recollections and at times controversial views of the contributors make ...

  19. Fifty Years of Research in ARDS. Gas Exchange in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radermacher, Peter; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Mercat, Alain

    2017-10-15

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by severe impairment of gas exchange. Hypoxemia is mainly due to intrapulmonary shunt, whereas increased alveolar dead space explains the alteration of CO 2 clearance. Assessment of the severity of gas exchange impairment is a requisite for the characterization of the syndrome and the evaluation of its severity. Confounding factors linked to hemodynamic status can greatly influence the relationship between the severity of lung injury and the degree of hypoxemia and/or the effects of ventilator settings on gas exchange. Apart from situations of rescue treatment, targeting optimal gas exchange in ARDS has become less of a priority compared with prevention of injury. A complex question for clinicians is to understand when improvement in oxygenation and alveolar ventilation is related to a lower degree or risk of injury for the lungs. In this regard, a full understanding of gas exchange mechanism in ARDS is imperative for individualized symptomatic support of patients with ARDS.

  20. fifty years of oil exploration in nigeria: the paradox of plenty

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    against corruption. KEYWORDS: Resource curse, Nigeria, Oil and Gas, GDP, Infrastructure, Corruption. INTRODUCTION. The history of oil exploration in Nigeria ..... as the country failed to invest in the downstream sector of the petroleum industry. Table 4: Economic Indicators as at 2003. Parameters. Brazil. Mexico. Ghana.

  1. A Pictorial History of the Drury College Student: The First Fifty Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Mindy

    2011-01-01

    Established in 1873, Drury College in Springfield, Missouri, provided a unique experience for their undergraduate students. A limited amount of research has been conducted on the institution but no work has been done to specifically look at the undergraduate student experience. Using archival research methods and information from literature on…

  2. Fifty years of Yang-Mills Theories: a phenomenological point of view

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the celebration of the first half-century of Yang--Mills theories, I am contributing a personal recollection of how the subject, in its early times, confronted physical reality, that is, its "phenomenology". There is nothing original in this work, except, perhaps, my own points of view. But I hope that the older practitioners of the field will find here grounds for nostalgia, or good reasons to disagree with me. Younger addicts may learn that history does not resemble at all what is reflected in current textbooks: it was orders of magnitude more fascinating.

  3. Draft Budget of the Organization for the Fifty-First Financial Year 2005

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A sa réunion du 15 septembre 2004 , le Comité des finances a recommandé au Conseil d'approuver le projet préliminaire de budget 2005 aux prix de 2004. La présente version tient compte des transferts du budget 2004 présentés dans le document "Budget 2004 - Transferts et dépassements de crédits" , du prélèvement dans la réserve pour imprévus pour le LHC indiqué dans le document "Réserve pour imprévus pour le LHC" et de divers ajustements mineurs. En conséquence, il est demandé au Comité des finances de recommander au Conseil d'approuver les modifications par rapport au projet préliminaire de budget 2005 présentées dans les tableaux de l'annexe 1.

  4. Fifty years of Fanger's equation: Is there anything to discover yet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Palella, Boris Igor; Riccio, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    This short communication to the Editor is completely devoted to a recent paper published by Broday et al. (2017) in which a comparative analysis of methods for determining the clothing surface temperature is reported. Contrarily to what our colleagues have found, we will demonstrate that the algo......This short communication to the Editor is completely devoted to a recent paper published by Broday et al. (2017) in which a comparative analysis of methods for determining the clothing surface temperature is reported. Contrarily to what our colleagues have found, we will demonstrate...

  5. Fifty Years of Mountain Passes: A Perspective on Dan Janzen's Classic Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kimberly S; Huey, Raymond B; Kaspari, Michael; Sanders, Nathan J

    2018-05-01

    In 1967, Dan Janzen published "Why Mountain Passes Are Higher in the Tropics" in The American Naturalist. Janzen's seminal article has captured the attention of generations of biologists and continues to inspire theoretical and empirical work. The underlying assumptions and derived predictions are broadly synthetic and widely applicable. Consequently, Janzen's "seasonality hypothesis" has proven relevant to physiology, climate change, ecology, and evolution. To celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of this highly influential article, we highlight the past, present, and future of this work and include a unique historical perspective from Janzen himself.

  6. The Biggest Aspidistra in the World; A Personal Celebration of Fifty Years of the BBC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Peter

    This book is a personal recollection of the history of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), written as a celebration of the BBC's fiftieth anniversary in 1972. The emphasis is on programs and people rather than policies. It is divided into roughly three periods: prewar, war, and postwar. The author writes, "The object is to remind…

  7. Fifty years of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring by the German Meteorological Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    At a commemorative event at the Langen Training and Congress Center on 8 and 9 June 2005 it was brought to the attention of the audience that the German Meteorological Service has been charged with the sovereign task of monitoring atmospheric radioactivity since 8 August 1955. The purpose of this commission at the time was to measure traces of radioactivity in the atmosphere and precipitation and make forecasts on the movement of radioactive air masses. This was motivated by the above-ground nuclear tests carried out by the USA and the Soviet Union and the resulting measurable increase in atmospheric radioactivity levels. Equipped as it was with the necessary infrastructure the German Meteorological Service offered to take on this monitoring task. The importance of being able to assess the meteorological situation and provide data on radioactivity levels in the atmosphere and precipitation became apparent in 1986 after the reactor disaster of Chernobyl. When the Law on Preventive Radiation Protection was enacted in 1986 it was therefore only logical for the German Meteorological Service's commission to monitor atmospheric radioactivity levels to be renewed

  8. Normalization Fifty Years Beyond--Current Trends in the Nordic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossebro, Jan; Bonfils, Inge S.; Teittinen, Antti; Tideman, Magnus; Traustadottir, Rannveig; Vesala, Hannu T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors discuss recent developments in services for people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in the Nordic countries. They note that all of the countries saw important reforms during the 1990s, regarding both deinstitutionalization and decentralization. However, they posit that the litmus test of the reforms is not what happens during reform…

  9. Cryogenics for high-energy particle accelerators: highlights from the first fifty years

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067931

    2017-01-01

    Applied superconductivity has become a key technology for high-energy particle accelerators, allowing to reach higher beam energy while containing size, capital expenditure and operating costs. Large and powerful cryogenic systems are therefore ancillary to low-temperature superconducting accelerator devices – magnets and high-frequency cavities – distributed over multi-kilometre distances and operating generally close to the normal boiling point of helium, but also above 4.2 K in supercritical and down to below 2 K in superfluid. Additionally, low-temperature operation in accelerators may also be required by considerations of ultra-high vacuum, limited stored energy and beam stability. We discuss the rationale for cryogenics in high-energy particle accelerators, review its development over the past half-century and present its outlook in future large projects, with reference to the main engineering domains of cryostat design and heat loads, cooling schemes, efficient power refrigeration and cryogenic flu...

  10. Truth in Reform: Reversing Fifty Years of Information Suppression in Burma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    suit with a broader offering that includes next generation 3G services and legacy 2G services that are more affordable to most Burmese citizens. 46...with the same effect during the 2007 Saffron Revolution, when citizen journalists used grainy mobile phone video, Burmese Internet cafes, and web...Internet controls were not technically sophisticated, the government quickly resorted to a complete block on mobile and Internet access during the 2007

  11. Evaluation of a web-based family medicine case library for self-directed learning in a third-year clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Jay B; Sepdham, Dan; Snell, Laura; Lindeman, Carolyn; Dobbie, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Web-based cases are well accepted by medical students and enable faculty to deliver equivalent educational experiences to all students. A 2009 literature search revealed no study investigating student use patterns of Web-based case libraries for self-directed learning. We investigated third-year students' use of a Web-based case program for self-directed learning in a family medicine clerkship. We analyzed Design A Case usage patterns of 210 medical students during academic year 2008--2009. We compared board score differences between these students and those from the previous 5 years who did not use Design A Case. We analyzed data from a 13-item survey, administered to a subgroup of 85 students, about the strengths, weaknesses, and acceptability of the program. Students completed, on average, four cases, which was beyond the requirement of three. They reported that the content was highly relevant to cases they saw in clinic. Almost 75% preferred the self-directed Web-based learning over didactics, and most (64%) felt they learned more electronically. Use of the cases was associated with equivalent Board scores versus didactic lectures. In our setting, self-directed learning using a Web-based case program was highly acceptable to students. Web-based cases may provide an option for family medicine educators who wish to deliver equivalent educational experiences across sites.

  12. The First Fifty ABO Blood Group Incompatible Kidney Transplantations: The Rotterdam Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelon van Agteren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the single center experience and long-term results of ABOi kidney transplantation using a pretransplantation protocol involving immunoadsorption combined with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulins, and triple immune suppression. Fifty patients received an ABOi kidney transplant in the period from 2006 to 2012 with a follow-up of at least one year. Eleven antibody mediated rejections were noted of which 5 were mixed antibody and cellular mediated rejections. Nine cellular mediated rejections were recorded. Two grafts were lost due to rejection in the first year. One-year graft survival of the ABOi grafts was comparable to 100 matched ABO compatible renal grafts, 96% versus 99%. At 5-year follow-up, the graft survival was 90% in the ABOi versus 97% in the control group. Posttransplantation immunoadsorption was not an essential part of the protocol and no association was found between antibody titers and subsequent graft rejection. Steroids could be withdrawn safely 3 months after transplantation. Adverse events specifically related to the ABOi protocol were not observed. The currently used ABOi protocol shows good short and midterm results despite a high rate of antibody mediated rejections in the first years after the start of the program.

  13. A multiple choice testing program coupled with a year-long elective experience is associated with improved performance on the internal medicine in-training examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Bradley R; Warm, Eric J; Schauer, Daniel P; Holmboe, Eric; Rouan, Gregory W

    2011-11-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Exam (IM-ITE) assesses the content knowledge of internal medicine trainees. Many programs use the IM-ITE to counsel residents, to create individual remediation plans, and to make fundamental programmatic and curricular modifications. To assess the association between a multiple-choice testing program administered during 12 consecutive months of ambulatory and inpatient elective experience and IM-ITE percentile scores in third post-graduate year (PGY-3) categorical residents. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred and four categorical internal medicine residents. Forty-five residents in the 2008 and 2009 classes participated in the study group, and the 59 residents in the three classes that preceded the use of the testing program, 2005-2007, served as controls. A comprehensive, elective rotation specific, multiple-choice testing program and a separate board review program, both administered during a continuous long-block elective experience during the twelve months between the second post-graduate year (PGY-2) and PGY-3 in-training examinations. We analyzed the change in median individual percent correct and percentile scores between the PGY-1 and PGY-2 IM-ITE and between the PGY-2 and PGY-3 IM-ITE in both control and study cohorts. For our main outcome measure, we compared the change in median individual percentile rank between the control and study cohorts between the PGY-2 and the PGY-3 IM-ITE testing opportunities. After experiencing the educational intervention, the study group demonstrated a significant increase in median individual IM-ITE percentile score between PGY-2 and PGY-3 examinations of 8.5 percentile points (p ITE performance.

  14. The relationship between internal medicine residency graduate performance on the ABIM certifying examination, yearly in-service training examinations, and the USMLE Step 1 examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Cynthia; Jackson, Jeffrey L; Frank, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores, yearly in-service training exam (ITE) scores, and passing the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying examination (ABIM-CE). The authors conducted a retrospective database review of internal medicine residents from the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2004 through 2012. Residents' USMLE Step 1, ITE, and ABIM-CE scores were extracted. Pearson rho, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to determine whether relationships existed between the scores and if Step 1 and ITE scores correlate with passing the ABIM-CE. There were 241 residents, who participated in 728 annual ITEs. There were Step 1 scores for 195 (81%) residents and ABIM-CE scores for 183 (76%). Step 1 and ABIM-CE scores had a modest correlation (rho: 0.59), as did ITE and ABIM-CE scores (rho: 0.48-0.67). Failing Step 1 or being in the bottom ITE quartile during any year of testing markedly increased likelihood of failing the boards (Step 1: relative risk [RR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.0-5.9; first-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.6; second-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5; third-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5). USMLE Step 1 and ITE scores have a modest correlation with board scores. Failing Step 1 or scoring in the bottom quartile of the ITE increased the risk of failing the boards. What effective intervention, if any, program directors may use with at-risk residents is a question deserving further research.

  15. Students’ perceptions and satisfaction level of hybrid problem-based learning for 16 years in Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghee Yeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Kyungpook National University School of Medicine has been implementing hybrid problem-based learning (PBL since 1999. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the students’ perceptions and satisfaction levels of hybrid PBL. Methods: The target period of our study was from 1999 to 2014, and target subjects were second-year medical students in Kyungpook National University School of Medicine. The survey was conducted at the end of semester. We had a focused interview with group leaders and some volunteer students. Results: As for the scores regarding students’ overall satisfaction with PBL, there was significant improvement in 2005 compared to 2002, but the scores decreased and no differences between the survey years noted after 2005. The students’ preference ratio for the once a week PBL sessions, tutor presence, synchronization of contents, and arrangement of PBL sessions and related lectures was 60%–80%, 50%–90%, 52%–96%, and 78%–93%, respectively. Conclusion: In order to increase students’ satisfaction with hybrid PBL and to improve the perception of it, firstly, it is necessary to arrange the date and the time of PBL sessions so that students can concentrate on PBL. Secondly, PBL cases should be selected and arranged to be well synchronized with the ongoing lectures. Finally, it is important to create a safe atmosphere so that students can engage actively in PBL sessions.

  16. Twenty years of operation of the Radioisotope Department of the 3rd Medical Clinic, Faculty of General Medicine, Charles University in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapitola, J.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty years ago a radioisotope department was established in the old building of the 3rd Medical Clinic in Prague 2. The department is suitably placed and meets present requirements. It was set up as part of the 3rd Medical Clinic and of the Laboratory for endocrinology and Metabolism which gave it its main orientation and scope. Its present scope is much broader. In the twenty years since it was established 115,800 examinations were carried out, some 40 examination methods were introduced, 103 publications published, members of the department were co-authors of another 113 publications, they completed 11 research projects. The production of the department represents a substantial part of laboratory material especially in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy and metabolic disorders at the Clinic and is a significant part of the material of a number of research projects. The department has significantly contributed to the development of nuclear medicine in the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in thyroid diagnosis, by the first introduction of radioimmunoassay methods, by the introduction of certain other special examination and laboratory methods and is currently taking part in the fulfilment of tasks given by the zoning of nuclear medicine in health care in Czechoslovakia in general and in Prague in particular. (author)

  17. [Journal AMHA - Acta medico-historica Adriatica: 14 years of patient work on the scientific valorisation of the history of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eterović, Igor

    2017-12-01

    In this paper the first 14 years of publication of scientific journal AMHA - Acta medico‑historica Adriatica (2002-2016) are presented and shortly analysed. This journal has undoubtedly become and remained the central activity of the Croatian Scientific Society for the History of Health Culture, which has rapidly become a globally esteemed journal of history of medicine. The beginning and the context of publishing the journal with the reference to scientific meeting "Rijeka and Its Citizens in Medical History" is presented, as well as the journal's profiling into distinguished international journal and its fast development in later years. The analysis shows the growth of journal's visibility through indexation in different international journal databases, the number and ratio of scientific articles and the variety of published material. Finally, a review of the potential future directions of development and the significance of this journal within the national, regional and international context is given.

  18. Time trends in the thesis work by post-graduate students of Community Medicine: A record based descriptive study of 40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Nagargoje

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thesis work conducted by post-graduate students of Community Medicine is critically appraised by not only their examiners but also by many other public health experts and researchers. Issues related to the repetition of work and quality of thesis work is raised by various authors. Objective: To assess the time trend in the thesis work done by post-graduate students of Community Medicine. Material and methods: This is a record based descriptive observational study conducted in the department of Community Medicine of S. N. Medical College, Agra (Uttar Pradesh. Data from all the 66 theses which were submitted by the Post Graduate students of our department till date was collected and assessed systematically. Result: Most preferred areas of research were MCH/Family Planning (28.79% and Programme/Service evaluation (22.73%. 77.27% of theses were community based, 36.37% were done exclusively in a rural area, 24.24% of theses had children/adolescent as their study subjects and 28.79% were conducted exclusively among females. A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP or Knowledge, attitude, behavior and practice (KABP study was part of many theses but exclusive KAP/KABP study was done only in 12.12% of theses. A purposive or convenience sampling was done in only 18.33% of theses, 86.67% were cross-sectional in design and median sample size was 450 participants per thesis. In comparison to the theses done upto the year 2000, theses thereafter were more often based in an urban area and less often done in an exclusive rural area (p=0.0003 and all KAP/KABP studies were done after the year 2000 (p=0.004. Conclusion: There is no repetition or excessive use of KAP/KABP studies in the theses done by post-graduate students of the department of Community Medicine, S. N. Medical College, Agra

  19. Job stress and the use of antidepressant medicine: a 3.5-year follow-up study among Danish employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Rugulies, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate if exposure to adverse psychological job characteristics predicts incident use of antidepressants, taking into account differential misclassification and residual confounding. Methods A prospective cohort study with a 3.5-year follow-up of 4661 Danish employees...

  20. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper puzzles over why symmetry, so central to particle physics today, was so little attended to in the 1950s when the need for it was becoming profound, with the notion of parity violation and other break-downs in conservation laws, such as angular momentum and charge conjugation. Group theory, including Lie groups, would also have helped understanding of the particle physics discoveries of the 1950s such as strange particles, resonances, and associated production. They were adopted ten years too late by the physics community. (UK)

  1. A mathematical medley fifty easy pieces on mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Szpiro, George G

    2010-01-01

    Szpiro's book provides a delightful, well-written, eclectic selection of mathematical tidbits that makes excellent airplane reading for anyone with an interest in mathematics, regardless of their mathematical background. Excellent gift material. -Keith Devlin, Stanford University, author of The Unfinished Game and The Language of Mathematics It is great to have collected in one volume the many varied, insightful and often surprising mathematical stories that George Szpiro has written in his mathematical columns for the newspapers through the years. -Marcus du Sautoy, Oxford University, author

  2. Foundation Year 2 doctors' reasons for leaving UK medicine: an in-depth analysis of decision-making using semistructured interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha E; Tallentire, Victoria R; Pope, Lindsey M; Laidlaw, Anita H; Morrison, Jill

    2018-03-02

    To explore the reasons that doctors choose to leave UK medicine after their foundation year two posts. All four regions of Scotland. Foundation year two doctors (F2s) working throughout Scotland who were considering leaving UK medicine after foundation training were recruited on a volunteer basis. Maximum variation between participants was sought. Semistructured interviews were coded using template analysis. Six perspectives, described by Feldman and Ng, were used as the initial coding template. The codes were then configured to form a framework that explores the interplay of factors influencing Foundation Year 2 (F2) doctors' decisions to leave UK medicine. Seventeen participants were interviewed. Six perspectives were explored. Structural influences (countrywide and worldwide issues) included visas, economic and political considerations, structure of healthcare systems and availability of junior doctor jobs worldwide. Organisational influences (the National Health Service (NHS) and other healthcare providers) included staffing and compensation policies, the working environment and the learning environment. Occupational influences (specific to being a junior doctor) comprised the junior doctor contract, role and workload, pursuit of career interests and the structure of training. Work group influences (relationships with colleagues) included support at work, task interdependence and use of locums. Personal life influences consisted of work-life balance, and support in resolving work-life conflict. The underlying theme of 'taking a break' recurred through multiple narratives. F2s give reasons similar to those given by any professional considering a change in their job. However, working within the NHS as an F2 doctor brought specific challenges, such as a need to make a choice of specialty within the F2 year, exposure to workplace bullying and difficulties in raising concerns. Despite these challenges, most F2s did not view their decision to leave as a permanent job

  3. Out of the shadow of medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2008-01-01

    Modern chemistry, so alarming, so necessary, so ubiquitous, became a mature science in nineteenth-century Europe. As it developed, often from a lowly position in medicine or in industry, so chemists established themselves as professional men; but differently in different countries. In 1820...... chemistry was an autonomous science of great prestige but chemists had no corporate identity. It was 1840 before national chemical societies were first formed; and many countries lagged fifty years behind. Chemists are the largest of scientific groups; and in this book we observe the social history...... of chemistry in fifteen countries, ranging from the British Isles to Lithuania and Greece. There are regularities and similarities; and by describing how national chemical professions emerged under particular economic and social circumstances, the book contributes significantly to European history of science....

  4. A new discipline: Confined Areas Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agostinis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Confined Areas Medicine is a new discipline devoted to a specific branch of the components of emergency services. In it convey the characteristics typical of behavioral intervention in hostile area peculiar of the National Fire Corps and the National Speleological and Alpine Corps. While not considering the natural events that cause the collapse of housing the Italian case reported in the last fifty years about two hundred structural collapses that are charged over a thousand deaths (source: ISTAT 2006. Analysis of the documents accessible to the public today we can say without fear of denials, that 25% of these deaths are due to relief late or ineffective treatment on the spot. In fact, the NFPA (National Fire Protection Association claims that 10% of victims trapped under the rubble can be saved with a location and an early recovery, which can significantly increase this percentage with the health care stabilization directly at the place of discovery.

  5. Screening for psychological distress among High School Graduates Accepted for Enrollment at Alexandria Faculty of Medicine: Academic year 2016/2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Hassan Diab

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental and psychological health of adolescents in general and prospective medical students in particular is a priority area to investigate as it affects wellbeing of the future doctors. Objectives: The current research was conducted to screen first year medical students accepted for enrollment at Alexandria Faculty of Medicine to identify those with a high probability of having psychological distress before the start of academic courses as well as explore the sources of stress among them.Methods.A cross sectional survey of 779 high school graduates accepted for admission to Alexandria Faculty of medicine was conducted. Participants were approached on the days of obligatory pre-enrollment medical examination. The translated Arabic version of DASS 21 questionnaire was used to screen students for three negative emotional symptoms namely depression, anxiety and stress. Inquiry about age, sex, residency and type of high school was added. Results: More than a tenth of studied medical students (12.6% suffered from severe or profound stress and 29.1% of them had mild to moderate stress. Moreover, one fifth (20% of studied students were severely anxious and less than one third (29.3% had mild to moderate anxiety. Severe and profound depression was diagnosed among 14.3% of students whereas, 18.7% them were moderately depressed. No association was found between any of studied negative emotional symptoms and the students' educational background or their residency. Conclusion: Nearly half of the prospective medical students might have some sort of psychological distress before starting their study in the Faculty of Medicine. They should be investigated to verify diagnosis and start intervention to minimize its adverse effects on academic performance and advancement at the faculty. Stress management courses should be considered for all medical students. Keywords: Psychological distress, Prospective medical students, Adolescents' psychological

  6. The Colima Economy from fifties to the eighties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Villa Aguijosa

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of Colima, from 50s to 80s decades, was characterized for three stages which are differentiated for some certain features given by the roll that plays the economic sectors from the behaviour of some basic indicators of economic activities like port, agricultural, tourism, mining and industry, an for the economic strategy proposed during these years.In the 50s and 60s years, the economic of Colima took two fundamental characteristics which transcendent to the 70s decade: the supremacy in the participation in the agricultural sector in the gross state product, specialy given with impulse of the industrialization agricultural, and the mining activation, transforming in the base of economic development to Colima. The second stage, is in the 70s decade, and is characterized by the dynamic that industrial stage takes above other sectors with more slowly growing tax, besides it is characterized for one reduction of the growth tax of the gross estate product.The characteristics of economic development of Colima during these years are: standstill of the agricultural activity, trade and services, growth of industry, the urbanization and new economic profile, and makes the bases from the new economic profile of the 80s, in the context of the trade opening. The economy of Colima presented a regional polarization of the activities, a deficient communications and transports, a tourist potential misuse, an important growing of the industrial activities, and the necessity to expand the potential of the Manzanillo port and their big expectatives in the Mexican pacific, and an important growing of an industrial sector highly polarized. This panorama impacted in the profile of the development of Colima in the next decade.The third moment which crosses the economic of Colima, and is presented in the decade of the 80s, is characterized by the beginning of an economic model based in the planning which ;designs; an integrated Colima to the

  7. A century of x-rays and radioactivity in medicine. With emphasis on photographic records of the early years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    This book is a predominately photographic presentation, along with full captions and short accompanying essays, about the history of radiology. It concentrates on the early years of discovery and invention, diagnosis and therapy, with archival accounts, antedotes, historical snippets. In most chapters the history is briefly brought up to date so old methods may be compared with newer technologies. Source material, diaries, historic photographs are all used

  8. Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar: a Mirror of American Fifties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandeharion A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With its portrayal of a talented yet frustrated young American woman in the 1950s, Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963 depicts the experiences of a nineteen-year-old girl before her mental breakdown. Benefitting from a Friedanian second wave feminism, this paper aims to trace the root of disappointment and identity crisis in Plath's heroine, Esther Greenwood. It is understood that besides being a personal issue, her frustration is the outcome of sociocultural factors. The lack of role models and the contradictory messages sent by the media lead to her anxiety, disillusionment, and uncertainty. The Bell Jar proposes a solution: it is indeed possible for a woman to hold a fulfilling career and at the same time be a caring wife and a loving mother. And this is the answer Esther tries to figure out at a time when the boundaries between the domestic sphere and the outside world are clearly defined for women.

  9. Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar: a Mirror of American Fifties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghandeharion, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With its portrayal of a talented yet frustrated young American woman in the 1950s, Sylvia Plath's The Bell Jar (1963 depicts the experiences of a nineteen-year-old girl before her mental breakdown. Benefitting from a Friedanian second wave feminism, this paper aims to trace the root of disappointment and identity crisis in Plath's heroine, Esther Greenwood. It is understood that besides being a personal issue, her frustration is the outcome of sociocultural factors. The lack of role models and the contradictory messages sent by the media lead to her anxiety, disillusionment, and uncertainty. The Bell Jar proposes a solution: it is indeed possible for a woman to hold a fulfilling career and at the same time be a caring wife and a loving mother. And this is the answer Esther tries to figure out at a time when the boundaries between the domestic sphere and the outside world are clearly defined for women.

  10. A Required Rotation in Clinical Laboratory Management for Pathology Residents: Five-Year Experience at Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Arvind; Hoda, Syed T; Crawford, James M

    2016-01-01

    Leadership and management training during pathology residency have been identified repeatedly by employers as insufficient. A 1-month rotation in clinical laboratory management (CLM) was created for third-year pathology residents. We report on our experience and assess the value of this rotation. The rotation was one-half observational and one-half active. The observational component involved being a member of department and laboratory service line leadership, both at the departmental and institutional level. Observational participation enabled learning of both the content and principles of leadership and management activities. The active half of the rotation was performance of a project intended to advance the strategic trajectory of the department and laboratory service line. In our program that matriculates 4 residents per year, 20 residents participated from April 2010 through December 2015. Their projects either activated a new priority area or helped propel an existing strategic priority forward. Of the 16 resident graduates who had obtained their first employment or a fellowship position, 9 responded to an assessment survey. The majority of respondents (5/9) felt that the rotation significantly contributed to their ability to compete for a fellowship or their first employment position. The top reported benefits of the rotation included people management; communication with staff, departmental, and institutional leadership; and involvement in department and institutional meetings and task groups. Our 5-year experience demonstrates both the successful principles by which the CLM rotation can be established and the high value of this rotation to residency graduates.

  11. Fifth-year internal medicine residents in Spain: A survey on education, assessment of competencies and job perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macía-Rodríguez, C; López Reboiro, M L; Martín Iglesias, D; González-Munera, A; Moreno Diaz, J; Montaño Martínez, A; Ortiz Llauradó, G; Demelo-Rodríguez, P; Muñoz Muñoz, C; Salgado Ordoñez, F

    2018-06-14

    Specialist training is based on the gradual acquisition of expertise, skills and responsibilities. The aim of this study is to determine the opinion of residents regarding their training. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study based on an online survey of 5th-year residents during February and March 2017. A total of 194 residents (62.8% of the total) responded to the survey, 62.9% of whom were women and 50% of whom were younger than 30years, representing hospitals from all levels and from the 17 autonomous communities. More than 80% of the residents choose the specialty once again and believed that the duration of the residence was appropriate; however, 76.3% would eliminate some of their rotations. Most of the residents did not know the objectives of each rotation, and 37.1% felt they were not adequately supervised. Some 82.5% would change the evaluation system, and 68.0% would favour performing an excellence test. Most of the residents had published at least one article or performed one presentation at a congress; however, only 27.8% had completed a doctoral thesis. Although 74.7% of the internists believed they would find employment, only 28.4% had an offer 1month after completing their residence. The residents are satisfied with their training, although there is still a deficit in supervision and dissatisfaction with the method of assessing their knowledge and the precarious job market during the first year for specialists. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Skin cancer patients profile at faculty of medicine university of North Sumatera pathology anatomy laboratory and Haji Adam Malik general hospital in the year of 2012-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, E. K.; Delyuzar; Soekimin

    2018-03-01

    The most common types of skin cancer found worldwide are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma. In America, about 800,000 people suffer from skin cancer every year and 75% are basal cell carcinoma. According to WHO, around 160,000 people suffer from malignant melanoma every year and 48,000 deaths were reported every year. In Jakarta, in 2000-2009, dr. CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM) reported 261 cases of basal cell carcinoma, followed by 69 cases of squamous cell carcinoma and 22 cases of malignant melanoma.This study was descriptive study with retrospective design and consecutive sampling method. Data consisted of age, gender, tumor location, occupation and histopathology subtype which were taken from skin cancer patients’ medical record at Faculty of Medicine University of North Sumatera Pathology Anatomy Laboratory and Haji Adam Malik General Hospital Medan in 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using SPSS program and classified based on WHO. From 92 study subjects, squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer which is 59 cases (64.13%), found in 48 women (52.2%), and often found between 45-47 years old (30.4%).

  13. Defaulters from thyroid suppression tests - a study of non-compliers on the basis of statistical data collected over six years at the Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beushausen, M.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 267 patients suspected of having autonomous adenomas were scheduled for control scintigrams to confirm the diagnosis, as a general rule after a 14-day suppression test using thyroxine. The fact that 381 patients failed to reappear at the determined date (non-compliers) prompted us to investigate the possible links between patient compliance and relevant medical, organisational and sociodemographical factors. There was no significant correlation between compliance and the anamnestic data or local findings of the individual patients. Factors surrounding medical organisation, however, were found to have a greater influence on patient behaviour. Thus, patients referred to us by other policlinics generally displayed an increased tendency to non-compliance than patients sent to us by general practitioners. Moreover, compliance was seen to be closely related to the circumstances under which the patients were requested to reappear for control examinations. From among the patients, who were given thyroxine and instructed to come for a second examination directly at the Polyclinic of Nuclear Medicine, as much as 95% complied as compared to only 81% of those, where the physician originally consulted by the patient was informed about the necessity of a further examination. This behaviour seemed to be independent of the practitioner who had referred the patient to us or the physician performing the first examinations at the Policlinic. Former contacts with the Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine and the season of the first visit showed no influence on later compliance or non-compliance of the patients, nor was the social background or distance of the clinic from the patient's home observed to be of any particular relevance here. A higher rate of defaulters was, however, determined for men between 30 and 49 years and women over 60 years of age. There was no increased tendency to default among country dwellers as compared to city dwellers. (TRV) [de

  14. [Prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women from 20 to 35 years in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Sánchez, Paulina; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela; Nuño-Donlucas, María Olimpia; Sahagún-Cuevas, Minerva Natalia; Hernández-Calderón, Jéssica; Ramírez-Ramos, Joana Kareli

    2016-01-01

    Violence against women is one of the most important health problems in recent times. In Mexico, it is reported a prevalence of 21.5% during pregnancy; however, it seems to be underdiagnosed. The objective is to determine the prevalence of domestic violence in pregnant women from 20 to 35 years at the Unidad de Medicina Familiar (UMF) 171 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS). It was performed a cross-sectional descriptive study with a sample of 102 pregnant women to which we applied a sociodemographic questionnaire and the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (ISVP). 19 women (18.6%) suffered violence; of these, 10.8% (n=11) experienced physical violence, 5.9% (n=6) psychological violence, and 4% (n=4) sexual violence. We used chi squared between the variable violence and each of the sociodemographic factors: 52.6% women (n=10) were married (p=0.005), 26.3% (n=5) had a bachelor's degree (p=0.074), 57.8% (n=11) had planned their pregnancy, 47.3% (n=9) were in the third trimester of pregnancy, and 78.95% (n=15) worked as laborers, shop-keepers or professionals (p=0.016). Among pregnant women belonging in UMF 171 of IMSS, domestic violence is a problem with a prevalence of 18.6%.

  15. "Double crap!" abuse and harmed identity in Fifty Shades of Grey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E; Altenburger, Lauren E; Walton, Nicole L

    2013-09-01

    While intimate partner violence (IPV) affects 25% of women and impairs health, current societal conditions-including the normalization of abuse in popular culture such as novels, film, and music-create the context to support such violence. Fifty Shades of Grey, a best-selling novel, depicts a "romantic" and "erotic" relationship involving 28-year-old megamillionaire, Christian Grey, and a 22-year-old college student, Anastasia Steele. We argue that the relationship is characterized by IPV, which is harmful to Anastasia. All authors engaged in iterative readings of the text, and wrote narrative summaries to elucidate themes. Validity checks included double review of the first eight chapters of the novel to establish consistency in our analysis approach, iterative discussions in-person and electronically to arbitrate discrepancies, and review of our analysis with other abuse and sexual practice experts. To characterize IPV, we used the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions of emotional abuse (intimidation/threats; isolation; stalking; and humiliation) and sexual violence (forced sex acts/contact against a person's will, including using alcohol/drugs or intimidation/pressure). To characterize harm, we used Smith's conceptualizations of perceived threat, managing, altered identity, yearning, entrapment, and disempowerment experienced by abused women. Emotional abuse is present in nearly every interaction, including: stalking (Christian deliberately follows Anastasia and appears in unusual places, uses a phone and computer to track Anastasia's whereabouts, and delivers expensive gifts); intimidation (Christian uses intimidating verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as routinely commanding Anastasia to eat and threatening to punish her); and isolation (Christian limits Anastasia's social contact). Sexual violence is pervasive-including using alcohol to compromise Anastasia's consent, as well as intimidation (Christian initiates sexual encounters

  16. [Ways of appearing new branches in medicine in the years 1800-1914. An attempt at formulation of an issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Bozena

    2009-01-01

    A process of appearing medical branches lasted for many centuries. Its origins can be found already in long-ago civilizations. However, the comprehensive development of knowledge on the turn of the 18th century, its transmission by the press, professional contacts, including the foreign ones, brought about the consciousness of needs and activities in medical circles. A significant role in the process of appearing particular domains was played by technological progress. The inventions improved on cognitive processes within natural sciences and quickened exploring the new truths that were also employed in medical care. All these achievements of the 19th century, in Author's opinion, resulted in the significant development of particular domains called branches that nowadays are commonly accepted. Among medical and important for the development of separate branches one often mentions the achievements of pathological anatomy, and even bacteriology, which influenced the beginnings of medical analytic and development of diagnostics. Moreover, the progress of therapy in the years 1840-1870 brought about modern methods of getting pharmaceutical remedies and ways of using medicaments. The knowledge together with experiences let prepare description of particular diseases. There was also created a scientific workshop and methodological tactic, which was distinct for separate cases of illnesses. A great role was played by statistics and different ways of registering particulars, also by means of photography. Bibliography and scientific literature were to transmit and compare the knowledge. All these circumstances show the intricacy of the discussed issue. Additionally, the described conditions reveal the importance of other reasons that played a significant role in setting up separate specialization-non-medical reasons of social, economic or political nature. The last ones have not been analyzed inherently by us. What interesting, in some countries and especially in Anglo

  17. [Is the learning process of "evidence-based medicine" influenced by determined factors? Results from a national survey of 1870 French students in their sixth year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouprêt, Morgan; Karila, Laurent; Kerneis, Solen; Lefevre, Jérémie H

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the baseline level of knowledge of evidence based medicine (EBM) concepts in a sample of French medical students in their sixth year of training. An "electronic-questionnaire" was proposed to 3125 sixth-year students from all 39 French medical schools in 2009. Overall, 1870 students (58.2% response rate) completed the questionnaire (women=1168; 63%). The concept of EBM was known by 1716 students (92%). Most students (n=1382; 74%) read at least one French medical article per year, but 1051 students (56%) never read international articles. Just over half of students (1030; 55%) knew of web-based medical information databases. Treatment guidelines were considered to be important by most students (97%). Only 24.3% and 29% of students said that they write or speak English. In multivariate analysis, studying in a Parisian University and/or knowledge of what a journal's "impact factor" is were both associated with a ranking in the top 20% of the National Ranking Exam practice session. Only the most successful students showed interest in obtaining more knowledge of EBM. The lack of education about EBM in this sample suggests a lack of efficacy in the current heterogeneous EBM teaching programs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  19. Fifty Violins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Sol

    1999-01-01

    Roberta Guaspari-Tzavoras teaches 125 young violinists in 2 East Harlem elementary schools. Students are chosen by lottery. The only prerequisite is a willingness to do the hard work of practicing and learning. Her success in coaching inner-city students to a performance in Carnegie hall is the subject of a documentary and a feature film. (MLF)

  20. Update on the Methodological Quality of Research Published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine: Comparing 2011-2013 to 10 and 20 Years Prior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Kluck, Dylan; Marx, Robert G

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the number of articles in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) has risen dramatically, with an increasing emphasis on evidence-based medicine in orthopaedics and sports medicine. Despite the increase in the number of articles published in AJSM over the past decade, the methodological quality of articles in 2011-2013 has improved relative to those in 2001-2003 and 1991-1993. Meta-analysis. All articles published in AJSM during 2011-2013 were reviewed and classified by study design. For each article, the use of pertinent methodologies, such as prospective data collection, randomization, control groups, and blinding, was recorded. The frequency of each article type and the use of evidence-based techniques were compared relative to 1991-1993 and 2001-2003 by use of Pearson χ(2) testing. The number of research articles published in AJSM more than doubled from 402 in 1991-1993 and 423 in 2001-2003 to 953 in 2011-2013. Case reports decreased from 15.2% to 10.6% to 2.1% of articles published over the study period (P < .001). Cadaveric/human studies and meta-analysis/literature review studies increased from 5.7% to 7.1% to 12.4% (P < .001) and from 0.2% to 0.9% to 2.3% (P = .01), respectively. Randomized, prospective clinical trials increased from 2.7% to 5.9% to 7.4% (P = .007). Fewer studies used retrospective compared with prospective data collection (P < .001). More studies tested an explicit hypothesis (P < .001) and used controls (P < .001), randomization (P < .001), and blinding of those assessing outcomes (P < .001). Multi-investigator trials increased (P < .001), as did the proportion of articles citing a funding source (P < .001). Despite a dramatic increase in the number of published articles, the research published in AJSM shifted toward more prospective, randomized, controlled, and blinded designs during 2011-2013 compared with 2001-2003 and 1991-1993, demonstrating a continued improvement in methodological quality. © 2015 The

  1. Representasi Perempuan Dalam Film (Analisis Semiotika Representasi Perempuan Dalam Film “Fifty Shades of Grey”)

    OpenAIRE

    Aviomeita, Friska

    2016-01-01

    This study entitled "Representation of Women In Film ( Roland Barthes Semiotics Analysis In the film Fifty Shades of Grey ) " . The purpose of this study to find out how women are represented in the film " Fifty Shades of Grey " by denotation , connotation and myths . Film has always influenced and shaped the public based on the contents of the message behind it. Messages or values contained in the film may affect the audience. In this study, researchers used several theorie...

  2. The impact of social media on the academic performance of second year medical students at College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Tawfeeq Alahmar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Social media applications and their use among students have witnessed dramatic increase in the last decade and data on their effect on students academic performance are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of social media on the academic performance and grades of second year medical students at the College of Medicine, University of Babylon, Iraq. Second year medical students (n=57 completed online questionnaire about the type of social media they use frequently, time spent on these media in hours per day, the reasons for use of these media and the effect of social media on their grades. Students were also asked to provide the cumulative grades of physiology and anatomy courses. Time spent by students on social media and facebook messenger was correlated with combined grades of physiology and anatomy courses. All students have been using facebook and 96.5% have been using facebook messenger. Other popular applications were telegram, instagram and ask.fm. Average time spent on social media was 5.07+/- 2.93 and on facebook messenger was 1.80 +/-1.45 hours per day. Forty-two percent of students reported that social media have positive effect on their academic performance. No correlation has been found between time spent on social media or facebook messenger and students combined grades of physiology and anatomy. To conclude, social media and in particular facebook and facebook messenger are very popular among second year medical students. Time spent on social media seems to have no influence on second year medical students grades and academic performance. [J Med Allied Sci 2016; 6(2.000: 77-83

  3. A three-year study of the impact of instructor attitude, enthusiasm, and teaching style on student learning in a medicinal chemistry course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharif, Naser Z; Qi, Yongyue

    2014-09-15

    To determine the effect of instructor attitude, enthusiasm, and teaching style on learning for distance and campus pharmacy students. Over a 3-year period, distance and campus students enrolled in the spring semester of a medicinal chemistry course were asked to complete a survey instrument with questions related to instructor attitude, enthusiasm, and teaching style, as well as items to measure student intrinsic motivation and vitality. More positive responses were observed among distance students and older students. Gender did not impact student perspectives on 25 of the 26 survey questions. Student-related items were significantly correlated with instructor-related items. Also, student-related items and second-year cumulative grade point average were predictive of students' final course grades. Instructor enthusiasm demonstrated the highest correlation with student intrinsic motivation and vitality. While this study addresses the importance of content mastery and instructional methodologies, it focuses on issues related to instructor attitude, instructor enthusiasm, and teaching style, which all play a critical role in the learning process. Thus, instructors have a responsibility to evaluate, reevaluate, and analyze the above factors to address any related issues that impact the learning process, including their influence on professional students' intrinsic motivation and vitality, and ability to meet educational outcomes.

  4. A year of mentoring in academic medicine: case report and qualitative analysis of fifteen hours of meetings between a junior and senior faculty member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatin, Joseph S; Lipkin, Mack; Rubin, Alan S; Schachter, Allison; Nathan, Michael; Kalet, Adina

    2004-05-01

    We describe a specific mentoring approach in an academic general internal medicine setting by audiotaping and transcribing all mentoring sessions in the year. In advance, the mentor recorded his model. During the year, the mentee kept a process journal. Qualitative analysis revealed development of an intimate relationship based on empathy, trust, and honesty. The mentor's model was explicitly intended to develop independence, initiative, improved thinking, skills, and self-reflection. The mentor's methods included extensive and varied use of questioning, active listening, standard setting, and frequent feedback. During the mentoring, the mentee evolved as a teacher, enhanced the creativity in his teaching, and matured as a person. Specific accomplishments included a national workshop on professional writing, an innovative approach to inpatient attending, a new teaching skills curriculum for a residency program, and this study. A mentoring model stressing safety, intimacy, honesty, setting of high standards, praxis, and detailed planning and feedback was associated with mentee excitement, personal and professional growth and development, concrete accomplishments, and a commitment to teaching.

  5. Impact of a Revised Curriculum Focusing on Clinical Neurology and Musculoskeletal Care on a Required Fourth-Year Medical Student Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Norbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A Required Fourth-Year Medical Student Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R Clerkship was found to increase students’ knowledge of PM&R; however the students’ overall rotation evaluations were consistently lower than the other 8 required clerkships at the medical school. Objective. To describe the impact of a revised curriculum based upon Entrustable Professional Activities and focusing on basic pain management, musculoskeletal care, and neurology. Setting. Academic Medical Center. Participants. 73 fourth-year medical students. Methods. The curriculum changes included a shift in the required readings from rehabilitation specific topics toward more general content in the areas of clinical neurology and musculoskeletal care. Hands-on workshops on neurological and musculoskeletal physical examination techniques, small group case-based learning, an anatomy clinical correlation lecture, and a lecture on pain management were integrated into the curriculum. Main Outcome Measurements. Student evaluations of the clerkship. Results. Statistically significant improvements were found in the students’ evaluations of usefulness of lecturers, development of patient interviewing skills, and diagnostic and patient management skills (p≤0.05. Conclusions. This study suggests that students have a greater satisfaction with a required PM&R clerkship when lecturers utilize a variety of pedagogic methods to teach basic pain, neurology and musculoskeletal care skills in the rehabilitation setting rather than rehabilitation specific content.

  6. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentle, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    Several growth areas for nuclear medicine were defined. Among them were: cardiac nuclear medicine, neuro-psychiatric nuclear medicine, and cancer diagnosis through direct tumor imaging. A powerful new tool, Positron Emission Tomography (PET) was lauded as the impetus for new developments in nuclear medicine. The political environment (funding, degree of autonomy) was discussed, as were the economic and scientific environments

  7. Heart failure - medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  8. Is medicine losing its way? A firm foundation for medicine as a real therapeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijk, Willem Jacobus Cardinal

    2017-08-01

    Is medicine losing its way? This question may seem to imply a serious warning, one needing a further explanation. What I mean to say by the title of this paper is that we can detect an undeniable shift in medicine in the last forty to fifty years. Medicine used to focus on what we call "health care" in a classical sense, that is, the treatment of people suffering from diseases, injuries or handicaps, or the alleviation of pain and other symptoms. In addition to this, in the last half century, it has begun to offer more and more treatments aiming to perfect the qualities of people who are otherwise healthy. Due to the rapid progress of research in the biomedical field, medicine is already and will ever more be able not only to cure diseases, but also to improve the characteristics of healthy human persons. This seems to be justifiable from the point of view of the contemporary view of man. This considers the mind as the actual human person and the body as an object of which he may dispose as he likes. However, serious and convincing objections exist against this view, because it does not do justice to the fact that we experience ourselves as a unity. Aristotelian-Thomist anthropology explains man as a substantial unity of a spiritual and a material dimension, of body and soul, which implies that the body is an essential dimension of man, participates in his intrinsic dignity and is never to be instrumentalized in order to improve the characteristics of healthy people. Medicine should apply all new medical techniques availed, but remain true health care.

  9. Fifty Shades of Belgian Gray: The Prevalence of BDSM-Related Fantasies and Activities in the General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Lien; Huys, Wim; Coppens, Violette; Seeuws, Jantien; Goethals, Kris; Morrens, Manuel

    2017-09-01

    concerning prevalence of interest in and fantasies about a wide range of BDSM-related activities in the general population worldwide. Although our findings tend to argue against it, we cannot completely rule out participation bias introduced by non-interest in the non-completers. In addition, some topics might have been subject to interpretation by the respondents. Interest in BDSM is present in most of the general population. Further research is needed to destigmatize it by confirming BDSM as a leisurely preference rather than a psychiatric affliction. Holvoet L, Huys W, Coppens V, et al. Fifty Shades of Belgian Gray: The Prevalence of BDSM-Related Fantasies and Activities in the General Population. J Sex Med 2017;14:1152-1159. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  11. [Approach to Evidence-based Medicine Exercises Using Flipped Teaching: Introductory Education for Clinical Practice for 4th-Year Pharmacy Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Mitsuko; Takagaki, Nobumasa

    2018-01-01

     Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences has included an evidence-based medicine (EBM) exercise in the introductory education for clinical practice for 4th-year pharmacy students since 2015. The purpose of this exercise is to learn the process of practice and basic concepts of EBM, especially to cultivate the practical ability to solve patients' problems and answer their questions. Additionally, in 2016, we have attempted flipped teaching. The students are instructed to review the basic knowledge necessary for active learning in this exercise by watching video teaching materials and to bring reports summarizing the contents on the flipped teaching days. The program includes short lectures [overview of EBM, document retrieval, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic review], exercises [patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) structuring, critical appraisal of papers in small groups with tutors], and presentations. The program includes: step 1, PICO structuring based on scenarios; step 2, critical appraisal of English-language papers on RCTs using evaluation worksheets; and step 3, reviewing the results of the PICO exercise with patients. The results of the review are shared among groups through general discussion. In this symposium, I discuss students' attitudes, the effectiveness of small group discussions using flipped teaching, and future challenges to be addressed in this program.

  12. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF “THREE DIMENSIONAL VIDEOS ON THE COMPREHENSION OF ANATOMY” AMONG NEW STUDENTS OF MEDICINE (FIRST YEAR MBBS STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhini Arulselvi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In a modern gadgets era, most of the teaching methods are turning into electronic format even in schools. The new students of medicine (First MBBS use to face difficulty in understanding the complexity of Human Anatomy. Computer technology, including internet can enhance the learning activities. METHODS This Interventional study was conducted among first year MBBS students of VMMC students, Karaikal. A total of 100 students were included in the study, assigned into two groups of 50 each. All subjects were given pre-test and post-test questionnaire of two different clinical based topics. Learning was assessed by written examinations and responses were linked to students’ performances in dissection theatre. RESULT The mean score was significantly higher among the students who had received 3-D video demonstration compared to those who had received traditional method of teaching. Participants stated that visual learning is easier to remember and gives the real appearance of anatomical structure. CONCLUSION This study confirms the three dimensional video demonstration is an effective method for communication and learning anatomy.

  13. Immoral behaviour in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmon, P; Tabak, N

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize a social phenomenon that exists in Israel: immoral medicine. In recent years, nurses have been exposed to many instances of immoral medicine in hospitals. We want to protest about the demands for money from patients who are waiting for surgical intervention, arouse the medical community's conscience concerning these immoral activities, and improve professional and moral behaviour.

  14. Choice of speciality amongst first-year medical students in the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Edwin; Naidu, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Trends in career choice amongst medical graduates have considerable implications for the percentage of the workforce available for training. Objective To investigate and review factors affecting career choice by undergraduate first-year medical students. Method This was a cross-sectional study using a closed-ended, semi-structured survey instrument. Two hundred and four questionnaires were administered to all first-year medical students at the Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine in the first term of the 2012 academic session. Results The questionnaire was completed by 167 out of 204 students (81.8% response rate). Most of the respondents were South Africans (91%) and blacks (72%), with a higher proportion of women to men (2:1). The majority (86%) intended to undertake their postgraduate training in surgical specialties (53%), general surgery (50%) and cardiology (46%). Few were interested in an academic career in basic sciences (27.6%), either because they were not interested in research and/or teaching (48%), not clinically-orientated (20%), or found it to be an unattractive choice (12.3%). The top perceived career-related factors favouring choice of speciality were personal interest and benefits to patients as many (83%) respondents still viewed the medical profession as having a bright future in South Africa. Conclusions Our study highlighted the fact that self and patient interests were strong determinants of speciality choices by the students and the role of parents and practice in rural areas were considered least as potential influencing factors. This would appear to be a good indicator that the healthcare sector may be boosted in the future by doctors who are wholeheartedly committed to the service of the communities with the greatest disease burden.

  15. SU-C-9A-02: Structured Noise Index as An Automated Quality Control for Nuclear Medicine: A Two Year Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J; Christianson, O; Samei, E [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Flood-field uniformity evaluation is an essential element in the assessment of nuclear medicine (NM) gamma cameras. It serves as the central element of the quality control (QC) program, acquired and analyzed on a daily basis prior to clinical imaging. Uniformity images are traditionally analyzed using pixel value-based metrics which often fail to capture subtle structure and patterns caused by changes in gamma camera performance requiring additional visual inspection which is subjective and time demanding. The goal of this project was to develop and implement a robust QC metrology for NM that is effective in identifying non-uniformity issues, reporting issues in a timely manner for efficient correction prior to clinical involvement, all incorporated into an automated effortless workflow, and to characterize the program over a two year period. Methods: A new quantitative uniformity analysis metric was developed based on 2D noise power spectrum metrology and confirmed based on expert observer visual analysis. The metric, termed Structured Noise Index (SNI) was then integrated into an automated program to analyze, archive, and report on daily NM QC uniformity images. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated over a period of 2 years. Results: The SNI metric successfully identified visually apparent non-uniformities overlooked by the pixel valuebased analysis methods. Implementation of the program has resulted in nonuniformity identification in about 12% of daily flood images. In addition, due to the vigilance of staff response, the percentage of days exceeding trigger value shows a decline over time. Conclusion: The SNI provides a robust quantification of the NM performance of gamma camera uniformity. It operates seamlessly across a fleet of multiple camera models. The automated process provides effective workflow within the NM spectra between physicist, technologist, and clinical engineer. The reliability of this process has made it the preferred

  16. Estimation of the collective ionizing dose in the Portuguese population for the years 2011 and 2012, due to nuclear medicine exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, F; Teles, P; Nogueira, A; Barreto, A; Santos, A I; Carvalho, A; Martins, B; Oliveira, C; Gaspar, C; Barros, C; Neves, D; Costa, D; Rodrigues, E; Godinho, F; Alves, F; Cardoso, G; Cantinho, G; Conde, I; Vale, J; Santos, J; Isidoro, J; Pereira, J; Salgado, L; Rézio, M; Vieira, M; Simãozinho, P; Almeida, P; Castro, R; Parafita, R; Pintão, S; Lúcio, T; Reis, T; Vaz, P

    2015-01-01

    In 2009-2010 a Portuguese consortium was created to implement the methodologies proposed by the Dose Datamed II (DDM2) project, aiming to collect data from diagnostic X-ray and nuclear medicine (NM) procedures, in order to determine the most frequently prescribed exams and the associated ionizing radiation doses for the Portuguese population. The current study is the continuation of this work, although it focuses only on NM exams for the years 2011 and 2012. The annual frequency of each of the 28 selected NM exams and the average administered activity per procedure was obtained by means of a nationwide survey sent to the 35 NM centres in Portugal. The results show a reduction of the number of cardiac exams performed in the last two years compared with 2010, leading to a reduction of the annual average effective dose of Portuguese population due to NM exams from 0.08 mSv ± 0.017 mSv/caput to 0.059 ± 0.011 mSv/caput in 2011 and 0.054 ± 0.011 mSv/caput in 2012. Portuguese total annual average collective effective dose due to medical procedures was estimated to be 625.6 ± 110.9 manSv in 2011 and 565.1 ± 117.3 manSv in 2012, a reduction in comparison with 2010 (840.3 ± 183.8 manSv). The most frequent exams and the ones that contributed the most for total population dose were the cardiac and bone exams, although a decrease observed in 2011 and in 2012 was verified. The authors intend to perform this study periodically to identify trends in the annual Portuguese average effective dose and to help to raise awareness about the potential dose optimization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  17. "History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine": The Last Ten Years. A Survey of Course Content, Methods and Structural Preconditions at Twenty-nine German Medical Faculties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmann, Jan; Bruns, Florian; Hess, Volker; Vollmann, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: "History, Theory, Ethics of Medicine" (German: "Geschichte, Theorie, Ethik der Medizin", abbreviation: GTE) forms part of the obligatory curriculum for medical students in Germany since the winter semester 2003/2004. This paper presents the results of a national survey on the contents, methods and framework of GTE teaching. Methods: Semi-structured questionnaire dispatched in July 2014 to 38 institutions responsible for GTE teaching. Descriptive analysis of quantitative data and content analysis of free-text answers. Results: It was possible to collect data from 29 institutes responsible for GTE teaching (response: 76%). There is at least one professorial chair for GTE in 19 faculties; two professorial chairs or professorships remained vacant at the time of the survey. The number of students taught per academic year ranges from 350. Teaching in GTE comprises an average of 2.18 hours per week per semester (min: 1, max: 6). Teaching in GTE is proportionally distributed according to an arithmetic average as follows: history: 35.4%, theory 14.7% and ethics 49.9%. Written learning objectives were formulated for GTE in 24 faculties. The preferred themes of teaching in history, theory or ethics which according to respondents should be taught comprise a broad spectrum and vary. Teaching in ethics (79 from a max. of 81 possible points) is, when compared to history (61/81) and theory (53/81), attributed the most significance for the training of medical doctors. Conclusion: 10 years after the introduction of GTE the number of students and the personnel resources available at the institutions vary considerably. In light of the differences regarding the content elicited in this study the pros and cons of heterogeneity in GTE should be discussed.

  18. Frailty, prefrailty and employment outcomes in Health and Employment After Fifty (HEAF) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Keith T; D'Angelo, Stefania; Harris, E Clare; Linaker, Cathy; Gale, Catharine R; Evandrou, Maria; Syddall, Holly; van Staa, Tjeerd; Cooper, Cyrus; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Coggon, David; Walker-Bone, Karen

    2017-07-01

    Demographic changes are requiring people to work longer. No previous studies, however, have focused on whether the 'frailty' phenotype (which predicts adverse events in the elderly) is associated with employment difficulties. To provide information, we assessed associations in the Health and Employment After Fifty Study, a population-based cohort of 50-65-year olds. Subjects, who were recruited from 24 English general practices, completed a baseline questionnaire on 'prefrailty' and 'frailty' (adapted Fried criteria) and several work outcomes, including health-related job loss (HRJL), prolonged sickness absence (>20 days vs less, past 12 months), having to cut down substantially at work and difficulty coping with work's demands. Associations were assessed using logistic regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. In all, 3.9% of 8095 respondents were classed as 'frail' and 31.6% as 'prefrail'. Three-quarters of the former were not in work, while 60% had left their last job on health grounds (OR for HRJL vs non-frail subjects, 30.0 (95% CI 23.0 to 39.2)). Among those in work, ORs for prolonged sickness absence, cutting down substantially at work and struggling with work's physical demands ranged from 10.7 to 17.2. The PAF for HRJL when any frailty marker was present was 51.8% and that for prolonged sickness absence was 32.5%. Associations were strongest with slow reported walking speed. Several associations were stronger in manual workers than in managers. Fried frailty symptoms are not uncommon in mid-life and are strongly linked with economically important adverse employment outcomes. Frailty could represent an important target for prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Squire, L.F.

    1977-01-01

    The book presents a number of fundamental imaging principles in nuclear medicine. The fact that low radiation doses are sufficient for the study of normal and changed physiological functions of the body is an important advancement brought about by nuclear medicine. The possibility of quantitative investigations of organs and organ regions and of an assessment of their function as compared to normal values is a fascinating new diagnostic dimension. The possibility of comparing the findings with other pathological findings and of course control in the same patient lead to a dynamic continuity with many research possibilities not even recognized until now. The limits of nuclear scanning methods are presented by the imprecise structural information of the images. When scintiscans are compared with X-ray images or contrast angiography, the great difference in the imaging of anatomical details is clearly seen. But although the present pictures are not optimal, they are a great improvement on the pictures that were considered clinically valuable a few years ago. (orig./AJ) [de

  20. [Origin exploration of "the fifty-nine acupoints for febrile disease"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyi

    2017-02-12

    Fifty-nine acupoints for febrile disease is recorded in Huangdi Neijing ( Huangdi's Internal Classics ). By analyzing the combination of these acupoints, the writer discovered the acupoint composition and detected their origins from Huangdi's Internal Classics , in which the terms biaoben, qijie and beishu are involved in the theoretic evidence. The writer thought the "fifty-nine acupoints for febrile disease" implied the self-evolution of some acupuncture school in ancient time, which was formed by absorbing the theoretic experiences of the other schools. It is necessary to analyze and interpret the other literatures besides Huangdi's Internal Classics and probably obtain the further reorganization on it.