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Sample records for medicine east asian traditional

  1. Cross-national differences in the holistic use of traditional East Asian medicine in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Mahn; Kim, Jibum

    2016-12-23

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been one of the popular strategies for health promotion. Traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) is one of the most popular CAM practices in the world and there are suggestions that its holistic utilization is important for users to gain its effects for health promotion. In this context, this study investigates the extent to which TEAM users in East Asian countries utilize various modalities of TEAM holistically. It provides a model that explains cross-national differences in the extent of the holistic use of TEAM between China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Using the 2010 East Asian Social Survey, regression models specify the relationship between the holistic use of TEAM and the geographical location (country). The presence of TEAM doctors who hold the comprehensive and exclusive practice rights over TEAM is found to be conducive to the holistic utilization of various TEAM modalities. Thus, Taiwanese and Koreans use TEAM more holistically than Chinese and even more so than Japanese. The result suggests that the manner in which TEAM is institutionalized affect the extent to which TEAM users utilize various TEAM modalities together and potentially the health promotion effects of TEAM. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Association of Quantitative Facial Color Features with Cold Pattern in Traditional East Asian Medicine

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    Sujeong Mun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Facial diagnosis is a major component of the diagnostic method in traditional East Asian medicine. We investigated the association of quantitative facial color features with cold pattern using a fully automated facial color parameterization system. Methods. The facial color parameters of 64 participants were obtained from digital photographs using an automatic color correction and color parameter calculation system. Cold pattern severity was evaluated using a questionnaire. Results. The a⁎ values of the whole face, lower cheek, and chin were negatively associated with cold pattern score (CPS (whole face: B=-1.048, P=0.021; lower cheek: B=-0.494, P=0.007; chin: B=-0.640, P=0.031, while b⁎ value of the lower cheek was positively associated with CPS (B=0.234, P=0.019. The a⁎ values of the whole face were significantly correlated with specific cold pattern symptoms including cold abdomen (partial ρ=-0.354, P<0.01 and cold sensation in the body (partial ρ=-0.255, P<0.05. Conclusions. a⁎ values of the whole face were negatively associated with CPS, indicating that individuals with increased levels of cold pattern had paler faces. These findings suggest that objective facial diagnosis has utility for pattern identification.

  3. Traditional Korean East Asian Medicines and Herbal Formulations for Cognitive Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant Kumar; Soo-Yeol Song; Sandeep Vasant More; Seong-Mook Kang; Byung-Wook Kim; In-Su Kim; Dong-Kug Choi

    2013-01-01

    Hanbang, the Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM), is an inseparable component of Korean culture both within the country, and further afield. Korean traditional herbs have been used medicinally to treat sickness and injury for thousands of years. Oriental medicine reflects our ancestor’s wisdom and experience, and as the elderly population in Korea is rapidly increasing, so is the importance of their health problems. The proportion of the population who are over 65 years of age is expected to in...

  4. Traditional Korean East Asian Medicines and Herbal Formulations for Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hanbang, the Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM, is an inseparable component of Korean culture both within the country, and further afield. Korean traditional herbs have been used medicinally to treat sickness and injury for thousands of years. Oriental medicine reflects our ancestor’s wisdom and experience, and as the elderly population in Korea is rapidly increasing, so is the importance of their health problems. The proportion of the population who are over 65 years of age is expected to increase to 24.3% by 2031. Cognitive impairment is common with increasing age, and efforts are made to retain and restore the cognition ability of the elderly. Herbal materials have been considered for this purpose because of their low adverse effects and their cognitive-enhancing or anti-dementia activities. Herbal materials are reported to contain several active compounds that have effects on cognitive function. Here, we enumerate evidence linking TKMs which have shown benefits in memory improvements. Moreover, we have also listed Korean herbal formulations which have been the subject of scientific reports relating to memory improvement.

  5. Traditional Korean East Asian medicines and herbal formulations for cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hemant; Song, Soo-Yeol; More, Sandeep Vasant; Kang, Seong-Mook; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, In-Su; Choi, Dong-Kug

    2013-11-26

    Hanbang, the Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM), is an inseparable component of Korean culture both within the country, and further afield. Korean traditional herbs have been used medicinally to treat sickness and injury for thousands of years. Oriental medicine reflects our ancestor's wisdom and experience, and as the elderly population in Korea is rapidly increasing, so is the importance of their health problems. The proportion of the population who are over 65 years of age is expected to increase to 24.3% by 2031. Cognitive impairment is common with increasing age, and efforts are made to retain and restore the cognition ability of the elderly. Herbal materials have been considered for this purpose because of their low adverse effects and their cognitive-enhancing or anti-dementia activities. Herbal materials are reported to contain several active compounds that have effects on cognitive function. Here, we enumerate evidence linking TKMs which have shown benefits in memory improvements. Moreover, we have also listed Korean herbal formulations which have been the subject of scientific reports relating to memory improvement.

  6. Reliability of Manual Pulse Diagnosis Methods in Traditional East Asian Medicine: A Systematic Narrative Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Karen; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-08-01

    Little evidence shows the reliability of Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis. Regularly used in modern practice, it is believed to gather important diagnostic information. However, in the current evidence-based healthcare system, basing clinical decisions on unproven methods is problematic and obviously questions the relevancy of the procedure. Therefore, the literature on reliability of practitioners implementing the method was reviewed. Major medical databases and reference lists of identified articles were searched. All studies published in English that investigated manual pulse diagnosis applied to the radial artery by human testers were considered. Twelve eligible studies were included; three evaluated intra- and inter-rater pulse diagnosis reliability, and nine assessed inter-rater reliability. Acceptable levels of intra- and inter-rater reliability were achieved with operationally defined methods. Poor reliability was related to unclear definitions and terminology existing within the classical definitions, and with standardized systems to persisting imprecise descriptions that can be interpreted differently. Reliability of pulse qualities was influenced by sensation complexity and the amount of sensory input provided to the testers' fingers by the impulse. Consistent study limitations included small sample sizes; the possibility that testers' prior knowledge confounded the data; and, most notably, the fact that many studies did not consider intra-rater reliability. Assessing the effectiveness of interventions in clinical practice is guided by comparisons of markers to baseline. The absence of intra-rater results may therefore raise methodologic concerns for these types of studies. Strategies for future studies include using pulse methods with concrete operational definitions; investigating intra- and inter-rater reliability for extrapolation to clinical practice; similar training and experience in the method to control for tester variance; maintaining

  7. How current Clinical Practice Guidelines for low back pain reflect Traditional Medicine in East Asian Countries: a systematic review of Clinical Practice Guidelines and systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Woo Cho

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate whether there is a gap between evidence of traditional medicine (TM interventions in East-Asian countries from the current Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs and evidence from current systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR-MAs and to analyze the impact of this gap on present CPGs. METHODS: We examined 5 representative TM interventions in the health care systems of East-Asian countries. We searched seven relevant databases for CPGs to identify whether core CPGs included evidence of TM interventions, and we searched 11 databases for SR-MAs to re-evaluate current evidence on TM interventions. We then compared the gap between the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs. RESULTS: Thirteen CPGs and 22 SR-MAs met our inclusion criteria. Of the 13 CPGs, 7 CPGs (54% mentioned TM interventions, and all were for acupuncture (only one was for both acupuncture and acupressure. However, the CPGs did not recommend acupuncture (or acupressure. Of 22 SR-MAs, 16 were for acupuncture, 5 for manual therapy, 1 for cupping, and none for moxibustion and herbal medicine. Comparing the evidence from CPGs and SR-MAs, an underestimation or omission of evidence for acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy in current CPGs was detected. Thus, applying the results from the SR-MAs, we moderately recommend acupuncture for chronic LBP, but we inconclusively recommend acupuncture for (subacute LBP due to the limited current evidence. Furthermore, we weakly recommend cupping and manual therapy for both (subacute and chronic LBP. We cannot provide recommendations for moxibustion and herbal medicine due to a lack of evidence. CONCLUSIONS: The current CPGs did not fully reflect the evidence for TM interventions. As relevant studies such as SR-MAs are conducted and evidence increases, the current evidence on acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy should be rigorously considered in the process of developing or updating the CPG system.

  8. The association between the use of biomedical services and the holistic use of traditional East Asian medicine: a national survey of outpatients in South Korea.

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    Shim, Jae-Mahn; Lee, Yun-Suk

    2017-12-06

    The holistic use of a system of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is potentially linked to its treatment outcomes. This paper examines how the use of biomedicine is associated with the holistic use of CAM, focusing on traditional East Asian medicine (EM) that is uniquely integrated in the medical system in South Korea. A representative national sample of EM outpatients in South Korea. 3861 survey respondents. By using the 2011 Korean National Survey of EM patients, ordered logistic regression models specify the relationship between EM outpatients' use of biomedicine and their holistic use of EM modalities. Among EM outpatients who used at least one EM modality in the past 3 months, people who used two (33.3%) or three (29.4%) modalities together are the two highest proportions, followed by users of four (18.1%), five (7.2%), six (2.1%) and seven (0.6%) modalities. The odds for EM users to use EM holistically are 17% greater among EM users who used biomedicine as well, compared with EM users who did not use biomedicine. The healthcare community should recognise that CAM use likely becomes holistic as people use biomedicine concomitantly, when the practice rights over a CAM system are comprehensively and exclusively entitled to a group of CAM professionals who are independent from practitioners of biomedicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Developing precision medicine for people of East Asian descent.

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    McAllister, Stacy L; Sun, Katherine; Gross, Eric R

    2016-11-11

    The goal of precision medicine is to separate patient populations into groups to ultimately provide customized care tailored to patients. In terms of precision medicine, ~540 million people in the world have a genetic variant of the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) enzyme causing a flushing response and tachycardia after alcohol consumption. The genetic variant is identified as ALDH2*2 and originates from East Asian descendants of the Han Chinese. The variant is particularly important to consider when discussing lifestyle choices with patients in terms of risk for developing specific diseases, preventative screening, and selection of medications for treatment. Here we provide examples why patients with an ALDH2*2 variant need more individualized medical management which is becoming a more standard practice in the precision medicine era.

  10. Indicators of quality use of medicines in South-East Asian countries : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, H. T.; Wirtz, V. J.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F. M.; Taxis, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify indicators of quality use of medicines used in South-East Asian region. Methods A systematic review was conducted searching MEDLINE, Embase and The International Network for Rational Use of Drugs (INRUD) and The World Health Organization (WHO) website. Original studies or

  11. Understanding Mind-Body Interaction from the Perspective of East Asian Medicine

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    Ye-Seul Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Attempts to understand the emotion have evolved from the perspective of an independent cognitive system of the mind to that of an interactive response involving the body. This study aimed to quantify and visualize relationships between different emotions and bodily organ systems from the perspective of East Asian medicine. Methods. Term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf method was used to quantify the significance of Five Viscera and the gallbladder relative to seven different emotions through the classical medical text of DongUiBoGam. Bodily organs that corresponded to different emotions were visualized using a body template. Results. The emotions had superior tf-idf values with the following bodily organs: anger with the liver, happiness with the heart, thoughtfulness with the heart and spleen, sadness with the heart and lungs, fear with the kidneys and the heart, surprise with the heart and the gallbladder, and anxiety with the heart and the lungs. Specific patterns between the emotions and corresponding bodily organ systems were identified. Conclusion. The present findings will further the current understanding of the relationship between the mind and body from the perspective of East Asian medicine. Western medicine characterizes emotional disorders using “neural” language while East Asian medicine uses “somatic” language.

  12. Cultivating Medical Intentionality: The Phenomenology of Diagnostic Virtuosity in East Asian Medicine.

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    Kim, Taewoo

    2017-03-01

    This study examines the perceptual basis of diagnostic virtuosity in East Asian medicine, combining Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology and an ethnographic investigation of Korean medicine in South Korea. A novice, being exposed to numerous clinical transactions during apprenticeship, organizes perceptual experience that occurs between him or herself and patients. In the process, the fledgling practitioner's body begins to set up a medically-tinged "intentionality" interconnecting his or her consciousness and medically significant qualities in patients. Diagnostic virtuosity is gained when the practitioner embodies a cultivated medical intentionality. In the process of becoming a practitioner imbued with virtuosity, this study focuses on the East Asian notion of "Image" that maximizes the body's perceptual capacity, and minimizes possible reductions by linguistic re-presentation. "Image" enables the practitioner to somatically conceptualize the core notions of East Asian medicine, such as Yin-Yang, and to use them as an embodied litmus as the practitioner's cultivated body instinctively conjures up medical notions at clinical encounters. In line with anthropological critiques of reductionist frameworks that congeal human existential and perceptual vitality within a "scientific" explanatory model, this article attempts to provide an example of various knowing and caring practices, institutionalized external to the culture of science.

  13. The Relationship Between the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and the Use of Biomedical Services: Evidence From East Asian Medical Systems.

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    Shim, Jae-Mahn

    2016-01-01

    To provide East Asian evidence to the relationship between the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and the use of biomedicine, this article examines the institutionalization of traditional East Asian medicine (EM) in China, Korea, and Japan and how it affects the relationship between EM use and biomedicine use. It uses the 2010 East Asian Social Survey. Logistic regressions specify the statistical association between EM use and biomedical physician visits. These models show that the high institutional acceptance of EM promotes the concurrent use of EM and biomedicine. In addition, since these countries feature different ways of institutionalizing EM (unification in China, equalization in Korea, and subjugation in Japan), the concurrent use is more obvious under the Chinese and the Korean system than the Japanese system. It concludes that the CAM use can be complementary to biomedicine, depending on how CAM and biomedicine are institutionalized in medical systems. © 2015 APJPH.

  14. The Use of Traditional Herbal Medicines Amongst South Asian Diasporic Communities in the UK.

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    Bhamra, Sukvinder K; Slater, Adrian; Howard, Caroline; Johnson, Mark; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Migrant South Asian communities in the UK have brought with them their own traditional forms of medicine, yet little is known about their current use of herbal medicines (HMs) in the UK. The aim of the study was to explore the origins, use and transmission of knowledge of traditional HMs used by diasporic South Asian communities in the UK. A researcher-administered questionnaire was used for data collection (n = 192). An opportunity sampling technique was used to recruit participants across several locations in Birmingham and Leicester. Two thirds of participants (n = 126) stated they used HMs to maintain their health and to treat various health conditions such as digestive problems, skin conditions and diabetes. Almost 2000 actively used HMs were documented including 123 plant species that were identified. Participants imported HMs from abroad as well as sourcing them locally and even growing some of their own plants. Up to 82% (n = 87) of participants who took prescription medicines did not tell their healthcare professionals about any HMs they consumed; this raises concerns about people's knowledge of herb-drug interactions, compliance and effect on prescribed medicine regimens. Similar studies to explore the use of HMs by other ethnic groups are imperative to help optimise pharmaceutical care of patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, an important Asian traditional medicine: from traditional uses to scientific data for its commercial exploitation.

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    Dinda, B; SilSarma, I; Dinda, M; Rudrapaul, P

    2015-02-23

    Oroxylum indicum\\ (L.) Kurz has been used for centuries as a traditional medicine in Asia in ethnomedicinal systems for the prevention and treatment of several diseases, such as jaundice, arthritic and rheumatic problems, gastric ulcers, tumors, respiratory diseases, diabetes, and diarrhea and dysentery, among others. The present review provides scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potency of the plant for ethnomedicinal uses and identifies gaps for future research to facilitate commercial exploitation. This review is based on available information on traditional uses and phytochemical, pharmacological, clinical and toxicity data for Oroxylum indicum that was collected from electronic (SciFinder, PubMed, Science Direct, and ACS, among others) and library searches. A variety of traditional medicinal uses of Oroxylum indicum in different Southeast and South Asian countries have been reported in books describing the uses of these plants. Phytochemical investigations of the different parts of the plant resulted in identification of approximately 111 compounds, among which flavonoids, naphthalenoids and cyclohexylethanoids are the predominant groups. The crude extracts and their isolates exhibit a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological activities involving antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anticancer, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antidiarrheal and antioxidant activities. Flavonoids are the major constituents of all parts of the plant. From a toxicity perspective, only aqueous and ethanolic extracts of stem bark, root bark and fruits have been assessed and found to be safe. The major flavonoids of the stem bark, such as baicalein, chrysin and oroxylin A, were reported for the first time as natural flavonoids with potent inhibitory activity against endoprotease enzymes and proprotein convertases, which play a key role in the growth of cancer and in viral and bacterial infections. Flavonoids are the active components

  16. Comparison of Sasang Constitutional Medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurveda

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    Jong Yeol Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.

  17. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  18. Monitoring of mercury, arsenic, and lead in traditional Asian herbal preparations on the Dutch market and estimation of associated risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martena, M.J.; Wielen, van der J.C.A.; Rietjens, I.; Klerx, W.N.M.; Groot, de H.N.; Konings, E.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional herbal preparations used in Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine, traditional Tibetan medicine, and other Asian traditional medicine systems may contain significant amounts of mercury, arsenic or lead. Though deliberately incorporated in Asian traditional herbal preparations for

  19. TRADITIONAL CHINESE HERBAL MEDICINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ

    1995-01-01

    Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the

  20. Traditional medicine and genomics

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    Kalpana Joshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ′Omics′ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  1. Traditional medicine and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

    2010-01-01

    'Omics' developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics.

  2. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, F.X.

    2007-01-01

    A number of organisations are involved in the field of nuclear medicine education. These include International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB), Asia-Oceania Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (AOFNMB), Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM in USA), European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). Some Universities also have M.Sc courses in Nuclear Medicine. In the Asian Region, an Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was formed in 2000, initiated by China, Japan and Korea, with the main aim of fostering the spread of Nuclear Medicine in Asia. The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. The Aims of ASNM are: to foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed regions; to promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies; to assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes; and to work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognised universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. There are 10 to 12 teaching faculty members from each country comprising of physicists, radio pharmacists as well as nuclear medicine physicians. From this list of potential teaching experts, the Vice-Deans and Dean of ASNM would then decide on the 2 appropriate teaching faculty member for a given assignment or a course in a specific country. The educational scheme could be in conjunction with the ARCCNM or with the local participating countries and their nuclear medicine organisations, or it could be a one-off training course in a given country. This teaching faculty is purely voluntary with no major expenses paid by the ASNM; a token contribution could be

  3. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    W. Dobson and Chia Siow Yue. Publisher(s):. ISEAS, IDRC. January 1, 1997. ISBN: Out of print. 328 pages. Download PDF · Read the e-book. In Multinationals and East Asian Integration, leading Asian economists examine the role of foreign private-sector firms, especially from Japan and the United States, in the recent ...

  4. Traditional Medicine in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp

    People use traditional medicine to meet their health care needs in developing countries and medical pluralism persists worldwide despite increased access to allopathic medicine. Traditional medicine includes a variety of treatment opportunities, among others, consultation with a traditional healer...... or spiritual healer and self-treatment with herbal medicine or medicinal plants. Reliance on traditional medicine varies between countries and rural and urban areas, but is reported to be as high as 80% in some developing countries. Increased realization of the continued importance of traditional medicine has...... led to the formulation of policies on the integration of traditional medicine into public health care. Local level integration is already taking place as people use multiple treatments when experiencing illness. Research on local level use of traditional medicine for health care, in particular the use...

  5. How to easily replace the independent atom model - the example of bergenin, a potential anti-HIV agent of traditional Asian medicine.

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    Dittrich, Birger; Weber, Manuela; Kalinowski, Roman; Grabowsky, Simon; Hübschle, Christian B; Luger, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Bergenin, which has been isolated from a variety of tropical plants, has several pharmacological applications in traditional Asian medicine. Its electron-density distribution was obtained from a room-temperature low-resolution X-ray data set measured with point detection making use of multipole populations from the invariom library. Two refinement models were considered. In a first step, positional parameters and ADPs were refined with fixed library multipoles (model E1). This model was suitable to be input into a second refinement of multipoles (model E2), which converged smoothly although based on Cu Kalpha room-temperature data. Quantitative results of a topological analysis of the electron density from both models were compared with Hartree-Fock and density-functional calculations. With respect to the independent atom model (IAM) more information can be extracted from invariom modelling, including the electrostatic potential and hydrogen-bond energies, which are highly useful, especially for biologically active compounds. The reliability of the applied invariom formalism was assessed by a comparison of bond-topological properties of sucrose, for which high-resolution multipole and invariom densities were available. Since a conventional X-ray diffraction experiment using basic equipment was combined with the easy-to-use invariom formalism, the procedure described here for bergenin illustrates how it can be routinely applied in pharmacological research.

  6. Systematic review of traditional Chinese medicine for geriatrics.

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    Takayama, Shin; Iwasaki, Koh

    2017-05-01

    The Japan Geriatrics Society revised its criteria for the medical treatment and safety of the elderly in 2015. The Japan Geriatrics Society guidelines contain a chapter for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; traditional medicines in East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam and Singapore), because it is widely used for elderly patients and is sometimes covered by national medical insurance in Japan. The updated guidelines should be improved based on a comprehensive, systematic review and evidence grading. TCM is rapidly expanding in the literature, and is under intensive investigation in clinical trials. The objective of the present trial was to review TCM systematically and reflect the results to update the TCM chapter of the Japan Geriatrics Society guidelines. Here, we introduce the results of the systemic review of TCM for geriatrics. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 679-688. © 2016 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Asian School of Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, Felix X.

    2004-01-01

    The Asian School of Nuclear Medicine (ASNM) was formed in February 2003, with the ARCCNM as the parent body. Aims of ASNM: 1. To foster Education in Nuclear Medicine among the Asian countries, particularly the less developed ones. 2. To promote training of Nuclear Medicine Physicians in cooperation with government agencies, IAEA and universities and societies. 3. To assist in national and regional training courses, award continuing medical education (CME) points and provide regional experts for advanced educational programmes. 4. To work towards awarding of diplomas or degrees in association with recognized universities by distance learning and practical attachments, with examinations. The ASNM works toward a formal training courses leading to the award of a certificate in the long term. The most fundamental job of the ASNM remains the transfer of knowledge from the more developed countries to the less developed ones in the Asian region. The ASNM could award credit hours to the participants of training courses conducted in the various countries and conduct electronic courses and examinations. CME programmes may also be conducted as part of the regular ARCCNM meetings and the ASNM will award CME credit points for such activities

  8. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  9. Perinatal Practices & Traditions Among Asian Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Deepika

    2016-01-01

    As the population in the United States grows more diverse, nurses caring for childbearing women must be aware of the many cultural traditions and customs unique to their patients. This knowledge and insight supports women and their families with the appropriate care, information, and resources. A supportive relationship builds trust, offers guidance, and allows for the new family to integrate information from nurses and other healthcare providers with the practice of certain perinatal cultural traditions. The Asian Indian culture is rich in tradition, specifically during the perinatal period. To support the cultural beliefs and practices of Asian Indian women during this time, nurses need to be aware of and consider multiple factors. Many women are navigating the new role of motherhood while making sense of and incorporating important cultural rituals. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of perinatal cultural practices and traditions specific to the Asian Indian culture that perinatal nurses may observe in the clinical setting. Cultural traditions and practices specific to the pregnancy and postpartum period are described together with symbolism and implications for nursing practice. It is important to note that information regarding perinatal customs is provided in an effort to promote culturally sensitive nursing care and may not pertain to all Asian Indian women living in the United States.

  10. Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry), an important European and Asian traditional food and medicine: Ethnomedicine, phytochemistry and pharmacology for its commercial utilization in drug industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinda, Biswanath; Kyriakopoulos, Anthony M; Dinda, Subhajit; Zoumpourlis, Vassilis; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Velegraki, Aristea; Markopoulos, Charlambos; Dinda, Manikarna

    2016-12-04

    Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits have been used for centuries as traditional cuisine and folk medicine in various countries of Europe and Asia. In folk medicines, the fruits and other parts of the plant have been used for prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fevers, rheumatic pain, skin and urinary tract infections, kidney and liver diseases, sunstroke, among others. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of this plant as well as future research need for its commercial utilization as nutraceutical food supplement and medicine. This review is based on available literature on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical, pharmacological, toxicity and clinical studies on Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits and other organs that was collected from electronic (SciFinder, PubMed, Science Direct and ACS among others) and library searches of books and journals. Versatile ethnomedicinal uses of the plant in different European and Asian countries have been reported. Phytochemical investigations on different parts of this plant have resulted in the identification of 101 compounds, among which anthocyanins, flavonoids and iridoids are the predominant groups. The crude extracts of fruits and other parts of the plant and their pure isolates exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, cyto-, hepato-, neuro- and renalprotective, antiplatelet and antiglaucomic activities. Anthocyanins, flavonoids, iridoids and vitamin C are the major bioactive constituents of the fruits. Fruits are non-toxic and safe food on acute toxicity studies in rat and human models. Clinical trials in diabetic type2 and hyperlipidemic patients showed significant trends of amelioration in sugar level, insulin secretion in diabetic patients and amelioration of lipid

  11. Social anxiety among East Asians in North America: East Asian socialization or the challenge of acculturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Woody, Sheila R; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Peng, Yunshi; Zhou, Xiaolu; Ryder, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    North American research has consistently reported higher social anxiety among people of Asian heritage compared to people of Western heritage. The present study used a cross-national sample of 692 university students to explore explanatory hypotheses using planned contrasts of group differences in social anxiety and related variables. The East Asian socialization hypothesis proposed social anxiety would show a linear relation corresponding to the degree of exposure to East Asian cultural norms. This hypothesis was not supported. The cultural discrepancy hypothesis examined whether bicultural East Asian participants (residing in Canada) would endorse higher social anxiety in comparison to unicultural participants (Western-heritage Canadians and native Koreans and Chinese). Compared to unicultural participants, bicultural East Asian participants reported higher social anxiety and depression, a relation that was partially mediated by bicultural participants' reports of lower self-efficacy about initiating social relationships and lower perceived social status. Overall, the results suggest higher reports of social anxiety among bicultural East Asians may be conceptualized within the context of cultural discrepancy with the mainstream culture. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. [Common household traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei

    2016-02-01

    With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Medieval European medicine and Asian spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Jong Kuk

    2014-08-01

    This article aimed to explain the reasons why Asian spices including pepper, ginger, and cinnamon were considered as special and valuable drugs with curative powers in the Medieval Europe. Among these spices, pepper was most widely and frequently used as medicine according to medieval medical textbooks. We analyzed three main pharmacology books written during the Middle Ages. One of the main reasons that oriental spices were widely used as medicine was due to the particular medieval medical system fundamentally based on the humoral theory invented by Hippocrates and Galen. This theory was modified by Arab physicians and imported to Europe during the Middle Ages. According to this theory, health is determined by the balance of the following four humors which compose the human body: blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each humor has its own qualities such as cold, hot, wet, and dry. Humoral imbalance was one of the main causes of disease, so it was important to have humoral equilibrium. Asian spices with hot and dry qualities were used to balance the cold and wet European diet. The analysis of several major medical textbooks of the Middle Ages proves that most of the oriental spices with hot and dry qualities were employed to cure diverse diseases, particularly those caused by coldness and humidity. However, it should be noted that the oriental spices were considered to be much more valuable and effective as medicines than the local medicinal ingredients, which were not only easily procured but also were relatively cheap. Europeans mystified oriental spices, with the belief that they have marvelous and mysterious healing powers. Such mystification was related to the terrestrial Paradise. They believed that the oriental spices were grown in Paradise which was located in the Far East and were brought to the Earthly world along the four rivers flowing from the Paradise.

  14. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1997-01-01

    W. Dobson et Chia Siow Yue. Publisher(s):. ISEAS, CRDI. January 1, 1997. ISBN: Épuisé. 328 pages. e-ISBN: 1552501493. Download PDF · Read the e-book. Lauréat du prix Masayoshi Ohira 1998. Dans Multinationals and East Asian Integration, des économistes de premier plan de l'Asie analysent le rôle des entreprises ...

  15. Silent Cerebral Infarction in East Asian vs. Non-Asian Atrial Fibrillation Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senoo, Keitaro; Kondo, Yusuke; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    being recognized as a risk factor for future stroke, which can lead to cognitive decline or dementia. The latter is an increasingly common health problem in East Asia.Methods and Results:We conducted a meta-analysis to compare the association of AF and SCI between East Asian and non-Asian patients. AF......% CI: 1.65-2.08, I2=17%; Pracial difference between Asian and non-Asian studies (P=0.53). CONCLUSIONS: In East Asia, AF was significantly associated with SCI and no racial difference was seen between East Asian and non-Asian patients. The present findings offer...

  16. Physiopathology of dementia from the perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-07-01

    The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novozhilova, Elena; Rybin, Viacheslav; Gorovoy, Petr; Gavrilenko, Irina; Doudkin, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1), 20-hydroxyecdysone (2), ecdysone (3), 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4) has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan) system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandriumsachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae). Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis. PMID:26109770

  18. Traditional botanical medicine: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Richard A; Chaudhary, Jayesh; Castro-Eschenbach, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The role of traditional medicine in the well-being of mankind has certainly journeyed a long way. From an ancient era, in which knowledge was limited to a few traditional healers and dominated by the use of whole plants or crude drugs, the science has gradually evolved into a complete healthcare system with global recognition. Technologic advancements have facilitated traditional science to deliver numerous breakthrough botanicals with potency equivalent to those of conventional drugs. The renewed interest in traditional medicine is mainly attributed to its ability to prevent disease, promote health, and improve quality of life. Despite the support received from public bodies and research organizations, development of botanical medicines continues to be a challenging process. The present article gives a summarized description of the various difficulties encountered in the development and evaluation of botanical drugs, including isolation of active compounds and standardization of plant ingredients. It indicates a future direction of traditional medicine toward evidence-based evaluation of health claims through well-controlled safety and efficacy studies.

  19. An analysis of application of health informatics in Traditional Medicine: A review of four Traditional Medicine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Ikram, Raja Rina; Abd Ghani, Mohd Khanapi; Abdullah, Noraswaliza

    2015-11-01

    This paper shall first investigate the informatics areas and applications of the four Traditional Medicine systems - Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Ayurveda, Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine and Traditional Malay Medicine. Then, this paper shall examine the national informatics infrastructure initiatives in the four respective countries that support the Traditional Medicine systems. Challenges of implementing informatics in Traditional Medicine Systems shall also be discussed. The literature was sourced from four databases: Ebsco Host, IEEE Explore, Proquest and Google scholar. The search term used was "Traditional Medicine", "informatics", "informatics infrastructure", "traditional Chinese medicine", "Ayurveda", "traditional Arabic and Islamic medicine", and "traditional malay medicine". A combination of the search terms above was also executed to enhance the searching process. A search was also conducted in Google to identify miscellaneous books, publications, and organization websites using the same terms. Amongst major advancements in TCM and Ayurveda are bioinformatics, development of Traditional Medicine databases for decision system support, data mining and image processing. Traditional Chinese Medicine differentiates itself from other Traditional Medicine systems with documented ISO Standards to support the standardization of TCM. Informatics applications in Traditional Arabic and Islamic Medicine are mostly ehealth applications that focus more on spiritual healing, Islamic obligations and prophetic traditions. Literature regarding development of health informatics to support Traditional Malay Medicine is still insufficient. Major informatics infrastructure that is common in China and India are automated insurance payment systems for Traditional Medicine treatment. National informatics infrastructure in Middle East and Malaysia mainly cater for modern medicine. Other infrastructure such as telemedicine and hospital information systems focus its

  20. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  1. East Asian Capital Markets: Integration and Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the interdependence of East Asian stock and bond markets. Hierarchical cluster analysis of bond markets of ten regional countries shows that the most similar ones are the following: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. In 2006-2009 Thailand also belonged with this group, however, since 2010 it is a separate cluster. The second cluster includes Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea and China, the third one - Japan, the fourth one - Vietnam. As for regional equity markets, the study shows that regional stock indices respond to the dynamics of American ones to a greater extent than to the dynamics of each other. In addition, Asian indices’ interconnection is chiefly negative. To assess stock indices’ convergence the author employs cluster analysis which divides 16 studied stock exchanges in 7 different groups. According to the obtained results, the author concludes that integration of regional capital markets is the long-term goal. Besides, markets’ integration will be easier and faster within clusters; inter-cluster mergers will be the next step. The basic problem here arises from the Japanese market, which, in the case of forced or ill-conceived program of events, will absorb all other markets or end up outside the integration processes

  2. Insomnia in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Feyzabadi, Zohre; Jafari, Farhad; Feizabadi, Parvin Sadat; Ashayeri, Hassan; Esfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Badiee Aval, Shapour

    2014-01-01

    Context: Insomnia is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders characterized by sleep difficulty that impairs daily functioning and reduces quality of life. The burden of medical, psychiatric, interpersonal, and societal consequences of insomnia expresses the importance of diagnosing and treatment of insomnia. The aim of study was to investigate causes of insomnia from the viewpoint of Iranian traditional medicine. Evidence Acquisition: In this review study, we searched insomnia in a few of t...

  3. Early East Asian art history in Vienna and its trajectories: Josef Strzygowski, Karl With, Alfred Salmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Orell

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 Josef Strzygowski founded the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ at the University of Vienna, which attracted many students who would continue their careers in museums and at universities and thus established East Asian art history as an academic field. This paper examines these early art historical engagements with East Asian art: First, I discuss the role of East Asian art in Strzygowski’s agenda of broadening art history’s geographical scope beyond Europe and in his argument about the dominance of ‘Nordic’ artistic traditions in Europe and in Asia. Secondly, I introduce the work of two early students at the ‘Section for East Asian Art History’ in Vienna, Karl With and Alfred Salmony. Their respective approaches to East Asian art exemplify a range of methodological concerns of their time, from stylistic narratives, the concept of ars una, comparative frameworks, to ideas about cultural or national ‘purity’ in the arts, and an interest in cross-cultural adaption and transformation of motifs and symbolism.

  4. Cultural Prospects for an East Asian Community (Community)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kenichiro

    2010-01-01

     Today, people discuss whether it is possible to have a regional community in East Asia like the one in Europe. Many people desire one for East Asia, but tend to think it is difficult for Asia, far more difficult than for Europe. However, I believe it is possible to declare that an East Asian Community is being created now.

  5. The Roots and Implications of East Asian Regionalism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, John

    2004-01-01

    Regionalism in East Asia is driven by historical patterns of cooperation, the common challenge of the West, the century-long quest for an Asian identity, and growing economic interdependence and integration...

  6. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Li-Jun; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) has been utilized in China for more than 2,000 years, and it has been practiced in treatment of substance addiction and non-substance addictions. TCM have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal physical problems induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory, and protecting against neurological disorders. Given that TCM is potentially effective in the prevention of relapse, it has been suggested that TCM may be the ideal choice in the future for the treatment of opiate addiction. This review examines the significance of effective Chinese herbs and prescriptions for Drug Addiction, Alcohol addiction and food addiction.

  7. The Chinese Economy and Income Inequality among East Asian Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Sumie Sato; Mototsugu Fukushige

    2010-01-01

    Using the Atkinson inequality measure of income distribution, we analyze the impact of China as a single country and examine the effect of its domestic income inequality on total income inequality among East Asian countries. First, we find that China's domestic income inequality exacerbated income inequality among East Asian countries from the 1980s, and this effect became even more pronounced from 1990. Second, the growth of China's per capita GDP had an equalizing effect on income distribut...

  8. Trade Liberalization between Russia and East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Aleksandrovich Izotov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the international statistics data the author estimates effects of trade liberalization between Russia and East Asian countries. The prospective niche markets in mutual trade and the impact of trade liberalization on the national economies were identified. Using a partial equilibrium model the author indicates the following positive trade effects for Russia and East Asia: trade creation effect prevails over trade diversion effect; general welfare and mutual trade of the countries tend to increase. The Russian economy has positive trade effects with all the East Asian countries, with the highest scale in the case of Sino-Russian trade. At the same time trade liberalization has following some costs for the Russian economy: a the growing role of imports, mostly from China, compared to Russian exports; b reduction of tariff revenues, which are four times higher for Russia, compared to East Asian countries; c continued negative trade balance with the East Asian countries. The evaluation shows that the increase of Russian exports to East Asian countries is feasible only for certain commodity groups which determine marketable niches of specific East Asian countries; at the same time, Russia can import from East Asia a huge range of commodity groups. The study reveals that reduction in tariff measures and non- tariff restrictions will not lead to a massive increase in Russian exports and changing in its trade and geographical structure. On the basis of prolongation of short-term trends the author identifies long-term challenges and opportunities for the Russian economy from trade liberalization with East Asian countries. According to the estimation results, the author suggests that in the current environment of global trade liberalization the tariff measures become less significant as a tool for redistribution of commodity flows

  9. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, Hung; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; De Smet, P.A.; Brouwers, J.R.

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  10. Vietnamese traditional medicine from a pharmacist's perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdenbag, H.J.; Nguyen, T.M.; Vu, D.V.; Tran, H.; Nguyen, D.T.; Tran, T.V.; Smet, P.A.G.M. de; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the healthcare system of Vietnam. Vietnamese traditional medicine (VTM) is underpinned by the oriental philosophy and theory of healing. VTM is largely influenced by traditional Chinese medicine, but differs to a certain extent. VTM is largely not

  11. Radiopasteurization of traditional herbal medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmy, Nazly; Suryasaputra, C.

    1981-01-01

    Investigation on the effects of irradiation using pasteurization dose of 500 krad (5kGy) on microbes contaminating traditional herbal medicine, produced by 3 large manufacturers in Indonesia, was carried out. Storage effects on microbial count moisture content of traditional herbal medicine packed in microbe tight packages, were also observed. The results showed that initial bacterial counts varied between 10 4 and 10 8 per gram, and mould and yeast counts varied between 0 and 10 5 per gram. These numbers decreased as much as 2 to 5 log cycles after irradiation with 500 krad. After 6 month storage, bacterial counts of irradiated samples decreased as much as 0 to 10 3 per gram. Initial moisture content varied from 5 to 12% and after 6 month storage the moisture content of most samples increased as much as 0 to 5%. Irradiated samples were found to be mould free, and most of the surviving microbes consisted of spore forming aerobic bacteria and yeast. (author)

  12. Traditional medicine use and the anaesthetist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GD Nethathe

    This review considers traditional medicine, with an emphasis on traditional African medicine and its influence on perioperative care. Western and Eastern herbal remedies are widely used. The paucity of good quality evidence concerning these medicinal products has led to only some of the effects of these medicines being ...

  13. Traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine: Focusing on research into traditional Tibetan medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Xia, Jufeng; Rezeng, Caidan; Tong, Li; Tang, Wei

    2016-07-19

    As a form of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM), traditional Tibetan medicine has developed into a mainstay of medical care in Tibet and has spread from there to China and then to the rest of the world. Thus far, research on traditional Tibetan medicine has focused on the study of the plant and animal sources of traditional medicines, study of the histology of those plants and animals, chemical analysis of traditional medicines, pharmacological study of those medicines, and evaluation of the clinical efficacy of those medicines. A number of papers on traditional Tibetan medicines have been published, providing some evidence of the efficacy of traditional Tibetan medicine. However, many traditional Tibetan medicines have unknown active ingredients, hampering the establishment of drug quality standards, the development of new medicines, commercial production of medicines, and market availability of those medicines. Traditional Tibetan medicine must take several steps to modernize and spread to the rest of the world: the pharmacodynamics of traditional Tibetan medicines need to be determined, the clinical efficacy of those medicines needs to be verified, criteria to evaluate the efficacy of those medicines need to be established in order to guide their clinical use, and efficacious medicines need to be acknowledged by the pharmaceutical market. The components of traditional Tibetan medicine should be studied, traditional Tibetan medicines should be screened for their active ingredients, and techniques should be devised to prepare and manufacture those medicines.

  14. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With examples from China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand, this book is the first to explore the successful synergy between government policies and industrial strategies in the diverse economies of East Asia. Multinationals and East Asian Integration provides and expert ...

  15. South Asian and East Asian International Students' Perceived Prejudice, Acculturation, and Frequency of Help Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Lisa L.; Roysircar, Gargi

    2006-01-01

    Relationships of perceived prejudice and acculturation with frequency of help resource utilization were examined for South Asian and East Asian international students (N = 110). All predictors, including interactions, were significant but showed different relationships for the 2 groups. The mean frequency of help resource utilization was…

  16. Menorrhagia Management in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Memarzadehzavareh, Hajar; Qaraaty, Marzieh; Eftekhar, Tahereh; Tabarrai, Malihe; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Menorrhagia is a common problem. Medical management for menorrhagia includes hormonal and nonhormonal treatments. These treatments have different side effects, which reduce quality of life. Complementary and traditional medicines have been used to handle menorrhagia for centuries in many cultures. There is a lot of information and data in Iranian traditional documents or books about medicinal herbs that are used by Iranian traditional medicine scientists for the treatment of menorrhagia. The aim of this study was to review the approaches to menorrhagia in Iranian traditional medicine texts. In this study, some main Iranian traditional medicine manuscripts including Canon of Medicine and Al-Havi of Rhazes were studied to extract important information about menorrhagia management. Iranian traditional medicine physicians have relied on an organized system of etiological theories and treatments for menorrhagia. Their methods for menorrhagia management may be able to convince the desire of many women to preserve their uterus and avoid hormonal therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Regional conditions in East Asian development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søborg, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation.......The present volume contains case studies of how government og firms in a number of Asian countries have responded to challenges of globalisation and how that has affected their economic transformation....

  18. Determination of Arsenic Content of Available Traditional Medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the content of arsenic (As) in some locally available traditional medicines in the. East Coast region of Malaysia. Methods: The determination of As was conducted using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Sample preparation entailed mineral acid digestion using ...

  19. Determination of Arsenic Content of Available Traditional Medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the content of arsenic (As) in some locally available traditional medicines in the East Coast region of Malaysia. Methods: The determination of As was conducted using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Sample preparation entailed mineral acid digestion using ...

  20. Hypoxis and Sutherlandia Potent African Traditional Medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises medical knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. 80% of the population in Sub Saharan Africa still relies on these complementary and alternative medicine for their primary ...

  1. Negotiating Intra-Asian Games Networks: On Cultural Proximity, East Asian Games Design, and Chinese Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Chan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of networked games in East Asia is the relationship between the adaptation of regional Asian aesthetic and narrative forms in game content, and the parallel growth in more regionally-focused marketing and distribution initiatives. This essay offers a contextual analysis of intra-Asian games networks, with reference to the production, marketing and circulation of Asian MMORPGs. My discussion locates these networks as part of broader discourses on regionalism, East Asian cultural production and Asian modernity. At the same time, I consider how these networks highlight structural asymmetry and uneven power relations within the region; and I examine the emergent use of gamer-workers known as Chinese farmers in the digital game-items trade.

  2. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidan Yuan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  3. The Traditional Medicine and Modern Medicine from Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Ye, Li; Piao, Guangchun

    2016-04-29

    Natural products and traditional medicines are of great importance. Such forms of medicine as traditional Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, Kampo, traditional Korean medicine, and Unani have been practiced in some areas of the world and have blossomed into orderly-regulated systems of medicine. This study aims to review the literature on the relationship among natural products, traditional medicines, and modern medicine, and to explore the possible concepts and methodologies from natural products and traditional medicines to further develop drug discovery. The unique characteristics of theory, application, current role or status, and modern research of eight kinds of traditional medicine systems are summarized in this study. Although only a tiny fraction of the existing plant species have been scientifically researched for bioactivities since 1805, when the first pharmacologically-active compound morphine was isolated from opium, natural products and traditional medicines have already made fruitful contributions for modern medicine. When used to develop new drugs, natural products and traditional medicines have their incomparable advantages, such as abundant clinical experiences, and their unique diversity of chemical structures and biological activities.

  4. In search of East Asian self-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    A meta-analysis of published cross-cultural studies of self-enhancement reveals pervasive and pronounced differences between East Asians and Westerners. Across 91 comparisons, the average cross-cultural effect was d = .84. The effect emerged in all 30 methods, except for comparisons of implicit self-esteem. Within cultures, Westerners showed a clear self-serving bias (d = .87), whereas East Asians did not (d = -.01), with Asian Americans falling in between (d = .52). East Asians did self-enhance in the methods that involved comparing themselves to average but were self-critical in other methods. It was hypothesized that this inconsistency could be explained in that these methods are compromised by the "everyone is better than their group's average effect" (EBTA). Supporting this rationale, studies that were implicated by the EBTA reported significantly larger self-enhancement effect for all cultures compared to other studies. Overall, the evidence converges to show that East Asians do not self-enhance.

  5. The Representation of Older People in East Asian Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieler, Michael; Ivanov, Alex; Hagiwara, Shigeru

    2017-06-01

    In this study, 432 television advertisements from Hong Kong, Japan, and South Korea were analyzed to determine their representations of older people. Findings demonstrate that in East Asian advertisements, older people are highly underrepresented, appear in major roles, mostly alongside younger people, and older men clearly outnumber older women. The other variables investigated (i.e., setting and product categories) led to no conclusive findings for the three societies. In short, our study, employing ethnolinguistic vitality theory to analyze television advertisements, demonstrates how East Asian societies greatly marginalize older people. Potential effects of such representations are discussed using social cognitive theory and cultivation theory.

  6. Naturalistic perspectives of traditional Tibetan medicine and contemporary relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Chengxin ZHAO; Li TONG

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Tibetan Medicine (TTM) has unique naturalistic connotation. Understanding naturalism from the TTM helps us to increase our understanding of organic cosmology and naturalism itself. It also helps us to realize the potential of naturalism. Hopefully this will show us a broader Asian naturalism and multidimensional prospect of the international organic cosmology. This paper intends to describe and analyze the naturalism hidden in the TTM by combining the source, theory, system and pr...

  7. Traditional medicine for the rich and knowledgeable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Rikke Stamp; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicine is commonly assumed to be a crucial health care option for poor households in developing countries. However, little research has been done in Asia to quantify the reliance on traditional medicine and its determinants. This research contributes to filling in this knowledge gap...... show that traditional medicine, and especially self-treatment with medicinal plants, prevail as treatment options in both rural and peri-urban populations. Contrarily to what is commonly assumed, high income is an important determinant of use of traditional medicine. Likewise, knowledge of medicinal...... plants, age, education, gender and illness chronicity were also significant determinants. The importance of self-treatment with medicinal plants should inform the development of health policy tailored to people’s treatment-seeking behaviour....

  8. Comparison of Leiomyoma of Modern Medicine and Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh

    2016-04-01

    Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nelson Boniface

    particularly in Asian countries. The cultural use of animal products for medicinal purposes in many societies has led to the development of pharmaceuticals worldwide, although it has been largely responsible for extinction or near extinction of some animals, especially large ones (Cavaliere 2010). Tanzania is among African ...

  10. [Study on incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming

    2015-04-01

    The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.

  11. Application of isotopes in traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)

  12. Personalized medicine: a confluence of traditional and contemporary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Samineh; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2014-01-01

    Traditional systems of medicine have attained great popularity among patients in recent years. Success of this system in the treatment of disease warrants consideration, particularly in cases for which conventional medicine has been insufficient. This study investigates the similarities in principles and approaches of 3 traditional systems and explores whether conventional medicine is able to exploit the advantages of traditional systems. This study first identifies and explores the advantages of 3 well-known systems-traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), ayurveda, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)-that are similar in their basic principles and methods. Second, it clarifies whether and how conventional medicine could exploit the advantages of traditional systems as it modernizes, to become more personalized. Finally, this study investigates the possibility that conventional medicine could benefit from traditional typology to improve its personalization. The acknowledgment of the unity of humans and nature, applying rational methods, and personalized approaches is fundamentally similar in the 3 systems. Additionally, they all promote the holistic view that health is harmony and disease is disharmony of the body. Other similarities include their recognition of the unique nature of every person and their categorization of people into different body types. Although conventional medicine has mostly failed to incorporate the advantages of traditional medicine, its integration with traditional medicine is achievable. For instance, exploiting traditional typologies in genomic and other studies may facilitate personalization of conventional medicine. From its review, the research team concludes that prospects are bright for the integration of traditional and conventional medicines and, consequently, for a dramatic improvement in health systems.

  13. Traditional medicine of Madura island in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    MANGESTUTI, SUBEHAN; WIDYAWARUYANTI, Aty; ZAIDI, SyedFaisalHaider; AWALE, Suresh; 門田, 重利

    2007-01-01

    インドネシアのジャワ島の東部に位置するマドゥラ島は,マドゥラジャムウと呼ばれ,その土地だけの伝統薬で有名な島である。マドゥラの婦人は,日々の健康のため島の東部にある昔のSumenep王国の一族から伝承されているジャムウを使用している。王室の一族は,伝統薬についての知識を代々継承し,書物として記録されている。本論文は,マドゥラのSumenep王族による婦人の健康とビューティケアーに使用された伝統薬の処方,材料,方剤の作製,投与方法等について伝統薬を使用するための技術,情報を網羅したハイライトである。Madura Island is part of East Java Province, Indonesia, and is famous for its local traditional medicine, called Madurese jamu (jamu = herbal traditional medicine of Indonesia). Madurese women use jamu on a regular basis for health purposes, incl...

  14. The changing shape of the East Asian housing model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronald, R.; Doling, J.; Doling, J.; Ronald, R.

    2014-01-01

    While patterns of housing policy, production and occupation are quite diverse, housing interventions in developed East Asian economies have historically focused on high volume housing output targeted at economically productive, male-headed family households. This focus has been associated with the

  15. [Investigation, collation and research of traditional Dai medicine of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Xia; Zhang, Zhong-Lian; Li, Hai-Tao; Niu, Ying-Fen; Guan, Yan-Hong; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    In order to find out the composition, characteristics and traditional utilization characteristics of Dai medicine and promote the rational protection, inheritance and utilization of the resources and traditional knowledge of Dai medicine in China, the resources of traditional Dai medicine have been investigated systematically and the traditional knowledge of Dai medicine have been analyzed in the article. We found out that there were altogether 1 077 kinds of traditional Dai medicine in China and among which 272 were the first time recorded in the condition of Dai folk medical uses. There were 1 053 plant medicines which belong to 169 family and 694 genus. These plant medicines mainly distributed in the southern, west southern and east southern area of Yunnan province, the southern area of Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, Fujian province and tropical, subtropical district as Taiwan, and more than 94.49% plant medicines could be found in Yunnan province. From the point of plant life form, they were major herbaceous or shrubby plants; When it is used as medicinal part, root and rhizome of plants account for the highest proportion, the next were whole plant and leaves. From nature, flavor and channel tropism points of view, the largest proportion of Dai medicines were cool, bitter-tasted and possesses water element. In terms of treatment of disease types, most of the drugs can treat gastrointestinal diseases, next were drugs that could be used to treat upper respiratory infection, traumatological and rheumatic diseases, urinary infection, gynecological diseases, hepatopathy, puerperium fever and diseases caused by poisonous insects and beast of prey bite. The study revealed that the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were abundant in China, but the resources of traditional Dai medicine and traditional knowledge of application were faced with the risk of gradually reduce and loss. The article suggested that we should

  16. Fudo: An East Asian Notion of Climate and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available My paper discusses an East Asian notion of climate and its significance for sustainability. A particular reference is the environmental philosophy of Tetsuro Watsuji (1889–1960, a Japanese philosopher who reflected upon the meaning of climate, or “fudo” in the Sino-Japanese linguistic tradition. Watsuji sees fudo not merely as a collection of natural features—climatic, scenic, and topographical—of a given land, but also as the metaphor of subjectivity, or “who I am”. Furthermore, this self-discovery through fudo is never private but collective. By referring to a phenomenological notion of “ek-sistere”, or “to be out among other ‘I’s”, Watsuji demonstrates the pervasiveness of a climatic phenomenon and the ensuing inter-personal joining of different individuals to shape a collective sustainable measure in response to the phenomenon. My paper lastly concretizes the significance of fudo and its inter-personal ethical basis for sustainability by dwelling upon cross-ventilation in Japanese vernacular residential architecture. Cross-ventilation emerges only through what Watsuji calls “selfless openness” between different rooms predicated upon the joining of different ‘I’s soaked in hotness and humidity. Watsuji’s fudo thus offers a lesson that without considering the collective humane characteristic of a natural climatic phenomenon, any sustainable act is flawed and inefficient.

  17. Preventing preeclampsia and its fetal complications with low-dose aspirin in East Asians and non-East Asians:A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jie; He, Huan; Qi, Hongbo

    2016-08-01

    Low-dose aspirin can reduce the incidence of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). However, the effects of ethnicity upon low-dose aspirin's efficacy has not been analyzed. Here, we comparatively evaluated the efficacy of low-dose aspirin in preventing preeclampsia and related fetal complications in East Asian and non-East Asian pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia. Several databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing low-dose aspirin with either placebo or no treatment in pregnant women at risk for preeclampsia. Odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for preeclampsia and related fetal outcomes were tabulated. Low-dose aspirin significantly reduced preeclampsia risk in both East Asians (OR = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.11-0.35) and non-East Asians (OR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.77-0.92). Low-dose aspirin significantly reduced IUGR risk in East Asians (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67) but not in non-East Asians (OR = 0.85, 95% CI: 0.41-1.77). Low-dose aspirin did not significantly reduce the risk of cesarean section in either East Asians (OR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.14-3.22) or non-East Asians (OR = 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.19). Low-dose aspirin is effective in reducing preeclampsia risk in both East Asians and non-East Asians and has differential effects in East Asians and non-East Asians with respect to IUGR.

  18. East Asian Developmental Path and Land-Use Rights in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh K. Trichur

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights contemporary China’s long-term continuities with the historical EastAsian developmental path in relation to its post-1978 revival of market-economy traditions. Therevival of market economy traditions does not exemplify the unfolding of processes associatedwith the “one-size-fits-all” Washington Consensus. Rural land reforms were driven from belowand strongly influenced policy changes from above. Neither rural nor urban land use relationssuggest a more general unfolding of neoliberal processes of capitalist accumulation bydispossession. Contemporary Chinese land relations reflect the effects of continuities withhistorical East Asian regional traditions more strongly than do some discontinuities andruptures that emerged in the conjuncture of the mid-1980s. These continuities remain moreimportant in understanding the future of the China-led East Asian region. Like the Ming andQing dynasties, China’s Party-State is sharply focused on problems of governance. Retaininglegitimacy and recreating a welfare state to promote harmonious development rather thangrowth fetishism appears to characterize China’s current trajectory.

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of plants, such as the leaves, roots, stems, flowers, and seeds, are used. In TCM, herbs are ... E-mail: info@nccih.nih.gov PubMed® A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains ...

  20. A systems approach to traditional oriental medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Ryu, Jae Yong; Lee, Jong Ok

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity.......Analyzing structural similarities between compounds derived from traditional oriental medicine and human metabolites is a systems-based approach that can help identify mechanisms of action and suggest approaches to reduce toxicity....

  1. Academic Medicine Meets Traditional African Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Cyril Naidoo, who directs the department of family medicine at the University of KwaZulu-Natal's Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, conducts workshops to traditional healers on how to help patients with AIDS and HIV. In Dr. Naidoo's workshop, the group discusses how to counsel patients about HIV and AIDS, how to refer them for testing, and then…

  2. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan.

  3. Traditional Risk Factors for Stroke in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Dae; Jung, Yo Han; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and morbidity worldwide. The occurrence of stroke is strongly dependent on well-known vascular risk factors. After rapid modernization, urbanization, and mechanization, East Asian countries have experienced growth in their aged populations, as well as changes in lifestyle and diet. This phenomenon has increased the prevalence of vascular risk factors among Asian populations, which are susceptible to developing cardiovascular risk factors. However, ...

  4. Precision medicine and traditional chinese medicine of dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Xin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision medicine is more precise individualized medicine, based on the patient’s genes or physiological to formulate the specific treatment plan, for the realization of individualized treatment of various diseases to provide valuable information.But with the progress of modern science and technology, modern medicine dependence on medical instruments are too serious, traditional ways are gradually forgotten.If the machine depends on the instrument test results too serious which don’t combined with the actual diagnosis, the cause of misdiagnosis, so we should pay attention to the overall analysis of diseases and systematic diagnosis and examination, use of the overall treatment concept traced back to find the cause of Traditional Chinese Medicine, finally decide to select a best treatment plan.We should use the dialectical attitude to look at the precise medical. Not blindly requirements according to the road of precision medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine to go, to shine in himself field, form of self characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Can learn some of the advantages of accurate concept, the good and rejecting the bad, hope the Traditional Chinese Medicine in the modern environment more walk more far.

  5. Genetic Analysis of East Asian Grape Cultivars Suggests Hybridization with Wild Vitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Sawler, Jason; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Koshu is a grape cultivar native to Japan and is one of the country's most important cultivars for wine making. Koshu and other oriental grape cultivars are widely believed to belong to the European domesticated grape species Vitis vinifera. To verify the domesticated origin of Koshu and four other cultivars widely grown in China and Japan, we genotyped 48 ancestry informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and estimated wild and domesticated ancestry proportions. Our principal components analysis (PCA) based ancestry estimation revealed that Koshu is 70% V. vinifera, and that the remaining 30% of its ancestry is most likely derived from wild East Asian Vitis species. Partial sequencing of chloroplast DNA suggests that Koshu's maternal line is derived from the Chinese wild species V. davidii or a closely related species. Our results suggest that many traditional East Asian grape cultivars such as Koshu were generated from hybridization events with wild grape species.

  6. Asian flushing: genetic and sociocultural factors of alcoholism among East asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kim, Sun S; You, Kwang Soo; Park, Wanju; Yang, Jin Hyang; Kim, Minjin; Hayman, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use can lead to a cascade of problems such as increased chances of risky behavior and negative health consequences, including alcoholic liver disease and upper gastric and liver cancer. Ethanol is metabolized mainly by 2 major enzymes: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Genetic variations of genes encoding the 2 enzymes are very common among East Asians but relatively rare for most other populations. Facial flushing and other physical discomforts after alcohol drinking triggered by accumulation of acetaldehyde through defective genes for ADH and ALDH have been reported. Approximately 40% of East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) show facial flushing after drinking alcohol, known as "Asian flush," which is characterized by adverse reactions on alcohol drinking in individuals possessing the fasting metabolizing alleles for ADH, ADH1B*2, and ADH1C*1, and the null allele for ALDH and ALDH2*2. Alcoholism is determined not only by the genetic deficiency but also by behaviors that involve complex interactions between genetic and sociocultural factors. The purpose of this article was to provide nurses with the most current information about genetic and sociocultural influences on alcoholism and alcohol-related health problems specifically for East Asians and implications of this knowledge to nursing practice. The physiological phenomenon of genes and genetics in relation to alcohol metabolism in this special population is emphasized.

  7. Why Do East Asian Children Perform so well in PISA? An Investigation of Western-Born Children of East Asian Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrim, John

    2015-01-01

    A small group of high-performing East Asian economies dominate the top of the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) rankings. This has caught the attention of Western policymakers, who want to know why East Asian children obtain such high PISA scores, and what can be done to replicate their success. In this paper I investigate…

  8. Toxicities by herbal medicines with emphasis to traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine.

  9. Commercial herbal medicines used as African traditional medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The prevalent use of African traditional medicine by the general public has been reported. With commercialisation and marketing, some of the herbal medicines (HMs) used are readily available over the counter, most of them promoted as immune boosters. These commercial HMs have not been taken through ...

  10. Functional Food in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda

    2016-05-01

    During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.

  11. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnomedical survey of the Manzini region of Swaziland was carried out. Traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed in their homesteads where they practiced traditional medicine. Ethnomedical uses of plants used were collected from the wild with the assistance of the TMPs who gave information on them.

  12. The East Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping; He, Jinhua

    2016-10-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia. The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which deals with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. Here we provide an update of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  13. From medical tradition to traditional medicine: A Tibetan formula in the European framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabl, Herbert; Vennos, Cécile

    2015-06-05

    The increasing prevalence of complex multi-factorial chronic diseases and multimorbidity reveals the need for an enlargement of the therapeutic options. Potent multicompound herbal formulations from traditional medicine systems such as Tibetan Medicine might meet the requirements. With its practice over the centuries Tibetan Medicine is one of the important medical heritages of the world. In the 20th century Tibetan formulas came to Switzerland, where the formula Gabur-25 was then registered as medicine in 1977 (Padma 28, Swissmedic No 35872). The new European directive 2004/24/EC opened the avenue for traditional herbal medicinal products and registrations followed in Austria (HERB-00037) and the UK (39568/0001). The aim of this review was to analyse not only the critical points and hazards but also chances that occur in the endeavour of bringing a ethnopharmacological based preparation to the market within a modern Western medical and regulatory framework and to discuss the necessary transformation steps from a traditional herbal formula towards a modern pharmaceutical product with the example of the Tibetan formula Gabur-25. The historic transformation process from the 19th to the 21st century is analysed, using the registration documents and other material from the library of Padma AG, Hinwil, Switzerland. The transformation of a traditional formula into a modern traditional herbal medicinal product according to the present EU regulations is a multi faceted process. The modern indication represents only a small part of the possible traditional indications. Quality and product labelling has to be adopted to modern standards. The formula, once registered, is a fixed combination of herbal and mineral ingredients. Contrary to this the concept of Asian medical tradition allows a certain flexibility in the composition of an herbal formula. The ingredients are constantly adapted to local conditions, availability of raw material and therapeutic situation. The example

  14. The traditional medicine of Inga woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Tafur, Clara

    2000-01-01

    The Inga maintains alive a medical tradition whose therapeutics is based on the use of plants. There is evidence that they have incorporated into their medicine Hispanic medical principles and of other indigenous communities as well as the use of plants from other regions of Colombia, mainly by exchange with communities of the Amazonian jungle.119 plants used by Inga women specialists in medicine are referenced as well as the preparation of 149 remedies used to solve health problems

  15. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Problems in medicinal materials research of new traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Wang, Ting; He, Yan-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal materials research and development of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is the premise and foundation of new drug research and development, it throughout the whole process of new drug research. Medicinal materials research is one of the main content of the pharmaceutical research of new drug of TCM, and it is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. This article through the analysis of the present problems existing in the development of TCM research of new drug of TCM, from medicine research concept, quality stability, quality standard, etc are expounded, including medicine research idea value medicine study should focus on the important role and from the purpose for the top-level design of new drug research problem. Medicinal materials quality stability should pay attention to the original, medicinal part, origin, processing, storage, planting (breeding), and other aspects. Aspect of quality standard of medicinal materials should pay attention to establish the quality standards of conform to the characteristics of new drug of TCM. As the instruction of TCM new drug research and development and the scientific nature of the review, and provide the basis for medicinal material standards.

  17. Suggestions for an East Asian Monetary Union: Focusing on the Effects of Monetary Integration on Bilateral Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chang Ko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores alternative ways toward the East Asian monetary union, focusing on the effect of monetary integration on bilateral trade. For this purpose, we analyze with gravity model changes of the bilateral trade among countries of EU, NAFTA, and East Asia. A distinctive feature of this model is that it includes the dummy variables that show the cultural intimacy among North-East Asian countries, Asian NIEs countries, and East Asian countries (North-East Asian and ASEAN countries. We discovered that bilateral trade increased at a highest level among East Asian countries than the other two cases. This result suggests that the once-and-for-all strategy to develop an East Asian monetary union including North-East Asian and ASEAN countries would be more efficient than the multitrack strategy that forms the monetary union of North-East Asian countries in the first place and then tries to extend it to ASEAN countries.

  18. Traditional use and safety of herbal medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davyson de L. Moreira

    Full Text Available In the European Union, traditional herbal medicines that are regarded as "acceptably safe, albeit not having a recognized level of efficacy" fit into a special category of drugs ("traditional herbal medicine products" for which requirements of non-clinical and clinical studies are less rigorous. A regulation proposal published by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance (Anvisa defines a similar drug category ("traditional phytotherapeutic products" for registration purposes. Regarding herbal medicines, both agencies seem to be lenient regarding proof of efficacy, and consider long-standing folk use as evidence of safety and a waiver of a thorough toxicological evaluation. Nonetheless, several herbal products and constituents with a long history of folk usage are suspected carcinogenic and/or hepatotoxic. Herbal products have also been shown to inhibit and/or induce drug-metabolizing enzymes. Since herbal medicines are often used in conjunction with conventional drugs, kinetic and clinical interactions are a cause for concern. A demonstration of the safety of herbal medicines for registration purposes should include at least in vitroand in vivogenotoxicity assays, long-term rodent carcinogenicity tests (for drugs intended to be continuously used for > 3 months or intermittently for > 6 months, reproductive and developmental toxicity studies (for drugs used by women of childbearing age, and investigation of the effects on drug-metabolizing enzymes.

  19. Child Physical Abuse Prevalence, Characteristics, Predictors, and Beliefs about Parent-Child Violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H.; Shah, Priti V.; Agha, Zia

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian, n = 72;…

  20. Green Urine in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolouri, Sepideh; Daneshfard, Babak; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Tafazoli, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    The color of urine is an important factor in urine examination, which can help physicians differentiate various diseases. Today, it is known that certain dyes, drug intoxications, and diseases can induce green urine discoloration. In the view of traditional Persian medicine, which is based on humoral medicine, green urine discoloration is generally referred to the dominance of coldness in the body. In fact, it is considered to be a result of a special kind of humoral imbalance and fluid depletion or retention in the human body. Persian scholars believed that green urine could be an indicator of intoxication or a predictor of an imminent spasm or convulsion in pediatric patients. Further investigations could result in finding new diagnostic scales of urine color based on the teachings of traditional Persian medicine. PMID:27103627

  1. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  2. Multinationals and East Asian Integration | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dans Multinationals and East Asian Integration, des économistes de premier plan de l'Asie analysent le rôle des entreprises privées étrangères, et surtout du Japon et des États-Unis, dans la croissance et l'intégration récentes et rapides de l'économie en Asie de l'Est. S'inspirant d'exemples de la Chine, de Hong Kong, de ...

  3. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-03-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by the increase in expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as the decrease in the expression and activity of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST -AIRC): An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhangqing, Li; Li, C.; Chen, H.; Tsay, S.-C.; Holben, B.; Huang, J.; Li, B.; Maring, H.; Qian, Y.; Shi, G.; hide

    2011-01-01

    As the most populated region of the world, Asia is a major source of aerosols with potential large impact over vast downstream areas, Papers published in this special section describe the variety of aerosols observed in China and their effects and interactions with the regional climate as part of the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols and their Impact on Regional Climate (EAST-AIRC), The majority of the papers are based on analyses of observations made under three field projects, namely, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Mobile Facility mission in China (AMF-China), the East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE), and the Atmospheric Aerosols of China and their Climate Effects (AACCE), The former two are U,S,-China collaborative projects, and the latter is a part of the China's National Basic Research program (or often referred to as "973 project"), Routine meteorological data of China are also employed in some studies, The wealth of general and speCIalized measurements lead to extensive and close-up investigations of the optical, physical, and chemical properties of anthropogenic, natural, and mixed aerosols; their sources, formation, and transport mechanisms; horizontal, vertical, and temporal variations; direct and indirect effects; and interactions with the East Asian monsoon system, Particular efforts are made to advance our understanding of the mixing and interaction between dust and anthropogenic pollutants during transport. Several modeling studies were carried out to simulate aerosol impact on radiation budget, temperature, precipitation, wind and atmospheric circulation, fog, etc, In addition, impacts of the Asian monsoon system on aerosol loading are also simulated.

  5. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  6. Herbal Medicines: from Traditional Medicine to Modern Experimental Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Rasoulian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Academic writings indicate that the medicinal use of plants dates back to 4000 - 5000 B.C. (1. Utilization of medicinal herbs has indeed a long history not only in human's life, but also in animals and there are some interesting evidences about the animals' self-medication, in both the prevention and treatment of diseases (2-5. The World Health Organization (WHO has recognized the importance of traditional medicines and created strategies, guidelines and standards for botanical medicines (6, 7. A significant part of those traditional text dealing with medicine, which were appreciated by ancient scientific communities worldwide, such as The Canon of Medicine by Persian physician–philosopher Ibn Sina (or Avicenna, 980 to 1032 AD, is allocated to herbal medicines. The Canon explores nearly 500 medicinal plants and herbal drugs. It should be noted that this book was used as a medical textbook in Europe until the 17th century AD (8, 9. Although there are important evidences about using some kinds of experimental approaches in traditional medicine (8, the efficacy of such approaches is in doubt because it is generally agreed that they might have been part of physicians' personal experiences. Not only the demand for herbal drugs is growing in developing countries, but also there are some evidences that consumers in developed countries are becoming disillusioned with modern healthcare; hence, the demand for traditional alternatives including herbal medicines is increasing in developing countries (10. On the one hand, the increased interest in herbal medicines throughout the world (10, 11, on the other hand, the need for direct empirical evidence about the effectiveness of herbal medicines in the proper statistical society with the appropriate number and method, denote the significance of new studies about medicinal plants and publishing their results. Herbal Medicines Journal (eISSN: 2538-2144 reports valuable research results for researchers all

  7. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Louw; André Duvenhage

    2017-01-01

    Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players...

  9. Other aspects of BSE issues in East Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekizawa, Jun

    2013-11-01

    Scientific risk estimates of BSE can be the same internationally; however, socioeconomic backgrounds, such as food supply (e.g., beef import status) and dietary life, are different between East Asian countries (i.e., in this article, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan) and Western countries, which may account for differences in risk perception of people. Since political and social backgrounds also differ among these East Asian countries, they will also influence people's attitudes toward food safety. Psychological factors such as "dread" and the "unknown" are considered to be important in risk perception, but socioeconomic, and in some cases political, situations (e.g., attitudes of politicians and political pressures in trade) may strongly influence the perception and acceptance of various risks by citizens. With regard to the BSE issues, latter aspects may contribute a lot to risk perception, but have not been examined in depth until now. Although protection of health is the key element to food safety, sometimes business factors can overwhelm safety issues in international trade. Appropriate risk governance in food safety issues, such as BSE, can be attained not only through application of outputs of scientific assessment, but also through deliberation of various aspects, that may have strong influence on people's risk perception, and improved communication among stakeholders and also among countries. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  11. Some Characteristics of East Asian Mathematics Classrooms Based on Data from the Timss 1999 Video Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Frederick Koon Shing

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of mathematics classrooms in the East Asian countries of Hong Kong and Japan are discussed based on an analysis of the data of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. The data shows that although students in these East Asian countries did not talk a lot in the classroom, they were exposed to more instructional content. The…

  12. Summer Institute at Indiana U. Uses Immersion to Teach Hard-to-Learn East Asian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Susan

    1989-01-01

    As East Asian countries continue to develop into major powers in the economic world, students come to Indiana University's East Asian Summer Language Institute to improve their chances for careers in those countries in international law, teaching, and business. Advice on proper etiquette is also included. (MLW)

  13. From the Far East to Near West: Teaching Asian American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlen, Bard Rogers

    In teaching Asian American literature on the college level, the first consideration is to try to choose works that dispel the dominant stereotypes. One of these stereotypes is the "otherness" myth that Asian American culture is very exotic, distant, mysterious, as in "the mysterious and far East." In reality, Asian Americans…

  14. [Lead poisoning from traditional Indian medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Robert; Poupon, Joël

    2006-01-01

    The use of traditional remedies is spreading rapidly in developed countries. Although it is commonly thought that such medications are not harmful because they are of natural origin, they often contain dangerous ingredients, especially heavy metals. Several cases of poisoning, mainly lead poisoning, have been published, but none to our knowledge in France. We recently observed a case of lead poisoning in a man who had been taking ayurvedic remedies. A 32-year-old man was repeatedly hospitalized for paroxysmal abdominal pain with constipation, weight loss, anemia, and mild elevation of liver enzyme levels. Four months after the initial admission, blood lead measurement showed heavy metal poisoning. The patient was treated with a chelating agent and recovered uneventfully. Investigation revealed that the lead source was self-medication with an ayurvedic remedy, a powder used for four weeks before the first hospitalization. To our knowledge this is the first reported French case of lead poisoning due to a traditional remedy. The problem is undoubtedly more widespread, however, for use of traditional remedies is growing more here, and many of them contain dangerous ingredients. Patients from communities known to use traditional medicines or recently returned from countries where such treatments are widespread should be directly questioned about their use of these remedies, because this information will not usually be volunteered. Information directed at populations at risk is also advisable, for most users are unaware that so-called 'natural' medicines can be dangerous.

  15. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  16. The East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard; Zhang, Ziping

    2015-08-01

    At the 2012 General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) programme announced a number of exciting new partnerships to assist with the IAU's decadal strategic plan (2010-2020). These landmark decisions included establishing a new coordinating centre that aims at using astronomy as a tool for development in East Asia. The agreement covers two important functions. One is known as a Regional Node, which entails the coordination of astronomy-for-development activities in countries within the general geographical region of East Asia (in first instance China, Mongolia and the DPRK, but without placing firm geographical limits on the region). The other is known as a Language Expertise Centre which will deal with all aspects relating to (mainly) the Chinese language and culture. The impact of the latter may obviously spread well beyond the geographical region to other parts of the world. At this next General Assembly, we aim at updating the community of the achievements and aims of the East Asian Office of Astronomy for Development.

  17. Did China follow the East Asian development model?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltho, Andrea

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available China is located in East Asia and, just as Japan, Taiwan or (South Korea at earlier stages of their development, has now grown very rapidly for some three decades. That is not enough, however, for it to qualify for membership of the club. The East Asian development model has a number of additional and important characteristics. Four are selected for discussion: the almost constant encouragement given to investment, the manufacturing sector and external competitiveness, and pursued via a variety of fairly interventionist industrial, trade and financial policies; a concomitant belief in the virtues of intense domestic (Japan and Taiwan and foreign (Korea competition; a set of broadly sensible and appropriate macroeconomic policies; and a number of favourable (pre-conditions, such as the presence of a homogeneous population, a relatively high stock of human capital, reasonable income equality and fairly authoritarian governments. China, since reforms began in the late 1970s, has shared some of these characteristics, but not all. In particular, it is still much more of a command economy than the other three countries have ever been, yet, at the same time, has embraced globalization with, arguably, much greater enthusiasm than was done, in earlier times, by Japan, Taiwan or Korea. If China's experience, however, is compared with that of other, more or less successful, developing countries, the similarities with the East Asia development model would seem to dwarf such differences

  18. Herbal Medicines for Leucorrhea According to Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehdari, Sahar; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

    2016-05-01

    Leucorrhea or vaginal discharge is a conventional complaint. It is generally whitish, yellowish, or greenish vaginal discharge in females that might be normal or a symptom of infection. It is almost mucus discharge, which exhibit exfoliation of vaginal epithelial cells due to estrogen influence on the vaginal mucosa. It is important to identify the differences between physiologic and pathologic discharges. Leucorrhea is a well-known disease in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). In their manuscripts, the word "Sayalan-e rahem" was used by Avicenna and some other Iranian traditional practitioners to describe this condition. Ancient practitioners believed that excessive residue (kesrate fozool) and weakness of digestion (Za'afe hazm) were the main causes of leucorrhea, for which herbal therapy was the main proposed treatment. In the present study, medicinal plants used in ITM for leucorrhea are introduced. In this research, six Iranian traditional textbooks including Canon of Medicine (Avicena 980-1037 AD), A-Hawi (Razes 865-925 AD), Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Mo'men tonekaboni, 17th century), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili 18th century), Ikhtiarat Badi'i (Ansari 1329-1404 AD), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiy (Ibn al-Baitar 1197 AD) were studied and searched for anti-leucorrhea medicines. Then the herbal medicines were selected and scored depending on their frequency in the above-mentioned textbooks. Additional attention was paid to provide the most suitable scientific name for each plant. This study introduced many Materia Medica with anti-leucorrhea activity and among them seven herbs including Rubus fruticosus L., Rhus coriaria L., Phoenix dactylifera L., Pimpinella anisum L., Rumex acetosa L., Olea europaea L. and Quercus lusitanica Lam. showed the most repetition in ITM prescriptions. These herbs can be introduced as new anti-leucorrhea herbal medicines for clinical research.

  19. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people?s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair qua...

  20. East Asian child-rearing attitudes: an exploration of cultural, demographic and self-disclosure factors among US immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Child-rearing attitudes among East Asian groups have been emphasized in the developmental psychology literature in the context of their association with academic achievement. Although child-rearing attitudes play an important role in the transmission of cultural values, much of the research on East Asian child-rearing attitudes has ignored cultural variables and has instead focused on authoritarian parenting style. The current study examined the association between three classes of variables-culture (i.e., ethnic identity, self-construal, acculturation), demographics (sex, years in the US, English fluency), and self-disclosure-and traditional child-rearing attitudes (TCRA) among East Asian immigrants in the United States. It was hypothesized that higher levels of TCRA would be associated with higher levels of ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, and guarded self-disclosure, and fewer years spent in the United States. The participants included 170 East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) immigrants (88 men, 82 women) who were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Our hypotheses were largely supported. We found that, while there was no significant sex by ethnicity effect for TCRA, men were significantly more likely than women to endorse TCRA and the Korean group had significantly higher TCRA than the Japanese group. Ethnic identity, interdependent self-construal, separation, years in the US, and guarded self-disclosure were significant independent predictors of TCRA. The findings suggest the need for broadening the content of assessment tools of child-rearing attitudes and measuring associated cultural and noncultural variables among East Asian ethnic groups. Future research on child-rearing attitudes among Asian ethnic groups may benefit from (1) measuring multiple dimensions of TCRA, (2) assessing associated cultural variables directly rather than inferring them in an ad hoc fashion based on observed ethnicity

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment of liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Rongbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment of liver diseases is derived from the regulation of liver function including storing blood and governing the free flow of qi, in which functional systems such as modern digestion, endocrine, and the gut-liver axis are involved, and is established on modern hepatic physiology, pathology, and etiology. To objectively reveal the characteristics and advantages of modern TCM treatment of liver diseases, we analyzed the clinical and research situation of TCM therapy for liver diseases in the last decade and collected major achievements that have been applied in clinical treatment of diseases, published in core journals, and confirmed by major scientific research programs. The results showed TCM combined with antiviral therapy can improve the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B. TCM can help HBV carriers prevent disease progression. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy for acute-on-chronic liver failure can block the deterioration induced by endotoxin. TCM has been widely applied in protecting the liver through nonspecific anti-inflammation, alleviating hepatic fibrosis, and preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver. TCM plays an important role in treating some currently untreatable liver diseases. Therefore, it is our common responsibility to inherit and develop effective principle-method-recipe-medicines and create a better medical care system.

  2. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirbeigi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  3. True ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Louw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Literature postulates that traditional medicines form an important part of modern-day South African healthcare. The belief is that the traditional healer and traditional medicine is a close-knit unit, with the traditional healer as the true owner and manufacturer of traditional medicines. Various studies also postulate that the growth and development of South African traditional medicines are restricted by the pharmaceutical industries and other role players like the medical fraternity. Aims The present study aimed to determine who holds the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. Methods This is an exploratory and descriptive study that makes use of an historical approach by means of investigation and a literature review. The emphasis is on using current documentation like articles, books and newspapers as primary sources to reflect on the thinking and opinion on the true ownership of traditional medicines in South Africa. The findings are offered in narrative form. Results Many more role players are active in today’s traditional medicines manufacturing industry than merely the traditional healer and the traditional fraternity. The literature on traditional medicines fails to show the public the true meaning of traditional medicine in modern-day South Africa and to whom it really belongs. An in-depth analysis and understanding of the Regulations of the Traditional Health Practitioners Act (Act No 22, 2007, and of the definitions traditional philosophy and traditional medicines as reflected by the Act are totally missing from the literature. Such an investigation will aid in uncovering the true ownership of traditional medicines. Conclusion There is a clear differentiation between the dominant (real traditional medicines and the inferior pre-modern traditional products of the traditional healer. The title deed or card and transport of traditional medicine are held by various public and private institutions and other

  4. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and its Association with the Asian-Pacific-American Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The wintertime upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation over Asia. The variabilities of the jet on these time scales have been relatively well documented (e.g., Yeh et al. 1959, Palmen and Newton 1969; Zeng 1979). It has also been understood that the inter-annual variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation (Bjerknes 1966; Chang and Lau 1980; Huang and Gambo 1982; Kang and Held 1986; Tao and Chen 1987; Lau et al. 1988; Yang and Webster 1990; Ding 1992; Webster and Yang 1992; Dong et al. 1999). However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the jet and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the jet and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet linked to North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern? In this study, we address several issues related to the wintertime EAJ with a focus on interannual time scales. We will examine the association between the jet core and ENSO, which has always been overshadowed by the relationship between ENSO and the

  5. New tools in monitoring East and Southeast Asian environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Thomas W.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    By all economic measures East and Southeast Asia are major success stories and emerging powerhouses in the global economy. This region continues to outperform, by a wide margin, other regions of the developing world and the industrial countries as well. However, this economic growth has been at a cost to the environment that is increasingly evident and may threaten future growth. Losses of tropical forests, unsustainable agriculture, unsound energy production and use, urban and industrial pollution, and the depletion of coastal and marine resources all impact current and future growth. However, information obtained from Mission-To-Planet-Earth sensors and other remote sensing devices may provide a basis for policies that help reduce environmental damage and promote resource sustainability. Three examples using Landsat, AVHRR, and interferometric RADAR data illustrate remote sensing applications to Asian development and environmental sustainability.

  6. Biowaste fuels South-East Asian COGEN schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennington, M.

    1998-01-01

    This article reports on the COGEN Programme of the European Commission in association with the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and considers the benefits of using biowaste for the production of energy using cogeneration with the corresponding reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases. The substitution of rice husks for the fuel in a cogeneration plant at a Thai rice mill, and the combustion of wood in the cogeneration plant at the Homet Raya plant in Malaysia are described, and details are given of the backgrounds to the projects, locations, the technologies used, and the process economics. The next phase of the COGEN programme due to start in 1998 which will see the programme expanded to include coal-fired and gas-fired cogeneration projects is discussed

  7. Rivaroxaban for stroke prevention in East Asian patients from the ROCKET AF trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka Sing Lawrence; Hu, Dai Yi; Oomman, Abraham; Tan, Ru-San; Patel, Manesh R; Singer, Daniel E; Breithardt, Günter; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Becker, Richard C; Califf, Robert; Fox, Keith A A; Berkowitz, Scott D; Hacke, Werner; Hankey, Graeme J

    2014-06-01

    In Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibitor Compared With Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial Fibrillation (ROCKET AF) trial, rivaroxaban was noninferior to dose-adjusted warfarin in preventing stroke or systemic embolism among patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at moderate to high stroke risk. Because of differences in patient demographics, epidemiology, and stroke risk management in East Asia, outcomes and relative effects of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were assessed to determine consistency among East Asians versus other ROCKET AF participants. Baseline demographics and interaction of treatment effects of rivaroxaban and warfarin among patients within East Asia and outside were assessed. A total of 932 (6.5%) ROCKET AF participants resided in East Asia. At baseline, East Asians had lower weight, creatinine clearance, and prior vitamin K antagonist use; higher prevalence of prior stroke; and less congestive heart failure and prior myocardial infarction than other participants. Despite higher absolute event rates for efficacy and safety outcomes in East Asians, the relative efficacy of rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily; 15 mg once daily for creatinine clearance of 30-49 mL/min) versus warfarin with respect to the primary efficacy end point (stroke/systemic embolism) was consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.666). Relative event rates for the major or nonmajor clinically relevant bleeding in patients treated with rivaroxaban and warfarin were consistent among East Asians and non-East Asians (interaction P=0.867). Observed relative efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban versus warfarin were similar among patients within and outside East Asia. Rivaroxaban, 20 mg once daily, is an alternative to warfarin for stroke prevention in East Asians with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Metabolomics: towards understanding traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Zhigang; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun

    2010-12-01

    Metabolomics represent a global understanding of metabolite complement of integrated living systems and dynamic responses to the changes of both endogenous and exogenous factors and has many potential applications and advantages for the research of complex systems. As a systemic approach, metabolomics adopts a "top-down" strategy to reflect the function of organisms from the end products of the metabolic network and to understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in a holistic context. This property agrees with the holistic thinking of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complex medical science, suggesting that metabolomics has the potential to impact our understanding of the theory behind the evidence-based Chinese medicine. Consequently, the development of robust metabolomic platforms will greatly facilitate, for example, the understanding of the action mechanisms of TCM formulae and the analysis of Chinese herbal (CHM) and mineral medicine, acupuncture, and Chinese medicine syndromes. This review summarizes some of the applications of metabolomics in special TCM issues with an emphasis on metabolic biomarker discovery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huan-bin

    2015-03-01

    The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.

  10. Traditional Practices and Medicinal Plants Use during Pregnancy by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivoire, despite modern antenatal medical prescriptions, most pregnant women resort to traditional medicine to ensure foetus development and facilitate childbirth. Yet, there is not enough research on the African traditional medicine concerning this ...

  11. Referral to and attitude towards traditional Chinese medicine amongst western medical doctors in postcolonial Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Vincent C H; Hillier, Sheila; Lau, Chun Hong; Wong, Samuel Y S; Yeoh, Eng Kiong; Griffiths, Sian M

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the international trend for patients to choose both allopathic western medicine (WM) and traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM), the World Health Organization has called for stronger collaboration between WM doctors (WMD) and TCAM practitioners. This resonates with the situation in Hong Kong where the dominant modality of patient care is primarily based on WM practice while traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is often used as a complement. The roots of this utilization pattern lie in colonial history when TCM was marginalised during the British administration. However since 1997 when China regained sovereignty, policies to regulate and professionalize TCM practices have been formally introduced. Despite both its popularity and this policy shift, progress on implementing collaboration between WM and TCM clinicians has been slow. This study, the first since 1997, explores current attitudes and referral behaviours of WMD towards use of TCM. We hypothesised that WMD would have positive attitudes towards TCM, due to regulation and cultural affinity, but that few actual TCM referrals would be made given the lack of a formal collaboration policy between elements within the healthcare system. Our results support these hypotheses, and this pattern possibly rooted from structural inhibitions originating from the historical dominance of WM and failure of services to respond to espoused policy. These have shaped Hong Kong's TCAM policy process to be closer with situations in the West, and have clearly differentiated it from integration experiences in other East Asian health systems where recent colonial history is absent. In addition, our results revealed that self use and formal education of TCM, rather than use of evidence in decision making, played a stronger role in determining referral. This implies that effective TCAM policies within WM dominated health systems like Hong Kong would require structural and educational solutions that foster

  12. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

      One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been recently developed. Residual concentrations of veterinary medicines applied in aquaculture farms may enter the environment by waste-water discharges, posing a risk for the biodiversity of surrounding ecosystems...

  13. Gender, sex role ideology, and self-esteem among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Bernard, Matthew J; Beitel, Mark

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between gender, sex role ideology, and self-esteem among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants in the United States. Participants were administered a battery of psychometrically established measures. Men and women did not differ on personal or collective self-esteem (CSE). Women who endorsed traditional sex roles were significantly more likely to report higher private, identity, and total CSE. Personal self-esteem was a significant independent predictor of traditional sex role for women. Participants who endorsed sex role equality were significantly more likely to report public, membership, and total CSE. Sex role equality was associated with enhanced private CSE for men and attenuated personal self-esteem for women. These findings point to the importance of assessing multiple facets of self-esteem, which appear to be differentially associated with sex role ideology for men and women.

  14. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been

  15. Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines used in Asian aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rico, A.

    2014-01-01

      One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been recently

  16. An Assessment Of Traditional Uighur Medicine In Current Xinjiang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Data showed that, among the registered and studied traditional Uighur medicine, the main therapeutic areas of traditional Uighur medicine focused on skin disease, urogenital disease, rheumatism and digestive system disease. The representative traditional Uighur patent medicine included the following: ...

  17. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM): aconstitutional-based concept and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Min; Komakech, Richard; Karigar, Chandrakant Shivappa; Saqib, Asma

    2017-06-01

    Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM) basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6-7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  18. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM: aconstitutional-based concept and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6–7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  19. Recognition and Integration of Traditional Medicine in Ghana A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    medicine has been used as an instrument to help develop political consensus and consciousness and in the building of a national identity. The Ghanaian government recognizes traditional medicine and has a policy for the integration of indigenous medicine; the paper shows that the policy limits traditional medicine almost ...

  20. [Traditional medicine under Japanese rule after 1930s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-won

    2003-12-01

    Japan, which occupied Korea from 1910 through the end of World War II, transformed traditional medicine. Japanese colonialists propagandized the "benefits of modern civilization such as western medicine" and rejected the advantages of traditional medicine. This bias against Korean traditional medicine mirrored the government's rejection of its own traditional medicine. So, Korean traditional medicine was marginalized in the national health care system: traditional doctors were excluded from public institutions and references to traditional medicine were purged from school textbooks and newspapers. The wars that Japan waged between 1931 and 1944 effected a favorable change toward traditional medicines, however. The wars created a severe shortage of drugs and medical personnel. Thus the colonial government was eager for Koreans to cultivate and gather herbal drugs; it also built a large research institute for herbalism at the Keijo Imperial University in 1938. The colonial government made pharmacopoeia for traditional herbal drugs including plant and animal drugs from 1937 to 1942, independently from Japan. Under these conditions, the prestige of traditional medicine was greatly improved. Influential newspapers and magazines covered the traditional medicine and public lectures on traditional medicine drew large audiences. The wartime government abandoned its opposition to traditional medicine, and appointed a traditional practitioner to the staff of the public hospital in 1934. Moreover, the government allowed the association of the traditional medical doctors in Seoul to train three hundred more practitioners between 1937 and 1942. Japanese colonial policy toward traditional medicine reflected the contradiction between modernizing ideology and the reality of poor colonial medical care. Japanese propaganda promised that the colonial regime would provide more advanced medicine to Korea, but the promise was an empty one. In this situation, traditional medical doctors

  1. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Anorexia: Highlights in Traditional Persian medicine and conventional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use. For this purpose, Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, main TPM resources and important databases were reviewed using the related keywords. Despite complex hormonal explanation, etiology of AN in conventional approach is not completely understood. In TPM approach, the etiology and recommended interventions are thoroughly defined based on humoral pathophysiology. In TPM approach, disease states are regarded as the result of imbalances in organs' temperament and humors. In anorexia with simple dystemperament, the physician should attempt to balance the temperament using foods and medicaments which have opposite quality of temperament. Lifestyle, spiritual diseases (neuro - psychological) and gastrointestinal worms are the other causes for reducing appetite. Also, medicines and foods with warm temperaments (such as Pea soup and Mustard) are useful for these patients (cold temperament). Although the pathophysiology of AN in TPM is different in comparison with conventional views, TPM criteria for treatment this disorder is similar to those of current medicine. Recommending to have spiritual support and a healthy lifestyle are common in both views. Simple safe interventions recommended by TPM may be considered as alternative medical modalities after being confirmed by well-designed clinical trials.

  3. Anorexia: Highlights in Traditional Persian medicine and conventional medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Anorexia and impaired appetite (Dysorexia) are common symptoms with varying causes, and often need no serious medical intervention. Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic psychiatric disease with a high mortality rate. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), anorexia is a condition in which anorexic patients lose appetite due to dystemperament. This review aims to discuss the common points of traditional and conventional approaches rather than introducing Persian medical recommendations suitable for nowadays use. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, Avicenna's Canon of Medicine, main TPM resources and important databases were reviewed using the related keywords. Results: Despite complex hormonal explanation, etiology of AN in conventional approach is not completely understood. In TPM approach, the etiology and recommended interventions are thoroughly defined based on humoral pathophysiology. In TPM approach, disease states are regarded as the result of imbalances in organs’ temperament and humors. In anorexia with simple dystemperament, the physician should attempt to balance the temperament using foods and medicaments which have opposite quality of temperament. Lifestyle, spiritual diseases (neuro – psychological) and gastrointestinal worms are the other causes for reducing appetite. Also, medicines and foods with warm temperaments (such as Pea soup and Mustard) are useful for these patients (cold temperament). Conclusion: Although the pathophysiology of AN in TPM is different in comparison with conventional views, TPM criteria for treatment this disorder is similar to those of current medicine. Recommending to have spiritual support and a healthy lifestyle are common in both views. Simple safe interventions recommended by TPM may be considered as alternative medical modalities after being confirmed by well-designed clinical trials. PMID:29387569

  4. The troika of business cycle, efficiency and volatility. An East Asian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Shaista; Rizvi, Syed Aun R.

    2015-02-01

    The EMH has been the subject of much debate over the past few decades, with a recent surge in interest in Asian markets. Asian markets which traditionally comprise of many emerging markets are more volatile and speculative in nature. The heart of our study focuses on the East Asian economies, which have experienced massive capital inflows. This begs the question of whether or not the stock markets are efficient enough for further investment and development. Our paper differs from existing literature as it focuses on deriving weak form efficiency rankings during different business cycle phases. We endeavour further to assess the volatility and business cycle phases. Taking Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and South Korea owing to their economic and financial development, we use MF-DFA to derive efficiency rankings and find firstly, the overall efficiency has improved over the past two decades and secondly, markets are more efficient in growth phases in comparison to its preceding decline. Similarly, employing wavelet decomposition in conjunction with EGARCH, we obtain volatility of stock markets in two distinct time horizons, i.e. short term and long term. We find the markets to be more stable during economic boom than its preceding bust. Our results confer with mainstream literature.

  5. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Patwardhan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.

  6. The development and psychometric testing of East Asian Acculturation Scale among Asian immigrant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Fen; Chang, Wen-Yin; Chang, Lu-I; Chou, Yu-Hua; Chen, Ching-Min

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of development and psychometric testing of the East Asian Acculturation Measure-Chinese version (EAAM-C) scale. An instrument validation design with a cross-sectional survey was conducted. The process was carried in two phases. In Phase 1, Barry's East Asian Acculturation Measure was translated and back translated to evaluate its content, face validity, and feasibility validity. In Phase 2, the 16-item EAAM-C was pilot-tested among 485 female immigrants for test-retest reliability, internal consistency, theoretically-supported construct validity and concurrent validity. The pilot work and the survey results indicated the tools possessed adequate content and face validity. The Cronbach's Alphas for the EAAM-C was 0.72, and 0.76-0.79 for its subscales, and the correlation of test-retest reliability (at 3 weeks) was 0.75. After dropping one item, four theoretically-supported factors which explained 61.82% of the variance were abstracted using exploratory factor analysis: assimilation, integration, separation, and marginalization. Based on the underlying four-factor theoretical structures of the EAAM, the confirmatory factor analysis of the EAAM-C was further examined. The analysis revealed that the four-factor model was an acceptable fit for the data which demonstrated adequate finding in its construct validity. These factors were inter-correlated, and showed statistically significant correlation with the Chinese Health Questionnaire, indicating adequate concurrent validity. The scale shows acceptable validity and consistency, and suggests that immigrant acculturation is a complex construct. This quick evaluation instrument can be applied to assess clients' acculturation and in further developing certain interventions to improve their health.

  7. Reactive nitrogen deposition to South East Asian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Marco, Chiara F.; Phillips, Gavin J.; Thomas, Rick; Tang, Sim; Nemitz, Eiko; Sutton, Mark A.; Fowler, David; Lim, Sei F.

    2010-05-01

    The supply of reactive nitrogen (N) to global terrestrial ecosystems has doubled since the 1960s as a consequence of human activities, such as fertilizer application and production of nitrogen oxides by fossil-fuel burning. The deposition of atmospheric N species constitutes a major nutrient input to the biosphere. Tropical forests have been undergoing a radical land use change by increasing cultivation of sugar cane and oil palms and the remaining forests are increasingly affected by anthropogenic activities. Yet, quantifications of atmospheric nitrogen deposition to tropical forests, and nitrogen cycling under near-pristine and polluted conditions are rare. The OP3 project ("Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a Southeast Asian Tropical Rainforest") was conceived to study how emissions of reactive trace gases from a tropical rain forest mediate the regional scale production and processing of oxidants and particles, and to better understand the impact of these processes on local, regional and global scale atmospheric composition, chemistry and climate. As part of this study we have measured reactive, nitrogen containing trace gas (ammonia, nitric acid) and the associated aerosol components (ammonium, nitrate) at monthly time resolution using a simple filter / denuder for 16 months. These measurements were made at the Bukit Atur Global Atmospheric Watch tower near Danum Valley in the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo. In addition, the same compounds were measured at hourly time-resolution during an intensive measurement period, with a combination of a wet-chemistry system based on denuders and steam jet aerosol collectors and an aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), providing additional information on the temporal controls. During this period, concentrations and fluxes of NO, NO2 and N2O were also measured. The measurements are used for inferential dry deposition modelling and combined with wet deposition data from the South East Asian Acid

  8. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  9. COMPANIONSHIP WITH NATURE IN ASIAN TRADITIONS: A RESOURCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MUNIR HOSSAIN TALUKDER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available What is the meaning of ‘nature’ in Asian cultures? How do Asian people perceive their relations to nature? What types of environmental ethics do Asian cultures exhibit? This paper considers these questions in two major Asian traditions, Indian and Chinese. It points out that the concept of nature has played a crucial role in Asian people’s lifestyles, beliefs, and ethical thinking. To them, nature is seen not merely as a means of livelihood, but rather the fountain of harmony, spirituality, and inspiration. The paper examines whether Asian environmental ethics is anthropocentric or nonanthropocentric. It concludes that, despite some limitations, Asian traditions nourish an alternative environmental ethic, which is a companionship with nature, and should be granted as a valuable resource for environmental education.

  10. [Design of traditional Chinese medicines with antihypertensive components based on medicinal property combination modes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Su-Fen; Yan, Su-Rong; Guo, Wei-Jia; Luo, Ji; Sun, Jing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    Multi-component traditional Chinese medicines are an innovative research mode for traditional Chinese medicines. Currently, there are many design methods for developing multi-component traditional Chinese medicines, but their common feature is the lack of effective connection of the traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this paper, the authors discussed the multi-component traditional Chinese medicine design methods based on medicinal property combination modes, provided the combination methods with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine for the prescription combinations, and proved its feasibly with hypertension cases.

  11. Review - Lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented Asian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mariya; Mohsin, Mashkoor; Ijaz, Hira; Tulain, Ume Ruqia; Ashraf, Muhammad Adnan; Fayyaz, Ahad; Abadeen, Zainul; Kamran, Qindeel

    2017-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria play vital roles in various fermented foods in Asia. This paper reviews many types of the world's lactic acid fermented foods and discusses the beneficial effects of lactic acid fermentation of food. The lactic acid bacteria associated with foods now include species of the genera Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Streptococcus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus and Weissella. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are involved in many fermentation processes of Asian traditional foods, demonstrating their profound effects on improving food quality and food safety. During the past few decades' interest has arisen in the use of the varied antagonistic activities of LAB to extent the shelf-life of protein-rich products such as meats and fish. This review article outlines the main types of LAB fermentation as well as their typical fermented foods such as idli, kishk, sauerkraut, koumiss, Suan-tsai, stinky tofu, Chinese sausage and kefir. The roles of LAB and the reasons for their common presence are also discussed.

  12. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam O. Elansary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  13. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design.

  14. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Elshikh, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M.; El-Ansary, Diaa O.

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases. PMID:29636772

  15. Anti-Freckles Herbal Treatment in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerin, Sara; Fahimi, Shirin; Rezghi, Maedeh

    2016-05-01

    Freckles are numerous pigmented spots of the skin, mainly confined to the face, even arms and back. Although freckles are light-brown macules, most frequently observed in individuals with red or blond hair, they are common to Asian people too. Freckles increase in number, size, and depth of pigmentation during the summer months. Histologically, freckles show increased production of melanin pigment by a normal number of melanocytes. Freckles commonly stop spreading before adolescence and last for life, but could sometimes be subtle in adulthood. Treatments are often requested for cosmetic purposes. Before the advent of lasers, treatment modalities for pigmentary disorders included surgical excision, dermabrasion, chemical bleaching, and peeling. These treatments may lead to unwanted side effects of potential scarring or undesired pigmentation changes. In Iranian traditional medicine (ITM), freckles have been known as well. "Namash" was the term used by ITM scholars to indicate freckles. There is a wide range of plants, which were prescribed by Iranian physicians for the treatment of freckles. The purpose of this study is to find the most frequent useful herbs for freckles as mentioned in ITM references. Seven ITM references were studied for anti-freckles medicines. The references were Canon of Medicine (Avicenna), Alhavi (Razes) Tuhfat ul-Momineen (Momen tonekaboni), Makhzan-ul-Adwiah (Aghili), Ikhtiyarat Badi'i (Ansari), Al-abnia An-Haghyegh el-advia (Heravi), and al-jāmi li-mufradāt al-adwiyawa al-aghdhiya (Ibn al-Baitar). Moreover, plants were ordered according to their repetition in the references. Afterwards, traditional names of the selected plants were matched with the scientific names using botanical text references. This study demonstrated that Myristica fragrans Houtt, Cicer arietema L., Eruca sativa Lam., Lilium candidium L., Amygdalus communis L., Arum italicum L. were the most frequent herbs mentioned in ITM references for the treatment of freckles

  16. How much information? East Asian and North American cultural products and information search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaitang; Masuda, Takahiko; Ito, Kenichi; Rashid, Marghalara

    2012-12-01

    Literature in cultural psychology suggests that compared with North Americans, East Asians prefer context-rich cultural products (e.g., paintings and photographs). The present article further examines the preferred amount of information in cultural products produced by East Asians and North Americans (Study 1: Society for Personality and Social Psychology conference posters; Study 2: government and university portal pages). The authors found that East Asians produced more information-rich products than did North Americans. Study 3 further examined people's information search speed when identifying target objects on mock webpages containing large amounts of information. The results indicated that East Asians were faster than North Americans in dealing with information on mock webpages with large amounts of information. Finally, the authors found that there were cultural differences as well as similarities in functional and aesthetic preferences regarding styles of information presentation. The interplay between cultural products and skills for accommodating to the cultural products is discussed.

  17. East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 from 1804 to 2014 (NODC Accession 0123300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The East Asian Seas Regional Climatology Version 2.0 is an update to the preliminary version released in May 2012. This update includes new temperature and salinity...

  18. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tomomi

    2012-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are

  19. Traditional medicine in Syria: folk medicine in Aleppo governorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachkar, Amal; Jaddouh, Ahmad; Elsheikh, Muhammad Salem; Bilia, Anna Rita; Vincieri, Franco Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The use of Traditional Arabic Medicine (TAM) for various diseases has been popular but scarcely studied in Syria. In the present study, we carried out ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological research on the plants traditionally used to cure various diseases in northern Syria. The information was collected from the city and villages of the Aleppo governorate "Mohaafazah" in the north of Syria, collecting data directly on the basis of a detailed survey of inhabitants and herbalists. In this survey, we found that hundreds of plant species are still in use in TAM for the treatment of various diseases. We selected the most common 100 species, used in the treatment of more than 25 diseases. Among these plants, 53 are used for treating gastrointestinal disorders, 38 for respiratory system diseases, including asthma, bronchitis and cough, 34 for skin diseases, 21 for diabetes, 17 for kidney and urinary disorders, 16 for cardiac disorders, 14 for infertility and sexual impotency, 13 for treating liver diseases, 13 for several types of cancer, 9 for enhancing breast milk excretion, 8 for weight loss, 5 for reducing cholesterol, and three for weight gain. Plants were collected and identified: scientific Latin names, local names, the used parts of the plant, the herbal preparations and the local medical uses are described. Scientific literature concerning the activity of the investigated species is also reported and discussed according to their traditional uses.

  20. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...

  1. Characteristics of the East Asian Winter Climate Associated with the Westerly Jet Stream and ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this study, the influences of the East Asian jet stream (EAJS) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the interannual variability of the East Asian winter climate are examined with a focus on the relative climate impacts of the two phenomena. Although the variations of the East Asian winter monsoon and the temperature and precipitation of China, Japan, and Korea are emphasized, the associated changes in the broad-scale atmospheric circulation patterns over Asia and the Pacific and in the extratropical North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are also investigated. It is demonstrated that there is no apparent relationship between ENSO and the interannual variability of EAJS core. The EAJS and ENSO are associated with distinctly different patterns of atmospheric circulation and SST in the Asian-Pacific regions. While ENSO causes major climate signals in the Tropics and over the North Pacific east of the dateline, the EAJS produces significant changes in the atmospheric circulation over East Asia and western Pacific. In particular, the EAJS explains larger variance of the interannual signals of the East Asian trough, the Asian continental high, the Aleutian low, and the East Asian winter monsoon. When the EAJS is strong, all these atmospheric systems intensify significantly. The response of surface temperature and precipitation to EAJS variability and ENSO is more complex. In general, the East Asian winter climate is cold (warm) and dry (wet) when the EAJS is strong (weak) and it is warm during El Nino years. However, different climate signals are found during different La Nina years. In terms of linear correlation, both the temperature and precipitation of northern China, Korea, and central Japan are more significantly associated with the EAJS than with ENSO.

  2. Suicide among East Asians in North America: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Christina S; Oliffe, John L; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2013-08-01

    Suicide is among the leading causes of death in North America for various age groups. Given the far-reaching impacts of suicide on families and societies, there is growing research on this phenomenon; yet, most focus primarily on mainstream populations (i.e. Caucasian, native-born Americans or Canadians) and/or aggregated population data. As a result cultural considerations within multi-cultural milieus and increasing globalization can be overlooked. This scoping review reports findings drawn from 11 studies examining suicide among East Asian (EA) population in North America. A web-based literature search was performed to identify original research articles published from January 2002 to December 2011, addressing suicide among EAs living in North America, specifically in the USA and Canada. Four prominent thematic findings were identified in the literature related to: (1) rates of suicidal ideation and behavior among EAs in North America; (2) acculturation; (3) family support and conflict; and (4) other cultural and ethnic considerations. Further research, particularly qualitative and/or mixed methods, is needed to provide a more complete understanding of suicide among this under-studied population. This article concludes with a list of recommendations for future research based on the review.

  3. Child Marriage or Forced Marriage? South Asian Communities in North East England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoli, Geetanjali; McCarry, Melanie; Razak, Amina

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the links between child marriage and forced marriage in the UK, drawing from a research study on South Asian communities in North East England. It looks at definitional issues through an analysis of UK and South Asian policies. It also analyses how these concepts are understood by service providers, survivors of child…

  4. Substance Use and Sexual Orientation among East and Southeast Asian Adolescents in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yuko; Chen, Weihong; Poon, Colleen S.; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between substance use and sexual orientation among Asian adolescents in Canada. We analyzed an East- and Southeast-Asian subsample of a province-wide, school-based survey (weighted N = 51,349). Compared to heterosexual adolescents of the same gender, gay, lesbian, bisexual, and mostly…

  5. Late Holocene anti-phase change in the East Asian summer and winter monsoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Shugang; Wang, Xulong; Roberts, Helen M.; Duller, Geoff A. T.; Cheng, Peng; Lu, Yanchou; An, Zhisheng

    2018-05-01

    Changes in East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity have played a pivotal role in the prosperity and decline of society in the past, and will be important for future climate scenarios. However, the phasing of changes in the intensity of East Asian summer and winter monsoons on millennial and centennial timescales during the Holocene is unclear, limiting our ability to understand the factors driving past and future changes in the monsoon system. Here, we present a high resolution (up to multidecadal) loess record for the last 3.3 ka from the southern Chinese Loess Plateau that clearly demonstrates the relationship between changes in the intensity of the East Asian summer and winter monsoons, particularly at multicentennial scales. At multimillennial scales, the East Asian summer monsoon shows a steady weakening, while the East Asian winter monsoon intensifies continuously. At multicentennial scales, a prominent ∼700-800 yr cycle in the East Asian summer and winter monsoon intensity is observed, and here too the two monsoons are anti-phase. We conclude that multimillennial changes are driven by Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while multicentennial changes can be correlated with solar activity and changing strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation.

  6. Hydrological Response of East China to the Variation of East Asian Summer Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxing Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of hydrologic variables in East China, that is, runoff, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture to the fluctuation of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM, is evaluated by the Mann-Kendall correlation analysis on a spatial resolution of 1/4° in the period of 1952–2012. The results indicate remarkable spatial disparities in the correlation between the hydrologic variables and EASM. The regions in East China susceptible to hydrological change due to EASM fluctuation are identified. When the standardized anomaly of intensity index of EASM (EASMI is above 1.00, the runoff of Haihe basin has increased by 49% on average, especially in the suburb of Beijing and Hebei province where the runoff has increased up to 105%. In contrast, the runoff in the basins of Haihe and Yellow River has decreased by about 27% and 17%, respectively, when the standardized anomaly of EASMI is below −1.00, which has brought severe drought to the areas since mid-1970s. The study can be beneficial for national or watershed agencies developing adaptive water management strategies in the face of global climate change.

  7. Traditional medicinal uses of small mammal products: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicines, both plant and animal products, have been used to cure various diseases since time immemorial especially in rural areas worldwide. Many studies have focused on traditional plant products, but little research has been conducted on animal traditional medicines. This study investigated the use of ...

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of traditional herbal medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Very few clinical studies have been conducted in South Africa to assess the value and efficacy of traditional herbal medicines that are commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of HlV-positive patients. Objective: To assess efficacy of a South African traditional herbal medicine in reducing viral load ...

  9. Malaysian traditional medicine: the usage of marine resources as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for producing traditional medicine for heart disease in Malaysia. ... The results indicate that twelve types of marine resources are used ... Finally, the findings of this study will help demystify traditional medical practices in Malaysia and assist academicians in understanding the Malaysian culture of traditional medicine.

  10. Market Discipline and Bank Risk Taking: Evidence from the East Asian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazelina Sahul Hamid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The third pillar of the Basel II highlights the role of market discipline in easing the existing pressure on traditional monitoring measures like capital requirement and government supervision. This study test the effectiveness of market discipline in inducing prudential risk management practices among the East Asian banks over the 1995 to 2005 period. Market discipline is measured using information disclosure and interbank deposit holdings. We find that only the latter is an effective market discipline tool. However, the former becomes effective when market concentration is higher. We find that government owned, foreign owned and recapilatised banks are subject to market disciplining when disclosure in taken account but the opposite is true when interbank deposits is taken into account. Finally, we find that banks that disclose more risk related information hold more capital against their non-performing loan. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. Sex role ideology among East Asian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Beitel, Mark

    2006-10-01

    Although sex role ideology (i.e., beliefs about the proper roles for men and women) is linked with self-definition and male-female interactions, researchers have rarely examined such beliefs among U.S. immigrants. This study examined the cultural (ethnic identity, self-construal) and demographic (gender, age, years in United States) correlates of sex role ideology among 170 (88 male, 82 female) East Asian immigrants using psychometrically established measures. Male participants who endorsed ethnic identity and interdependent self-construal were more likely to report traditional sex roles; female participants who lived for a longer period of time in the United States and who endorsed independent self-construal were more likely to report sex role equality. Clinicians should consider assessing sex role ideology to reduce the likelihood of stereotyping their immigrant clients. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Traditional medicines, HIV, and related infections: workshop 2C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M; Bessong, P; Liu, H

    2011-04-01

    Traditional medicines are an integral part of health care worldwide, even though their efficacy has not been scientifically proven. HIV-infected individuals may use them singularly or in combination with conventional medicines. Many in vitro studies have proven the anti-HIV, anti-Candida, and anti-herpes simplex virus potential of traditional plants and identified some of the mechanisms of action. Very few in vivo studies are available that involve a small number of participants and show controversial results. In addition, knowledge is limited of the role of traditional medicines in the enhancement of the immune system. The use of traditional medicines with antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) has created a problem because drug interactions compromise the efficacy of ARVs. Several currently popular plants have been studied in the laboratory for their interaction with ARVs, with disadvantageous results. Unfortunately, no clinical trials are available. The science of traditional medicines is relatively new and is at present being modernized worldwide. However, there are still ethical issues regarding traditional medicines that need to be addressed-for example, regulations regarding quality control and standardization of medicines, regulation and education of healers who deliver these medicines, and unregulated clinical trials. The workshop addressed the following questions about traditional medicine and their use in HIV infection: What are the mechanisms of action of anti-HIV traditional medicines? Should traditional medicines be used in conjunction with ARV? Do traditional medicines enhance the immune system? Should medicinal plants be used for the control of oral infections associated with HIV? What are the ethical issues surrounding the use of traditional medicines for the treatment of HIV and associated infections?

  13. The Contribution of East Asian Countries to Internationally Published Asian Higher Education Research: The Role of System Development and Internationalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jisun; Horta, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Studies of higher education by scholars based in Asia have been growing in volume, following worldwide trends. To a large extent, this growth has been driven by East Asian countries, but little is known about the characteristics of the contribution of these countries. This study analyses their overall and specific contribution. The paper concludes…

  14. Management of Breast Milk Oversupply in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Babaeian, Mohammad

    2017-10-01

    Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies.

  15. [Advances on pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine under disease states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zi-peng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Rui-jie; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-xin

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, more and more research shows that the pharmacokinetic parameter of traditional Chinese medicine can be affected by the disease states. It's possible that drug metabolic enzymes, transporters, cell membrane permeability and the change of microbes group could be interfered with physiological and pathological changes, which enables the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine in the body to be altered, including the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters of traditional chinese medicine are altered. It's found that investigating the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the pathological state is more useful than that of in normal state because the great part of traditional Chinese medicine is mainly used to treat disease. This article reflects the latest research on the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the disease state such as diabete, cerebral ischemia, liver injury, inflammatory disease, nervous system disorders and fever in order to provide certain reference for clinicians designing reasonable administration dose.

  16. Trends and challenges of traditional medicine in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Ali Arazeem

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of cosmopolitan medicine, traditional medicine used to be the dominant medical system available to millions of people in Africa in both rural and urban communities. However, the arrival of the Europeans marked a significant turning point in the history of this age-long tradition and culture. This paper examines the trends and challenges of traditional medicine in Africa. The impact of colonialism on African traditional medicine is also examined. Although the paper is on Africa, references are drawn around the world to buttress the growing demand for traditional medicine. The paper concludes that to minimise the current distrust between modern and traditional doctors and to achieve the objective of regulation, standardisation and cooperation, both traditional and modern doctors must acknowledge their areas of strengths and weaknesses from which they operate and be genuinely concerned about the difficult but necessary task of being human.

  17. Human biological rhythm in traditional Chinese medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxing Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a comprehensive and thorough understanding of biological rhythm. Biological rhythm is an inherent connotation of “harmony between human and nature”, one of the thoughts in TCM. TCM discusses emphatically circadian rhythm, syzygial rhythm and seasonal rhythm, and particularly circadian and seasonal rhythms. Theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are the principles and methods, with which TCM understands biological rhythms. Based on theories in TCM, biological rhythm in essence is a continuous variation of the human body state synchronized with natural rhythms, and theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are both language tools to describe this continuous variation and theoretical tools for its investigation and application. The understandings of biological rhythm in TCM can be applied to etiology, health care, disease control and treatment. Many understandings in TCM have been confirmed by modern research and clinical reports, but there are still some pending issues. TCM is distinguished for its holistic viewpoint on biological rhythms.

  18. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  19. Application of nuclear irradiation to traditional chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jianping; Li Xuehu; Lu Xihong; Tao Lei; Wang Shuyang

    2010-01-01

    The application of nuclear irradiation in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has received much attention. In this paper we reviewed the application of nuclear radiation on the cultivation, breeding and disinfection of traditional Chinese medicine, and pointed out that the combination of radiation-induced mutagenesis and biological technology would promise broad prospects for increasing the cellular mutation rate and speeding up the genetic improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. (authors)

  20. The Strategic Positioning of Australian Research Universities in the East Asian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginson, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Regional tendencies in higher education are increasingly important, for example the common rise of North-East Asian universities in China, Hong Kong SAR, Taiwan and South Korea, and Singapore in South-East Asia, to a major global role, following the prior trajectory of Japan. Though the rapidly modernizing Post-Confucian countries do not…

  1. The Science Education of the East Asian Regions--What We Can Learn from PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kwok Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study has integrated the data from PISA 2006 to 2012 to give an overall picture of the cognitive and affective performances and pedagogy of East Asian regions on PISA scientific literacy. Attempts are made to account for their performances based on the PISA data and cultural characteristics. The cognitive science performance of East Asian…

  2. English Learning Styles of Students from East Asian Countries: A Focus on Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been done to investigate the influence of cultural differences on students' second/foreign language learning styles, with a focus on comparing between East and West classroom cultures. This study investigates the differences that East Asian students may encounter when studying in the English-medium academic environment. By…

  3. Use of Traditional Botanical Medicines During Pregnancy in Rural Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, Jason; Asanti, Daniel; Nsabimana, Damien; Anastos, Kathryn; Mutimura, Eugene; Merkatz, Irwin; Sirotin, Nicole; Nathan, Lisa M

    To evaluate the perceptions of healthcare and traditional medicine providers regarding the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of traditional medicine use amongst pregnant women in a rural Rwandan population. Six focus groups with physicians, nurses, and community health workers and four individual in-depth interviews with traditional medicine providers were held. Qualitative data was gathered using a structured questionnaire querying perceptions of the type, indications, side effects, and prevalence of use of traditional medicines in pregnancy. The healthcare provider groups perceived a high prevalence of traditional botanical medicine use by pregnant women (50-80%). All three groups reported similar indications for use of the medicines and the socioeconomic status of the pregnant women who use them. The traditional medicine providers and the healthcare providers both perceived that the most commonly used medicine is a mixture of many plants, called Inkuri. The most serious side effect reported was abnormally bright green meconium with a poor neonatal respiratory drive. Thirty-five traditional medicines were identified that are used during pregnancy. Perceptions of high prevalence of use of traditional medicines during pregnancy with possible negative perinatal outcomes exist in areas of rural Rwanda.

  4. Contribution of King Njoya to Bamoun traditional medicine through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National Coordinator of the Census of Traditional Healers of Cameroon" presented the list of Tradipractitioners who were probably King Njoya's students and examined their current heritage and contribution to African Traditional Medicine.

  5. Balance of Payments of East Asian Countries: Impact of the Coordinated Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the equilibrium state of balance of payments of East Asian countries by means of the monetary policy instruments. For this purpose the author determines the value of the equilibrium exchange rate of AMU (Asian Monetary Unit against the U.S. dollar. The equilibrium exchange rate is the one that smoothes values of net merchandise exports and net capital exports. The author employs panel data regression analysis (using statistics of trade and capital (foreign direct investment flows between East Asian countries and the United States to obtain quantitative estimation of trade and investment effects of the coordinated monetary policy. The paper shows that transition of East Asian region (China, Japan, Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, the Philippines and Thailand to the single currency (AMU will have a negative effect on the balance of payments of the studied countries: this will increase the mismatch between commodity and capital flows

  6. Protecting traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine: concepts and proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man

    2011-06-01

    With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created.

  7. Continent-Ocean Interactions Within East Asian Marginal Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Peter; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Wang, Pinxian; Hayes, Dennis

    The study of the complex interactions between continents and oceans has become a leading area for 21st century earth cience. In this volume, continent—ocean interactions in tectonics, arc-continent collision, sedimentology, and climatic volution within the East Asian Marginal Seas take precedence. Links between oceanic and continental climate, the sedimentology of coastal and shelf areas, and the links between deformation of continental and oceanic lithosphere are also discussed. As an introduction to the science presented throughout the volume, Wang discusses many of the possible interactions between the tectonic evolution of Asia and both regional and global climate. He speculates that uplift of central Asia in the Pliocene may have triggered the formation of many of the major rivers that drain north through Siberia into the Arctic Ocean. He also argues that it is the delivery of this fresh water that allows the formation of sea ice in that area and triggered the start of Northern Hemispheric glaciation. This may be one of the most dramatic ways in which Asia has shaped the Earth's climate and represents an alternative to the other competing models that have previously emphasized the role of oceanic gateway closure in Central America. Moreover, his proposal for major uplift of at least part of Tibet and Mongolia as late as the Pliocene, based on the history of drainage evolution in Siberia, supports recent data from the southern Tarim Basin and from the Qilian Shan and Qaidam and Jiuxi Basins in northeast Tibet that indicate surface uplift at that time. Constraining the timing and patterns of Tibetan surface uplift is crucial to testing competing models for strain accommodation in Asia following India—Asia collision.

  8. Baseline predictability of daily east Asian summer monsoon circulation indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Shucong; Chen, Quanliang; Li, Jianping; Ding, Ruiqiang; Zhong, Quanjia

    2017-05-01

    The nonlinear local Lyapunov exponent (NLLE) method is adopted to quantitatively determine the predictability limit of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity indices on a synoptic timescale. The predictability limit of EASM indices varies widely according to the definitions of indices. EASM indices defined by zonal shear have a limit of around 7 days, which is higher than the predictability limit of EASM indices defined by sea level pressure (SLP) difference and meridional wind shear (about 5 days). The initial error of EASM indices defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear shows a faster growth than indices defined by zonal wind shear. Furthermore, the indices defined by zonal wind shear appear to fluctuate at lower frequencies, whereas the indices defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear generally fluctuate at higher frequencies. This result may explain why the daily variability of the EASM indices defined by zonal wind shear tends be more predictable than those defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear. Analysis of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill for EASM indices obtained from observations and from NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFS) historical weather forecast dataset shows that GEFS has a higher forecast skill for the EASM indices defined by zonal wind shear than for indices defined by SLP difference and meridional wind shear. The predictability limit estimated by the NLLE method is shorter than that in GEFS. In addition, the June-September average TCC skill for different daily EASM indices shows significant interannual variations from 1985 to 2015 in GEFS. However, the TCC for different types of EASM indices does not show coherent interannual fluctuations.

  9. Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorai, Ananda A.

    2012-01-01

    Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

  10. Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda A Dorai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People′s perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future.

  11. Clinical and molecular characteristics of East Asian patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Meihua; Chu, Ying-Hsia; Tan, Hwei Ling; Bessho, Hideharu; Ngeow, Joanne; Tang, Tiffany; Tan, Min-Han

    2016-08-15

    Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a dominantly inherited multisystem cancer syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation in the VHL tumor suppressor gene. Previous studies suggested that similar populations of Caucasian and Japanese patients have similar genotype or phenotype characteristics. In this comprehensive study of East Asian patients, we investigated the genetic and clinical characteristics of patients with VHL syndrome. To create a registry of clinical characteristics and mutations reported in East Asian patients with VHL syndrome, we conducted a comprehensive review of English language and non-English language articles identified through a literature search. Publications in Japanese or Chinese language were read by native speakers of the language, who then performed the data extraction. Of 237 East Asian patients with VHL syndrome, 154 unique kindreds were identified for analysis. Analyzed by kindred, missense mutations were the most common (40.9%, 63/154), followed by large/complete deletions (32.5%, 50/154) and nonsense mutations (11.7%, 18/154). Compared with a previously reported study of both East Asian and non-East Asian patients, we found several key differences. First, missense and frameshift mutations in the VHL gene occurred less commonly in our population of East Asian patients (40.9% vs. 52.0%; P = 0.012 and 8.4% vs. 13.0%; P syndrome, the incidence of retinal capillary hemangioblastoma was lower, whereas the incidence of renal cell carcinoma was higher. Evidence suggests that the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of East Asian patients with VHL syndrome differ from other populations. This should be considered when making screening recommendations for VHL syndrome in Asia.

  12. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. What Teachers Should Know About Why These Students Perform so Well: An Examination of Korean-American Achievement through Student Perspectives of East Asian Parenting Beliefs, Styles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Wendi J. OTTO

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian ...

  14. Toxicity of a traditional molluscicide to asian clam veligers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhee, Megan J.; ,; Miho Yoshioka,; Bahram Farokhkish,; ,; Gross, Jackson A.; Sepulveda, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture and hatchery industries are in need of effective control methods to reduce the risk of spreading aquatic invasive species, such as the Asian clam Corbicula fluminea, through aquaculture and hatchery activities. The planktonic nature of Asian clam veligers enables this life stage to enter water-based infrastructure undetected, including hatchery trucks used to stock fish. Once in hatchery trucks, veligers can disperse overland and establish in previously uninvaded habitats. As a result, there is a need to develop techniques that result in veliger mortality but do not harm fish. In September 2012, we conducted laboratory trials to determine if a molluscicide (750 mg/L potassium chloride and 25 mg/L formalin) commonly used to kill zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) veligers in hatchery trucks can also effectively kill Asian clam veligers. We exposed Asian clam veligers to this molluscicide for 1, 3, and 5 h in each of two water types: deionized water and filtered lake water. We found ,20% mortality at the 1-h exposure period and 100% mortality at both the 3-h and 5-h exposure periods, regardless of water type. This laboratory study represents an important step toward reducing the spread of Asian clams by aquaculture facilities.

  15. The 13th South-East Asian Congress of Medical Physics (SEACOMP 2015)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    These proceedings comprise selected, edited papers that were presented at the 13th SOUTH EAST ASIAN CONGRESS OF MEDICAL PHYSICS with the theme of “Improving the quality of human health through physics”, held in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 10-12 December 2015. It was hosted by Sunan Kalijaga State Islamic University (UIN Sunan Kalijaga), Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) and University of Indonesia (UI) in association with the South East Asia Federation of Organizations for Medical Physics (SEAFOMP). Yogyakarta was the ancient capital of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. It is famous for the UNESCO world heritage site of Borobudur temple. This temple was built in the 9 th century during the reign of the Sailendra Dynasty. The temple was designed in the Javanese Buddhist architectural style. The monument was restored by the Indonesian government with UNESCO's help in 1975 and 1982. The congress attracted about 241 participants from 13 countries. Twelve invited speakers delivered nine plenary lectures as well as four pre-congress workshops. A total of 86 oral and 65 poster presentations were given. A variety of topics were discussed, ranging from the most advanced topics such as proton therapy, image-guided radiotherapy, functional MRI to the more conventional ones such as dose distribution, simulation, dosimetry, quality assurance, etc. In this proceedings papers are published under five categories, namely therapeutics, diagnostics, nuclear medicine, biomedical engineering and biophysics. (paper)

  16. Efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We recommend a new kind of spray made from eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, we aimed to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray (TCMS) with premature ejaculation desensitization therapy (PEDT) for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation ...

  17. Traditional medicine trade in vulture parts in northern Nigeria | Saidu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report findings on the vulture trade in northern Nigeria, where it is commonly practised especially to supply the traditional medicine industry. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 113 traditional, predominantly Hausa medicinal traders in 39 markets within eight states in northern Nigeria. Of the interviewed ...

  18. Traditional medicines and alternative practice in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was aimed at identifying Ghanaian traditional medicines used for the management of prostate diseases and their constituents. Reviews of studies conducted on them are also presented. Methodology: This was a prospective study. Traditional Medicine samples from consecutive patients with either ...

  19. Trends and Challenges of Traditional Medicine in Africa | Abdullahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the introduction of cosmopolitan medicine, traditional medicine used to be the dominant medical system available to millions of people in Africa in both rural and urban communities. However, the arrival of the Europeans marked a significant turning point in the history of this age-long tradition and culture. This paper ...

  20. The prevalence, types and effects of traditional eye medicine use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of Traditional Medicines (TM) is common practice world over. Traditional Eye Medicine (TEM) use may be associated with various ocular complications including blindness. A study on the prevalence of TEM use was carried out at Sekuru Kaguvi Hospital Eye Unit (SKHEU) in Harare, with emphasis on ...

  1. The Academic Success of East Asian American Youth: The Role of Shadow Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Soo-yong; Park, Hyunjoon

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Education Longitudinal Study, this study assessed the relevance of shadow education to the high academic performance of East Asian American students by examining how East Asian American students differed from other racial/ethnic students in the prevalence, purpose, and effects of using the two forms – commercial test preparation service and private one-to-one tutoring – of SAT coaching, defined as the American style of shadow education. East Asian American students were most likely to take a commercial SAT test preparation course for the enrichment purpose, and benefited most from taking this particular form of SAT coaching. However, this was not the case for private SAT one-to-one tutoring. While black students were most likely to utilize private tutoring for the remedial purpose, the impact of private tutoring was trivial for all racial/ethnic groups including East Asian American students. The authors discussed broader implications of the findings on racial/ethnic inequalities in educational achievement beyond the relevance of shadow education for the academic success of East Asian American students. PMID:24163483

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine Induced Liver Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some

  3. Integrated traditional Chinese and western medicine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Twelve RCTs with 1155 patients were evaluated in this review. The results of meta-analysis showed that the therapy of using integrated Chinese and western medicine was significantly superior to that of western medicine alone towards improving the efficacy, relieving the clinical symptoms and decreasing ...

  4. Factors associated with utilization of traditional Chinese medicine by white collar foreign workers living in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Chung-Yeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.

  5. Comparison of access to medicines between Klang Valley and East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    income of USD1/person/day) between urbanised Klang Valley and rural East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Methods: A semi-structured interview was conducted with caregivers to determine demographics, access to medicines, knowledge, ...

  6. Regulation of proprietary traditional Chinese medicines in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David T

    2017-01-01

    This review article describes the regulation of proprietary Chinese medicines for the Australian market, which may permit many medicines used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to have a simplified process of market access provided that certain criteria for acceptable public safety are met. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Current Status of Standardization of Traditional Chinese Medicine in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Li, Gui Lan

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of traditional medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely spread and applied in more than 100 countries across the world. The standardization of TCM is very important for the international application of Chinese medicine. In this paper, we have explained and analyzed the standardization situations of TCM in China with the purpose of providing reference for standardization and international development of TCM. PMID:27110268

  8. The commercialization of traditional medicine in modern Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, Bandeth; Lê, Gillian; McPake, Barbara; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Globally, traditional medicine has long been used to address relatively common illness, mental ill health and during childbirth and post-natal care. However, traditional medicine is primarily provided by the private sector and it is unclear how far expenditures on traditional medicine contribute to household impoverishment. A life history method was used to understand the health seeking experience of 24 households over the last 60 years in Cambodia, a country with high out-of-pocket expenditures for health. The life histories suggest that traditional medicine in Cambodia has been undergoing a process of commercialization, with significant impacts on poor households. In the earlier lives of respondents, payments for traditional medicine were reported to have been flexible, voluntary or appropriate to patients' financial means. In contrast, contemporary practitioners appear to seek immediate cash payments that have frequently led to considerable debt and asset sales by traditional medicine users. Given traditional medicine's popularity as a source of treatment in Cambodia and its potential to contribute to household impoverishment, we suggest that it needs to be included in a national conversation about achieving Universal Health Coverage in the country. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  9. Current food and nutrition situation in south Asian and south-east Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, C

    1996-09-01

    Food production in the countries of South and South-East Asia has shown a general upward trend during the last decade. Despite the considerable increase in population in many of these countries, food production per capita in 1988-90 was significantly higher as compared to 1979-81 figures, the increase being specially marked in such countries as Vietnam, Cambodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Available daily calorie supply was adequate to meet the requirement. The overall pattern of food production however has shown little change, with cereal production continuing to account for a predominant part of food production. There is no evidence of a significant uptrend with respect to production of pulses, milk, horticultural products, poultry or meat production in most countries. A unique and unfortunate feature of the nutrition situation in South-Asian countries is that the incidence of low birth weight deliveries is as high as 34% (1990), ranging from 25% in Sri Lanka to 50% in Bangladesh (as against less than 7% in the countries of Europe and North America). Even in countries of Africa where the overall food and nutrition situation is worse than in South Asia, the incidence is well below 20%. This is a reflection of the poor state of maternal nutrition in pregnancy. Florid nutritional deficiency diseases have shown a steep decline over the last two decades, but goitre and iron deficiency anaemia continue to be major public health problems, though some headway has been made with regard to the control of the former. Severe forms of growth retardation in children have declined but the majority suffer from mild and moderate forms of growth retardation. Countries of the Region are in varying stages of developmental transition. Among the burgeoning middle classes in some of these countries there are evidences of escalation of degenerative diseases such as diabetes and coronary heart disease. With increasing life expectancy, geriatric nutritional problems will demand increasing

  10. Structure and dynamics of a wave train along the wintertime Asian jet and its impact on East Asian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kaiming; Huang, Gang; Wu, Renguang; Wang, Lin

    2017-04-01

    Based on observational and reanalysis datasets, this study investigates the structure and dynamics of a wave-like atmospheric teleconnection pattern along the wintertime Asian jet and its influence on East Asian climate. Along the jet, the leading empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of monthly meridional winds at 250-hPa in winter (December, January, and February) is organized as a wave train with maximum anomalies at upper troposphere. The wave train propagates northeastward from the North Atlantic to Europe, turns southeastward to the Middle East with amplifying amplitude, propagates along the jet to South China, and reaches Japan, which is partly induced by sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the equatorial eastern Pacific and the North Atlantic Oscillation. Over the sector from Europe to the Middle East, the anomalous vortices in the wave train tilt northwestward with height and tilt northeast/southwest in horizontal at 250 hPa, favoring for extracting available potential energy and kinetic energy from mean flows effectively. In addition, there exists a positive feedback between transient eddies and the wave train-related anomalous circulation over the North Atlantic and Europe. These processes help to maintain and amplify the wave train. Moreover, the wave train can exert significant influences on the wintertime climate in East Asia. When it is in the phase with a cyclone (anticyclone) over South China (Japan), rainfall tends to be above normal in South and East China and surface air temperature tends to be above normal around Japan and the Korea peninsula.

  11. Lung function and long-term safety of tiotropium/olodaterol in East Asian patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai C

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Chunxue Bai,1 Masakazu Ichinose,2 Sang Haak Lee,3 Kwan Ho Lee,4 Olaf Jöns,5 Ulrich Bothner,6 Yihua Zhao,7 Roland Buhl8 1Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Shanghai Respiratory Research Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Internal Medicine, St Paul’s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, South Korea; 5Department of Medicine TA Respiratory Diseases, 6Department of Pharmacovigilance, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim, Germany; 7Department of Biostatistics and Data Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Ridgefield, CT, USA; 8Pulmonary Department, Mainz University Hospital, Mainz, Germany Background and purpose: While the efficacy and safety of combined tiotropium and olodaterol in patients with COPD was established in a large clinical trial program, it is important to assess whether clinical data can be applied to geographic patient groups, particularly for East Asian patients who may have a different phenotypic profile to the global trial population. This study aimed to compare the lung function and safety profiles of tiotropium/olodaterol and monocomponents in East Asian and global populations from the TONADO® trials.Materials and methods: In the replicate, double-blind, parallel-group, active-controlled, randomized, 52-week, Phase III TONADO studies, patients received tiotropium/olodaterol, tiotropium, or olodaterol. We assessed the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 3 hours (AUC0–3 response and trough FEV1 response at 24 weeks for the approved doses, tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg, tiotropium 5 µg, and olodaterol 5 µg. Treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded throughout treatment and ≤21 days

  12. Across Seven Seas: Asians in the North East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rukhsana

    1990-01-01

    This account of two residencies in Northeastern England by a writer who conducted creative writing workshops for Asian immigrants touches upon conflicting ideologies, the richness of immigrant experience, and the problems of funding and publication of student writing. (SK)

  13. Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Volpato, G.

    2004-01-01

    Herbal mixtures in the traditional medicine of Eastern Cuba. Traditional herbal mixtures in Eastern Cuba are investigated through interviews with 130 knowledgeable people and traditional healers of the provinces of Santiago de Cuba and Guantanamo. One hundred seventy plant species and other products

  14. Recognition and respect for African traditional medicine | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... TRA conducts scientific and cultural research, and provides training to traditional practitioners of traditional medicine using a curriculum that is both scientifically based and culturally specific. It covers topics ranging from family planning to maternal and child health care to HIV/AIDS. Some 2500 traditional ...

  15. A historical overview of traditional medicine practices and policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although traditional medicine plays an important role in Ethiopian society, knowledge about the extent and characteristics of traditional healing practices and practitioners is limited and has frequently been ignored in the national health system. Objective: To review history of practices and policies on traditional ...

  16. The nuclear power development program of south-east asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Lee, Tae Jun; Lee, Byung Jun

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the status of nuclear policy environments and nuclear power programmes of South-east Asian countries which are emerging as major markets in the international nuclear industry. To do this, the study investigated seven South-east Asian countries which are especially expected to strengthen nuclear cooperation with our country : China, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Vietnam, India and the Philippines. Considering the above, the study concentrated upon the status and the environment of nuclear development, as well as its planning and regulatory structure including energy resource environments, energy development policy and planning, and the major problems in nuclear power development encountered by those counties. This study could be used to develop the national policy of nuclear technological cooperation and nuclear business with South-east Asian countries, which will be expected to develop active nuclear power programmes int eh future. 41 tabs., 9 figs., 49 refs. (Author)

  17. Treating gynaecological disorders with traditional Chinese medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal syndrome, uterine fibroids, chronic pelvic inflammation, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), cervicitis and vaginitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and acupuncture.

  18. Changes in East Asian Food Consumption: Some Implications for Australian Irrigated Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Taylor; Christopher Findlay

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews the implications of economic growth for food consumption in Asia, the East Asian supply responses and the determinants of Australian competitiveness in meeting Asian demand from production in Australia. Our special interests are to draw out some implications for Australia’s irrigated agriculture and for the organisation of the export business of that sector of the economy. A key question is the scope for increased exports of fresh rather than processed products. Sources of ...

  19. Use of traditional medicine among pregnant women in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Yolan; Chapman, Victoria; Goldenberg, Robert L; Stringer, Jeffrey S A; Culhane, Jennifer F; Sinkala, Moses; Vermund, Sten H; Chi, Benjamin H

    2007-01-01

    We studied the prevalence of and predictors for traditional medicine use among pregnant women seeking care in the Lusaka, Zambia public health system. We surveyed 1128 pregnant women enrolled in a clinical trial of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention strategies at two district delivery centers. Postpartum questionnaires were administered to determine demographic characteristics, behavioral characteristics, HIV knowledge, and prior use of traditional medicines. Of the 1128 women enrolled, 335 (30%) reported visiting a traditional healer in the past; 237 (21%) reported using a traditional healer during the current pregnancy. Overall, 54% believed that admitting to a visit to a traditional healer would result in worse medical care. When women who had used traditional medicines were compared to those who had not, no demographic differences were noted. However, women who reported use of traditional medicine were more likely to drink alcohol during pregnancy, have >or=2 sex partners, engage in "dry sex," initiate sex with their partner, report a previously treated sexually transmitted disease, and use contraception (all p women who reported using traditional healers were also less likely to adhere to a proven medical regimen to reduce HIV transmission to their infant (25% versus 50%, p = 0.048). Use of traditional medicine during pregnancy is common, stigmatized, and may be associated with nonadherence to antiretroviral regimens. Health care providers must open lines of communication with traditional healers and with pregnant women themselves to maximize program success.

  20. Methods for the study of endophytic microorganisms from traditional Chinese medicine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

    2012-01-01

    Plant endophytes are very numerous and widely distributed in nature, their relationships being described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism during a long period of coevolution. Traditional Chinese medicines have played a very important role in disease treatment in China and other Asian countries. Investigations show that these medicinal plants harbor endophytes with different kinds of ecological functions, and some of them have potential to produce bioactive small-molecule compounds. This chapter will focus on the selective isolation methods, the diversity of some endophytes (actinobacteria and fungi) isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plants, and the bioactive compounds from selected endophytic actinobacteria reported in the past 3 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in Jimma Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Locally available and widely used medicinal plants would need to be identified and a list compiled as well as propagated to alleviate the risk of extinction due to accelerated urbanization, recurring drought and deforestation. This study was conducted to document locally available medicinal plants and ...

  2. What Teachers Should Know About Why These Students Perform so Well: An Examination of Korean-American Achievement through Student Perspectives of East Asian Parenting Beliefs, Styles and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi J. OTTO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.

  3. What teachers should know about why these students perform so well: An examination of Korean-american achievement through student perspectives of East Asian parenting beliefs, styles and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendi J. Otto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely reported that Korean-American students as a group outperform most other groups of students in terms of academic achievement due to having parents with especially high academic expectations due to traditional Confucian values. To examine this achievement, this study examines the common factors across the indigenous East Asian parenting ideologies, styles, and practices based on the perceptions of high-achieving, Korean-American primary school students through the East Asian Parenting Model. Perceptions about child development and learning, the mother-child relationship, authoritarian parenting style, and specific East Asian parenting practices are patterns explored in this study. These findings may inform teachers, pre-service teachers, and others involved in the education of Korean-American students about differentiating factors (i.e., specific East Asian parental and/or teaching practices that may be influential for explaining and improving the academic achievement for the children in this group.

  4. Botanical drugs in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2016-12-24

    China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by

  5. The Concept of Wind in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz

    2016-12-01

    The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases.

  6. [Reduction of ADRs of essential traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Qing; Liu, Yan; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The essential traditional Chinese medicines (ETCM) are the characteristics of our National Essential Medicine List (NEML) and we should give full play to its unique advantage. The essential medicines of ETCM are specific, but also have dual characters, namely efficacy and ADRs. Although ADRs cannot be avoided, we can make efforts to control some conditions to minimize the possibility of ADRs. It is significant to give suggestions to reduce ADRs of ETCM under the ETCM system by analyzing the possibility of ADRs during ETCM selection, production distribution and use. This research focuses on ETCM, and the conclusion is also applicable to common traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Caregiving in Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries [and] Caregiving among Middle and Low Income Aged in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Nelson W. S.; Kwan, Alex Y. H.

    This report consists of two papers on caregiving in Asian countries. The first, "Caregiving in Developing East and Southeast Asian Countries" by Nelson W. S. Chow, discusses the change in the caregiving pattern for the urban elderly in developing countries of East and Southeast Asia. It includes examples from studies carried out in…

  8. Perceptions of Disability and Special Education among East Asian Parents: U.S. Immigrants and Non-Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Min-Chi; Kim, Sunyoung; Kang, Hyun-Ju; Wilkerson, Kimber L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current literature review is to understand how East Asian American (EAA) parents of students with disabilities perceive disabilities and special education. These parental perspectives are compared to those of their East Asian (EA) parents to better understand whether EAA parents adjust their perceptions in the U.S. Findings from…

  9. Late Holocene (~ 2 ka) East Asian Monsoon variations inferred from river discharge and climate interrelationships in the Pearl River Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nan, Q.; Li, T.; Chen, J.; Nigam, R.

    -size distributions, TOC contents, and δ13Corg variations appear to be directly related to monsoon precipitation in the sediment source area. An increased East Asian summer monsoon rainfall (EASM) and/or an enhanced East Asian winter monsoon rainfall could...

  10. The Influence of Culture on Parenting Practices of East Asian Families and Emotional Intelligence of Older Adolescents: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Helen Y.

    2010-01-01

    Academic success among East Asian students is well known and almost stereotypical. Yet the attention to emotional well-being continues to be minimal. The discrepancy between academic success and social/emotional difficulties appears to be a problem among East Asian adolescents. This qualitative grounded theory study examines how the cultural…

  11. Brain Structure in Young and Old East Asians and Westerners: Comparisons of Structural Volume and Cortical Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Michael Wei Liang; Zheng, Hui; Goh, Joshua Oon Soo; Park, Denise; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2011-01-01

    There is an emergent literature suggesting that East Asians and Westerners differ in cognitive processes because of cultural biases to process information holistically (East Asians) or analytically (Westerners). To evaluate the possibility that such differences are accompanied by differences in brain structure, we conducted a large comparative…

  12. Relationships of Cognitive and Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Mathematics Achievement in Four High-Performing East Asian Education Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Caleon, Imelda S.

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationships of cognitive (i.e., memorization and elaboration) and metacognitive learning strategies (i.e., control strategies) to mathematics achievement among 15-year-old students in 4 high-performing East Asian education systems: Shanghai-China, Hong Kong-China, Korea, and Singapore. In all 4 East Asian education…

  13. Ethnozoological assessment of animals used by Mon traditional medicine vendors at Kyaiktiyo, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijman, Vincent; Shepherd, Chris R

    2017-07-12

    Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases. To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top. In addition we address legal issues relating to the production and sale of traditional medicine that contain legally protected animals. Four visits were made to Kyaiktiyo, Myanmar, between 2000 and 2017 to quantify animal parts on display and through discussions with vendors to obtain information on medicinal use of these parts. Twenty-three species, mostly mammals, were recorded to be used for traditional medicine. The most common were Chinese serow Capricornis milneedwardsii, Asian elephant Elephas maximus, and Asiatic black bear Ursus thibetanus. Over 600 bodies or body parts were present. Combined, these parts purportedly provided cures or relief for at least 15 ailments or diseases. The most commonly mentioned treatment was that of using rendered animal fats/oils externally to relieve/cure aching joints or muscles. This treatment allegedly provides instant relief to pilgrims after an arduous climb up the mountain. Purported cures for various skin diseases was the next common use for the animal species on offer. Ten of the species observed for sale at Kyaiktiyo are listed as globally threatened, and 15 are protected and cannot be legally traded. Ambiguities in Myanmar's legislation mean that protected animals or their body parts cannot be traded, however traditional medicines can be made out of them provided rules relating to the manufacturing of traditional medicines are adhered to. This study indicated that animals and their parts

  14. Understanding Obesity and the Influence of Acculturation on Metabolic Responses in East Asian Populations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-05

    2001). Postprandial lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity in young Northern Europeans, South Asians and Latin Americans in the UK...Asians and Caucasians partially explained the differing postprandial metabolic responses. East Asian ethnicity is a risk factor for insulin resistance... Postprandial Metabolic Responses by Ethnicity .................................................................................... 91 6.1.2. Specific Aim 3

  15. Attempts to utilize and integrate traditional medicine in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Byungmook; Park, Jongbae; Han, Changyon

    2009-03-01

    To summarize the way North Korea attempted to modernize its system of traditional medicine and integrate it with Western biomedicine. We reviewed clinical textbooks and periodicals of traditional Korean medicine published in North Korea, research reports on North Korean health and medicine published elsewhere, and conducted interviews of defectors from North Korea who were students or clinicians of traditional medicine. Key findings of this study are: (1) North Korea has attempted several ways of integrating traditional medicine into education and clinical practices; (2) North Korea's communist government provided the main driving force for an integration policy; (3) school curricula of both Western and traditional Korean medicine incorporated knowledge of both disciplines, yet more weight was placed on traditional Korean medicine; (4) a combination of Western diagnosis and Korean therapeutics was the most frequent example of integration, while the dual system approach with reciprocal practice was also explored; (5) several forms of integrative therapeutic mixture were practiced including concurrent medication, injection on acupuncture points, and intramuscular or intravenous injection of extracts from medicinal plants; and (6) limited resources for research and the underdeveloped level of clinical research failed to secure rigorous scientific advancement. Despite the government-driven attempt to create an ideal integrative system of medicine, according to our findings, the actual introduction of an integrative system into practice was far from the North Korean government's anticipated outcome in regards to clinical practice. We hypothesize this was due to famine, economic crisis, and political isolation from the international realm. Traditional Korean medicine seems to have served the population, which is in desperate need of treatment amid difficulties in health, while North Korea's Western biomedicine-based health delivery system has been badly affected.

  16. Use of traditional medicine among type 2 diabetic Libyans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashur, Sana Taher; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Bosseri, Soad; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2017-07-16

    The use of traditional medicines is common among patients with chronic illnesses and this practice might pose health risks. The use among Libyan patients with diabetes is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of traditional medicine use in the previous year among Libyans with type 2 diabetes and to examine the association between its use and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large diabetes centre in Tripoli. A self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection. Of the 523 respondents, 28.9% used traditional remedies. Sex was the only variable significantly associated with traditional medicine use; more women used traditional medicines (P = 0.01). A total of 77 traditional medicine items were reported to be used, of which herbs were the most common. The use of traditional medicine for diabetes is prevalent and some of the reported items could pose health risks. Health education programmes are suggested to raise the awareness of the health risks of this practice.

  17. Lessons of Global Neo-liberalism? The East Asian Economic Crisis Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David A

    1999-01-01

    This paper begins with some comments on the way globalization has been linked to neo-liberal ideology. Then, the discussion shifts to East Asian (and specifically South Korean) political economy. Premised on an appreciation of the distinctiveness of the East Asia situation and economic trajectory, I will move into discussion of three key points about economic governance/organization: 1) foreign direct investment or, the historical lack thereof, during the decades of growth, 2) continuing te...

  18. Conceptualization of emotions in three medical systems: traditional chinese medicine, ayurveda and traditional mexican medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayelhi Itandehui Saavedra Solano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The  emergence  of  alternative  and  complementary  medicines  (CAM  to  address  emotional  upsets,  chronic  ailments and  achieving  overall wellness has  been  reported  in  several  countries.  Its  practices  generally  deal  with  the  psycho-physiological  and  the  spiritual  state.  Although  there  are  studies  concerning  different  aspects  about  CAM,  it  is  still little  the  information  on  the  concepts  of  person,  body  and  emotion  they  hold.  Therefore,  the  aim  of  this  paper  is to  determine  the conceptualization  of  emotions  in  traditional  chinese  medicine,  Ayurveda  and  traditional  mexican medicine. The information has been gathered on theoretical texts and works based in ethnographies. The three health practices conceptualize the body and emotions based on a vast symbolic world in which representations of the universe, nature and human beings are juxtaposed. The human being is represented as an interweaving of functions expressed materially (organs, tissue, etc. and immaterially (energy, emotions, etc.. In order to come to understand the emotions we first need to know the macro cosmic development, because emotions are manifestation of the energies that produce all  forms  of  life.  Into  these  health  practices,  the  organic,  emotional  and  energetic  aspects  are  equally  important  for diagnosis and treatment.

  19. [Application of network biology on study of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Sai-Sai; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2018-01-01

    With the completion of the human genome project, people have gradually recognized that the functions of the biological system are fulfilled through network-type interaction between genes, proteins and small molecules, while complex diseases are caused by the imbalance of biological processes due to a number of gene expression disorders. These have contributed to the rise of the concept of the "multi-target" drug discovery. Treatment and diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine are based on holism and syndrome differentiation. At the molecular level, traditional Chinese medicine is characterized by multi-component and multi-target prescriptions, which is expected to provide a reference for the development of multi-target drugs. This paper reviews the application of network biology in traditional Chinese medicine in six aspects, in expectation to provide a reference to the modernized study of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Application of microdialysis technique in the traditional chinese medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...

  1. [Systematic economic assessment and quality evaluation for traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang

    2015-05-01

    To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.

  2. Alzheimer Disease: Clues from traditional and complementary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin L. Cooper

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite modern medicine's incredible innovation and resulting accumulation of valuable knowledge, many of the world's most problematic diseases such as Alzheimer Disease (AD still lack effective cures and treatments. Western medicine has revealed many genetic, cellular, and molecular processes that characterize AD such as protein aggregation and inflammation. As the need for novel and effective treatments increases, researchers have turned towards traditional medicine as a resource. Modern, evidence based research examining traditional and complementary remedies for AD has generated promising results within the last decade. Animal based products inhibiting cellular toxicity, anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals such as omega-3 fatty acids, and plant based compounds derived from herbal medicine demonstrate viability as neuroprotective treatments and possible application in developing pharmaceuticals. Analysis of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective phytochemicals used in various traditional medicines around the world reveal potential to ameliorate and prevent the devastating neurodegeneration observed in AD.

  3. Criteria for evidence-based practice in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani Arabshahi, SeyyedKamran; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Shams-Ardakani, MohammadReza; Bigdeli, Shoaleh

    2015-07-01

    The major difference between Iranian traditional medicine and allopathic medicine is in the application  of  evidence  and  documents.  In  this  study,  criteria  for  evidence-based  practice  in  Iranian traditional medicine and its rules of practice were studied. The experts' views were investigated through in- depth, semi-structured interviews and the results were categorized into four main categories including Designing clinical questions/clinical question-based search, critical appraisal, resource search criteria and clinical prescription appraisal. Although the application of evidence in Iranian traditional medicine follows Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) principles but it benefits from its own rules, regulations, and criteria that are compatible with EBM.

  4. Afro Middle East Asian symposium on cancer cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvish M Parikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript captures the discussion and recommendations that came out of a special Afro Asian symposium involving 13 countries. Unmet needs and cost-effective solutions with special emphasis on training form the backbone of practical next steps.

  5. Food therapy and medical diet therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang

    2018-01-01

    Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...

  6. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production.

  7. use of traditional medicinal plants by people of 'boosat'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    preserved and made available for immediate application. Some of the major species used in this method are Senna occidentalis, Bidens pilosa and Andrachne aspera(Table1). Table 1. Families of medicinal plants and number of species used for humans ailments by. People of Boosat sub district, Central East Ethiopia.

  8. Recent Advances in Traditional Chinese Medicine for Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yifei; Menon, Madhav C; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; He, John Cijiang

    2015-09-01

    Because current treatment options for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited, many patients seek out alternative therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence from large clinical trials to support the use of traditional medicines in patients with CKD. Many active components of traditional medicine formulas are undetermined and their toxicities are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify active compounds from traditional medicines and understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds, as well as their potential toxicity, and subsequently perform well-designed, randomized, controlled, clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of their use in patients with CKD. Significant progress has been made in this field within the last several years. Many active compounds have been identified by applying sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, and more mechanistic studies of these compounds have been performed using both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, several well-designed, large, randomized, clinical trials have recently been published. We summarize these recent advances in the field of traditional medicines as they apply to CKD. In addition, current barriers for further research are also discussed. Due to the ongoing research in this field, we believe that stronger evidence to support the use of traditional medicines for CKD will emerge in the near future. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Indian Traditional Ayurvedic System of Medicine and Nutritional Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is the major source for serving the nutritional needs, but with growing modernization some traditional ways are being given up. Affluence of working population with changing lifestyles and reducing affordability of sick care, in terms of time and money involved, are some of the forces that are presently driving people towards thinking about their wellness. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate traditional herbal medicine are underway. Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine, remains the most ancient yet living traditions. Although India has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, it still needs more extensive research and evidence base. Increased side effects, lack of curative treatment for several chronic diseases, high cost of new drugs, microbial resistance and emerging, diseases are some reasons for renewed public interest in complementary and alternative medicines. Numerous nutraceutical combinations have entered the international market through exploration of ethnopharmacological claims made by different traditional practices. This review gives an overview of the Ayurvedic system of medicine and its role in translational medicine in order to overcome malnutrition and related disorders.

  10. Southeast Asian Medicinal Plants as a Potential Source of Antituberculosis Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all of the control strategies, tuberculosis (TB is still a major cause of death globally and one-third of the world’s population is infected with TB. The drugs used for TB treatment have drawbacks of causing adverse side effects and emergence of resistance strains. Plant-derived medicines have since been used in traditional medical system for the treatment of numerous ailments worldwide. There were nine major review publications on antimycobacteria from plants in the last 17 years. However, none is focused on Southeast Asian medicinal plants. Hence, this review is aimed at highlighting the medicinal plants of Southeast Asian origin evaluated for anti-TB. This review is based on literatures published in various electronic database. A total of 132 plants species representing 45 families and 107 genera were reviewed; 27 species representing 20.5% exhibited most significant in vitro anti-TB activity (crude extracts and/or bioactive compounds 0–<10 µg/ml. The findings may motivate various scientists to undertake the project that may result in the development of crude extract that will be consumed as complementary or alternative TB drug or as potential bioactive compounds for the development of novel anti-TB drug.

  11. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  12. Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used In Mali for Dysmenorrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of ...

  13. Moduratory effect of Thai traditional medicine (Yahom Tultavai) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, several herbs and traditional medicines have been reported to demonstrate herbal-drug interaction with conventional medicines. This study aims to investigate the effect of Yahom Tultavai extracts on hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes and pentobarbital-induced sleeping in mice. Three extracts of Yahom Tultavai, ...

  14. Traditional medicines and alternative practice in the management of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gime.6Currently in Ghana, alternate medicine has been incorporated into the main stream medical services. As a result, more patients are resorting to Traditional Medi- cine to address their ailments including prostate condi- tions. Other reasons for the increase in herbal medicine use in underdeveloped countries has been ...

  15. Mechanisms of action of traditional herbal medicines used in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing rapidly in both developed and developing countries. There are various conventional medicines used for the management of the disease, but there is also increased interest in the use of traditional herbal medicines. Although the concepts of illness and diseases ...

  16. Jamu : Indonesian traditional herbal medicine towards rational phytopharmacological use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elfahmi, [No Value; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Kayser, Oliver

    Jamu is the Indonesian traditional herbal medicine that has been practised for many centuries in the Indonesian community to maintain good health and to treat diseases. Although modern (conventional) medicine is becoming increasingly important in Indonesia, jamu is still very popular in rural as

  17. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-eastern Spain. ... This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in ...

  18. Applications of traditional Chinese medicines: bacterial biofilms as a target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, X.

    2015-01-01

    Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) are of significant importance for human health care in China and have a profound cultural and philosophical background described in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theories. The main objective of TCM is to maintain or restore the balance of the body as a whole

  19. Perception of the knowledge of traditional and herbal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The practice of traditional medicine in Nigeria is widely acceptable and contributes significantly to healthcare delivery, yet, integration and/or corecognition with orthodox medicine is still faced with a lot of challenges. One of the most recommended ways of addressing these challenges include enlightenment on the practice ...

  20. Challenges of University Adjustment in the UK: A Study of East Asian Master's Degree Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenli; Hammond, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the adjustment of East Asian Master's level students who came to study at a campus-based university in the UK during 2004-05. International students face challenges in respect to language proficiency, academic expectations and social participation. In this longitudinal study the experiences of a group of students from East…

  1. African Lion Cities: Deflating the MDG success of East Asian Tigers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In analysing the latest cross-country and household survey data, the paper finds that the MDG performance of African coastal capitals and island states is more like that of East Asian Tigers (which also have relatively small land size) compared to the national averages in mainland African countries. This is largely explained ...

  2. Variability of East Asian winter monsoon in Quaternary climatic extremes in North China.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.; van Huissteden, J.; Zhou, J.

    2000-01-01

    In order to examine high-frequency variations of East Asian winter monsoon in Quaternary climate extremes, two typical loess-paleosol sequences in the Chinese Loess Plateau were investigated. Sandy layers in the loess deposits, the "Upper sand" and "Lower sand" (layers L9 and L15, respectively),

  3. Cognitive aspects of sexual functioning: differences between East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual beliefs of female undergraduates, as well as the thoughts they experience during sexual experiences. The study aimed to determine potential differences in these variables between East Asian-Canadians and Euro-Canadians, as well as the influence of acculturation on these variables. In addition, the relationships between sexual beliefs, automatic thoughts, and specific aspects of sexual functioning were examined. Euro-Canadian (n = 77) and East Asian-Canadian (n = 123) undergraduate women completed the Sexual Dysfunctional Beliefs Questionnaire, the Sexual Modes Questionnaire, the Female Sexual Function Index, and the Vancouver Index of Acculturation. East Asian women endorsed almost all sexual beliefs assessed in this study more than did Euro-Canadian women, and endorsement of these beliefs was associated with acculturation. In addition, East Asian-Canadian and Euro-Canadian women differed in the frequency of experiencing negative automatic thoughts. Results also revealed associations between difficulties in sexual functioning, and both sexual beliefs and automatic thoughts. Together, these results provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that differences in cognitive aspects of sexuality may underlie the differences in sexual functioning previously observed between these two groups.

  4. Do East Asian and Euro-Canadian women differ in sexual psychophysiology research participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jane S T; Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A

    2010-07-01

    Evidence from studies of ethnic differences in sexual conservativeness and Papanicolaou (Pap) testing behaviors suggests that there may be culture-linked differences in rates of participation in physically invasive sexuality studies, resulting in volunteer bias. The effects of ethnicity and acculturation on participation in female psychophysiological sexual arousal research were investigated in a sample of Euro-Canadian (n = 50) and East Asian (n = 58) women. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires and were given either course credits or $10 for their participation. Participants were then informed about the opportunity to participate in a second phase of the study, which involved psychophysiological sexual arousal testing and which was completely optional. Contrary to expectations, the results showed that the East Asian women were more likely to participate in Phase 2 than the Euro-Canadian women. Among the East Asian women, greater heritage acculturation and lower mainstream acculturation predicted a lower likelihood of Phase 2 participation. The findings suggest the need to be wary of overgeneralizing female psychophysiological sexual arousal research results and may have implications for improving Pap testing behaviors in East Asian women.

  5. Impact of Social Support and Coping on Acculturation and Acculturative Stress of East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Young-An; Trusty, Jerry

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of social support and coping on acculturation and acculturative stress of international students. The authors used hierarchical multiple regression analysis to study a sample of 232 East Asian international students. The results indicate that social support and coping were partial mediators…

  6. An Emergent Leadership Model Based on Confucian Virtues and East Asian Leadership Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, LingLing; Irby, Beverly J.; Brown, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    For more than 2000 years, Confucian teaching has had tremendous influence on the history, politics, economy, and culture of East Asian countries and regions. Despite the rapid growth in gross domestic product (GDP), people's standard of living, and economic advancements, Confucian Asia continues to adhere to the Confucian cultural values that they…

  7. What is the Long Run Growth Rate of the East Asian Tigers?

    OpenAIRE

    B. Bhaskara Rao; Artur Tamazian; Rup Singh

    2010-01-01

    New panel data estimates for the four East Asian Tigers show that the contribution of total factor productivity (TFP) to growth is much higher than past estimates. An extended production function with learning by doing implies that TFP is about 3.5% and these countries will grow at this rate in the long run.

  8. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  9. Academic Adaptation among International Students from East Asian Countries: A Consensual Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanlin; Liu, Xun; Xu, Yusu; Cui, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    This study used a consensual qualitative research method to explore academic adaptation experiences of international students (N = 13) from East Asian countries at a U.S. university. The analysis yielded five domains from the data (challenges, feelings, strategies, suggestions, and self-reflections). Implications for college counselors, university…

  10. Job Search Self-Efficacy of East Asian International Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Jiun; Flores, Lisa Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using a sample of 86 East Asian international graduate students, this study examined Bandura's perceived self-efficacy model (1986) in the domain of job search self-efficacy and tested the mediating effects of job search self-efficacy in the relationship between efficacy source variables and job search behaviors. Results show that both performance…

  11. Beyond Language Barriers: Teaching Self-Efficacy among East Asian International Teaching Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined roles that perceived English fluency and sociocultural adaptation difficulty play in predicting self-efficacy beliefs for teaching in a sample of 119 international teaching assistants (ITAs) from East Asian countries of China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. Results showed that a positive relationship between perceived English…

  12. Comprehension of Indirect Requests in English by East Asian Non-Native Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitao, S. Kathleen

    A study of the relationship of request comprehension with context and experience with the language is reported. Sixty-two East Asian non-native English speaking students from China, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan were presented with seemingly spontaneous indirect requests during a taped interview. Their ability to respond appropriately to the…

  13. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  14. New Media and Archiving of Traditional Medicine Knowledge in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medical practice continues to be shrouded in secrecy, regarded as diabolic and often mocked, or spurned over issues of dubious efficacy, doubtful safety, quackery, and charlatanism. However, the majority of Nigerians and other Africans recourse to traditional medicine due to limited access to orthodox ...

  15. In Vitro Testing of African Traditional Medicines for Cytotoxic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Traditional Medicines (ATMs) serve as a major source of primary healthcare for African people. The reasons for their use range from easy access, affordability, beliefs in traditional systems and long term safety. ATMs have been used to treat individuals infected with HIV and therefore need scientific validation; a view ...

  16. Traditional medicine in late pregnancy and labour: perceptions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa most black women use antenatal care services and deliver in clinics, and a considerable number complement this use of formal health services with traditional medicine. This study reported here examined the knowledge, beliefs and practical experiences of pregnant women, traditional healers and midwives ...

  17. Influence of the areas of specialization of Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional Medicine Practitioners (TMPs) make use of plants in alleviation of many illnesses including memory loss. Their specialization categories could include traditional healers, herbalists, herb sellers, etc. Most of them learnt the trade as apprentices from their trainers or their parents. This study was designed to ...

  18. Why Are Incretin-Based Therapies More Efficient in East Asians? Perspectives from the Pathophysiology of Type 2 Diabetes and East Asian Dietary Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yabe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is one of the most serious global health problems. This is partly a result of its drastic increase in East Asia, which now comprises more than a quarter of the global diabetes population. Ethnicity and lifestyle factors are two determinants in the aetiology of T2D, and changes such as increased animal fat intake and decreased physical activity link readily to T2D in East Asians, which is characterised primarily by β-cell dysfunction that is evident immediately after ingestion of glucose or a meal, and less adiposity compared with T2D in Caucasians. These pathophysiological differences have an important impact on therapeutic approaches. Incretin-based therapies, such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA, have become widely available for the management of T2D. Incretins, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 are secreted from the gut in response to the ingestion of various nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, and enhance insulin secretion via a glucose-dependent pathway to exert their glucose-lowering effects. Recent meta-analyses of clinical trials of DPP-4i and GLP-1RA found the drugs to be more effective in East Asians, most likely due to amelioration of the primary β-cell dysfunction by increased stimulation through incretin activity. In addition, our finding that the glycosylated haemoglobin-lowering effects of DPP-4i are enhanced by fish intake, and possibly worsened by animal fat intake, suggests that dietary habits such as eating more fish and less meat can affect the secretion of incretins, and supports the greater efficacy of incretin-based therapies in East Asians.

  19. Strategy for market expansion: medical services of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Zongyou

    2013-04-01

    To explore a possible strategy of market expansion for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) medical services Based on literature study and the data collected through a survey with a specifically-designed questionnaire, a strategy was suggested for TCM medical services entities. The outcome of the survey showed that 87.50% of respondents held that TCM belonged to complementary and alternative medicine or traditional medicine. [corrected] TCM medical services entities should be considered as market stopgap in healthcare market and a strategy of market expansion for TCM medical services should be built for them accordingly.

  20. Culture and sun exposure in immigrant East Asian women living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyoung; Koo, Fung Kuen; Ke, Liang; Clemson, Lindy; Cant, Rosemary; Fraser, David R; Seibel, Marcus J; Tseng, Marilyn; Mpofu, Elias; Mason, Rebecca S; Brock, Kaye

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, researchers examined cultural and attitudinal factors that might be related to sun-exposure behaviors among East Asian women living in Australia. Researchers asked Chinese (n = 20) and Korean (n = 16) immigrant women who participated in a larger cross-sectional quantitative study of vitamin D blood levels to volunteer to participate in an in-depth interview in 2010. These women reported a number of cultural factors related to their attitudes and behaviors with regard to sun exposure. They expressed preference for fair skin, a tradition of covering skin when outdoors, and no sunbathing culture. They believed that fair skin was more beautiful than tanned skin. They reported that beauty was the reason for active avoidance of sunlight exposure. Although they reported knowledge of the need for sun avoidance due to skin cancer risk, few reported knowledge about the benefits of sun exposure for adequate vitamin D levels. These findings may provide some reasons for vitamin D deficiency previously reported in these populations. Thus, researchers recommend that these attitudes of excessive sun protection and limiting sun exposure be further investigated as they may have implications for planning and delivery of health promotion programs to this growing population of immigrants in Australia.

  1. Publishing scientifically sound papers in Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Ciro; Huang, Chia-Chi; Sheen, Lee-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Non-conventional medical practices that make use of dietary supplements, herbal extracts, physical manipulations, and other practices typically associated with folk and Traditional Medicine are increasingly becoming popular in Western Countries. These practices are commonly referred to by the generic, all-inclusive term "Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Scientists, practitioners, and medical institutions bear the responsibility of testing and proving the effectiveness of these non-conventional medical practices in the interest of patients. In this context, the number of peer-reviewed journals and published articles on this topic has greatly increased in the recent decades. In this editorial article, we illustrate the policy of the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine for publishing solid and scientifically sound papers in the field of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

  2. Traditional Knowledge of Western Herbal Medicine and Complex Systems Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Kathryn; Bell, Iris R; Koithan, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Traditional knowledge of Western herbal medicine (WHM) supports experiential approaches to healing that have evolved over time. This is evident in the use of polyherb formulations comprised of crude plant parts, individually tailored to treat the cause of dysfunction and imbalance by addressing the whole person holistically. The challenge for WHM is to integrate science with traditional knowledge that is a foundation of the practice of WHM. The purpose of this paper is to provide a plausible theoretical hypothesis by applying complex systems science to WHM, illustrating how medicinal plants are complex, adaptive, environmentally interactive systems exhibiting synergy and nonlinear healing causality. This paper explores the conceptual congruence between medicinal plants and humans as complex systems coherently coupled through recurrent interaction. Complex systems science provides the theoretical tenets that explain traditional knowledge of medicinal plants while supporting clinical practice and expanding research and documentation of WHM.

  3. [Standardization of names in prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Dong-He; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Bai, Xue; Yang, Wen-Hua; Qi, Shu-Ya; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Xue, Chun-Miao; Mao, Liu-Ying; Cao, Jun-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Chinese medicine prescriptions are a type of medical documents written by doctors after they understand the patients' conditions for syndrome differentiation. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis for pharmacy personnel to dispense medicines and guide patients to use drugs. It has the legal, technical and economic significances. Chinese medicine prescriptions contain such information of names, quantity and usage. Whether the names of drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions are standardized or not is directly related to the safety and efficacy of the drugs. At present, nonstandard clinical prescriptions are frequently seen. With "Chinese medicine prescription", "names of drug in Chinese medicine prescription" and "standards of Chinese medicine prescription" as key words, the author searched CNKI, Wanfang and other databases, and consulted nearly 100 literatures, so as to summarize current names of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription, analyze the reasons, and give suggestions, in the expectation of standardizing the names of drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. Enhancement of seasonal prediction of East Asian summer rainfall related to the western tropical Pacific convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D. Y.; Ahn, J. B.; Yoo, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The prediction skills of climate model simulations in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) and East Asian region are assessed using the retrospective forecasts of seven state-of-the-art coupled models and their multi-model ensemble (MME) for boreal summers (June-August) during the period 1983-2005, along with corresponding observed and reanalyzed data. The prediction of summer rainfall anomalies in East Asia is difficult, while the WTP has a strong correlation between model prediction and observation. We focus on developing a new approach to further enhance the seasonal prediction skill for summer rainfall in East Asia and investigate the influence of convective activity in the WTP on East Asian summer rainfall. By analyzing the characteristics of the WTP convection, two distinct patterns associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) developing and decaying modes are identified. Based on the multiple linear regression method, the East Asia Rainfall Index (EARI) is developed by using the interannual variability of the normalized Maritime continent-WTP indices (MPIs), as potentially useful predictors for rainfall prediction over East Asia, obtained from the above two main patterns. For East Asian summer rainfall, the EARI has superior performance to the East Asia summer monsoon index (EASMI) or each MP index (MPI). Therefore, the regressed rainfall from EARI also shows a strong relationship with the observed East Asian summer rainfall pattern. In addition, we evaluate the prediction skill of the East Asia reconstructed rainfall obtained by statistical-empirical approach using the cross-validated EARI from the individual models and their MME. The results show that the rainfalls reconstructed from simulations capture the general features of observed precipitation in East Asia quite well. This study convincingly demonstrates that rainfall prediction skill is considerably improved by using the statistical-empirical method compared to the dynamical models

  5. Nutritional Advice for Patients with Melasma in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdis Mojtabaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Melasma (called Kalaf in Iranian traditional medicine is a common acquired hypermelanosis that affects sun-exposed areas of skin. Several factors including exposure to sunlight, pregnancy, and endocrine diseases increase the risk for Melasma. In traditional medicine, antecedent philosophers and physicians have tried to understand the nature and mechanisms of different systems of the human body for the diagnosis and management of Melasma; they have offered different solutions for it. This study is important since Melasma is a disease causing mental side effects in patients, due to darkness and opacity of the skin; therefore, the treatment of Melasma in terms of its psychological complications is of particular importance. In addition, texts of Iranian traditional medicine contain a wealth of nutritional advice for patients with Melasma. These texts have, until now, not yet been reviewed. The present study has considered the most important references of Iranian traditional medicine texts. Objectives The objective of this study was to extract and categorize the nutritional advice of Iranian traditional medicine texts for the treatment of Melasma. Results Dietary recommendations, not only for treatment but also for prevention of diseases and staying healthy, are very efficient. Conclusions Based on the traditional medicine texts, it is helpful to avoid Soda-producing food as well as to identify appropriate food in order to eliminate the accumulation of Soda or black bile from the blood. This study offers a set of analytical and clinical research on food, which in traditional medicine is called Soda-producing as well as Soda reducing.

  6. Metaphysical and value underpinnings of traditional medicine in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omonzejele, Peter F; Maduka, Chukwugozie

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the extent to which recourse to traditional healers depended on biometric variables; ways of knowing in good time what ailments were more likely to be better handled by traditional healers; rationale behind traditional healing methodologies. On the whole, four research questions were engaged. The sample for the study included residents in urban (Benin City) and rural (Ehime Mbano) communities in Nigeria. The instruments comprised of two questionnaires. The traditional healers were also interviewed in addition. The findings of the research included the following: in both rural and urban areas, women and more elderly persons had more recourse than other groups to traditional medicine; Christians, less educated persons, self-employed persons and women affirmed most strongly to the efficacy of traditional medicine over Western medicine with respect to certain ailments; ways for averting spiritual illnesses included obeying instructions from ancestors and offering regular sacrifices to the gods; methods used by traditional healers to determine whether an ailment was "spiritual" or as a result of home problems included diagnosis linked to divination, interpretation of dreams particularly those involving visits by ancestors, interpretation of nightmares and omens such as the appearance of owls; methods for curing patients included use of herbs particularly those believed to have magical powers, offering of sacrifices, use of incantations and wearing of protective medicine.

  7. Preference and willingness to pay for traditional medicine services in rural ethnic minority community in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Ngan Kim; Nguyen, Lan Phuong; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Nong, Vuong Minh; Nguyen, Long Hoang

    2016-02-03

    Traditional medicine (TM) still plays an important role in a number of health care systems around the world, especially across Asian and African countries. In Vietnam, however, little is known about preference for traditional medicine use. This study assessed the prevalence of use, preference, satisfaction, and willingness to pay for TM services amongst rural ethnic minority community. A cross-sectional survey in three provinces in the North and South of Vietnam. The results showed a high level of satisfaction with TM services, with more than 90 % of respondents reporting improved health status given the use of TM. Indicators for preference of TM over modern medicine are a longer distance to health station; being in an ethnic minority; being female; and having had higher service satisfaction. Although we did not have a comparison group, the high level of satisfaction with TM services is likely the result of a project targeting community health workers and the public regarding TM education and access promotion. Indeed, the community health workers are credited with relaying the information about TM more than any other sources. This suggests the importance of community health workers and community health centers in the promotion of TM use. Ethnic minority people prefer the use of traditional medicine services that supports the expansion of national programs and promotion of traditional medications.

  8. East-Asian Students' Choice of Canadian Graduate Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    This study seeks to explain why and how international graduate students from East Asia choose to come to Canada to pursue advanced education, to assess the strengths and dynamics of the factors influencing the enrollment decision, and to describe possible implications both for education-exporting countries and universities offering graduate…

  9. Cervical cancer prevention training in South East Asian LMICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Soon-Yau Ng

    2017-02-01

    Singapore is a first-world economy with a healthcare system that can support this mode of training and is geographically proximate to Southeast Asian LMICs that need this training. This makes it possible for model of tiered training with trainers on site in the LMICs and more advanced training where trainees receive training in Singapore. We present a case study where this tiered system of training is applied to Cambodia and demonstrate that this model of training is not only effective but also sustainable.

  10. Bioactive peptides derived from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2016-11-01

    There is an urgent treat of numerous chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, which have a significant influence on the health of people worldwide. In addition to numerous preventive and therapeutic drug treatments, important advances have been achieved in the identification of bioactive peptides that may contribute to long-term health. Although bioactive peptides with various biological activities received unprecedented attention, as a new source of bioactive peptides, the significant role of bioactive peptides from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food has not fully appreciated compared to other bioactive components. Hence, identification and bioactivity assessment of these peptides could benefit the pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the functional properties of bioactive peptides help to demystify drug properties and health benefits of traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. This paper reviews the generation and biofunctional properties of various bioactive peptides derived from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. Mechanisms of digestion, bioavailability of bioactive peptides and interactions between traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food are also summarized in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Medicinal Plants from Near East for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S.; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cancer is one of the major problems affecting public health worldwide. As other cultures, the populations of the Near East rely on medicinal herbs and their preparations to fight cancer. Methods: We compiled data derived from historical ethnopharmacological information as well as in vitro and in vivo results and clinical findings extracted from different literature databases including (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) during the past two decades. Results: In this survey, we analyzed the huge amount of data available on anticancer ethnopharmacological sources used in the Near East. Medicinal herbs are the most dominant ethnopharmacological formula used among cancer’s patients in the Near East. The data obtained highlight for the first time the most commonly used medicinal plants in the Near East area for cancer treatment illustrating their importance as natural anticancer agents. The literature survey reveals that various Arum species, various Artemisia species, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Nigella sativa, Pulicaria crispa, various Urtica species, Withania somnifera, and others belong to the most frequently used plants among cancer patients in the Near East countries. Molecular modes of action that have been investigated for plant extracts and isolated compounds from Near East include cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction with participation of major player in these processes such as p53 and p21, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, activation of caspases, etc. Conclusion: The ethnopharmacology of the Near East was influenced by Arabic and Islamic medicine and might be promising for developing new natural and safe anticancer agents. Further research is required to elucidate their cellular and molecular mechanisms and to estimate their clinical activity. PMID:29445343

  12. Medicinal Plants from Near East for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Abu-Darwish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major problems affecting public health worldwide. As other cultures, the populations of the Near East rely on medicinal herbs and their preparations to fight cancer.Methods: We compiled data derived from historical ethnopharmacological information as well as in vitro and in vivo results and clinical findings extracted from different literature databases including (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar during the past two decades.Results: In this survey, we analyzed the huge amount of data available on anticancer ethnopharmacological sources used in the Near East. Medicinal herbs are the most dominant ethnopharmacological formula used among cancer’s patients in the Near East. The data obtained highlight for the first time the most commonly used medicinal plants in the Near East area for cancer treatment illustrating their importance as natural anticancer agents. The literature survey reveals that various Arum species, various Artemisia species, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Nigella sativa, Pulicaria crispa, various Urtica species, Withania somnifera, and others belong to the most frequently used plants among cancer patients in the Near East countries. Molecular modes of action that have been investigated for plant extracts and isolated compounds from Near East include cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction with participation of major player in these processes such as p53 and p21, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, activation of caspases, etc.Conclusion: The ethnopharmacology of the Near East was influenced by Arabic and Islamic medicine and might be promising for developing new natural and safe anticancer agents. Further research is required to elucidate their cellular and molecular mechanisms and to estimate their clinical activity.

  13. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  14. High carbon dioxide uptake by subtropical forest ecosystems in the East Asian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guirui; Chen, Zhi; Piao, Shilong; Peng, Changhui; Ciais, Philippe; Wang, Qiufeng; Li, Xuanran; Zhu, Xianjin

    2014-01-01

    Temperate- and high-latitude forests have been shown to contribute a carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere, but fewer studies have addressed the carbon balance of the subtropical forests. In the present study, we integrated eddy covariance observations established in the 1990s and 2000s to show that East Asian monsoon subtropical forests between 20°N and 40°N represent an average net ecosystem productivity (NEP) of 362 ± 39 g C m−2 yr−1 (mean ± 1 SE). This average forest NEP value is higher than that of Asian tropical and temperate forests and is also higher than that of forests at the same latitudes in Europe–Africa and North America. East Asian monsoon subtropical forests have comparable NEP to that of subtropical forests of the southeastern United States and intensively managed Western European forests. The total NEP of East Asian monsoon subtropical forests was estimated to be 0.72 ± 0.08 Pg C yr−1, which accounts for 8% of the global forest NEP. This result indicates that the role of subtropical forests in the current global carbon cycle cannot be ignored and that the regional distributions of the Northern Hemisphere's terrestrial carbon sinks are needed to be reevaluated. The young stand ages and high nitrogen deposition, coupled with sufficient and synchronous water and heat availability, may be the primary reasons for the high NEP of this region, and further studies are needed to quantify the contribution of each underlying factor. PMID:24639529

  15. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.

  16. Regular aerobic exercise and blood pressure in East Asians: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yutaka; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Maeda, Seiji

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of regular aerobic exercise on blood pressure in East Asians. The inclusion criteria of the randomized controlled trials were healthy East Asian adults, exercise group performing regular aerobic exercise and control group not exercising, and a description of the mean systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure at rest. This study included 31 study groups and 1994 subjects. Pooled changes in blood pressure showed significant reductions (systolic blood pressure: -4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure: -3.2 mmHg). In subgroup analyses, the change in systolic blood pressure for randomized controlled trials meeting the America Heart Association and American College of Sports Medicine guidelines for physical activity to maintain health was significantly larger than in randomized controlled trials not meeting the guidelines. In addition, meta-regression indicated that the change in systolic blood pressure was significantly related to "exercise time × exercise frequency." The ideal volume of exercise is that for a long time at a high frequency, such as the volume recommended in the America Heart Association and American College of Sports Medicine guidelines: moderate intensity and >150 min per week. List of abbreviations: BP: blood pressure; BMI: body mass index; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure; RCT: randomized controlled trial; AHA: America Heart Association; ACSM: America College of Sports Medicine; SD: standard deviation; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; TC: total cholesterol; TG: triglycerides; PEDro: Physiotherapy Evidence Database; CI: confidence intervals; %HR max : percentage of maximal heart rate.

  17. Sustainable Traditional Medicine: Taking the Inspirations from Ancient Veterinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Rastogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine.

  18. Maytenus heterophylla and Maytenus senegalensis, two traditional herbal medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G.; Serrano, R.; Silva, O.

    2011-01-01

    Maytenus heterophylla (Eckl. and Zeyh.) N.K.B. Robson and Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell are two African shrubs or trees that go under the common name of spike thorn, which belong to the Celastraceae family. Different plant parts of this species are largely used in traditional medicine for infectious and inflammatory diseases treatment. Several studies have been reported for both these species, but there are no recent review articles focusing microscopic, phytochemistry and pharmacological studies. The aim of this review is to summarize the information about these two African traditional medicines. Such kind of data can be applied in future experimental work and may guide future studies, namely in the field of validation of traditional medicine. PMID:22470236

  19. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Flores-Vallejo, Rosario Del Carmen; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2017-08-17

    We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species. We carried out a bibliographic investigation by analyzing local and international peer-reviewed papers selected by consulting internationally accepted scientific databases from 1995 to 2014. We provide specific information about the evaluated plant parts, the type of extracts, the tested bacterial strains, and the inhibitory concentrations for each one of the species. We recorded the ethnomedical information for the active species, as well as their popular names and local distribution. Information about the plant compounds that has been identified is included in the manuscript. This review also incorporates an extensive summary of the available toxicological reports on the recorded species, as well as the worldwide registries of plant patents used for treating bacterial infections. In addition, we provide a list with the top plant species with antibacterial activities in this review RESULTS: We documented the in vitro antibacterial activities of 343 plant species pertaining to 92 botanical families against 72 bacterial species, focusing particularly on Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plant families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae included the largest number of active species. Information related to popular uses reveals that the majority of the plants, in addition to treating infections, are used to treat other conditions. The distribution of Mexican plants extended from those that were reported to grow in just one state to those that grow in all 32 Mexican states. From 75 plant species, 225 compounds were identified. Out of the total plant species, only 140 (40.57%) had at least one report about their toxic effects. From 1994 to July 2014 a total of 11

  20. E-health in the East Asian tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Ian; Tam, Wai-Keung

    2004-11-01

    The article analyzes e-health progress in East Asia's leading tiger economies: Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan. It describes five main dimensions of e-health provision in the tigers: policymaking, regulation, provision, funding and physician-patient relations. We conducted a series of fieldwork interviews and analyzed key healthcare websites. Our main finding is that the development of e-health in the region is less advanced than might be expected. Our explanation focuses on institutional, cultural and financial factors.

  1. The Rapid Arctic Warming and Its Impact on East Asian Winter Weather in Recent Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. J.; Kim, B. M.; Kim, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic is warming much more rapidly than the lower latitudes. In contrast to the rapid Arctic warming, in winters of the recent decade, the cold-air outbreaks over East Asia occur more frequently and stronger than in 1990s. By accompanying the snow over East Asia, the strong cold surges have led to a severe socio-economic impact. Such severe cold surges in recent decade over east Asia is consistent with the more dominant negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), that may be attributed by the Arctic amplification. In both observation-based reanalysis and numerical model experiments, the Arctic sea ice melting leads to the weakening of the AO polarity by reducing the meridional temperature gradient through a heat flux feedback. The Arctic warming and associated sea ice melting over the Kara-Barents area in late fall and early winter first release a lot of heat to the atmosphere from the ocean by a strong contrast in temperature and moisture and higher height anomaly is developed over the Kara/Barents and the Ural mountains The anomalous anticyclonic anomaly over the Arctic strengthen the Siberian High and at the same time the east Asian trough is developed over the western coast of the North Pacific. Through the passage between the margin of the Siberian High and east Asian tough, an extremely cold air is transported from east Siberia to east Asia for sometimes more than a week. Such a severe sold air brings about the moisture from nearby ocean, largely influencing the daily lives and economy in north East China, Korea, and Japan. The recent Arctic and associated sea ice melting is not only contributed to the local climate and weather, but also a severe weather in mid-latitudes through a modulation in polar vortex.

  2. East Asian Regionalisms and Korea in the 1940’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byong Kwon Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to consider the various types of regionalisms in East Asia during the 1940’s, and Korea’s position in the United States’ “Great China Policy” and demilitarization and democratization plans for Japan. After World War II, although aspects of regionalism were formed by the Cold War in East Asia, the regional structure of Northeast Asia was originally formed from the ‘turn of the century’ through the Asian Pacific War. From the beginning of the 1940’s, Japan promoted the idea of a “Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” in order to justify its hegemonic position in the East Asian regional order. In addition, the United States and Japan’s readjustment plans appeared to be related to strategies regarding the regional order of East Asia. During World War II, the victorious U.S. had already become one of the world’s superpowers and by principle, collaboration between the superpowers (United States, Great Britain, China, and the Soviet Union revealed an initiative for a four country police state. Japan devised a survival strategy in the case of its defeat. During the war in the early 1940’s, these policies and plans were used to recognize Großraum around the East Asian region. This paper points out the significance of the 1940’s and the continuity between the awareness of the wartime situation and the prospective situation during the postwar period. During the 1940’s, three forms of regionalism in East Asia appeared. The first was Japan’s regional hegemony over the East Asian regional order. In order to preserve regional hegemony, Imperial Japan gave specific meaning to Korea as an extension of its own economy. The second is based on the United States as an offshore hegemonic power, which chose China as a subordinate partner within East Asia and used the division of labor through sub-horizontal industry based on an initiative to suppress Japan. In order to weaken the economic dominance of Japanese Empire

  3. Air-sea interaction processes over the east-asian marginal seas surrounding the Korean peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bala Subrahamanyam

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we describe the seasonal variation of air-sea interface fluxes of heat, momentum and moisture over the East Asian Marginal Seas (EAMS surrounding the Korean Peninsula. Surface layer meteorological observations for a period of about six years obtained from five oceanic buoys deployed in the Yellow Sea, Korean Strait and East (Japan Sea form the database for this study. With the available database, monthly mean of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and momentum flux obtained from the present analysis is compared with the existing climatological data over the EAMS.

  4. Asian school of nuclear medicine-how far we are?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizanul Hasan

    2004-01-01

    With a big aspiration the concept of Asian School of Nuclear Medicine was introduced about 3 years back in Bangkok. Since then the topic has been discussed in many meetings and now the concept is a reality with appointment of a Dean for the school.It is of great hope that the concept of the school has been accepted by all in tbe region. However to establish an school is not a very easy task. There is nostraight path for it. A regional school with involvement of many countries definitely need to be solved many questions before it really acts as an effective organization. With that sense it may besaid that ASNM is a successful organization at least in formation of an executive body of the school in less than three years time. The school has now a recognition, officially or unofficially, not only in Asia but in rest of the world also. This is the greatest achievement of ASNM. However, the school needs togo a long way before it actually contributes in development of nuclear medicine in the region. ARCCNM is projecting the school but more active support of the countries in the region is essentialin fulfilling the goal of ASNM. More close cooperation of other regional and international bodies likeAOFNMB, CJK will also be helpful. Support of IAEA who was interested in such type of school should be especially explored. The school has come into birth. Now it is our obligation and responsibility to nourish it and give the school a chance to grow healthy. (authors)

  5. A survey on saffron in major islamic traditional medicine books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Islamic Traditional Medicine (ITM) is a holistic system of medicine. Saffron (Crocus sativus) is one of the most famous plants cultivated in Iran and has a wide range of activities such as oxytocic, anti-carcinogenic, exhilarant, anti-depressant, and anti-asthma effects. In addition, saffron can increase the bioavailability and enhance absorption of other drugs. This study comprises a bibliographical survey of 13 major ITM books regarding different medical aspects of this species. Ferdows al-Hekmah fi'l-Tibb (The Paradise of Wisdom in Medicine), Al-Hawi fi'l-Tibb (Comprehensive Book of Medicine), Kamel al-Sanaat al-Tibbyyah (Complete Book of the Medical Art), Al-Qanun fi'l-Tibb (Canon of Medicine), Zakhireh Kharazmshahi (Treasure of Kharazmshahi), and Makhzan al-Adwiah (Drug Treasure) are some of the most important ITM books used in this survey.

  6. Acculturative stress and use of the Internet among East Asian international students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jiali

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the relationships between acculturative stress of East Asian international students and their use of the Internet, taking into account Internet types (English-language Internet and native-language Internet) and Internet motives. A survey was conducted among 115 East Asian international students who attended a large urban university in the southeastern United States. On average, students used English-language Internet more than native-language Internet. A positive correlation was found between using English-language Internet and English proficiency. The analysis identified three Internet motives: information seeking, relaxation/entertainment, and social utility. Perceived discrimination was a positive predictor of the motives of social utility and relax/entertainment. Fear was a positive predictor of the motive of social utility.

  7. Not all collectivisms are equal: opposing preferences for ideal affect between East Asians and Mexicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Matthew B; Falk, Carl F; Heine, Steven J; Villa, Covadonga; Silberstein, Orly

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has revealed differences in how people value and pursue positive affect in individualistic and collectivistic cultural contexts. Whereas Euro-Americans place greater value on high activation positive affect (HAP; e.g., excitement, enthusiasm, elation) than do Asian Americans and Hong Kong Chinese, the opposite is true for low activation positive affect (LAP; e.g., calmness, serenity, tranquility). Although the form of collectivism present in East Asia dictates that individuals control and subdue their emotional expressions so as to maintain harmonious relationships, the opposite norm emerges in Mexico and other Latin American countries, in that the cultural script of simpatía promotes harmony through the open and vibrant expression of positive emotion. Across two studies, we found that Mexicans display a pattern of HAP/LAP preference different from those from East Asian collectivistic cultures, endorsing HAP over LAP. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Pruritus Treatment in Viewpoints of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazani, Arezoo Moini; Azgomi, Ramin Nasimi Doost; Shirbeigi, Leila

    2016-05-01

    Pruritus is an unpleasant feeling that can cause the desire of scratching in a person and can be the symptoms of systemic, infectious, and neurological diseases. Pruritus is the most common clinical manifestation of skin diseases. Pruritus prevalence is 8-38% in the general population. Causes and treatments of pruritus have been described by traditional Persian medicine scientists. The aim of this study was to derive general principles of the proposed treatment to reduce or relieve pruritus. This descriptive study, review traditional medicine books including Al canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Makhzan ul-adviyyah, Al-Abniyah an-Haghyegh el-adviyah, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Exir-e-Azam. The above-mentioned documents were derived and classified by keywords such as pruritus, hakka, jarab and sherry. In traditional Persian medicine, there are different causes for pruritus such as accumulation of vapors or acute humors in subcutaneous tissue or weakness of expulsive (Dafi'a) faculty and its treatment is based on removing the causes. Proper nutrition, bathing, and removing pathogenic humors are involved in the treatment. According to this study, some plants such as Cassia fistula, Purslane, Violets, Fumaria, Barley, Coriander, Rose and Terminalia chebula are anti-itching. Proper nutrition is the most important point in health and treatment of humors production with appropriate quality and quantity. Pruritus can be treated by lifestyle modification and using medicinal plants. It could be concluded that traditional Persian medicine therapies can be effective in the treatment of pruritus with mild side effects. By further investigation and research, we can reach more effective treatment methods in the field of traditional Persian medicine along with other new medical therapies.

  9. The impact of dust on sulfate aerosol, CN and CCN during an East Asian dust storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Manktelow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A global model of aerosol microphysics is used to simulate a large East Asian dust storm during the ACE-Asia experiment. We use the model together with size resolved measurements of aerosol number concentration and composition to examine how dust modified the production of sulfate aerosol and the particle size distribution in East Asian outflow. Simulated size distributions and mass concentrations of dust, sub- and super-micron sulfate agree well with observations from the C-130 aircraft. Modeled mass concentrations of fine sulfate (Dp<1.3 μm decrease by ~10% due to uptake of sulfur species onto super-micron dust. We estimate that dust enhanced the mass concentration of coarse sulfate (Dp>1.0 μm by more than an order of magnitude, but total sulfate concentrations increase by less than 2% because decreases in fine sulfate have a compensating effect. Our analysis shows that the sulfate associated with dust can be explained largely by the uptake of H2SO4 rather than reaction of SO2 on the dust surface, which we assume is suppressed once the particles are coated in sulfate. We suggest that many previous model investigations significantly overestimated SO2 oxidation on East Asian dust, possibly due to the neglect of surface saturation effects. We extend previous model experiments by examining how dust modified existing particle concentrations in Asian outflow. Total particle concentrations (condensation nuclei, CN modeled in the dust-pollution plume are reduced by up to 20%, but we predict that dust led to less than 10% depletion in particles large enough to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN. Our analysis suggests that E. Asian dust storms have only a minor impact on sulfate particles present at climate-relevant sizes.

  10. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eLeonti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacological approach towards the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to ageing related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in traditional medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend towards the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems.Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of foreign medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  11. Traditional medicines and globalization: current and future perspectives in ethnopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The ethnopharmacological approach toward the understanding and appraisal of traditional and herbal medicines is characterized by the inclusions of the social as well as the natural sciences. Anthropological field-observations describing the local use of nature-derived medicines are the basis for ethnopharmacological enquiries. The multidisciplinary scientific validation of indigenous drugs is of relevance to modern societies at large and helps to sustain local health care practices. Especially with respect to therapies related to aging related, chronic and infectious diseases traditional medicines offer promising alternatives to biomedicine. Bioassays applied in ethnopharmacology represent the molecular characteristics and complexities of the disease or symptoms for which an indigenous drug is used in "traditional" medicine to variable depth and extent. One-dimensional in vitro approaches rarely cope with the complexity of human diseases and ignore the concept of polypharmacological synergies. The recent focus on holistic approaches and systems biology in medicinal plant research represents the trend toward the description and the understanding of complex multi-parameter systems. Ethnopharmacopoeias are non-static cultural constructs shaped by belief and knowledge systems. Intensified globalization and economic liberalism currently accelerates the interchange between local and global pharmacopoeias via international trade, television, the World Wide Web and print media. The increased infiltration of newly generated biomedical knowledge and introduction of "foreign" medicines into local pharmacopoeias leads to syncretic developments and generates a feedback loop. While modern and post-modern cultures and knowledge systems adapt and transform the global impact, they become more relevant for ethnopharmacology. Moreover, what is traditional, alternative or complementary medicine depends on the adopted historic-cultural perspective.

  12. Perception of Alzheimer Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifadini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehrabani, Mitra; Kamalinegad, Mohamad; Haghdoost, Aliakbar

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. In regards to the world's aging population, control and treatment of AD will be one of the major concerns of global public health in the next century. Alzheimer disease was not mentioned with the same phrase or its equivalent in traditional medical texts. The main of present paper was to investigate symptoms and causes of alzheimer disease from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine. In this qualitative study, we searched reliable sources of Iranian traditional medicine such as Canon of Medicide by Avicenna (Al-Quanon fi- tibb), Aghili cure by Aghili's (Molajat-E-aghili), Tib-E-Akbari, Exire -E-Aazam and Sharh-E-Asbab and some reliable resources of neurology were probed base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlap in terms of symptoms with alzheimer disease. By taking from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Findings showed that alzheimer disease has the most overlap with Nesyan (fisad-e-zekr, fisad-e-fekr and fisad-e-takhayol) symptoms in Iranian traditional medicine. Although this is not a perfect overlap and there are causes, including coldness and dryness of the brain or coldness and wetness that could also lead to alzheimer disease according to Iranian traditional medicine. According to Iranian traditional medicine, The brain dystemperement is considered the main causes of alzheimer disease. By correcting the brain dystemperement, alzheimer can be well managed. This study helps to suggest a better strategy for preventing and treating alzheimer in the future.

  13. Immigrant Entrepreneurship in United Arab Emirates: An exploratory study on East African Asian Immigrant Businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Khakoo, Mohamed Hussein Turabali

    2008-01-01

    Immigrant entrepreneurship has always existed and has developed remarkably. It is related to migration flows over time and has brought increasing attention from researchers and management practitioners in recent years. The research sets out to investigate the process by which immigrants enter into entrepreneurship. The idea of starting a small business and the internationalization strategies they follow. A homogeneous ethnic minority is researched upon, the East African Asians who had migrate...

  14. Association between alanine aminotransferase and intracerebral hemorrhage in East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeon Chang; Oh, Sun Min; Pan, Wen-Harn; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Gu, Dongfeng; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Fujiyoshi, Akira; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Suh, Il

    2013-01-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and chronic liver disease are relatively common in East Asian countries. However, the relationship between the two diseases is unclear. Thus, we investigated the association between serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and ICH risk in East Asian populations. The East Asian Network for Stroke Prevention enrolled 279,982 participants with ALT measurements from four cohort studies in Korea, Taiwan, Japan and mainland China. Among them, 1,324 ICH events and 493 ICH deaths were observed. Cox's proportional hazard regression analysis was performed in each cohort to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) after adjusting for age, blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol, smoking and alcohol intake. Combined HRs were then estimated using pooled analyses with fixed-effects models. The multivariate-adjusted pooled HRs (with 95% confidence interval, CI) for ICH incidence per 10 IU/l increments of ALT were 1.04 (1.03-1.04) in men and 1.01 (0.98-1.04) in women. Corresponding HRs for ICH mortality were 1.04 (1.02-1.05) in men and 1.04 (1.00-1.08) in women. The pooled HRs for ICH incidence in participants with ALT levels greater than or equal to 50 IU/l compared to those with levels less than 20 IU/l were 1.74 (1.41-2.16) in men and 1.60 (1.06-2.40) in women. The corresponding HRs for ICH mortality were 1.72 (1.21-2.44) in men and 1.63 (0.79-3.36) in women. An elevated ALT level was independently and significantly associated with an increased risk of ICH in East Asian men, but the association was less prominent in women. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Traditional beliefs and practices in pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum: A review of the evidence from Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Mellissa; Kharazmi, Nina; Lim, Esther

    2018-01-01

    Asian women suffer the largest proportion of the world's maternal deaths. To reduce this, policymakers and healthcare providers must encourage women with traditionally low rates of maternal health care utilization to access services. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the most common traditional practices in Asia relating to pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. We conducted a literature search of articles: a) focusing on Asia; b) relating to pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum, c) relating to traditional beliefs and/or cultural practices; and 4) published in English in the year 2000 or more recently. A total of 74 articles are included in this review; 20 articles related to pregnancy, 44 to childbirth, and 45 to postpartum. More than one-half (38) of the articles focused on South Asia and 13 related to China. In the pregnancy category, the majority of the studies focused on dietary recommendations and behavioral taboos. For the childbirth category, many articles examined beliefs and practices that helped to explain women's aversion to institutional births, such as preference for traditional birth positions, and fear of medical interventions. In the postpartum period, confinement was common because postpartum women were perceived to be weak, fragile and vulnerable to illness. Other prevalent beliefs and practices across Asian countries included massage, the state of pollution after childbirth, the use of traditional healers and traditional medicine and herbs, beliefs relating to hot/cold imbalance, behavioral taboos, magic, and superstition. Many Asian women continue to practice a wide range of traditional beliefs and practices during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. More information is needed on the benefits of formal maternal healthcare services; such educational programs should be geared towards not only women but also husbands, parents, and in-laws. By recognizing and appreciating common local beliefs

  16. The Socio-Cultural Environment for Entrepreneurship: A Comparison Between East Asian and Anglo-Saxon Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas M Begley; Wee-Liang Tan

    2001-01-01

    This study uses a theory of face to identify predictors of interest in entrepreneurship in six East Asian and four Anglo-Saxon countries. At the cultural level, social status of entrepreneurship and shame from business failure predict interest in entrepreneurship better in East Asian than Anglo countries. At the individual level, social status predicts interest in entrepreneurship in the entire sample.© 2001 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (2001) 32, 537–553

  17. Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Traditional Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus by Traditional Medicine Practitioners in Kenya- Key Informant Interviews. ... Herbalists in Kenya are widely consulted for the management of many diseases including Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). ... In addition, presenting signs and symptoms were key in diagnosing T2DM.

  18. Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use in a community population in Lao PDR. ... were used for the purpose of health tonic or nourishments and for a number of chronic conditions (gout, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, cancer, migraine, mental disorder, and gastrointestinal disorders).

  19. Regulating Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen E. Randall

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals.

  20. Traditional Medicine: Past, present and future research and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high cost of drugs and increase in drug resistance to common diseases like malaria, bacteria infections and other sexually transmitted diseases has caused the therapeutic approach to alternative traditional medicine as an option for concerted search for new chemical entities (NCE). The World Health Organisation ...

  1. Antidiarrhoeal activity of different plants used in traditional medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activity of different plants used in traditional medicine. SP Gutiérrez, MAZ Sánchez, CP González, LA García. Abstract. Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children under age of 5 years. In view of this problem, the World Health Organization has a Diarrhoea Disease Control ...

  2. The malaria scourge: the place of complementary traditional medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    That plants are veritable sources of scientific bioactive drug discovery is attested to by the fact that many species of these plants are important condiments of observed efficacious traditional medicines and concoctions in developing countries. The study of naturally occurring compounds has evinced impressive advances in ...

  3. Evaluation of Traditional Medicines I: Identification of Phela Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHELA is a herbal mixture of four African traditional medicinal plants that has been used for decades in wasting conditions and is now being developed by the Medical Research Council (MRC) as an immune booster for patients with compromised immune system. A chromatographic fingerprint of PHELA was needed for ...

  4. Jing Tong Yu Shu , a traditional Chinese medicine, suppresses IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a rat surgical model. Methods: Endometriosis was induced in 40 female rats. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: three JTYS groups given different doses of the drug, and a saline group. After four ...

  5. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal polyps and chronic gastritis: A case report. ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing into cancer is 40 – 70 %. Endoscopic resection has been the preferred method ...

  6. Synergistic effect of radiation and traditional Chinese medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and it is the most common cancer in terms of both incidence and mortality. There is an urgent need on novel therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have potential valuable for cancer treatment. Materials and ...

  7. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. YUKI TAKAUJI KENSUKE ... with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  8. Green Medicine: Traditional Mexican-American Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Eliseo

    Traditional Mexican American herbal potions and remedies and their history are explained in an introductory book for the general reader. The importance of curanderismo, or green medicine, in Mexican and Mexican American cultures is explored. A brief history traces the herbal aspects of curanderismo through Mayan and Aztec cultures, the Spanish…

  9. Herbal medicines used by Bapedi traditional healers to treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study focussed on documenting the ethnobotanical knowledge of herbal medicines used by the Bapedi traditional healers to treat reproductive ailments in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Fifty one healers from 17 municipalities covering Capricorn, Sekhukhune and Waterberg districts of the Limpopo ...

  10. Use of traditional veterinary medicine in Nhema communal area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families ...

  11. Traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use of chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine's (TCAM) use of chronic disease patients in a community setting in Myanmar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional community survey was conducted in the Kyauk Tan ...

  12. Evaluation of Traditional Medicines III: The Mechanism of Immune ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These results show that PHELA did not stimulate Th1 cytokines of a normal immune system but stimulated them when the immune system was suppressed by cyclosporine-A. In conclusion, PHELA is an immune-stimulant to a compromised immune system. Key words: PHELA, traditional medicine, cyclosporine-A, cytokines, ...

  13. Prevalence and Predictors of Traditional Medicine Utilization among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and Predictors of Traditional Medicine Utilization among Persons Living With AIDS (PLWA) on Antiretroviral (ARV) and Prophylaxis Treatment in both Rural and Urban Areas in South Africa. GD Hughes, TR Puoane, BL Clark, TL Wondwossen, Q Johnson, W Folk ...

  14. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    powder/decoction. CASE PRESENTATION. A 44-year-old man presented at the Chengdu. University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Teaching Hospital on the 3rd of April, 2013 with a one year, history of weakness and associated loss of weight. There was an exacerbation of symptoms two weeks prior to presentation. He.

  15. Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The root of Meconopsis impedita is one of the most widely used traditional Tibetan medicinal plants. However, it is often confused with Meconopsis racemosa whose roots may be used as a substitute. To establish a DNA polymorphism-based assay for the identification of M. impedita, the chloroplast rps16 intron region of 11 ...

  16. Attitudes towards african traditional medicine and christian spiritual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people with epilepsy (PWE) live in developing countries with limited access to health care facilities. In sub-Saharan Africa with approximately 12 million PWE, 90% do not receive adequate medical treatment. In this context, traditional medicine, being easily accessible, plays an important role. However, in sub- Saharan ...

  17. Karanga Traditional Medicine And Healing | Shoko | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 4 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  18. Evaluation of Traditional Medicines II: The Use of Metabolite Peak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHELA is a herbal mixture of four African traditional medicinal plants that is under development by the Medical Research Council (MRC) for use as an immune stimulant in immune compromised individuals. Before major in vivo investigations could be conducted, there was a need to establish a plasma marker for ...

  19. Traditional medicines among the Embu and Mbeere people of Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical information and traditional medicines were investigated and documented in Embu and Mbeere districts, Eastern Province of Kenya. Oral interviews were obtained from over 100 herbalists, both men and women aged between 40 and 80 years. All the herbalists interviewed were Christians and had little ...

  20. Concurrent use of Antiretroviral and African traditional medicines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concurrent use of Antiretroviral and African traditional medicines amongst people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) in the eThekwini Metropolitan area of KwaZulu Natal. Mncengeli Sibanda,Manimbulu Nlooto M, Panjasaram Naidoo. Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal ...

  1. Traditional Medicinal Uses of 'Qulqwal' Complex (Members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cancer along with investigation of initiating doses of solitary carcinogens or oncogens and co-carcinogens of the promoter type as possible risk factors of cancer associated with the utilization of Euphorbiaceae material is stressed. Key words: Traditional medicine, Euphorbiaceae, carcinogensis, diterpene esters, qulqwal

  2. Traditional medicine development for medical and dental primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional African Medicine (TAM) is our socio-economic and socio-cultural heritage, servicing over 80% of the populations in Africa. Although, it has come a long way from the times of our ancestors, not much significant progress on its development and utilization had taken place due to colonial suppression on one hand, ...

  3. LOGIC IN IGBO-AFRICAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND HEALING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    LOGIC IN IGBO-AFRICAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE AND HEALING. Paul. I. Ogugua. Department of Philosophy. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka. Introduction. I was startled when I saw the article by Professor Uduk Etuk on “The Possibility of. African Logic" which appeared in The third Way in African Philosophy. I asked ...

  4. A hypervariable STR polymorphism in the CFI gene: southern origin of East Asian-specific group H alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuasa, Isao; Jin, Feng; Harihara, Shinji; Matsusue, Aya; Fujihara, Junko; Takeshita, Haruo; Akane, Atsushi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Saitou, Naruya; Chattopadhyay, Prasanta K

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of four populations revealed that a hypervariable short tandem repeat (iSTR) in intron 7 of the human complement factor I (CFI) gene on chromosome 4q was unique, with 17 possible East Asian-specific group H alleles observed at relatively high frequencies. To develop a deeper anthropological and forensic understanding of iSTR, 1161 additional individuals from 11 Asian populations were investigated. Group H alleles of iSTR and c.1217A allele of a SNP in exon 11 of the CFI gene were associated with each other and were almost entirely confined to East Asian populations. Han Chinese in Changsha, southern China, showed the highest frequency for East Asian-specific group H alleles (0.201) among 15 populations. Group H alleles were observed to decrease gradually from south to north in 11 East Asian populations. This expansion of group H alleles provides evidence that southern China and Southeast Asia are a hotspot of Asian diversity and a genetic reservoir of Asians after they entered East Asia. The expected heterozygosity values of iSTR ranged from 0.927 in Thais to 0.874 in Oroqens, higher than those of an STR in the fibrinogen alpha chain (FGA) gene on chromosome 4q. Thus, iSTR is a useful marker for anthropological and forensic genetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Functional dyspepsia: A new approach from traditional Persian medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Pasalar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: One of the most common global disorders is related to gastrointestinal system. Functional dyspepsia (FD defined as upper abdominal pain and discomfort in the absence of organic ailments is a prevalent disease without any confirmed medication. The purpose of this study was to find gastric disorders which might be coincidental to FD based on traditional Persian medicine (TPM. Materials and Methods: We searched the main textbooks of TPM including Al-Havi (by Rhazes, Canon of medicine (by Avicenna, ZakhireKhawrazmshahi (by Ismail Jorjani, Moalijat-e Aghili and Makhzan Al-adviya (by Mohammad Hosein AghiliShirazi, and ExirAzam (by Hakim Azam Khan. Also, we searched Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, scientific information database (SID, Iranmedex and Google Scholar from 1980 to 1 August 2014 for dyspepsia, gastrointestinal disease, traditional Persian medicine, and gastric dystemperaments. Results: There is no equivalent term for FD in traditional Persian medicine although similar signs and symptoms are visible in terms like simple cold dystemperament of stomach, indigestion, and digestion debility in TPM sources. Some treatments mentioned in TPM have shown promising results in the current experimental tests. Conclusion: Finding these similarities in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM textbooks may lead to discovering new remedies for this widespread disease.

  6. Contextual Factors Related to Conventional and Traditional Tobacco Use Among California Asian Indian Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal; Mistry, Ritesh; Maxwell, Annette E; Divan, Hozefa A; McCarthy, William J

    2018-04-01

    California's tobacco control program contracted for tobacco use surveillance of Asian Indian Americans to address the paucity of information about tobacco use in this community, given their growing proportion of California's population. This study examined correlates of conventional (CTU) and Asian Indian traditional tobacco use (TTU) in a population-based sample of predominantly immigrant Asian Indian adults residing in California (N = 3228). The analytic sample (n = 2140) was limited to self-identified immigrants from India. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to examine correlates of tobacco use among Asian Indian immigrants related to their acculturation and religious affiliation. While 65% of the sample had ever used traditional tobacco products (paan masala, gutka, bidis), only 25% had ever used conventional tobacco (cigarettes, cigar, pipe, chewing tobacco, snuff). Less than 5% reported tobacco use in the past 30 days. Rates of ever TTU and CTU were higher among men than women. Ethnic enclave residence was not associated with tobacco use. Impaired mental health was associated with CTU, and number of years spent in the U.S. was positively associated with both CTU and TTU. Individuals affiliated with Sikhism were less likely to use tobacco than individuals affiliated with Hinduism. Few population-based studies in the U.S. address both CTU and TTU use among Asian Indian immigrants. Tobacco use in Asian Indian immigrants may be seriously underestimated if surveillance is limited to conventional tobacco products. Interventions to reduce tobacco use should address mental health issues and consider religious affiliation.

  7. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of uzumlu district, erzincan, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    A list of medicinal plants used by local people in uzumlu district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica, Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey. For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost. (author)

  8. Systems biology technologies enable personalized traditional Chinese medicine: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an alternative medicine, focuses on the treatment of human disease via the integrity of the close relationship between body and syndrome analysis. It remains a form of primary care in most Asian countries and its characteristics showcase the great advantages of personalized medicine. Although this approach to disease diagnosis, prognosis and treatment has served the medical establishment well for thousands of years, it has serious shortcomings in the era of modern medicine that stem from its reliance on reductionist principles of experimentation and analysis. In this way, systems biology offers the potential to personalize medicine, facilitating the provision of the right care to the right patient at the right time. We expect that systems biology will have a major impact on future personalized therapeutic approaches which herald the future of medicine. Here we summarize current trends and critically review the potential limitations and future prospects of such treatments. Some characteristic examples are presented to highlight the application of this groundbreaking platform to personalized TCM as well as some of the necessary milestones for moving systems biology of a state-of-the-art nature into mainstream health care.

  9. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African-Indian family in three tropical Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Yuan; Chang, Jia-Ru; Huang, Wei-Feng; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Han-Yin; Sun, Jun-Ren; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Su, Ih-Jen; Lin, Ming-Shian; Chen, Wei; Dou, Horng-Yunn

    2017-12-01

    The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African-Indian (EAI) lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%), having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. An Investigation of the Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chiu, Wei-Ling; Wang, Yu-Jen; Lo, Chyi

    This study aimed to investigate the use of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine in stroke patients in Taiwan. Chinese herbal medicine, massage, acupuncture, natural products, and exercise were widely used among stroke patients. Integrating safe and effective traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine into conventional therapies is suggested.

  11. Constipation due to Liver Disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine`s Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Choopani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Constipation is one of the most common pediatric disorders.In many cases, there is no anatomic endocrineor metabolic cause in explanation of chronic constipation.More than 85% of them called functional or idiopathic.Constipation is one of the serious disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine. Besides the problem it causes, chronic constipation can be the origin of many disease. That is why, ithas been called Mother of disease.The purpose of this study is to investigate the Constipation in children and the role of other organs such as the liver by view of Iranian Traditional Medicine   Materials and Method: This study is a review through Iranian traditional medicine references. At first, all the main available traditional books were reviewed. All the data about therapies of vaginal discharge in ITM were collected then classified.   Results: In traditional medicine different reasons have been mentioned for constipation especially for childrenwhich most of them are similar to etiology in Modern Medicine.Constipation due to liver disorder is one of the causes of constipation.In Iranian Traditional medicine` viewpoint, one of the mechanism for excretion is existence of secreted bile in intestine.If by any reason,measure or quality of its which secreted in intestine through bile changes or if intestinal mucous secretion becomes barrier for absorbing the food,it will caused disorder in excretion and finally will lead to constipation.Well known Iranian Traditional Medicine scientists, has mentioned all reasons for liver disorders and changing quality& quantity of secreted bile .he has mentioned the solutions as well.   Conclusion: It is hoped that by paying attention to constipation and with advanced clinical research we will be able to explain idiopathic constipation and prepare new ways of treatments for constipation. New researches have approved the effectiveness of these foods and drugs for treating the constipation.   Keywords

  12. [Study on dosage form design for improving oral bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.

  13. [Enlightenment of drug application and evaluation procedures of medicines registered (listed) in Australia on studies of new traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian-Xun; Liu, Jian-Xun

    2014-11-01

    Modern and international studies on new traditional Chinese medicines are the main trend of the development of traditional Chinese medicines at present. In Australia, new traditional Chinese medicines refer to complementary medicines, which are mainly registered and launched as listed medicines. The application documents of registered (listed) medicines in Australia mainly cover detailed description of active pharmaceutical ingredients, pharmacological and toxicological studies, dosage form and adverse effects. Each part has detailed specifications and instructions, which helps ensure that applicants could accurately understand the requirements in application for registering (listing) medicines, and provides very important reference to the studies and development of new traditional Chinese medicines in China.

  14. Comparison of the Impact of the Arctic Oscillation and East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection on Interannual Variation in East Asian Winter Temperatures and Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) teleconnection on the East Asian winter climate anomalies are compared for the past 34 winters focusing on 1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, 2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and 3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and EA/WR over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. The EA/WR impact is found to be comparable to the AO impact in affecting the East Asian temperature and monsoon. For example, warm (cold) months over mid-latitude East Asia during the positive (negative) AO are clearly seen when the AO and EA/WR are in the same phase. Near zero correlation is found between temperature and the AO phase when both teleconnections are in an opposite phase. The well-known negative relationship between SH and the AO phase is observed significantly more often when the AO is in the same phase with the EA/WR. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH are found to be more highly negative-correlated with the EA/WR rather than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the anomalous large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EA/WR, influencing the East Asian winter climates. These results suggest that the impact of EA/WR should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  15. Traditional medicine and HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia: Herbal medicine and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional, complimentary and alternative medicines (TCAMS) are increasingly being promoted by various Sub-Saharan African governments as a promising health resource in the control and amelioration of HIV/AIDS. The accessibility and cultural acceptability of both herbal medicines and faith healing and ...

  16. Child physical abuse: prevalence, characteristics, predictors, and beliefs about parent-child violence in South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia

    2005-11-01

    The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.

  17. European medicinal polypores--a modern view on traditional uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grienke, Ulrike; Zöll, Margit; Peintner, Ursula; Rollinger, Judith M

    2014-07-03

    In particular five polypore species, i.e. Laetiporus sulphureus, Fomes fomentarius, Fomitopsis pinicola, Piptoporus betulinus, and Laricifomes officinalis, have been widely used in central European folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases, e.g. dysmenorrhoea, haemorrhoids, bladder disorders, pyretic diseases, treatment of coughs, cancer, and rheumatism. Prehistoric artefacts going back to over 5000 years underline the long tradition of using polypores for various applications ranging from food or tinder material to medicinal-spiritual uses as witnessed by two polypore species found among items of Ötzi, the Iceman. The present paper reviews the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and biological activity of the five mentioned polypores. All available information on the selected polypore taxa used in traditional folk medicine was collected through evaluation of literature in libraries and searches in online databases using SciFinder and Web of Knowledge. Mycochemical studies report the presence of many primary (e.g. polysaccharides) and secondary metabolites (e.g. triterpenes). Crude extracts and isolated compounds show a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities. The investigated polypores possess a longstanding ethnomycological tradition in Europe. Here, we compile biological results which highlight their therapeutic value. Moreover, this work provides a solid base for further investigations on a molecular level, both compound- and target-wise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Air pollution episodes associated with East Asian winter monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, P.D., E-mail: pdhien@gmail.com [Vietnam Atomic Energy Agency, 59 Ly Thuong Kiet str. Hanoi (Viet Nam); Loc, P.D.; Dao, N.V. [National Hydro-Meteorological Center, 62-A2 Nguyen Chi Thanh str. Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2011-11-01

    A dozen multi-day pollution episodes occur from October to February in Hanoi, Vietnam due to prolonged anticyclonic conditions established after the northeast monsoon surges (cold surges). These winter pollution episodes (WPEs) account for most of the 24-h PM{sub 10} exceedances and the highest concentrations of gaseous pollutants in Hanoi. In this study, WPEs were investigated using continuous air quality monitoring data and information on upper-air soundings and air mass trajectories. The 24-h pollutant concentrations are lowest during cold surges; concurrently rise thereafter reaching the highest levels toward the middle of a monsoon cycle, then decline ahead of the next cold surge. Each monsoon cycle usually proceeds through a dry phase and a humid phase as Asiatic continental cold air arrives in Hanoi through inland China then via the East China Sea. WPEs are associated with nighttime radiation temperature inversions (NRTIs) in the dry phase and subsidence temperature inversions (STIs) in the humid phase. In NRTI periods, the rush hour pollution peak is more pronounced in the evening than in the morning and the pollution level is about two times higher at night than in daytime. In STI periods, broad morning and evening traffic peaks are observed and pollution is as high at night as in daytime. The close association between pollution and winter monsoon meteorology found in this study for the winter 2003-04 may serve as a basis for advance warning of WPEs and for forecasting the 24-h pollutant concentrations. - Highlights: {yields} Dozen pollution episodes from Oct. to Feb in Hanoi associated with anticyclones after monsoon surges. {yields} 24-h concentrations of PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, CO rise after surge and decline ahead of the next. {yields} Episodes caused by nighttime radiation and subsidence inversions in dry and humid monsoon phases. {yields} Distinct diurnal variations of pollutant concentrations observed in the two periods. {yields} Close

  19. Porosity and Health: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak

    2016-05-01

    The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state.

  20. Management of Infantile Colic; Based on Traditional Iranian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Javan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Infantile colic is a common disorder in the three first months of childhood. There is no clear management in treating this disease which may lead to psychosocial consequences in parents. Due to the importance of infantile colic in Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM in this study was conducted. Materials and Methods In this review article, we searched the words for colic infantile like "Maghs e Atfal" in the clinical textbooks of TIM and electronic databases were searched for "Infantile Colic", "Herbal Medicine", "Traditional Medicine" and "Complementary Medicine" keywords to obtain any relevant study. Results In TIM, infantile colic is called "Maghs e Atfal". TIM scholars believed that it can be caused by bloating in stomach, eating a lot of food or milk and subsequently mal-digestion. The treatment is based on the probable etiology. In bloating in stomach, the first step is to modify breast milk by the mother’s eating anti-flatulence drugs and avoiding any flatulent food. Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi are recommended to be consumed with milk by the child. Conclusion According to the benign nature of the colic, complementary medicine can be a priority in treatment. In this viewpoint, the mother's diet modification, and consequently of her milk, are very important. Avoiding any flatulent food and consumption of anti-flatulence plants are based on its treatment.

  1. Structure analysis of active components of traditional Chinese medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw...... herbal sources by aqueous or alcoholic solvents. Therefore, it is difficult to correlate the pharmaceutical effect to a specific lead compound in the TCMs. A detailed analysis of various components in TCMs has been a great challenge for modern analytical techniques in recent decades. In this chapter...

  2. Response of the East Asian climate system to water and heat changes of global frozen soil using NCAR CAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Under the condition of land-atmosphere heat and water conservation, a set of sensitive numerical experiments are set up to investigate the response of the East Asian climate system to global frozen soil change. This is done by introducing the supercooled soil water process into the Community Land Model (CLM3.0), which has been coupled to the National Center of Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (CAM3.1). Results show that: 1) The ratio between soil ice and soil water in CLM3.0 is clearly changed by the supercooled soil water process. Ground surface temperature and soil temperature are also affected. 2) The Eurasian (including East Asian) climate system is sensitive to changes of heat and water in frozen soil regions. In January, the Aleutian low sea level pressure circulation is strengthened, Ural blocking high at 500 hPa weakened, and East Asian trough weakened. In July, sea level pressure over the Aleutian Islands region is significantly reduced; there are negative anomalies of 500 hPa geopotential height over the East Asian mainland, and positive anomalies over the East Asian ocean. 3) In January, the southerly component of the 850 hPa wind field over East Asia increases, indicating a weakened winter monsoon. In July, cyclonic anomalies appear on the East Asian mainland while there are anticyclonic anomalies over the ocean, reflective of a strengthened east coast summer monsoon. 4) Summer rainfall in East Asia changed significantly, including substantial precipitation increase on the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, central Yangtze River Basin, and northeast China. Summer rainfall significantly decreased in south China and Hainan Island, but slightly decreased in central and north China. Further analysis showed considerable upper air motion along 30°N latitude, with substantial descent of air at its north and south sides. Warm and humid air from the Northeast Pacific converged with cold air from northern land areas, representing the main cause of

  3. SWOT analysis and revelation in traditional Chinese medicine internationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Haitao; Huang, Wenlong; Ma, Jimei; Liu, Li

    2018-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is currently the best-preserved and most influential traditional medical system with the largest number of users worldwide. In recent years, the trend of TCM adoption has increased greatly, but the process of TCM internationalization has suffered from a series of setbacks for both internal and external reasons. Thus, the process of TCM internationalization faces formidable challenges, although it also has favourable opportunities. Using SWOT analysis, this paper investigates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for TCM. These findings can serve as references for TCM enterprises with global ambitions.

  4. Genetic Diversity Analysis of South and East Asian Duck Populations Using Highly Polymorphic Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwon Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Native duck populations have lower productivity, and have not been developed as much as commercials duck breeds. However, native ducks have more importance in terms of genetic diversity and potentially valuable economic traits. For this reason, population discriminable genetic markers are needed for conservation and development of native ducks. In this study, 24 highly polymorphic microsatellite (MS markers were investigated using commercial ducks and native East and South Asian ducks. The average polymorphic information content (PIC value for all MS markers was 0.584, indicating high discrimination power. All populations were discriminated using 14 highly polymorphic MS markers by genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The results indicated that there were close genetic relationships among populations. In the structure analysis, East Asian ducks shared more haplotypes with commercial ducks than South Asian ducks, and they had more independent haplotypes than others did. These results will provide useful information for genetic diversity studies in ducks and for the development of duck traceability systems in the market.

  5. Impacts of northern Tibetan Plateau on East Asian summer rainfall via modulating midlatitude transient eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jiechun; Xu, Haiming; Shi, Ning; Zhang, Leying; Ma, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Roles of the Tibetan Plateau (TP) in forming and changing the seasonal Asian climate system have been widely explored. However, little is known about modulation effects of the TP on extratropical transient eddies (TEs) and subsequent synoptic responses of the East Asian rainfall. In this study, the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 coupled with a slab ocean model is employed to highlight the important role of the TP in regulating the upper-tropospheric transient wave train. Comparison between sensitivity experiments with and without the TP shows that the northern TP excites a strong anomalous anticyclone, which shifts the upper-level East Asian westerly jet northward and helps transfer barotropic and baroclinic energy from the mean flow to the synoptic TE flow. The transient wave train is primarily shifted northward by northern TP and is forced to propagate southeastward along the eastern flank of the TP until reaching eastern China. Before the strengthening of monsoonal southerlies, the TP-modulated transient wave train cools the troposphere, which decreases the static stability over northern China. Meanwhile, the associated anomalous warm advection induces ascending motion, leading to excessive rainfall by releasing unstable energy as the southerly strengthens. Due to the southeastward propagation of the wave train, anomalous heavy rainfall subsequently appears over eastern China from north to south, which increases day-to-day rainfall variation in this region. Additionally, occurrence of this upper-tropospheric transient wave train associated with low-level southerly peak is substantially increased by northern TP.

  6. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ibrahim Rizvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants.

  7. Use of traditional Chinese medicine among pregnant women in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Fang-Pey; Chou, Li-Fang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the patterns of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use among pregnant women in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan. Women who gave birth in Taiwan in 2006 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Claims for reimbursement following TCM ambulatory visits by these women were analyzed. In total, 20.9% of women in the study who gave birth in 2006 used TCM during pregnancy, with older women more likely to utilize this form of care (23.9% of women >35 years of age vs 16.2% of women women before pregnancy vs 2163 during) and nausea/vomiting (220 women before vs 1648 during). The predominant modality (88.4%) of TCM treatment during pregnancy was herbal preparation. Traditional Chinese medicine, with the exception of acupuncture, is popular among pregnant women in Taiwan. In addition to its efficacy, the safety of TCM during pregnancy requires future investigation.

  8. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  9. Traditional Indian medicines used for the management of diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim; Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants.

  10. Radiation sterilization of traditional medicine drugs in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang, N.D.; Canh, T.T.; Thuy, T.T.

    1995-01-01

    With the application of Gamma Co-60 radiation sterilization in pharmaceutical industry, attention should be paid to the possibilities of sterilizing traditional medicine drugs produced in Vietnam. In this paper the opinion which traditional medicine drugs can be satisfactorily sterilized by irradiation is based on the changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and microbiological examinations. The sterilizing radiation dose were calculated and the results are the following (in Mrad) Rheumatine-2.2, Hasinh-3.3, snake extract-1.8, Samcotgiao-2.2. The changes of physical and chemical properties of the products and their toxicity after irradiation have been shown to be not over the levels of allowance. (Author)

  11. Traditional Indian Medicines Used for the Management of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Neetu

    2013-01-01

    Plants have always been a source of drugs for humans since time immemorial. The Indian traditional system of medicine is replete with the use of plants for the management of diabetic conditions. According to the World Health Organization, up to 90% of population in developing countries use plants and its products as traditional medicine for primary health care. There are about 800 plants which have been reported to show antidiabetic potential. The present review is aimed at providing in-depth information about the antidiabetic potential and bioactive compounds present in Ficus religiosa, Pterocarpus marsupium, Gymnema sylvestre, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. The review provides a starting point for future studies aimed at isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive antidiabetic compounds present in these plants. PMID:23841105

  12. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  13. Herbal medicinal products - Evidence and tradition from a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jütte, Robert; Heinrich, Michael; Helmstädter, Axel; Langhorst, Jost; Meng, Günter; Niebling, Wilhelm; Pommerening, Tanja; Trampisch, Hans J

    2017-07-31

    Aside from the fully licensed herbal medicines there are products on the European pharmaceutical market which are registered by virtue of their longstanding traditional use. The normal registration procedure does not apply to them because presently they do not meet the legal requirements for a full license as set out in the relevant European Union Directive. One of these requirements, "proof of tradition", has so far been dealt with in different ways and fails to meet the criteria of good practice. This analysis is based on a selective literature search in PubMed and in databases of medical and pharmaceutical history, interviews with licensing experts, a consensus meeting attended by researchers with a background in general medicine, phytotherapy, medical and pharmaceutical history, biometry, ethnopharmacology, pharmacognosy and the pharmaceutical industry. The 2004 EU Directive, which governs the registration of Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products and demands proof of tradition, is a regulatory construct and, above all, the outcome of a political process that has ended in a pragmatic compromise. The concept of tradition applied in the Directive does not sufficiently reflect the semantic breadth of the term. The only condition defined is that a specific commercial preparation needs to have been on the market for 30 years (15 of them inside the EU). Such an approach does not make full scientific use of the evidence available because the information excerpted from historical sources, if adequately processed, may yield valuable insights. This applies to indications, modes of application, efficacy and product safety (innocuousness). Such criteria should enter in full into the benefit-risk-analysis of applied preparations, in the registration process as well as in the therapeutic practice. When registering Traditional Herbal Medicinal Products the criterion of evidence-based medicine will only be met if all the facts available are assessed and evaluated, over and

  14. Review of Tumor Dormancy Therapy Using Traditional Oriental Herbal Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jong-Ho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL, PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79 experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. Results: This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Conclusion: Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

  15. Review of tumor dormancy therapy using traditional oriental herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Koung, Fan-Pei; Cho, Chong-Kwan; Lee, Yeon-Weol; Yoo, Hwa-Seung

    2013-03-01

    Standard cancer therapy prolongs survival, but can be detrimental to the quality of life, compromise the immune system, and leave residual disease that can cause recurrence years or decades in the future. Tumor dormancy therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that may improve these shortcomings, promote quality of life, and prolong survival. The aim of this study was to analyze studies on dormancy therapy, especially studies using traditional Oriental herbal medicine, so as to evaluate the efficacy of dormancy therapy with traditional oriental herbal medicine. We conducted a systematic literature review using Scientific and Technical Information Integration Services (NDSL), PubMed, and RISS. We searched for clinical reports, papers, and books related to tumor metastasis, recurrence, immunotherapy, tumor dormancy, and traditional oriental herbal medicine with anticancer effects. Seventy-nine (79) experimental and clinical articles in both Korean and English were reviewed. This study was conducted from March 1, 2012 to May 31, 2012. This approach, Tumor dormancy therapy, rather than seeking to remove the tumor, includes combination of low-dose chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunosurveillance, and other methods to stabilize tumor growth and to enhance the host is immunity against disseminated tumor cells and thus to manage cancer as a chronic disease while maintaining quality of life. In particular, integrative use of Oriental herbal medicine has been shown to induce or maintain tumor dormancy, increase the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy, improve quality of life, and prolong survival. Tumor dormancy therapy is a promising novel therapeutic approach that may be especially effective with Oriental herbal medicine. Further research is needed to determine its potential mechanisms and therapeutic applications.

  16. [Huangdi Neijing: a classic book of traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, S; Rotoli, M

    1997-11-01

    According to the data of the recent archaeological excavations, the history of traditional Chinese medicine begins in the neolithic period (10,000-4,000 years ago). The fundamental principles of the traditional Chinese medicine may be interpreted on the basis of two classic theories of Chinese thought: the Yin-Yang theory and the five phases theory. The former stated that our reality is the product of the continuous interaction and transformation of the Yin and Yang principles. The latter recognise the existence of five emblematic groups in which everything regarding humankind and nature may be classified. The five phases interact in two different ways: the cycle of production (Sheng) and the cycle of control (Ke). Theoretical basis of traditional Chinese medicine are described on the Huangdi Neijing (The Book of Yellow Emperor's: a classic of internal medicine) written during the period 475-225 b.C. as a dialogue between the mythical Emperor Huangdi and his physician Qibo. The book is divided into two parts: the Suwen (Questions about living matter) and Lingshu (The vital axe). Each part is composed of 81 sections. In this book are set correspondences between phases and organs, viscera, feelings, body fluids, flavours, foods, colours, and so on. We can also find the description of blood (Xue) and energy (Qi) circulation and the pathways of main, collateral and curious vessels. The origins of disease are also reported on the Huangdi Neijing. As regards the psychological point of view, special attention is dedicated to dreams and their possible causes and to the description of various kind of mental illness. The unknown Authors underline the five defects and the four mistakes of the physician, pointing out the importance to avoid them. Finally, it must be mentioned their special care to the principles of preventive medicine.

  17. [Safety grade of application of traditional Chinese medicines during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Guang; Jin, Rui; Kong, Xiang-Wen; Zhang, Bing

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of application of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) during the pregnancy is a hotspot among scholars. However, the traditional pregnancy contraindication content has certain historical limitations, and cannot meet the needs of the current pregnant women for rational drug use. We need to refine and interpret it with modern medical science. In this paper, we summarized the ancient and modern knowledge about pregnancy contradiction and tried to establish a grading safety system, based on the actual clinical practices and thte medication grading concept of western medicines. Specifically speaking, in this paper, we compared the connotations of forbidden/contradiction and cautious use, and focused on the safe herbs that included in the prescriptions for dietary therapy. Meanwhile, in this paper, we summarized the core content of the famous theories of ″You Gu Wu Yun (pregnancy disease)″ and ″Shuai Qi Da Ban Er Zhi (therapy during pregnancy)″, and studied the dangerous and unknown risk of TCMs during pregnancy. At last, a five-grade safety system of TCMs applied on the pregnant women was established, including forbidden, contraindicated, cautious, uncertain and available medicines. We classified medicines with the embryotoxicity (e.g. teratogenic, mutagenic, ageneisa), the traditional toxicity (e.g. abortion), the fierce herbal property (e.g. removing blood stasis, promoting Qi circulation) and reliable edible medicinal herbs. We also place an ″uncertain″ category based on objective reality. Meanwhile, 33 sample TCMs were preliminarily determined. This paper proposed the preference and ideas for the rational herbal use in pregnancy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Camels Milk: Nutrition and Health Perspectives Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.

  19. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases.

  20. Neuroprotective Herbs and Foods from Different Traditional Medicines and Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Iriti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant secondary metabolites include an array of bioactive constituents form both medicinal and food plants able to improve human health. The exposure to these phytochemicals, including phenylpropanoids, isoprenoids and alkaloids, through correct dietary habits, may promote health benefits, protecting against the chronic degenerative disorders mainly seen in Western industrialized countries, such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we briefly deal with some plant foods and herbs of traditional medicines and diets, focusing on their neuroprotective active components. Because oxidative stress and neuroinflammation resulting from neuroglial activation, at the level of neurons, microglial cells and astrocytes, are key factors in the etiopathogenesis of both neurodegenerative and neurological diseases, emphasis will be placed on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity exerted by specific molecules present in food plants or in remedies prescribed by herbal medicines.

  1. Necessary conditions for the globalization of traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bei-Bei; Gong, Xiu-Lin

    2011-03-01

    With the current trend of globalization, unprecedented opportunities and enormous changes have emerged for the global development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, many old and new challenges and problems still remain, including partial or limited comprehension of acupuncture, oriental medicine and TCM, the existence of non-standardized institutes of TCM and acupuncture training schools, unqualified TCM practitioners, and problems concerning Chinese herbal medicine and inexperience in conducting TCM business. These problems will doubtlessly impede the further development of TCM worldwide in the foreseeable future. It is also clear that the globalization of TCM will require a large scale systematic project and constitute an arduous historical task. This paper aims to consolidate 6 strategic development modes to reinforce and facilitate the process of TCM globalization through a detailed analysis of both the present status and existing problems concerning the development of TCM in the United States.

  2. Evidence Based Validation of Indian Traditional Medicine – Way Forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulok K Mukherjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based validation of the ethno-pharmacological claims on traditional medicine (TM is the need of the day for its globalization and reinforcement. Combining the unique features of identifying biomarkers that are highly conserved across species, this can offer an innovative approach to biomarker-driven drug discovery and development. TMs are an integral component of alternative health care systems. India has a rich wealth of TMs and the potential to accept the challenge to meet the global demand for them. Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy (AYUSH medicine are the major healthcare systems in Indian Traditional Medicine. The plant species mentioned in the ancient texts of these systems may be explored with the modern scientific approaches for better leads in the healthcare. TM is the best sources of chemical diversity for finding new drugs and leads. Authentication and scientific validation of medicinal plant is a fundamental requirement of industry and other organizations dealing with herbal drugs. Quality control (QC of botanicals, validated processes of manufacturing, customer awareness and post marketing surveillance are the key points, which could ensure the quality, safety and efficacy of TM. For globalization of TM, there is a need for harmonization with respect to its chemical and metabolite profiling, standardization, QC, scientific validation, documentation and regulatory aspects of TM. Therefore, the utmost attention is necessary for the promotion and development of TM through global collaboration and co-ordination by national and international programme.

  3. Inland sea as a unit for environmental history: East Asian inland seas from prehistory to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo

    2012-04-01

    The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Direct Radiative Effects of Dust Aerosol on the East Asian Winter Monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM induced by dust aerosol are studied by using a regional climate model (RegCM4/Dust. Dust coupled and uncoupled experiments are carried out for the past decade (2000–2009. The coupled RegCM4 captures three centers of dust mixing ratio (DMR located in the Taklamakan Desert, western Inner Mongolia, and northern Xinjiang, respectively, with maximum values greater than 500 µg kg−1 in winter. The surface total radiation change induced by dust is negative, and its central value of −8 W m−2 results in surface temperature cooling by 1.5°C in winter. Dust induced radiation change at the top of the atmosphere (TOA is also negative in Northern China, except over the Tibetan Plateau (TP, and up to −5 W m−2 in Central China. Dust cooling effects increase the sea level pressure (SLP gradient between land and ocean, the cold surge frequency, and the East Asian jet stream (EAJ intensity and then enhance the EAWM. The dry and cold wind pervade most areas of East Asia, suppressing large-scale precipitation and eventually leading to a rainfall decrease of about 10–30% in Northern China and the middle Yangtze River Valley.

  5. Change in the tropical cyclone activity around Korea by the East Asian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Jeoung-Yun

    2017-12-01

    Correlation between the frequency of summer tropical cyclones (TCs) affecting Korea and the East Asian summer monsoon index (EASMI) was analyzed over the last 37 years. A clear positive correlation existed between the two variables, and this high positive correlation remained unchanged even when excluding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years. To investigate the causes of the positive correlation between the two variables in non-ENSO years, after the 8 years with the highest EASMI (high EASMI years) and the 8 years with the lowest EASMI (low EASMI years) were selected, and the average difference between the two phases was analyzed. In high EASMI years, in the difference between the two phases regarding 850 and 500 hPa streamline, anomalous cyclones were reinforced in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, while anomalous anticyclones were reinforced in mid-latitude East Asian areas. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed near Korea, with these anomalous southeasterlies playing the role of anomalous steering flows making the TCs head toward areas near Korea. In addition, a monsoon trough strengthened more eastward, and TCs in high EASMI years occurred more in east ward over the western North Pacific.

  6. Back to the Roots: Prediction of Biologically Active Natural Products from Ayurveda Traditional Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polur, Honey; Joshi, Tejal; Workman, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine is one of the most ancient, yet living medicinal traditions. In the present work, we developed an in silico library of natural products from Ayurveda medicine, coupled with structural information, plant origin and traditional therapeutic use. Following this...... basis of Ayurveda medicine and in drug repurposing....

  7. Utilization of medicinal plants by Waluguru people in East Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was done to assess utilization of medicinal plants in Nyachilo village situated in eastern Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered and informal discussions conducted to traditional healers and midwives. The respondents were selected from Changa, Mselelo, Tanana, ...

  8. Quality control of herbal medicines | Kibwage | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixture of portions of herbs in traditional medicines complicates the quality control tests of these preparations. The content profile becomes difficult to replicate from batch to batch, while quantification of the active compound(s) in such multi-component products would require prior processing to isolate and identify the ...

  9. Possible teleconnections between East and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation in projected future climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sumin; Singh, Gyan Prakash; Oh, Jai-Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Min

    2018-01-01

    The present paper examined the teleconnections between two huge Asian summer monsoon components (South and East Asia) during three time slices in future: near-(2010-2039), mid-(2040-2069) and far-(2070-2100) futures under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. For this purpose, a high-resolution atmospheric general circulation model is used and integrated at 40 km horizontal resolution. To get more insight into the relationships between the two Asian monsoon components, we have studied the spatial displaying correlation coefficients (CCs) pattern of precipitation over the entire Asian monsoon region with that of South Asia and three regions of East Asia (North China, Korea-Japan and Southern China) separately during the same three time slices. The possible factors responsible for these teleconnections are explored by using mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and wind fields at 850 hPa. The CC pattern of precipitation over South Asia shows an in-phase relationship with North China and an out-of-phase relationship with Korea-Japan, while precipitation variations over Korea-Japan and Southern China exhibit an out-of-phase relationship with South Asia. The CCs analysis between the two Asian blocks during different time slices shows the strongest CCs during the near and far future with the RCP8.5 scenario. The CC pattern of precipitation over Korea-Japan and Southern China with the wind (at 850 hPa) and MSLP fields indicate that the major parts of the moisture over Korea-Japan gets transported from the west Pacific along the western limb of NPSH, while the moisture over Southern China comes from the Bay of Bengal and South China Seas for good monsoon activity.

  10. Equilibrium climate response of the East Asian summer monsoon to forcing of anthropogenic aerosol species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhili; Wang, Qiuyan; Zhang, Hua

    2017-12-01

    We used an online aerosol-climate model to study the equilibrium climate response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to increases in anthropogenic emissions of sulfate, organic carbon, and black carbon aerosols from 1850 to 2000. Our results show that each of these aerosol species has a different effect on the EASM as a result of changes in the local sea-land thermal contrast and atmospheric circulation. The increased emission of sulfate aerosol leads to a decrease in the thermal contrast between the land and ocean, a southward shift of the East Asian subtropical jet, and significant northerly wind anomalies at 850 hPa over eastern China and the ambient oceans, markedly dampening the EASM. An increase in organic carbon aerosol results in pronounced surface cooling and the formation of an anomalous anticyclone over the oceans north of 30°N. These effects cause a slight increase in the sea-land thermal contrast and southerly flow anomalies to the west of the anticyclonic center, strengthening the northern EASM. An increase in organic carbon emission decreases the sea-land thermal contrast over southern China, which weakens the southern EASM. The response of the summer 850-hPa winds and rainfall over the East Asian monsoon region to an increase in black carbon emission is generally consistent with the response to an increase in organic carbon. The increase in black carbon emission leads to a strengthening of the northern EASM north of 35°N and a slight weakening of the southern EASM south of 35°N. The simulated response of the EASM to the increase in black carbon emission is unchanged when the emission of black carbon is scaled up by five times its year 2000 levels, although the intensities of the response is enhanced. The increase in sulfate emission primarily weakens the EASM, whereas the increases in black carbon and organic carbon emissions mitigate weakening of the northern EASM.

  11. Colorimetric measurements of iris colour and their significance in East Asian patients with skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J W; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2010-10-01

    A light-coloured iris is considered a risk factor for skin cancer in general. However, iris colour cannot be considered a plausible risk factor for skin cancer in East Asian populations because of the relative homogeneity of iris colours. Furthermore, subjective classifications of iris colour cannot distinguish between different East Asian individuals as to their likelihood of developing cancer. To measure human iris colours quantitatively and to assess the significances of iris colours with respect to skin cancer in Korean patients. Reference Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE) L*a*b* coordinates on a ColorCheck chart were recorded using a reflectance spectrophotometer and compared with computed CIE L*a*b* coordinates from digital images to determine equations to calibrate CIE L*a*b* values. We then took iris images and measured iris colours and the colours of sun-exposed and sun-protected skin in 42 Korean patients with various cutaneous malignancies and nonmalignant dermatological diseases. Results were statistically analysed with regard to iris and skin colours in CIE L*a*b* coordinates. Patients with skin cancer had significantly lighter irises or higher L* values than dermatological patients without a malignancy (P = 0.02). Colour differences (ΔE*ab) between sun-exposed skin and sun-protected skin were greater in men (P < 0.01) and in patients with skin cancer (P < 0.01), and the lightness (L*) values of sun-exposed skins decreased with age (r = -0.32, P < 0.05). Iris colour appears to be a possible skin cancer risk factor in East Asian populations. The larger colour differences seen between sun-protected and sun-exposed skin in men and in patients with skin cancer may have been due to chronic or excessive sun exposure. © 2009 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2009 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

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    Tsuneo Kakuda

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs, which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp, this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs.

  13. Genes Regulated by Vitamin D in Bone Cells Are Positively Selected in East Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Arciero

    Full Text Available Vitamin D and folate are activated and degraded by sunlight, respectively, and the physiological processes they control are likely to have been targets of selection as humans expanded from Africa into Eurasia. We investigated signals of positive selection in gene sets involved in the metabolism, regulation and action of these two vitamins in worldwide populations sequenced by Phase I of the 1000 Genomes Project. Comparing allele frequency-spectrum-based summary statistics between these gene sets and matched control genes, we observed a selection signal specific to East Asians for a gene set associated with vitamin D action in bones. The selection signal was mainly driven by three genes CXXC finger protein 1 (CXXC1, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5 and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2. Examination of population differentiation and haplotypes allowed us to identify several candidate causal regulatory variants in each gene. Four of these candidate variants (one each in CXXC1 and RUNX2 and two in LRP5 had a >70% derived allele frequency in East Asians, but were present at lower (20-60% frequency in Europeans as well, suggesting that the adaptation might have been part of a common response to climatic and dietary changes as humans expanded out of Africa, with implications for their role in vitamin D-dependent bone mineralization and osteoporosis insurgence. We also observed haplotype sharing between East Asians, Finns and an extinct archaic human (Denisovan sample at the CXXC1 locus, which is best explained by incomplete lineage sorting.

  14. A regional cooperative clinical study of radiotherapy for cervical cancer in east and south-east Asian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Kato, Shingo; Cao, Jianping; Zhou Juying; Susworo, Raden; Supriana, Nana; Sato, Shinichiro; Ohno, Tatsuya; Suto, Hisao; Nakamura, Yuzuru; Cho, Chul-Koo; Ismail, Fuad B.; Calaguas, Miriam J.C.; Reyes, Rey H. de los; Chansilpa, Yaowalak; Thephamongkhol, Kullathom; Nguyen Ba Duc; To Anh Dung; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy differed widely in east and south-east Asia because of technical, cultural, and socio-economic differences. With the purpose of standardizing radiotherapy for cervical cancer in the region, an international clinical study was conducted. Materials and methods: Eleven institutions in eight Asian countries participated in the study. Between 1996 and 1998, 210 patients with stage IIIB cervical cancer were enrolled. Patients were treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy (total dose, 50 Gy) and either high-dose-rate (HDR) or low-dose-rate (LDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) according to the institutional practice. The planned point A dose was 20-28 Gy/4 fractions for HDR-ICBT and 30-40 Gy/1-2 fractions for LDR-ICBT. Results: Hundred patients were treated with HDR-ICBT and 110 were treated with LDR-ICBT. The ICBT doses actually delivered to point A ranged widely: 12-32 Gy in the HDR group and 26-52.7 Gy in the LDR group. The 5-year follow-up rate among the countries differed greatly, from 29% to 100%. The 5-year major complication rates were 6% in the HDR group and 10% in the LDR group. The 5-year overall survival rates were 51.1% in the HDR group and 57.5% in the LDR group. Conclusions: Although there were several problems with treatment compliance and patients' follow-up, the study suggests that the protocols provided favorable outcomes with acceptable rates of late complications in the treatment of advanced cervical cancer in east and south-east Asia

  15. How knowledgeable are investigators studying therapies of traditional medicines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari, Saravu R; Aggithaya, Madhur G; Thamban, Chendalam; Muralidharan, Kunnathody; Kanjarpane, Aniruddha B

    2014-01-01

    Research methodology in traditional Indian system of medicine. To determine the knowledge level of investigators conducting clinical trials in traditional medicines (TMs) including Ayurveda. This was a questionnaire survey conducted for selected researchers trained in any specialty and working in TM. 2087 researchers were selected based on selection criteria. A validated and pretested questionnaire containing the questions regarding regulatory issues, literature search, evidence-based medicine, clinical trial design, patient selection, and study reporting were sent either through E-mail or post. The answered questionnaires were analyzed. The parameters were analyzed based on median and interquartile range (IQR). Forty two responses were received through E-mail and 21 researchers responded through post. Out of 63, six researchers sent incomplete responses. Among the remaining 57 respondents; 34 (59.6%) investigators had postdoctoral degree, 43 investigators (75.4%) did not receive any structured training on research methodology, 23 (40.4%) had two decades of research experience. Thirty three (74%) of investigators who received government funding didn't have any training on research methodology. Ayurveda experts group had better knowledge compared to pharmaceutical sciences and basic science group although they had a dilemma about conducting clinical evaluation of TM within the specific framework of rigorous clinical pharmacological principles without ignoring the Ayurvedic concepts such as Dosha, Prakruti etc., Investigators below 30 years possessed higher knowledge of research methodology when analyzed based on the age. The respondents working in research organizations, government organizations, and academic institutions had lower knowledge compared to those who were in private organizations/practice. It is recommend that investigators, peer reviewers, and fund managers involved in traditional medicine research need training especially in research methodology.

  16. [Enlightenment of adverse reaction monitoring on safety evaluation of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-xin; Pang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    The adverse reaction monitoring is important in warning the risks of traditional Chinese medicines at an early stage, finding potential quality problems and ensuring the safe clinical medication. In the study, efforts were made to investigate the risk signal mining techniques in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, particularly the complexity in component, processing, compatibility, preparation and clinical medication, find early risk signals of traditional Chinese medicines and establish a traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation system based on adverse reaction risk signals, in order to improve the target studies on traditional Chinese medicine safety, effective and timely control risks and solve the existing frequent safety issue in traditional Chinese medicines.

  17. Exchange rate regimes, saving glut and the Feldstein Horioka puzzle: The East Asian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya-Bahçe, Seçil; Özmen, Erdal

    2008-04-01

    This paper investigates whether the recent experience of the emerging East Asian countries with current account surpluses is consistent with the “saving glut” hypothesis and the Feldstein and Horioka puzzle. The evidence suggests that the saving retention coefficients declined substantially in most of the countries after an endogenous break date coinciding with a major exchange rate regime change with the 1997-1998 crisis. Exchange rate flexibility appears to be enhancing financial integration. The results are consistent with an “investment slump” explanation rather than the “saving glut” postulation.

  18. North African Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Romane, Abderrahmane; Efferth, Thomas; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment. Despite the popularity and the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of cancer, scientific evidence on their anticancer effects are still scarce for most of the described plants. Objective: Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the aim of this review is to give an overview of studies, namely ethnobotanical surveys and experimental evidence of anticancer effects regarding medicinal plants used in North Africa for cancer therapy. Method: The research was conducted on several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The research focused primarily on English written papers published between the years 2000 and 2016. Results: This review on plants traditionally used by herbalists in North Africa highlights that Morocco and Algeria are the countries with most surveys on the use of medicinal plants in folk medicine. Among the plethora of plants used, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the most referred ones by herbalists for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, a plethora of scientific evidence qualifies them as candidates for further drug development. Furthermore, we report on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of some medicinal plants as anticancer agents. The North African flora offers a rich source of medicinal plants for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. The elucidation of

  19. The quest for modernisation of traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow’s medicine. PMID:23763836

  20. [Analysis on medication rules of modern traditional Chinese medicines in treating palpitations based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Gao, Wu-Lin; Dai, Guo-Hua

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the prescription and medication rules of Chinese medicines in the treatment of palpitations in the Chinese journal full text database(CNKI) by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance system, and provide a reference for further research and development of modern traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) in treatment of palpitations. In order to give better guidance for clinical mediation, prescriptions used for treatment of palpitations in CNKI were collected, and then were input to the TCM inheritance support system for establishing a Chinese medicine prescription database for palpitations. The software's revised mutual information, complex system entropy clustering and other data mining methods were adopted to analyze the prescriptions according to the frequencies of herbs, "four natures", "five flavors" and "meridians" of the high-frequency medicines in the database, identify the core herbs and application characteristics, and analyze the prescription rules and medication experience. Totally, 545 prescriptions used for palpitation were included in this study and involved 247 Chinese herbs. The analysis results showed that the herbs in prescriptions for palpitation mostly had the warm property, and the herbs in heart and spleen meridian accounted for a larger proportion, indicating that the treatment was mainly to nourish heart and strengthen spleen. The top 11 herbs in usage frequency were consistent with the high-frequency medicines in medication patterns of common herbal pairs; therefore, we considered that these 11 herbs were the core herbs; the core herbal combination included Cassia Twig, Licorice, fossil fragments, Ostreae decoction, and evolved into 9 new prescriptions for treating palpitation. Our results objectively presented the prescription and medication rules for treating palpitation and provided extremely effective guidance for the clinical therapy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Present and future connection of Asian-Pacific Oscillation to large-scale atmospheric circulations and East Asian rainfall: results of CMIP5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Botao; Xu, Ying; Shi, Ying

    2018-01-01

    The summer Asian-Pacific oscillation (APO), one of the major modes of climate variability over the Asian-Pacific sector, has a pronounced effect on variations of large-scale atmospheric circulations and climate. This study evaluated the capability of 30 state-of-the-art climate models among the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating its association with the atmospheric circulations over the Asian-Pacific region and the precipitation over East Asia. Furthermore, their future connections under the RCP8.5 scenario were examined. The evaluation results show that 5 out of 30 climate models can well capture the observed APO-related features in a comprehensive way, including the strengthened South Asian high (SAH), deepened North Pacific trough (NPT) and northward East Asian jet (EAJ) in the upper troposphere; an intensification of the Asian low and the North Pacific subtropical high (NPSH) as well as a northward shift of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) in the lower troposphere; and a decrease in East Asian summer rainfall (EASR) under the positive APO phase. Based on the five CMIP5 models' simulations, the dynamic linkages of the APO to the SAH, NPT, AL, and NPSH are projected to maintain during the second half of the twenty-first century. However, its connection with the EASR tends to reduce significantly. Such a reduction might result from the weakening of the linkage of the APO to the meridional displacement of the EAJ and WPSH as a response to the warming scenario.

  2. Genetic evidence for an East Asian origin of Chinese Muslim populations Dongxiang and Hui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong-Bing; Wang, Chuan-Chao; Tao, Xiaolan; Shang, Lei; Wen, Shao-Qing; Zhu, Bofeng; Kang, Longli; Jin, Li; Li, Hui

    2016-12-07

    There is a long-going debate on the genetic origin of Chinese Muslim populations, such as Uygur, Dongxiang, and Hui. However, genetic information for those Muslim populations except Uygur is extremely limited. In this study, we investigated the genetic structure and ancestry of Chinese Muslims by analyzing 15 autosomal short tandem repeats in 652 individuals from Dongxiang, Hui, and Han Chinese populations in Gansu province. Both genetic distance and Bayesian-clustering methods showed significant genetic homogeneity between the two Muslim populations and East Asian populations, suggesting a common genetic ancestry. Our analysis found no evidence of substantial gene flow from Middle East or Europe into Dongxiang and Hui people during their Islamization. The dataset generated in present study are also valuable for forensic identification and paternity tests in China.

  3. Non-Traditional Security Threats in the Border Areas: Terrorism, Piracy, Environmental Degradation in Southeast Asian Maritime Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabova, E. L.

    2013-11-01

    In addition to facilitating peaceful trade and economic development, sovereign territory, territorial waters and international waters are being used by various criminal groups that pose threats to governments, businesses and civilian population in Southeast Asia. Nonstate criminal maritime activities were not receiving appropriate attention as they were overshadowed by traditional military security challenges. Yet more and more frequently, the non-traditional actors challenge lines of communication, jeopardize access to strategic resources, complicate traditional defence tasks, and harm the environment. Understanding the nature of non-traditional threats, and the ways to combat them, requires international legal, historical and political science analysis within a united problem-oriented approach. A fair critique to pure interest, power and knowledge -based theories of regime formation was developed by E.K. Leonard's1, who explained the evolution of the international system from the global governance perspective. The present study is based on the premise that pure nation-state approaches are incapable of providing a theoretical ground for addressing the growing influence of international criminal networks in South East Asia. From an international relations theory perspective, the author of this study agrees with D.Snidal2 that the hegemonic stability theory has "limits" and is insufficient in describing modern challenges to sustainable international security regime, including non-traditional threats, where collective action is more efficient from an interest and capability standpoint. At the same time the author of this study does not share the viewpoint on "marginalization"3 of international law in current international order due to its fragmentation and regionalization4 and "global power shifts"5 . The United Nations, as a global institution at the top of the vertical hierarchy of international legal order, and the EU as an example of "self-contained" regime along

  4. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-10-10

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

  5. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

  6. Study on the irradiation decontamination of traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Shi, S.; Li, B.; Wang, G.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60 Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)

  7. Anti-halitosis plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.

  8. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae): patterns of use in traditional African medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havinga, Reinout M; Hartl, Anna; Putscher, Johanna; Prehsler, Sarah; Buchmann, Christine; Vogl, Christian R

    2010-02-17

    To increase the understanding of the ethnopharmacology of a single species, elaboration of dispersed primary data is required. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae), or tamarind, is a common tree, especially in West Africa, with a good potential to contribute to affordable local health care based on traditional medicine (TM). For this single species review, more than 60 references with detailed information on the ethnopharmacology of Tamarindus indica in the African context were selected. It showed that most prominently, the fruits are used as laxative or febrifuge throughout the Sahel and Soudan ecological zones. Tamarind bark and leaves are often involved in the treatment of wounds, especially in central West Africa. While the bark is used to treat diarrhoea in West Africa, the leaves are used for this purpose in East Africa. Our findings suggest a difference in the way tamarind is used between East and West Africa and we assess the similarities of its uses within those regions. This review demonstrates the capability of literature research to reveal knowledge by mining and compiling information from the growing body of primary ethnopharmacologic data, much of which is published in this journal. By creating a specific profile of tamarind in the context of traditional medicine throughout Africa, the authors contribute to the collection of current ethnobotanic species accounts on Tamarindus indica that tend to be qualitative and more general. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael; Kehop, Dickson Andrew; Kinminja, Boniface; Sabak, Malcolm; Wavimbukie, Graham; Barrows, Katherine M; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Rai, Prem P

    2015-11-14

    Rapid modernization in the East Sepik (ES) Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is resulting in a decrease in individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. Here we report a synthesis and comparison of traditional medicinal plant use from four ethnically distinct locations in the ES Province and furthermore compare them to two other previous reports of traditional plant use from different provinces of PNG. This manuscript is based on an annotated combination of four Traditional Medicines (TM) survey reports generated by University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) trainees. The surveys utilized a questionnaire titled "Information sheet on traditional herbal preparations and medicinal plants of PNG", administered in the context of the TM survey project which is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Regional and transregional comparison of medicinal plant utilization was facilitated by using existing plant databases: the UPNG TM Database and the PNG Plant Database (PNG Plants) using Bayesian statistical analysis. Medicinal plant use between four distinct dialect study areas in the ES Province of PNG showed that only a small fraction of plants had shared use in each area, however usually utilizing different plant parts, being prepared differently and to treat different medical conditions. Several instances of previously unreported medicinal plants could be located. Medicinally under- and over-utilized plants were found both in the regional reports and in a transregional analysis, thus showing that these medicinal utilization frequencies differ between provinces. Documentation of consistent plant use argues for efficacy and is particularly important since established and effective herbal medicinal interventions are sorely needed in the rural areas of PNG, and unfortunately clinical validation for the same is often lacking. Despite the existence of a large corpus of medical annotation of plants for PNG, previously unknown medical

  10. Responses of East Asian summer monsoon to historical SST and atmospheric forcing during 1950-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongmei [LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Dai, Aiguo; Lu, Jian [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Zhou, Tianjun [LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2010-03-15

    The East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation and summer rainfall over East China have experienced large decadal changes during the latter half of the 20th century. To investigate the potential causes behind these changes, a series of simulations using the national center for atmospheric research (NCAR) community atmospheric model version 3 (CAM3) and the geophysical fluid dynamics laboratory (GFDL) atmospheric model version 2.1 (AM2.1) are analyzed. These simulations are forced separately with different historical forcing, namely tropical sea surface temperature (SSTs), global SSTs, greenhouse gases plus aerosols, and a combination of global SSTs and greenhouse gases plus aerosols. This study focuses on the relative roles of these individual forcings in causing the observed monsoon and rainfall changes over East Asia during 1950-2000. The simulations from both models show that the SST forcing, primarily from the Tropics, is able to induce most of the observed weakening of the EASM circulation, while the greenhouse gas plus (direct) aerosol forcing increases the land-sea thermal contrast and thus enhances the EASM circulation. The results suggest that the recent warming in the Tropics, especially the warming associated with the tropical interdecadal variability centered over the central and eastern Pacific, is a primary cause for the weakening of the EASM since the late 1970s. However, a realistic simulation of the relatively small-scale rainfall change pattern over East China remains a challenge for the global models. (orig.)

  11. Constraining East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals: methods and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, C.; Henze, D. K.; Deng, F.

    2017-12-01

    The world largest CO2 emissions are from East Asia. However, there are large uncertainties in CO2 emission inventories, mainly because of imperfections in bottom-up statistics and a lack of observations for validating emission fluxes, particularly over China. Here we tried to constrain East Asian CO2 emissions with GOSAT retrievals applying 4-Dvar GEOS-Chem and its adjoint model. We applied the inversion to only the cold season (November - February) in 2009 - 2010 since the summer monsoon and greater transboundary impacts in spring and fall greatly reduced the GOSAT retrievals. In the cold season, the a posteriori CO2 emissions over East Asia generally higher by 5 - 20%, particularly Northeastern China shows intensively higher in a posteriori emissions ( 20%), where the Chinese government is recently focusing on mitigating the air pollutants. In another hand, a posteriori emissions from Southern China are lower 10 - 25%. A posteriori emissions in Korea and Japan are mostly higher by 10 % except over Kyushu region. With our top-down estimates with 4-Dvar CO2 inversion, we will evaluate the current regional CO2 emissions inventories and potential uncertainties in the sectoral emissions. This study will help understand the quantitative information on anthropogenic CO2 emissions over East Asia and will give policy implications for the mitigation targets.

  12. Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria--remedies or risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Popoola, T D; Amadi, K C; Coker, H A B; Akintonwa, A

    2013-11-25

    Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) for molecular targeted therapies of tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youns, Mahmoud; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Scientific progress in genetics, cell and molecular biology has greatly ameliorated our comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation and progression. The rapidly advancing identification of molecular targets in human cancers during the last decade has provided an excellent starting point for the development of novel therapeutics. A huge variety of potential molecular targets have been identified, many of which are already in the market for therapeutic purposes. It is now becoming possible to target pathways and/or molecules that are crucial in maintaining the malignant phenotype. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is often considered as alternative or complementary medicine. TCM represents a holistic approach and lacks high-quality scientific evidence on its effectiveness. Therefore, it is frequently regarded with some scepticism by western academic medicine. In this review, we report that application of modern technologies allowed identification of novel molecular targets modulating the anti-tumour activity of natural products derived from TCM. Moreover, we tried to cross the bridge between TCM and Western modern medicine to be able to implement them for the sake of cancer patients.

  14. [Genomic research of traditional Chinese medicines in vivo metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shui-Ming; Bai, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Yan

    2016-11-01

    Gene is the base of in vivo metabolism and effectiveness for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and the gene expression, regulation and modification are used as the research directions to perform the TCM multi-component, multi-link and multi-target in vivo metabolism studies, which will improve the research on TCM metabolic proecess, effect target and molecular mechanism. Humans are superorganisms with 1% genes inherited from parents and 99% genes from various parts of the human body, mainly coming from the microorganisms in intestinal flora. These indicate that genetically inherited human genome and "second genome" could affect the TCM in vivo metabolism from inheritance and "environmental" aspects respectively. In the present paper, typical case study was used to discuss related TCM in vivo metabolic genomics research, mainly including TCM genomics research and gut metagenomics research, as well as the personalized medicine evoked from the individual difference of above genomics (metagenomics). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Insight into the Presence of Stilbenes in Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Croatian Folk Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Višnja

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years, great interest has arisen concerning plant stilbenes, especially resveratrol, which has a whole spectrum of positive biological activities. In this study, we investigated the presence of resveratrol monomers (trans- and cis- form) and naturally occurring derivatives of trans-resveratrol (piceid, astringin and isorhapontin) in phenolic extracts of twenty medicinal plants traditionally used in Croatian folk medicine. The investigated compounds were present in the samples, in free form or as glucosides, and the highest share was found in immortelle, common yarrow and Lamiaceae plants. The obtained results indicate that biological activity of selected medicinal plants can be related to the presence of this valuable group of phytochemicals.

  16. Regional Differences in Pathogen Prevalence and Defensive Reactions to the “Swine Flu” Outbreak among East Asians and Westerners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hamamura

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Research has found that contagion-minimizing behavioral tendencies are amplified in pathogen-prevalent regions. We investigated whether reactions to the “swine flu” outbreak of 2009 were stronger among East Asians than Westerners, populations residing in regions that now enjoy comparable advances in healthcare but that are characterized by relatively high and low historical pathogen prevalence, respectively. In a survey, East Asians reported greater concerns about infection, especially from foreigners. Analyses of international air travel data around the time of the outbreak provided corroborating evidence: Immediately following the outbreak, airports in the Asia-Pacific region lost more international traffic relative to their Western counterparts, and East Asian airlines reported greater declines in international traffic compared to Western airlines. These differences are unlikely to reflect objective threat posed by swine flu (whose casualties were concentrated in the Americas; rather, they appear to reflect culturally adapted behavioral patterns forged and sustained by regionally variable levels of pathogen prevalence.

  17. [The transition of acupuncture and moxibustion in Japan in modern times after western medicine spreading to the East].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Yun

    2014-04-01

    The research methods, such as philology of medicine history and comparison between tradition and modern and so on were adopted in this article to study the acupuncture-moxibustion development after western medicine spreading to the East in Japan and its main transition under the impact of western medicine. The results showed that from Meiji to Showa period, under the influence of western medicine, the transition of Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion mainly embodied in following three aspects, incuinng acupuncture works absorbing western medicine knowledge, applying experiment measures to explore acupuncture principle and launching acupuncture teaching in accordance with Europe and America academy educational pattern. The changes on acupuncture works, teaching materials and methods of researching and teaching have triggered the transition and transformation of Japanese acupuncture-moxibustion from tradition to modern.

  18. [Origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-Wei; Jia, Hong-Ling

    2014-06-01

    The origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine is explored from related literature in the history. As a result, the Shang period is regarded as initial period of umbilical therapy, while periods from Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Southern-Northern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty could be taken as stage of primary development. Time from Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasties is believed as mature stage. Also the manipulation, application principle, indications and contraindications of umbilical therapy are explained. A brief overview of modern development of umbilical therapy is also described.

  19. [Application of Delphi method in traditional Chinese medicine clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.

  20. Pollen evidence for a mid-Holocene East Asian summer monsoon maximum in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ruilin; Xiao, Jule; Fan, Jiawei; Zhang, Shengrui; Yamagata, Hideki

    2017-11-01

    There is a controversy regarding whether the high precipitation delivered by an intensified East Asian summer monsoon occurred during the early Holocene, or during the middle Holocene, especially in the context of the monsoonal margin region. The conflicting views on the subject may be caused by chronological uncertainties and ambiguities in the interpretation of different climate proxies measured in different sedimentary sequences. Here, we present a detailed record of the Holocene evolution of vegetation in northern China based on a high-resolution pollen record from Dali Lake, located near the modern summer monsoon limit. From 12,000-8300 cal BP, the sandy land landscape changed from desert to open elm forest and shrubland, while dry steppe dominated the hilly lands and patches of birch forest developed in the mountains. Between 8300 and 6000 cal BP, elm forest was extensively distributed in the sandy lands, while typical steppe covered the hilly lands and mixed coniferous-broadleaved forests expanded in the mountains. Our pollen evidence contradicts the view that the monsoonal rainfall increased during the early Holocene; rather, it indicates that the East Asian summer monsoon did not become intensified until ∼8000 cal BP in northern China. The low precipitation during the early Holocene can be attributed to the boundary conditions, i.e., to the remnant high-latitude Northern Hemisphere ice sheets and the relatively low global sea level.

  1. Diagnosing prosopagnosia in East Asian individuals: Norms for the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKone, Elinor; Wan, Lulu; Robbins, Rachel; Crookes, Kate; Liu, Jia

    2017-07-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) is widely accepted as providing a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing prosopagnosia (inability to recognize people's faces). Previously, large-sample norms have been available only for Caucasian-face versions, suitable for diagnosis in Caucasian observers. These are invalid for observers of different races due to potentially severe other-race effects. Here, we provide large-sample norms (N = 306) for East Asian observers on an Asian-face version (CFMT-Chinese). We also demonstrate methodological suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for prosopagnosia diagnosis (high internal reliability, approximately normal distribution, norm-score range sufficiently far above chance). Additional findings were a female advantage on mean performance, plus a difference between participants living in the East (China) or the West (international students, second-generation children of immigrants), which we suggest might reflect personality differences associated with willingness to emigrate. Finally, we demonstrate suitability of the CFMT-Chinese for individual differences studies that use correlations within the normal range.

  2. L-Shaped Columellar Strut in East Asian Nasal Tip Plasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Sang Dhong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Nasal tip support is an essential consideration for rhinoplasty in East Asians.There are many techniques to improve tip projection, and among them, the columellar strut isthe most popular technique. However, the conventional design is less supportive for rotatingthe tip. The amount of harvestable septal cartilage is relatively small in East Asians. For anoptimal outcome, we propose an L-shaped design for applying the columellar strut.Methods To evaluate the anthropometric outcomes, the change in nasal tip projection andthe columella-labial angle were analyzed by comparing preoperative and postoperative photographs.The anthropometric study group consisted of 25 patients who underwent the sameoperative technique of an L-shaped strut graft using septal cartilage and were followed upfor more than 9 months.Results There were statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperativevalues in the nasal tip projection ratio and columella-labial angle. We did not observeany complications directly related to the L-shaped columellar strut in the anthropometricstudy group.Conclusions The L-shaped columellar strut has advantages not only in the controlling of tipprojection and rotation, but in that it needs a smaller amount of cartilage compared to theconventional septal extension graft. It can therefore be an alternative technique for nasal tipplasty when there is an insufficient amount of harvestable septal cartilage.

  3. Beta-globin gene linked DNA haplotypes and frameworks in three South-East Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrieser, J; Sanguansermsri, T; Papp, T; Laig, M; Flatz, G

    1988-09-01

    DNA haplotypes and frameworks (numbers in parenthesis) linked to the beta-globin gene were determined by restriction fragment analysis using eight restriction endonucleases on 86 (97) chromosomes bearing the normal beta-globin gene (HBB*A) and 108 (118) chromosomes bearing HBB*E in subjects homozygous for HBB*A or HBB*E from three South-East Asian populations with high HBB*E frequencies (northern Thailand, north-eastern Thailand and Cambodia). A systematic nomenclature for beta-globin gene-linked haplotype characterized by six polymorphic sites is introduced. In all populations, HBB*A occurred preferentially (greater than 80%) in linkage with the haplotype 41 (+----+) and all three frameworks described by Antonarakis et al. (1982). In contrast, almost 80% of the HBB*E genes occurred with the haplotype 27 (-+- ). In northern and north-eastern Thailand, HBB*E was present almost exclusively in frame-work 2; HBB*E in framework 3 (Asian) was limited to the Khmer population of Cambodia, and the frequency of HBB*E-linked framework 3 increased from the west to the east in this country.

  4. Korea's Horizontal and Vertical Intra-Industry Trade and FDI in Trade with East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegi Kim

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Korea's intra-industry trade (IIT by disentangling vertical from horizontal IIT, and analyzes the determinants of both IIT types in trade with East Asian countries during the period of 1991-2005. Korea's IIT with East Asian countries has increased rapidly, especially its high quality IIT, which has increased faster than horizontal IIT and low quality IIT, implying that Korea's product quality has improved over time. Korea's high quality IIT is larger in trade with developing countries, but its low quality IIT is larger in trade with Japan. The regression results show that the income differences between countries have a negative effect on horizontal IIT, and that Korea's high quality IIT becomes larger when Korea's income is higher than the income of partner countries. This supports the theory of IIT. Foreign direct investment (FDI inflow has had a positive effect on increases in IIT, but the effects of FDI outflow are not certain. This suggests a policy implication that FDI inflow has a more positive effect on IIT than FDI outflow.

  5. Variability and teleconnections of South and East Asian summer monsoons in present and future projections of CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preethi, Bhaskar; Mujumdar, Milind; Prabhu, Amita; Kripalani, Ramesh

    2017-05-01

    Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model outputs of the South and East Asian summer monsoon variability and their tele-connections are investigated using historical simulations (1861-2005) and future projections under the RCP4.5 scenario (2006-2100). Detailed analyses are performed using nine models having better representation of the recent monsoon teleconnections for the interactive Asian monsoon sub-systems. However, these models underestimate rainfall mainly over South Asia and Korea-Japan sector, the regions of heavy rainfall, along with a bias in location of rainfall maxima. Indeed, the simulation biases, underestimations of monsoon variability and teleconnections suggest further improvements for better representation of Asian monsoon in the climate models. Interestingly, the performance of Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator version 1.0 (ACCESS1.0) in simulating the annual cycle, spatial pattern of rainfall and multi-decadal variations of summer monsoon rainfall over South and East Asia appears to more realistic. In spite of large spread among the CMIP5 models, historical simulations as well as future projections of summer monsoon rainfall indicate multi-decadal variability. These rainfall variations, displaying certain epochs of more rainfall over South Asia than over East Asia and vice versa, suggest an oscillatory behaviour. Teleconnections between South and East Asian monsoon rainfall also exhibit a multi-decadal variation with alternate epochs of strengthening and weakening relationship. Furthermore, large-scale circulation features such as South Asian monsoon trough and north Pacific subtropical high depict zonal oscillatory behaviour with east-west-east shifts. Periods with eastward or westward extension of the Mascarene High, intensification and expansion of the upper tropospheric South Asian High are also projected by the CMIP5 models.

  6. The Needs and Priorities for Government Grants for Traditional Korean Medicine: Comparing the Public and Traditional Korean Medicine Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Kyung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to compare the need for research and development (R&D of Traditional Korean Medicine (TKM perceived by the public and Traditional Korean Medicine doctor (KMD in. Survey data from 2462 people and KMD were utilized for this study. Overall, 25.10% of the public and 90.91% of KMD answered that government grants for TKM R&D were “extremely necessary.” The majority of respondents reported that grants were needed “for the advancement of science and technology in TKM” (public, 46.28%; KMD, 34.08%. Research regarding herbal medicine was the top priority of TKM R&D in both groups. However, “research facilities and training for researchers (27.85%” was a close second priority of the public, but not KMD. Moreover, the public believed that safety from adverse effects and toxicity was a more important area of R&D in each discipline, but KMD did not find these to be important. The public and KMD generally agreed on the need for government grants for TKM R&D, but the public was more interested in safety than KMD. Therefore, government policy decision makers must consider opinions of both the public and KMD when planning government grants.

  7. [Study on pharmacologic action characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian based on medicinal properties combinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong-Ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties. By collecting data about traditional Chinese medicinal properties recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005 Edition), literature and data about pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines recorded in the Chinese Materia Medica, by using the method of association rules, the authors dug pharmacological effect rules corresponds to relevant medicinal property combinations, with the medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian as the target. It was found that either obvious different pharmacological effects or identical pharmacological characteristics existed in traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian. With the aim to explore the correlations between traditional Chinese medicine medicinal properties and pharmacological effects, the authors linked the traditional Chinese medicine theory with modern research achievements, in order to provide the ideas and methods for interpreting mechanisms of medicinal properties.

  8. Age, Gender, and Fine-Grained Ethnicity Prediction using Convolutional Neural Networks for the East Asian Face Dataset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivas, Nisha [ORNL; Rose, Derek C [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Mahalingam, Gayathri [ORNL; Atwal, Harleen [ORNL; Ricanek, Karl [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.

  9. EAST ASIAN CORPORATE GOVERNANCE: A TEST OF THE RELATION BETWEEN CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND FIRM PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Warokka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Corporate governance theory predicts that leverage affects agency costs and thereby influences firm performance. Agency costs represent important problems in corporate governance in both financial and non-financial industries. Prior evidences have demonstrated an association between ownership structures, capital structure, and firm performance. This study extends the literature by proposing a further link between capital structure and firm performance in term of post Asian Financial Crisis that is rarely investigated. Using an agency framework, the research argues that the distribution of equity ownership among corporate managers and external block holders has a significant relationship with leverage and firm performance, and there is reverse causality effect between ownership structure, capital structure, and firm performance. The paper tests two hypotheses that explore various aspects of this relationship. This study uses 532 East Asian companies, which are located in INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS AND FINANCE STUDIES Vol 3, No 2, 2011 ISSN: 1309-8055 (Online 2 seven most affected countries when the crisis took place during period 1996-1997. The time frame of analysis is 2000-2001 period that is believed as a start of recovery period. Statistic methods used for testing the hypothesis are t-test and multivariate regression model. The empirical results indicate that the East Asian companies after the crisis apply the efficiency-risk argument. In analyzing the reverse causation of capital structure and corporate performance relation, the result confirms the incentive signaling approach, which debt can be used to signal the fact that firm has prospect and equity issues may be interpreted as a negative signal.

  10. Effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on prolongation of cardiac allograft survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Uchiyama, M; Zhang, Q; Harada, T; Otsuka, K; Shimokawa, T; Niimi, M

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines have been used for over 3,000 years in Asian as alternative therapy for their variety effects and have recently become popular in Europe and the United States. In the last 30 years, Japanese herbal medicines were widely used for treatment of diseases after been recognized officially by Japanese government. In this study, we investigated the effect of 34 kinds of traditional Japanese herbal medicines on alloimmune responses in a murine model of cardiac allograft transplantation. CBA mice (H2(k)) underwent transplantation of a C57BL/6 (H2(b)) heart and received oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of the 34 kinds of herbal medicines from the day of transplantation until 7 days afterward. Naïve CBA mice rejected B6 cardiac grafts acutely (median survival time [MST], 7 days). CBA transplant recipients given 2 g/kg/d of Sairei-to (TJ-114) and Tokishakuyaku-san (TJ-23) had prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival indefinitely (both MSTs > 100 days). Moreover, CBA transplant recipients given Seisinrensiin (TJ-111), Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), Rikkunshito (TJ-43), Maobushisaishinto (TJ-127), Ninjin-yoei-to (TJ-108), Ryokan-kyomi-shinge-nin-to (TJ-119), Inchingorei-san (TJ-117), Hochuekkito (TJ-41), Kihi-to (TJ-65), and Sinbu-to (TJ-30) had also prolonged C57BL/6 allograft survival significantly (MSTs of 28, 22, 16, 14, 14, 13, 12, 9.5, 9 and 9 days, respectively). However, none of other 22 kinds of herbal medicines could prolong the allograft survival. Furthermore, oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of Daikenchuto (TJ-100) induced sudden death (within 1 minute) in CBA mice. In conclusion, 12 kinds of Japanese herbal medicines prolonged allograft survival and one showed toxic effect in mice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration for Traditional Chinese Medicine Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations

  12. Researches on Transcriptome Sequencing in the Study of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jie; Zhang, Rong-chao; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Due to its incomparable advantages, the application of transcriptome sequencing in the study of traditional Chinese medicine attracts more and more attention of researchers, which greatly promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the applications of transcriptome sequencing in traditional Chinese medicine were summarized by reviewing recent related papers. PMID:28900463

  13. Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine as an alternative form of health care system: A preliminary case study of Nangabo sub-county, central Uganda. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... The findings indicated that most (43%) respondents derive their livelihoods from traditional medicine practices.

  14. Multivariate statistical treatment of PIXE analysis of some traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaofeng Zhang; Jianguo Ma; Junfa Qin; Lun Xiao

    1991-01-01

    Elements in two kinds of 30 traditional Chinese medicines were analyzed by PIXE method, and the data were treated by multivariate statistical methods. The results show that these two kinds of traditional Chinese medicines are almost separable according to their elemental contents. The results are congruous with the traditional Chinese medicine practice. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Eboh and Traditional Medicine in Pre-Colonial Apana Social Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper extols the significance of traditional medicine in the social systems of pre-colonial Apana. Traditional medicine and its practitioners maintained their popularity in the socio-cultural development of Apana. The Apana word, eboh, which exists in the plural form, refers to the practitioners of traditional medicine.

  16. Traditional Music of East Africa: Experiencing "Ngoma" in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ngoma is present throughout Eastern and Southern Africa. Ngoma refers to the tradition of expression via music, drumming, dance, and storytelling. History, values, education, and even identity can be transmitted between generations. This article traces the experiences of a music teacher from the United States traveling and studying…

  17. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrialised Economies. ESRC Pacific Asia Programme [Series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, David; Green, Francis; James, Donna; Sung, Johnny

    This book provides a detailed analysis of the development of education and training systems in Asia and the relationship with the process of economic growth. Focus is on four impoverished agrarian economies--Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan--that were transformed in little more than a generation into East Asian "tigers":…

  18. Prediction of breast cancer risk based on common genetic variants in women of East Asian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wanqing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Guo, Xingyi; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Dennis, Joe; Wang, Qin; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Ying; Dunning, Alison M; García-Closas, Montserrat; Brennan, Paul; Chen, Shou-Tung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Hartman, Mikael; Ito, Hidemi; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Matsuo, Keitaro; Miao, Hui; Muir, Kenneth; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Shen, Chen-Yang; Teo, Soo H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Wu, Anna H; Yip, Cheng Har; Simard, Jacques; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Kang, Daehee; Xiang, Yongbing; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-12-08

    Approximately 100 common breast cancer susceptibility alleles have been identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The utility of these variants in breast cancer risk prediction models has not been evaluated adequately in women of Asian ancestry. We evaluated 88 breast cancer risk variants that were identified previously by GWAS in 11,760 cases and 11,612 controls of Asian ancestry. SNPs confirmed to be associated with breast cancer risk in Asian women were used to construct a polygenic risk score (PRS). The relative and absolute risks of breast cancer by the PRS percentiles were estimated based on the PRS distribution, and were used to stratify women into different levels of breast cancer risk. We confirmed significant associations with breast cancer risk for SNPs in 44 of the 78 previously reported loci at P women in the middle quintile of the PRS, women in the top 1% group had a 2.70-fold elevated risk of breast cancer (95% CI: 2.15-3.40). The risk prediction model with the PRS had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.606. The lifetime risk of breast cancer for Shanghai Chinese women in the lowest and highest 1% of the PRS was 1.35% and 10.06%, respectively. Approximately one-half of GWAS-identified breast cancer risk variants can be directly replicated in East Asian women. Collectively, common genetic variants are important predictors for breast cancer risk. Using common genetic variants for breast cancer could help identify women at high risk of breast cancer.

  19. Adaptation in families of children with Down syndrome in East Asian countries: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyunkyung; Van Riper, Marcia

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this integrative literature review was to understand the experiences of East Asian families of children with Down syndrome and identify factors affecting their adaptation in the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment and Adaptation. Socio-cultural factors influence how well families adapt following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Existing literature in this area has focused primarily on families from Western cultures. This is problematic because nurses care for families from all over the world. Therefore, the focus of this review is on families of children with Down syndrome living in East Asia, where Confucianism is dominant. Integrative literature review. Online databases (i.e. PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO) and a public search engine (i.e. Google Scholar) were used along with manual searches of reference lists and major journals. Studies were limited to original publications written in English and published between 1990-2014. Two authors independently performed integrative review processes proposed by Whittemore and Knafl and a quality assessment using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Like families in Western cultures, some East Asian families of children with Down syndrome adapted well and even thrived while others struggled. Various socio-cultural factors, including some associated with Confucianism, played a role in how individuals, dyads and families adapted. An understanding of socio-cultural influences can help nurses implement culturally sensitive family-centred interventions with families of children with Down syndrome. It may also facilitate policy changes concerning resources for these families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Role of Self-Compassion and Emotional Approach Coping in the Relationship between Maladaptive Perfectionism and Psychological Distress among East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Heweon

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the mediating and moderating roles of self-compassion and emotional approach coping in the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress among East Asian international students. Data were collected through an online survey completed by 255 East Asian international students in a large public…

  1. Major Population Expansion of East Asians Began before Neolithic Time: Evidence of mtDNA Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhen-Dong; Wang, Yi; Tan, Jing-Ze; Li, Hui; Jin, Li

    2011-01-01

    It is a major question in archaeology and anthropology whether human populations started to grow primarily after the advent of agriculture, i.e., the Neolithic time, especially in East Asia, which was one of the centers of ancient agricultural civilization. To answer this question requires an accurate estimation of the time of lineage expansion as well as that of population expansion in a population sample without ascertainment bias. In this study, we analyzed all available mtDNA genomes of East Asians ascertained by random sampling, a total of 367 complete mtDNA sequences generated by the 1000 Genome Project, including 249 Chinese (CHB, CHD, and CHS) and 118 Japanese (JPT). We found that major mtDNA lineages underwent expansions, all of which, except for two JPT-specific lineages, including D4, D4b2b, D4a, D4j, D5a2a, A, N9a, F1a1'4, F2, B4, B4a, G2a1 and M7b1'2'4, occurred before 10 kya, i.e., before the Neolithic time (symbolized by Dadiwan Culture at 7.9 kya) in East Asia. Consistent to this observation, the further analysis showed that the population expansion in East Asia started at 13 kya and lasted until 4 kya. The results suggest that the population growth in East Asia constituted a need for the introduction of agriculture and might be one of the driving forces that led to the further development of agriculture. PMID:21998705

  2. Holistic approach to functional constipation: Perspective of traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrouzi, Majid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-11-23

    Traditional Persian medicine (TPM) proposes a different viewpoint to the chronic diseases. Diagnosis and implemented treatment are based on individual differences among patients. Constipation or Ea'teghal-e-batn is a condition in which the patient develops difficult or painful defecation. Based on TPM concepts, the fifirst digestion step starts from halq (oral cavity), and ends via defecation from the maq'ad (anus). Avicenna believed that four faculties, ha'zemeh (digestive), ja'zebeh (absorptive), ma'sekeh (retentive) and da'fe'eh (propulsive), are involved in the process of digestion and absorption of the ingested food and expelling the waste materials. The bowel movement and appearance of the stool is a measure for evaluating the gastrointestinal healthy function. Defecation should be with no pain and fecal material should have no burning and acuity. Low food intake or foods with dry temperament, dryness of gastrointestinal tract, diaphoresis and heavy exercise as well as intestine sensory loss were discussed as main causes of constipation. Management of constipation in TPM includes dietary schemes, oil massages and subsequently simple herbal medicines. According to TPM theories, the fifirst step in treating a disease is the elimination of disease causes (asbabe- maraz) and also providing the causes of health (asbab-e-sehhat). Health care providers should know the proper condition which the herbal medicines should be administered in and be able to guide the patients about the benefifits and hazards of herbal remedies, commonly used in their living origin.

  3. Application of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is related to many cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, especially stroke. It can therefore increase cardiovascular mortality and all-cause death. The current treatments of AF remain to be western drugs and radiofrequency ablation which are limited by the tolerance of patients, adverse side effects, and high recurrence rate, especially for the elderly. On the contrary, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with long history of use involves various treatment methods, including Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs or bioactive ingredients, Chinese patent medicines, acupuncture, Qigong, and Tai Chi Chuan. With more and more researches reported, the active roles of TCM in AF management have been discovered. Then it is likely that TCM would be effective preventive means and valuable additional remedy for AF. The potential mechanisms further found by numerous experimental studies showed the distinct characteristics of TCM. Some CHMs or bioactive ingredients are atrial-selective, while others are multichannel and multifunctional. Therefore, in this review we summarized the treatment strategies reported in TCM, with the purpose of providing novel ideas and directions for AF management.

  4. Feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xingwang; Wu Jilan

    1998-01-01

    The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by γ-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by γ irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by γ-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb

  5. Quantitative Estimation of the Impact of European Teleconnections on Interannual Variation of East Asian Winter Temperature and Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The impact of European teleconnections including the East AtlanticWest Russia (EA-WR), the Scandinavia (SCA), and the East Atlantic (EA) on East Asian winter temperature variability was quantified and compared with the combined effect of the Arctic Oscillation (AO), the Western Pacific (WP), and the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which are originated in the Northern Hemispheric high-latitudes or the Pacific. Three European teleconnections explained 22-25 percent of the total monthly upper-tropospheric height variance over Eurasia. Regression analysis revealed warming by EA-WR and EA and cooling by SCA over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. Temperature anomalies were largely explained by the advective temperature change process at the lower troposphere. The average spatial correlation over East Asia (90-180E, 10-80N) for the last 34 winters between observed and reconstructed temperature comprised of AO, WP and ENSO effect (AWE) was approximately 0.55, and adding the European teleconnection components (ESE) to the reconstructed temperature improved the correlation up to approximately 0.64. Lower level atmospheric structure demonstrated that approximately five of the last 34 winters were significantly better explained by ESE than AWE to determine East Asian seasonal winter temperatures. We also compared the impact between EA-WR and AO on the 1) East Asian winter monsoon, 2) cold surge, and 3) the Siberian high. These three were strongly coupled, and their spatial features and interannual variation were somewhat better explained by EA-WR than AO. Results suggest that the EA-WR impact must be treated more importantly than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  6. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Safaa; Chalak, Lamis; Dalleh, Helena; Arnold, Nelly

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plant species in Lebanon are experiencing severe threats because of various environmental conditions, human expansion footprints and recent growing global demand. Organized research and information on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge have been very limited and little efforts have been invested to develop a complete inventory for native medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge in the country. Recognized as a key biodiversity area of the Mediterranean Basin, Mount Hermon hosts important richness of medicinal plants that has been traditionally used in treatment of many illnesses since generations. Novel knowledge gathered by the present investigation is important in preserving indigenous knowledge of Mount Hermon community and revitalizing traditional herbal medicines. Ethnopharmacological information was collected by semi-structured interviews with 53 native informants (herbalists, traditional healers, midwives and local adult villagers) in 13 towns and villages surrounding Mount Hermon. The interviews were conducted through guided field visits and discussion groups whilst collecting plants specimens. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on the determination keys of the "New Flora of Lebanon and Syria" and specimens were deposited at the herbarium of the Research Center for Environment and Development at Beirut Arab University. The results obtained indicate that 124 plant species of Mount flora are still used in traditional medicine by the local communities as an important source of primary health care and treatment of a wide range of different illnesses. These species belonged to 42 families and 102 genera. Compositae (19 species), Labiatae (18 species), Rosaceae (11) and Umbelliferae (11) formed the dominant families. Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis revealed that among the 14 illness categories used, respiratory (0.94), gastrointestinal and renal (0.93), genital systems (0.92) had the highest FIC values

  7. Modeling biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions using a new, satellite constrained approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R.; Cohen, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning over the South, South East and East Asian Monsoon regions, is a crucial contributor to the total local aerosol loading. Furthermore, the impact of the ITCZ, and Monsoonal circulation patterns coupled with complex topography also have a prominent impact on the aerosol loading throughout much of the Northern Hemisphere. However, at the present time, biomass burning emissions are highly underestimated over this region, in part due to under-reported emissions in space and time, and in part due to an incomplete understanding of the physics and chemistry of the aerosols emitted in fires and formed downwind from them. Hence, a better understanding of the four-dimensional source distribution, plume rise, and in-situ processing, in particular in regions with significant quantities of urban air pollutants, is essential to advance our knowledge of this problem. This work uses a new modeling methodology based on the simultaneous constraints of measured AOD and some trace gasses over the region. The results of the 4-D constrained emissions are further expanded upon using different fire plume height rise and in-situ processing assumptions. Comparisons between the results and additional ground-based and remotely sensed measurements, including AERONET, CALIOP, and NOAA and other ground networks are included. The end results reveal a trio of insights into the nonlinear processes most-important to understand the impacts of biomass burning in this part of the world. Model-measurement comparisons are found to be consistent during the typical burning years of 2016. First, the model performs better under the new emissions representations, than it does using any of the standard hotspot based approaches currently employed by the community. Second, long range transport and mixing between the boundary layer and free troposphere contribute to the spatial-temporal variations. Third, we indicate some source regions that are new, either because of increased urbanization, or of

  8. Application of vegetation information on the Tibetan Plateau to improve East Asian summer monsoon prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Zhang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The summer monsoon is the most important climate feature in East Asia. Its unusual behaviors may lead to occurrence of extensive drought/flood disasters in East Asia, which can cause serious consequences on the natural environment and the human society. It is well known that the slowly varying oceanic processes provide the primary source for East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) predictability. In addition to the ocean, land surface can also provide a critical memory function in the climate system at the monthly and longer time scales. However, the memory inherent in the land surface is less well understood or applied toward EASM prediction. Here we investigate the role of vegetation on the Tibetan Plateau for the EASM variation and prediction using observational data. We discuss the possible mechanism explaining the relationship between TP vegetation and EASM. A statistical model is further developed to predict the EASM strength by combination of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the TP vegetation greenness. Hindcast for the period 1982-2006 shows that the use of the TP vegetation information can largely improve the EASM prediction skill compared to that using ENSO alone.

  9. Impact of East Asian Summer Monsoon on Surface Ozone Pattern in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Wang, Tijian; Huang, Xing; Pu, Xi; Li, Mengmeng; Chen, Pulong; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Wang, Minghuai

    2018-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone plays a key role in regional and global atmospheric and climate systems. In East Asia, ozone can be affected both in concentration level and spatial pattern by typical monsoon climate. This paper uses three different indices to identify the strength of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and explores the possible impact of EASM intensity on the ozone pattern through synthetic and process analysis. The difference in ozone between three strong and three weak monsoon years was analyzed using the simulations from regional climate model RegCM4-Chem. It was found that EASM intensity can significantly influence the spatial distribution of ozone in the lower troposphere. When EASM is strong, ozone in the eastern part of China (28°N - 42° N) is reduced, but the inverse is detected in the north and south. The surface ozone difference ranges from -7 to 7 ppbv during the 3 months (June to August) of the EASM, with the most obvious difference in August. Difference of the 3 months' average ozone ranges from -3.5 to 4 ppbv. Process analysis shows that the uppermost factor controlling ozone level during summer monsoon seasons is the chemistry process. Interannual variability of EASM can impact the spatial distribution of ozone through wind in the lower troposphere, cloud cover, and downward shortwave radiation, which affect the transport and chemical formation of ozone. The phenomenon should be addressed when considering the interaction between ozone and the climate in East Asia region.

  10. Traditional Medicine Through the Filter of Modernity: A brief historical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rabarihoela Razafimandimby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicines still prevail in current Malagasy context. A careful historical analysis shows however that Malagasy traditional medicine has been screened through many filters before being accepted in a global context. Traditional medicine in its authentic form has been more or less rejected with the advent of  modern medicine – although not without reaction. This paper will retrace the historical encountering of the modern and traditional to determine the extent to which traditional medicine is acknowledged and used in the current prevailing modern, rational and scientific global context.

  11. Fertility trends and prospects in East and South-East Asian countries and implications for policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leete, R

    1991-01-01

    Fertility trends and prospects for east and southeast Asian countries including cities in China, Taiwan, the Republic of Korea, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Myanmar, and Viet Nam are described. Additional discussion focuses on family planning methods, marriage patterns, fertility prospects, theories of fertility change, and policy implications for the labor supply, labor migrants, increased female participation in the labor force (LFP), human resource development, and social policy measures. Figures provide graphic descriptions of total fertility rates (TFRS) for 12 countries/areas for selected years between 1960-90, TFR for selected Chinese cities between 1955-90, the % of currently married women 15-44 years using contraception by main method for selected years and for 10 countries, actual and projected TFR and annual growth rates between 1990-2020 for Korea and Indonesia. It is noted that the 1st southeast Asian country to experience a revolution in reproductive behavior was Japan with below replacement level fertility by 1960. This was accomplished by massive postponement in age at marriage and rapid reduction in marital fertility. Fertility was controlled primarily through abortion. Thereafter every southeast Asian country experienced fertility declines. Hong Kong, Penang, Shanghai, Singapore, and Taipei and declining fertility before the major thrust of family planning (FP). Chinese fertility declines were reflected in the 1970s to the early 1980s and paralleled the longer, later, fewer campaign and policy which set ambitious targets which were strictly enforced at all levels of administration. Korea and Taiwan's declines were a result of individual decision making to restrict fertility which was encouraged by private and government programs to provide FP information and subsidized services. The context was social and economic change. Indonesia's almost replacement level fertility was achieved dramatically through the 1970s and 1980s by

  12. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  13. Evaluation on Common Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Treated by Integrative Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guo-liang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.

  14. Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of some nigerian medicinal plants used bini traditional folk medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuekwe, I.F.

    2008-01-01

    Four medicinal plants namely; Vernonia amygdalina, Psidium guajava, Chromolaena odorata and Anarcadium occidentale, commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Bini traditional folk medicine in Nigeria were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella aerogenes. The leaf extracts of P guajava and A occidentale completely inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested, while V amygdalina inhibited the growth of K. aerogenes only. Metronidazole was used as the standard antidiarrhoeal drug. Glycosides were found in all the plant extracts. This study, Favours the use of the leaf extracts of A occidentale, P guajava and V amygdalina for the treatment of diarrhoea in Nigeria. (author)

  15. Education, Politics and Sino-Japanese Relations: Reflections on a Three-Year Project on "East Asian Images of Japan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a recent collaborative and interdisciplinary study of East Asian Images of Japan, this article discusses contemporary Chinese portrayals of Japan, their political context, and their significance for Sino-Japanese relations. It questions some widely-held assumptions concerning the extent of "thought control" in an authoritarian…

  16. The Effect of Perfectionism and Acculturative Stress on Levels of Depression Experienced by East Asian International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamura, Toshitaka; Laird, Philip G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined relationships among acculturative stress, grade point average satisfaction, maladaptive perfectionism, and depression in 52 East Asian international students and 126 North American students. Results indicated that a combined effect of perfectionism and acculturative stress accounted for more than 30% of the variance related to…

  17. Revisiting Classroom Practices in East Asian Countries: Examination of Within-Country Variations and Effects of Classroom Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjeon

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: East Asian schools receive much attention for the comparatively high achievement of their students. To account for this success, scholars and commentators advance broad claims about the rote character of instruction or the complexity of classroom practice, typically generalizing to an entire nation. Yet little is known about…

  18. Situating the Discourses of Privilege and Marginalization in the Lives of Two East Asian Women Teachers of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Using a narrative approach (i.e., Clandinin and Connelly 2000; Dewey 1938 [1963]), this article explores the identity constructions and negotiations of two East Asian women teachers of English in MATESOL programs. The focus of this article explores the ways in which the two women's privileged experiences coexisted with issues of marginalization…

  19. High Prevalence of the BIM Deletion Polymorphism in Young Female Breast Cancer in an East Asian Country.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Lin

    Full Text Available A rapid surge of female breast cancer has been observed in young women in several East Asian countries. The BIM deletion polymorphism, which confers cell resistance to apoptosis, was recently found exclusively in East Asian people with prevalence rate of 12%. We aimed to evaluate the possible role of this genetic alteration in carcinogenesis of breast cancer in East Asians.Female healthy volunteers (n = 307, patients in one consecutive stage I-III breast cancer cohort (n = 692 and one metastatic breast cancer cohort (n = 189 were evaluated. BIM wild-type and deletion alleles were separately genotyped in genomic DNAs.Both cancer cohorts consistently showed inverse associations between the BIM deletion polymorphism and patient age (≤35 y vs. 36-50 y vs. >50 y: 29% vs. 22% vs. 15%, P = 0.006 in the consecutive cohort, and 40% vs. 23% vs. 13%, P = 0.023 in the metastatic cohort. In healthy volunteers, the frequencies of the BIM deletion polymorphism were similar (13%-14% in all age groups. Further analyses indicated that the BIM deletion polymorphism was not associated with specific clinicopathologic features, but it was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio 1.71 in the consecutive cohort.BIM deletion polymorphism may be involved in the tumorigenesis of the early-onset breast cancer among East Asians.

  20. Acculturation, self-construal, mental and physical health: an explorative study of East Asian students in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Gayoung; Freund, Henning; Stopsack, Malte; Kämmerer, Annette; Barnow, Sven

    2014-08-01

    The present study explores acculturation and its associated aspects of two East Asian student groups with different levels of exposure to German culture (100 international students from East Asian countries [IS]; 61 second generation students of East Asian descent [SGS]). First, we investigated the relationships between acculturation, self-construal, depressive and somatic symptoms, and differences between the student groups in these variables. Second, the four acculturation types (integration, assimilation, separation and marginalization) were examined regarding their relationship to self-construal and health outcomes. The results showed that the acculturation dimensions (mainstream, heritage) were relevant to the level of depressive symptoms for IS which was not the case for SGS. Furthermore, IS reported more somatic symptoms whereas there was no difference between the two groups in the level of depressive symptoms. In the analysis of acculturation types, assimilated and integrated students were characterized by high independent self-construal, while separated and integrated students showed high interdependent self-construal. Assimilated students displayed the least depressive symptoms of all acculturation groups. This study highlights different characteristics of East Asian students in acculturation, self-construal and health outcomes, and discusses the complexity of the relationships between acculturation types and health. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  1. Middle Holocene Organic Carbon and Biomarker Records from the South Yellow Sea: Relationship to the East Asian Monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liang; Hu, Bangqi; Li, Jun; Dou, Yanguang; Xie, Luhua; Dong, Liang

    2018-03-01

    The East Asian monsoon system influences the sedimentation and transport of organic matter in East Asian marginal seas that is derived from both terrestrial and marine sources. In this study, we determined organic carbon (OC) isotope values, concentrations of marine biomarkers, and levels of OC and total nitrogen (TN) in core YSC-1 from the central South Yellow Sea (SYS). Our objectives were to trace the sources of OC and variations in palaeoproductivity since the middle Holocene, and their relationships with the East Asian monsoon system. The relative contributions of terrestrial versus marine organic matter in core sediments were estimated using a two-end-member mixing model of OC isotopes. Results show that marine organic matter has been the main sediment constituent since the middle Holocene. The variation of terrestrial organic carbon concentration (OCter) is similar to the EASM history. However, the variation of marine organic carbon concentration (OCmar) is opposite to that of the EASM curve, suggesting OCmar is distinctly influenced by terrestrial material input. Inputs of terrestrial nutrients into the SYS occur in the form of fluvial and aeolian dust, while concentrations of nutrients in surface water are derived mainly from bottom water via the Yellow Sea circulation system, which is controlled by the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Variations in palaeoproductivity represented by marine organic matter and biomarker records are, in general, consistent with the recent EAWM intensity studies, thus, compared with EASM, EAWM may play the main role to control the marine productivity variations in the SYS.

  2. Genotyping of the cagA gene of Helicobacter pylori on immunohistochemistry with East Asian CagA-specific antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Ryoko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Tsukamoto, Yoshiyuki; Nguyen, Lam Tung; Hijiya, Naoki; Matsuura, Keiko; Kodama, Masaaki; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Murakami, Kazunari; Fujioka, Toshio; Yanagisawa, Shigetaka; Moriyama, Masatsugu

    2008-04-01

    The cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA) of Helicobacter pylori prevalent in East Asian countries, where the mortality rate due to gastric cancer is high, has been reported to be structurally different from that in Western countries, where the gastric cancer mortality rate is relatively low. Based on the structural features of the EPIYA motifs located at the carboxyl terminal of the protein, CagA was subdivided into two types: East Asian CagA and Western CagA. A recent study suggested that immunohistochemistry with anti-East Asian-specific antibody (alpha-EAS Ab), which was specifically immunoreactive with East Asian CagA but not with Western CagA, may be useful for diagnosis of the cagA genotype. To further evaluate the value of this diagnostic method in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, 143 gastric biopsy specimens with alpha-EAS Ab were analyzed on immunohistochemistry and compared with the sequencing of the cagA gene. It was found that diagnosis of the cagA genotype of H. pylori on immunohistochemistry using the alpha-EAS Ab was highly sensitive (sensitivity 93.2%) and specific (specificity 72.7%), suggesting that immunohistochemical diagnosis of the cagA genotype is useful for diagnosis of the cagA genotype.

  3. Export Performance and Economic Growth in East Asian Economies – Application of Cointegration and Vector Error Correction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neena Malhotra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available East Asian Economies are considered to be most successful economies in the world. Following the footsteps of other East Asian economies such as Japan and South Korea, China also shifted towards export-led growth strategy in 80s. This study analyzes the effect of export performance on economic growth of three major East Asian economies i.e. Japan, South Korea, and China. This study has conducted the econometric analysis of macro data under multivariate framework for the period 1980-2012. In order to examine the causal relationship between exports and economic growth, the study has applied time series techniques such as Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and PhillipsPerron (PP unit root tests to check stationarity of variables, Johansen cointegration test for long run relationship, vector error correction model (VECM for short run dynamics and for estimating speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium. The analysis also made use of techniques Impulse Response Function (IRF and Variance Decomposition Analysis (VDA to investigate the interrelationships within the system. The estimated results suggested that all variables were cointegrated for East Asian economies. The study concluded that export-led growth (ELG was only long run phenomenon in China and South Korea. The results for Japan supported growth led exports (GLE particularly for short run.

  4. Body mass index and self-rated health in East Asian countries : Comparison among South Korea, China, Japan, and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Yang, Youngmi; Park, Jumin; Cheon, Jooyoung; Kwon, Young Dae

    2017-01-01

    There have been conflicting findings regarding the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and self-rated health (SRH) worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between BMI and SRH by comparing its relationship in four East Asian countries: South Korea, China, Japan, and

  5. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  6. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  7. Current application of chemometrics in traditional Chinese herbal medicine research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yipeng; Wu, Zhenwei; Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Du, Fuyou; Li, Gongke

    2016-07-15

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) are promising approach for the treatment of various diseases which have attracted increasing attention all over the world. Chemometrics in quality control of TCHMs are great useful tools that harnessing mathematics, statistics and other methods to acquire information maximally from the data obtained from various analytical approaches. This feature article focuses on the recent studies which evaluating the pharmacological efficacy and quality of TCHMs by determining, identifying and discriminating the bioactive or marker components in different samples with the help of chemometric techniques. In this work, the application of chemometric techniques in the classification of TCHMs based on their efficacy and usage was introduced. The recent advances of chemometrics applied in the chemical analysis of TCHMs were reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Progress in research of traditional Chinese medicine Citrus aurantium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Li, Zheng-yong; Ma, Yu-ling; Ma, Shuang-cheng

    2015-01-01

    Citrus aurantium is one of the most common traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, the chemical components, content determination and pharmacological actions of C. aurantium were summarized for the comprehensive utilization of its resources. Because of the complicated resources of C. aurantium, only one single component as index couldn't reflect the quality and effects and comprehensive evaluation which concluding multiple components should be established in the future quality control. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium.

  9. Fracture healing with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Namula; Wang, Mei; Li, Xueen

    2013-02-01

    To explore the concept and norm of fracture healing with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine (TMM). Based on the correspondence between man and the universe (including psychosomatic integration) in fracture healing with osteopathy in TMM, we used modern physio-psychological and biomechanical principles and methods to probe the integrated, dynamic and functional characteristics of fracture healing. Based on the integration of limbs and the body, unification of the body and function and harmony of man and nature (including psychosomatic integration), fracture healing with osteopathy in TMM comprises the concept of natural functional healing of fractures, and follows the norm of considering physiological healing and psychological function as well as limb healing and motor function. Fracture healing with osteopathy in TMM is characterized by a lack of trauma without future complications. This therapy makes the concept of fracture healing develop in the direction of humanity, behaviorism and integration.

  10. Quality control of Cordyceps sinensis, a valued traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K

    2006-08-28

    Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed.

  11. A study on expelling lead with a traditional Chinese medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Aizhen; Guo Ruixin; Zhou Jieyan; Wang Dongfeng; Wang Huifang

    1993-01-01

    The rat model poisoned by lead acetate was treated with either EDTA or a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the ability of 'relieving toxin and strengthening spleen'. In EDTA group, lead contents in blood fell to normal; the other parameters apparently improved but did not return to normal(p 0.05). But in TCM group, all the parameters returned to normal (p > 0.05) and the contents of essential trace elements in urine did not obviously change (p < 0.05). The curative effect of TCM is therefore better than that of EDTA. The mechanism probably lies in following points: (1) TCM can expedite excretion of lead in feces and decrease the lead accumulation in liver; (2) FEP returns to normal, showing that the lead expelling effect of TCM is relatively complete; (3) TCM does not disturb the interior equilibrium of essential trace elements while expelling lead

  12. Direct analysis of traditional Chinese medicines by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Melody Yee-Man; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping

    2016-07-15

    Analysis of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) plays important roles in quality control of TCMs and understanding their pharmacological effects. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique of choice for analysis of TCMs due to its superiority in speed, sensitivity and specificity. However, conventional MS analysis of TCMs typically requires extensive sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation, which could be time-consuming and laborious, prior to the analysis. The expanding usage of TCMs worldwide demands development of rapid, cost-effective and reliable methods for analysis of TCMs. In recent years, new sample preparation and ionization techniques have been developed to enable direct analysis of TCMs by MS, significantly reducing the analysis time and cost. In this review, various MS-based techniques, mainly including ambient ionization-MS and MALDI-MS based techniques, applied for direct analysis of TCMs are summarized and their applicability and future prospects are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An Evidence-Based Review on Medicinal Value of Clays in Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Montaseri, Hashem; Hosamo, Ammar; Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    The use of earths and clays for medical purposes dates back to antiquity. In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in researches on traditional remedies in the hope of discovering new drug. Iran is an ancient country with a medical backbone acquired from the experiences of ancient Persian scholars, who had made a great contribution to the development of the medical sciences. Many medical and pharmaceutical books by early Persian scientists still exist and may have the potential of leading researchers to new drug discoveries. Owing to the emergence of new and antimicrobial-resistant infections, present-day medicine has recently begun focusing on medicinal earths and clays especially as mineral antimicrobials. The current study is, therefore, aimed at gathering information regarding medicinal clays in traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Five main Persian materia medica with the key word 'tin' (clay) and current databases such as PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched by key words 'white, green, red, maroon, violet, black, grey and pink clays' and 'pharmacological effects'. Twenty three clays were found in Persian manuscripts. Although their mineralogical compositions are unknown, different pharmacological properties have been attributed to these mineral medicaments. Clay's properties were widely used in medieval times for the treatment of infections to poisoning. They were also used in compound formulations, possibly for their pharmaceutical formulation modifying effects. Modern scientific proofs have also been found in many of the medicinal clays reported in Persian manuscripts. Although many of the reported clays are still unknown, their characterization may lead to new medicinal developments. Novel analytical methods available today make it possible to elucidate the chemical compositions of these minerals as parameters responsible for their medicinal effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please

  14. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management

  15. Genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis East African–Indian family in three tropical Asian countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yih-Yuan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Beijing lineage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB is the most predominant MTB strain in Asian countries and is spreading worldwide, however, the East African–Indian (EAI lineage is also particularly prevalent in many tropical Asian countries. The evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of tropical Asian countries remain unknown. Methods: The EAI strains collected from patients in Taiwan were analyzed using spacer oligonucleotide typing and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit–variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR typing, and compared with published profiles from Cambodia and Singapore to investigate potential epidemiological linkages. Results: Among the three countries, the EAI lineage was most prevalent in Cambodia (60%; Singapore, 25.62%; and Taiwan, 21.85%, having also the highest rates of multidrug resistance and lowest rates of clustering of MTB isolates. We describe a convenient method using seven selected MIRU-VNTR loci for first-line typing to discriminate Beijing and EAI lineages. A potential epidemiological linkage in these tropical Asian countries is also discussed based on a minimum-spanning tree constructed using 24 MIRU-VNTR loci of MTB EAI strains. Conclusion: This study identified evolutionary relationships among MTB EAI isolates from Taiwan and those of two other tropical Asian countries, Cambodia and Singapore. Keywords: East African–Indian family, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, tropical Asian countries

  16. Iris pigmentation as a quantitative trait: variation in populations of European, East Asian and South Asian ancestry and association with candidate gene polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S; Johnson, Monique; Cook, Gillian; Parra, Esteban J

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present a new quantitative method to measure iris colour based on high-resolution photographs. We applied this method to analyse iris colour variation in a sample of individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We show that measuring iris colour using the coordinates of the CIELAB colour space uncovers a significant amount of variation that is not captured using conventional categorical classifications, such as 'brown', 'blue' or 'green'. We tested the association of a selected panel of polymorphisms with iris colour in each population group. Six markers showed significant associations with iris colour in the European sample, three in the South Asian sample and two in the East Asian sample. We also observed that the marker HERC2 rs12913832, which is the main determinant of 'blue' versus 'brown' iris colour in European populations, is also significantly associated with central heterochromia in the European sample. © 2015 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Knowledge, Attitude and Behaviors of People Referred to Health Centers of Tehran About Iranian Traditional Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    N. Zafarghandi; A. Pirasteh; K. Khajavi; F.S. Bateni

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traditional medicine in Iran with the long and old background from ancient period until now has very beneficial practical and technical experience. At present despite development of conventional medicine, many patients refer to traditional medicine. This study aimed to investigate knowledge, practice and attitude toward Iranian Traditional Medicine. Methods: This study is cross-sectional and the sample of the study was 350 persons who refer to health centers of Tehran (older than ...

  18. [Industry of traditional Chinese patent medicine science and technology development and review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed.

  19. [Research progress on potential liver toxic components in traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Zhong, Rong-Ling; Xia, Zhi; Huang, Hou-Cai; Zhong, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Liang; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the proportion of traditional Chinese medicine in scientific research and its clinical use increased gradually. The research result also becomes more and more valuable, but in the process of using traditional Chinese medicine, it also needs to pay more attention. With the gradual deepening of the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, some traditional Chinese medicines have also been found to have the potential toxicity, with the exception of some traditional toxicity Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine in the growth, processing, processing, transportation and other aspects of pollution or deterioration will also cause the side effects to the body. Clinical practice should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to guide rational drug use and follow the symptomatic medication, the principle of proper compatibility. The constitution of the patients are different, except for a few varieties of traditional Chinese medicines are natural herbs with hepatotoxicity, liver toxicity of most of the traditional Chinese medicine has idiosyncratic features. The liver plays an important role in drug metabolism. It is easy to be damaged by drugs. Therefore, the study of traditional Chinese medicine potential liver toxicity and its toxic components has become one of the basic areas of traditional Chinese medicine research. Based on the review of the literatures, this paper summarizes the clinical classification of liver toxicity, the pathogenesis of target cell injury, and systematically summarizes the mechanism of liver toxicity and toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper provided ideas for the study of potential liver toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine and protection for clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. East Asian winter monsoon forecasting schemes based on the NCEP's climate forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Baoqiang; Fan, Ke; Yang, Hongqing

    2017-12-01

    The East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) is the major climate system in the Northern Hemisphere during boreal winter. In this study, we developed two schemes to improve the forecasting skill of the interannual variability of the EAWM index (EAWMI) using the interannual increment prediction method, also known as the DY method. First, we found that version 2 of the NCEP's Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) showed higher skill in predicting the EAWMI in DY form than not. So, based on the advantage of the DY method, Scheme-I was obtained by adding the EAWMI DY predicted by CFSv2 to the observed EAWMI in the previous year. This scheme showed higher forecasting skill than CFSv2. Specifically, during 1983-2016, the temporal correlation coefficient between the Scheme-I-predicted and observed EAWMI was 0.47, exceeding the 99% significance level, with the root-mean-square error (RMSE) decreased by 12%. The autumn Arctic sea ice and North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) are two important external forcing factors for the interannual variability of the EAWM. Therefore, a second (hybrid) prediction scheme, Scheme-II, was also developed. This scheme not only involved the EAWMI DY of CFSv2, but also the sea-ice concentration (SIC) observed the previous autumn in the Laptev and East Siberian seas and the temporal coefficients of the third mode of the North Pacific SST in DY form. We found that a negative SIC anomaly in the preceding autumn over the Laptev and the East Siberian seas could lead to a significant enhancement of the Aleutian low and East Asian westerly jet in the following winter. However, the intensity of the winter Siberian high was mainly affected by the third mode of the North Pacific autumn SST. Scheme-I and Scheme-II also showed higher predictive ability for the EAWMI in negative anomaly years compared to CFSv2. More importantly, the improvement in the prediction skill of the EAWMI by the new schemes, especially for Scheme-II, could enhance the forecasting skill of

  1. Factors Affecting Purchase Intention of South East Asian (SEA Young Adults towards Global Smartphone Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Zahid

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to probe the effect of perceived price, perceived quality, brand awareness, and social influence on purchase intention of South East Asian (SEA Young Adults towards global smartphone brands. This explanatory research uses quantitative empirical data collected from 200 SEA Young Adults studying in one of the public universities in Malaysia. Stratified random sampling is used while ensuring fair representation of SEA countries, viz., Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Correlation and regression analysis were carried out using SPSS 20.0. The study resulted in the finding that social influence has the highest level of linear relationship and so is the most influential factor among four. The findings provide guidelines to global smartphone brands for developing value proposition and better promotion mix for smartphones promotion.

  2. Eating Habits of Malaysian Children: Findings of the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Kar Hau; Wu, Suet Kei; Noor Hafizah, Yatiman; Bragt, Marjolijn C E; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This article aims to describe the eating habits of Malaysian children using a nationally representative data set from the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia. A total of 2797 children aged 2 to 12 years were included in this analysis. Eating habits and dietary intakes of children were assessed using questionnaires. Overall, 56.1% of children consumed 3 main meals every day. Approximately 20% of children snacked 3 times per day, whereas 9.7% ate fast food on a weekly basis. Irregular meal patterns were significantly associated with lower micronutrient intakes, and the groups with higher odds for this pattern were older children, Malays, and those living in rural areas. Considering the relatively high rate of irregular meal consumption and its potential influence on dietary nutrient intake, persistent efforts must be continued to promote and inculcate healthy eating habits among children from an early age. © 2016 APJPH.

  3. Impact of cloud radiative heating on East Asian summer monsoon circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Zhun; Zhou, Tianjun; Wang, Minghuai; Qian, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of cloud radiative heating on the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) over southeastern China (105°–125°E, 20°–35°N) are addressed by using the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). Sensitivity experiments demonstrate that the radiative heating of clouds leads to a positive effect on the local EASM circulation over southeastern China. Without the radiative heating of clouds, the EASM circulation and precipitation would be much weaker than that in normal conditions. The longwave heating of clouds dominates the changes of EASM circulation. The positive effect of clouds on EASM circulation is explained by the thermodynamic energy equation, i.e. the different heating rate between cloud base and cloud top enhances the convective instability over southeastern China, which consequently enhances updraft. The strong updraft would further result in a southward meridional wind above the center of the updraft through Sverdrup vorticity balance. (letter)

  4. Airborne Bacterial Communities in Three East Asian Cities of China, South Korea, and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Park, Eun Ha; Lee, Sunghee; Ko, GwangPyo; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro; Deng, Furong; Yi, Seung-Muk; Kim, Ho

    2017-07-17

    The global diversity of airborne bacteria has not yet been studied, despite its importance in human health and climate change. Here, we focused on the diversity of airborne bacteria and their correlations with meteorological/environmental conditions in China, South Korea, and Japan. Beijing (China) had more diverse airborne bacteria, followed by Seoul (South Korea) and Nagasaki (Japan), and seasonal variations were observed. Beijing and Seoul had more diverse airborne bacteria during the winter, whereas Nagasaki showed greater diversity during the summer. According to principal component analysis and Bray-Curtis similarity, higher similarity was observed between Beijing and Seoul than between Seoul and Nagasaki during all seasons except summer. Among meteorological/environmental variables, temperature and humidity were highly correlated with the diversity of airborne bacteria on the measurement day, whereas wind speeds and the frequency of northwest winds were highly correlated for 2-3-day moving averages. Thus, proximity and resuspension could enhance bacterial diversity in East Asian cities.

  5. Network pharmacology: a Rosetta Stone for traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da Cheng; Xiao, Pei Gen

    2014-08-01

    Network pharmacology, based on the theory of systems biology, is a new discipline that analyzes the biological network and screens out the nodes of particular interest, with the aim of designing poly-target drug molecule. It emphasizes maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing adverse effect via the multiple regulation of the signaling pathway. Coincidentally, almost all traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and worldwide ethnomedicine exert therapeutic effect by targeting multiple molecules of the human body. In this overview, we offer a critique on the present perception of TCM and network pharmacology; illustrate the utility of network pharmacology in the study of single herb, medicine pair, and TCM formula; and summarize the recent progress of TCM-based drug discovery inspired by network pharmacology. Network pharmacology could be of great help in decreasing drug attrition rate and thus is essential in rational and cost-effective drug development. We also pinpoint the current TCM issues that could be tackled by the flexible combined use of network pharmacology and relevant disciplines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Therapeutic Potential of Traditional Chinese Medicine on Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsin Tsai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress induces inflammation to several tissues/organs leading to cell death and long-term injury. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic regulatory functions has been widely used as preventive or therapeutic strategy in modern medicine. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been widely reported to contribute to cigarette smoke–induced lung inflammation, hepatotoxicity, or sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation, and substance P–mediated neurogenic hyperactive bladder based on clinical findings. In this review, we introduce several evidences for TCM treatment including Monascus adlay (MA produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf with Monascus purpureus on lung injury, Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. of Euphorbiaceae family on hepatotoxin-induced liver inflammation, Virgate Wormwood Decoction (茵陳蒿湯 Yīn Chén Hāo tāng and its active component genipin on sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, and green tea extract and its active components, catechins, or a modified TCM formula Five Stranguries Powder (五淋散 Wǔ Lín Sǎn plus Crataegi Fructus (山楂 Shān Zhā on hyperactive bladder. The pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms of TCM on ameliorating inflammatory diseases are discussed in the review.

  7. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine in big data era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli

    2014-09-01

    With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training.

  8. The Sociology of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and traditional medicine (TM) are important social phenomena. This article reviews the sociological literature on the topic. First, it addresses the question of terminology, arguing that the naming process is a glimpse into the complexities of power and history that characterize the field. Second, focusing on the last 15 years of scholarship, it considers how sociological research on users and practitioners of TM/CAM has developed in that time. Third, it addresses two newer strands of work termed here the ‘big picture’ and the ‘big question’. The big picture includes concepts that offer interpretation of what is happening at a societal level to constrain and enable observed patterns of social practice (pluralism, integration, hybridity and activism). The big question, ‘Does it work?’, is one of epistemology and focuses on two developing fields of critical enquiry – first, social critiques of medical science knowledge production and, second, attempts to explain the nature of interventions, i.e. how they work. Finally, the article examines the role of sociology moving forward. PMID:25177359

  9. How Can Synergism of Traditional Medicines Benefit from Network Pharmacology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haidan; Ma, Qianqian; Cui, Heying; Liu, Guancheng; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Li, Wei; Piao, Guangchun

    2017-07-07

    Many prescriptions of traditional medicines (TMs), whose efficacy has been tested in clinical practice, have great therapeutic value and represent an excellent resource for drug discovery. Research into single compounds of TMs, such as artemisinin from Artemisia annua L., has achieved great success; however, it has become evident that a TM prescription (which frequently contains various herbs or other components) has a synergistic effect in effecting a cure or reducing toxicity. Network pharmacology targets biological networks and analyzes the links among drugs, targets, and diseases in those networks. Comprehensive, systematic research into network pharmacology is consistent with the perspective of holisticity, which is a main characteristic of many TMs. By means of network pharmacology, research has demonstrated that many a TM show a synergistic effect by acting at different levels on multiple targets and pathways. This approach effectively bridges the gap between modern medicine and TM, and it greatly facilitates studies into the synergistic actions of TMs. There are different kinds of synergistic effects with TMs, such as synergy among herbs, effective parts, and pure compounds; however, for various reasons, new drug discovery should at present focus on synergy among pure compounds.

  10. Nano Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current Progresses and Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Songqing

    2015-01-01

    Nano traditional Chinese medicine (nano TCM) refers to bioactive ingredients, bioactive parts, medicinal materials or complex prescription, being approximately 100 nm in size, which are processed by nanotechnology. Nano TCM is a product of the TCM modernization, and is an application of nanotechnology in the field of TCM. This article reviews literatures on researches of nano TCM, which were published in the past 15 years. Different nanotechnologies have been used in preparation of Nano TCM in view of the varying aims of the study. The mechanical crushing technology is the main approach for nanolization of TCM material and complex prescription, and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems is the main approach for nanolization of bioactive ingredients or bioactive parts in TCM. Nano TCM has a number of advantages, for example, enhancing the bioavailability of TCM, reducing the adverse effects of TCM, achieving sustained release, attaining targeted delivery, enhancing pharmacological effects and improving the administration route of TCM. However, there are still many problems that must be resolved in nano TCM research. The main challenges to nano TCM include the theory system of TCM modernization, preparation technology, safety and stability, etc.

  11. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine with Neuroprotective Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Google Scholar. According to the literature survey, C. asiatica (gotu kola) has been reported to have a comprehensive neuroprotection by different modes of action such as enzyme inhibition, prevention of amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease, dopamine neurotoxicity in Parkinson's disease, and decreasing oxidative stress. Therefore, C. asiatica could be suggested to be a desired phytopharmaceutical with neuroprotective effect emerged from traditional medicine. PMID:22666298

  12. Centella asiatica (L. Urban: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine with Neuroprotective Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L. Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed, and Google Scholar. According to the literature survey, C. asiatica (gotu kola has been reported to have a comprehensive neuroprotection by different modes of action such as enzyme inhibition, prevention of amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer’s disease, dopamine neurotoxicity in Parkinson’s disease, and decreasing oxidative stress. Therefore, C. asiatica could be suggested to be a desired phytopharmaceutical with neuroprotective effect emerged from traditional medicine.

  13. Uncertainty Source of Modeled Ecosystem Productivity in East Asian Monsoon Region: A Traceability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, E.; Xia, J.; Huang, K.; Ito, A.; Arain, M. A.; Jain, A. K.; Poulter, B.; Peng, C.; Hayes, D. J.; Ricciuto, D. M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Tian, H.; Mao, J.; Fisher, J.; Schaefer, K. M.; Huang, M.; Peng, S.; Wang, W.

    2017-12-01

    East Asian monsoon region, benefits from sufficient water-heat availability and increasing nitrogen deposition, represents significantly higher net ecosystem productivity than the same latitudes of Europe-Africa and North America. A better understanding of major contributions to the uncertainties of terrestrial carbon cycle in this region is greatly important for evaluating the global carbon balance. This study analyzed the key carbon processes and parameters derived from a series of terrestrial biosphere models. A wide range of inter-model disagreement on GPP was found in China's subtropical regions. Then, this large difference was traced to a few traceable components included in terrestrial carbon cycle. The increase in ensemble mean GPP over 1901-2010 was predominantly resulted from increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and nitrogen deposition, while high frequent land-use change over this region showed a slightly negative effect on GPP. However, inter-model differences of GPP were mainly attributed to the baseline simulations without changes in external forcing. According to the variance decomposition, the large spread in simulated GPP was well explained by the differences in leaf area index (LAI) and specific leaf area (SLA) among models. In addition, the underlying errors in simulated GPP propagate through the model and introduce some additional errors to the simulation of NPP and biomass. By comparing the simulations with satellite-derived, data-oriented and observation-based datasets, we further found that GPP, vegetation carbon turn-over time, aboveground biomass, LAI and SLA were all overestimated in most of the models while biomass distribution in leaves was significantly underestimated. The results of this study indicate that model performance on ecosystem productivity in East Asian monsoon region can be improved by a more realistic representation of leaf functional traits.

  14. Investigating Knowledge and Attitude of Nursing Students Towards Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasgani, Sahar Rabani; Moghtadaie, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at Investigating the knowledge and attitude of Nursing Students towards Iranian Traditional Medicine in universities of Tehran in 2012-2013. 300 students of nursing studying at different universities in Tehran participated in this descriptive, cross-sectional study. The data was collected through a standard questionnaire with an acceptable validity and reliability. The questionnaire was made of five sections including demographic, general knowledge of the Iranian traditional medicine, general attitude towards it, resources of the Iranian traditional medicine and the barriers to it. The results revealed that general knowledge of the students about Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine is low. The attitude of the students towards including Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in their curriculum is positive. General attitude of students towards Iranian traditional medicine is positive too. The majority of the participants had not passed any course on Iranian traditional medicine. There was no relationship between participants’ attitude towards Iranian traditional medicine and the number of semesters they had passed. Considering the participants’ positive attitude and their low level of knowledge, it seems necessary for the university policy makers to provide nursing students with different training courses on Iranian traditional medicine and complementary medicine in order to increase their knowledge. PMID:25363119

  15. [Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Li, Feng-Jie; Li, Lian-da; Li, Yi-Kui

    2017-03-01

    Safety issues of traditional Chinese medicine injections has been heated debate. There are two diametrically opposed views: it should be used reasonable and developed healthily or be forbidden to use. Some people have many misunderstandings and prejudices about the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Compared with western medicine,traditional Chinese medicine has its own particularity. Traditional Chinese medicine has complex components. Its research and clinical application is different from western medicine. Adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections are related to many factors,such as a large number of irrational use,blind use of traditional Chinese medicine injections and western medicine injections,counterfeit and substandard drugs,incorrect methods of intravenous infusion,toxicity of supplementary materials,drug ingredients. Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients. The purposeful, targeted, organized and planned systematic research of traditional Chinese medicine injections should be strengthened,especially the safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Strengthen supervision and control of rational drug use.Strengthen the examination and approval,supervision and management of all aspects to ensure the safety of patients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. ALDH2*2 and peer drinking in East Asian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Taryn; Thomas, Nathaniel; Webb, Bradley Todd; Dick, Danielle M; Kendler, Kenneth S; Chartier, Karen G

    2017-11-01

    The ALDH2*2 allele (A-allele) at rs671 is more commonly carried by Asians and is associated with alcohol-related flushing, a strong adverse reaction to alcohol that is protective against drinking. Social factors, such as having friends who binge drink, also contribute to drinking in Asian youth. This study examined the interplay between ALDH2*2, peer drinking, and alcohol consumption in college students. We hypothesized that the relationship between ALDH2*2 and standard grams of ethanol per month would vary based on the level of peer drinking. Subjects (N = 318, 63.25% female) were East Asian college students in the United States who reported drinking alcohol. Data were from the freshman year of a university survey that included a saliva DNA sample. ALDH2*2 status was coded ALDH2*2(+) (A/G and A/A genotypes) and ALDH2*2(-) (G/G genotype). Peer drinking was students' perception of how many of their friends "got drunk". Main effects of ALDH2*2(-) and having more friends who got drunk were associated with greater alcohol consumption. The ALDH2*2 × peer drunkenness interaction showed a stronger positive association with alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) versus ALDH2*2(+) at increasing levels of peer drunkenness. Follow-up comparisons within each peer drunkenness level identified significantly higher alcohol consumption for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) at the all friends got drunk level. There was evidence of a stronger effect for ALDH2*2(-) compared to ALDH2*2(+) with greater alcohol use when students were more exposed to peer drinking. Findings contribute to a growing literature on the interrelationships between genetic influences and more permissive environments for alcohol consumption.

  17. Studying the Genetics of Complex Disease With Ancestry-Specific Human Phenotype Networks: The Case of Type 2 Diabetes in East Asian Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jingya; Moore, Jason H; Darabos, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have led to the discovery of over 200 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Additionally, East Asians develop T2DM at a higher rate, younger age, and lower body mass index than their European ancestry counterparts. The reason behind this occurrence remains elusive. With comprehensive searches through the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) GWAS catalog literature, we compiled a database of 2,800 ancestry-specific SNPs associated with T2DM and 70 other related traits. Manual data extraction was necessary because the GWAS catalog reports statistics such as odds ratio and P-value, but does not consistently include ancestry information. Currently, many statistics are derived by combining initial and replication samples from study populations of mixed ancestry. Analysis of all-inclusive data can be misleading, as not all SNPs are transferable across diverse populations. We used ancestry data to construct ancestry-specific human phenotype networks (HPN) centered on T2DM. Quantitative and visual analysis of network models reveal the genetic disparities between ancestry groups. Of the 27 phenotypes in the East Asian HPN, six phenotypes were unique to the network, revealing the underlying ancestry-specific nature of some SNPs associated with T2DM. We studied the relationship between T2DM and five phenotypes unique to the East Asian HPN to generate new interaction hypotheses in a clinical context. The genetic differences found in our ancestry-specific HPNs suggest different pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of T2DM among different populations. Our study underlines the importance of ancestry in the development of T2DM and its implications in pharmocogenetics and personalized medicine. © 2016 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Recommended foods for male infertility in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejatbakhsh, Fatemeh; Nazem, Esmaeil; Goushegir, Ashrafeddin; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Baygom Siahpoosh, Marzieh

    2012-11-01

    Male infertility accounts for 30-50% of all infertilities among couples. Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) stressed the importance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of male infertility. Many Iranian traditional physicians have described the traits of specific foods for prevention and treatment of male infertility. To explore the principles and roles of foods recommended by ITM scientists in prevention and treatment of male infertility as well as enlisting all the recommended foods for treating this problem addressed through the ITM original resources written between 815 and 1901. In this review study specific data related to the subject among all referral ITM texts was extracted firstly, and then the collected data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. The analysis of data revealed that foods that enhance sexual performance must have 3 properties; they should be warm in nature, very nutritious, and flatulent. Foods that are warm in nature and nutritious affect the quality and quantity of semen. A food having the third trait of being flatulent is required to complete sexual performance by creating an erection. Foods with only one of these traits must be consumed with another food that has the other trait. This study also provided a list of foods that can enhance the quality and increase the quantity of semen. Foods that can enhance sexual performance and the quality and quantity of semen can be recommended to male patients who suffer from infertility in medical centers.

  19. Centella asiatica (L.) Urban: From Traditional Medicine to Modern Medicine with Neuroprotective Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Ilkay Erdogan Orhan

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the studies relevant to neuroprotective activity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, also known as “Gotu Kola.” The plant is native to the Southeast Asia and has been used traditionally as brain tonic in ayurvedic medicine. The neuroprotective effect of C. asiatica has been searched using the key words “Centella, Centella asiatica, gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, neuroprotection, and memory” through the electronic databases including Sciencedirect, Web of Science, Scopus, Pubmed,...

  20. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Sexual Dysfunction: Review of the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubak, Barbara; Doctor, Alaethia

    2018-01-19

    Despite the growing popularity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the Western world, biomedical students and practitioners struggle to understand TCM and how it relates to their standard diagnosis and treatment practices. To describe the fundamentals of TCM theory and practice relevant to sexual dysfunction; to review and critique the current state of TCM research within Western biomedical literature; and to identify sites for improvement of future research and for collaborative integration of TCM and biomedicine in practice. Information about TCM from an insider perspective was obtained from English-language textbooks and lectures intended to teach Western students its theory and practice. PubMed search using Medical Subject Heading terms for Western sexual diagnoses and TCM treatments was performed in April and October 2017 to represent the evidence for TCM in Western biomedical literature. Articles in non-English languages and without human subjects were excluded. 27 studies were included in this review. The most commonly studied intervention was acupuncture. An equal number of studies addressed sexual dysfunction in men and women, but only women were included in studies of physically passive mindfulness meditation. Compared with Western biomedicine, TCM offers a more interdisciplinary and individualized approach to disease and its treatment. This embrace of individual idiosyncrasy in diagnosis and treatment presents a challenge to Western biomedical research norms that rely almost exclusively on quantitative methods that compare large and homogeneous groups with a fixed diagnosis and treatment regimen. TCM offers a very different understanding of the human body, health, and disease from Western biomedicine. There is value in the study and application of these 2 medical systems, particularly for biopsychosocial problems of sexual dysfunction. However, this must be done cautiously, with attention to appropriate study design, to avoid shallow and