ZHU, YP; WOERDENBAG, HJ
Herbal medicine, acupuncture and moxibustion, and massage and the three major constituent parts of traditional Chinese medicine. Although acupuncture is well known in many Western countries, Chinese herbal medicine, the mos important part of traditional Chinese medicine, is less well known in the
Zhang, Shu-Yuan; Li, Mei; Fu, Dan; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Tan, Wei
With the enhancement in the awareness of self-diagnosis among residents, it's very common for each family to prepare common medicines for unexpected needs. Meanwhile, with the popularization of the traditional Chinese medicine knowledge, the proportion of common traditional Chinese medicines prepared at residents' families is increasingly higher than western medicines year by year. To make it clear, both pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for residents in Chaoyang District, Beijing, excluding residents with a medical background. Based on the results of data, a analysis was made to define the role and influence on the quality of life of residents and give suggestions for relevant departments to improve the traditional Chinese medicine popularization and promote the traditional Chinese medicine market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Xiao, Li-Jun; Tao, Ran
Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM) has been utilized in China for more than 2,000 years, and it has been practiced in treatment of substance addiction and non-substance addictions. TCM have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal physical problems induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory, and protecting against neurological disorders. Given that TCM is potentially effective in the prevention of relapse, it has been suggested that TCM may be the ideal choice in the future for the treatment of opiate addiction. This review examines the significance of effective Chinese herbs and prescriptions for Drug Addiction, Alcohol addiction and food addiction.
Ye Ling; Liu Ning; Yang Yuanyou; Mo Shangwu
Modernization of traditional Chinese medicine necessitates many new or advanced methods. Among these methods, isotopes are considered to be a convenient, fast and feasible method. The recent advance of isotope's application to traditional Chinese medicine is reviewed. In addition, their present status, problems and prospect are discussed. (authors)
Fan, Xin-sheng; Duan, Jin-ao; Hua, Hao-ming; Qian, Da-wei; Shang, Er-xin; Guo, Jian-ming
The incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines is related to the clinical medication safety, so has attracted wide attentions from the public. With the deepening of studies on the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines represented by 18 incompatible herbs, the incompatibility of theory traditional Chinese medicines has raised to new heights. From the origin of incompatibility theory of traditional Chinese medicines, relationship of herbs, harms of incompatible herbs and principle of prevention to toxic effects of specific incompatible medicines, the innovation and development of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory was explored. Structurally, the incompatibility of traditional Chinese medicines refers to the opposition of two herbs based on seven emotions and clinical experience. The combination of incompatible herbs may lead to human harms, especially latent harm and inefficacy of intervention medicines. The avoidance of the combination of incompatible herbs and the consideration of both symptoms and drug efficacy are the basic method to prevent adverse reactions. The recent studies have revealed five characteristics of incompatible herbs. Toxicity potentiation, toxication, efficacy reduction and inefficacy are the four manifestations of the incompatible relations. The material changes can reflect the effects of toxicity potentiation and toxication of opposite herbs. The accumulation of toxicity and metabolic changes are the basis for latent harms. The antagonistic effect of main efficacies and the coexistence of positive and negative effects are the distinctive part of the incompatibility. The connotation of incompatible herbs plays an important role in the innovation of the traditional Chinese medicine incompatibility theory.
... of plants, such as the leaves, roots, stems, flowers, and seeds, are used. In TCM, herbs are ... E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org PubMed® A service of the National Library of Medicine, PubMed® contains ...
Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Zhigang; Sun, Wenjun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xijun
Metabolomics represent a global understanding of metabolite complement of integrated living systems and dynamic responses to the changes of both endogenous and exogenous factors and has many potential applications and advantages for the research of complex systems. As a systemic approach, metabolomics adopts a "top-down" strategy to reflect the function of organisms from the end products of the metabolic network and to understand metabolic changes of a complete system caused by interventions in a holistic context. This property agrees with the holistic thinking of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), a complex medical science, suggesting that metabolomics has the potential to impact our understanding of the theory behind the evidence-based Chinese medicine. Consequently, the development of robust metabolomic platforms will greatly facilitate, for example, the understanding of the action mechanisms of TCM formulae and the analysis of Chinese herbal (CHM) and mineral medicine, acupuncture, and Chinese medicine syndromes. This review summarizes some of the applications of metabolomics in special TCM issues with an emphasis on metabolic biomarker discovery. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Full Text Available The precision medicine is more precise individualized medicine, based on the patient’s genes or physiological to formulate the specific treatment plan, for the realization of individualized treatment of various diseases to provide valuable information.But with the progress of modern science and technology, modern medicine dependence on medical instruments are too serious, traditional ways are gradually forgotten.If the machine depends on the instrument test results too serious which don’t combined with the actual diagnosis, the cause of misdiagnosis, so we should pay attention to the overall analysis of diseases and systematic diagnosis and examination, use of the overall treatment concept traced back to find the cause of Traditional Chinese Medicine, finally decide to select a best treatment plan.We should use the dialectical attitude to look at the precise medical. Not blindly requirements according to the road of precision medicine of Traditional Chinese Medicine to go, to shine in himself field, form of self characteristic of Traditional Chinese Medicine.Can learn some of the advantages of accurate concept, the good and rejecting the bad, hope the Traditional Chinese Medicine in the modern environment more walk more far.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treatment of liver diseases is derived from the regulation of liver function including storing blood and governing the free flow of qi, in which functional systems such as modern digestion, endocrine, and the gut-liver axis are involved, and is established on modern hepatic physiology, pathology, and etiology. To objectively reveal the characteristics and advantages of modern TCM treatment of liver diseases, we analyzed the clinical and research situation of TCM therapy for liver diseases in the last decade and collected major achievements that have been applied in clinical treatment of diseases, published in core journals, and confirmed by major scientific research programs. The results showed TCM combined with antiviral therapy can improve the clinical outcomes of chronic hepatitis B. TCM can help HBV carriers prevent disease progression. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy for acute-on-chronic liver failure can block the deterioration induced by endotoxin. TCM has been widely applied in protecting the liver through nonspecific anti-inflammation, alleviating hepatic fibrosis, and preventing non-alcoholic fatty liver. TCM plays an important role in treating some currently untreatable liver diseases. Therefore, it is our common responsibility to inherit and develop effective principle-method-recipe-medicines and create a better medical care system.
The history of education and legislation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and acupuncture in Canada is short. The first school of TCM opened its door to the general public in Canada in 1985 and the first legislation of acupuncture was introduced in Alberta, Canada in 1988. Currently, TCM and/or acupuncture have been regulated in five provinces in Canada. The legislation and regulation, as well as education of TCM and acupuncture vary among the five provinces in Canada. Opportunities and challenges facing TCM education exist simultaneously. Strategies are proposed to develop an international standard for TCM education in Canada, and possibly in other English speaking countries as well.
Jong Yeol Kim
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM and Ayurveda are three different forms of Asian traditional medicine. Although these traditions share a lot in common as holistic medicines, the different philosophical foundations found in each confer distinguishing attributes and unique qualities. SCM is based on a constitution-based approach, and is in this way relatively more similar to the Ayurvedic tradition than to the TCM, although many of the basic SCM theories were originally derived from TCM, a syndrome-based medicine. SCM and TCM use the same botanical materials that are distributed mainly in the East Asian region, but the basic principles of usage and the underlying rationale are completely different from each other. Meanwhile, the principles of the Ayurvedic use of botanical resources are very similar to those seen in SCM, but the medicinal herbs used in Ayurveda generally originate from the West Asian region which displays a different spectrum of flora.
Gong, Zi-peng; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Rui-jie; Yang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-xin
In recent years, more and more research shows that the pharmacokinetic parameter of traditional Chinese medicine can be affected by the disease states. It's possible that drug metabolic enzymes, transporters, cell membrane permeability and the change of microbes group could be interfered with physiological and pathological changes, which enables the pharmacokinetics of traditional Chinese medicine in the body to be altered, including the process of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and then the pharmacokinetic parameters of traditional chinese medicine are altered. It's found that investigating the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the pathological state is more useful than that of in normal state because the great part of traditional Chinese medicine is mainly used to treat disease. This article reflects the latest research on the pharmacokinetic of traditional Chinese medicine in the disease state such as diabete, cerebral ischemia, liver injury, inflammatory disease, nervous system disorders and fever in order to provide certain reference for clinicians designing reasonable administration dose.
Liang Jianping; Li Xuehu; Lu Xihong; Tao Lei; Wang Shuyang
The application of nuclear irradiation in the field of traditional Chinese medicine has received much attention. In this paper we reviewed the application of nuclear radiation on the cultivation, breeding and disinfection of traditional Chinese medicine, and pointed out that the combination of radiation-induced mutagenesis and biological technology would promise broad prospects for increasing the cellular mutation rate and speeding up the genetic improvement of traditional Chinese medicine. (authors)
Liu, Changhua; Gu, Man
With the development of the knowledge economy, knowledge has become one of the most important resources for social progress and economic development. Some countries have proposed measures for the protection of their own traditional knowledge. Traditional Chinese medicine belongs to the category of intangible cultural heritage because it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage. Today the value of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine has been widely recognized by the domestic and international public. This paper discusses the definition of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and its protection, and evaluates research on its classification. We review the present status of the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine and tentatively put forward some possible ideas and methods for the protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine. Our goal is to find a way to strengthen the vitality of traditional Chinese medicine and consolidate its foundation. We believe that if we could establish a suitable sui generis(sui generis is a Latin term meaning "of its own kind" and is often used in discussions about protecting the rights of indigenous peoples. Here we use it to emphasize the fact that protection of traditional knowledge of Chinese medicine cannot be achieved through existing legal means of protection alone due to its unique characteristics) system for traditional knowledge, a more favorable environment for the preservation and development of traditional Chinese medicine will ultimately be created.
Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.
... some gynaecological disorders including endometriosis, infertility, dysmenorrhea, abnormal uterine bleeding, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal syndrome, uterine fibroids, chronic pelvic inflammation, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), cervicitis and vaginitis with Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) and acupuncture.
Liu, Ming; Wang, Yunpu; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger
There is an urgent treat of numerous chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases and diabetes, which have a significant influence on the health of people worldwide. In addition to numerous preventive and therapeutic drug treatments, important advances have been achieved in the identification of bioactive peptides that may contribute to long-term health. Although bioactive peptides with various biological activities received unprecedented attention, as a new source of bioactive peptides, the significant role of bioactive peptides from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food has not fully appreciated compared to other bioactive components. Hence, identification and bioactivity assessment of these peptides could benefit the pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the functional properties of bioactive peptides help to demystify drug properties and health benefits of traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. This paper reviews the generation and biofunctional properties of various bioactive peptides derived from traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food. Mechanisms of digestion, bioavailability of bioactive peptides and interactions between traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Chinese food are also summarized in this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Liao, Su-Fen; Yan, Su-Rong; Guo, Wei-Jia; Luo, Ji; Sun, Jing; Dong, Fang; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
Multi-component traditional Chinese medicines are an innovative research mode for traditional Chinese medicines. Currently, there are many design methods for developing multi-component traditional Chinese medicines, but their common feature is the lack of effective connection of the traditional Chinese medicine theory. In this paper, the authors discussed the multi-component traditional Chinese medicine design methods based on medicinal property combination modes, provided the combination methods with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine for the prescription combinations, and proved its feasibly with hypertension cases.
Results: Twelve RCTs with 1155 patients were evaluated in this review. The results of meta-analysis showed that the therapy of using integrated Chinese and western medicine was significantly superior to that of western medicine alone towards improving the efficacy, relieving the clinical symptoms and decreasing ...
Efferth, Thomas; Kaina, Bernd
It is estimated that three quarters of the world population rely on herbal and traditional medicine as a basis for primary health care. Therefore, it is one of the most important and challenging tasks for scientists working in drug research to investigate the efficacy of herbal medicine, to dissect favorable from adverse effects, to identify active principles in medicinal plants and to ban poisonous plants or contaminations from herbal mixtures. In the present review, some problems are critically discussed. Botanical misidentification or mislabeling of plant material can play a role for toxic reactions in humans. Some plant descriptions in traditional herbal medicine (e.g. traditional Chinese medicine) have changed over time, which may lead to unintended intoxication by using wrong plants. A problem is also the contamination of herbals with microorganisms, fungal toxins such as aflatoxin, with pesticides and heavy metals. Unprofessional processing, which differs from safe traditional preparation represents another potential source for herbal poisoning. Unwanted effects of herbal products may also develop by the interaction of herbs with conventional drugs upon concomitant intake. The art of herbal medicine is to dissect pharmacologically and therapeutically valuable herbal drugs from harmful and toxic ones and to develop combinations of medicinal plants as safe and efficient herbal remedies. Standardization and strict control measures are necessary to monitor sustainable high quality of herbal products and to exclude contaminations that badly affect patients consuming herbal medicine.
Full Text Available More and more patients have been diagnosed as having chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS in recent years. Western drug use for this syndrome is often associated with many side-effects and little clinical benefit. As an alternative medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has provided some evidences based upon ancient texts and recent studies, not only to offer clinical benefit but also offer insights into their mechanisms of action. It has perceived advantages such as being natural, effective and safe to ameliorate symptoms of CFS such as fatigue, disordered sleep, cognitive handicaps and other complex complaints, although there are some limitations regarding the diagnostic standards and methodology in related clinical or experimental studies. Modern mechanisms of TCM on CFS mainly focus on adjusting immune dysfunction, regulating abnormal activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and serving as an antioxidant. It is vitally important for the further development to establish standards for ‘zheng’ of CFS, i.e. the different types of CFS pathogenesis in TCM, to perform randomized and controlled trials of TCM on CFS and to make full use of the latest biological, biochemical, molecular and immunological approaches in the experimental design.
Objectives: We recommend a new kind of spray made from eight kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, we aimed to investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of combined traditional Chinese medicine spray (TCMS) with premature ejaculation desensitization therapy (PEDT) for the treatment of primary premature ejaculation ...
Graham, David T
This review article describes the regulation of proprietary Chinese medicines for the Australian market, which may permit many medicines used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to have a simplified process of market access provided that certain criteria for acceptable public safety are met. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Gang; Wang, Ting; He, Yan-Ping
Medicinal materials research and development of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is the premise and foundation of new drug research and development, it throughout the whole process of new drug research. Medicinal materials research is one of the main content of the pharmaceutical research of new drug of TCM, and it is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. This article through the analysis of the present problems existing in the development of TCM research of new drug of TCM, from medicine research concept, quality stability, quality standard, etc are expounded, including medicine research idea value medicine study should focus on the important role and from the purpose for the top-level design of new drug research problem. Medicinal materials quality stability should pay attention to the original, medicinal part, origin, processing, storage, planting (breeding), and other aspects. Aspect of quality standard of medicinal materials should pay attention to establish the quality standards of conform to the characteristics of new drug of TCM. As the instruction of TCM new drug research and development and the scientific nature of the review, and provide the basis for medicinal material standards.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a comprehensive and thorough understanding of biological rhythm. Biological rhythm is an inherent connotation of “harmony between human and nature”, one of the thoughts in TCM. TCM discusses emphatically circadian rhythm, syzygial rhythm and seasonal rhythm, and particularly circadian and seasonal rhythms. Theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are the principles and methods, with which TCM understands biological rhythms. Based on theories in TCM, biological rhythm in essence is a continuous variation of the human body state synchronized with natural rhythms, and theories of Yin Yang and Five Elements are both language tools to describe this continuous variation and theoretical tools for its investigation and application. The understandings of biological rhythm in TCM can be applied to etiology, health care, disease control and treatment. Many understandings in TCM have been confirmed by modern research and clinical reports, but there are still some pending issues. TCM is distinguished for its holistic viewpoint on biological rhythms.
Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Dong-He; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Bai, Xue; Yang, Wen-Hua; Qi, Shu-Ya; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Xue, Chun-Miao; Mao, Liu-Ying; Cao, Jun-Ling
Chinese medicine prescriptions are a type of medical documents written by doctors after they understand the patients' conditions for syndrome differentiation. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis for pharmacy personnel to dispense medicines and guide patients to use drugs. It has the legal, technical and economic significances. Chinese medicine prescriptions contain such information of names, quantity and usage. Whether the names of drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions are standardized or not is directly related to the safety and efficacy of the drugs. At present, nonstandard clinical prescriptions are frequently seen. With "Chinese medicine prescription", "names of drug in Chinese medicine prescription" and "standards of Chinese medicine prescription" as key words, the author searched CNKI, Wanfang and other databases, and consulted nearly 100 literatures, so as to summarize current names of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription, analyze the reasons, and give suggestions, in the expectation of standardizing the names of drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.
Guo, Yi; Li, Gui Lan
As an important component of traditional medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is widely spread and applied in more than 100 countries across the world. The standardization of TCM is very important for the international application of Chinese medicine. In this paper, we have explained and analyzed the standardization situations of TCM in China with the purpose of providing reference for standardization and international development of TCM. PMID:27110268
Tian, Sai-Sai; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Wei-Dong
With the completion of the human genome project, people have gradually recognized that the functions of the biological system are fulfilled through network-type interaction between genes, proteins and small molecules, while complex diseases are caused by the imbalance of biological processes due to a number of gene expression disorders. These have contributed to the rise of the concept of the "multi-target" drug discovery. Treatment and diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine are based on holism and syndrome differentiation. At the molecular level, traditional Chinese medicine is characterized by multi-component and multi-target prescriptions, which is expected to provide a reference for the development of multi-target drugs. This paper reviews the application of network biology in traditional Chinese medicine in six aspects, in expectation to provide a reference to the modernized study of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is popular around the world and encompasses many different practices with particular emphasis on herbal TCM. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was undertaken to assess the extent herbal TCM products exert rare hepatotoxicity. Analysis of reported cases revealed numerous specified herbal TCM products with potential hepatotoxicity. Among these were An Shu Ling, Bai Fang, Bai Xian Pi, Ban Tu Wan, Bo He, Bo Ye Qing Niu Dan, Bofu Tsu Sho San, Boh Gol Zhee, Cang Er Zi, Chai Hu, Chaso, Chi R Yun, Chuan Lian Zi, Ci Wu Jia, Da Chai Hu Tang, Da Huang, Du Huo, Gan Cao, Ge Gen, Ho Shou Wu, Hu Bohe You, Hu Zhang, Huang Qin, Huang Yao Zi, Hwang Geun Cho, Ji Gu Cao, Ji Ji, Ji Xue Cao, Jiguja, Jin Bu Huan, Jue Ming Zi, Kamishoyosan, Kudzu, Lei Gong Teng, Long Dan Xie Gan Tang, Lu Cha, Ma Huang, Mao Guo Tian Jie Cai, Onshido, Polygonum multiflorum, Qian Li Guang, Ren Shen, Sairei To, Shan Chi, Shen Min, Shi Can, Shi Liu Pi, Shou Wu Pian, Tian Hua Fen, White flood, Wu Bei Zi, Xi Shu, Xiao Chai Hu Tang, Yin Chen Hao, Zexie, Zhen Chu Cao, and various unclassified Chinese herbal mixtures. Causality was firmly established for a number of herbal TCM products by a positive reexposure test result, the liver specific scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences), or both. Otherwise, the quality of case data was mixed, especially regarding analysis of the herb ingredients because of adulteration with synthetic drugs, contamination with heavy metals, and misidentification. In addition, non-herbal TCM elements derived from Agaricus blazei, Agkistrodon, Antelope, Bombyx, Carp, Fish gallbladder, Phellinus, Scolopendra, Scorpio, and Zaocys are also known or potential hepatotoxins. For some patients, the clinical course was severe, with risks for acute liver failure, liver transplantation requirement, and lethality. In conclusion, the use of few herbal TCM products may rarely be associated with hepatotoxicity in some
Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHM) are of significant importance for human health care in China and have a profound cultural and philosophical background described in the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theories. The main objective of TCM is to maintain or restore the balance of the body as a whole
Nie, Qing; Liu, Yan; Chen, Jing
The essential traditional Chinese medicines (ETCM) are the characteristics of our National Essential Medicine List (NEML) and we should give full play to its unique advantage. The essential medicines of ETCM are specific, but also have dual characters, namely efficacy and ADRs. Although ADRs cannot be avoided, we can make efforts to control some conditions to minimize the possibility of ADRs. It is significant to give suggestions to reduce ADRs of ETCM under the ETCM system by analyzing the possibility of ADRs during ETCM selection, production distribution and use. This research focuses on ETCM, and the conclusion is also applicable to common traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.
Zhang, Shaomin; Zeng, Xianghui; Xu, Xiaohong
The concentration of extracellular neurotransmitters can be dynamically measured by in vivo microdialysis. This technique can apply to quantitatively evaluating the beneficial effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). In the present study, the protective effects of Puerarin (Pur) on cerebral...
Sun, Xiao; Guo, Li-ping; Shang, Hong-cai; Ren, Ming; Lei, Xiang
To learn about the economic studies on traditional Chinese medicines in domestic literatures, in order to analyze the current economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines and explore the existing problems. Efforts were made to search CNKI, VIP, Wanfang database and CBM by computer and include all literatures about economic assessment of traditional Chinese medicines published on professional domestic journals in the systematic assessment and quality evaluation. Finally, 50 articles were included in the study, and the systematic assessment and quality evaluation were made for them in terms of titles, year, authors' identity, expense source, disease type, study perspective, study design type, study target, study target source, time limit, cost calculation, effect indicator, analytical technique and sensitivity analysis. The finally quality score was 0.74, which is very low. The results of the study showed insufficient studies on economics of traditional Chinese medicines, short study duration and simple evaluation methods, which will be solved through unremitting efforts in the future.
The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang
Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...
Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P
Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production.
Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Yao, Dong-Dong; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Both chemical drugs and traditional Chinese medicines have the problem of low bioavailability. However, as traditional Chinese medicines are a multi-component complex, their dosage forms are required to be designed in line with their characteristics, in order to improve the bioavailability of traditional Chinese medicines. Traditional Chinese medicines are mostly prepared into pill, powder, paste, elixir and decoction, but with such drawbacks as high administration dose and poor efficacy. With the process of modernization of traditional Chinese medicines, new-type preparations have be developed and made outstanding achievements. However, they fail to make an organic integration between traditional Chinese medicine theories and modern preparation theories. Characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines are required to be taken into account during the development of traditional Chinese medicines. In the article, multi-component preparation technology was adopted to establish a multi-component drug release system of traditional Chinese medicines on the basis of multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines.
Aug 18, 2009 ... cropping upland at the Ecological Experimental Station of Red Soil,. Chinese Academy of Sciences, located in the central subtropical. China (N28º13', E116º55' with an altitude of 45 m asl). The soil was classified as an Udic Ferrosol (Alumi-Orthic Acrisol in FAO taxonomy; Udic Kandiudults in USDA ...
Jaiswal, Yogini; Liang, Zhitao; Zhao, Zhongzhen
China and India have a long history in the therapeutic application of botanical drugs in traditional medicine. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda are considered as two of the most ancient systems of medicine, with history of more than two millennia. Medicinal plants are the principal medicinal materials used in both these systems. This review discusses about the histories of Ayurveda and TCM, the common medicinal plants species, the drug processing strategies used, and the current statuses of these traditional systems of medicine (TSM). Through the views presented in this article, we aim to provide a new perspective to herbal drug researchers for expanding and improving the utilization of botanical drugs and their therapeutic applications. A bibliographic investigation of Chinese and Indian pharmacopoeias, monographs and official websites was performed. Furthermore, information was obtained from scientific databases on ethnobotany and ethno medicines. The review of Ayurveda and TCM ethno medicine indicates that both these systems have many medicinal materials in common. The studies carried out by the authors for comparison of plants from same genus from both these TSM's have been discussed to further bring focus to the utilization of "qualitatively" similar species which can be utilized and substituted for endangered or economically valued species. The overview of ancient literature and scientific findings for drugs in both these systems suggests that, the botanical drugs used in common and their processing methods can be explored further for extensive utilization in traditional medicine. This review describes the histories, common medicinal plant species, their processing methods and therapeutic applications in Ayurveda and TCM. The insights provided through this article may be used by herbal drug researchers and pharmacologists for further exploration of botanical drugs from these two traditional systems of medicine. Copyright © 2016. Published by
Dashtdar, Mehrab; Dashtdar, Mohammad Reza; Dashtdar, Babak; Kardi, Karima; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz
The use of folk medicine has been widely embraced in many developed countries under the name of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) and is now becoming the mainstream in the UK and the rest of Europe, as well as in North America and Australia. Diversity, easy accessibility, broad continuity, relatively low cost, base levels of technological inputs, fewer side effects, and growing economic importance are some of the positive features of folk medicine. In this framework, a critical need exists to introduce the practice of folk medicine into public healthcare if the goal of reformed access to healthcare facilities is to be achieved. The amount of information available to public health practitioners about traditional medicine concepts and the utilization of that information are inadequate and pose many problems for the delivery of primary healthcare globally. Different societies have evolved various forms of indigenous perceptions that are captured under the broad concept of folk medicine, e.g., Persian, Chinese, Grecian, and African folk medicines, which explain the lack of universally accepted definitions of terms. Thus, the exchange of information on the diverse forms of folk medicine needs to be facilitated. Various concepts of Wind are found in books on traditional medicine, and many of those go beyond the boundaries established in old manuscripts and are not easily understood. This study intends to provide information, context, and guidance for the collection of all important information on the different concepts of Wind and for their simplification. This new vision for understanding earlier Chinese medicine will benefit public health specialists, traditional and complementary medicine practitioners, and those who are interested in historical medicine by providing a theoretical basis for the traditional medicines and the acupuncture that is used to eliminate Wind in order to treat various diseases.
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of a traditional Chinese medicine, Jing Tong Yu Shu (JTYS) on endometriosis in a rat surgical model. Methods: Endometriosis was induced in 40 female rats. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: three JTYS groups given different doses of the drug, and a saline group. After four ...
Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal polyps and chronic gastritis: A case report. ... Background: The rate of gastrointestinal adenomatous polyps, often regarded as precancerous lesions, developing into cancer is 40 – 70 %. Endoscopic resection has been the preferred method ...
Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death, and it is the most common cancer in terms of both incidence and mortality. There is an urgent need on novel therapeutic strategies for lung cancer. Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have potential valuable for cancer treatment. Materials and ...
powder/decoction. CASE PRESENTATION. A 44-year-old man presented at the Chengdu. University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Teaching Hospital on the 3rd of April, 2013 with a one year, history of weakness and associated loss of weight. There was an exacerbation of symptoms two weeks prior to presentation. He.
Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Zongyou
To explore a possible strategy of market expansion for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) medical services Based on literature study and the data collected through a survey with a specifically-designed questionnaire, a strategy was suggested for TCM medical services entities. The outcome of the survey showed that 87.50% of respondents held that TCM belonged to complementary and alternative medicine or traditional medicine. [corrected] TCM medical services entities should be considered as market stopgap in healthcare market and a strategy of market expansion for TCM medical services should be built for them accordingly.
Xiao, Yong-Qing; Li, Li; Liu, Ying; Ma, Yin-Lian; Yu, Ding-Rong
To elucidate the key issues in the development and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and Chinese herbal pieces industry Chinese herbal pieces industry. According to the author's accumulated experience over years and demand of the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, the key issues in the development and innovation on the Chinese herbal pieces industry were summarized. According to the author, the traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline shall focus on a application basis research. The development of this discipline should be closely related to the development of Chinese herbal pieces. The traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline can be improved and its results can be transformed only if this discipline were correlated with the Chinese herbal pieces industry, matched with the development of the Chinese herbal pieces industry, and solved the problems in the development on the Chinese herbal pieces industry. The development of traditional Chinese medicine processing discipline and the Chinese herbal pieces industry also requires scientific researchers to make constant innovations, realize the specialty of the researches, and innovate based on inheritance. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Guo, Xiao-xin; Pang, Yu
The adverse reaction monitoring is important in warning the risks of traditional Chinese medicines at an early stage, finding potential quality problems and ensuring the safe clinical medication. In the study, efforts were made to investigate the risk signal mining techniques in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines, particularly the complexity in component, processing, compatibility, preparation and clinical medication, find early risk signals of traditional Chinese medicines and establish a traditional Chinese medicine safety evaluation system based on adverse reaction risk signals, in order to improve the target studies on traditional Chinese medicine safety, effective and timely control risks and solve the existing frequent safety issue in traditional Chinese medicines.
Sun, Zhi-Xin; Zhang, Pan-Pan; Gao, Wu-Lin; Dai, Guo-Hua
To analyze the prescription and medication rules of Chinese medicines in the treatment of palpitations in the Chinese journal full text database(CNKI) by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance system, and provide a reference for further research and development of modern traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs) in treatment of palpitations. In order to give better guidance for clinical mediation, prescriptions used for treatment of palpitations in CNKI were collected, and then were input to the TCM inheritance support system for establishing a Chinese medicine prescription database for palpitations. The software's revised mutual information, complex system entropy clustering and other data mining methods were adopted to analyze the prescriptions according to the frequencies of herbs, "four natures", "five flavors" and "meridians" of the high-frequency medicines in the database, identify the core herbs and application characteristics, and analyze the prescription rules and medication experience. Totally, 545 prescriptions used for palpitation were included in this study and involved 247 Chinese herbs. The analysis results showed that the herbs in prescriptions for palpitation mostly had the warm property, and the herbs in heart and spleen meridian accounted for a larger proportion, indicating that the treatment was mainly to nourish heart and strengthen spleen. The top 11 herbs in usage frequency were consistent with the high-frequency medicines in medication patterns of common herbal pairs; therefore, we considered that these 11 herbs were the core herbs; the core herbal combination included Cassia Twig, Licorice, fossil fragments, Ostreae decoction, and evolved into 9 new prescriptions for treating palpitation. Our results objectively presented the prescription and medication rules for treating palpitation and provided extremely effective guidance for the clinical therapy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Glen E. Randall
Full Text Available In 2006, the Ontario government passed the Traditional Chinese Medicine Act, which granted Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners and Acupuncturists (TCM/A practitioners self-regulatory status under the Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. The goal of the legislation was to create a new regulatory college that would set and enforce high standards of care and safety in order to enhance public protection and access to a range of traditional and alternative therapies. In April 2013, the College of Traditional Chinese Medicine Practitioners and Acupuncturists of Ontario was officially launched. Several factors account for the government’s decision to delegate self-regulatory authority to TCM/A practitioners through the creation of a regulatory college. In particular, the government’s decision seems to have been influenced by lobbying of some practitioners, greater public acceptance of alternative medicines, patient safety concerns related to acupuncture cases in the media, and the precedence of self-regulatory status being granted to these practitioners in other provinces. The degree to which the legislation has achieved its goals is difficult to determine given the short period of time the regulatory college has existed. However, the fact that the college has developed standards of practice to guide TCM/A practitioners and has a process in place to address public complaints is an early indication of movement toward achieving the policy’s goals.
Zhong, Yifei; Menon, Madhav C; Deng, Yueyi; Chen, Yiping; He, John Cijiang
Because current treatment options for chronic kidney disease (CKD) are limited, many patients seek out alternative therapies such as traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is a lack of evidence from large clinical trials to support the use of traditional medicines in patients with CKD. Many active components of traditional medicine formulas are undetermined and their toxicities are unknown. Therefore, there is a need for research to identify active compounds from traditional medicines and understand the mechanisms of action of these compounds, as well as their potential toxicity, and subsequently perform well-designed, randomized, controlled, clinical trials to study the efficacy and safety of their use in patients with CKD. Significant progress has been made in this field within the last several years. Many active compounds have been identified by applying sophisticated techniques such as mass spectrometry, and more mechanistic studies of these compounds have been performed using both in vitro and in vivo models. In addition, several well-designed, large, randomized, clinical trials have recently been published. We summarize these recent advances in the field of traditional medicines as they apply to CKD. In addition, current barriers for further research are also discussed. Due to the ongoing research in this field, we believe that stronger evidence to support the use of traditional medicines for CKD will emerge in the near future. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yeh, Hsiao-Yun; Chen, Yu-Chun; Chen, Fang-Pey; Chou, Li-Fang; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
To investigate the patterns of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use among pregnant women in the National Health Insurance program in Taiwan. Women who gave birth in Taiwan in 2006 were identified from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Claims for reimbursement following TCM ambulatory visits by these women were analyzed. In total, 20.9% of women in the study who gave birth in 2006 used TCM during pregnancy, with older women more likely to utilize this form of care (23.9% of women >35 years of age vs 16.2% of women women before pregnancy vs 2163 during) and nausea/vomiting (220 women before vs 1648 during). The predominant modality (88.4%) of TCM treatment during pregnancy was herbal preparation. Traditional Chinese medicine, with the exception of acupuncture, is popular among pregnant women in Taiwan. In addition to its efficacy, the safety of TCM during pregnancy requires future investigation.
Cavalieri, S; Rotoli, M
According to the data of the recent archaeological excavations, the history of traditional Chinese medicine begins in the neolithic period (10,000-4,000 years ago). The fundamental principles of the traditional Chinese medicine may be interpreted on the basis of two classic theories of Chinese thought: the Yin-Yang theory and the five phases theory. The former stated that our reality is the product of the continuous interaction and transformation of the Yin and Yang principles. The latter recognise the existence of five emblematic groups in which everything regarding humankind and nature may be classified. The five phases interact in two different ways: the cycle of production (Sheng) and the cycle of control (Ke). Theoretical basis of traditional Chinese medicine are described on the Huangdi Neijing (The Book of Yellow Emperor's: a classic of internal medicine) written during the period 475-225 b.C. as a dialogue between the mythical Emperor Huangdi and his physician Qibo. The book is divided into two parts: the Suwen (Questions about living matter) and Lingshu (The vital axe). Each part is composed of 81 sections. In this book are set correspondences between phases and organs, viscera, feelings, body fluids, flavours, foods, colours, and so on. We can also find the description of blood (Xue) and energy (Qi) circulation and the pathways of main, collateral and curious vessels. The origins of disease are also reported on the Huangdi Neijing. As regards the psychological point of view, special attention is dedicated to dreams and their possible causes and to the description of various kind of mental illness. The unknown Authors underline the five defects and the four mistakes of the physician, pointing out the importance to avoid them. Finally, it must be mentioned their special care to the principles of preventive medicine.
Yu, Bei-Bei; Gong, Xiu-Lin
With the current trend of globalization, unprecedented opportunities and enormous changes have emerged for the global development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, many old and new challenges and problems still remain, including partial or limited comprehension of acupuncture, oriental medicine and TCM, the existence of non-standardized institutes of TCM and acupuncture training schools, unqualified TCM practitioners, and problems concerning Chinese herbal medicine and inexperience in conducting TCM business. These problems will doubtlessly impede the further development of TCM worldwide in the foreseeable future. It is also clear that the globalization of TCM will require a large scale systematic project and constitute an arduous historical task. This paper aims to consolidate 6 strategic development modes to reinforce and facilitate the process of TCM globalization through a detailed analysis of both the present status and existing problems concerning the development of TCM in the United States.
Cheng, Chung-Wah; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Li, You-Ping; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Bian, Zhao-Xiang
Editors' Note: This article is the traditional Chinese version of the CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. (Cheng C, Wu T, Shang H, Li, Y, Altman D, Moher D; CONSORT-CHM Formulas 2017 Group. CONSORT Extension for Chinese Herbal Medicine Formulas 2017: Recommendations, Explanation, and Elaboration. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167:112-21. [Epub 27 June 2017]. doi:10.7326/M16-2977).
Xin, Jie; Zhang, Rong-chao; Wang, Lei
Due to its incomparable advantages, the application of transcriptome sequencing in the study of traditional Chinese medicine attracts more and more attention of researchers, which greatly promote the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, the applications of transcriptome sequencing in traditional Chinese medicine were summarized by reviewing recent related papers. PMID:28900463
Xiaofeng Zhang; Jianguo Ma; Junfa Qin; Lun Xiao
Elements in two kinds of 30 traditional Chinese medicines were analyzed by PIXE method, and the data were treated by multivariate statistical methods. The results show that these two kinds of traditional Chinese medicines are almost separable according to their elemental contents. The results are congruous with the traditional Chinese medicine practice. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs
Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chiu, Wei-Ling; Wang, Yu-Jen; Lo, Chyi
This study aimed to investigate the use of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine in stroke patients in Taiwan. Chinese herbal medicine, massage, acupuncture, natural products, and exercise were widely used among stroke patients. Integrating safe and effective traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative medicine into conventional therapies is suggested.
Zhang, Wei; Sun, Qinglei; Liu, Jianhua
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for healing of different health problems for thousands of years. They have been used as therapeutic, complementary and alternative medicines. TCMs usually consist of dozens to hundreds of various compounds, which are extracted from raw...... herbal sources by aqueous or alcoholic solvents. Therefore, it is difficult to correlate the pharmaceutical effect to a specific lead compound in the TCMs. A detailed analysis of various components in TCMs has been a great challenge for modern analytical techniques in recent decades. In this chapter...
Tang, Haitao; Huang, Wenlong; Ma, Jimei; Liu, Li
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is currently the best-preserved and most influential traditional medical system with the largest number of users worldwide. In recent years, the trend of TCM adoption has increased greatly, but the process of TCM internationalization has suffered from a series of setbacks for both internal and external reasons. Thus, the process of TCM internationalization faces formidable challenges, although it also has favourable opportunities. Using SWOT analysis, this paper investigates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for TCM. These findings can serve as references for TCM enterprises with global ambitions.
Lu, Jianwei; Wang, Fang; Yan, Dongmei; Luo, Yun; Yang, Ming
"Fifteen" since, our country Chinese traditional medicine industry science and technology has made remarkable achievements. In this paper, the development of science and technology policy, Chinese medicine industry, platform construction and other aspects were analyzed, showing 10 years of Chinese traditional medicine industry development of science and technology innovation achievement and development, and on the current development of traditional Chinese medicine industry facing the main tasks and guarantee measures are analyzed.
Wang, B.; Shi, S.; Li, B.; Wang, G.
Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are natural products prepared from plants, minerals and animals, it is easy for contamination by microorganisms to occur; thus causing problems in complying with the requirements laid down for passing microbial limit tests. We selected some kinds of TCMs, including unprocessed materia medica, traditional Chinese patent medicine (TCPMs) and chemical constituents for irradiation by 60 Co gamma ray and investigating the results in terms of microbiology, chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. We found no evidence of changes in most of the tested items, which indicates that the irradiation method could be employed for decontamination of TCMs. However, some chemical constituents of unprocessed materia medica, such as gentiopicrin in Radix Gentianae Macrophyllae and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside in Radix Polygoni Multiflori, decomposed when these crude materials were irradiated with dose of 5kGy. Further study revealed that although the medicinal were altered by irradiation, the monomers of some of these chemical constituents were not affected. In addition to investigation of the items described above, the doses of irradiation were selected experimentally to ensure that, after irradiation, the TCMs passed the microbial limit tests described in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. The lowest possible doses were used in order to avoid any impairment of the quality and clinical efficacy of the effective ingredients of the TCMs. (author)
Xiao, Shui-Ming; Bai, Rui; Zhang, Xiao-Yan
Gene is the base of in vivo metabolism and effectiveness for traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), and the gene expression, regulation and modification are used as the research directions to perform the TCM multi-component, multi-link and multi-target in vivo metabolism studies, which will improve the research on TCM metabolic proecess, effect target and molecular mechanism. Humans are superorganisms with 1% genes inherited from parents and 99% genes from various parts of the human body, mainly coming from the microorganisms in intestinal flora. These indicate that genetically inherited human genome and "second genome" could affect the TCM in vivo metabolism from inheritance and "environmental" aspects respectively. In the present paper, typical case study was used to discuss related TCM in vivo metabolic genomics research, mainly including TCM genomics research and gut metagenomics research, as well as the personalized medicine evoked from the individual difference of above genomics (metagenomics). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wu, Hao; Zhong, Rong-Ling; Xia, Zhi; Huang, Hou-Cai; Zhong, Qing-Xiang; Feng, Liang; Song, Jie; Jia, Xiao-Bin
In recent years, the proportion of traditional Chinese medicine in scientific research and its clinical use increased gradually. The research result also becomes more and more valuable, but in the process of using traditional Chinese medicine, it also needs to pay more attention. With the gradual deepening of the toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine, some traditional Chinese medicines have also been found to have the potential toxicity, with the exception of some traditional toxicity Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine in the growth, processing, processing, transportation and other aspects of pollution or deterioration will also cause the side effects to the body. Clinical practice should be based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine to guide rational drug use and follow the symptomatic medication, the principle of proper compatibility. The constitution of the patients are different, except for a few varieties of traditional Chinese medicines are natural herbs with hepatotoxicity, liver toxicity of most of the traditional Chinese medicine has idiosyncratic features. The liver plays an important role in drug metabolism. It is easy to be damaged by drugs. Therefore, the study of traditional Chinese medicine potential liver toxicity and its toxic components has become one of the basic areas of traditional Chinese medicine research. Based on the review of the literatures, this paper summarizes the clinical classification of liver toxicity, the pathogenesis of target cell injury, and systematically summarizes the mechanism of liver toxicity and toxic mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine. This paper provided ideas for the study of potential liver toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine and protection for clinical safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Takayama, Shin; Iwasaki, Koh
The Japan Geriatrics Society revised its criteria for the medical treatment and safety of the elderly in 2015. The Japan Geriatrics Society guidelines contain a chapter for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; traditional medicines in East Asian countries, such as China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam and Singapore), because it is widely used for elderly patients and is sometimes covered by national medical insurance in Japan. The updated guidelines should be improved based on a comprehensive, systematic review and evidence grading. TCM is rapidly expanding in the literature, and is under intensive investigation in clinical trials. The objective of the present trial was to review TCM systematically and reflect the results to update the TCM chapter of the Japan Geriatrics Society guidelines. Here, we introduce the results of the systemic review of TCM for geriatrics. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 679-688. © 2016 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, which is related to many cardiac and cerebral vascular diseases, especially stroke. It can therefore increase cardiovascular mortality and all-cause death. The current treatments of AF remain to be western drugs and radiofrequency ablation which are limited by the tolerance of patients, adverse side effects, and high recurrence rate, especially for the elderly. On the contrary, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with long history of use involves various treatment methods, including Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs or bioactive ingredients, Chinese patent medicines, acupuncture, Qigong, and Tai Chi Chuan. With more and more researches reported, the active roles of TCM in AF management have been discovered. Then it is likely that TCM would be effective preventive means and valuable additional remedy for AF. The potential mechanisms further found by numerous experimental studies showed the distinct characteristics of TCM. Some CHMs or bioactive ingredients are atrial-selective, while others are multichannel and multifunctional. Therefore, in this review we summarized the treatment strategies reported in TCM, with the purpose of providing novel ideas and directions for AF management.
Wang, Yu-Guang; Jin, Rui; Kong, Xiang-Wen; Zhang, Bing
The efficacy and safety of application of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) during the pregnancy is a hotspot among scholars. However, the traditional pregnancy contraindication content has certain historical limitations, and cannot meet the needs of the current pregnant women for rational drug use. We need to refine and interpret it with modern medical science. In this paper, we summarized the ancient and modern knowledge about pregnancy contradiction and tried to establish a grading safety system, based on the actual clinical practices and thte medication grading concept of western medicines. Specifically speaking, in this paper, we compared the connotations of forbidden/contradiction and cautious use, and focused on the safe herbs that included in the prescriptions for dietary therapy. Meanwhile, in this paper, we summarized the core content of the famous theories of ″You Gu Wu Yun (pregnancy disease)″ and ″Shuai Qi Da Ban Er Zhi (therapy during pregnancy)″, and studied the dangerous and unknown risk of TCMs during pregnancy. At last, a five-grade safety system of TCMs applied on the pregnant women was established, including forbidden, contraindicated, cautious, uncertain and available medicines. We classified medicines with the embryotoxicity (e.g. teratogenic, mutagenic, ageneisa), the traditional toxicity (e.g. abortion), the fierce herbal property (e.g. removing blood stasis, promoting Qi circulation) and reliable edible medicinal herbs. We also place an ″uncertain″ category based on objective reality. Meanwhile, 33 sample TCMs were preliminarily determined. This paper proposed the preference and ideas for the rational herbal use in pregnancy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wei, Mu-Xin; Wei, Lan-Fu; Zhou, Bai-Cang; Zhao, Guo-Ping
Traditional Chinese medicine has accumulated rich experience in treating dysfunction of gastrointestinal peristalsis. In recent years, a large number of studies have been made on the mechanism and effects of traditional Chinese medicines on the gastrointestinal peristalsis, and the concept of "gastrointestinal promoting Chinese medicine" has been advocated. These traditional Chinese medicines can be divided into three types: promoting the gastrointestinal peristalsis, inhibiting the gastrointestinal peristalsis, and bi-directional modulating. The in vivo and/or in vitro experiments showed that some of the traditional Chinese medicines for activating blood or regulating qi could promote the stomach peristalsis, and the traditional Chinese medicines for moistening intestines to relieve constipation or invigorating spleen to promote digestion could accelerate the intestinal peristalsis. The mechanism lies in the neuroregulation and gut-peptide regulation. Further research on multi-regulation and of multi-target should be done, for the mechanism of the traditional Chinese medicines in regulating the gastrointestinal peristalsis is far more complicated.
Ren, Jian-Xun; Liu, Jian-Xun
Modern and international studies on new traditional Chinese medicines are the main trend of the development of traditional Chinese medicines at present. In Australia, new traditional Chinese medicines refer to complementary medicines, which are mainly registered and launched as listed medicines. The application documents of registered (listed) medicines in Australia mainly cover detailed description of active pharmaceutical ingredients, pharmacological and toxicological studies, dosage form and adverse effects. Each part has detailed specifications and instructions, which helps ensure that applicants could accurately understand the requirements in application for registering (listing) medicines, and provides very important reference to the studies and development of new traditional Chinese medicines in China.
Zhang, Xue-Wei; Jia, Hong-Ling
The origin and development of umbilical therapy in traditional Chinese medicine is explored from related literature in the history. As a result, the Shang period is regarded as initial period of umbilical therapy, while periods from Han Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Southern-Northern Dynasties to Sui Dynasty and Tang Dynasty could be taken as stage of primary development. Time from Song Dynasty, Jin Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty to Ming and Qing Dynasties is believed as mature stage. Also the manipulation, application principle, indications and contraindications of umbilical therapy are explained. A brief overview of modern development of umbilical therapy is also described.
Bi, Ying-fei; Mao, Jing-yuan
In recent years, Delphi method has been widely applied in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical research. This article analyzed the present application situation of Delphi method in TCM clinical research, and discussed some problems presented in the choice of evaluation method, classification of observation indexes and selection of survey items. On the basis of present application of Delphi method, the author analyzed the method on questionnaire making, selection of experts, evaluation of observation indexes and selection of survey items. Furthermore, the author summarized the steps of application of Delphi method in TCM clinical research.
He, Ping; Li, Feng-Jie; Li, Lian-da; Li, Yi-Kui
Safety issues of traditional Chinese medicine injections has been heated debate. There are two diametrically opposed views: it should be used reasonable and developed healthily or be forbidden to use. Some people have many misunderstandings and prejudices about the safety of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Compared with western medicine,traditional Chinese medicine has its own particularity. Traditional Chinese medicine has complex components. Its research and clinical application is different from western medicine. Adverse reactions of traditional Chinese medicine injections are related to many factors,such as a large number of irrational use,blind use of traditional Chinese medicine injections and western medicine injections,counterfeit and substandard drugs,incorrect methods of intravenous infusion,toxicity of supplementary materials,drug ingredients. Developing traditional Chinese medicine injection is the need for curing sickness to save patients. The purposeful, targeted, organized and planned systematic research of traditional Chinese medicine injections should be strengthened,especially the safety of traditional Chinese medicine. Strengthen supervision and control of rational drug use.Strengthen the examination and approval,supervision and management of all aspects to ensure the safety of patients. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Li, S P; Yang, F Q; Tsim, Karl W K
Cordyceps sinensis, a well-known and valued traditional Chinese medicine, is also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm summer grass) in Chinese. It is commonly used to replenish the kidney and soothe the lung for the treatment of fatigue, night sweating, hyposexualities, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, asthemia after severe illness, respiratory disease, renal dysfunction and renal failure, arrhythmias and other heart disease, and liver disease. As the rarity and upstanding curative effects of natural Cordyceps, several mycelial strains have been isolated from natural Cordyceps and manufactured in large quantities by fermentation technology, and they are commonly sold as health food products in Asia. In addition, some substitutes such as Cordyceps militaris also have been used and adulterants also confused the market. Therefore, quality control of C. sinensis and its products is very important to ensure their safety and efficacy. Herein, markers and analytical methods for quality control of Cordyceps were reviewed and discussed.
Wieland, Susan; Kimbrough, Elizabeth; Cheng, Ker; Berman, Brian M.
Abstract Background The Cochrane Collaboration, an international not-for-profit organization that prepares and maintains systematic reviews of randomized trials of health care therapies, has produced reviews summarizing much of the evidence on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Our objective was to review the evidence base according to Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods In order to detect reviews focusing on TCM, we searched the titles and abstracts of all reviews in Issue 4, 2008 of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. For each review, we extracted data on the number of trials included and the total number of participants. We provided an indication of the strength of the review findings by assessing the reviewers' abstract conclusions statement. We supplemented our assessment of the abstract conclusions statements with a listing of the comparisons and outcomes showing statistically significant meta-analyses results. Results We identified 70 Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM, primarily acupuncture (n = 26) and Chinese herbal medicine (n = 42), and 1 each of moxibustion and t'ai chi. Nineteen (19) of 26 acupuncture reviews and 22/42 herbal medicine reviews concluded that there was not enough good quality trial evidence to make any conclusion about the efficacy of the evaluated treatment, while the remaining 7 acupuncture and 20 herbal medicine reviews and each of the moxibustion and t'ai chi reviews indicated a suggestion of benefit, which was qualified by a caveat about the poor quality and quantity of studies. Most reviews included many distinct interventions, controls, outcomes, and populations, and a large number of different comparisons were made, each with a distinct forest plot. Conclusions Most Cochrane systematic reviews of TCM are inconclusive, due specifically to the poor methodology and heterogeneity of the studies reviewed. Some systematic reviews provide preliminary evidence of Chinese medicine's benefits to certain patient populations
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an integral part of mainstream medicine in China. Due to its worldwide use, potential impact on healthcare and opportunities for new drug development, TCM is also of great international interest. Recently, a new era for modernisation of TCM was launched with the successful completion of the Good Practice in Traditional Chinese Medicine Research in the Post-genomic Era (GP-TCM) project, the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) coordination action on TCM research. This 3.5-year project that involved inputs from over 200 scientists resulted in the production of 20 editorials and in-depth reviews on different aspects of TCM that were published in a special issue of Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2012; volume 140, issue 3). In this narrative review, we aim to summarise the findings of the FP7 GP-TCM project and highlight the relevance of TCM to modern medicine within a historical and international context. Advances in TCM research since the 1950s can be characterised into three phases: Phase I (1950s-1970s) was fundamental for developing TCM higher education, research and hospital networks in China; Phase II (1980s-2000s) was critical for developing legal, economic and scientific foundations and international networks for TCM; and Phase III (2011 onwards) is concentrating on consolidating the scientific basis and clinical practice of TCM through interdisciplinary, interregional and intersectoral collaborations. Taking into account the quality and safety requirements newly imposed by a globalised market, we especially highlight the scientific evidence behind TCM, update the most important milestones and pitfalls, and propose integrity, integration and innovation as key principles for further modernisation of TCM. These principles will serve as foundations for further research and development of TCM, and for its future integration into tomorrow’s medicine. PMID:23763836
Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Bo; He, Liyun; Bai, Wenjing; Yu, Xueyun; Cao, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Rong, Peijing; Zhao, Yuxue; Li, Guozheng; Liu, Baoyan
Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, Manifold Ranking is employed to develop the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. First, 115 stroke patients from three hospitals are recruited in the cross-sectional survey. Simultaneously, traditional Chinese physicians determine the traditional Chinese patent medicines appropriate for each patient. Second, particular indicators are explored to characterize the population feature of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. Moreover, these particular indicators can be easily obtained byWestern physicians and are feasible for widespread clinical application in the future. Third, the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment is constructed based on Manifold Ranking. Experimental results reveal that traditional Chinese patent medicines can be differentiated. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain high accuracy of aid decision.
Tan, Wei; Geng, Dong-Mei; Rong, Xue; Li, Zi; Liu, Wei; Yang, Li; Xu, Si-Qun; Jie, Xiao-Qian
The brand equity is valuable intangible assets of traditional Chinese medicine companies, who are excellent representatives of traditional Chinese medicine enterprises and the most promising ones to good international medicine brands. However, there is still no systematic study on how to correctly evaluate the brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies at present. To make it clear, the main impacting factors on brand equity of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, both structured open outline pre-research and closed questionnaire research were adopted for the field survey, and some suggestions for how to protect and enhance the brand equity were also presented on the basis of survey and analysis, in the hope of improving the brand management level of listed traditional Chinese medicine companies, and making a beneficial exploration for the development of brand theory of the traditional Chinese medicine industry.
Yang, Nan; Chen, Juan; Hou, Xue-Feng; Song, Jie; Feng, Liang; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Traditional Chinese medicine has a long history in clinical application, and been proved to be safe and effective. In recent years, the toxicity and side-effects caused by the western medicine have been attracted much attention. As a result, increasing people have shifted their attention to traditional Chinese medicine. Nonetheless, due to the natural origin of traditional Chinese medicine and the lack of basic knowledge about them, many people mistakenly consider the absolute safety of traditional Chinese medicine, except for well-known toxic ones, such as arsenic. However, according to the clinical practices and recent studies, great importance shall be attached to the toxicity of non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine, in particular the hepatotoxicity. Relevant studies indicated that the toxicity of non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine is closely correlated with individual gene polymorphism and constitution. By discussing the causes and mechanisms of the hepatotoxicity induced by non-toxic traditional Chinese medicine in clinical practices, we wrote this article with the aim to provide new ideas for individualized clinical therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and give guidance for rational and safe use of traditional Chinese medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Li, Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Cheng, Meng; Zhang, Tian; Yang, Guang
Seeds and seedlings are the material basis of traditional Chinese medicine materials production, and the construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is beneficial to the production of high-quality traditional Chinese medicine materials. The construction of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases is one of the major topics of Chinese medica resources census pilot. Targets, tasks of traditional Chinese medicine materials seed and seedling breeding bases based on Chinese medica resources census pilot were expounded.Construction progress including hardware construction, germplasm conservation and breeding, procedures and standardsestablishment, social servicesare presented. Development counter measures were proposed for the next step: perfect the standard and system, maintain and strengthen the breeding function, strengthen the cultivation of multi-level talents, explore market development model, joint efforts to deepen services and development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Yang, Ming; Zhong, Ling-Yun; Xue, Xiao; Liu, Rong-Hua; Gong, Qian-Feng
To discuss the inheritance and innovation study of Chinese medicine processing technology from three aspects： inheritance, standardization and industrial innovation development, propose "three lacks" in inheritance, "six lacks of standardization, and one lack of unity" in standardization, and "three emphasizing and three despising aspects" in industrial innovation, and propose feasible solutions for the above mentioned problems, providing a good foundation for inheritance and innovation of Chinese medicine processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhang, Junhua; Zhang, Boli
With the advent of big data era, our thinking, technology and methodology are being transformed. Data-intensive scientific discovery based on big data, named "The Fourth Paradigm," has become a new paradigm of scientific research. Along with the development and application of the Internet information technology in the field of healthcare, individual health records, clinical data of diagnosis and treatment, and genomic data have been accumulated dramatically, which generates big data in medical field for clinical research and assessment. With the support of big data, the defects and weakness may be overcome in the methodology of the conventional clinical evaluation based on sampling. Our research target shifts from the "causality inference" to "correlativity analysis." This not only facilitates the evaluation of individualized treatment, disease prediction, prevention and prognosis, but also is suitable for the practice of preventive healthcare and symptom pattern differentiation for treatment in terms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and for the post-marketing evaluation of Chinese patent medicines. To conduct clinical studies involved in big data in TCM domain, top level design is needed and should be performed orderly. The fundamental construction and innovation studies should be strengthened in the sections of data platform creation, data analysis technology and big-data professionals fostering and training.
Youns, Mahmoud; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Efferth, Thomas
Scientific progress in genetics, cell and molecular biology has greatly ameliorated our comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation and progression. The rapidly advancing identification of molecular targets in human cancers during the last decade has provided an excellent starting point for the development of novel therapeutics. A huge variety of potential molecular targets have been identified, many of which are already in the market for therapeutic purposes. It is now becoming possible to target pathways and/or molecules that are crucial in maintaining the malignant phenotype. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is often considered as alternative or complementary medicine. TCM represents a holistic approach and lacks high-quality scientific evidence on its effectiveness. Therefore, it is frequently regarded with some scepticism by western academic medicine. In this review, we report that application of modern technologies allowed identification of novel molecular targets modulating the anti-tumour activity of natural products derived from TCM. Moreover, we tried to cross the bridge between TCM and Western modern medicine to be able to implement them for the sake of cancer patients.
Guo, Hong-Ling; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
To establish a characterization system of traditional Chinese medicinal properties in line with modern scientific cognition regularity, in order to reveal properties of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian and relations of effects of medicinal properties. By collecting data about traditional Chinese medicinal properties recorded in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005 Edition), literature and data about pharmacological effects of traditional Chinese medicines recorded in the Chinese Materia Medica, by using the method of association rules, the authors dug pharmacological effect rules corresponds to relevant medicinal property combinations, with the medicinal property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian as the target. It was found that either obvious different pharmacological effects or identical pharmacological characteristics existed in traditional Chinese medicines distributed along liver meridian. With the aim to explore the correlations between traditional Chinese medicine medicinal properties and pharmacological effects, the authors linked the traditional Chinese medicine theory with modern research achievements, in order to provide the ideas and methods for interpreting mechanisms of medicinal properties.
Chang, Leanne; Basnyat, Iccha
In this article we examine how elderly Chinese Singaporean women navigated between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine in their practices of maintaining well-being. We interviewed 36 elderly women to understand their negotiation of medical choices in the interplay of structure, culture, and personal agency. Our findings show that participants made situational decisions under structural and cultural influences, such as family members' changing expectations and interpretations of medical practices, institutional preferences for biomedicine, and the patients' negotiating position between biomedicine and traditional Chinese medicine. Participants demonstrated their capacity to enact agency through their examination of the effects and side effects of each medical system and through their integrative use of different medical treatments, depending on the purpose. Through our findings, we unveil contextual meanings of health among elderly women and the unique coexistence of traditional and modern medical practices within the context of Singapore. © The Author(s) 2014.
Xia, Hai-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Liu, Dan; Yu, Dan-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Bin
Traditional Chinese medicines have a long history, with a large quantity of efficient traditional Chinese medicines and prescriptions. However, the vast majority of pharmaceutical dose forms remain common preparations, with very few efficient, long-lasting and low-dose preparations. The sustain-release preparation allows sustained drug release in a longer period of time, maintains blood drug concentration, reduces the toxic effect and medication frequency, and improves medication compliance. Unlike monomer drugs, the material base of traditional Chinese medicine and compounds is multi-component, instead of single or several active monomers. Therefore, under the guidance of the Chinese medicine theories, modern multi-component sustained-release preparations were developed for oral traditional Chinese medicines, with the aim of finally improving the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines.
Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.
Huang, Yipeng; Wu, Zhenwei; Su, Rihui; Ruan, Guihua; Du, Fuyou; Li, Gongke
Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs) are promising approach for the treatment of various diseases which have attracted increasing attention all over the world. Chemometrics in quality control of TCHMs are great useful tools that harnessing mathematics, statistics and other methods to acquire information maximally from the data obtained from various analytical approaches. This feature article focuses on the recent studies which evaluating the pharmacological efficacy and quality of TCHMs by determining, identifying and discriminating the bioactive or marker components in different samples with the help of chemometric techniques. In this work, the application of chemometric techniques in the classification of TCHMs based on their efficacy and usage was introduced. The recent advances of chemometrics applied in the chemical analysis of TCHMs were reviewed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiao-xiao; Li, Zheng-yong; Ma, Yu-ling; Ma, Shuang-cheng
Citrus aurantium is one of the most common traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, the chemical components, content determination and pharmacological actions of C. aurantium were summarized for the comprehensive utilization of its resources. Because of the complicated resources of C. aurantium, only one single component as index couldn't reflect the quality and effects and comprehensive evaluation which concluding multiple components should be established in the future quality control. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium. In recent years, the pharmacological effects research of C. aurantium has made tremendous progress, and it is important to explore new drugs from the development and utilization of the active ingredient of C. aurantium.
Sun Aizhen; Guo Ruixin; Zhou Jieyan; Wang Dongfeng; Wang Huifang
The rat model poisoned by lead acetate was treated with either EDTA or a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the ability of 'relieving toxin and strengthening spleen'. In EDTA group, lead contents in blood fell to normal; the other parameters apparently improved but did not return to normal(p 0.05). But in TCM group, all the parameters returned to normal (p > 0.05) and the contents of essential trace elements in urine did not obviously change (p < 0.05). The curative effect of TCM is therefore better than that of EDTA. The mechanism probably lies in following points: (1) TCM can expedite excretion of lead in feces and decrease the lead accumulation in liver; (2) FEP returns to normal, showing that the lead expelling effect of TCM is relatively complete; (3) TCM does not disturb the interior equilibrium of essential trace elements while expelling lead
Wong, Melody Yee-Man; So, Pui-Kin; Yao, Zhong-Ping
Analysis of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) plays important roles in quality control of TCMs and understanding their pharmacological effects. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique of choice for analysis of TCMs due to its superiority in speed, sensitivity and specificity. However, conventional MS analysis of TCMs typically requires extensive sample pretreatment and chromatographic separation, which could be time-consuming and laborious, prior to the analysis. The expanding usage of TCMs worldwide demands development of rapid, cost-effective and reliable methods for analysis of TCMs. In recent years, new sample preparation and ionization techniques have been developed to enable direct analysis of TCMs by MS, significantly reducing the analysis time and cost. In this review, various MS-based techniques, mainly including ambient ionization-MS and MALDI-MS based techniques, applied for direct analysis of TCMs are summarized and their applicability and future prospects are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Gang; He, Yan-Ping
The new traditional Chinese medicine compound is the main part of the research of new drug of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the new Chinese herbal compound reflects the characteristics of TCM theory. The new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research is one of the main content of pharmaceutical research, and is also the focus of the new medicine pharmaceutical evaluation content. Although in recent years the research level of new traditional Chinese medicine compound has been greatly improved, but the author during the review found still some common problems existing in new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard research data, this paper analyzed the current quality standards for new traditional Chinese medicine compound and the problems existing in the research data, respectively from measurement of the content of index selection, determine the scope of the content, and the quality standard design concept, the paper expounds developers need to concern. The quality of new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard is not only itself can be solved, but quality standards is to ensure the key and important content of product quality, improving the quality of products cannot do without quality standards. With the development of science and technology, on the basis of quality by design under the guidance of the concept, new traditional Chinese medicine compound quality standard system will be more scientific, systematic and perfect.
Fang Xingwang; Wu Jilan
The feasibility of sterilizing traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) by γ-irradiation has been systematically evaluated by the biological, toxicological and physicochemical tests on irradiated hundreds of TCMs. Those TCMs investigated in general show no significant biological or toxicological changes after irradiation, yet physicochemical changes are detectable in some irradiated TCMs, and water in TCMs enhances the effects. Those results obtained from radiolysis of some major effective components of TCMs in aqueous or ethanolic solutions reveal that the site selection of radiolytically generated radicals follows the example of simple compounds with same function groups. Wholesomeness and chemical clearance present a bright future to sterilizing TCMs by γ irradiation, however, some important measures and steps should be adopted: (1) The producers must strictly execute manufacturing procedure to reduce microbiological contamination thus lower the applied dose for sterilization which is recommended to be controlled under 5, 7 or 10 kGy for dry herb, 7 kGy for herbal medicine and 5 kGy for some special herbal medicine; (2) Herb to be sterilized by γ-irradiation should exist in possible dry state; (3) Powder TCMs is recommended to mix with honey forming bolus, which can minimize the decomposition of herb
Nayelhi Itandehui Saavedra Solano
Full Text Available The emergence of alternative and complementary medicines (CAM to address emotional upsets, chronic ailments and achieving overall wellness has been reported in several countries. Its practices generally deal with the psycho-physiological and the spiritual state. Although there are studies concerning different aspects about CAM, it is still little the information on the concepts of person, body and emotion they hold. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to determine the conceptualization of emotions in traditional chinese medicine, Ayurveda and traditional mexican medicine. The information has been gathered on theoretical texts and works based in ethnographies. The three health practices conceptualize the body and emotions based on a vast symbolic world in which representations of the universe, nature and human beings are juxtaposed. The human being is represented as an interweaving of functions expressed materially (organs, tissue, etc. and immaterially (energy, emotions, etc.. In order to come to understand the emotions we first need to know the macro cosmic development, because emotions are manifestation of the energies that produce all forms of life. Into these health practices, the organic, emotional and energetic aspects are equally important for diagnosis and treatment.
Huang, Sheng-Kang; Ho, Yu-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Shiun
Allergic rhinitis has long been a worldwide health problem with a global growth trend. The use of traditional Chinese medicines alone or integrated Chinese-Western medicines for its treatment is quite common in Taiwan. Respiratory diseases account for the majority of outpatient traditional Chinese medicine treatment, while allergic rhinitis accounts for the majority of respiratory diseases. We hereby conduct a comparative analysis between traditional Chinese medicine treatments and western medicine treatments for allergic rhinitis in Taiwan. The results of the analysis on the prescription difference of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine treatments would be helpful to clinical guide and health policy decision making of ethnopharmacological therapy. Patients diagnosed as allergic rhinitis with diagnostic code 470-478 (ICD-9-CM) were selected as subjects from 2009-2010 National Health Insurance Research Database based on the claim data from the nationwide National Health Insurance in Taiwan. This retrospective study used Chi-Square test to test the effects of gender and age on visit of traditional Chinese medicine, western medicine, and integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatments. A total of 45,804 patients diagnosed as allergic rhinitis with ICD-9-CM 470-478 were identified from 2009-2010 NHIRD. There were 36,874 subjects for western medicine treatment alone, 5829 subjects for traditional Chinese medicine treatment alone, and 3101 subjects for integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment. Female patients were more than male in three treatments. 0-9 years children had the highest visit frequency in western medicine and integrated Chinese-Western medicine groups, while 10-19 years young-age rank the highest in traditional Chinese medicine group. The Chi-square test of independence showed that the effects of gender and age on visit of three treatments were significant. The prescription drugs of western medicine treatment alone were almost for
Chubak, Barbara; Doctor, Alaethia
Despite the growing popularity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the Western world, biomedical students and practitioners struggle to understand TCM and how it relates to their standard diagnosis and treatment practices. To describe the fundamentals of TCM theory and practice relevant to sexual dysfunction; to review and critique the current state of TCM research within Western biomedical literature; and to identify sites for improvement of future research and for collaborative integration of TCM and biomedicine in practice. Information about TCM from an insider perspective was obtained from English-language textbooks and lectures intended to teach Western students its theory and practice. PubMed search using Medical Subject Heading terms for Western sexual diagnoses and TCM treatments was performed in April and October 2017 to represent the evidence for TCM in Western biomedical literature. Articles in non-English languages and without human subjects were excluded. 27 studies were included in this review. The most commonly studied intervention was acupuncture. An equal number of studies addressed sexual dysfunction in men and women, but only women were included in studies of physically passive mindfulness meditation. Compared with Western biomedicine, TCM offers a more interdisciplinary and individualized approach to disease and its treatment. This embrace of individual idiosyncrasy in diagnosis and treatment presents a challenge to Western biomedical research norms that rely almost exclusively on quantitative methods that compare large and homogeneous groups with a fixed diagnosis and treatment regimen. TCM offers a very different understanding of the human body, health, and disease from Western biomedicine. There is value in the study and application of these 2 medical systems, particularly for biopsychosocial problems of sexual dysfunction. However, this must be done cautiously, with attention to appropriate study design, to avoid shallow and
Li, Rui; Zhai, Hua-Qiang; Tian, Wei-Lan; Hou, Ji-Ru; Jin, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Yan
In this study, the origin and causes of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder were reviewed, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the time background of modern traditional Chinese medicine formula granules and the future development trend, in order to provide reference for application and promotion of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules. By reference to ancient medical books of previous dynasties, a system review was conducted for infancy, formation, maturity and transition of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder, and a comprehensive analysis was made for the six factors of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder's maturity in the Song Dynasty. Efforts were made to collect domestic and foreign research literatures of modern formula granules, understand the detailed development, and conduct an objective analysis of the current clinical application of modern formula granules. According to the comparative analysis for the application characteristics of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder and modern formula granules, ①the popularity of cooked traditional Chinese medicine powder in the Song Dynasty has six factors: soaring numbers of medical students and medical practitioners, high medical expenses due to huge army, rapid population growth, frequent epidemics and increasing diseases, and insufficient finances of central and local governments. ②On the basis of clinical application characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine formula granules, traditional Chinese medicine formula granules contain extracted and concentrated effective components, which guarantee the curative effect, meet modern people's demands for "quick, simple and convenience" traditional Chinese medicine decoctions, show a relatively high cost performance; however, formula granules are restricted by their varieties and lack unified quality control standards, and single-extract formula granules have not synergy and attenuation effects of combined traditional
Hao, Da Cheng; Xiao, Pei Gen
Network pharmacology, based on the theory of systems biology, is a new discipline that analyzes the biological network and screens out the nodes of particular interest, with the aim of designing poly-target drug molecule. It emphasizes maximizing drug efficacy and minimizing adverse effect via the multiple regulation of the signaling pathway. Coincidentally, almost all traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and worldwide ethnomedicine exert therapeutic effect by targeting multiple molecules of the human body. In this overview, we offer a critique on the present perception of TCM and network pharmacology; illustrate the utility of network pharmacology in the study of single herb, medicine pair, and TCM formula; and summarize the recent progress of TCM-based drug discovery inspired by network pharmacology. Network pharmacology could be of great help in decreasing drug attrition rate and thus is essential in rational and cost-effective drug development. We also pinpoint the current TCM issues that could be tackled by the flexible combined use of network pharmacology and relevant disciplines. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress induces inflammation to several tissues/organs leading to cell death and long-term injury. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic regulatory functions has been widely used as preventive or therapeutic strategy in modern medicine. Oxidative stress and inflammation have been widely reported to contribute to cigarette smoke–induced lung inflammation, hepatotoxicity, or sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, lipopolysaccharide-induced renal inflammation, and substance P–mediated neurogenic hyperactive bladder based on clinical findings. In this review, we introduce several evidences for TCM treatment including Monascus adlay (MA produced by inoculating adlay (Cois lachrymal-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf with Monascus purpureus on lung injury, Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. of Euphorbiaceae family on hepatotoxin-induced liver inflammation, Virgate Wormwood Decoction (茵陳蒿湯 Yīn Chén Hāo tāng and its active component genipin on sympathetic activation–induced liver inflammation, and green tea extract and its active components, catechins, or a modified TCM formula Five Stranguries Powder (五淋散 Wǔ Lín Sǎn plus Crataegi Fructus (山楂 Shān Zhā on hyperactive bladder. The pathophysiologic and molecular mechanisms of TCM on ameliorating inflammatory diseases are discussed in the review.
Huang, Yi; Zhao, Yinglan; Liu, Fang; Liu, Songqing
Nano traditional Chinese medicine (nano TCM) refers to bioactive ingredients, bioactive parts, medicinal materials or complex prescription, being approximately 100 nm in size, which are processed by nanotechnology. Nano TCM is a product of the TCM modernization, and is an application of nanotechnology in the field of TCM. This article reviews literatures on researches of nano TCM, which were published in the past 15 years. Different nanotechnologies have been used in preparation of Nano TCM in view of the varying aims of the study. The mechanical crushing technology is the main approach for nanolization of TCM material and complex prescription, and nanoparticulate drug delivery systems is the main approach for nanolization of bioactive ingredients or bioactive parts in TCM. Nano TCM has a number of advantages, for example, enhancing the bioavailability of TCM, reducing the adverse effects of TCM, achieving sustained release, attaining targeted delivery, enhancing pharmacological effects and improving the administration route of TCM. However, there are still many problems that must be resolved in nano TCM research. The main challenges to nano TCM include the theory system of TCM modernization, preparation technology, safety and stability, etc.
Wang, Peng-cheng; Zhao, Shan; Wang, Qiu-hong; Kuang, Hai-xue
In recent years, the discovery and studies on aquaporin have made us have a more in-depth understanding about the physiological and pathological processes of water metabolism. Over years, however, there has been no quantitative study on the target sites of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines at the molecular level. In that case, aquaporin was found to been a new target molecule to explain the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines. By studying aquaporin, researchers can understand the implicit meaning of the diuretic effect of traditional Chinese medicines and conduct quantitative studies on the diuretic effect. So far, many scholars have conducted a series of studies in the traditional Chinese medicine field by using the findings on aquaporin and made certain advances. This article provides a summary about the efficacy exertion of diuretic traditional Chinese medicines through target molecule aquaporin.
Mai, Lan-Yin; Li, Yi-Xuan; Chen, Yong; Xie, Zhen; Li, Jie; Zhong, Ming-Yu
The compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) formulae containing enormous information, is a complex component system. Applications of mathematical statistics methods on the compatibility researches of traditional Chinese medicines formulae have great significance for promoting the modernization of traditional Chinese medicines and improving clinical efficacies and optimizations of formulae. As a tool for quantitative analysis, data inference and exploring inherent rules of substances, the mathematical statistics method can be used to reveal the working mechanisms of the compatibility of traditional Chinese medicines formulae in qualitatively and quantitatively. By reviewing studies based on the applications of mathematical statistics methods, this paper were summarized from perspective of dosages optimization, efficacies and changes of chemical components as well as the rules of incompatibility and contraindication of formulae, will provide the references for further studying and revealing the working mechanisms and the connotations of traditional Chinese medicines.
Liao, Yueh-Hsiang; Li, Chia-Ing; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Li, Tsai-Chung
Traditional Chinese medicine is one of the popular alternative treatments for cancer, mainly enhancing host immune response and reducing adverse effect of chemotherapy. This study first explored traditional Chinese medicine treatment effect on long-term survival of lung cancer patients. This study evaluated whether traditional Chinese medicine combined with conventional cancer treatment improved overall survival of lung cancer patients. We had conducted a retrospective cohort study on 111,564 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients in 2000-2009 from National Health Insurance Program database. A total of 23,803 (21.31%) patients used traditional Chinese medicine for lung cancer care. Eligible participants were followed up until 2011 with a mean follow-up period of 1.96 years (standard deviation 2.55) for non-TCM users and 3.04 years (2.85) for traditional Chinese medicine users. Patients with traditional Chinese medicine utilization were significantly more likely to have a 32% decreased risk of death [hazard ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval = 0.61-0.63], compared with patients without traditional Chinese medicine utilization after multivariate adjustment. We also observed a similar significant reduction risk across various subgroups of chronic lung diseases. Qing Zao Jiu Fei Tang was the most effective traditional Chinese medicine agent for mortality reduction both in the entire lung cancer (0.81; 0.72-0.91) and matched populations (0.86; 0.78-0.95). This study demonstrated adjunctive therapy with traditional Chinese medicine may improve overall survival of lung cancer patients. This study also suggested traditional Chinese medicine may be used as an adjunctive therapy for cancer treatment. These observational findings need being validated by future randomized controlled trials to rule out the possibility of effect due to holistic care.
Dai, Cheng-En; Li, Hai-Long; He, Xiao-Ping; Zheng, Fen-Fen; Zhu, Hua-Liu; Liu, Liang-Feng; Du, Wei
The pharmacological activity of active ingredients from Chinese medicine depends greatly on the microecological environment of probiotics in the human body. After effective ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by probiotics, their metabolites can increase pharmacological activity, and can be absorbed more easily to improve the bioavailability. Therefore, the combination of Chinese medicines with probiotics is the innovation point in R&D of functional food and Chinese medicines, and also a new thinking for the modernization of Chinese medicine.This review summarizes and analyses the research progress on metabolism effects of gut microbiota on Chinese medicines components, the regulating effect of effective ingredients from Chinese medicine on intestinal probiotics, the application status of probiotics in traditional Chinese medicines, and the main problems and prospects in the research and development of Chinese medicines products with probiotic, aiming to provide theoretical guidance and practical value for the fermentation engineering of Chinese herbal medicine. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
This book aims to identify, understand and qualify barriers to the patient-centred knowledge sharing (KS) in interprofessional practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM) healthcare professionals in Chinese hospitals. This collaboration is particularly crucial and unique to China since, contrary to Western practice, these two types of professionals actually work together complimentary in the same hospital. This study adopted a Grounded Theory approach as the overarching methodology to guide the analysis of the data collected in a single case-study design. A public hospital in central China was selected as the case-study site, at which 49 informants were interviewed by using semi-structured and evolving interview scripts. The research findings point to five categories of KS barriers: contextual influences, hospital management, philosophical divergence, Chinese healthcare education and interprofessional training. Further conceptualising the research findings, it is identifie...
Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-24, intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2. However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology.
There have been a few articles published in Chinese and English on hare-lip surgery in the history of traditional Chinese medicine. They are brief and some of them are inaccurate, although two recent English articles on this subject have presented an adequate picture on some aspects.' This article offers unreported information and evidence of both congenital and traumatic hare-lip surgery in the history of traditional Chinese medicine and also clarifies and corrects some of the...
Background and Objective: Bamboo salt, Calcined oyster, Drynaria fortunei, Indigo naturalis and Rehmannia glutinosa have been the main ingredients of many formulations in Chinese medicine for the treatment of toothache. This study evaluated the effect of a new desensitizing gel on dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Materials ...
Wei, Zhenzhen; Feng, Suxiang; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan
Purposes: To sum up the characteristics of Chinese medicine with Sophora Japonica and provide reference for the research, development and utilization of the Chinese medicine of Sophora japonica in the future. Methods: The author sums up the forms, functions, indications, usage, dosage and contraindications of the proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the Ministerial standards. In addition, we will inquire about the clinical application of proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora japonica in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). Results: The proprietary Chinese medicine containing Sophora Japonica was widely used in the treatment of various diseases in clinic, but it was taken orally and without any external use of Chinese patent medicine. Moreover, in most of the proprietary Chinese medicine, Sophora japonica was used as a supplement; In addition, the causes of adverse reactions were not analyzed, and the safety of the drugs needed to be further analyzed. Conclusions: To make clear the role of Sophora japonica in proprietary Chinese medicine, we can develop the Chinese medicine new dosage forms of Sophora japonica; The Chinese medicine is made up of a variety of single herbs, some are toxic drugs, when an adverse reaction occurs, We should analyze the specific causes and avoid the occurrence of adverse reactions. In addition, Sophora japonica is a traditional herbal medicine and food in China; we can expand the application in other areas and explore the pharmacological and toxicological pathology.
Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Full Text Available Identification of proper geographical origin of traditional Chinese medicine is critical for guaranteeing the quality and efficacy of the medicine, safeguarding the market order, and reducing the medical negligence rate due to fake products. Stable isotope technology, as one of the most efficient methods to determine agricultural products authenticity and traceability, have great advantages and theoretical basis for determining geo-origin of traditional Chinese medicine, and it has been applied to many expensive herbs. In this review, the basic principles of isotopic traceability were firstly introduced. We then elaborate in details the frequently-used isotopic indicators in the geo origin studies of traditional Chinese medicine. We also provide a summary of current research progresses and point out some directions for future research. The purpose of this paper is to promote the applications of stable isotopes to traditional Chinese medicine traceability studies and the establishment of the isotopic database and the improvement of the medicine traceability.
Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying
Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.
Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping
Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data.
Xie, W; Du, L
Diabetes is usually associated with inflammation. Inflammation contributes to the development of diabetes. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) play an important role in lowering blood glucose and controlling inflammation. Many studies show that TCM with hypoglycaemic effects, for example Radix Astragali, Radix Rehmanniae, Radix Trichosanthis, Panax Ginseng, Fructus Schisandrae, Radix Ophiopogonis, Rhizoma Anemarrhenae, Radix Puerariae, Fructus Lycii, Poria, Rhizoma Coptidis, Rhizoma Dioscoreae, Rhizoma Polygonati, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Glycyrrhizae, Semen Trigonellae, Momordica charantia, Allium sativum, Opuntia stricta, Aloe vera, Cortex Cinnamomi, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, and so on, have nearly independent anti-inflammatory action. Antihyperglycaemic compounds, for example berberine, puerarin, quercetin, ferulic acid, astragaloside IV, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, resveratrol, tetrandrine, glycyrrhizin, emodin and baicalin, used in TCM also have anti-inflammatory effects. These studies suggest that TCM might exert hypoglycaemic effects that are partly mediated by the anti-inflammatory mechanisms. However, small amounts of TCM with potent anti-inflammatory action does not have any hypoglycaemic effect. This indirectly indicates that diabetes may be a low-grade inflammatory disease and potent regulation of inflammatory mediators may not be required. Studies of TCM add new evidences, which indicate that diabetes may be an inflammatory disease and slight or moderate inhibition of inflammation might be useful to prevent the development of diabetes. Through this review, we aim to develop more perspectives to indicate that diabetes may be an inflammatory disease and diverse TCM may share a common antidiabetic property: anti-inflammatory action. Further studies should focus on and validate inflammation-regulating targets of TCM that may be involved in inhibiting the development of diabetes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Xiao, L.; Qin, J.F.
The essential trace elements in 30 traditional Chinese medicines, (24 tonics and 6 nontonics) were determined by proton-induced X-ray emission. The authors' previous suggestion that traditional Chinese medicines may be classified by the order of magnitude of their essential trace elements, thus indicating their pharmacological effects, is not justified. The pharmacological effect of a trace element or its essentiality may be dependent on some ligand that can be chelated with it. A nonlinear mapping algorithm, however, shows that the 30 traditional Chinese medicines are nearly separated into two groups, indicating their tonic or nontonic pharmacological effects
Zhang, Hong; Ni, Wandong; Li, Jing; Jiang, Youlin; Liu, Kunjing; Ma, Zhaohui
Standardization of electronic medical record, so as to enable resource-sharing and information exchange among medical institutions has become inevitable in view of the ever increasing medical information. The current research is an effort towards the standardization of basic dataset of electronic medical records in traditional Chinese medicine. In this work, an outpatient clinical information model and an inpatient clinical information model are created to adequately depict the diagnosis processes and treatment procedures of traditional Chinese medicine. To be backward compatible with the existing dataset standard created for western medicine, the new standard shall be a superset of the existing standard. Thus, the two models are checked against the existing standard in conjunction with 170,000 medical record cases. If a case cannot be covered by the existing standard due to the particularity of Chinese medicine, then either an existing data element is expanded with some Chinese medicine contents or a new data element is created. Some dataset subsets are also created to group and record Chinese medicine special diagnoses and treatments such as acupuncture. The outcome of this research is a proposal of standardized traditional Chinese medicine medical records datasets. The proposal has been verified successfully in three medical institutions with hundreds of thousands of medical records. A new dataset standard for traditional Chinese medicine is proposed in this paper. The proposed standard, covering traditional Chinese medicine as well as western medicine, is expected to be soon approved by the authority. A widespread adoption of this proposal will enable traditional Chinese medicine hospitals and institutions to easily exchange information and share resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Azizi, Hoda; Feng Liu, Yan; Du, Lin; Hua Wang, Chao; Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza; Ollah Esmaily, Habib; Azizi, Hamideh; Ou Xue, Xiao
To compare the therapeutic effect of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), acupuncture, and hormone therapy on menopause- related symptoms of peri- and postmenopausal women. Fifty-seven Chinese women completed 2 months of treatment with either CHM (5 g twice daily, n = 22), acupuncture plus CHM (Kun Bao Wan) 5 g twice daily plus sessions of acupuncture, n = 20), or hormone therapy (n = 15). Kupperman index score, levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and estradiol, and the number of symptoms before and after treatment were the main outcome measures. CHM, acupuncture plus CHM, and hormone therapy significantly decreased Kupperman score (P acupuncture plus CHM and CHM with significantly better results by acupuncture plus CHM. Acupuncture plus CHM, as well as hormone therapy, significantly reduced the level of FSH (P .05). The mean difference in the level of FSH between baseline and 2 months among the three groups was significantly different (P = .02). This difference was only between CHM and hormone therapy with significantly better results by hormone therapy. The three treatments didn't make any significant increase in the level of E2 (P > .05). application of the combination of Chinese herbal medicine and acupuncture proved as effective as hormone therapy in the treatment of menopause-related symptoms, and it achieved better outcomes than herbal medicine alone.
Li, Peng-Ying; Wang, Hai-Yang; Li, Jian; Zhan, Zhi-Lai; Yang, Guang
As an important reference index to evaluate the quality of Chinese medicinal materials, the commodity specification and grade of traditional Chinese medicine has an effect on the medicinal material's price, can promote "high quality and high price" of the traditional Chinese medicine, prompt market transactions more convenient and standard, and has a great significance to the development of the whole traditional Chinese medicine industry. The formation of traditional Chinese medicine specifications and grades experienced a long historical development process. In order to provide the reference for modification of the product specifications and grades standards and management of traditional Chinese medicine products, the author consulted a large number of materia medica books and related references, sorted and analyzed the historical development process. The author divided the formation and development process into four stages, including germination stage before the Southern and Northern Dynasties, development stage of Tang and Song Dynasty, mature period of the Ming and Qing Dynasties and the inheritance development stage since the foundation of the People's Republic. The author believes that the clinical curative effect is the driving force to promote the development of commodity specifications and grades. In addition, the national pharmaceutical policy, international status, the level of science and technology also influence the development of commodity specifications and grades in some extents. Finally, the author provides three piece of suggestions for the modification of the product specifications and grades standards, according to the historical development rule. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zheng, Jin; Li, Ji; Song, Lin-Yi; Ni, Shuang; Chen, Ying-Chao; Huang, Shan-di
As perimenopausal syndrome is a particularly disturbing condition to the patient, it is practical and necessary to establish a program of comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for women with perimenopausal syndrome. To observe the therapeutic effects of a comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy for women with perimenopausal syndrome in the community. Women with perimenopausal syndrome who met the inclusion criteria in 3 communities of Shanghai were selected for this study. Comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy, including administration of Chinese herbs, auricular point therapy, psychological counseling and the practice of Tai Chi, was applied for these women. The modified Kupperman index was measured once every 4 weeks for 12 weeks; the indexes of menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL) questionnaire were measured before and after the treatment. There was no significant difference in 4 groups of negative conversion ratio of the modified Kupperman index at the 4th, 8th and 12th week, respectively. The indexes of the MENQOL questionnaire showed significant differences in 4 groups before and after the treatment. The overall efficacy rate of the comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy in women with perimenopausal syndrome achieved 97.84% at the 8th and the 12th week. The comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy can achieve significant improvements in women with perimenopausal syndrome who exhibit both physical and psychological symptoms. With such significant clinical effects, the comprehensive traditional Chinese medicine therapy should be promoted in the community.
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products including traditional Chinese medicines are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently potent plant toxins including dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and...
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids ...
Wang, Feng-Qin; Chen, Cen; Xia, Zhi-Ning; Yang, Feng-Qing
Thrombotic diseases in different forms become a great threat to human health. Such anti-platelet aggregation drugs as aspirin and clopidogrel are common drugs in clinic. However, along with the appearance of resistance and side effects of western anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anti-platelet aggregation traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis have gradually become an important study orientation. Platelet is one of major participant in thrombosis, and plays an important role as a bioactive material in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, mainly involving two aspects--the evaluation for the anti-platelet aggregation activity of traditional Chinese medicines and the screening of their active components. This paper summarized the applications of platelets in studies on traditional Chinese medicines promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis, so as to provide basis for further studies.
Zu, Xian-Peng; Lin, Zhang; Xie, Hai-Sheng; Yang, Niao; Liu, Xin-Ru; Zhang, Wei-Dong
A large number and wide varieties of microorganisms colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract. They construct an intestinal microecological system in the intestinal environment. The intestinal symbiotic flora regulates a series of life actions, including digestion and absorption of nutrient, immune response, biological antagonism, and is closely associated with the occurrence and development of many diseases. Therefore, it is greatly essential for the host's health status to maintain the equilibrium of intestinal microecological environment. After effective compositions of traditional Chinese medicines are metabolized or biotransformed by human intestinal bacteria, their metabolites can be absorbed more easily, and can even decrease or increase toxicity and then exhibit significant different biological effects. Meanwhile, traditional Chinese medicines can also regulate the composition of the intestinal flora and protect the function of intestinal mucosal barrier to restore the homeostasis of intestinal microecology. The relevant literatures in recent 15 years about the interactive relationship between traditional Chinese medicines and gut microbiota have been collected in this review, in order to study the classification of gut microflora, the relationship between intestinal dysbacteriosis and diseases, the important roles of gut microflora in intestinal bacterial metabolism in effective ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and bioactivities, as well as the modulation effects of Chinese medicine on intestinal dysbacteriosis. In addition, it also makes a future prospect for the research strategies to study the mechanism of action of traditional Chinese medicines based on multi-omics techniques. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Liu, Pan; Cao, Ya-di; Gong, Rui-Juan; Liu, Wei
The United States Patent and Trademark Office(USPTO) issued Interim Guidance on Patent Subject Matter Eligibility on December 16， 2014， bringing certain effects to the review rules on patent application of Chinese medicine compositions. Based on the Interim Guidance， cases analysis was used in this paper to analyze the patent subject matter issues of traditional Chinese medicine compositions in the United States. The researches have shown that the application documents should be properly written in the United States when the patent for Chinese medicine compositions is applied， which can improve the probability of authorization. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wu, Meng; Hu, Jingqing; Liu, Biaoyan
Objective. To realize the current situation and problems of complex interventions’ clinical trials. Methods. Searching at Chinese Journal Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine and Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine from 2007 to 2012 by hand, we identified complex interventions’ articles, and then we used the proposed criteria of complex interventions and CONSORT FOR TCM to evaluate. Results. All data is presented as counts with percentages and details in tables. Conclusion. Our e...
Singh, Amrinder; Zhao, Kaicun
Insomnia is a condition with sleep problems and many people suffered from it. Chronic insomnia can last for long time and it will severely affect people's health and the quality of life. In conventional medicine, the most commonly used the medicine is benzodiazepine. It is effective but also has significant side effects. Patients try to use some kinds of alternative medicines. Chinese medicinal herbs and formulas have been used in the treatment of insomnia for more than 2000 years in China. In recent decades, Chinese herbal medicine has been widely used in the Western countries. Many clinical studies including randomized controlled clinical trials and research on pharmacological action mechanisms of the herbs for treatment of insomnia have been conducted. It is very important and very helpful to review the published research papers to gather the available information for a critical analysis. This chapter evaluated the data from both of clinical studies and pharmacological researches on the therapeutic formulas and on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia. Clinical studies showed a very wide spectrum of herbs that were used in clinical treatment of insomnia. This was due to different syndrome patterns happened with insomnia. This brought complexity and difficulties to identify which are the essential key herbs or formulas. It was found Suanzaoren decoction (Ziziphus spinose decoction ) is the most frequently used formula for the treatment of insomnia. Based on the clinical data, several herbs were identified as most frequently used sedative and hypnotic herbs in Chinese herbal medicine including Suanzaoren (Ziziphus spinose ), Fuling (Poria cocos ), and Gancao (Glycyrrhiza uralensis ). The underlying pharmacological action mechanisms discovered in the studies on some key herbs used in the treatment of insomnia were evaluated. The major pharmacological action mechanisms shared by most of the sedative herbs are to act through the neurotransmitter gamma
Hong, Tao; Zhang, Minghua; Fan, Junming
Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Rising ESKD prevalence has substantially increased numbers of kidney transplants performed. Maintenance immunosuppression is long-term treatment to prevent acute rejection and deterioration of graft function. Although immunosuppressive treatment using drugs such as calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs, such as cyclosporin A (CsA) or tacrolimus) reduce acute rejection rates, long-term allograft survival rates are not significantly enhanced. CNI-related adverse effects contribute to reduced quality of life among kidney transplant recipients. Adjuvant immunosuppressive therapies that could offer a synergetic immunosuppressive effect, while minimising toxicity and reducing side effects, have been explored recently. Cordyceps sinensis, (Cordyceps) a traditional Chinese medicine, is used as an adjuvant immunosuppressive agent in maintenance treatment for kidney transplantation recipients in China, but there is no consensus about its use as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplantation recipients. This review aimed to evaluate the benefits and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps as an adjuvant immunosuppressive treatment for kidney transplant recipients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator to 7 September 2015 using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched Chinese language databases and other resources. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating the benefits and potential side effects of Cordyceps sinensis for kidney transplant recipients, irrespective of blinding or publication language. An inclusion criterion was that baseline immunosuppressive therapy must be the same in all study arms. Two authors extracted data. We derived risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data and mean differences (MD) for continuous data with 95
Zhang, Xia; Xie, Yan-Ming; Li, Guang-Xi; Gao, Yang; Zhao, Yuan-Chen; Tang, Jing-Jing; Yao, Xiao-Yan; Li, Meng
This paper systematically studies relevant literatures at home and abroad in recent years. China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI) was used to collect the literatures for acute pharyngitis treated with traditional Chinese medicine from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2016, and the bibliometric method was employed for statistical analysis. A total of 493 papers were preliminarily selected. According to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, 182 eligible articles were selected. According to the evaluation and analysis of the literatures, the Guidelines for Clinical Research of New Drugs is currently used as the common standards for the diagnosis and treatment of acute pharyngitis; Chinese patent medicines are the main traditional Chinese medicine for treating this disease; Decoctions for treatment of this disease include Lonicerae Japonicae Flos, Scutellariae Radix, Platycodonis Radix, Forsythiae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Scrophdlariae Radix, Isatidis Radix, and Ophiopogonis Radix; The bloodletting puncture is the common external therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine have their own characteristics in the treatment of this disease. Western medicine for the treatment of acute pharyngitis are mainly antiviral, antibiotic and glucocorticoid drugs, whose disadvantages are toxicity, side effects, drug resistance and double infections. Traditional Chinese medicine doctors have rich experiences in the treatment of the disease, which is characterized by treatment determination based on syndrome differentiation, safe and reliable medication, significant curative effect, low drug resistance, and wide varieties of traditional Chinese medicine forms, convenient portability and taking, low price, and low toxic and side effects. It is an arduous and significant task to explore traditional Chinese medicine, and study and develop new-type effective drugs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Chan, Helen Y L; Chui, Y Y; Chan, Carmen W H; Cheng, Karis K F; Shiu, Ann T Y; So, Winnie K W; Ho, Simone S M; Chan, Maggie M F
The aim of this study was to explore the influence of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on self-care among Chinese cancer patients. This was an exploratory qualitative study. A purposive sample of thirty cancer patients who were currently undergoing either chemotherapy or radiotherapy was interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was conducted for data analysis. Two core categories were emerged from their accounts of experiences with practising TCM-supported self-care activities: perceived beneficial effects and concerns about undesirable effects. The perceived beneficial effects of these self-care activities were mainly stemmed from the traditional beliefs in TCM, which included: strengthening the "origin", removing toxins, and mind-soothing. Concerns about undesirable effects of these self-care activities were raised due to lack of knowledge and unpleasant experience with these self-care activities. The findings revealed that the philosophy of TCM had been deeply integrated by Chinese cancer patients into their self-care. While Western medicine is the mainstream cancer treatment, Chinese cancer patients also practised various TCM-supported self-care activities. However, they were perplexed about the effects of these self-care activities. They could not ascertain whether the perceived benefits were just due to their own belief in the TCM philosophy, and their lack of knowledge in this aspect and unpleasant experience further confused them. Nurses have to be proactive in identifying the unique health-deviation self-care requisites of their clients in a culturally sensitive manner, explore how their self-care experience affects their wellbeing and treatment compliance, and be prepared to clarify misconceptions about their conditions and progress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control. Based on a statistical analysis of antihypertensive foods recommended in 20 books on the application of food therapy for hypertension control, the 38 most frequently recommended are celery, tomato, banana, hawthorn, garlic, onion, seaweed, apple, corn, green beans, persimmon, laver, kiwi, watermelon, eggplant, carrots, mushroom, peanut, soy products, sea cucumber, buckwheat, garland chrysanthemum, spinach, honey, dairy products, vinegar, black fungus, jellyfish, green onion, shepherd's purse, soybean, potato, pear, winter melon, bitter melon, oat, pea, and tea. Food therapy emphasizes the therapeutic effects of food, considering its nature, taste, and function on human balanced health, which leads to optimal blood pressure control. Current literature suggests that food therapy is effective in blood pressure control and can be incorporated into blood pressure self-management in the Chinese population.
Liu, Shan; Sun, Yiyuan; Louie, Wendy
To identify symptom distress related to cancer for a group of Chinese American women in treatment, and to examine their use of various forms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their relationships to specific symptoms they identified. Cross-sectional, correlational. American Cancer Society Asian Initiatives support groups in the state of New York. 97 Chinese American women residing in New York with a mean age of 57 years; the time since diagnosis of cancer ranged from two months to 24 years. The type of diagnosis for the majority of women was breast cancer. A self-reported questionnaire including a demographic data form, a researcher-developed checklist for types of TCM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) were administered. The MSAS-SF has three subscales: global distress index, psychological symptom distress scale, and physical symptom distress scale. Symptoms, symptom distress, and types of TCM. The descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for data analysis. Chinese American women with cancer in treatment reported multiple symptoms, and the three MSAS-SF distress subscale scores indicated moderate symptom distress. Symptoms were positively associated with the use of TCM. Chinese American women in treatment for cancer reported multiple symptoms and moderate symptom distress. Participants with specific symptoms tended to use specific forms of TCM. High prevalence of psychological symptoms for Chinese American women with cancer suggests that oncology nurses should work with mental health providers for symptom management of this population. Oncology nurses also need to stay informed of the growing body of evidence on the benefits of TCM for patients with cancer. Future studies should include an emphasis on the improvement in methodologic quality for studies that investigate using TCM in participants with cancer.
Liu, Hongjie; Li, Tianhao; Zhan, Sha; Pan, Meilan; Ma, Zhiguo; Li, Chenghua
Aims. To establish a logistic regression (LR) prediction model for hepatotoxicity of Chinese herbal medicines (HMs) based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and to provide a statistical basis for predicting hepatotoxicity of HMs. Methods. The correlations of hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs with four properties, five flavors, and channel tropism were analyzed with chi-square test for two-way unordered categorical data. LR prediction model was established and the accuracy of the prediction by this model was evaluated. Results. The hepatotoxic and nonhepatotoxic Chinese HMs were related with four properties (p 0.05). There were totally 12 variables from four properties and five flavors for the LR. Four variables, warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors, were selected to establish the LR prediction model, with the cutoff value being 0.204. Conclusions. Warm and neutral of the four properties and pungent and salty of five flavors were the variables to affect the hepatotoxicity. Based on such results, the established LR prediction model had some predictive power for hepatotoxicity of Chinese HMs. PMID:27656240
Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Hong-Xia; Xu, Ying; Lin, Na
Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds, which have a similarity in structure with human endogenous estrogen 17-β-estradiol. Structural likeness enables phytoestrogens to interact with estrogen receptors, not simply mimicking the effects of human steroidal estrogen but also exhibiting similar and divergent actions. The global literature relating to phytoestrogen in recent years was systematically summarized in this paper. Chemical compositions of phytoestrogens were mainly flavonoids, coumarins, lignans, terpenoids, steroids, etc., with a character of prevention and treatment of perimenopausal syndrome, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic diseases, cancer, regulation of brain function and other pharmacological effects. The mechanisms of action mainly included classical estrogen receptor pathway, epigenetic effect, activation of 5'-adenosyl-phospho-activated protein kinase, inhibition of kinase, activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, regulation of apoptosis-related proteins, inhibition of nuclear factor κB signaling pathway and so on. According to their efficacy classification, phytoestrogens were mainly distributed in the tonifying medicines, blood-activating and stasis-resolving medicines and heat-clearing medicines. The classical prescriptions with estrogen activity included tonifying formula, Qi-regulating formula and harmonizing formula, etc. This review was aimed at providing a certain reference for the further study of phytoestrogens by researchers and clinicians. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Pang, Bing; Zhou, Qiang; Li, Jun-Ling; Zhao, Lin-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Lin
Refractory diabetic gastroparesis (DGP), a disorder that occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetics, is associated with severe symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, and results in an economic burden on the health care system. In this article, the basic characteristics of refractory DGP are reviewed, followed by a discussion of therapeutic modalities, which encompasses the definitions and clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and therapeutic efficacy evaluation of refractory DGP. The diagnostic standards assumed in this study are those set forth in the published literature due to the absence of recognized diagnosis criteria that have been assessed by an international organization. The therapeutic modalities for refractory DGP are as follows: drug therapy, nutritional support, gastric electrical stimulation, pyloric botulinum toxin injection, endoscopic or surgical therapy, and traditional Chinese treatment. The therapeutic modalities may be used alone or in combination. The use of traditional Chinese treatments is prevalent in China. The effectiveness of these therapies appears to be supported by preliminary evidence and clinical experience, although the mechanisms that underlie these effects will require further research. The purpose of this article is to explore the potential of combined Western and traditional Chinese medicine treatment methods for improved patient outcomes in refractory DGP.
Xiao, Fenglai; Yan, Bo; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Dong
In traditional Chinese medicine, botanical remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. This review aimed to summarize the botanicals that have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat epilepsy. We searched Chinese online databases to determine the botanicals used for epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine and identified articles using a preset search syntax and inclusion criteria of each botanical in the PubMed database to explore their potential mechanisms. Twenty-three botanicals were identified to treat epilepsy in traditional Chinese medicine. The pharmacological mechanisms of each botanical related to antiepileptic activity, which were mainly examined in animal models, were reviewed. We discuss the use and current trends of botanical treatments in China and highlight the limitations of botanical epilepsy treatments. A substantial number of these types of botanicals would be good candidates for the development of novel AEDs. More rigorous clinical trials of botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine for epilepsy treatment are encouraged in the future. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Botanicals for Epilepsy". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hu, Yan-Zhen; Wei, Jun-Ying; Tang, Shi-Huan; Yang, Hong-Jun
Gardeniae Fructus, which is widely used in health foods and clinical medicines, is a type of edible food and medicine. Dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions provides good materials for prescription analysis and the R&D of traditional Chinese medicines. The composition regularity of formulae containing Gardeniae Fructus in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions was analyzed on the basis of the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(TCMISS), in order to provide reference for clinical application and the R&D of new drugs. TCMISS was applied to establish a database of prescriptions containing Gardeniae Fructus. The software's frequency statistics and association rules and other date mining technologies were adopted to analyze commonly used drugs, combination rules and core combined formulae containing Gardeniae Fructus. Totally 3 523 prescriptions were included in this study and involved 1 725 Chinese herbs. With a support degree of 352(10%) and confidence coefficient of 90%, 57 most commonly used drug combinations were screened. Drugs adopted in core combinations were relatively concentrated and selected according to definite composition methods. They were used to mainly treat 18 diseases. Gardeniae Fructus have often been combined with herbs for heat-clearing and detoxification, expelling pathogenic wind, relieving exterior syndrome, invigorating the circulation of blood and gas and promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis to mainly treat jaundice, typhoid, headache and other syndromes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Hainan
To analyze reasons for disapproval of registration application of new traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and discuss potential problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China. All applications of new traditional Chinese medicines for registrations that had been disapproved by Center for Drug Evaluation of State Food Drug Administration from 2006 to 2008 were searched in data bank. Specific reasons for disapproval of each variety were inquired and sorted out. The statistics involved the proportion of each type (kind) disapproval reasons in all disapprovals in order to analyze which were the main reasons. The results were analyzed to find out potential problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China. There were totally 247 disapproved registration applications for new traditional Chinese medicines. Among them, there were 218 applications for clinical trials and 29 applications for launch in the market There were 9 categories (29 types) of reasons for the applications for clinical trials applications, mainly including such problems as R&D proposal, non-clinical effectiveness and non-clinical safety; while there were 5 categories (9 types) of reasons for the applications for launch in the market, with clinical effectiveness as the main reason. There were many kinds of reasons for the disapproval registration applications of new traditional Chinese medicines in recent years in China, mainly including such problems as effectiveness, safety and proposal basis. This reflects problems occurring in R&D and registration administration of new traditional Chinese medicines in China to some extent.
The "Heart Governing Mind" theory has been in the mainstream of visceral manifestation State Doctrine for a long time, but the "Brain Governing Mind" theory is also the traditional thought in Chinese culture. A large number of recordings about the brain in medical or non-medical books from Pre-Qin to the Qing dynasty reflected people's deeper and deeper understanding of the relation between the brain and mind. In order to provide a theoretical guidance for cerebral pathology, we should have a correct understanding of the important role of the brain in life activities, keep developing the "Brain Governing Mind" theory and understand the relationship between the brain and taiji, yinyang, wuxing, viscera, meridians and Guanqiao five apertures and nine orifices.
Wang, Houwei; Dou, Yanling; Tian, Jingzhen; Li, Feng; Wang, Shijun; Wang, Zhenguo
To research on the substantial foundation of the medical speciality of Chinese traditional medicines from immunogenicity. Control antigen with hot nature was prepared from the mixture of the aqueous extracts of three Chinese traditional medicines with three typical hot nature of Alpinia officinarum, Cinnamomum cassia and Curculigo orchioides, while that with cold nature prepared with Rheum palmatum, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, and polyclonal antibody was prepared by immunizing rabbit with control antigen. Dot blotting was performed between the polyclonal antibody of control antigen and the aqueous extracts of nine Chinese traditional medicines on a piece of PVDF membrane, and the blotting signals were analyzed by the software of Quantity One. Blotting signals with hot control antigen of nine Chinese traditional medicines in descending were Zingiber officinale, Aconitum carmichaeli, Eucommia ulmoides, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Lonicera japonica, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, Rheum palmatum and Phellodendron chinense, which degree of similarity to control antigen in peak value were 57.33%, 43.56 %, 34.16%, 30.2%, 28.81%, 26.53%, 21.68%, 17.62% and 14.85%, respectively. Blotting signals with cold control antigen were Rheum palmatum, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, Phellodendron chinense, Zingiber officinale, Lonicera japonica, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Eucommia ulmoides and Aconitum carmichaeli in descending, of which degree of similarity to cold control antigen in peak value were 55.22%, 54.23%, 46.72%, 34.08%, 30.3%, 24.48%, 24.33%, 20.35% and 15.17%, respectively. Results of cluster analysis with Wistar's method showed that nine medicines were classified into two groups, one group included Phellodendron chinense, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Coptis chinensis, Rheum palmatum, another was Zingiber officinale, Aconitum carmichaeli, Eucommia ulmoides, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Lonicera japonica. Blotting signals of nine medicines
Li, Gui-hua; Jiang, Hong-yan; Xie, Yan-ming; Jiang, Jun-jie; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wei; Zhuang, Yan; Wang, Yong-yan
In order to understand the clinical characteristics of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in real world and provide reference for clinical prevention and treatment, this study analyzed informations of patient with CHD in hospital information system. Data from 17 national hospitals were collected. Select patients with coronaryheart disease in diagnosis of the first place in 17 hospitals, general informations and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, complications, medicine were analyzed using frequency method and association rules. This study included 84 697 patients with CHD, the majority of men and in the elderly. The average age of patients was 71 years. The proportion of men to women was about 1. 45: 1. Hospital stay time ranged from 8 to 14 d. The most common total hospitalization cost distribution was 5 000-20 000 RMB. Young patients have a rising trend year by year. The death of patients increased with increasing age. Common complications were hypertension, diabetes, cerebral infarction and hyperlipidemia, 57.24 percent of the CHD patient complicated with hypertension, 21.94 percent patients complicated with diabetes. Among TCM syndrome types, Qi-Yin deficiency and qi deficiency blood stasis were the most common syndromes. Blood stasis was the highest syndrome elements, accounted for 79.97%, followed by Qi deficiency, phlegm, Yin deficiency, and so on. The most common western medicine was aspirin, followed with isosorbide dinitrate, clopidogrel. The most common used traditional Chinese medicine was danhong injection, followed by shuxuetong injection. Combined with removing blood stasis drugs has been more common at present clinical treatment, there were 43.46 percent of patients combined with anti-platelet western drug and injection of removing blood stasis.
Cheng, Long; Shen, Zhu-fang; Sun, Gui-bo; Sun, Xiao-bo
The high and continuing soaring incidence of diabetes may become a huge obstacle to China's development. The antidiabetic drug development is one way to solve the problem. Animal model is a powerful tool for drug development. This paper compares and analyzes the three kinds of animal models for antidiabetic drug development in replicating principle, methods and characteristic, then summarized the application in the research of traditional Chinese medicine. At the same time, the analysis of the market, application and clinical advantages of hypoglycemic medicine from traditional Chinese medicine, is given in this paper, based on the literature analysis. From the point of the clinic advantage embodiment and new drug development, this paper will provide advisory and assistance support for the anti-diabetic fighting with traditional Chinese medicine.
Zhu, Jiayi; Shen, Lan; Lin, Xiao; Hong, Yanlong; Feng, Yi
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disease which leads to progressive muscle atrophy and paralysis. In order to summarize the characteristics of Traditional Chinese Medicine compounds and their preparations in the prevention and treatment of ALS through analyzing the mechanism, action site, and symptoms according to effective clinical research. We searched ALS, motor neuron disease, chemical drugs, herbal medicine, Chinese medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), and various combinations of these terms in databases including the PudMed, Springer, Ovid, Google, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases. It was found that the chemical drugs almost had not sufficient evidence to show their effectiveness in the treatment of ALS, except RILUZOLE. According to the characteristics of clinical symptoms of ALS, Chinese medicine practitioners believe that this disease belongs to the category of "atrophic disease". In clinical research, many Chinese herbal formulas had good clinical efficacies in the treatment of ALS with multiple targets, multiple links, and few side effects. And four kinds of dialectical treatment had been developed based on Clinical data analysis and the use of dialectical therapy: Benefiting the kidney; Declaring the lungs; Enhancing the Qi; and Dredging the meridian. In this review, we provide an overview of chemical drugs and Traditional Chinese Medicine compound and its preparations in therapy of ALS as well as how they may contribute to the ALS pathogenesis, thereby offering some clues for further studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been widely used in cancer in China. Case series report a series of cases exposed to a certain intervention. To understand the current situation of case series of TCM for cancer, we performed this review. We included case series of cancer patients treated with TCM therapy. Electronic searches were conducted in four main Chinese databases until February 2011. A total of 1,217 reports of case series (92,945 patients were included. The top five types of cancer were lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, leukemia, and esophageal cancer. Leukopenia and hiccup treated by TCM were the most common adverse reactions after surgery or induced by chemo/radiotherapy. More than half of the patients were treated with TCM therapies alone. The application of herbal medicines especially formula based on syndrome differentiation was highly prevalent, and the typical administration route was oral usage. 1,182 reports were published in a structured format. The quantity of TCM case series for cancer treatment is substantial. Further studies should focus on the most common types of cancer and the most frequently applied TCM therapies. We presented a recommendation from the methodological point of view for the format of reporting.
Liu, Bao-Cheng; Ji, Guang
Incorporating "-omics" studies with environmental interactions could help elucidate the biological mechanisms responsible for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) patterns. Based on the authors' own experiences, this review outlines a model of an ideal combination of "-omics" biomarkers, environmental factors, and TCM pattern classifications; provides a narrative review of the relevant genetic and TCM studies; and lists several successful integrative examples. Two integration tools are briefly introduced. The first is the integration of modern devices into objective diagnostic methods of TCM patterning, which would improve current clinical decision-making and practice. The second is the use of biobanks and data platforms, which could broadly support biological and medical research. Such efforts will transform current medical management and accelerate the progression of precision medicine.
Zhang, Kun; Niu, Liang-Chen; Yuan, Fu-Jie; Liu, Shen-Peng
Traditional Chinese medicine is widely used in the treatment of fractures, osteoporosis, other bone related diseases for thousands of years. There are many animal experiments and clinical trials demonstrating that the traditional Chinese medicine such as epimedium, Drynaria and other traditional Chinese medicine can stimulate bone regeneration and inhibit bone resorption, accelerating the fracture healing. In recent years many cell experiments have shown that these herbal ingredients up-regulated the expression of intracellular osteogenic transcription factors and osteogenic related genes, and then induced osteoblastic differentiation and stimulated the proliferation of osteoblasts, bone nodule formation and matrix mineralization. Meanwhile these herbal ingredients up-regulated the expression of intracellular osteoclastic transcription factors and osteoclast related genes, inhibited osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption of osteoclasts. In addition, intracellular signaling pathways regulated these herbal ingredients by might be involved in the above effects. We can have a conclusion that the genes expression regulated by transcription factors in pre-osteoblast and pre-osteoclast and these signaling pathways are the major molecular mechanisms and research hotspots of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting fracture healing. Based on these molecular mechanisms to review, this review provides not only the foundation for the study of traditional Chinese medicine in promoting fracture healing, but also the basis for clinical treatment of fracture. Copyright© 2017 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.
Du, Li-Dong; Tian, Jin-Hui; Wu, Guo-Tai; Niu, Ting-Hui; Chen, Zhen-He; Ren, Yuan
The methods of literature metrology and data mining were used to study the research topics and social network analysis of traditional Chinese medicine for constipation. The major Chinese databases were searched to include the research studies of traditional Chinese medicine for constipation. BICOMS analysis software was used to extract and collect the main information and produce co-occurrence Matrix; gCLUTO software was used for cluster analysis. Data analysis was conducted by using SPSS 19.0 software. The results showed that the number of studies on traditional Chinese medicine for constipation was constantly increased, with two literature volume peaks respectively in 2003 and 2006. Related studies have been published in 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities have published, but the studies in developed areas were more than those in developing areas. There was little cooperation between research institutions and the authors, especially the cooperation between different areas. At present, the research field of Chinese medicine for constipation is divided into five research topics. In terms of specific traditional Chinese medicine, angelica sinensis is in the core position. The results showed regional imbalance in the number of studies on Chinese medicine treatment for constipation, as well as little cooperation between researchers and research institutions. The research topics mainly focused on the evaluation of clinical efficacy, but the research on optimizing the prescriptions was still not enough, so the future researchers shall pay more attention to the studies of constipation prescriptions with Angelica sinensis as the core herb. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Objective To find an effective study method to master the nursing procedures of acupoints that will be applied in the clinical nursing work. Methods Based on the Chinese medicine hospital of traditional Chinese medicine nursing guidelines (trial version published by the bureau of traditional Chinese medicine and given full expression to the advantages of the Traditional Chinese Medicine, acupoints map was improved and was applied in clinical work in August 2011 in our hospital. The nursing operation workload and learning effect in the continuity two years were compared by retrospective investigation combined with questionnaire survey. Results 1, The operation workload increases obviously and the overall growth rate in five work targets is 88.66%, after improving acupoints map of TCM nursing. 2, There are significant differences (P < 0.001 on learning interest, learning degree, memory speed, knowledge of diseas, method of operation and clinical application in our comparison.Conclusion The improved acupoints map can inspire the learning interest of the nursing stuff, help them to master common nursing acupoints of traditional Chinese medicine quickly and apply it to clinical disease. There are good social and economic benefits of this method, so it is worth promoting.
Zhou, Xian-Ying; Zhou, Li; Sun, Zu-Yue
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder, which is characterized by hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance and chronic anovulation, and has become a serious threat to the health of adolescents and women of childbearing age.At present,lowering androgen, improving insulin resistance and inducing ovulation are the main methods adopted by doctors to treat the disease, but the adverse reactions of the western medicine and the long-term treatment are hard to be accepted by the patients. PCOS treated by traditional Chinese medicine has achieved a certain effect in recent years.Traditional Chinese medicine is relatively safe and has more effect in many links and targets in improving the symptom of endocrine and metabolic disorder in patients with PCOS. This paper expounds the traditional Chinese medicine pathogenesis of PCOS through clinical and experimental aspects of the literature research：correcting endocrine hormone disorder,the effects of the expression of gene and regulatory factors,improving insulin resistance,correcting lipid metabolic disorder,improving the pregnancy outcome and improving ovarian morphology to summarize the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine in PCOS research results in recent years. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Lin, Jing; Chen, Lanting; Qiu, Xuemin; Zhang, Na; Guo, Qiting; Wang, Yan; Wang, Mingyan; Gober, Hans-Jürgen; Li, Dajin; Wang, Ling
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common and generally harmless, but persistent infections can bring health problems like cancer and genital warts. For the uninfected group, HPV vaccines provide safe and effective protection, but they're type-restricted and expensive. For those infected, so far there have been a handful of treatments for HPV-associated benign or malignant diseases, traditional Chinese medicine being one of them. This systematic review focuses on the application of traditional Chinese medicine in HPV infection and related diseases on the basis of clinical findings. Moreover it covers compositions and mechanisms based on in vitro laboratory methods and animal models. Traditional Chinese medicine improves clinical index in the treatment of cervical cancer and genital warts; the mechanisms behind the effectiveness might be the regulation of cell apoptosis, viral gene transcription and translation, cell signal transduction pathways, and immune function.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCHMs were tested for their ability of antiquorum sensing. Water extracts of Rhubarb, Fructus gardeniae, and Andrographis paniculata show antiquorumsensing activity when using Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472 as reporter; the sub-MIC concentrations of these TCHMs were tested against AHL-dependent phenotypic expressions of PAO1. Results showed significant reduction in pyocyanin pigment, protease, elastase production, and biofilm formation in PAO1 without inhibiting the bacterial growth, revealing that the QSI by the extracts is not related to static or killing effects on the bacteria. The results indicate a potential modulation of bacterial cell-cell communication, P. aeruginosa biofilm, and virulence factors by traditional Chinese herbal medicine. This study introduces not only a new mode of action for traditional Chinese herbal medicines, but also a potential new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections, which have QSI activity and might be important in reducing virulence and pathogenicity of pathogenic bacteria.
Tang, Lilin; Zhang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Chen, Zilin
A capillary-electrophoresis-based method for the screening of tyrosinase inhibitors in traditional Chinese medicines was developed. The method integrated electrophoretically mediated microanalysis with sandwich mode injection, partial filling, and rapid polarity switching techniques, and carried out on-column enzyme reaction and the separation of substrate and product. The conditions were optimized including the background electrolyte, mixing voltage, and the incubation time. Finally, the screening of nine standard natural compounds of traditional Chinese medicines was carried out. The inhibitors can be directly identified from the reduced peak area of the product compared to that obtained without any inhibitor. Chlorogenic acid (100 μM) showed inhibitory activity with the inhibitory percentage of 19.8%, while the other compounds showed no inhibitory activity. This method has great application potential in drug discovery from traditional Chinese medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Li, Zheng; Chen, Kai; Guo, Meng-zhe; Tang, Dao-quan
Two-dimensional liquid chromatography has become an attractive analytical tool for the separation of complex samples due to its enhanced selectivity, peak capacity, and resolution compared with one-dimensional liquid chromatography. Recently, more attention has been drawn on the application of this separation technique in studies concerning traditional Chinese medicines, metabonomes, proteomes, and other complex mixtures. In this review, we aim to examine the application of two-dimensional liquid chromatography in traditional Chinese medicine analysis and metabonomic investigation. The classification and evaluation indexes were first introduced. Then, various switching methods were summarized when used in an on-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography system. Finally, the applications of this separation technique in traditional Chinese medicine analysis and metabonomic investigation were discussed on the basis of specific studies. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Wei, Zhenzhen; Fang, Xiaoyan; Miao, Mingsan
With the rapid increase of cancer patients, chemotherapy is the main method for the clinical treatment of cancer, but also in the treatment of the adverse reactions--bone marrow suppression is often a serious infection caused by patients after chemotherapy and the important cause of mortality. Chinese medicine has obvious advantages in the prevention and treatment of bone marrow depression after chemotherapy. According to tumor bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy of etiology and pathogenesis of traditional Chinese medicine and China national knowledge internet nearly 10 years of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and control of the status of clinical and laboratory research of tumor bone marrow suppression, the author analyzed and summarized its characteristics, so as to provide the basis for treating bone marrow suppression of drug research and development, and promote small adverse reactions of the development and utilization of natural medicine and its preparations.
Ren, Jun-Guo; Wang, Dong-Zhi; Lei, Lei; Kang, Li; Liu, Jian-Xun
To find the relationship between traditional efficacy of Chinese medicine and modern pharmacological action by using data mining, and provide information and reference for further research and development for the pharmacology research of traditional Chinese medicine.The information of 547 kinds of traditional Chinese medicines, 335 kinds of Chinese medicine effects and 86 kinds of pharmacological actions were collected and processed in Clinical Guide to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia published in 2010; Access and Excel software were used to analyze the frequence and frequency of single effect, pharmacological action, and both. In addition, the relationship between efficacy and pharmacology was analyzed with the clearing heat and antibacterial effects as the example. The analysis results showed that 547 kinds of Chinese medicines involved 335 kinds of Chinese medicine effects and 86 kinds of pharmacological actions. Among them, the most frequent Chinese medicine effect was"clearing heat", whose frequence was 130 and the frequency was 0.24; the most frequent pharmacological action was "anti-inflammatory action" whose frequence was 191 and the frequency was 0.35. The most common efficacy-pharmacological action group was "clearing heat" and "anti-bacterial action", whose frequence was 75 and the frequency was 0.26. The couple of "purgation" and "cathartic effect" had the largest frequency of 0.30, but they just appeared together for 3 times. There were 52 kinds of pharmacological actions that occurred together with clearing heat, of which, the top 10 were anti-bacterial action, anti-inflammatory action, antineoplastic action, anti-hepatic injury action, immunoregulation action, antipyretic action, antiviralaction, hypoglycemic action, antioxidant action and analgesic action. There were 161 kinds of Chinese medicine effects that occurred together with anti-bacterial action, of which, the top 10 were clearing heat, detoxification, detumescence, analgesia, resolving dampness
Chen, Kuan Chen; Lu, Richard; Iqbal, Usman; Hsu, Ko-Ching; Chen, Bi-Li; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Huang, Chih-Wei; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan; Tsai, Shin-Han
Drug-drug interactions have long been an active research area in clinical medicine. In Taiwan, however, the widespread use of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) presents additional complexity to the topic. Therefore, it is important to see the interaction between traditional Chinese and western medicine. (1) To create a comprehensive database of multi-herb/western drug interactions indexed according to the ways in which physicians actually practice and (2) to measure this database's impact on the detection of adverse effects between traditional Chinese medicine compounds and western medicines. First, a multi-herb/western medicine drug interactions database was created by separating each TCM compound into its constituent herbs. Each individual herb was then checked against an existing single-herb/western drug interactions database. The data source comes from the National Health Insurance research database, which spans the years 1998-2011. This study estimated the interaction prevalence rate and further separated the rates according to patient characteristics, distribution by county, and hospital accreditation levels. Finally, this new database was integrated into a computer order entry module of the electronic medical records system of a regional teaching hospital. The effects it had were measured for two months. The most commonly interacting Chinese herbs were Ephedrae Herba and Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. Ephedrae Herba contains active ingredients similar to in ephedrine. 15 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contain Ephedrae Herba. Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Angelicae Dahuricae Radix contain ingredients similar to coumarin, a blood thinner. 9 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine compounds contained Angelicae Sinensis Radix/Angelicae Dahuricae Radix. In the period from 1998 to 2011, the prevalence of herb-drug interactions related to Ephedrae Herba was 0.18%. The most commonly prescribed traditional Chinese compounds were
Zhao, Yan; Qu, Hui-Hua; Wang, Qing-Guo
Study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines is one of the key issues for the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine. Having introduced the monoclonal antibody technology into the study on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines, the author prepared the immunoaffinity chromatography column by using monoclonal antibodies in active components of traditional Chinese medicines, so as to selectively knock out the component from herbs or traditional Chinese medicine compounds, while preserving all of the other components and keeping their amount and ratio unchanged. A comparative study on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was made to explicitly reveal the correlation between the component and the main purpose of traditional Chinese medicines and compounds. The analysis on pharmacodynamic material basis of traditional Chinese medicines by using specific knockout technology with monoclonal antibodies is a new method for study pharmacodynamic material basis in line with the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicines. Its results can not only help study material basis from a new perspective, but also help find the modern scientific significance in single herb or among compounds of traditional Chinese medicines.
Pharmacokinetics study is one of main components of pharmaceuticals development. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Veregen as the first botanical drug in 2006. This article introduced FDA's requirement on pharmacokinetics study of botanical drug and pharmacokinetics studies of Veregen, summarized current requirement and status quo of pharmacokinetics study on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and natural medicine in China, and discussed about pharmacokinetics study strategy for TCM and natural medicine.
Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Wang, Hui; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Li, Meng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi
Based on the data collected by the census team in the national census information management system, the spatial autocorrelation analysis method was used to analyze the similarity of the richness of Chinese herbal medicine resources in the investigated counties. The results showed that the species richness in the investigated counties appeared a tendency to focus on the distribution of the characteristics. Among them, the areas with sparse resources are concentrated in most areas of the north of the Yangtze River, northwest and most areas of Tibet. The areas with abundant resources are concentrated in the areas south of the Yangtze River. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. The results showed that there were significant differences in the abundance of traditional Chinese medicine resources between regions. Due to the large differences in the land area between the county and the richness of the types of traditional Chinese medicine resources, it is proposed to increase the land area of the traditional Chinese medicine resource census when allocating the fourth national census of Chinese medicine resources by the "factor method", and the richness of traditional Chinese medicine and other indicators, in order to give full play to the efficiency of transfer payment system. Based on the county area and the rich variety of traditional Chinese medicine resources, combined with the national drug resources census pilot work carried out, it is recommended to focus on attention and support in the national medicine resources census work, personnel team, funding, summary of results on the western and southern provinces. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wang, Hong-Jin; Li, Jing-Jing; Ke, Hui; Xu, Xiao-Yu
Since the discovery of neural stem cells(NSCs) in embryonic and adult mammalian central nervous systems, new approaches for proliferation and differentiation of NSCs have been put forward. One of the approaches to promote the clinical application of NSCs is to search effective methods to regulate the proliferation and differentiation. This problem is urgently to be solved in the medical field. Previous studies have shown that traditional Chinese medicine could promote the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs by regulating the relevant signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Domestic and foreign literatures for regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in recent 10 years and the reports for their target and signaling pathways were analyzed in this paper. Traditional Chinese medicine could regulate the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs through signaling pathways of Notch, PI3K/Akt, Wnt/β-catenin and GFs. However, studies about NSCs and traditional Chinese medicine should be further deepened; the mechanism of multiple targets and the comprehensive regulation function of traditional Chinese medicine should be clarified. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Eisenhardt, Sarah; Fleckenstein, Johannes
Climacteric syndrome refers to recurring symptoms such as hot flashes, chills, headache, irritability and depression. This is usually experienced by menopausal women and can be related to a hormonal reorganization in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, originating 1000s of years ago, above-mentioned symptoms can be interpreted on the basis of the philosophic diagnostic concepts, such as the imbalance of Yin and Yang, the Zang-Fu and Basic substances (e.g. Qi, Blood and Essence). These concepts postulate balance and harmonization as the principle aim of a treatment. In this context, it is not astounding that one of the most prominent ancient textbooks dating back to 500-200 BC, Huang di Neijing: The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine gives already first instructions for diagnosis and therapy of climacteric symptoms. For therapy, traditional Chinese medicine comprises five treatment principles: Chinese herbal medicine, TuiNa (a Chinese form of manual therapy), nutrition, activity (e.g. QiGong) and acupuncture (being the most widespread form of treatment used in Europe). This review provides an easy access to the concepts of traditional Chinese medicine particularly regarding to climacteric syndrome and also focuses on current scientific evidence.
Lin, Annie Xianghong; Chan, Ging; Hu, Yuanjia; Ouyang, Defang; Ung, Carolina Oi Lam; Shi, Luwen; Hu, Hao
Through reviewing the current international market for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), this paper identified the internationalization challenges for TCM, including unclear therapeutic material basis and mechanism, difficulty of quality control, low preparation level, registration/policy barriers, and shortage of intellectual property. To deal with these challenges, suggestions were given including: (1) product innovation of TCM (study the TCM by using the methods and means of western medicine; innovate the basic theory of TCM; develop TCM health product); (2) standard innovation of TCM; (3) building big data platform of Chinese medicine (big data platform of TCM preparation; big data platform on the quality of TCM).
Zhang, Peng; Li, Xi-Wen; Dong, Lin-Lin; Chen, Shi-Lin
The issues including excessive pesticide residues and heavy metal contamination have become the bottle-neck in the development of Chinese herbal medicines. Compared with traditional chemical pesticides, biological pesticides, especially botanical pesticides, are more safe and environment-friendly, which were beneficial to the quality improvement Chinese medicinal materials. Though there exists a weak basic research and it is hard for promotion and regulation, the policy of good and the desire for botanical pesticides will accelerate its development, and replace traditional chemical pesticides gradually. This paper reviews the current situation of botanical pesticides, and gives some pertinence suggestions according to the existing problems and challenges. Research on botanical pesticides will become the key point to solve the problem of excessive pesticides residues and heavy metal contamination, and promote the healthy development of Chinese materia medica. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Kim, Hyunah; Hughes, Peter J; Hawes, Emily M
This study was performed to review studies carried out in Korea reporting toxic reactions to traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) as a result of heavy metal contamination. PubMed (1966-August 2013) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1965-August 2013) were searched using the medical subject heading terms of "Medicine, Chinese Traditional," "Medicine, Korean Traditional," "Medicine, Traditional," "Metals, Heavy," and "Drug Contamination". For Korean literature, Korea Med (http://www.koreamed.org), the Korean Medical Database (http://kmbase.medric.or.kr), National Discovery for Science Leaders (www.ndsl.kr), Research Information Sharing Service (http://www.riss.kr), and Google Scholar were searched using the terms "Chinese medicine," "Korean medicine," "herbal medicine," and "metallic contamination" in Korean. Bibliographies of case reports and case series, identified using secondary resources, were also utilized. Only literature describing cases or studies performed in Korea were included. Case reports identified clear issues with heavy metal, particularly lead, contamination of TCMs utilized in Korea. No international standardization guidelines for processing, manufacturing and marketing of herbal products exist. Unacceptably high levels of toxic metals can be present in TCM preparations. Health care providers and patients should be educated on the potential risks associated with TCMs. International advocacy for stricter standardization procedures for production of TCMs is warranted.
Conroy, Shelley F; Taggart, Helen M
Study abroad programs have increased dramatically. Most programs are short-term and include a cultural immersion as well as classroom and/or service learning. In this article, the authors discuss a study abroad program to China that included cultural immersion and classroom learning specific to traditional Chinese medicine. Participants kept journals with specific writing assignments and reflections about their experiences during the trip. At the conclusion of the trip, a qualitative survey was administered to the participants. Outcomes included the benefits of cultural immersion and a greater appreciation of cultural diversity, complementary and alternative medicine and holistic health care. Participants were able to describe transformational experiences of living in and learning from the Chinese culture and peoples. They intended to incorporate their experiences and enhanced understanding of traditional Chinese medicine and complementary and alternative therapies to provide culturally competent holistic health care in their nursing practice. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jamal, Salma; Scaria, Vinod
Background. Traditional Chinese medicine encompasses a well established alternate system of medicine based on a broad range of herbal formulations and is practiced extensively in the region for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases. In recent years, several reports describe in depth studies of the molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines on the biological activities including anti-bacterial activities. The availability of a well-curated dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines and accurate in-silico cheminformatics models for data mining for antitubercular agents and computational filters to prioritize molecules has prompted us to search for potential hits from these datasets. Results. We used a consensus approach to predict molecules with potential antitubercular activities from a large dataset of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines available in the public domain. We further prioritized 160 molecules based on five computational filters (SMARTSfilter) so as to avoid potentially undesirable molecules. We further examined the molecules for permeability across Mycobacterial cell wall and for potential activities against non-replicating and drug tolerant Mycobacteria. Additional in-depth literature surveys for the reported antitubercular activities of the molecular ingredients and their sources were considered for drawing support to prioritization. Conclusions. Our analysis suggests that datasets of molecular ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines offer a new opportunity to mine for potential biological activities. In this report, we suggest a proof-of-concept methodology to prioritize molecules for further experimental assays using a variety of computational tools. We also additionally suggest that a subset of prioritized molecules could be used for evaluation for tuberculosis due to their additional effect against non-replicating tuberculosis as well as the additional hepato-protection offered by
Brand, E Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen
Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes ("seeds") as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ 9 -THC are investigated.
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases for thousands of years in China. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is a relatively new technique offering new possibilities in liquid chromatography. This paper reviews recen...
Kennedy, S.; Jin, X.; Yu, H.; Zhong, S.; Magill, P.; Vliet, T. van; Kistemaker, C.; Voors, C.; Pasman, W.
A proof-of-concept study to assess the safety and efficacy of a traditional Chinese medicine formula as treatment for primary dysmenorrhea showed no statistically significant benefit over placebo. However, some efficacy parameters suggested possible superiority of the active treatment and so a
Li, Yong-an; Li, Jing-yun
The famous American translation theorist Eugene A. Nida has put forward lots of viewpoints and theories for translation work when he translated the Bible, which have important practical instructional meaning for translation of traditional Chinese medicine nowadays. The application of Nida's theories to translating practice of TCM is illustrated by specific examples in this paper.
Effects of traditional Chinese medicine on rats with Type II diabetes induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin: A urine metabonomic study. H Zhao, Z Li, G Tian, K Gao, Li Zhiyong, B Zhao, J Wang, L Luo, Q Pan, W Zhang, Z Wu, J Chen, W Wang ...
Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule(WWKG) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation for the treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). We examined the pathologic change and the effects of Wei-Wei-Kang-Granule (WWKG) on the expression of EGFR (epiderminal growth factor receptors) and NF-kB (nuclear transcription ...
Li, Bei; Chen, Xiang-dong
In the situation of global completion, collaborative innovation is becoming increasingly important because its advantage in risk avoiding and innovation efficiency. In order to explore the model of collaborative innovation and its evolution in traditional Chinese medicine of China, the cooperation in traditional Chinese medicine patents of China from 1985 to 2013 has been analyzed by using the method of scientometrics and social network analysis. It is proved that, though the number of grated cooperative patents has increased sharply during the last thirty years, the degree of cooperation innovation in traditional Chinese medicine of China is still not high. Moreover, in spite of the individual subject' s leading role in the past domestic collaborative innovation in traditional Chinese medicine of China, the institutions have been more and more powerful and achieved great improvement. At last, core institutions, represented by universities have played an important role in the collaborative innovation of domestic institutions, because they are key links between many institutions and promote the transferring and diffusion of knowledge.
Lee, Tiffany M. Y.; Guo, Li-guo; Shi, Hong-zhi; Li, Yong-zhi; Luo, Yue-jia; Sung, Connie Y. Y.; Chan, Chetwyn C. H.; Lee, Tatia M. C.
This fMRI study examined the neural correlates of the observed improvement in advantageous risk-taking behavior, as measured by the number of adjusted pumps in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), following a 60-day course of a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) recipe, specifically designed to regulate impulsiveness in order to modulate…
Full Text Available Globalization of traditional Chinese medicines started around 1996, which was initiated by the Chinese government. However, substantial progress was only achieved in recent years including the adoption of TCM quality monographs in the western pharmacopoeias (United States Pharmacopoeia and European Pharmacopoeia and registration in main stream drug regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA and European Medicines Agency (EMA. So far, several TCM herbal quality monographs were adopted by the United States Pharmacopoeia including Chinese Salvia, Ganoderma lucidum and Panax notoginseng, etc. Over 45 TCM quality monographs were recorded in the European Pharmacopoeia with 20 more in progress. After the successful registration of the first TCM product named Diao Xin Xue Kang as traditional medicine via the Medicines Evaluation Board of the Netherlands, several other TCM herbal products are in the registration process in several European member states. So far, there has been still not any TCM product authorized as a drug by the FDA regardless of a few TCM products in phase III or phase II clinical trials. This review summarizes the progress made in the globalization of traditional Chinese medicines in recent years and future issues in this regard.
Full Text Available The usage amount of medicinal plant rapidly increased along with the development of traditional Chinese medicine industry. The higher market demand and the shortage of wild herbal resources enforce us to carry out large-scale introduction and cultivation. Herbal cultivation can ease current contradiction between medicinal resources supply and demand while they bring new problems such as pesticide residues and plant disease and pests. Researchers have recently placed high hopes on the application of natural fostering, a new method incorporated herbal production and diversity protecting practically, which can solve the problems brought by artificial cultivation. However no modes can solve all problems existing in current herbal production. This study evaluated different production modes including cultivation, natural fostering, and wild collection to guide the traditional Chinese medicine production for sustainable utilization of herbal resources.
Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin
The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing.
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the evidence-based literature supporting the use of traditional Chinese medicine Kampo herbal and Acupuncture in stone disease management. Materials and Methods: Four of the most commonly used herbal components of Kampo medicine in the treatment of stone disease are described according to their in vitro and in vivo effects. We also reviewed the role of Acupuncture in urologic clinical setting as well as its proposed mechanisms of action and results. Medline database was assessed using isolated and conjugated key words (Chinese Medicine, Kampo, Chinese Herbal, Calculi, Stone Disease, Kidney, Acupuncture, Herbal Medicine. Articles were reviewed and summarized. Results: Herbal medicine has been proven to be free from side-effects and therefore suitable for long term use therapy. Its antilithic beneficial effects include increased urinary volume, increased magnesium excretion (Takusya, inhibitory activity on calcium oxalate aggregation (Takusya, Wulingsan and Desmodyum styracyfolium, inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation and hydroxyapatite internalization (Wulingsan. In contrast, acupuncture, has shown to be effective as a pre-treatment anxiolytic and analgesic during colic pain and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy treatment, reducing the need for complementary sedative drugs. Conclusion: Chinese traditional medicine is promising as regards its role in stone prevention. An effort must be made in order to standardize study protocols to better assess acupuncture results since each procedure differs in regards to selected acupoints, electrostimulation technique and adjunct anesthetics. Similarly, standardization of Kampo formulations and acceptable clinical endpoints (imaging vs. symptomatic events is needed.
Xu, Jian; Peng, Qinghua
Current management of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) includes an attempt at slowing down the degenerative process through therapies that use either Western or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Novel therapies in Western medicine (WM) include use of tailor-made gene therapy, transplantation of stem cells, or neuroprotection treatment. TCM treatment includes two major approaches. These are orally applied herbal decoctions and acupuncture. In fact, all TCM treatments are based on the differentiation of a symptom-complex, which is the characteristic essence of TCM. Thus, diagnosed RP may be treated via the liver, the kidney, and the spleen. The principle behind these treatments is to invigorate the blood and brighten the eyes by toning up the liver and the kidney. Also treatments to cope with deficiencies in the two concepts that are unique and fundamental to TCM are considered: Qi or "vital energy" and Yin and Yang or the harmony of all the opposite elements and forces that make up existence. In particular, the Qi deficiency that results from blood stasis is addressed in these treatments. This paper also puts forward the existing problems and the prospect of the future development on integrating TCM with WM.
Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Ren
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a common mechanism for some heart disease like cardiac X syndrome and no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI). With the development of medical imageology, CMD has received increased attention. Animal model of CMD is indispensable tool for the research of pathogenesis and treatment evaluation, therefor choose an appropriate animal model is the first issue to carry out CMD research. Experimental and clinical studies have shown unique effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in CMD therapy. Clarifying of the TCM therapeutic effect mechanisms and seeking an optimal solution of combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine will be the focus of future research. This paper reviewed the establishment and evaluation of CMD animal model, as well as the intervention study of TCM on CMD. The article aims to provide reference for the basic research of CMD and the TCM experimental study on CMD. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Sun Lizhe; Liu Hui; He Zhao; Wei Feng; Ma Xuanpeng
Objective: To observe the curative effect of interventional recanalization combined with chinese traditional medicine in treatment of fallopian tube obstruction. Methods: There were 200 cases in treatment group and 120 cases in control group. In the treatment group patients were given chinese herbal medicine after the intervention. In sixth month a follow up imaging was performed assessing the patency. The follow up also included the pregnancy rate 1 year later. Results: The patency rate was 83% in treatment group, and 81.5% in control group (P>0.05). Re-conjunction rate was 7.6% in the study group and 22% in control group (P<0.01). The pregnancy rate was 67% in study group and 42% in control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: With interventional recanalization combined with chinese traditional medicine, good curative effect obtained in treatment of fallopian tube obstructive infertility. Combined with Chinese traditional medicine, the post-procedure re-conjunction rate is decreased, especially in the case of short fallopian tube obstruction
Gu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
Medicinal properties are the basic attribute of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), while the medicinal property theory is the core theoretical foundation of TCM formula combination. In this particle, authors studied the characteristics of pharmacological effects of property combination of traditional Chinese medicines distributing along meridians, with the aim to introduce the medicinal property combination regularity into the design and optimization process of compound TCMs, and bring the medicinal property theory into full play in guiding the formula combination. In this paper, TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" was taken for example. The medicinal property combinations of TCMs distributing along "the lung meridian" recorded in Pharmacopeia (2010) was collected and processed. Besides, Chinese journal full-text database (CNKI) was used to collect all of pharmacological study literatures concerning the above TCMs that have been published since 1980. The pharmacological information was also supplemented by reference to Science of Chinese Materia Medica and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica. TCMs distributing along the lung meridian with different properties and tastes showed significant differences in pharmacological effects. For example, mild-sweet-lung medicines could lower blood sugar levels, decrease anoxia and enhance immunity; Mild-bitter-lung medicines showed anti-bacterial, anti-hypertension, anti-oxidation effects; Hot-sweet-lung medicines showed antibechic and anti-bacterial effects. And Hot-bitter-lung medicines showed phlegm eliminating and anti-inflammatory effects. Meanwhile, TCMs distributing along the lung meridian had similar pharmacological characteristics, such as anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects, which is consistent with lung's feature in susceptibility to exogenous pathogenic factors. In this study, authors discovered pharmacological characteristics of different TCMs distributing along the lung meridian, which
ZH Zuo, TY Zhang, J Chu, Q Zhang, YX Guo, ZQ Shen and C He
Full Text Available Reproductive diseases have been a great threat in large animal herds. Before induction of western medicines, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM that is based on the use of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage and other forms of therapy has been practiced in China for thousands of years. The foundational text of Chinese medicine dated back to 5th century to 3rd century BCE, humans in China began developing the TCM therapy by maintaining normal homeostasis and body functions. Traditional Chinese medicine prophylaxis is a very different strategy from that of the western medicine, targeting the balance of the diseased animals as compared to the single lesion. Traditional Chinese medicine was also applied to cure ruminant’s reproductive disorders such as infertility, abortion and retained placenta. With the increasing concerns of the antibiotic resistance and drug abuse happened, TCM has acquired re-recognition as compared to western medicines due to eco-friendly consumer-driven developments and less residue in food chains. More importantly, a growing number of active substances or extracts with the reliable efficacy are being identified, meanwhile, the quality control measures are satisfied in the large-scale production already. However, few TCM is recognized to be used internationally as the popular human medication. Even less TCM is prescribed legally to animal industry due to poor understanding TCM philosophy and lack of the right guidelines of the registration. This summary aims to elucidate the TCM application in the treatment of the reproductive disorder in large animals and offer alternative strategies for prophylaxis.
Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin
Plant endophytes are very numerous and widely distributed in nature, their relationships being described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism during a long period of coevolution. Traditional Chinese medicines have played a very important role in disease treatment in China and other Asian countries. Investigations show that these medicinal plants harbor endophytes with different kinds of ecological functions, and some of them have potential to produce bioactive small-molecule compounds. This chapter will focus on the selective isolation methods, the diversity of some endophytes (actinobacteria and fungi) isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plants, and the bioactive compounds from selected endophytic actinobacteria reported in the past 3 years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schnell, James A.
Cross-cultural communication between China and the West, instigated in 1979 by the establishment of an open-door policy in China, has led to the merging of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) with the medical practices of the West. The result of these medical exchanges is a blending of medical practices that proves to be more effective in the…
Chemometrics is a new branch of chemistry which is widely applied to various fields of analytical chemistry. Chemometrics can use theories and methods of mathematics, statistics, computer science and other related disciplines to optimize the chemical measurement process and maximize access to acquire chemical information and other information on material systems by analyzing chemical measurement data. In recent years, traditional Chinese medicine has attracted widespread attention. In the research of traditional Chinese medicine, it has been a key problem that how to interpret the relationship between various chemical components and its efficacy, which seriously restricts the modernization of Chinese medicine. As chemometrics brings the multivariate analysis methods into the chemical research, it has been applied as an effective research tool in the composition-activity relationship research of Chinese medicine. This article reviews the applications of chemometrics methods in the composition-activity relationship research in recent years. The applications of multivariate statistical analysis methods (such as regression analysis, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, etc. ) and artificial neural network (such as back propagation artificial neural network, radical basis function neural network, support vector machine, etc. ) are summarized, including the brief fundamental principles, the research contents and the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, the existing main problems and prospects of its future researches are proposed.
Zhang, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Yan-Ping; Lin, Li-Kai; Shang, Hong-Cai; Wang, Yong-Yan
As an important representative of modern Chinese medicine, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injzection has become an indispensable part of the Chinese medicine industry. However, its development is now restricted by the bottleneck of insufficient core competitiveness, low-level research and production, even injection quality and the safe use are not guaranteed. Thus, it is urgent to reevaluate post-marketing TCM injection generally and to make secondary development. Under current circumstances, taking major brands which have good clinical and market foundation, as well as research value, as the main subject of cultivation and evaluation is an important approach to innovative development of TCM injection industry. Unlike oral proprietary Chinese medicine, the cultivatation of major brands of TCM injection needs higher technical support, quality standards and more timely feedback. Therefore, a post-market integral evaluation system adaptive to TCM injection is required. This article discussed some key points on the construction of a post-market integral evaluation system of TCM injection in three levels： optimizing evaluation methods, building synergistic innovation platforms which combine the medical research institutions and pharmaceutical enterprises, and finally constructing the integral evaluation system. A "five to one" structure has been proposed to enhance TCM injection effectiveness, safety and adaptability on the whole, which are from the following aspects： mechanism research, clinical evidence validation, literature information mining, sustainable development of resources and industrialization operation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Dong, XinQi; Bergren, Stephanie M; Chang, E-Shien
Chinese people have practiced traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for thousands of years, but there is a paucity of research regarding TCM use in Chinese older adult immigrants in the United States. This study aims to provide an overall estimate of TCM use for Chinese older adults in the United States and to examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics, health measures, and TCM use. Data were collected through the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago, a community-based participant research study that surveyed 3,158 Chinese older adults aged 60 and older. TCM use was measured using an eight-item scale that examined eight kinds of TCM. Seventy-six percent of participants reported any use of TCM within the past year. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, health status was associated with greater use of acupuncture (odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.68) and massage therapy (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.21-1.93), and quality of life was associated with less use of prescribed herbal products (OR 0.69, 95% CI = 0.55-0.87), tai chi (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.50-0.78), and other traditional medicine (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.40-0.56). These findings call for further investigation of TCM use by Chinese older adults, especially those with poor health and those with better quality of life. In the clinical setting, physicians should have awareness of TCM when treating Chinese older adults and look toward possible integration with Western medicine for more culturally appropriate, patient-centered care. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.
Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun
This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as “much greater than” and “within the same order of magnitude”. Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment. - Highlights: • Clearer evaluation criterion instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN 13751. • Accuracy satisfied. • Large sample size provides outstanding representativeness. • Systematical evaluation on PSL method
Ma, Lin-Lin; Ge, Miao; Wang, Hui-Qiang; Yin, Jin-Qiu; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Li, Yu-Huan
Influenza is still a serious threat to human health with significant morbidity and mortality. The emergence of drug-resistant influenza viruses poses a great challenge to existing antiviral drugs. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) may be an alternative to overcome the challenge. Here, 10 oral proprietary Chinese medicines were selected to evaluate their anti-influenza activities. These drugs exhibit potent inhibitory effects against influenza A H1N1, influenza A H3N2, and influenza B virus. Importantly, they demonstrate potent antiviral activities against drug-resistant strains. In the study of mechanisms, we found that Xiaoqinglong mixture could increase antiviral interferon production by activating p38 MAPK, JNK/SAPK pathway, and relative nuclear transcription factors. Lastly, our studies also indicate that some of these medicines show inhibitory activities against EV71 and CVB strains. In conclusion, the 10 traditional Chinese medicines, as kind of compound combination medicines, show broad-spectrum antiviral activities, possibly also including inhibitory activities against strains resistant to available antiviral drugs.
Han, Qi; Li, Hong-Hai; Fan, Cui-Ping; Liu, Chun; Liang, Yong-Lin
Nausea is special in the symptoms, and is different from hiccups and vomiting. The main symptom is that the patients throw up the indigested food from the stomach regularly--if the patients have a dinner, they will throw out it in the next morning, or if the patients have a breakfast, they will throw out it at night. Nausea is common in clinic, and different physicians may use different treatment methods for it. This disease also cannot be treated efficiently and may happen repeatedly with the western medicine. In this study, the composition principles of prescriptions in past traditional Chinese medicine for nausea were analyzed and summarized by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(V2.5), hoping to provide guidance for clinical drug use and summarize the basic rules for treatment of nausea.The prescriptions for nausea in "the prescription of traditional Chinese medicine dictionary" were selected, and the information was entered into the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system(TCMISS) to build a database. Data mining methods such as frequency statistics, association rules, complex system entropy clustering were used to analyze and summarize the composition principles of these prescriptions. The herb frequencies of the prescriptions were finally determined; herbs with higher use frequencies were obtained; and the association rules between herbs were found. 19 commonly used herb pairs, 10 core combinations and 10 newly developed prescriptions were found. The basic pathogenesis of nausea in traditional Chinese medicine is the weakness and coldness of spleen and stomach, and the Qi adverseness of stomach. Generations of physicians' main therapeutic method for nausea is mainly to warm the middle and invigorate the spleen, lower Qi and regulate stomach. The commonly used herbs for nausea are ginger, ginseng, large head attractylodes, tuckahoe, licorice, and appropriately supplemented with the herbs of eliminating dampness and
The health cultivation qigong exercise in traditional Chinese medicine refers to a traditional, integrated method of illness prevention and body strengthening, which promotes the functions of qi and the blood, smooths the meridians (energy channels), and balances the viscera and bowels through the regulation of the mind, the breathing, and the body. The concept of using qi to cultivate human life is part of the health cultivation practices of ancient Chinese codes and of Chinese medicine. This concept includes the principles, methods, essences, and clinical applications of the practice. In addition, traditional health cultivation references the concepts of yinyang, viscera and bowels, qi and blood, meridians, and essential energy spirit theory in order to explain the human biological phenomena, the theoretical and practical perspectives of qigong, and the basis of the treatment principle. The health cultivation qigong exercise of Chinese medicine utilizes the concept of the "unity of nature and human beings" in traditional Chinese thinking in its practice, which emphasizes the conformity to nature and seasons. In order to fully leverage the benefits from the purpose of health cultivation in qigong practice, the priority is to understand the health cultivation mechanism, the essentials/matters, and the precautions of qigong practices. Recently, the evidence regarding both the biological and the psychological benefits of qigong practices have been demonstrated in numbers of research articles. In particular, qigong is currently considered to be one of the best mild exercises that is suited to all age groups. Professional nurses are suggested to include the health cultivation qigong exercise as part of activities that target health improvement and illness prevention. Due to the diversity in qigong as practiced by different health cultivation qigong exercise sects, it is essential to accumulate more clinical evidence by conducting greater numbers of rigorous studies
Huang, Li-Wen; Chen, I-Ju; Hsu, Chung-Hua
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; 中醫 zhōng yī) syndrome groups are based on the symptoms of human diseases and guide the use of Chinese herbs. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TCM syndrome groups on biochemical characteristics and quality of life (QOL) in women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Among the 1080 registered female patients screened at our outpatient clinic, a total of 322 women aged between 18 and 65 years and meeting the requirements of MS were enrolled. All the ...
Zhang, Jinxia; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhen'e
In 1980, Wang Miqu proposed the concept of "The Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM Psychology)". In 1985, "The First National Symposium on Psychology of Traditional Chinese Medicine" was held, and the concept of TCM Psychology was put forward in the symposium, thus declaring the establishment of TCM Psychology, a new disciplinary branch. Since then, 12 national or international academic symposia of TCM Psychology were convened nationwide. Based on inheriting the original TCM, by means of exploring, sorting out and improving, and by combining and integrating with psychology and medical psychology, the theory of TCM Psychology was thus gradually innovated, and a systematic knowledge of TCM Psychology was set up and utilized in the clinical practice extensively.
Leonice Fumiko Sato Kurebayashi
Full Text Available The objective of this clinical trial was to identify the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM diagnoses for stress symptoms that responded to auriculotherapy. Subjects were 75 nursing professionals of a teaching hospital, with average and high stress scores according to Vasconcelos’ List of Stress Symptoms. The subjects were randomized into three groups (control without treatment, auriculotherapy with needles, and auriculotherapy with seeds, treated weekly in the Kidney, Brain stem and Shenmen, for eight sessions. Analysis of variance showed significant differences after treatment (p=0.023 only between the needle and group controls, with 21 symptoms showing differences (p<0.05 in the Student’s t-test. In conclusion, auriculotherapy reduced stress with best result for needles than seeds, and the main identified diagnoses were: Stagnation of Qi in the chest, Stagnation of the Liver and the tendinomuscular meridians, Yin Deficiency of the Liver, Kidneys and Xue (Blood. Descriptors: Nursing; Auriculotherapy; Medicine, Chinese Traditional; Diagnosis.
Full Text Available Objective. To realize the current situation and problems of complex interventions’ clinical trials. Methods. Searching at Chinese Journal Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine and Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine from 2007 to 2012 by hand, we identified complex interventions’ articles, and then we used the proposed criteria of complex interventions and CONSORT FOR TCM to evaluate. Results. All data is presented as counts with percentages and details in tables. Conclusion. Our evaluation presented that complex interventions have many defects: the selection of the intervention’s components lacks rationale, complex interventions were short of fundamental researches, components’ interactions were ambiguous, and the advantages of complex interventions were not mentioned. Furthermore, explanation of sample size, blind, quality control, ethical approval, and inform consent were neglected in different degrees.
Wu, Meng; Hu, Jingqing; Liu, Biaoyan
Objective. To realize the current situation and problems of complex interventions' clinical trials. Methods. Searching at Chinese Journal Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine and Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine from 2007 to 2012 by hand, we identified complex interventions' articles, and then we used the proposed criteria of complex interventions and CONSORT FOR TCM to evaluate. Results. All data is presented as counts with percentages and details in tables. Conclusion. Our evaluation presented that complex interventions have many defects: the selection of the intervention's components lacks rationale, complex interventions were short of fundamental researches, components' interactions were ambiguous, and the advantages of complex interventions were not mentioned. Furthermore, explanation of sample size, blind, quality control, ethical approval, and inform consent were neglected in different degrees.
Chao, Jung; Dai, Yuntao; Verpoorte, Robert; Lam, Wing; Cheng, Yung-Chi; Pao, Li-Heng; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Shilin
A long history of use and extensive documentation of the clinical practices of traditional Chinese medicine resulted in a considerable number of classical preparations, which are still widely used. This heritage of our ancestors provides a unique resource for drug discovery. Already, a number of important drugs have been developed from traditional medicines, which in fact form the core of Western pharmacotherapy. Therefore, this article discusses the differences in drug development between traditional medicine and Western medicine. Moreover, the article uses the discovery of artemisinin as an example that illustrates the "bedside-bench-bedside" approach to drug discovery to explain that the middle way for drug development is to take advantage of the best features of these two distinct systems and compensate for certain weaknesses in each. This article also summarizes evidence-based traditional medicines and discusses quality control and quality assessment, the crucial steps in botanical drug development. Herbgenomics may provide effective tools to clarify the molecular mechanism of traditional medicines in the botanical drug development. The totality-of-the-evidence approach used by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for botanical products provides the directions on how to perform quality control from the field throughout the entire production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available ZHENG, Traditional Chinese Medicine syndrome, is an integral and essential part of Traditional Chinese Medicine theory. It defines the theoretical abstraction of the symptom profiles of individual patients and thus, used as a guideline in disease classification in Chinese medicine. For example, patients suffering from gastritis may be classified as Cold or Hot ZHENG, whereas patients with different diseases may be classified under the same ZHENG. Tongue appearance is a valuable diagnostic tool for determining ZHENG in patients. In this paper, we explore new modalities for the clinical characterization of ZHENG using various supervised machine learning algorithms. We propose a novel-color-space-based feature set, which can be extracted from tongue images of clinical patients to build an automated ZHENG classification system. Given that Chinese medical practitioners usually observe the tongue color and coating to determine a ZHENG type and to diagnose different stomach disorders including gastritis, we propose using machine-learning techniques to establish the relationship between the tongue image features and ZHENG by learning through examples. The experimental results obtained over a set of 263 gastritis patients, most of whom suffering Cold Zheng or Hot ZHENG, and a control group of 48 healthy volunteers demonstrate an excellent performance of our proposed system.
Mak, KY; Chan, HY; SUN, KS; Lam, TP; Lam, KF
Background There are increasing expectations for primary care practitioners to deal with mental health problems. In Hong Kong, 15?% of the general public consult Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners regularly for their primary health care needs. This study investigated the 5-year outcomes of a western mental health training course for TCM practitioners in Hong Kong. Method Structured questionnaire surveys were conducted to compare the TCM practitioners? confidence and engagement i...
Gao, Jie; Dong, Li; Song, Zong-Hua
The authors proposed remedial measures for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) products export faced with technical barriers to trade (TBT) according to analyzing the impact of TBT on TCM product export with economic theories, and putting forward countermeasures based on evaluation researches. TBT can be effectively coped with by the joint efforts of government, enterprises and industry association. Not only TBT can be broken through but also TCM product export can be expanded by the coordination and cooperation of our country and the society.
Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lanping; Xiao, Wenjuan; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao; Shi, Xin'gang; Dan, Staerk
The process in the studies on physiological effects of rare earth elements in plants and their action mechanisms were summarized in the aspects of seed germination, photosynthesis, mineral metabolism and stress resistance. And the applications of rare earth elements in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in recent years were also overviewed, which will provide reference for further development and application of rare earth elements in TCM.
Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Iqbal, Usman; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Lin, Shen-Hsien; Huang, Chih-Wei; Jian, Wen-Shan; Li, Yu-Chuan
Medication errors such as potential inappropriate prescriptions would induce serious adverse drug events to patients. Information technology has the ability to prevent medication errors; however, the pharmacology of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is not as clear as in western medicine. The aim of this study was to apply the appropriateness of prescription (AOP) model to identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. We used the association rule of mining techniques to analyze 14.5 million prescriptions from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. The disease and TCM (DTCM) and traditional Chinese medicine-traditional Chinese medicine (TCMM) associations are computed by their co-occurrence, and the associations' strength was measured as Q-values, which often referred to as interestingness or life values. By considering the number of Q-values, the AOP model was applied to identify the inappropriate prescriptions. Afterwards, three traditional Chinese physicians evaluated 1920 prescriptions and validated the detected outcomes from the AOP model. Out of 1920 prescriptions, 97.1% of positive predictive value and 19.5% of negative predictive value were shown by the system as compared with those by experts. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the negative predictive value could improve up to 27.5% when the model's threshold changed to 0.4. We successfully applied the AOP model to automatically identify potential inappropriate TCM prescriptions. This model could be a potential TCM clinical decision support system in order to improve drug safety and quality of care. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Chen, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Ru-Feng; Liu, Bin
A great number of naturally occurring oligosaccharides and oligosaccharide esters have been isolated from traditional Chinese medicinal plants, which are used widely in Asia and show prominent curative effects in the prevention and treatment of kinds of diseases. Numerous in vitro and in vivo experiments have revealed that oligosaccharides and their esters exhibited various activities, including antioxidant, antidepressant, cytotoxic, antineoplastic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, cerebr...
Wang, Yaqiang; Yu, Zhonghua; Jiang, Yongguang; Xu, Kaikuo; Chen, Xia
Abstract Background In recent years, Data Mining technology has been applied more than ever before in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to discover regularities from the experience accumulated in the past thousands of years in China. Electronic medical records (or clinical records) of TCM, containing larger amount of information than well-structured data of prescriptions extracted manually from TCM literature such as information related to medical treatment process, could be an ...
Full Text Available Cancerous pain, hepatic ascites and intractable hiccups are common complications in patients with advanced liver cancer, but clinical symptomatic treatment cannot achieve satisfactory results. This article reviews the application of external therapy of traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of common complications in patients with advanced liver cancer and analyzes the clinical effect and feasibility of common therapeutic methods used in treatment, such as plaster sticking therapy, tumor thermotherapy, interventional therapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine, and sonophoresis of traditional Chinese medicine.
Yuan, Bin; Ren, Ying-Long; Ma, Li; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
To discuss the rationality of the clinical replacement of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) bear bile with bile acid constituents, and analyze the difference between these constituents and bear bile in drug properties. Summarizing the drug properties of bear bile by reference to medical literatures for drug properties of TCM bear bile and Science of Traditional Chinese Medicine (China Press of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2007). Analyzing and summarizing the pharmacological effects of main bile acid constituents according to relevant literatures for studies on pharmacological effects of main bile acid constituents in CNKI database. Predicating the drug properties of these bile acid constituents by using the drug property predication model established by the study group according the pharmacological effects of main bile acid constituents in the paper, and compare the prediction results with the drug properties of bear bile. Bile acid constituents in bear bile were mostly cold in property, bitter in taste, and the combination of their drug properties could reflect the combined drug properties of bear bile. All of these bile acid constituents in bear bile could show part of effects of bear bile. Attention shall be given to regulate the medication scheme in clinical application according to actual conditions.
Liu, Lizhou; Skinner, Margot A; McDonough, Suzanne M; Baxter, George David
Acupuncture originates in China, and its effectiveness has been well documented in musculoskeletal pain disorders and other conditions. A widely accepted contemporary medical treatment option for myofascial pain is trigger point needling. Although there are many differences between Traditional Chinese Medicine acupuncture theory and the myofascial trigger point needling framework, it is argued that the stimulation sites for these two needling modalities are similar. In this paper we examined the correspondence between Traditional Chinese Medicine acupoints and myofascial trigger points. Based on this correspondence, we considered exploration of Ah-shi points from four aspects: pain recognition, distal Ah-shi points, Anti-Ah-shi points, and management approaches. The extent of correspondence is influenced by definitions of acupoints. Myofascial trigger points are significantly correlated to Traditional Chinese Medicine acupoints, including primary channel acupoints, extra acupoints, and Ah-shi points. Considering the correlation between MTrPs and acupoints and the rarely-studied research area of Ah-shi points, it may be reasonable to incorporate research findings of myofascial trigger points into further investigations into Ah-shi points. Correspondence between myofascial trigger points and acupoints enhances contemporary understanding of the mechanism of action of acupuncture, and may serve to facilitate increased integration of acupuncture into clinical management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen, Kan; Wang, Chang-Qian; Fan, Yu-Qi; Han, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yue; Gao, Lin; Zeng, Hua-Su
The present study aimed to study lipid-lowering effect of seven traditional Chinese medicine monomers in zebrafish system. Zebrafish were fed with high fat diet to establish a hyperlipemia model, then fasted and bathed with seven traditional Chinese medicine monomers stigmasterol, triacontanol, chrysophanol, vanillic acid, shikimic acid, polydatin and oleanolic acid respectively. The oil red O staining was used to detect the blood lipids of zebrafish. Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were detected to validate the lipid-lowering effect. The result showed that a zebrafish model of hyperlipemia could be established by feeding larvae zebrafish with high fat diet. Among the seven traditional Chinese medicine monomers, chrysophanol had lipid-lowering effect. Chrysophanol significantly reduced serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish fed with high fat diet. Chrysophanol accelerated peristalsis frequency of zebrafish intestine and the excretion of high fat food. It is concluded that chrysophanol has lipid- lowering effect in zebrafish, and the mechanism of the effect may be due to the roles of chrysophanol in reducing lipid absorption from gastrointestinal tract and accelerating the excretion of food.
Ma, Xueqin; Zheng, Chengjian; Hu, Changling; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Luping
Plants of the genus Desmodium (Fabaceae), such as Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. and Desmodium gyrans (L. f.) DC., have a long history of medical use in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat various ailments including rheumatism, pyrexia, dysentery, wounds, cough, malaria, hepatitis, hemoptysis, etc. In the theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, most species have the effect of relieving internal heat or fever, neutralizing toxins, inhibiting pain, invigorating blood circulation, suppressing cough and alleviating dyspnea. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by analyzing secondary sources including Chinese Herbal Classics, and worldwide accepted scientific databases (Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder) were scrutinized for the available information on the ethnopharmacological uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Desmodium species. The genus Desmodium is a large member of the Papilionaceae (Fabaceae) family. It contains about 350 plant species used for both feeding stuffs and herbal medicines, of which only about 30 species have been phytochemically or pharmacologically investigated. Desmodium plant extracts, as well as the active principles, have been experimentally studied for their anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, antinephrolithic, antibacterial, and nootropic activities in vitro or in vivo. And so far, a total of 212 compounds have been isolated from 15 Desmodium species and characterized mainly as flavonoids and alkaloids, followed by terpenoids, steroids, phenols, phenylpropanoids, glycosides and a number of volatile oils. The remaining unrevealed species are recorded chiefly in Asia and Africa being used in empirical treatment for various diseases. Desmodium species have long been used in TCM to treat various ailments. Available scientific references revealed that the traditional medical uses of some important Desmodium species in TCM have been evaluated by modern pharmacological
Cao, Yong; Xu, Xia; Zhang, Peiying
Viral myocarditis (VMC) is a common clinical condition; however, no specific treatment has been available from the perspective of modern western medicine, and typically only symptomatic treatment is provided in clinical settings. The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown certain advantages in treating VMC. Last few years have witnessed certain advances in the TCM-based research on the etiology and pathogenesis of VMC and its clinical management. This article reviews the clinical advances made in the TCM-based management of VMC in the last 5 years.
Yin, Xiang-jun; He, Qing-yong
To analyze the compatibility regularity of compound traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) patents for treating dyslipidemia, and provide basis for the clinical development and research of new TCM for treating dyslipidemia. Totally 243 compound traditional Chinese medicine patents for treating dyslipidemia were collected from the national patent database from September 1985 to March 2014 and analyzed by using drug frequency, association rules, complex network and entropy method of Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance System (V1.1). The commonest single medicine in the treatment of dyslipidemia is Crataegi Fructus 109 (44.86%). The commonest pair medicine is Crataegi Fructus-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma 53 (21.81%). The commonest corner drug is Crataegi Fructus-Cassiae Semen-Polygoni Multiflori Radix 25 (10.29%). The common prescriptions on basis of association rules are Prunellae Spica-->Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (0.833), Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Alismatis Rhizoma-->Polygoni Multiflori Radix (1.00), Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, Cassiae Semen, Alismatis Rhizoma-->Polygoni Multiflori Radix (0.929). The core drugs based on complex networks are Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Crataegi Fructus. The new prescriptions extracted by entropy method are Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma-Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma-Platycladi Semen-Stephaniae Tetrandrae Radix; Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium-Poria-Coicis Semen-Pinelliae Rhizoma. This study shows the regularity in the compatibility of compound TCM patents treating dyslipidemia, suggesting that future studies on new traditional Chinese medicines treating dyslipidemia should focus on the following six aspects: (1) Single medicine should be preferred: e. g. Crataegi Fructus; (2) Pair medicines should be preferred: e. g. Crataegi Fructus-Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma; (3) Corner drugs should be preferred: e. g. Crataegi Fructus, Cassiae Semen, Polygoni Multiflori Radix; (4) The
Yang, Xian-Ying; Liu, Ai-Lin; Liu, Shu-Jing; Xu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Lin-Fang
To screen for influenza virus neuraminidase inhibition and to provide a reference for the clinical treatment of influenza using traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In this study, 421 crude extracts (solubilized with petroleum ether, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous solvents) were obtained from 113 TCM. The medicine extracts were then reacted with oseltamivir, using 2'-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-α-D-N-acetylneuraminic acid (MUNANA) as the substrate, to determine influenza virus neuraminidase activity using a standard fluorimetric assay. It was found that Chinese medicine extracts from Pyrola calliantha, Cynanchum wilfordii, Balanophora involucrata and Paeonia delavayi significantly inhibited neuraminidase activity at a concentration of 40 μg/mL. Dose-dependent inhibitory assays also revealed significant inhibition. The IC50 range of the TCM extracts for influenza virus neuraminidase was approximately 12.66-34.85 μg/mL, respectively. Some Chinese medicines have clear anti-influenza viral effects that may play an important role in the treatment of influenza through the inhibition of viral neuraminidase. The results of this study demonstrated that plant medicines can serve as a useful source of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and further investigation into the pharmacologic activities of these extracts is warranted.
Yu, Wen-Kang; Dong, Ling; Pei, Wen-Xuan; Sun, Zhi-Rong; Dai, Jun-Dong; Wang, Yun
The whole process quality control and management of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) decoction pieces is a system engineering, involving the base environment, seeds and seedlings, harvesting, processing and other multiple steps, so the accurate identification of factors in TCM production process that may induce the quality risk, as well as reasonable quality control measures are very important. At present, the concept of quality risk is mainly concentrated in the aspects of management and regulations, etc. There is no comprehensive analysis on possible risks in the quality control process of TCM decoction pieces, or analysis summary of effective quality control schemes. A whole process quality control and management system for TCM decoction pieces based on TCM quality tree was proposed in this study. This system effectively combined the process analysis method of TCM quality tree with the quality risk management, and can help managers to make real-time decisions while realizing the whole process quality control of TCM. By providing personalized web interface, this system can realize user-oriented information feedback, and was convenient for users to predict, evaluate and control the quality of TCM. In the application process, the whole process quality control and management system of the TCM decoction pieces can identify the related quality factors such as base environment, cultivation and pieces processing, extend and modify the existing scientific workflow according to their own production conditions, and provide different enterprises with their own quality systems, to achieve the personalized service. As a new quality management model, this paper can provide reference for improving the quality of Chinese medicine production and quality standardization. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Tian, Jing-Zhuo; Liang, Ai-Hua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Bo-Li
Aristolochic acids (AAs) widely exist in such plants as Aristolochia and Asarum. The renal toxicity of AAs as well as its carcinogenicity to urinary system have been widely known. In 2003 and 2004, China prohibited the use of Aristolochiae Radix, Aristolochiae Manshuriensis Caulis and Aristolochiae Fangchi Radix, and required administering other AAs-containing medicines in accordance with the regulations for prescription drugs. In this paper, we retrieved literatures on the content determination of AAs in recent 10 years in China. It suggested that the AAs content is lower in Asarum herb, especially in its roots and rhizomes, and most of which do not show detectable amount of AA-I. Some of traditional Chinese medicines show fairly small amount of detectable AA-I. The AAs content in Aristolochia herb (including Fructus Aristolochiae, kaempfer dutchmanspipe root) is relatively high; however, there are fewer literatures for studying the content determination of AAs in Chinese patent medicines. There were many factors affecting AAs content, including the parts used, origins, processing methods, extraction process. It suggested that we should pay attention to the toxicity of Chinese medicines containing AAs and use these decoction pieces and traditional Chinese medicines cautiously. In addition, basic studies for the origins, processing methods and extraction process of Chinese patent medicines containing AAs, as well as supervision and detection of AAs content in traditional Chinese medicinal materials, decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicines shall be strengthened for reducing medication risk and guaranteeing clinical medication safety. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has remained an integral part of Chinese culture and society for thousands of years. In Taiwan TCM is a recognized element of its National Health Insurance Scheme. However, there is no knowledge about how TCM is accessed by foreign workers from a non-Asian cultural background. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence and patterns of TCM use among non-Asian white-collar workers living in Taiwan, and examine factors likely to influence their use of TCM. Methods This study applied a cross-sectional survey design. A total of 207 white-collar foreign workers of a non-Asian background currently holding National Health Insurance cards who had lived in Taiwan for 4 months or more participated in this study. Results The prevalence of TCM use was 45%. The most frequently used therapies were traditional Chinese herbs/medicine and acupuncture. Factors indicating the likelihood of TCM usage were age 31–40 years, visit to an allopathic medical doctor in the last year, ability to read Chinese, having a friend or family member available to assist in the use of TCM, and access to information about TCM services available in Taiwan. Conclusion Utilization of TCM by people of a non-Asian background living in Taiwan appears to be most influenced by enabling factors including language ability, access to information, and informal reference persons.
Zhou, Jue; Ouedraogo, Moustapha; Qu, Fan; Duez, Pierre
In the last decades, cases of poisoning due to herbal medicines have occurred in many countries; Chinese herbal medicines (CHMs) are occasionally involved. The experience gained from traditional use is efficient to detect immediate or near-immediate relationship between administration and toxic effects but is quite unlikely to detect medium- to long-term toxicities; thorough investigations of herbal medicines (toxicity assessments, active pharmacovigilance) appear then essential for their safe use. Genotoxicity is an especially insidious toxicity that may result in carcinoma development years after exposure; it can arise from multiple compounds, with or without metabolic activation. The present work reviews traditional CHMs and phytochemicals that have been shown to present a genotoxic hazard. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Liu, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Ren, Jian-Xun
Pericytesis a kind of widespread vascular mural cells embedded within the vascular basement membrane of blood microvessels, constituting the barrier of capillaries and tissue spaces together with endothelial cells. Pericytes communicate with microvascular endothelial cells through cell connections or paracrine signals, playing an important role in important physiological processes such as blood flow, vascular permeability and vascular formation. Pericytes dysfunction may participate in some microvascular dysfunction, and also mediate pathological repair process, therefore pericytes attracted more and more attention. Traditional Chinese medicine suggests that microvascular dysfunction belongs to the collaterals disease; Qi stagnation and blood stasis in collaterals result in function imbalance of internal organs. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown effects on pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, for example qi reinforcing blood-circulation activating medicines can reduce the damage of retinal pericytes in diabetic retinopathy. However, there are some limitations of research fields, inaccuracy of research techniques and methods, and lack of mechanism elaboration depth in the study of microvascular lesion pericytes. This paper reviewed the biological characteristics of pericytes and pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, as well as the intervention study of TCM on pericytes. The article aims to provide reference for the research of pericytes in microvascular dysfunction and the TCM study on pericytes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Liu, Jing; Peng, Lei; Huang, Wenhui; Li, Zhiming; Pan, Jun; Sang, Lei; Lu, Siqian; Zhang, Jihong; Li, Wanyi; Luo, Ying
The biological consequences of cellular senescence and immortalization in aging and cancer are in conflict. Organisms have developed common cellular signaling pathways and surveillance mechanisms to control the processing of aging against tumorigenesis. The imbalance of any signals involved in this process may result in either premature aging or tumorigenesis and reduce the life span of the organism. In contrast, the balance between aging and tumorigenesis at a higher level (homeostatic-balance) may benefit the organism with tumor-free longevity. The focus of this perspective is to review the literature on the balance between "Yin" and "Yang" in traditional Chinese medicine. Modern cellular and molecular techniques now permit a more robust system to screen herbs in traditional Chinese medicine for their activity in balancing aging and tumorigenesis. The understanding of the crosstalk between aging and tumorigenesis and new perspectives on the application of Chinese medicine might shed light on anti-aging and tumor-free strategies. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 2581-2586, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Huanli Xu,1 Xin Zhao,2 Xiaohui Liu,1 Pingxiang Xu,1 Keming Zhang,2 Xiukun Lin11Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, 2Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, 302 Hospital of Chinese People’s Liberation Army, Beijing, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Defects in apoptosis are common phenomena in many types of cancer and are also a critical step in tumorigenesis. Targeting the apoptotic pathway has been considered an intriguing strategy for cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used in the People’s Republic of China for thousands of years, and many of the medicines have been confirmed to be effective in the treatment of a number of tumors. With increasing cancer rates worldwide, the antitumor effects of TCMs have attracted more and more attention globally. Many of the TCMs have been shown to have antitumor activity through multiple targets, and apoptosis pathway-related targets have been extensively studied and defined to be promising. This review focuses on several antitumor TCMs, especially those with clinical efficacy, based on their effects on the apoptotic signaling pathway. The problems with and prospects of development of TCMs as anticancer agents are also presented.Keywords: traditional Chinese medicine, antitumor effects, apoptotic pathway
Qi, Zhen; Tu, Li-Ping; Chen, Jing-Bo; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Xu, Jia-Tuo; Zhang, Zhi-Feng
Background and Goal . The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods . Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L * a * b * of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results . The L * a * b * values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions . At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible.
Tu, Li-ping; Chen, Jing-bo; Hu, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Zhi-feng
Background and Goal. The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods. Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L * a * b * of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results. The L * a * b * values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions. At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is feasible. PMID:28050555
Full Text Available Background and Goal. The application of digital image processing techniques and machine learning methods in tongue image classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has been widely studied nowadays. However, it is difficult for the outcomes to generalize because of lack of color reproducibility and image standardization. Our study aims at the exploration of tongue colors classification with a standardized tongue image acquisition process and color correction. Methods. Three traditional Chinese medical experts are chosen to identify the selected tongue pictures taken by the TDA-1 tongue imaging device in TIFF format through ICC profile correction. Then we compare the mean value of L*a*b* of different tongue colors and evaluate the effect of the tongue color classification by machine learning methods. Results. The L*a*b* values of the five tongue colors are statistically different. Random forest method has a better performance than SVM in classification. SMOTE algorithm can increase classification accuracy by solving the imbalance of the varied color samples. Conclusions. At the premise of standardized tongue acquisition and color reproduction, preliminary objectification of tongue color classification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM is feasible.
In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in the traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, Angelica dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin, and Lonicera japonica Thunb, was developed using gas chromatography couple...
Liu, Ming; Gao, Yue; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Bo-li
This study is to analyze microcosmic significance of Chinese medicine composing principle "principal, assistant, complement and mediating guide" and it's fuzzy mathematic quantitative law. According to molecular biology and maximal membership principle, fuzzy subset and membership functions were proposed. Using in vivo experiment on the effects of SiWu Decoction and its ingredients on mice with radiation-induced blood deficiency, it is concluded that DiHuang and DangGui belonged to the principal and assistant subset, BaiShao belonged to the contrary complement subset, ChuanXiong belonged to the mediating guide subset by maximal membership principle. It is discussed that traditional Chinese medicine will be consummate medical science when its theory can be described by mathematic language.
Full Text Available This overview has provided an account of evolutional changes of an experience-based traditional medical practice of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM towards modernisation to keep up with recent advances in analytical and biomedical sciences, and information technology, which may help readers to understand why applying biomedical research methodology to TCM modernisation, while maintaining the experience-based concepts, principles and heritage of TCM’s personalised health and medical approaches in balancing body’s functions with physical and mental harmony when facing environmental changes, can contribute to gain global appreciation and acceptance of TCM in healthcare. It is envisaged that such future development and integration with biomedicine-based main-stream medicine (MSM in practice will provide valuable medical care in the development of future personalised health and medicine as well as TCM product development.
Liu, Jian-Ping; Han, Mei; Li, Xin-Xue
Clinical trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be registered in a publicly accessible international trial register and report on all outcomes. We systematically assessed and evaluated TCM trials in registries with their subsequent publications.......Clinical trials on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) should be registered in a publicly accessible international trial register and report on all outcomes. We systematically assessed and evaluated TCM trials in registries with their subsequent publications....
Zhang, Bai-Xia; Gu, Hao; Guo, Hong-Ling; Ma, Li; Wang, Yun; Qiao, Yan-Jiang
At present, studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) properties are mostly restricted to a single or two kinds of medicinal properties, but deviated from the holism of the theoretical system of TCMs. In this paper, the characteristics of pharmacological effects of different property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian were take as the study objective. The data of properties of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2005). The data of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was collected from all of literatures recorded in Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI) since 1980, Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Yan Zhenghua, People's Medical Publishing House, 2006) and Clinical Science of Chinese Materia Medica (Gao Xuemin, Zhong Gansheng, Hebei Science and Technology Publishing House, 2005). The corresponding pharmacological effects of property combinations of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian was mined by the method of association rules. The results of the association rules were consistent with the empirical knowledge, and showed that different medicinal property combinations had respective pharmacological characteristics, including differences and similarities in pharmacological effects of different medicinal property combinations. Medicinal property combinations with identical four properties or five tastes showed similar pharmacological effects; whereas medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes showed differentiated pharmacological effects. However, medicinal property combinations with different four properties or five tastes could also show similar pharmacological effects. In this study, the medicinal property theory and the pharmacological effects of TCMs were combined to reveal the main characteristics and regularity of pharmacological effects of TCMs distributing in the stomach meridian
Han, Xue-Jie; Liu, Meng-Yu; Lian, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Li-Ying; Shi, Nan-Nan; Zhao, Jun
To evaluate the applicability and clinical applications of Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Internal Diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine, so as to provide the basis for the revision of the guidelines. This study was completed by the research and promotion base for traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) standard. The methods of applicability evaluation and application evaluation were used in the study. The questionnaires were filled out to evaluate applicability of the guideline, including doctor's familiarity with the guideline,the quality of the guideline, applicable conditions and clinical applications. The prospective case study analysis method was used to evaluate application of the guideline, including evaluation of clinical application compliance and application results(such as clinical effects, safety and economy). There were two parts in the guideline, which were TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline. The results of applicability evaluation showed that there were no obvious differences between TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline in doctor's familiarity with guideline(85.43%, 84.57%) and the use of the guideline(52.10%, 54.47%); the guidelines with good quality, and higher scores in the scope of application and the use of the term rationality(91.94%, 93.35%); the rationality scores of relevant contents in syndrome differentiation and treatment were more than 75%; the applicable conditions were better, and the safety score was the the highest. The comprehensive applicability evaluation showed that the proportion of the application of TCM guideline and Western medicine guideline were 77.73%, 75.46%, respectively. The results of application evaluation showed that there was high degree coincidence between the guideline with its clinical application; except for "other treatment" and "recuperation and prevention" in TCM, other items got high scores which were more than 90%; in the evaluation of application effects, safety of the guideline
Wang, Su-Juan; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Hong
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a theoretical based system and is completely different from western medicine and states that numerous diseases, especially chronic diseases, are cured or relieved. "Zheng" (syndrome) is a summarization of the pathological changes which take place during the different stages of the development of a disease, including its location, cause and nature as well as the state of both Xie-qi (pathogenic factors) and Zheng-qi (healthy energy). Compared to a single symptom, syndrome can demonstrate the nature of a disease more extensively, completely and correctly. However, it is difficult to compare "Zheng" to the western medicine theory, which is based on scientific evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of a specific disease. Estrogen deficiency is a major pathogenetic factor in bone loss after menopause and oophorectomy with the subsequent risk of developing osteoporosis. According to TCM theory, the kidney stores essence and this can transform into bone marrow to nourish the bones, strenghthen the skeleton by promoting growth and repair. The kidney deficiency can decrease the estrogen level adjusted by the gonadal axis, causing osteoporosis. Traditional Chinese medicines tonifying the kidney can significantly enhance the level of estrogen to alleviate osteoporosis. In combination with other evidence, we further deduce that the syndrome as defined within TCM has a similar pathological mechanism to that defined by western medicine. If TCM theory is to be understood and accepted, and further fused with the western medicine theory, the micro pathological basis of TCM syndrome must be investigated extensively, which will lead to bridging the two theories together. The fusion of TCM with western medicine will pay more attention to analyzing the common nature and difference of disease and syndrome. This paper reviews the way forward for new translational advances.
Zhao, Yan-qing; Teng, Jing; Yang, Hong-jun
To analyze the prescription and medication regularities of traditional Chinese medicines in the treatment of melancholia in the Chinese journal full text database (CNKI), Wanfang Data knowledge service platform, VIP, Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM) in based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support platform software, in order to provide reference for further mining traditional Chinese medicines for the treatment of melancholia and new drug development. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support platform software V2.0 was used to establish the prescription database of traditional Chinese medicines for treating melancholia. The software integrated data mining method was adopted to analyze four Qis, five flavors, meridian distribution, frequency statistics, syndrome distribution, composition regularity and new prescriptions. Totally 358 prescriptions for treating melancholia were analyzed to determine the frequency of prescription drugs, commonly used drug pairs and combinations and develop 22 new prescriptions. According to this study, prescriptions for treating depression collected in modern literature databases mainly have the effects in soothing liver and resolving melancholia, strengthening spleen and eliminating phlegm, activating and replenishing blood, regulating liver qi, tonifying spleen qi, clearing heat and purging heat, soothing the mind, nourishing yin and tonifying kidney, with neutral drug property and sweet or bitter flavor, and follow the melancholia treatment principle of "regulating qi and opening the mind, regulating qi and empathy".
Yang, Wan-Zhen; Kang, Chuan-Zhi; Ji, Rui-Feng; Zhou, L I; Wang, Sheng; Li, Zhen-Hao; Ma, Zhong-Hua; Guo, Lan-Ping
Chinese Pharmacopoeia provides nine pesticide Maximum Residual Limits(MRLs) of traditional Chinese medicines(TCMs), The number of pesticides used in production are far more than those listed in pharmacopoeia. The lack of the standards make it's hard to reflect the real situation of pesticide residues in TCMs correctly. The paper is aimed to analyze the data of pesticide residues in TCMs from 7 089 items in 140 reports, and judging the exceedance rate of pesticides in TCMs using the MRLs of European pharmacopoeia，which is widely accepted in many countries. The results show that：①Pesticide residues in 18 kinds of TCMs are higher than MRLs，while in 137 kinds are below MRLs, such as Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma, Menthae Haplocalycis Herba and Fritillariae Thunbergii Bulbus. The average exceedance rate of all TCMs is 1.72%. The average exceedance rates of organochlorine, organophosphorus and pyrethroid are 2.26%, 1.51%, 0.37%，respectively. ②The average exceedance rate of pesticides is 2.00%, and the exceedance rate is more than 5%, accounting for 8.33%, the exceedance rate is between 1%-5%, accounting for 18.75%. the exceedance rate is between 0%-1%, accounting for 18.75%. The remaining 29 kinds of pesticides were not exceeded, accounting for 60.42%.Some reports like Greenpeace's organization exaggerated the pesticide residues in TCMs.But the pesticide residue question is still worthy of attention, so we proposed to amend the Chinese Pharmacopoeia pesticide residues standards, to increase the pesticide species of traditional Chinese medicine in production on the basis of retaining the existing types of pesticide residues, to strengthen the system research of pesticide residues in TCMs, providing a basis for making standard and promoting import and export trade in TCMs. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Chemical fingerprinting is currently a widely used tool that enables rapid and accurate quality evaluation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. However, chemical fingerprints are not amenable to information storage, recognition, and retrieval, which limit their use in Chinese medicine traceability. In this study, samples of three kinds of Chinese medicines were randomly selected and chemical fingerprints were then constructed by using high performance liquid chromatography. Based on chemical data, the process of converting the TCM chemical fingerprint into two-dimensional code is presented; preprocess and filtering algorithm are also proposed aiming at standardizing the large amount of original raw data. In order to know which type of two-dimensional code (2D is suitable for storing data of chemical fingerprints, current popular types of 2D codes are analyzed and compared. Results show that QR Code is suitable for recording the TCM chemical fingerprint. The fingerprint information of TCM can be converted into data format that can be stored as 2D code for traceability and quality control.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has long been used for patients with psoriasis. This study aimed to investigate TCM usage in patients with psoriasis. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals representing the 23 million enrollees randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We identified 28,510 patients newly diagnosed with psoriasis between 2000 and 2010. Among them, 20,084 (70.4% patients were TCM users. Patients who were female, younger, white-collar workers and lived in urbanized area tended to be TCM users. The median interval between the initial diagnosis of psoriasis to the first TCM consultation was 12 months. More than half (N=11,609; 57.8% of the TCM users received only Chinese herbal medicine. Win-qing-yin and Bai-xian-pi were the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula and single herb, respectively. The core prescription pattern comprised Mu-dan-pi, Wen-qing-yin, Zi-cao, Bai-xian-pi, and Di-fu-zi. Patients preferred TCM than Western medicine consultations when they had metabolic syndrome, hepatitis, rheumatoid arthritis, alopecia areata, Crohn’s disease, cancer, depression, fatty liver, chronic airway obstruction, sleep disorder, and allergic rhinitis. In conclusion, TCM use is popular among patients with psoriasis in Taiwan. Future clinical trials to investigate its efficacy are warranted.
Full Text Available Background This paper aims to investigate the development trend of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM hospitals in China and explore their medical service innovations, with special reference to the changing co-existence with western medicine (WM at TCM hospitals. Methods Quantitative data at macro level was collected from official databases of China Health Statistical Yearbook and Extracts of Traditional Chinese Medicine Statistics. Qualitative data at micro level was gathered through interviews and second-hand material collection at two of the top-level TCM hospitals. Results In both outpatient and inpatient sectors of TCM hospitals, drug fees accounted for the biggest part of hospital revenue. Application of WM medical exanimation increased in both outpatient and inpatient services. Even though the demand for WM drugs was much higher in inpatient care, TCM drugs was the winner in the outpatient. Also qualitative evidence showed that TCM dominated the outpatient hospital service with WM incorporated in the assisting role. However, it was in the inpatient medical care that WM prevailed over TCM which was mostly applied to the rehabilitation of patients. Conclusion By drawing on WM while keeping it active in supporting and strengthening the TCM operation in the TCM hospital, the current system accommodates the overriding objective which is for TCM to evolve into a fully informed and more viable medical field.
Wang, Wei; Lin, Ping; Ma, Lihong; Xu, Kaixuan; Lin, Xiuli
Flavonoids are important active ingredients in many traditional Chinese medicines. In this paper, capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection was employed to separate and detect eight flavonoids, rutin, quercetrin, quercetin, kaempferol, kaempferide, catechin, apigenin, and luteolin, in a home-made capillary electrophoresis device. Under the separation voltage of 2000 V, the eight flavonoids could be completely separated within 33 min in 18 mM borax running buffer at pH 10.2. Good linear relationships were obtained for all analytes and the detection limits for flavonoids ranged from 0.46 to 0.85 μM. Then, the method was applied to separate and determine the flavonoids in three traditional Chinese medicines, hippophae rhamnoides, hypericum perforatum, and cacumen platycladi. Finally, rutin, kaempferol, quercetin, and quercetrin were discovered in these medicines and the concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 9.94 mg/g. The recoveries of flavonoids ranged from 84.7 to 113%, which showed the high reliability of this method. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Xia, Qing; Deng, Li-Hui
Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is recognized as critical refractory disease. The case fatality rate of SAP is as high as 36%-50%. Although significant progress has been achieved on the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) by Integrated Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Western Medicine (WM), there still exist some difficulties hindering the further improvement of therapeutic efficacy. The hot issues includes: unconfirmative curative effects and diverse treatment principles, complicated predictive scoring systems and inaccurate markers for the severity stratification, unproved new therapeutic tools and controversial methods waiting more high qualified evidence, unclarified mechanism of Integrated TCM and WM. In order to overcome the difficulties, we aim to launch the clinical pathway of Integrated TCM and WM, to strengthen the unity of multidisciplinary cooperation. We also need to keep the efforts on screening the markers for early evaluation and prediction of disease severity, improving the diagnosis and treatment, exploring the mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine in treating SAP with more high quality basic and clinical research. Based on these efforts, we could provide better treatments and prognosis for SAP patients.
Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zhong, Linda; Tsang, Siu-Wai; Lin, Ze-Si; Bian, Zhao-Xiang
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies.
Wang, Liang; Suo, Sizhuo; Li, Jian; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Wang, Yitao; Hu, Hao
Background: This paper aims to investigate the development trend of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals in China and explore their medical service innovations, with special reference to the changing co-existence with western medicine (WM) at TCM hospitals. Methods: Quantitative data at macro level was collected from official databases of China Health Statistical Yearbook and Extracts of Traditional Chinese Medicine Statistics. Qualitative data at micro level was gathered through interviews and second-hand material collection at two of the top-level TCM hospitals. Results: In both outpatient and inpatient sectors of TCM hospitals, drug fees accounted for the biggest part of hospital revenue. Application of WM medical exanimation increased in both outpatient and inpatient services. Even though the demand for WM drugs was much higher in inpatient care, TCM drugs was the winner in the outpatient. Also qualitative evidence showed that TCM dominated the outpatient hospital service with WM incorporated in the assisting role. However, it was in the inpatient medical care that WM prevailed over TCM which was mostly applied to the rehabilitation of patients. Conclusion: By drawing on WM while keeping it active in supporting and strengthening the TCM operation in the TCM hospital, the current system accommodates the overriding objective which is for TCM to evolve into a fully informed and more viable medical field. PMID:28005539
Liu, Qin; Wang, Shun-Chun; Ding, Kan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of patients' memory and their cognitive abilities and the mechanism is not completely clear. Although a variety of drugs have been approved for the AD treatment, substances which can prevent and cure AD are still in great need. The effect of polysaccharides from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on anti-AD has gained great progress and attained more and more attention in recent years. In this review, research advances in TCM-polysaccharides on AD made in this decade are summarized. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and the action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in NAFLD has become a new research topic. TCM has achieved good clinical efficacy in the treatment of NAFLD, with the advantages of specific, flexible, multilevel, and multi-target treatment. This article introduces the role of TCM in improving insulin, regulating lipid metabolism, preventing lipid peroxidation, regulating cytokines, regulating and maintaining the dynamic balance of factors involved in lipid metabolism, and maintaining the balance of intestinal microflora, and analyzes the major problems in TCM research.
Full Text Available At present, heart disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. Traditionally, heart disease is commonly detected using blood tests, electrocardiogram, cardiac computerized tomography scan, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and so on. However, these traditional diagnostic methods are time consuming and/or invasive. In this paper, we propose an effective noninvasive computerized method based on facial images to quantitatively detect heart disease. Specifically, facial key block color features are extracted from facial images and analyzed using the Probabilistic Collaborative Representation Based Classifier. The idea of facial key block color analysis is founded in Traditional Chinese Medicine. A new dataset consisting of 581 heart disease and 581 healthy samples was experimented by the proposed method. In order to optimize the Probabilistic Collaborative Representation Based Classifier, an analysis of its parameters was performed. According to the experimental results, the proposed method obtains the highest accuracy compared with other classifiers and is proven to be effective at heart disease detection.
Kong, De-Gang; Zhao, Yu; Li, Guo-Hui; Chen, Bang-Jiao; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Zhou, Hong-Lei; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Ren, Dong-Mei; Shen, Tao
The genus Litsea, mainly distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions, has been used in traditional and indigenous Chinese medicines for the treatment of diarrhea, stomachache, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, diabetes, edema, cold, arthritis, asthma, pain, traumatic injury, etc. for a long history. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary on the ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of the Litsea species used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Based on these data, evidences supporting their ethnopharmacological effectiveness are illustrated, and opportunities for the future research and development as well as the therapeutic potential of this genus are analyzed to highlight the gaps in our knowledge that deserves further investigation. Information on the Litsea species was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Web of Science and CNKI) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, information was also obtained from some local books on ethnopharmacology. Twenty plants of the genus Litsea are found to be important traditional medicines in China, and have a long medicinal application for diarrhea, stomachache, dyspepsia, gastroenteritis, diabetes, edema, cold, arthritis, asthma, pain, traumatic injury, etc. Over 200 ingredients have been identified from these 20 Litsea species used in TCM, and flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids are considered as the characteristic and bioactive constituents. The crude extracts and the isolated metabolites of these medicinal plants have exhibited some in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including antimicrobial, hepatoprotection, anti-inflammatory, antiasthmatic, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, anticholelithogenic, as well as function on central nervous system, etc. The extensive literature survey reveals Litsea species to be a group of important medicinal plants used for the ethnomedical treatment of
Ferreira, Arthur de Sá
Chinese and contemporary Western medical practices evolved on different cultures and historical contexts and, therefore, their medical knowledge represents this cultural divergence. Computerization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is being used to promote the integrative medicine to manage, process and integrate the knowledge related to TCM anatomy, physiology, semiology, pathophysiology, and therapy. We proposed the development of the SuiteTCM software, a collection of integrated computational models mainly derived from epidemiology and statistical sciences for computerization of Chinese medicine scientific research and clinical practice in all levels of prevention. The software includes components for data management (DataTCM), simulation of cases (SimTCM), analyses and validation of datasets (SciTCM), clinical examination and pattern differentiation (DiagTCM, TongueTCM, and PulseTCM), intervention selection (AcuTCM, HerbsTCM, and DietTCM), management of medical records (ProntTCM), epidemiologic investigation of sampled data (ResearchTCM), and medical education, training, and assessment (StudentTCM). The SuiteTCM project is expected to contribute to the ongoing development of integrative medicine and the applicability of TCM in worldwide scientific research and health care. The SuiteTCM 1.0 runs on Windows XP or later and is freely available for download as an executable application.
Wang, Jinghui; Li, Yan; Yang, Yinfeng; Chen, Xuetong; Du, Jian; Zheng, Qiusheng; Liang, Zongsuo; Wang, Yonghua
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), such as Uyghur Medicine (UM) has been used in clinical treatment for many years. TCM is featured as multiple targets and complex mechanisms of action, which is normally a combination of medicinal herbs and sometimes even contains certain rare animal medicinal ingredients. A question arises as to whether these animal materials can be removed replaced from TCM applications due to their valuable rare resources or animal ethics. Here, we select a classical UM Yimusake formula, which contains 3 animal drugs and other 8 herbs, and has got wealthy experience and remarkable achievements in treating erectile dysfunction (ED) in China. The active components, drug targets and therapeutic mechanisms have been comprehensively analyzed by systems-pharmacology methods. Additionally, to validate the inhibitory effects of all candidate compounds on their related targets, in vitro experiments, computational analysis and molecular dynamics simulations were performed. The results show that the modified, original and three animal materials display very similar mechanisms for an effective treatment of ED, indicating that it is quite possible to remove these three animal drugs from the original formula while still keep its efficiency. This work provides a new attempt for deleting animal materials from TCM, which should be important for optimization of traditional medicines.
Yu, Jin; Yu, Chao-Qin; Cao, Qi; Wang, Li; Wang, Wen-Jun; Zhou, Li-Rong; Li, Jing; Qian, Qiao-Hong
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder of women, with complex pathogenesis and heterogeneous manifestations. Professor Jin Yu recently wrote an article entitled "Proposal of Diagnosis and Diagnostic Classification of PCOS in Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine."From this, the Obstetrics and Gynecology branches of the Chinese Association of Integrative Medicine and the China Association of Chinese Medicine collaborated with the Gynecology branch of the Chinese Association for Research and Advancement of Chinese Medicine to draft a report on the consensus of criteria for the diagnosis and classification of PCOS in integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The diagnosis for PCOS includes all three features: (1) oligo-ovulation or anovulation; (2) clinical and/or laboratory evidence of hyperandrogenism;(3) PCOS is classified into four types: types Ia,Ib, IIa, and IIb. Syndrome differentiation types for PCOS in traditional Chinese medicine are as follows: Kidney deficiency with phlegm blockage syndrome, Kidney Yin deficiency with phlegm blockage and blood stasis syndrome, and Kidney deficiency with Liver Qi stagnation syndrome.
Full Text Available Cistanche species, known as Rou Cong-Rong in Chinese, are an endangered wild species and are mainly distributed in the arid lands and warm deserts of northwestern China. Within Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, Herba Cistanche is applied as a tonic and/or in a formula for chronic renal disease, impotence, female infertility, morbid leucorrhea, profuse metrorrhagia and senile constipation. The chemical constituents of Herba Cistanche mainly consist of volatile oils, non-volatile phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs, iridoids, lignans, alditols, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. There have been an increasing number of studies focusing on its bio-activities, including antioxidation, neuroprotection, and antiaging. The objective of this review is to introduce this herb to the world. Its taxonomy, distribution, and corresponding biological functions and molecular mechanisms are addressed in this review.
Liu, Yu-Qi; Liu, Meng-Yu; Li, Chun; Shi, Nan-Nan; Wang, Yue-Xi; Wang, Li-Ying; Zhao, Xue-Yao; Kou, Shuang; Han, Xue-Jie; Wang, Yan-Ping
This study is to assess the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Diseases of Otolaryngology in Traditional Chinese Medicine in clinical application and provide evidence for further guideline revision. The assessment was divided into applicability assessment and practicability assessment. The applicability assessment based on questionnaire survey and the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners were asked to independently fill the Questionnaire for Applicability Assessment on the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The practicability assessment was based on prospective case investigation and analysis method and the TCM practitioners-in-charge filled the Case Investigation Questionnaire for Practicability Assessment on the Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The data were analyzed in descriptive statistics. 151 questionnaires were investigated for applicability assessment and 1 016 patients were included for practicability assessment. The results showed that 88.74% of them were familiar with the guidelines and 45.70% used them. The guidelines quality and related items were similar in applicability assessment and practicability assessment, and scored highly as more than 85.00% except the "recuperating and prevention". The results suggested that the quality of Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Diseases of Otolaryngology in Traditional Chinese Medicine was high and could better guide the clinical practice. The "recuperating and prevention" part should be improved and the evidence data should be included in future guideline revision, so that the clinical utilization rate could be increased. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wu, Feifei; Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Li, Xiaoyu; Ma, Yongsheng; You, Jiansong; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping
Deer antler base (Cervus, Lu Jiao Pan) has been recorded in the Chinese medical classics Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing 2000 years ago and is believed to nourish the Yin, tonify the kidney, invigorate the spleen, strengthen bones and muscles, and promote blood flow. In China, deer antler base has been extensively used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat a variety of diseases including mammary hyperplasia, mastitis, uterine fibroids, malignant sores and children's mumps. We provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the traditional uses, chemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials of deer antler base in order to explore its therapeutic potentials and future research needs. The pharmacological value of deer antler base was ignored for many years while researchers concentrated on the pharmacological value of velvet antler. However, more recently, scientists have carried out a great number of chemical, pharmacological and clinical studies on deer antler base. The present review covers the literature available from 1980 to 2012. All relevant information on deer antler base was collected from ancient Chinese herbal classics, pharmacopoeias, formularies, scientific journals, books, theses and reports via a library and electronic search by using PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and CNKI (in Chinese). Both in vitro and in vivo pharmacological studies have demonstrated that deer antler base possess immunomodulatory, anti-cancer, anti-fatigue, anti-osteoporosis, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hematopoietic modulatory activities and the therapeutic effect on mammary hyperplasia. Although the mechanism of actions is still not clear, the pharmacological activities could be mainly attributed to the major bioactive compounds amino acids, polypeptides and proteins. Based on animal studies and clinical trials, deer antler base causes no severe side effects. Deer antler
Full Text Available Wenjie Sun,1,2,* Ding Qu,1,* Yihua Ma,1 Yan Chen,1,2 Congyan Liu,1 Jing Zhou11Key Laboratory of New Drug Delivery System of Chinese Materia Medica, Jiangsu Provincial Academy of Chinese Medicine, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used as antibacterial products in various fields. Recent studies have suggested that AgNPs need an appropriate stabilizer to improve their stability. Some antibacterial traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs contain various reductive components, which can not only stabilize AgNPs but also enhance their antimicrobial activity. In this study, we developed a series of novel AgNPs using a TCM extract as a stabilizer, reducing agent, and antimicrobial agent (TCM-AgNPs. A storage stability investigation of the TCM-AgNPs suggested a significant improvement when compared with bare AgNPs. Further, conjugation of TCMs onto the AgNP surface resulted in stronger antimicrobial potency on antibacterial evaluation using Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration 50% (MIC50 ratios (and minimum bactericidal concentration 90% [MBC90] ratios of AgNPs to respective TCM-AgNPs as assessment indices. Among these, P. cuspidatum Sieb. et-conjugated AgNPs (P.C.-AgNPs had the advantage of a combination of TCMs and AgNPs and was studied in detail with regard to its synthesis and characterization. The extraction time, reaction temperature, and concentrations of AgNO3 and Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. et extract were critical factors in the preparation of P.C.-AgNPs. Further, the results of X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated successful preparation of P.C.-AgNPs. In representative studies, P.C.-AgNPs showed a well-defined spherical shape, a homogeneous
Zhu, Hua-Xu; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Li-Wei; Li, Bo; Lu, Jin; Tang, Yu-Ping; Pan, Lin-Mei
Resource of traditional Chinese medicine residue is an inevitable choice to form new industries characterized of modem, environmental protection and intensive in the Chinese medicine industry. Based on the analysis of source and the main chemical composition of the herb residue, and for the advantages of membrane science and technology used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially membrane separation technology used in improvement technical reserves of traditional extraction and separation process in the pharmaceutical industry, it is proposed that membrane science and technology is one of the most important choices in technological design of traditional Chinese medicine resource industrialization. Traditional Chinese medicine residue is a very complex material system in composition and character, and scientific and effective "separation" process is the key areas of technology to re-use it. Integrated process can improve the productivity of the target product, enhance the purity of the product in the separation process, and solve many tasks which conventional separation is difficult to achieve. As integrated separation technology has the advantages of simplified process and reduced consumption, which are in line with the trend of the modern pharmaceutical industry, the membrane separation technology can provide a broad platform for integrated process, and membrane separation technology with its integrated technology have broad application prospects in achieving resource and industrialization process of traditional Chinese medicine residue. We discuss the principles, methods and applications practice of effective component resources in herb residue using membrane separation and integrated technology, describe the extraction, separation, concentration and purification application of membrane technology in traditional Chinese medicine residue, and systematically discourse suitability and feasibility of membrane technology in the process of traditional Chinese
Xu, Hong-Ri; Wang, Cheng-Xiang; Wang, Lan; Zhou, Ping-An; Yin, Ren-Yi; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Wang, Hui-Fang
To observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on mRNA expression of lung inflammatory cytokines and pulmonary pathological injury of mice infected by influenza virus, in order to discuss the mechanism of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines against pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of infected mice. In different time phases after mice were infected with influenza virus FM1, the RT-PCR method was adopted to observe the impact of tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture on five inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ, and the changes in pulmonary pathological injury of mice with viral pneumonia after intervention with tonifying qi traditional Chinese medicines. (1) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines significantly reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α at 1-5 d and IL-1 mRNA expression at 7 d, may increase IL-1 mRNA expression in mouse lung at 3 d, significantly reduced IL-6 mRNA expression in mouse lung and increased IL-10 mRNA expression at 3-7 d, and significantly increased IFN-γ mRNA expression at 1 d. (2) Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines could significantly inhibited and repaired pulmonary immune inflammatory injury of mice infected by FM1, which was most remarkable at 3-7 d after the infection with influenza virus FM1. Tonifying Qi traditional Chinese medicines contained in Yiqi Qingwen Jiedu mixture could resist pulmonary immune inflammatory injury and repair inflammatory injury by regulating the mRNA expression of imbalance inflammatory cytokines of organisms infected with influenza virus.
Jiang, Qiu-Dong; Yang, Wen-Guo; Cai, Hao; Ma, Min; Zhang, Hui; Liu, Pei; Chen, Jun; Duan, Jin-Ao
The results of previous studies showed potential correlations between the penetration enhancement effect of essential oils and the drug properties of traditional Chinese medicine based on the data mining method. As chemical composition is the material basis of drug properties of traditional Chinese medicine, this article further analyzed the correlation between the chemical composition of essential oils and the drug properties. Firstly, essential oils were extracted by steam distillation, and then physicochemical parameters of essential oils, such as relative density and refractive index, were measured. The chemical components of 20 essential oils were analyzed by GC-MS, and divided into 12 categories according to skeleton features and functional groups. Finally, Logistic regression analysis was applied to reveal the correlations. The results proved that five flavors, four tastes and channel tropisms showed the correlation with chemical composition of essential oils (Pdrug properties of traditional Chinese medicine and the chemical composition of essential oils. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Although Chinese medicine treatments have become popular recently, the complicated Chinese medical knowledge has made it difficult to be applied in computer-aided diagnostics. The ability to model and use the knowledge becomes an important issue. In this paper, we define the diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM as discovering the fuzzy relations between symptoms and syndromes. An Ontology-oriented Diagnosis System (ODS is created to address the knowledge-based diagnosis based on a well-defined ontology of syndromes. The ontology transforms the implicit relationships among syndromes into a machine-interpretable model. The clinical data used for feature selection is collected from a national TCM research institute in China, which serves as a training source for syndrome differentiation. The ODS analyzes the clinical cases to obtain a statistical mapping relation between each syndrome and associated symptom set, before rechecking the completeness of related symptoms via ontology refinement. Our diagnostic system provides an online web interface to interact with users, so that users can perform self-diagnosis. We tested 12 common clinical cases on the diagnosis system, and it turned out that, given the agree metric, the system achieved better diagnostic accuracy compared to nonontology method—92% of the results fit perfectly with the experts’ expectations.
Gu, Peiqin; Chen, Huajun; Yu, Tong
Although Chinese medicine treatments have become popular recently, the complicated Chinese medical knowledge has made it difficult to be applied in computer-aided diagnostics. The ability to model and use the knowledge becomes an important issue. In this paper, we define the diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as discovering the fuzzy relations between symptoms and syndromes. An Ontology-oriented Diagnosis System (ODS) is created to address the knowledge-based diagnosis based on a well-defined ontology of syndromes. The ontology transforms the implicit relationships among syndromes into a machine-interpretable model. The clinical data used for feature selection is collected from a national TCM research institute in China, which serves as a training source for syndrome differentiation. The ODS analyzes the clinical cases to obtain a statistical mapping relation between each syndrome and associated symptom set, before rechecking the completeness of related symptoms via ontology refinement. Our diagnostic system provides an online web interface to interact with users, so that users can perform self-diagnosis. We tested 12 common clinical cases on the diagnosis system, and it turned out that, given the agree metric, the system achieved better diagnostic accuracy compared to nonontology method-92% of the results fit perfectly with the experts' expectations.
Peng, W; Sibbritt, D W; Hickman, L; Kong, X; Yang, L; Adams, J
To provide the first critical review of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) use amongst symptomatic menopausal women, drawing upon work examining the perspectives of both TCM users and TCM practitioners. A search was conducted in three English-language databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL and AMED) and three Chinese-language databases (CNKI, VIP and CBM Disc) for 2002-2013 international peer-reviewed articles reporting empirical findings of TCM use in menopause. A total of 25 journal articles reporting 22 studies were identified as meeting the review inclusion criteria. Chinese herbal medicine appears to be the most common therapy amongst symptomatic menopausal women, and vasomotor symptoms and emotional changes are the most frequent symptoms for which TCM is sought. However, evidence regarding the prevalence of TCM use and users' profile in menopause is limited. Existing studies are of varied methodological quality, often reporting low response rate, extensive recall bias and a lack of syndrome differentiation. This review provides insights for practitioners and health policy-makers regarding TCM care to symptomatic menopausal women. More nationally representative studies are required to rigorously examine TCM use for the management of menopausal symptoms. Syndrome differentiation of menopausal women is an area which also warrants further attention.
Yu, Xin; Sun, Shuang; Guo, Yuyan; Liu, Yan; Yang, Dayu; Li, Guoyu; Lü, Shaowa
Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Rutaceae, CRP), commonly called as Chenpi () in Chinese, is most frequently used as a qi-regulating drug in thousands of Chinese medicine prescriptions. CRP is found mainly in major citrus-producing areas such as the Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Fujian, and Zhejiang Provinces of China. Since thousands of years in China, CRP has been used widely in clinical practice to treat nausea, vomiting, indigestion, anepithymia, diarrhea, cough, expectoration, and so on. Currently, CRP is listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. The present paper reviews the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, quality control, and toxicology of CRP. Information on CRP was gathered from various sources including the books on traditional Chinese herbal medicine; scientific databases including Elsevier, PubMed, and ScienceDirect; Baidu Scholar; CNKI; and others and from different professional websites. Approximately 140 chemical compounds have been isolated and identified from CRP. Among them, volatile oils and flavonoids are generally considered as the main bioactive and characteristic ingredients. CRP possesses wide pharmacological effects such as having a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular, digestive, and respiratory systems, antitumor, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties; and a protective effect on the liver and nerve. Moreover, hesperidin is chosen as an indicator in the quantitative determination of CRP, and the quantity of aflatoxin in CRP must not exceed the standard limit mentioned in the pharmacopoeia. In brief, CRP has a warming nature, and hence, it can be used in harmony with a lot of medicines. CRP not only exhibits its effects individually but also aids other medicines exhibit a better effect. CRP can be consumed with tea, food, alcohol, and medicine. Irrespective of the form it is being consumed, CRP not only shows a synergistic effect but also has strengths on its own. Modern pharmacological
Wang, Xijun; Zhang, Aihua; Sun, Hui; Wang, Ping
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), an alternative medicine, focuses on the treatment of human disease via the integrity of the close relationship between body and syndrome analysis. It remains a form of primary care in most Asian countries and its characteristics showcase the great advantages of personalized medicine. Although this approach to disease diagnosis, prognosis and treatment has served the medical establishment well for thousands of years, it has serious shortcomings in the era of modern medicine that stem from its reliance on reductionist principles of experimentation and analysis. In this way, systems biology offers the potential to personalize medicine, facilitating the provision of the right care to the right patient at the right time. We expect that systems biology will have a major impact on future personalized therapeutic approaches which herald the future of medicine. Here we summarize current trends and critically review the potential limitations and future prospects of such treatments. Some characteristic examples are presented to highlight the application of this groundbreaking platform to personalized TCM as well as some of the necessary milestones for moving systems biology of a state-of-the-art nature into mainstream health care.
Full Text Available Objective: In this study, the current literatures on the use of herbs and herbal preparations of Traditional Chinese and Indian Medicine for the treatment of opioid addiction were reviewed. Methods: Search was done in databases such as Pub Med, Science Direct, Scopus, Springer Link, and Google Scholar. Results: Among 18 retrieved studies, 3 studies were about asafetida extract, an approved preparation for ameliorating drug abstinence in China. Chinese preparations including Composite Dong Yuan Gao, Qingjunyin and TJ-97 (a water extract of dai-bofu-to as well as Indian ones, Mentate and Shilajit, were reported to have positive effects against opioid withdrawal, dependence, and tolerance. Moreover, Levo-tetrahydropalmatine and L-Stepholidine, in addition to extracts of Caulis Sinomenii and Sinomenium acutum showed similar effects. Banxia Houpu Decoction, Fu-Yuan pellet, Jinniu capsules, Qingjunyin, Tai-Kang-Ning capsule, and Xuan Xia Qudu Jiaonang (WeiniCom from Chinese preparations, showed anti-addiction effects in randomized, double-blind and, in some studies, multicenter clinical trials. Conclusion: Traditional herbal preparations of China and India have anti-addiction effects with less adverse effects than alpha2-adrenergic or opioid agonists.
Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Li; Zou, Jun
Researchers found that oxidative stress was closely related to the development of diabetes, and hyperglycemia was a main cause for oxidative stress. Many researchers have proved that oxidative stress, present in diabetes, can aggravate diabetes. Now, traditional Chinese medicines have certain treatment and relief effects for oxidative stress in diabetes, but there are no scientific and systematic conclusions on the efficacy of different Chinese medicines for diabetes and complications. Tomakea scientific and systematic review on the recent years' researches on antioxidation effects of traditional Chinese medication polysaccharides for diabetes, analyze the antioxidation effects of sports in treatment of diabetes, and provide the reference and basis for medications and sports in diabetic patients, as well as prevention and treatments of diabetes and complications from aspects of "internal nursing and external workouts". Databases of CNKI and PubMed were retrieved with key words of "diabetes, oxidative stress, antioxidant, traditional Chinese medication, polysaccharide, sports" in both Chinese and English from Jan 2000 to Apr 2016.Finally 118 papers were included in for analysis and review. Polysaccharides of traditional Chinese medications as well as sports have antioxidation effects for diabetes and its complications, and the combination of these two would produce huge significance for relieving oxidative stress in diabetes, as well as for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. We need further researches on the levels of oxidative stress markers, doses of Chinese medicines, and the time of taking medications. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Li, Ling; Bonneton, François; Chen, Xiao Yong; Laudet, Vincent
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are major pharmacological targets that allow an access to the mechanisms controlling gene regulation. As such, some NRs were identified as biological targets of active compounds contained in herbal remedies found in traditional medicines. We aim here to review this expanding literature by focusing on the informative articles regarding the mechanisms of action of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). We exemplified well-characterized TCM action mediated by NR such as steroid receptors (ER, GR, AR), metabolic receptors (PPAR, LXR, FXR, PXR, CAR) and RXR. We also provided, when possible, examples from other traditional medicines. From these, we draw a parallel between TCMs and phytoestrogens or endocrine disrupting chemicals also acting via NR. We define common principle of action and highlight the potential and limits of those compounds. TCMs, by finely tuning physiological reactions in positive and negative manners, could act, in a subtle but efficient way, on NR sensors and their transcriptional network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Identified as a treasure of natural herbal products, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has attracted extensive attention for their moderate treatment effect and lower side effect. Cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD are a leading cause of death. TCM is used in China to prevent and treat CCVD. However, the complexity of TCM poses challenges in understanding the mechanisms of herbs at a systems-level, thus hampering the modernization and globalization of TCM. A novel model, termed traditional Chinese medicine systems pharmacology (TCMSP analysis platform, which relies on the theory of systems pharmacology and integrates absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADME/T evaluation, target prediction and network/pathway analysis, was proposed to address these problems. Here, we review the development of systems pharmacology, the TCMSP approach and its applications in the investigations of CCVD and compare it with other methods. TCMSP assists in uncovering the mechanisms of action of herbal formulas used in treating CCVD. It can also be applied in ascertaining the different syndrome patterns of coronary artery disease, decoding the multi-scale mechanisms of herbs, and in understanding the mechanisms of herbal synergism.
Yao, Zhi-Hong; Qin, Zi-Fei; Dai, Yi; Yao, Xin-Sheng
Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus (Xiebai in Chinese), as a famous traditional Chinese medicine, has great medicinal and dietary values since ancient times. In China, the dry bulbs of Allium macrostemon and Allium chinense are both used as its original plants. Pharmacological studies have revealed that both of them could increase plasminogen activator activity and prolong the effect of coagulation to achieve antiplatelet aggregation which validates their traditional uses for the treatment of thoracic obstruction and cardialgia in clinics. Besides, several other significant activities, including lipid-lowering, anti-atherosclerosis, antitumor, antispasmodic, antibacterial, antioxidant, and insecticidal activities, have already been reported. The volatile oils, nitrogenous compounds, and steroidal saponins are the major beneficial compounds. Among them, steroidal saponins are considered as the characteristic constituents. In this review, the current information concerning the phytochemistry and pharmacology of Allii Macrostemonis Bulbus is summarized comprehensively. In addition, several research future perspectives are presented, especially the mechanism of bioactive components and fraction from the bulbs of Allium macrostemon and Allium chinense. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Utilization Pattern and Drug Use of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Western Medicine, and Integrated Chinese-Western Medicine Treatments for Allergic Rhinitis Under the National Health Insurance Program in Taiwan.
Huang, Sheng-Kang; Lai, Chih-Sung; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Ho, Yu-Ling
Patients in Taiwan with allergic rhinitis seek not only Western medicine treatment but also Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment or integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment. Various studies have conducted pairwise comparison on Traditional Chinese Medicine, Western medicine, and integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatments. However, none conducted simultaneous analysis of the three treatments. This study analyzed patients with allergic rhinitis receiving the three treatments to identify differences in demographic characteristic and medical use and thereby to determine drug use patterns of different treatments. The National Health Insurance Research Database was the data source, and included patients were those diagnosed with allergic rhinitis (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 470-478). Chi-square test and Tukey studentized range (honest significant difference) test were conducted to investigate the differences among the three treatments. Visit frequency for allergic rhinitis treatment was higher in female than male patients, regardless of treatment with Traditional Chinese Medicine, Western medicine, or integrated Chinese-Western medicine. Persons aged 0-19 years ranked the highest in proportion of visits for allergic rhinitis. Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment had more medical items per person-time and daily drug cost per person-time and had the lowest total expenditure per person-time. In contrast, Western medicine had the lowest daily drug cost per person-time and the highest total expenditure per person-time. The total expenditure per person-time, daily drug cost per person-time, and medical items per person-time of integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment lay between those seen with Traditional Chinese Medicine and Western medicine treatments. Although only 6.82 % of patients with allergic rhinitis chose integrated Chinese-Western medicine treatment, the visit frequency per person-year of
Xu, Wei-Cheng; Jiang, Hong; Ma, Jun
Edema, as one of common clinical diseases, could be treated by taking medicines and adopting external therapies with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM). In recent years, there have been many clinical and basic studies concerning external therapies with TCM on edema Data showed that the external therapies are mostly composed of such purgating drugs as Rhei Radix et Rhizoma, Natrii Sulfas and Pharbitidis Semen, heat-clearing drug such as Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex and resuscitation-inducing drug such as Borneolum Syntheticum. The study showed that ingredients of external therapies did not pass through hilum and hepatic system, and thus avoided the first pass effect of livers. They enabled effective components of drugs to be rapidly absorbed through pores and skins, strengthened the effect against edema, shortened the treatment course, decreased side effects, and were convenient and inexpensive. External therapies with TCM could play unique advantages in inhibiting edema in the future clinical studies.
Yang, Wenzhi; Zhang, Yibei; Wu, Wanying; Huang, Luqi; Guo, Dean; Liu, Changxiao
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic "multicomponent and multitarget" feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as "herbal medicine" or "natural product", and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory. A concept of "quality marker" (Q-marker), following the "property-effect-component" theory, is proposed. The establishment of Q-marker integrates multidisciplinary technologies like natural products chemistry, analytical chemistry, bionics, chemometrics, pharmacology, systems biology, and pharmacodynamics, etc. Q-marker-based fingerprint and multicomponent determination conduce to the construction of more scientific quality control system of TCM. This review delineates the background, definition, and properties of Q-marker, and the associated technologies applied for its establishment. Strategies and approaches for establishing Q-marker-based TCM quality control system are presented and highlighted with a few TCM examples.
Han, Xue; Jiang, Hong; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Xiong, Xi; Jiao, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Ding-Kun; Yang, Ming
Current evaluation method for astringency is mainly focused on human sensory evaluation. However, it is subjective, vague, and short of assessment indicators for objective quantification. In this paper, the quantification method for astringent intensity of traditional Chinese medicine was established based on the animal preference index and electronic tongue in vitro and in vivo. Firstly, the standard substance of astringency, tannic acid, was used for the methodology optimization and validation of two-bottle preference test. It was determined that the standard experimental animals were female rats of 140-180 g. The functional relationship between concentration of tannic acid and preference index was obtained Y= ln(1.682 6－0.441 66X), r=0.997 3. Then the typical astringent Chinese herbs Chebulae Fructus, Ardisiae Japonicae Herba, Canarii Fructus, Catechu, and Arecae Pericarpium were evaluated by the optimized method. Their corresponding concentration of tannic acid was converted by the concentration-preference index relationship through preference index. Their astringency was equivalent to 0.56, 0.29, 0.24, 0.34, 0.25 g•L⁻¹ tannic acid. Finally, the results were verified by electronic tongue. The correction analysis between Euclidean distance in PCA and preference index and concentration of tannic acid converted by samples showed a high correlation through pearson correlation analysis. The above results indicated that the method was objective, true and reliable. The method provided a reliable tool for the quantification of astringency and evaluation of taste masking effect for Chinese medicines, and also offered a new idea and model for the quantification of taste in the pharmaceutical and food fields. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Zhou, Lihong; Nunes, Miguel Baptista
This paper reports on a research project that aims at identifying knowledge sharing (KS) barriers between traditional and western medicine practitioners co-existing and complementing each other in Chinese healthcare organisations. The study focuses on the tacit aspects of patient knowledge, rather than the traditional technical information shared…
Julia A Devonish
Full Text Available Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and its related management costs have increased over time. The latest predictions anticipate this trend to continue during the next few decades. As individuals with T2DM in the United States (US are burdened with escalating prescription drug expenses, the appeal and use of cost effective alternatives may also increase. Herbal supplements are an example of such an alternative, but are unregulated and mostly lacking scientific evidence of advertised claims. In general, plant based herbal preparations are often advertised as ‘natural’, ‘less-toxic’, ‘medicines’ and are widely available from public retailers throughout the country. Over half of the US adult population report the use of supplements. Eastern countries, and especially China, have a long history of the use of herbal preparations as traditional medicine to prevent and treat diabetes. Recently the US has experienced a growth in the number imports of herbal supplements and other Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM to the country as well as the most rapid population growth in individuals who identify themselves as Asian. To date, little is known about the prevalence TCM use in the management of T2DM either alone or in combination with prescription medicines in the US. Knowledge of possible implications to patient safety (e.g., interactions, adverse effects with concurrent use of both TCM and prescription medicines is also lacking. This review begins with summaries of the T2DM management strategies employed in traditional modern medicine (TMM and Chinese medicine (TCM. A review of literature follows where the most commonly used TCM herbal preparations and their ingredients are identified and found along with any published reports of their proposed mechanisms of action, efficacy, adverse effects, and contraindications. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or
Wang, Liang; Suo, Sizhuo; Li, Jian; Hu, Yuanjia; Li, Peng; Wang, Yitao; Hu, Hao
This paper aims to investigate the development trend of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) hospitals in China and explore their medical service innovations, with special reference to the changing co-existence with western medicine (WM) at TCM hospitals. Quantitative data at macro level was collected from official databases of China Health Statistical Yearbook and Extracts of Traditional Chinese Medicine Statistics. Qualitative data at micro level was gathered through interviews and second-hand material collection at two of the top-level TCM hospitals. In both outpatient and inpatient sectors of TCM hospitals, drug fees accounted for the biggest part of hospital revenue. Application of WM medical exanimation increased in both outpatient and inpatient services. Even though the demand for WM drugs was much higher in inpatient care, TCM drugs was the winner in the outpatient. Also qualitative evidence showed that TCM dominated the outpatient hospital service with WM incorporated in the assisting role. However, it was in the inpatient medical care that WM prevailed over TCM which was mostly applied to the rehabilitation of patients. By drawing on WM while keeping it active in supporting and strengthening the TCM operation in the TCM hospital, the current system accommodates the overriding objective which is for TCM to evolve into a fully informed and more viable medical field. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ma Liming; Qiu Suyun; Li Jiangcheng; Hong Yu; Yang Hongwen; Chen Yi; Wang Guanglin; Zhou Ping; Zhao Jihua; Yuan Rongguo
To investigate the method and curative effect of associated treatment for Graves Disease (GD) with traditional Chinese medicine and 131 I. 100 patients with GD were randomly divided into two groups, the patients in group A was only given 131 I treatment and the patients in group B was given traditional Chinese medicine (Shimaiqing Fluid, 3 times of 20 mL per day for 40 days) after 7 days of 131 I treatment. The serum FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH were measured before and 30 and 90 days after treatment. 8 cardinal symptoms were selected and Kupperman 4-grade grading method was used to assess the remission of the disease. The Results showed that the symptoms of patients in group B were improved ahead of time, and pass through the FT 3 and FT 4 rebound elevation period safely after one month of 131 I treatment. The symptoms of patients in group A after 30 days treatment were more serious than that of before treatment, the levels of serum FT 3 and FT 4 were both higher than those of before treatment. The symptoms of patients in group B after 90 days treatment were improved significantly, and the levels of serum FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH were in normal value. The clinical symptoms of patients in group A were improved, but the levels of serum FT 3 and FT 4 were lower and TSH was higher than normal value. The curative effect in group B was better than that in group A, the patients passed through the high risk period safely after 30 days treatment, and the hypothyroidism rate was decreased after 90 days treatment. The Shimaiqing Fluid is a nontoxic and safe medicine, and it may be widely used in clinical treatment for patients with GD. (authors)
Bian, Zhaoxiang; Liu, Baoyan; Moher, David; Wu, Taixiang; Li, Youping; Shang, Hongcai; Cheng, Chungwah
The reporting standards for randomized controlled trials were first published in 1996 by a group of scientists under the name "CONSORT," which means consolidated standards of reporting trials. Revisions followed in 2001 and 2010. A draft of the CONSORT for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) was published in both Chinese and English in 2007. After publication of the draft, comments were solicited from the medical community. Some papers did raise concerns about which items should be included in the CONSORT for TCM such as the rationale of the trial design, intervention, outcome assessment, and adverse events. We have now reached the next step which is the finalization of the CONSORT for TCM. Three tasks remain. First, the major changes in CONSORT statement 2010 should be integrated into the CONSORT for TCM. Second, Chinese drugs from minerals and animals should be included in the guidelines. Finally, agreement must be reached among the working groups. Once the draft is finalized, wide dissemination and co-publication will be considered.
Full Text Available China has become one of the leading counties in the world to treat hepatic fibrosis with Chinese patent drugs. The therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM should be evaluated from the aspects of short-term therapeutic effect, long-term therapeutic effect, and effect of relief of symptoms. This article introduces the results of our exploration of the application of liver stiffness measurement to evaluate therapeutic effect, five-year survival rate to assess long-term therapeutic effect, and a “TCM syndrome scale” to evaluate effect of relief of symptoms, suggesting that the Chinese patent drug Fuzheng Huayu capsules/tablets have a marked clinical effect in the treatment of hepatic fibrosis. It is recommended to use serological diagnostic models, conduct prospective studies with long-term follow-up, and analyze the samples and data accumulated over a long period of time, in order to perfect the methods for evaluating the outcome of hepatic fibrosis.
Zhang, Hong Wei; Lin, Zhi Xiu; Tung, Yuk Stewart; Kwan, Tze Hoi; Mok, Chun Keung; Leung, Connie; Chan, Lai Sum
Cordyceps sinensis (Cordyceps, Dong Chong Xia Cao), a herbal medicine also known as Chinese caterpillar fungus, is one of the most commonly used ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects and potential adverse effects of Cordyceps sinensis for the treatment of people with CKD. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register to 14 April 2014 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We also searched CINAHL, AMED, Current Controlled Trials, OpenSIGLE, and Chinese databases including CBM, CMCC, TCMLARS, Chinese Dissertation Database, CMAC and Index to Chinese Periodical Literature. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing Cordyceps or its products with placebo, no treatment, or conventional treatment were considered for inclusion in the review. Two authors independently assessed data quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We included 22 studies that involved 1746 participants. Among people with CKD who were not receiving dialysis, Cordyceps preparations were found to significantly decrease serum creatinine (14 studies, 987 participants): MD -60.76 μmol/L, 95% CI -85.82 to -35.71); increase creatinine clearance (6 studies, 362 participants): MD 9.22 mL/min, 95% CI 3.10 to 15.34) and reduce 24 hour proteinuria (4 studies, 211 participants: MD -0.15 g/24 h, 95% CI -0.24 to -0.05). However, suboptimal reporting and flawed methodological approaches meant that risk of bias was assessed as high in four studies and unclear in 18 studies, and hence, these results need to be interpreted with caution. We found that Cordyceps preparation, as an adjuvant therapy to conventional medicine
Ku, Y R; Chang, Y S; Wen, K C; Ho, L K
Six synthetic anorexics, clobenzorex, diethylpropion, fenfluramine, methamphetamine, phenylpropanolamine and phentermine, which can be found as adulterants in traditional Chinese medicines were assayed simultaneously by high-performance capillary electrophoresis. The electrolyte was a buffer solution containing 120 mM phosphate buffer (NaH2PO4/H3PO4, pH 2.0) and 15% acetonitrile. Applied voltage was 16 kV and temperature was 30 degrees C. Fluoren-2,7-diammonium chloride was used as an internal standard and detector set at 200 nm. The recoveries of the synthetic anorexic adulterants in traditional Chinese medicinal formula using C8-SCX mixed solid-phase extraction were studied. Several traditional Chinese medicinal powders obtained from clinics were also studied by the above HPCE method and confirmed by GC-MS. Clobenzorex, diethylpropion and fenfluramine were found and determine in these samples.
Liu, Zhi-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Bo
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the characteristics of holistic view and treatment based on syndrome differentiation, has rich clinical experience thousands of years and demonstrates promising effects to cure complex disease. However, due to the features of multi-component, multi-target and synergistic effect existed in TCM, the effective substances and mechanisms of action are not clear, the qualities of TCM are out of control, and scientific and correct assess system is waiting to be established. The network pharmacology is a novel subject based on the construction of multi-layer networks of disease-phenotype-gene-drug to predict the drug targets in a holistic view, and promote efficiency of drug discovery. Methodologically, network pharmacology integrated the notions of comprehensive research and systematic assessment which agree with the characteristics of holistic view and treatment based on syndrome differentiation in Chinese medicine. Our paper reviewed the challenge and chance within the modernization of TCM, the concept and technology of network pharmacology, and its preliminary application in investigation of TCM. The theoretical system of network pharmacology is emphasized, and the potential prospect of its application in modernization in TCM is focused.
Zhang, Wenjuan; Tao, Qin; Guo, Zihu; Fu, Yingxue; Chen, Xuetong; Shar, Piar Ali; Shahen, Mohamed; Zhu, Jinglin; Xue, Jun; Bai, Yaofei; Wu, Ziyin; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei; Wang, Yonghua
Though cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and gastrointestinal disorders (GIDs) are different diseases associated with different organs, they are highly correlated clinically. Importantly, in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), similar treatment strategies have been applied in both diseases. However, the etiological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Here, an integrated systems pharmacology approach is presented for illustrating the molecular correlations between CVDs and GIDs. Firstly, we identified pairs of genes that are associated with CVDs and GIDs and found that these genes are functionally related. Then, the association between 115 heart meridian (HM) herbs and 163 stomach meridian (SM) herbs and their combination application in Chinese patent medicine was investigated, implying that both CVDs and GIDs can be treated by the same strategy. Exemplified by a classical formula Sanhe Decoration (SHD) treating chronic gastritis, we applied systems-based analysis to introduce a drug-target-pathway-organ network that clarifies mechanisms of different diseases being treated by the same strategy. The results indicate that SHD regulated several pathological processes involved in both CVDs and GIDs. We experimentally confirmed the predictions implied by the effect of SHD for myocardial ischemia. The systems pharmacology suggests a novel integrated strategy for rational drug development for complex associated diseases.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has played a pivotal role in maintaining the health of Chinese people and is now gaining increasing acceptance around the global scope. However, TCM is confronting more and more concerns with respect to its quality. The intrinsic “multicomponent and multitarget” feature of TCM necessitates the establishment of a unique quality and bioactivity evaluation system, which is different from that of the Western medicine. However, TCM is investigated essentially as “herbal medicine” or “natural product”, and the pharmacopoeia quality monographs are actually chemical-markers-based, which can ensure the consistency only in the assigned chemical markers, but, to some extent, have deviated from the basic TCM theory. A concept of “quality marker” (Q-marker, following the “property-effect-component” theory, is proposed. The establishment of Q-marker integrates multidisciplinary technologies like natural products chemistry, analytical chemistry, bionics, chemometrics, pharmacology, systems biology, and pharmacodynamics, etc. Q-marker-based fingerprint and multicomponent determination conduce to the construction of more scientific quality control system of TCM. This review delineates the background, definition, and properties of Q-marker, and the associated technologies applied for its establishment. Strategies and approaches for establishing Q-marker-based TCM quality control system are presented and highlighted with a few TCM examples.
Yanuar Alan Sulistio
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing worldwide interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. This increasing demand for TCM needs to be accompanied by a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of action of TCM-based therapy. However, TCM is often described as a concept of Chinese philosophy, which is incomprehensible for Western medical society, thereby creating a gap between TCM and Western medicine (WM. In order to meet this challenge, TCM research has applied proteomics technologies for exploring the mechanisms of action of TCM treatment. Proteomics enables TCM researchers to oversee various pathways that are affected by treatment, as well as the dynamics of their interactions with one another. This review discusses the utility of comparative proteomics to better understand how TCM treatment may be used as a complementary therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Additionally, we review the data from comparative AD-related TCM proteomics studies and establish the relevance of the data with available AD hypotheses, most notably regarding the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS.
Xie, Weidong; Zhao, Yunan; Zhang, Yaou
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) occurs in 95% of the diabetic populations. Management of T2DM is a challenge. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) are usually served as adjuvants used to improve diabetic syndromes in combination of routine antidiabetic drugs. For single-herb prescriptions, Ginseng, Bitter melon, Golden Thread, Fenugreek, Garlic, and Cinnamon might have antidiabetic effects in T2DM patients. Among 30 antidiabetic formulas approved by the State Food and Drugs Administrator of China, top 10 of the most frequently prescribed herbs are Membranous Milkvetch Root, Rehmannia Root, Mongolian Snakegourd Root, Ginseng, Chinese Magnoliavine Fruit, Kudzuvine Root, Dwarf Lilyturf Tuber, Common Anemarrhena Rhizome, Barbary Wolfberry Fruit, and India Bread, which mainly guided by the theory of TCM. Their action mechanisms are related to improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate insulin secretion, protect pancreatic islets, and even inhibit intake of intestinal carbohydrates. However, it is very difficult to determine antihyperglycemic components of TCM. Nevertheless, TCM are becoming popular complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of syndromes of T2DM. In the future, it requires further validation of phytochemical, pharmacological, and clinical natures of TCM in T2DM in the future studies, especially for those herbs with a high prescription frequency. PMID:21584252
Li, Wenli; Zhang, Zhengyao; Lin, Lan; Terenius, Olle
Sericulture was developed in China in ancient times. Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Méneville was domesticated at least 2,000 yr ago, and Chinese farmers developed artificial rearing of A. pernyi before the 17th century. Today, >60,000 tons of cocoons are produced in China each year, which accounts for 90% of the world production. Despite the widespread utilization of A. pernyi in China and a long history of domestic research, the knowledge of A. pernyi outside China is limited. Therefore, we have in this paper summarized the production, usage, and breeding of A. pernyi. The foremost usage of A. pernyi is as silk producers; however, about 55-70% is used for other purposes. In this paper, we give examples of how the different developmental stages are used as a food source for human consumption and in traditional Chinese medicine, both directly in different preparations and also as a nutrient source for rearing medicinal fungi. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Yuan Wenming; Xu Lin; Zhang Mingming; Li Jing; Li Yulin; Wang Ling; Wang Gang; Hopewell Sally
Abstract Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the ...
Wang, Hai-Yan; Jiang, Liang-Duo; Ma, Qing; Xu, Dong; Tang, Shi-Huan; Luo, Zeng-Gang
In the clinical practice, Professor Jiang Liangduo, a national senior Chinese medicine doctor, has created the theory of "sanjiao meridian stasis" from the theory of meridian dialectics and from the overall state. In this paper, the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine clinical characteristics of sanjiao meridian stasis theory which is often used by Professor Jiang Liangduo in the treatment of out-patient syndrome differentiation, were first studied and summarized to investigate its inherent regularity. First, the source of data and research methods were introduced, and then the Traditional Chinese Medicine Inheritance Support System was used with the method of data mining to retrospectively analyze the disease characteristics of Chinese and Western medicine in 279 patients with sanjiao meridian stasis diagnosed by Professor Jiang in 2014. Then the following main conclusions were made after research: sanjiao meridian stasis was more common in women as well as young and middle-aged population. Often manifested by prolonged treatment course, red tongue with yellowishfur, with good correlation between modern Western medicine diagnosis and TCM differentiation syndrome. The symptoms of sanjiao meridian stasis syndrome are mostly of heat syndromes, and middle-aged patients are the most common patients with stasis and stasis of sanjiao. Related information of Western medicine diagnosis can help to diagnose the "sanjiao meridian stasis". Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Chronic heart failure (CHF is a global public health problem. Therefore, novel and effective drugs that show few side-effects are needed. Early literature studies indicated that Huangqi injection is one of the most commonly used traditional Chinese patent medicines for CHF in China. As a large number of clinical studies has been carried out and published, it is essential to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Huangqi injection. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review under the support of the framework of the Joint Sino-Italian Laboratory (JoSIL.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection for CHF according to the available scientific knowledge.An extensive search including PubMed, EMBASE, CBM, the Cochrane Library and Chinese literature databases was performed up to July 2008. Clinical trials regarding Huangqi injection for the treatment of CHF were searched for, irrespective of languages. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook 5.0, and RevMan 5.0 provided by the Cochrane Collaboration and STATA 9.2 were used for data analysis.After selection of 1,205 articles, 62 RCTs and quasi-RCTs conducted in China and published in Chinese journals were included in the review. The methodological quality of the trials was low. In most trials inclusion and exclusion criteria were not specified. Furthermore, only one study evaluated the outcomes for drug efficacy after an adequate period of time. For these reasons and because of the different baseline characteristics we did not conduct a meta-analysis.Although available studies are not adequate to draw a conclusion on the efficacy and safety of Huangqi injection (a traditional Chinese patent medicine, we hope that our work could provide useful experience on further studies on Huangqi injections. The overall level of TCM clinical research needs to be improved so that the efficacy of TCM can be evaluated by the international community and
Full Text Available Recently, an important topic of breast cancer had been published in 2013. In this report, estrogen receptor (ESR1 had defined the relation of hormone-cause breast cancer. The screening of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM database has found the molecular compounds by simulating molecular docking and molecular dynamics to regulate ESR1. S-Allylmercaptocysteine and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan are selected according to the highest docking score than that of other TCM compounds and Raloxifene (control. The simulation from molecular dynamics is helpful in analyzing and detecting the protein-ligand interactions. After a comparing the control and the Apo form, then based on the docking poses, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bond and structure variations, this research postulates that S-allylmercaptocysteine may be more appropriate than other compounds for protein-ligand interaction.
Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage destruction, synovial inflammation, and osteophyte formation. No effective treatments are available. The current pharmacological medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and analgesics, accompanied by possible adverse effects, might ameliorate OA symptoms. But they do not arrest the progression of OA. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM provides medical value by modification of disease and symptoms in OA. Valuable work on exploring TCM merits for OA patients has been investigated using modern technologies, although the complicated interacting network among the numerous components indicates the uncertainty of target specification. This review will provide an overview of the action mechanism of TCM in the last 5 years, discussing the TCM activities of anti-inflammation, antiapoptosis, antioxidation, anticatabolism, and proliferation in OA. TCM is a proposed medical option for OA treatment.
Wang, Chengxiao; Ma, Jianfang; Liu, Ran; Han, Wei; Tang, Xiuzhen
To design and evaluate a novel pressure sensitive adhesive (PSA) patch containing traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) using styrene-isoprene-styrene (SIS) copolymer. A mixture D-optimal design with ternary response surface diagram was employed in the optimization process. The proportions of SIS copolymer, tackifying resin and plasticizer were selected as the independent variables while tack force, peel strength of the patch and skin penetrability of methyl salicylate were selected as the dependent variables. The optimized patch was then evaluated including in vivo absorption, pharmacological activities and skin irritation, by comparing with a commercial patch based on natural rubber. The optimized patch, which comprised 30.0% SIS copolymer, 26.6% tackifying resin and 43.4% plasticizer, was superior to commercial patch in skin permeation, pharmacological activities and skin biocompatibility. SIS copolymer was a suitable substitute to natural rubber in producing patches containing TCM formula.
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, characterized with bradykinesia, static tremor, rigidity and disturbances in balance, is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Along with the largely aging population in the world, the incidence is increasing year by year, which imposes the negative impacts on patients, their families and the whole society. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a positive prospect for the prevention and cure of PD due to its advantages of less side effects and multi-target effects. At present, the pathogenesis of PD is not yet fully discovered. This paper elaborates the mechanisms of TCM underlying the prevention and treatment of PD with regards to the inhibition of oxidative stress, the regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, the reduction of toxic excitatory amino acids (EAA, the inhibition of neuroinflammation, the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and the inhibition of abnormal protein aggregation.
Full Text Available The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM constitution theory is an important means to reveal the host′s genetic characteristics from the perspective of TCM. The types of constitution can influence liver pathological changes and the prognosis of disease in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection, and to a certain degree, they are associated with the polymorphisms of genes involved in immunoregulation, for example, human leukocyte antigen(HLA class Ⅱ gene. Yin-deficiency constitution is associated with various adverse clinical outcomes, as well as the genotypes of genes including HLA-DQA1*0501. Preliminary data also show that the chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients with yin-deficiency constitution have a poor response to interferon therapy. This article reviews the current application of TCM constitution theory in the diagnosis and treatment of CHB, its potential value, and existing problems.
Ni, Liang; Wang, Rong-Bing; Yang, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Hui; Tan, Xing-Hua; Wang, Cui-Fang; Li, Feng
To study the AIDS-related chronic diarrhea in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clinical manifestations and syndrome factors, explore the characteristics of syndrome. A multicenter, prospective collection of 311 cases of AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea, study the characteristics of TCM syndrome by using the method of descriptive statistics and exploratory factor analysis. The common clinical manifestation of TCM: fatigue (229 cases, 73.63%), bowel (229 cases, 68.81%), diarrhea (194 cases, 62.38%), thin fur (201 cases, 64.63%), pink tongue (166 cases, 53.38%), greasy fur, thready pulse (126 cases, 40.51%), sink vein (64 cases, 20.58%), slippery pulse. 17 common factors were extracted, common disease syndrome factor as the spleen, stomach, liver, gallbladder and colon syndrome factors of disease, Qi, Yang deficiency, Qi stagnation, dampness and heat evil. AIDS-related chronic diarrhea symptoms involving multiple organs, the disease belongs to deficiency and excess.
Song, Ping; Lysvand, Hilde; Yuhe, Yan; Liu, Wali; Iversen, Ole-Jan
Pso p27 is shown to be an autoantigen in psoriasis and the objective of the present study was to investigate whether Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) would influence the expression of Pso p27. Skin biopsies obtained from psoriatic patients before and after treatment with TCM were analyzed for the presence of Pso p27 antigen by indirect immunofluorescence using murine monoclonal antibodies against Pso p27. A significant reduction in the amount of Pso p27 in the psoriatic skin was obtained after treatment with TCM for 3 months. The presence of Pso p27 in psoriatic skin is reduced when psoriatic patients are treated with TCM. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is a distinct medical system that deals with the life–health–disease–environment relationship using holistic, dynamic, and dialectical thinking. However, reductionism has often restricted the conventional studies on TCM, and these studies did not investigate the central concepts of TCM theory about the multiple relationships among life, health, disease, and environment. Complex network analysis describes a wide variety of complex systems in the real world, and it has the potential to bridge the gap between TCM and modern science owing to the holism of TCM theory. This article summarizes the current research involving TCM network analysis and highlights the computational tools and analysis methods involved in this research. Finally, to inspire a new approach, the article discussed the potential problems underlying the application of TCM network analysis.
Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Cai, Xiongwei
In previous paper, process-specific times (PSTs) are defined by use of molecular reaction dynamics and time quantum theory established by TCY Liu et al., and the change of PSTs representing two weakly nonlinearly coupled bio-processes are shown to be parallel, which is called time parallel principle (TPP). The PST of a physiological process (PP) is called physiological time (PT). After the PTs of two PPs are compared with their Yin-Yang property of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the PST model of Yin and Yang (YPTM) was put forward: for two related processes, the process of small PST is Yin, and the other process is Yang. The Yin-Yang parallel principle (YPP) was put forward in terms of YPTM and TPP, which is the fundamental principle of TCM. In this paper, we apply it to study TCM on the effects of low intensity laser on cells, and successfully explained observed phenomena.
Cui, Meng; Yang, Shuo; Yu, Tong; Yang, Ce; Gao, Yonghong; Zhu, Haiyan
To design a model to capture information on the state and trends of knowledge creation, at both an individual and an organizational level, in order to enhance knowledge management. We designed a graph-theoretic knowledge model, the expert knowledge map (EKM), based on literature-based annotation. A case study in the domain of Traditional Chinese Medicine research was used to illustrate the usefulness of the model. The EKM successfully captured various aspects of knowledge and enhanced knowledge management within the case-study organization through the provision of knowledge graphs, expert graphs, and expert-knowledge biography. Our model could help to reveal the hot topics, trends, and products of the research done by an organization. It can potentially be used to facilitate knowledge learning, sharing and decision-making among researchers, academicians, students, and administrators of organizations.
Liu, Shao; Liang, Yi-Zeng; Liu, Hai-Tao
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) bring a great challenge in quality control and evaluating the efficacy because of their complexity of chemical composition. Chemometric techniques provide a good opportunity for mining more useful chemical information from TCMs. Then, the application of chemometrics in the field of TCMs is spontaneous and necessary. This review focuses on the recent various important chemometrics tools for chromatographic fingerprinting, including peak alignment information features, baseline correction and applications of chemometrics in metabolomics and modernization of TCMs, including authentication and evaluation of the quality of TCMs, evaluating the efficacy of TCMs and essence of TCM syndrome. In the conclusions, the general trends and some recommendations for improving chromatographic metabolomics data analysis are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yun; Yao, Fangke; Ming, Ke; Wang, Deyun; Hu, Yuanliang; Liu, Jiaguo
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used to treat diseases in China for thousands of years. TCM compositions are complex, using as their various sources plants, animals, fungi, and minerals. Polysaccharides are one of the active and important ingredients of TCMs. Polysaccharides from TCMs exhibit a wide range of biological activities in terms of immunity- modifying, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-tumor properties. With their widespread biological activities, polysaccharides consistently attract scientist's interests, and the studies often concentrate on the extraction, purification, and biological activity of TCM polysaccharides. Currently, numerous studies have shown that the modification of polysaccharides can heighten or change the biological activities, which is a new angle of polysaccharide research. This review highlights the current knowledge of TCM polysaccharides, including their extraction, purification, modification, and biological activity, which will hopefully provide profound insights facilitating further research and development.
Dong, Xin; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Xu; Li, Ping; Yang, Hua
Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are gaining more and more attentions all over the world. The focus of TCMs researches were gradually shifted from chemical research to the combination study of chemical and life sciences. However, obtaining precise information of TCMs process in vivo or in vitro is still a bottleneck in bioanalysis of TCMs for their chemical composition complexity. This paper reviewed the recent analytical methods especially mass spectrometry technology in the bioanalysis of TCMs, and data processing techniques in the qualitative and quantitative analyses of metabolite of TCMs. Additionally, the difficulties encountered in the analyzing biological samples in TCMs and the solutions to these problems have been mentioned. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zhang, H; Yang, L; Liu, S; Ren, L
To screen drugs reversing multidrug resistance of tumor cells from active constituents of traditional Chinese medicine and to study the reversal action. The kill effects of the drugs on tumor cell lines in vitro were determined with MTT method. The Jin's formula was used to analyse the effect of drug combination. 5 micrograms/ml rhynchophylline, 2 micrograms/ml jatrorrhizine and 1.25 micrograms/ml indirulin could reverse multidrug resistance for vincristine on KBv200 cell line by 16.8, 5.1 and 4 fold respectively. 1.56-12.5 micrograms/ml curcumine combining with vincristine could sensitize antitumor effect both on KB and KBv200 cell lines. All rhynchophylline, jatrorrhizine and indirulin could reverse multidrug resistance for vincristine on KBv200 cell line. Curcumine combinating vincristine could sensitize antitumor effect both on kB and kBv200 cell lines.
Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an important complementary strategy for treating cancer in China. The mechanism is related to regulating the internal environment and remodeling the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment (TIM. Herein we illustrate how TIM is reformed and its protumor activity on promoting tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, tumor invasion, and the oncogenicity of cancer stem cells. Furthermore we summarize the effects and mechanism of TCM on regulating TIM via enhancing antitumor immune responses (e.g., regulating the expression of MHC molecules and Fas/FasL, attenuating cancerigenic ability of cancer stem cells and remolding immunosuppressive cells (e.g., reversing immune phenotypes of T lymphocytes and tumor associated macrophages, promoting dendritic cells mature, restraining myeloid derived suppressor cells function, and regulating Th1/Th2 factors. We also reveal the bidirectional and multitargeting functions of TCM on regulating TIM. Hopefully, it provides new theoretical basis for TCM clinical practice in cancer treatment and prevention.
Wheeler, John; Coppock, Belinda; Chen, Cecil
Concerns have been expressed about potential toxicity of the smoke produced by the burning of moxa in traditional Chinese medicine. With the advent of strict anti-smoking legislation in the UK, it was decided to test the volatiles produced by moxibustion and compare them with current agreed safe exposure levels. Moxa, in the form of cigar shaped moxa "sticks" or "rolls", was tested under International Organization for Standardization conditions in a tobacco testing laboratory, and the quantities of a number of pre-determined volatiles measured. The smoke tested was "sidestream smoke", the smoke which arises from the burning tip of the moxa. The test results were then scaled up to reflect normal use and to provide direct comparisons with agreed national safety standards for both short- and long-term exposure levels. Levels of only two volatiles produced were equivalent or greater than the safe exposure levels, as was the carbon monoxide level reported, both as a consequence of using worst case assumptions for comparison. Under normal operating conditions neither volatile nor carbon monoxide would present a safety hazard. One group of chemicals tested, the aromatic amines, with known carcinogenic properties have no agreed safety levels. Results for these in the study compared favourably with background levels reported in urban environments. There are no immediate concerns arising from the continued use of moxa as a therapeutic modality in traditional Chinese medicine. Further testing may be required to establish whether current recommendations for ventilation and cleansing of treatment room surfaces may need to be revised. Stronger recommendations may also be necessary on the inadvisability of using moxa on broken skin.
Full Text Available Background: This study investigates the constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM among women who want to be pregnant in one year and explores factors related to TCM constitution. Methods: This study was conducted on women who participated in free preconception check-ups provided by the Zhabei District Maternity and Child Care Center in Shanghai, China. The information regarding the female demographic characteristics, physical condition, history of pregnancy and childbearing, diet and behavior, and social psychological factors was collected, and TCM constitution assessment was performed. The Chi-square test, t-test, logistic regression analysis, and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to explore the related factors of TCM constitution. Results: The participants in this study were aged 28.3 ± 3.0 years. Approximately fifty-five women in this study had Unbalanced Constitution. Logistic regression analysis showed that Shanghai residence, dysmenorrhea, gum bleeding, aversion to vegetables, preference for raw meat, job stress, and economic stress were significantly and negatively associated with Balanced Constitution. Multinomial logistic analysis showed that Shanghai residence was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Yin-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; gum bleeding was significantly associated with Yin-deficiency, Stagnant Blood, Stagnant Qi, and Inherited Special Constitutions; aversion to vegetables was significantly associated with Damp-heat Constitution; job stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, Phlegm-dampness, Damp-heat, Stagnant Blood, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions; and economic stress was significantly associated with Yang-deficiency, and Stagnant Qi Constitutions. Conclusion: The application of TCM constitution to preconception care would be beneficial for early identification of potential TCM constitution risks and be beneficial for early intervention (e.g., health
Yi Junlin; Miao Yanjun; Yang Weizhi; Cai Weiming; Liu Yajie
Objective: To investigate whether radiation-induced late injury of the brain can be ameliorated by traditional Chinese Medicine through blocking the primary events. Methods: This trial included five animal groups: sham irradiation, irradiation only, and three treatment groups. The whole brain of BALB/C mouse was irradiated with 22 Gy by using a 6 MV linear accelerator. Step down method was used to evaluate the study and memory abilities. Mouse weight was also recorded every week before and after irradiation. On D90, all mice alive were euthanized and Glee's silver dye method and Bielschousky silver dye method were used to detect the senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle. One-Way ANOVA was used to evaluate the differences among the groups in the various aspects of study and memory abilities as well as quality of life. Kaplan-Meier was used to evaluate the survival. Log-rank was used to detect the differences among the survival groups. Results: 1. There was no significant difference in survival among the treatment groups, even though Salvia Miltiorrhiza (SM) was able to improve the quality of life. As to the cognition function, it was shown that whole brain radiation would make a severe cognition damage with the learning and memorizing ability of the irradiated mice being worse than those of the sham irradiation group. The Traditional Chinese Medicine Salvia Miltiorrhiza possesses the role of a protective agent against cognition function damage induced by irradiation. 2. Glee's silver dye and Bielschousky silver dye show much more senile plaque and the neurofibrillary tangle in brain tissue of R group and R + 654-2 group than those in the R + SM group. Conclusions: Salvia Miltiorrhiza is able to protect the mouse from cognition function damage induced by irradiation and improve the quality of life by ameliorating the primary events, though it does not improve the survival
Stegelmeier, Bryan L; Brown, Ammon W; Welch, Kevin D
In many countries, including the United States, herbal supplements, tisanes and vegetable products, including traditional Chinese medicines, are largely unregulated and their content is not registered, monitored or verified. Consequently, potent plant toxins including dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids and other potential carcinogens can contaminate these products. As herbal and food supplement producers are left to their own means to determine the safety and purity of their products prior to marketing, disturbingly often good marketing practices currently in place are ignored and content is largely undocumented. Historical examples of poisoning and health issues relating to plant material containing dehydopyrrolizidine alkaloids and aristolochic acids were used as examples to demonstrate the risk and potential toxicity of herbal products, food supplements, or traditional medicines. More work is needed to educate consumers of the potential risk and require the industry to be more responsible to verify the content and insure the safety of their products. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Wei Xun; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Xiao Tiqiao; Chen Min; Liu Lixiang; Luo Yuyu; Du Guohao; Xu Hongjie
The microscopic morphology of plant cells and their ergastic substances is an important standard for the identification of Chinese traditional medicine. The authors have developed a new method, X-ray phase-contrast imaging (XPCI) based on the microfocus X-ray tube, to explore microstructures of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicate that XPCI is capable of distinguishing the structures commonly used in the identification. Non-destructive detection and high sensibility are counted among the major advantages of XPCI. The possibility of future applications of XPCI in the field of medicine identification is discussed. (authors)
Full Text Available Despite extensive efforts to improve the attitude and practice of physicians with respect to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, the role of training background on physician's own utilization of mainstream Western medicine (WM and CAM remains unclear. We aimed to compare personal utilizations of WM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM among doctors trained in WM only, TCM only or both. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the 2004 Taiwan's National Health Insurance data. A total of 103 879 doctors and their relatives and 2 623 658 other adults with equivalent socioeconomic status were analyzed. Ambulatory care utilization of WM and TCM services was compared using the following three measures: probability of any use, number of visits and total annual expenditure. Doctors who were trained in Western medicine only (WMDs had the highest WM use, followed by doctors who were trained in both (WMD-CMDs, while Chinese medicine-trained doctors (CMDs had the lowest use. For TCM use, a reverse pattern was observed. Similar patterns were found among doctors' relatives. Compared with other adults with equivalent socioeconomic status, both the CMDs and WMD-CMDs had a greater use of TCM services. For WM, although the WMDs' probability and frequency of usage were similar to other adults, they incurred considerably higher expenditure. The use of WM and TCM by doctors and their relatives was significantly associated with the training background of the doctors. This highlights the importance of how increasing knowledge and understanding of other medical discipline may influence a practitioner's care-providing behaviors.
Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Chengjun; Niu, Jinling
As a complementary and alternative medicine in medical field, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has drawn great attention in the domestic field and overseas. In practice, TCM provides a quite distinct methodology to patient diagnosis and treatment compared to western medicine (WM). Syndrome (ZHENG or pattern) is differentiated by a set of symptoms and signs examined from an individual by four main diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation which reflects the pathological and physiological changes of disease occurrence and development. Patient classification is to divide patients into several classes based on different criteria. In this paper, from the machine learning perspective, a survey on patient classification issue will be summarized on three major aspects of TCM: sign classification, syndrome differentiation, and disease classification. With the consideration of different diagnostic data analyzed by different computational methods, we present the overview for four subfields of TCM diagnosis, respectively. For each subfield, we design a rectangular reference list with applications in the horizontal direction and machine learning algorithms in the longitudinal direction. According to the current development of objective TCM diagnosis for patient classification, a discussion of the research issues around machine learning techniques with applications to TCM diagnosis is given to facilitate the further research for TCM patient classification. PMID:26246834
Zhao, Changbo; Li, Guo-Zheng; Wang, Chengjun; Niu, Jinling
As a complementary and alternative medicine in medical field, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has drawn great attention in the domestic field and overseas. In practice, TCM provides a quite distinct methodology to patient diagnosis and treatment compared to western medicine (WM). Syndrome (ZHENG or pattern) is differentiated by a set of symptoms and signs examined from an individual by four main diagnostic methods: inspection, auscultation and olfaction, interrogation, and palpation which reflects the pathological and physiological changes of disease occurrence and development. Patient classification is to divide patients into several classes based on different criteria. In this paper, from the machine learning perspective, a survey on patient classification issue will be summarized on three major aspects of TCM: sign classification, syndrome differentiation, and disease classification. With the consideration of different diagnostic data analyzed by different computational methods, we present the overview for four subfields of TCM diagnosis, respectively. For each subfield, we design a rectangular reference list with applications in the horizontal direction and machine learning algorithms in the longitudinal direction. According to the current development of objective TCM diagnosis for patient classification, a discussion of the research issues around machine learning techniques with applications to TCM diagnosis is given to facilitate the further research for TCM patient classification.
Zheng, Peng; Xia, Yongliang; Xiao, Guohua; Xiong, Chenghui; Hu, Xiao; Zhang, Siwei; Zheng, Huajun; Huang, Yin; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Shengyue; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Liu, Xingzhong; St Leger, Raymond J; Wang, Chengshu
Species in the ascomycete fungal genus Cordyceps have been proposed to be the teleomorphs of Metarhizium species. The latter have been widely used as insect biocontrol agents. Cordyceps species are highly prized for use in traditional Chinese medicines, but the genes responsible for biosynthesis of bioactive components, insect pathogenicity and the control of sexuality and fruiting have not been determined. Here, we report the genome sequence of the type species Cordyceps militaris. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that different species in the Cordyceps/Metarhizium genera have evolved into insect pathogens independently of each other, and that their similar large secretomes and gene family expansions are due to convergent evolution. However, relative to other fungi, including Metarhizium spp., many protein families are reduced in C. militaris, which suggests a more restricted ecology. Consistent with its long track record of safe usage as a medicine, the Cordyceps genome does not contain genes for known human mycotoxins. We establish that C. militaris is sexually heterothallic but, very unusually, fruiting can occur without an opposite mating-type partner. Transcriptional profiling indicates that fruiting involves induction of the Zn2Cys6-type transcription factors and MAPK pathway; unlike other fungi, however, the PKA pathway is not activated. The data offer a better understanding of Cordyceps biology and will facilitate the exploitation of medicinal compounds produced by the fungus.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In spite of great advances in target-oriented Western medicine for treating myocardial infarction (MI, it is still a leading cause of death in a worldwide epidemic. In contrast to Western medicine, Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM uses a holistic and synergistic approach to restore the balance of Yin-Yang of body energy so the body's normal function can be restored. Sini decoction (SND is a well-known formula of TCM which has been used to treat MI for many years. However, its holistic activity evaluation and mechanistic understanding are still lacking due to its complex components. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A urinary metabonomic method based on nuclear magnetic resonance and ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed to characterize MI-related metabolic profiles and delineate the effect of SND on MI. With Elastic Net for classification and selection of biomarkers, nineteen potential biomarkers in rat urine were screened out, primarily related to myocardial energy metabolism, including the glycolysis, citrate cycle, amino acid metabolism, purine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism. With the altered metabolism pathways as possible drug targets, we systematically analyze the therapeutic effect of SND, which demonstrated that SND administration could provide satisfactory effect on MI through partially regulating the perturbed myocardial energy metabolism. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that metabonomic approach offers a useful tool to identify MI-related biomarkers and provides a new methodological cue for systematically dissecting the underlying efficacies and mechanisms of TCM in treating MI.
Jia, Min-Ru; Wang, Tian-Tian; Lu, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Yu-Ying
This paper collected and analyzed literatures about starting of traditional medicine and trading of different medicine from Chunqiu Zhanguo to Ming and Qing Dynasties, in order to preliminarily explore on an overview of specie of chinese exotic traditional medicine and trade of different country in different dynasty（from Chunqiu to Ming and Qing Dynasties）, as well as the amount of exotic medicine over two thousand years. (remove repeating and doubtful species), find peculiarity of exotic medicine, sreen species that used to develop the Silk Route and establish quality standards.Finally, We get conclusions are as follows. First, primary,.prosperous and declining stages of development of exotic traditional medicine are Qin and Han, Song-Jin-Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasties, respectively. Second, according to literature, the stage that has the most species of exotic medicine is song dynasty,approximately have 300. Removing repeating and doubtful species, the believable species are approximate 230 to 250. Meanwhile, the unknown species are approximate 30, which may be different name of one medicine or processed goods, now these medicines are named as "doubtful species". Third, the medicinal parts of exotic medicine are different from Chinese medicine of Han nation. The number of Resin, fruits and seeds kind are more than root and rhizomes kind,mineral medicines are more than animal. Fourth, the major producing area of exotic medicine is some countries and territories related to the Silk Route in the history. Ultimately, this paper preliminarily figure out basic information of exotic medicine of different dynasty in China,that provide reference for learning study and decision of industrial development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is currently a popular tool in the scientific research of meridian electrophysiology. In this field, it is generally believed that measuring the electrical conductivity of meridians provides information about the balance of bioenergy or Qi-blood in the body. METHODS AND RESULTS: PubMed database based on some original articles from 1956 to 2014 and the authoŕs clinical experience. In this short communication, we provide clinical examples of Meridian Energy Analysis Device application, especially in the field of traditional Chinese medicine, discuss the reliability of the measurements, and put the values obtained into context by considering items of considerable variability and by estimating sample size. CONCLUSION: The Meridian Energy Analysis Device is making a valuable contribution to the diagnosis of Qi-blood dysfunction. It can be assessed from short-term and long-term meridian bioenergy recordings. It is one of the few methods that allow outpatient traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis, monitoring the progress, therapeutic effect and evaluation of patient prognosis. The holistic approaches underlying the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and new trends in modern medicine toward the use of objective instruments require in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of meridian energy, and the Meridian Energy Analysis Device can feasibly be used for understanding and interpreting traditional Chinese medicine theory, especially in view of its expansion in Western countries.
Wu, Chien-Tung; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Jung-Nien
Chinese herbal product (CHP) is the major type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and widely used to relief the symptom of colorectal cancer. The aim of the study was to analyze the utilization of CHP for treating patients with colorectal cancer in Taiwan. The usage of CHP, frequency of services, and prescription pattern for colorectal cancer were analyzed from a randomly sampled cohort of 1 million beneficiaries from the National Health Insurance Research Database. The odds ratios for uti...
Tang, Dong-Xin; Chen, Lian-Yu; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Han, Li-Wei; Zhang, Feng-Zhu
In this paper, the funding situation of traditional Chinese medicine oncology research projects supported by National Natural Science Fund from 1986-2016 was reviewed. The characteristics of funded projects were summarized from funding amount, funding expenses, funding category, and the main research contents of projects, etc. At the same time, the main problems in the projects were analyzed in this paper, in order to provide reference for the relevant fund applicants. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Loh, C H
INTRODUCTION: In a country dominated by western healthcare, interest in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is growing. The increasing popularity of TCM, occasionally used with conventional medicine, needs to be assessed, especially in a vulnerable paediatric population. This paper sought to evaluate the use of TCM in children, mainly to determine the common conditions they seek TCM, the pattern of acupuncture or herbal usage for various age groups, the extent of concurrent usage of TCM and conventional medicine, and the reasons for TCM use. Paediatricians\\' perceptions of TCM will allow us to gauge the acceptability of TCM by those who practise conventional medicine. These are assessed in another arm of this study, with a set of predictive characteristics for their personal TCM use, their perceptions of herb\\/acupuncture safety, and their own referral to TCM eventually determined. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire was administered on 300 parents awaiting consultation at a large TCM clinic. Next, a separate qualitative questionnaire survey form was posted to 100 paediatricians. RESULTS: Herb usage in children is very common (84.3 percent) and 80 percent of parents admitted concurrent usage of TCM and conventional medicine for their children. Drug-herb interactions was an issue of concern for paediatricians. Paediatricians with a higher level of self-reported TCM knowledge were more likely to refer for a cure. CONCLUSION: This was the first study to determine the characteristics of children attending a large TCM clinic in a country which is dominated by western healthcare. It also provided insight into the perceptions of TCM among paediatricians in Singapore. Specifically, it gave us an idea of the predictor traits that determine their referral patterns to TCM and their perceptions of herb and acupuncture safety.
Dong, Ling; Sun, Yu; Pei, Wen-Xuan; Dai, Jun-Dong; Wang, Zi-Yu; Pan, Meng; Chen, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Yun
The concept of "Quality by design" indicates that good design for the whole life cycle of pharmaceutical production enables the drug to meet the expected quality requirements. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) industry, the TCM standardization system was put forward in this paper from the national strategic level, under the guidance by the idea of quality control in international manufacturing industry and with considerations of TCM industry's own characteristics and development status. The connotation of this strategy was to establish five interrelated systems: multi-indicators system based on tri-indicators system, quality standard and specification system of TCM herbal materials and decoction pieces, quality traceability system, data monitoring system based on whole-process quality control, and whole-process quality management system of TCM, and achieve the whole process systematic and scientific study in TCM industry through "top-level design-implement in steps-system integration" workflow. This article analyzed the correlation between the quality standards of all links, established standard operating procedures of each link and whole process, and constructed a high standard overall quality management system for TCM industry chains, in order to provide a demonstration for the establishment of TCM whole-process quality control system and provide systematic reference and basis for standardization strategy in TCM industry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jung-Der
Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies. PMID:24159351
Huang, Li-Wen; Chen, I-Ju; Hsu, Chung-Hua
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM; zhōng yī) syndrome groups are based on the symptoms of human diseases and guide the use of Chinese herbs. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of TCM syndrome groups on biochemical characteristics and quality of life (QOL) in women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Among the 1080 registered female patients screened at our outpatient clinic, a total of 322 women aged between 18 and 65 years and meeting the requirements of MS were enrolled. All the patients were asked to fill out a questionnaire on metabolic TCM syndrome groups and a questionnaire on the QOL, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form-12 (SF-12). Data of biochemical characteristics were collected at the same time. The present study showed MS women in TCM syndrome groups had significantly lower physical and mental component scores in SF-12 compared with those not in TCM syndrome groups. We also found MS patients in TCM syndrome groups, except Kidney Deficiency syndrome, showed higher body mass indexes, waist circumference, and hip circumference. However, there was almost no difference in most biochemical characteristics between TCM syndrome groups. The MS patients diagnosed as belonging to TCM syndrome groups had poor QOL.
Full Text Available Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT, Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT, and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.
Full Text Available In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, correct syndrome differentiation is the most important principle guiding the prescription of Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of gastric cancer (GC. We aimed to reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying GC syndrome differentiation (ZHENG in a population of 387 GC patients. Twenty-nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in EGF, TGFA, and EGFR were investigated. Two SNPs, rs11466285 in TGFA and rs884225 in EGFR, were significantly associated with the distribution of ZHENG (P<0.05. The rs11466285 TT genotype increased the risk of damp heat with toxin (DHT and deficiency of both Qi and yin (DQY compared with obstruction of blood stasis (OBS. The rs884225 AA genotype could increase the risk of DQY and deficiency of both Qi and blood (DQB compared with yin deficiency due to stomach heat (YDSH. Parallel comparison among the SNPs and syndrome types revealed that DQB was distinct from YDSH, disharmony between the liver and stomach, stagnation of phlegm muddiness (SPM, OBS, and other syndromes at several SNP loci (P<0.05. The rs11466285 TT and rs884225 AA genotypes exhibit increased risk of DQB compared with OBS and SPM (P<0.05, respectively. In conclusion, the formation of GC ZHENG was related to EGF, TGFA, and EGFR gene polymorphisms.
Wu, Juan; Xie, Jin; Zhang, Qun-Lin; Lin, Zhu-Xia; Xie, He; Sun, Bei
Ancient materia medica and medical formularies were consulted to illustrate the development history of meridian-guiding theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The influences of various meridian-guiding drugs (Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, borneol, Bupleuri Radix, Platycodon Radix) on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of other drugs were summarized. Meridian-guiding drugs can promote the absorption and targeted distribution of other drugs and enhance the efficacy of injured tissues. The possible mechanisms of meridian-guiding are related with changing the component of cell membrane, inhibiting the efflux of P-gp, opening physiological barriers, modulating the levels of biochemicals, promoting microcirculation and adjusting the pH of targeted tissues. The chemical components of meridian-guiding drugs are the substance basis of meridian-guiding. The aim of exploring meridian-guiding chemicals is to find a natural targeted delivery system. At the present time, some progress has been made in the research on meridian-guiding field. However, further studies are required for the meridian-guiding theory of TCM. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia, characterized by the abnormal blood lipid profiles, is one of the dominant factors of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD. For the low cost, effectiveness, and fewer side effects, the popularity of using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to handle hyperlipidemia is increasing and its role in health care has been recognized by the public at large. Despite the importance of TCM herbs and formulations, there is no comprehensive review summarizing their scientific findings on handling hyperlipidemia. This review summarizes the recent experimental and clinical results of nine representative single Chinese herbs and seven classic TCM formulae that could improve lipid profiles so as to help understand and compare their underlying mechanisms. Most of single herbs and formulae demonstrated the improvement of hyperlipidemic conditions with multiple and diverse mechanisms of actions similar to conventional Western drugs in spite of their mild side effects. Due to increasing popularity of TCM, more extensive, well-designed preclinical and clinical trials on the potential synergistic and adverse side effects of herb-drug interactions as well as their mechanisms are warranted. Hyperlipidemic patients should be warned about the potential risks of herb-drug interactions, particularly those taking anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs.
Xiao, Ya-Ping; Zeng, Jie; Jiao, Lin-Na; Xu, Xiao-Yu
The treatment effect and signaling pathway regulation effects of kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine on osteoporosis have been widely studied, but there is no systematic summary currently. This review comprehensively collected and analyzed the traditional Chinese medicines on the treatment and signaling pathway regulation of osteoporosis in recent ten years, such as Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix. Based on the existing findings, the following conclusions were obtained: ①kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine treated osteoporosis mainly through BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin, MAPK, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway to promote osteoblast bone formation and through OPG/RANKL/ RANK, estrogen, CTSK signaling pathway to inhibit osteoclasts of bone resorption. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus and Psoraleae Fructus up-regulated the expression of key proteins and genes of BMP-Smads and Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathways to promote bone formation. Epimedii Folium, Drynariae Rhizoma, Cnidii Fructus, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus and Dipsaci Radix inhibited the bone resorption by mediating the OPG/RANKL/RANK signaling pathway. ②Kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicine prevented and treated osteoporosis through a variety of ways: icariin in Epimedii Folium, naringin in Drynariae Rhizoma, osthole in Cnidii Fructus and psoralen in Psoraleae Fructus can regulate BMP-Smads, Wnt/ β -catenin signaling pathway to promote bone formation, but also activate OPG/RANKL/RANK, CTSK and other signaling pathways to inhibit bone resorption. ③The crosstalk of the signaling pathways and the animal experiments of the traditional Chinese medicine on the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis as well as their multi-target mechanism and comprehensive regulation need further clarification. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Hu, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Hua; Rong, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Miao-Hai; Zhang, Xiang-Nong
Clinical observation on treatment of type 2 cardiac and kidney syndrome by combination of traditional Chinese and Western medicine. The patients were divided into two groups： the simple Western medicine treatment group (control group) and the traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment group (treatment group). The patients in the two groups were treated with conventional western medicine.The treatment group was given based on Buxin Yishen decoction, a total of three courses of treatment to observe the two groups of patients before and after treatment of total efficacy, cardiac function indicators, changes in renal function indicators. The total efficacy of the treatment group and the control group were 91.80% and 72.41%, respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups (Ptraditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment can improve the clinical efficacy of type 2 heart and kidney syndrome, significantly improve heart and kidney function, better than conventional Western medicine treatment, and has good safety. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Chung, Vincent C H; Hillier, Sheila; Lau, Chun Hong; Wong, Samuel Y S; Yeoh, Eng Kiong; Griffiths, Sian M
Recognizing the international trend for patients to choose both allopathic western medicine (WM) and traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM), the World Health Organization has called for stronger collaboration between WM doctors (WMD) and TCAM practitioners. This resonates with the situation in Hong Kong where the dominant modality of patient care is primarily based on WM practice while traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is often used as a complement. The roots of this utilization pattern lie in colonial history when TCM was marginalised during the British administration. However since 1997 when China regained sovereignty, policies to regulate and professionalize TCM practices have been formally introduced. Despite both its popularity and this policy shift, progress on implementing collaboration between WM and TCM clinicians has been slow. This study, the first since 1997, explores current attitudes and referral behaviours of WMD towards use of TCM. We hypothesised that WMD would have positive attitudes towards TCM, due to regulation and cultural affinity, but that few actual TCM referrals would be made given the lack of a formal collaboration policy between elements within the healthcare system. Our results support these hypotheses, and this pattern possibly rooted from structural inhibitions originating from the historical dominance of WM and failure of services to respond to espoused policy. These have shaped Hong Kong's TCAM policy process to be closer with situations in the West, and have clearly differentiated it from integration experiences in other East Asian health systems where recent colonial history is absent. In addition, our results revealed that self use and formal education of TCM, rather than use of evidence in decision making, played a stronger role in determining referral. This implies that effective TCAM policies within WM dominated health systems like Hong Kong would require structural and educational solutions that foster
Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li
Differences in theories, application forms and evaluation standards about curative effect between traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine lead to not only question safty and effectiveness but also hinder development and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Combination of common problems in traditional Chinese new drug registration with experiences in research on traditional Chinese new drugs of prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease elucidate application value about theory of disease-syndrome combination and multi-objective optimization in several ways such as the indications positioning, preparation process optimization, preclinical efficacy evaluating and clinical assessmenting of efficacy and analysis development prospect.
Niu, Cong; Ma, Kun; Li, Min
In order to understand the characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine（TCM） syndrome types, the typical symptoms of different patients and the analysis of professor MA's medication characteristics of the treatment for infertility patients were analyzed. Totally 40 cases of infertile women treated in Xiyuan hospital and TCM out-patient department of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences in the past five years were randomly selected to classify their symptoms, signs and the four diagnostic situations in the first diagnosis, summarize syndromes and typical symptoms and analyze the characteristics of medication with Ma. Randomly selected nearly five years in 40 cases of infertile women with China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Xiyuan hospital and Chinese medicine out-patient department treatment, first diagnosed by symptoms, signs and the four diagnostic situation. According to the results, kidney yang deficiency： 10 cases (25%), kidney yin deficiency： 6 cases (15%), phlegm dampness： 3 cases (7.5%), liver qi stagnation： 3 cases (7.5%), blood stasis in the uterus： 7 cases (17.5%), deficiency of kidney yin deficiency and phlegm dampness： 1 cases (2.5%), kidney yin deficiency syndrome of liver qi stagnation： 2 cases (accounted for 5%), deficiency of kidney yang deficiency syndrome of liver qi stagnation： 1 cases (2.5%), phlegm dampness syndrome of liver qi stagnation：1 cases (2.5%), kidney yin deficiency syndrome, blood stasis and stagnation in the uterus 2 cases (accounted for 5%), liver qi stagnation syndrome and blood stasis in the uterus 2 cases (accounted for 5%), deficiency of kidney yang deficiency syndrome of liver qi stagnation syndrome and blood stasis in the uterus, 1 cases (2.5%). Typical symptoms were dominated by backache, pain and cold in the lower abdomen, followed by thirst, dry throat, more menstrual blood clots, more petechial hemorrhages at tongue, dysphoria, premenstrual breast pain, irritability, chest distress and
Full Text Available Inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS is the primary contributor of the overproduction of nitric oxide and its inhibitors have been actively sought as effective anti-inflammatory agents. In this study, we prepared 70% ethanol extracts from 81 Chinese herbs. These extracts were subsequently evaluated for their effect on nitrogen oxide (NO production and cell growth in LPS/IFNγ-costimulated and unstimulated murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells by Griess reaction and MTT assay. Extracts of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc, Caesalpinia sappan L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Forsythia suspensa (Thunb. Vahl, Zingiber officinale Rosc, Inula japonica Thunb., and Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort markedly inhibited NO production (inhibition > 90% at 100 μg/mL. Among active extracts (inhibition > 50% at 100 μg/mL, Rubia cordifolia L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Iles pubescens Hook.et Arn, Nigella glandulifera Freyn et Sint, Pueraria lobata (Willd. Ohwi, and Scutellaria barbata D. Don displayed no cytotoxicity to unstimulated RAW246.7 cells while increasing the growth of LPS/IFNγ-costimulated cells. By analyzing the correlation between their activities and their Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM characteristics, herbs with pungent flavor displayed potent anti-inflammatory capability. Our study provides a series of potential anti-inflammatory herbs and suggests that herbs with pungent flavor are candidates of effective anti-inflammatory agents.
Taylor-Swanson, L; Thomas, A; Ismail, R; Schnall, J G; Cray, L; Mitchell, E S; Woods, N F
To review controlled clinical trials of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies for hot flushes and at least one other co-occurring symptom among sleep, cognitive function, mood, and pain. An experienced reference librarian performed an extensive search of PubMed/Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, EMBASE, AMED, and Alt-Health Watch for randomized, controlled trials reported in English between 2004 and July 2011. Of 1193 abstracts identified, 58 trials examined effectiveness of therapies for hot flushes and at least one additional co-occurring symptom. Eleven trials (13 publications) examined TCM therapeutics of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) or moxibustion. Acupuncture trials (eight) yielded mixed results; five trials significantly reduced hot flushes. Of those five trials, one also showed benefit for sleep and pain and two trials found benefit for mood symptoms. Of three CHM trials, three trials had significant findings: one for hot flushes and mood, one for hot flushes and pain, and one for hot flushes, sleep, mood symptoms and pain. Moxibustion and counseling (one trial) significantly reduced hot flushes, mood symptoms and pain. None of the trials reported any serious adverse events. TCM therapeutics of acupuncture, CHM and moxibustion show promising results for the treatment of mood and pain symptoms co-occurring with hot flushes. Although the controlled clinical trials of TCM therapeutics reviewed here measured multiple symptom outcomes, few report treatment effects in ways that allow clinicians to consider symptom clusters when prescribing therapies. Future studies need to measure and report results for individual symptoms or group like symptoms together into subscales. Controlled clinical trials with larger numbers of participants are essential to allow evaluation of these therapies on hot flushes and multiple co-occurring symptoms.
Chen, Muwan; Feng, Wenzhou; Cao, Hui
AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula extract, named as ZD-I, on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: When hMSCs cultivated in the basal medium with ZD-I, cell...
Sun Jiaxiang; Tang Yahang; Gao Weiling; Chen Hengliang; Pang Jingshun
Osteoporosis (OP) is a disease characterized by reduced bone mineral, lowered density, weakened strength, etc. A great deal of the illness appeared in the old people, especially old women. The article will deal mainly with two questions: traditional chinese medicine care OP and the usage of two dimensional bone densimeter in the therapeutic effect observation
Teschke, Rolf; Wolff, Albrecht; Frenzel, Christian; Eickhoff, Axel; Schulze, Johannes
Herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is used to treat several ailments, but its efficiency is poorly documented and hence debated, as opposed to modern medicine commonly providing effective therapies. The aim of this review article is to present a practical reference guide on the role of herbal TCM in managing gastrointestinal disorders, supported by systematic reviews and evidence based trials. A literature search using herbal TCM combined with terms for gastrointestinal disorders in PubMed and the Cochrane database identified publications of herbal TCM trials. Results were analyzed for study type, inclusion criteria, and outcome parameters. Quality of placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials was poor, mostly neglecting stringent evidence based diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. Accordingly, appropriate Cochrane reviews and meta-analyses were limited and failed to support valid, clinically relevant evidence based efficiency of herbal TCM in gastrointestinal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastric or duodenal ulcer, dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn's disease. In conclusion, the use of herbal TCM to treat various diseases has an interesting philosophical background with a long history, but it received increasing skepticism due to the lack of evidence based efficiency as shown by high quality trials; this has now been summarized for gastrointestinal disorders, with TCM not recommended for most gastrointestinal diseases. Future studies should focus on placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trials, herbal product quality and standard criteria for diagnosis, treatment, outcome, and assessment of adverse herb reactions. This approach will provide figures of risk/benefit profiles that hopefully are positive for at least some treatment modalities of herbal TCM. Proponents of modern herbal TCM best face these promising challenges of pragmatic modern medicine by bridging the gap
Zhang, Xi-Lian; Li, Meng; Rong, Ping; Ma, Rong
We aimed to analyse the adverse drug reactions (ADR) in children due to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) injections and the related factors, and explored the rational use of medicines and safty countermeasures in clinical. We preformed statistical analyses on data from the CNKI and researched on literatures, from April 1987 to May 2012, relevant to the TCM injections which lead to reactions of clinical adverse, to conduct a analysis of the species, cases, clinical manifestations and related factors of these injections. The incidence of ADR in children leaded by TCM injections is high and the manifestations were chiefly characterized by the luscious of skin and appendages. In addition to the correlation with the physiological and pathologic characteristic in childhood, the ADR is also closely related with preparing technology, irrational use and imperfect supervisory system. Because of the high incidence, we should taking appropriate measures, such as constructing strict supervision system and strengthening rational drug use, to reduce the occurrence of ADRs to the greatest extent.
Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Zhang, Chi; Chan, Kelvin
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a medical system with over 3000 years of continuous practice experience and refinement through treatment observations. The TCM pattern classification (also defined as Syndrome or Zheng differentiation) and treatment of ill health is the basis and the key concept of the TCM theory. All diagnostic and therapeutic methods in TCM are based on the differentiation of TCM pattern. TCM pattern can be considered as the TCM theoretical interpretation of the symptom profiles. Pattern classification is often used as a guideline in disease classification in TCM practice and has been recently incorporated with biomedical diagnosis, resulting in the increasing research interest of TCM pattern among various disciplines of integrative medicine. This paper describes the historical evolution on the integration of the TCM pattern classification and disease diagnosis in biomedicine, the methodology of pattern classification for diseases, efficacy of TCM practice with integration of TCM pattern classification and biomedical disease diagnosis, and the biological basis of TCM pattern. TCM pattern classification, which may lead to new findings in biological sciences, was also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Currently, the chemical fingerprint comparison and analysis is mainly based on professional equipment and software, it's expensive and inconvenient. This study aims to integrate QR (Quick Response code with quality data and mobile intelligent technology to develop a convenient query terminal for tracing quality in the whole industrial chain of TCM (traditional Chinese medicine. Three herbal medicines were randomly selected and their chemical two-dimensional barcode (2D barcodes fingerprints were constructed. Smartphone application (APP based on Android system was developed to read initial data of 2D chemical barcodes, and compared multiple fingerprints from different batches of same species or different species. It was demonstrated that there were no significant differences between original and scanned TCM chemical fingerprints. Meanwhile, different TCM chemical fingerprint QR codes could be rendered in the same coordinate and showed the differences very intuitively. To be able to distinguish the variations of chemical fingerprint more directly, linear interpolation angle cosine similarity algorithm (LIACSA was proposed to get similarity ratio. This study showed that QR codes can be used as an effective information carrier to transfer quality data. Smartphone application can rapidly read quality information in QR codes and convert data into TCM chemical fingerprints.
Full Text Available Leukemia is the most common malignancy among all childhood cancers and is associated with a low survival rate in adult patients. Since 1995, the National Health Insurance (NHI program in Taiwan has been offering insurance coverage for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM, along with conventional Western medicine (WM. This study analyzes the status of TCM utilization in Taiwan, in both pediatric and adult patients with leukemia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using population-based National Health Insurance Research Database of Registry of Catastrophic Illness, involving patient data from 2001 to 2010 and follow-up data through 2011. The effectiveness of TCM use was evaluated. Relevant sociodemographic data showed that both pediatric and adult patients who were TCM users one year prior to leukemia diagnosis were more likely to utilize TCM services for cancer therapy. A greater part of medical expenditure of TCM users was lower than that of TCM nonusers, except little discrepancy in drug fee of adult patients. The survival rate is also higher in TCM users. Altogether, these data show that TCM has the potential to serve as an adjuvant therapy when combined with conventional WM in the treatment of patients with leukemia.
Pang, Bing; Zhou, Qiang; Zhao, Tian-Yu; He, Li-Sha; Guo, Jing; Chen, Hong-Dong; Zhao, Lin-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Lin
The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming a major public health issue. As one of the important parts in complementary and alternative therapies, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is promising in treating DM. In this review, we summarize new thoughts on treating DM that aim to improve the clinical efficacy of TCM from the perspectives of principle, methods, formula, herbs, and doses. Our approach is as follows: principle: we use a combination of symptoms, syndromes, and diseases as a new mode for treating diabetes; methods: emphasizing heat-clearing in the early and middle stage of T2DM and invigorating blood circulation throughout the whole process of T2DM are two innovative methods to treat T2DM; formulas and herbs: choosing formulas and herbs based on the combination of TCM theory and current medicine. We will emphasize four strategies to help doctors choose formulas and herbs, including treatment based on syndrome differentiation, choosing herbs of bitter and sour flavors to counteract sweet flavor, choosing formulas and herbs aimed at main symptoms, and using modern pharmacological achievements in clinical practice; dose: reasonable drug dose plays an important role in the treatment of DM and a close relationship exists between dose and clinical efficacy.
Full Text Available Background. The use of complementary and alternative medicine in critical illness is increasing worldwide. This study investigates how traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is used in stroke patients. Methods. Using Taiwan National Health Insurance reimbursement claims, we compared the annual use of TCM between stroke patients and general population, identifying 15,330 patients with a new onset of stroke in 2000–2009. The sociodemographic status and medical comorbidities between stroke patients receiving TCM services and those without using the service were compared. Results. The use of TCM was higher in stroke patients than in the general population, 27.9% versus 25.4% in 2000 and 32.7% versus 27.8% in 2009, respectively, and grew consistently from 2000 to 2009. Among stroke patients, women, younger patients, white-collar employees, higher-income residents, and those living in areas with more TCM physicians were more likely to use TCM. Stroke patients using rehabilitation services were more likely to have more TCM visits (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.96–2.66 and higher expenditure on TCM (OR = 2.67, 95% CI = 2.29–3.12 compared with stroke patients without rehabilitation. Conclusion. TCM is popular and well accepted in Taiwan. Patients with stroke have a higher TCM utilization rate than people without stroke.
Layne, Kerry; Ferro, Albert
The aim was to perform a systematic review of the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) in cardiovascular disease. Electronic databases were searched up to 11 November 2015 for all randomized-controlled trials evaluating the effect of TCM in hypertension, ischaemic stroke, heart failure, coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model. Four hypertension studies were eligible for statistical analysis and included 133 patients receiving TCM and 130 control patients. There were significant reductions in systolic blood pressure in patients receiving TCM, comparable to results achieved with pharmaceutical medicines. An OR of 3.781 (95% confidence interval 2.392, 5.977; P = 0.000) was observed for the anti-hypertensive effect of TCM. Significant heterogeneity was present (P = 0.011), with a tendency towards publication bias that did not reach significance (P = 0.05275). Outcome measures for other cardiovascular diseases were inconsistent. Certain TCM compounds appear to have significant anti-hypertensive effects, and although some are associated in some studies with improved outcomes in coronary heart disease, heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the data are inconsistent and will require large-scale randomized-controlled trials to allow full evaluation of any potential therapeutic benefit in these areas. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.
Yang, Zhi-min; Tang, Xiang-jiang; Lao, Ying-rong
To analyze the quality of scientific research design of clinical literature related with treatment of Parkinson's disease with traditional Chinese medicine, so as to objectively evaluate the therapeutic effect of TCM. According to principles of evidence-based medicine, clinical epidemiology/design measurement evaluation (DME), the "Table of Systematic Evaluation of Quality and Information Collection for TCM Clinical Research Literature" were established and used to evaluate clinical control trial literature related with treatment of Parkinson's disease with TCM published during 1979 to 2000. The method of randomization was not described in 66.7% of the literature. Although randomized design was declared in 33.3 %, problems or mistakes of randomized allocation still existed in them. No record about the state of dropped out or absconded cases in follow-up study and without any record of samples screening presented in all literature. There were some problems of key links concerning samples' homogeneity, outcome indexes selection, conclusion deduction and so on, which could also influence the quality and reliability of randomized controlled trials. Methodological design of clinical research of TCM on Parkinson's disease should be strengthened.
He, Jian-Ming; Mu, Qing
Plants of the genus Mahonia Nuttall (Berberidaceae) have a long history of medical use in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for the treatment of a wide range of health disorders, such as tuberculosis, periodontitis, dysentery, pharyngolaryngitis, eczema, and wounds. In the theory of TCM, most Mahonia species exert the effects of relieving internal heat, eliminating dampness, removing toxins, suppressing pain, promoting blood circulation, inhibiting cough and alleviating inflammation. The aim of the review is to provide comprehensive summary on ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology, toxicology and clinical trials of Mahonia species used in TCM based on scientific literature. Available scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic effects of Mahonia species in TCM is demonstrated and opportunities for future research are discussed to highlight the scientific gaps in our knowledge that deserves further investigation. The available information on the ethnopharmacological uses in Chinese medicine, phytochemistry, pharmacology and clinical practice of the genus Mahonia was collected from Chinese Herbal Classics, published books, un-published resources, dissertations and various worldwide-accepted scientific databases: CNKI, PubMed, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Google Scholar, Wiley, TPL (www.theplantlist.org), SciFinder, and Embase. A variety of ethnomedical usages of Mahonia have been recorded in ancient Chinese books and references. The phytochemical research of this genus has resulted in the identification of more than 150 chemical constituents, among which alkaloids are predominant. The isolated compounds and crude extracts have been shown to exhibit a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo pharmacological effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antimutagenic and analgesic properties. Preparations containing Mahonia species have been demonstrated to exert good efficacy for the clinical treatment of dysentery
Chen, Anhui; Wang, Yulong; Shao, Ying; Huang, Bo
Cordyceps militaris has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for many years, but its frequent degeneration during continuous maintenance in culture can lead to substantial commercial losses. In this study, a degenerated strain of C. militaris was obtained by subculturing a wild-type strain through 10 successive subcultures. The relative abundance of the 2 mating types seems to be out of balance in the degenerated strain. By cross-mating 4 single-ascospore isolates (2 for MAT 1-1 and 2 for MAT 1-2) from the degenerated strain, we were able to restore fruiting body production to wild-type levels. The rejuvenated strain not only produced well-developed fruiting bodies but also accumulated more cordycepin and adenosine than either the original wild-type strain or the degenerated strain. These new characteristics remained stable after 4 successive transfers, which indicates that the method used to rejuvenate the degenerated strain in this study is an effective approach.
Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo
Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hu, Bing; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Qin
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in the management of hepatocarcinoma. Hepatocarcinoma patients may present Qi-stagnation, damp-heat, blood stasis, Qi-deficiency, Yin-deficiency and other TCM syndromes (Zheng). Modern treatments such as surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and high intensity focus ultrasound treatment would influence the manifestation of TCM syndromes. Herbs with traditional efficacy of tonifying Qi, blood and Yin, soothing liver-Qi stagnation, clearing heat and detoxifying and dissolving stasis, have been demonstrated to be potent to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis. TCM has been widely used in all aspects of integrative therapy in hepatocarcinoma, including surgical resection, liver transplantation, TACE, local ablative therapies and even as monotherapy for middle-advanced stage hepatocarcinoma. Clinical practices have confirmed that TCM is effective to alleviate clinical symptoms, improve quality of life and immune function, prevent recurrence and metastasis, delay tumor progression, and prolong survival time in hepatocarcinoma patients. The effective mechanism of TCM against hepatocarcinoma is related to inducing apoptosis, autophagy, anoikis and cell senescence, arresting cell cycle, regulating immune function, inhibiting metastasis and angiogenesis, reversing drug resistance and enhancing effects of chemotherapy. Along with the progress of research in this field, TCM will contribute more to the prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:26019736
Sun, Kai; Pan, Chun-Sui; Li, Quan; Furukawa, Osamu; Fan, Jing-Yu; Han, Jing-Yan
Gram-negative bacteria are one of the major pathogens associated with severe sepsis and septic shock. LPS is a component of the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, which causes a systemic, uncontrolled inflammatory response in infected subjects. In microcirculation it manifests multiple insults, including leukocyte and platelet adhesion, ROS and protease overproduction, mast cell degranulation, endothelium hyperpermeabilty, hemorrhage, and microthrombi formation, ultimately results in multiorgan dysfunction, DIC, refractory shock and even death. TCM has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound traditional preparation to treat inflammation-related diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty and the medical formulary had been developed thousands of years before, which recorded a great number of classical prescriptions for treatment with infectious diseases. This review will summarize the up to date works with respect to the ameliorating effects of compound and single traditional Chinese medicine and active components on LPS-induced inflammation, including clinical trial and experimental studies regarding multiorgan injury and underlying mechanisms.
This paper introduces the Bower Manuscript in Sanskrit written on birch bark excavated in Xinjiang, which was bought in Kuqa by a British India army lieutenant Bower, hence its title. Then, it was researched, annotated, and published in 7 volumes by a German British lieutenant and orientalist Honer. The first three volumes are devoted to medical prescriptions. It is first verified that its "Dazi Xiangye San" is the "Dujuan Dachen San" in Tibetan medicine. By comparing it with other traditional medical systems, such as Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Uyghur medical systems, we found that Bower Manuscript is closer to Tibetan medicine and Mongolian medicine, while it has less relation with Chinese medicine and Uyghur medicine. However, it also exerts some influence on TCM.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART is the current HIV/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. This need has further manifested by recent clinical trial failures in anti-HIV-1 vaccines and microbicides. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. Methods Crude and fractionated extracts were prepared from various parts of nine traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants in Hainan Island, China. These extracts were first screened for their anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity in human CD4+ Jurkat cells. Then, a single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms of these extracts. Results Two extracts, one from Euphorbiaceae, Trigonostema xyphophylloides (TXE and one from Dipterocarpaceae, Vatica astrotricha (VAD inhibited HIV-1 replication and syncytia formation in CD4+ Jurkat cells, and had little adverse effects on host cell proliferation and survival. TXE and VAD did not show any direct inhibitory effects on the HIV-1 RT enzymatic activity. Treatment of these two extracts during the infection significantly blocked infection of the reporter virus. However, pre-treatment of the reporter virus with the extracts and treatment of the extracts post-infection had little effects on the infectivity or gene expression of the reporter virus. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TXE and VAD inhibit HIV-1 replication likely by blocking
Liu, Xue-Ting; Zhang, Xin; Wen, Shu; Peng, Le; Hong, Qi; Kang, Deying
To examine the reporting characteristics and key methodological factors of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the field of traditional Chinese medicine and assess whether use of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement is associated with improvement in the quality of reports of RCTs. RCTs published in two major traditional Chinese medicine journals were retrieved and were systematically reviewed. Of those journals, one adopted the CONSORT statement (Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine (JCIM)) and one did not (Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine (CJIM)). Items within the CONSORT 2001 and the CONSORT 2010 statements were taken to develop a 63-item coding manual. The Jadad scale was also used to assess methodological quality of RCTs. Two observers assessed the reporting of reports and extracted data independently. P CONSORT score) and reporting of methodological items (Jadad scale) over time were observed in adopter journal (JCIM) (P = 0.001). Overall CONSORT score of studies published during 2010 to 2011 (post-CONSORT) increased 15.30 averagely with 95%CI 8.34 to 22.26 (P = 0.001). Of those, items addressed on reporting of methodological quality were different significantly too. JCIM had more 1.30 items addressed than CJIM in average (95% CI 0.52 to 2.08, P = 0.003). In the multivariate analysis regression, the page length and CONSORT-promoting status have statistically significant associated with the (P = 0.001 and P = 0.040, respectively). Although a large room needs to improve the reporting of randomized clinical trials in traditional Chinese medicine, the impact for improvement of reporting of TCM RCTs has been proven in some extent. © 2015 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Wan, Huaiyu; Moens, Marie-Francine; Luyten, Walter; Zhou, Xuezhong; Mei, Qiaozhu; Liu, Lu; Tang, Jie
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a unique and complex medical system that has developed over thousands of years. This article studies the problem of automatically extracting meaningful relations of entities from TCM literature, for the purposes of assisting clinical treatment or poly-pharmacology research and promoting the understanding of TCM in Western countries. Instead of separately extracting each relation from a single sentence or document, we propose to collectively and globally extract multiple types of relations (eg, herb-syndrome, herb-disease, formula-syndrome, formula-disease, and syndrome-disease relations) from the entire corpus of TCM literature, from the perspective of network mining. In our analysis, we first constructed heterogeneous entity networks from the TCM literature, in which each edge is a candidate relation, then used a heterogeneous factor graph model (HFGM) to simultaneously infer the existence of all the edges. We also employed a semi-supervised learning algorithm estimate the model's parameters. We performed our method to extract relations from a large dataset consisting of more than 100,000 TCM article abstracts. Our results show that the performance of the HFGM at extracting all types of relations from TCM literature was significantly better than a traditional support vector machine (SVM) classifier (increasing the average precision by 11.09%, the recall by 13.83%, and the F1-measure by 12.47% for different types of relations, compared with a traditional SVM classifier). This study exploits the power of collective inference and proposes an HFGM based on heterogeneous entity networks, which significantly improved our ability to extract relations from TCM literature. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pan, Ying; Kong, Ling-Dong
Fructose is a natural monosaccharide broadly used in modern society. Over the past few decades, epidemiological studies have demonstrated that high fructose intake is an etiological factor of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This review highlights research advances on fructose-induced MetS, especially the underlying pathophysiological mechanism as well as pharmacotherapy by traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), using the PubMed, Web of science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal and Wanfang Data. This review focuses on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and uric acid (UA) production, two unique features of fructolysis different from glucose glycolysis. High level of DNL and UA production can result in insulin resistance, the key pathological event in developing MetS, mostly through oxidative stress and inflammation. Some other pathologies like the disturbance in brain and gut microbiota in the development of fructose-induced MetS in the past years, are also discussed. In management of MetS, TCM is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicine with a complete theory system and substantial herbal remedies. TCMs against MetS or MetS components, including Chinese patent medicines, TCM compound formulas, single TCM herbs and active compounds of TCM herbs, are reviewed on their effects and molecular mechanisms. TCMs with hypouricemic activity, which specially target fructose-induced MetS, are highlighted. And new technologies and strategies (such as high-throughput assay and systems biology) in this field are further discussed. In summary, fructose-induced MetS is a multifactorial disorder with the underlying complex mechanisms. Current clinical and pre-clinical evidence supports the potential of TCMs in management of MetS. Additionally, TCMs may show some advantages against complex MetS as their holistic feature through multiple target actions. However, further work is needed to confirm the effectivity and safety of TCMs
Jiang Tinghui; Wu Shiyan; Chen Yue; Zhang Qingquan; Zhang Weiwei; Shen Xubo; Wang Qianyao
Objective: To investigate the influence of interventional chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine on the immune function in elderly patients with advanced lung cancer and to establish a comprehensive therapeutic pattern which is effective and economical with lower side-effects. Methods: A total of 60 aged patients with lung cancer were randomly and equally divided into two groups with 30 patients in each group. Patients in group A were purely treated with traditional Chinese medicine and patients in group B were treated with a combination of interventional chemotherapy and traditional Chinese medicine. And two therapeutic courses (6-8 weeks) were conducted in both groups. The serum T-lymphocyte subsets levels of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8, NK cells and CD4 + CD25 + Treg cell levels were estimated with flow cytometry. The results were statistically analyzed. Results: No significant difference in serum levels of T cell subsets and CD4 + CD25 + Treg cell levels existed between the two groups, both before and after the treatment (P > 0.05). However, after the treatment the CD4 + CD25 + Treg cell level in group B was significantly lower than that in group A (P < 0.05). The short-term effective rate and the total clinical benefit rate in group B were 40% and 73.3% respectively, which were much better than those in group A (20% and 63.3% respectively). Conclusion: Interventional chemotherapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine will not damage the immune function of elderly patients with advanced lung cancer, on the contrary, the combination therapy, through effectively reducing the suppressor T cell level,shows excellent short-term effect. It indicates that interventional chemotherapy combined with Chinese medicine is an effective comprehensive therapeutic mode for elderly patients with advanced lung cancer. (authors)
Chen, Jing; Jiang, Zhigang; Li, Chunlin; Ping, Xiaoge; Cui, Shaopeng; Tang, Songhua; Chu, Hongjun; Liu, Binwan
Horns of Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica) have always been an ingredient of "Lingyangjiao", a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Persistent hunting for Saiga antelope has already threatened the survival of critical endangered populations in wild. To control the growing pressure, CITES and Chinese government have legislated for monitoring the trade of Saiga horns. However, similar ungulate horns are difficult to identify by their morphological characteristics, which has impeded the law enforcement. Besides Saiga antelope, other seven ungulate species which have similar horns are also sold and marked as "Lingyangjiao" in TCM markets to offset shortage of Saiga antelope horns. Such species are Gazella subgutturosa, Pantholops hodgsonii, Procapra picticaudata, Procapra gutturosa, Procapra przewalskii, Capra hircus, and Ovis aries. Our study aimed at implementing DNA barcoding technology to diagnose Saiga horns and the substitutes. We successfully extracted genomic DNA from horn samples. We recovered COI sequences of 644 bp with specific primers and 349 bp with nested PCR primers designed for degraded horn samples. The mean interspecific genetic distance of data set of the 644-bp full barcodes and the 349-bp mini-barcodes was 14.96% and 15.38%, respectively, and the mean intraspecific distance was 0.24% and 0.20%, respectively. Each species formed independent clades in neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree of the two data sets with >99% supporting values, except P. gutturosa and P. przewalskii. The deep genetic distances gap and clear species clades in NJ tree of either full barcodes or mini-barcodes suggest that barcoding technology is an effective tool to diagnose Saiga horns and their substitutes. Barcoding diagnosis protocol developed here will simplify diagnosis of "Lingyangjiao" species and will facilitate conservation of endangered ungulates involved in TCM "Lingyangjiao" markets, especially the Saiga antelope.
Full Text Available While traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is widely used among Chinese patients with cancer, studies evaluating the effectiveness of TCM using objective indicators are rare. We examined the effectiveness of TCM for liver protection and completion of chemotherapy among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. We used a case-control design to examine the medical records of patients with cancer who received chemotherapy in a teaching hospital in Taipei in 2004. A total of 184 courses of chemotherapy among 89 patients were studied. Of the 184 courses, 42 used TCM jointly with chemotherapy served as cases, while the remaining 142 courses served as controls. Outcome variables included counts of cancelled or delayed chemotherapies and liver function (aspartate aminotransferase, AST and alanine aminotransferase, ALT 1 week before, during and 2 weeks after chemotherapy. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the data. Patients who had concomitant TCM with chemotherapy had lower serum ALT and AST during chemotherapy than the controls given that the age, sex, cancer stage, radiotherapy sites, cancer diagnosis and potential hepatotoxicity of the chemotherapeutic drugs were controlled for in the model [β = −3.48, 95% confidence interval (CI −10.08 to 3.11 for AST; β = −5.95, 95% CI: −11.47 to −0.44 for ALT]. There was no significant difference between the case and control groups for odds of completing one course of chemotherapy. Use of TCM with chemotherapy resulted in protection of the liver during chemotherapy, as manifested by lower serum AST and ALT levels.
Li, Fengxia; Ouyang, Li; Liu, Yaqiong; Zeng, Jing; Yan, Lailai; Wang, Jingyu
This study attempts to test the total amount of 41 inorganic elements in traditional Chinese medicine materials (TCMM), to analyze to surpass the set standard of 5 toxic heavy metal elements and to explore possible method of modification. By using microwave as digestion tool, ICP-MS and ICP-AES as detective instrument, 41 elements in 466 samples are tested. While the amount of elements Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, Sr are determined by ICP-AES, the amount of the rest 32 elements are determined by ICP-MS. SPSS 16.0 is used as the statistical tool for data analysis. Testing of reference material Astragalus showed that the measurements of each element are within the reference range, and except for element I, RSD of determination for each element is less than 10%, thus the accuracy and precision of the study method is confirmed. Using above mentioned instruments and methods, general information of elements in 466 TCMM are obtained. The concentrations of each elements in TCMM varied a lot and are different among each TCMM. The over standard rate of 5 heavy metal elements are lower than previous results, however, the over standard rate is still descending in the order of Cd > Cu > Pb > As > Hg. The content of heavy metal elements in TCMM varies among different areas, especially, over standard of heavy metals are not detected in locality as Gansu, Qinghai, Shanxi, Xinjiang and Hainan provinces.
Guo, Xin-E; Zhao, Yu-Bin; Xie, Yan-Ming; Zhao, Li-Cai; Li, Yan-Feng; Hao, Zhe
To establish a nurse based post-marketing safety surveillance model for traditional Chinese medicine injections (TCMIs). A TCMIs safety monitoring team and a research hospital team engaged in the research, monitoring processes, and quality control processes were established, in order to achieve comprehensive, timely, accurate and real-time access to research data, to eliminate errors in data collection. A triage system involving a study nurse, as the first point of contact, clinicians and clinical pharmacists was set up in a TCM hospital. Following the specified workflow involving labeling of TCM injections and using improved monitoring forms it was found that there were no missing reports at the ratio of error was zero. A research nurse as the first and main point of contact in post-marketing safety monitoring of TCM as part of a triage model, ensures that research data collected has the characteristics of authenticity, accuracy, timeliness, integrity, and eliminate errors during the process of data collection. Hospital based monitoring is a robust and operable process.
Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a chronic obstructive lung disease and is frequently found in well-developed countries due to the issue of aging populations. Not all forms of medical treatment are unable to return a patient's limited pulmonary function back to normal and eventually they could require a lung transplant. At this time, COPD is the leading cause of death in the world. Studies surveying I-kappa-B-kinase beta (IKK2 are very relevant to the occurrence and deterioration of the condition COPD. The sinapic acid-4-O-sulfate, kaempferol, and alpha-terpineol were found to be IKK2 inhibitors and helped prevent COPD occurrence and worsening according to a screening of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM database. The protein-ligand interaction of these three compounds with regard to IKK2 was also done by molecular dynamics. The docking poses, hydrogen bond variation, and hydrophobic interactions found Asp103 and Lys106 are crucial to IKK2 binding areas for IKK2 inhibition. Finally, we found the three compounds that have an equally strong effect in terms of IKK2 binding proven by the TCM database and perhaps these may be an alternative treatment for COPD in the future.
Full Text Available Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 is a promising target for diabetes mellitus (DM therapy and reduces the occurrence of diabetes due to obesity. However, GLP-1 will be hydrolyzed soon by the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4. We tried to design small molecular drugs for GLP-1 receptor agonist from the world's largest traditional Chinese medicine (TCM Database@Taiwan. According to docking results of virtual screening, we selected 2 TCM compounds, wenyujinoside and 28-deglucosylchikusetsusaponin IV, for further molecular dynamics (MD simulation. GLP-1 was assigned as the control compound. Based on the results of root mean square deviation (RMSD, solvent accessible surface (SAS, mean square deviation (MSD, Gyrate, total energy, root mean square fluctuation (RMSF, matrices of smallest distance of residues, database of secondary structure assignment (DSSP, cluster analysis, and distance of H-bond, we concluded that all the 3 compounds could bind and activate GLP-1 receptor by computational simulation. Wenyujinoside and 28-deglucosylchikusetsusaponin IV were the TCM compounds that could be GLP-1 receptor agonists.
Liu, Zhihong; Du, Jiewen; Yan, Xin; Zhong, Jiali; Cui, Lu; Lin, Jinyuan; Zeng, Lizhu; Ding, Peng; Chen, Pin; Zhou, Xinxin; Zhou, Huihao; Gu, Qiong; Xu, Jun
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used and proven effective in long term clinical practice. However, the molecular mechanism of action for many TCMs remains unclear due to the complexity of many ingredients and their interactions with biological receptors. This is one of the major roadblocks in TCM modernization. In order to solve this problem, we have developed TCMAnalyzer, which is a free web-based toolkit allowing a user to (1) identify the potential compounds that are responsible for the bioactivities for a TCM herb through scaffold-activity relation searches using structural search techniques, (2) investigate the molecular mechanism of action for a TCM herb at the systemic level, and (3) explore the potentially targeted bioactive herbs. The toolkit can result in TCM networks that demonstrate the relations among natural product molecules (small molecular ligands), putative protein targets, pathways, and diseases. These networks are graphically depicted to reveal the mechanism of actions for a TCM herb or to identify new molecular scaffolds for new chemotherapies. TCMAnalyzer is freely available at http://www.rcdd.org.cn/tcmanalyzer .
Wen, Yiyong; Yi, Jianping; Zhao, Shen; Jiang, Song; Chi, Yuming; Liu, Kefu
The wastewater effluent from Radix aconiti processing, an important step in the production processes of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is a type of toxic wastewater and difficult to treat. Plasma oxidation methods have emerged as feasible techniques for effective decomposition of toxic organic pollutants. This study examined the performance of a plasma reactor operated in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to degrade the effluent from R. aconiti processing. The effects of treatment time, discharge voltage, initial pH value and the feeding gas for the reactor on the degradation of this TCM wastewater were investigated. A bacterium bioluminescence assay was adopted in this study to test the toxicity of the TCM wastewater after non-thermal plasma treatment. The degradation ratio of the main toxic component was 87.77% after 60min treatment with oxygen used as feed gas and it was 99.59% when the initial pH value was 8.0. High discharge voltage and alkaline solution environment were beneficial for improving the degradation ratio. The treatment process was found to be capable of reducing the toxicity of the wastewater to a low level or even render it non-toxic. These experimental results suggested that the DBD plasma method may be a competitive technology for primary decomposition of biologically undegradable toxic organic pollutants in TCM wastewater. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lin, Ming-Hwai; Chang, Hsiao-Ting; Tu, Chun-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang
Doctor-shopping has caused an increase in medical expense, potential to receive duplicate medications, and suffer adverse drug reactions. We carried out a population-based retrospective study aimed at examining the user patterns of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) ambulatory care in Taiwan. We retrieved complete TCM ambulatory visit datasets for the year 2007 from the National Health Insurance database in Taiwan. We defined the patients whose distribution of TCM physician numbers scored more than 97.5 percent (more than, or equal to, five TCM physicians) within one year as TCM doctor-shoppers. In total, 6,596,814 subjects (28.9%) paid TCM visits during that year. All 177,728 subjects (2.69%) who visited more than five (including) TCM physicians were classified as TCM shoppers. The most prevalent diagnostic grouping was upper respiratory infections (44.7%) and sprains and strains (44.0%). Men had a lower odds ratio (OR) among TCM shoppers than women (OR = 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.96). Younger people were less likely to be TCM shoppers than other people were. The ORs of TCM shoppers were higher among veterans and low-income patients (OR = 1.29 (1.23-1.35), and 1.33 (1.27-1.41)). In conclusion, health education on the potential of drug interactions and iatrogenic health risks incurred from doctor-shopping should be addressed to those high-risk patients.
Birkeflet, Oddveig; Laake, Petter; Vøllestad, Nina
Acupuncture is rooted in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and emphasises individualised treatment according to TCM patterns. Eight TCM patterns are regarded as typical for female infertility. There are no empirical data comparing these patterns in fertile and infertile women. To identify and compare the TCM patterns and recommended acupuncture points in infertile and fertile women. The hypothesis that infertile and fertile women should differ in occurrence of TCM patterns described as typical for infertility was examined. A cross-sectional study examined the distribution of TCM patterns and acupuncture points among 24 infertile and 24 fertile women. TCM patterns and points proposed by two acupuncturists were analysed. The odds ratio was used as the effect measure. Three patterns were found in more than 92% of the women. Five patterns occurred more frequently among infertile (p≤0.03), and four among fertile (p≤0.02) women. Only three of the eight patterns assumed typical for infertile women were more common among infertile women. Two of the eight patterns were more common among fertile women. Acupuncture points KI3, LI3 and SP6 were chosen for almost all women, whereas CV4, CV3 and ST29 were chosen more often for infertile women (pwomen (p<0.001). The data indicate that the presence of some, and the absence of other, TCM patterns are associated with infertility. These results are not consistent with the assumed associations between eight specific patterns and infertility, as maintained by TCM textbooks.
Full Text Available The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, which has thousands of years of clinical application among China and other Asian countries, is the pioneer of the “multicomponent-multitarget” and network pharmacology. Although there is no doubt of the efficacy, it is difficult to elucidate convincing underlying mechanism of TCM due to its complex composition and unclear pharmacology. The use of ligand-protein networks has been gaining significant value in the history of drug discovery while its application in TCM is still in its early stage. This paper firstly surveys TCM databases for virtual screening that have been greatly expanded in size and data diversity in recent years. On that basis, different screening methods and strategies for identifying active ingredients and targets of TCM are outlined based on the amount of network information available, both on sides of ligand bioactivity and the protein structures. Furthermore, applications of successful in silico target identification attempts are discussed in detail along with experiments in exploring the ligand-protein networks of TCM. Finally, it will be concluded that the prospective application of ligand-protein networks can be used not only to predict protein targets of a small molecule, but also to explore the mode of action of TCM.
Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, named Zeng-xiao An-shen Zhi-chan 2 (ZAZ2, on patients with Parkinson's disease (PD. Among 115 patients with idiopathic PD enrolled (mean age, 64.7 ± 10.2 years old, 110 patients (M = 65, F = 45; mean age, 64.9 ± 10.7 years old completed the study. Patients took either ZAZ2 (=59 or placebo granule (=56 in a blind manner for 13 weeks while maintaining other anti-Parkinson medications unchanged. All participants wore a motion logger, and we analyzed the power-law temporal autocorrelation of the motion logger records taken on 3 occasions (before, one week, and 13 weeks after the drug administration. Drug efficacy was evaluated with the conventional Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS, as well as the power-law exponent α, which corresponds to the level of physical activity of the patients. ZAZ2 but not placebo granule improved the awake-sleep rhythm, the UPDRS Part II, Part II + III, and Part IV scores, and the α values. The results indicate that ZAZ2 improved activities of daily living (ADL of parkinsonism and, thus, is a potentially suitable drug for long-term use.
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and becomes a serious world-wide problem because of this disease's rapid propagation and incurability. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs supports HIV have rapid drug resistance for antitreatment. Screening the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM database by simulating molecular docking and molecular dynamics may select molecular compounds to inhibit INSTIs against HIV drug resistance. (S-cathinone and (1S,2S-norpseudoephedrine are selected based on structure and ligand-based drugs are designed and then get higher bioactivity predicted score from SVM than Raltegravir and other TCM compounds. The molecular dynamics are helpful in the analysis and detection of protein-ligand interactions. According to the docking poses, hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bond variations define the main regions of important amino acids in integrase. In addition to the detection of TCM compound efficacy, we suggest (1S,2S-norpseudoephedrine is better than the others based on the analysis of interaction and the effect on the structural variation.
Full Text Available Current strategies for drug discovery have reached a bottleneck where the paradigm is generally “one gene, one drug, one disease.” However, using holistic and systemic views, network pharmacology may be the next paradigm in drug discovery. Based on network pharmacology, a combinational drug with two or more compounds could offer beneficial synergistic effects for complex diseases. Interestingly, traditional chinese medicine (TCM has been practicing holistic views for over 3,000 years, and its distinguished feature is using herbal formulas to treat diseases based on the unique pattern classification. Though TCM herbal formulas are acknowledged as a great source for drug discovery, no drug discovery strategies compatible with the multidimensional complexities of TCM herbal formulas have been developed. In this paper, we highlighted some novel paradigms in TCM-based network pharmacology and new drug discovery. A multiple compound drug can be discovered by merging herbal formula-based pharmacological networks with TCM pattern-based disease molecular networks. Herbal formulas would be a source for multiple compound drug candidates, and the TCM pattern in the disease would be an indication for a new drug.
Anson Chui Yan Tang
Full Text Available In view of lacking a quantifiable traditional Chinese medicine (TCM pulse diagnostic model, a novel TCM pulse diagnostic model was introduced to quantify the pulse diagnosis. Content validation was performed with a panel of TCM doctors. Criterion validation was tested with essential hypertension. The gold standard was brachial blood pressure measured by a sphygmomanometer. Two hundred and sixty subjects were recruited (139 in the normotensive group and 121 in the hypertensive group. A TCM doctor palpated pulses at left and right cun, guan, and chi points, and quantified pulse qualities according to eight elements (depth, rate, regularity, width, length, smoothness, stiffness, and strength on a visual analog scale. An artificial neural network was used to develop a pulse diagnostic model differentiating essential hypertension from normotension. Accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were compared among various diagnostic models. About 80% accuracy was attained among all models. Their specificity and sensitivity varied, ranging from 70% to nearly 90%. It suggested that the novel TCM pulse diagnostic model was valid in terms of its content and diagnostic ability.
Liu, Zhongyang; Guo, Feifei; Wang, Yong; Li, Chun; Zhang, Xinlei; Li, Honglei; Diao, Lihong; Gu, Jiangyong; Wang, Wei; Li, Dong; He, Fuchu
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), with a history of thousands of years of clinical practice, is gaining more and more attention and application worldwide. And TCM-based new drug development, especially for the treatment of complex diseases is promising. However, owing to the TCM’s diverse ingredients and their complex interaction with human body, it is still quite difficult to uncover its molecular mechanism, which greatly hinders the TCM modernization and internationalization. Here we developed the first online Bioinformatics Analysis Tool for Molecular mechANism of TCM (BATMAN-TCM). Its main functions include 1) TCM ingredients’ target prediction; 2) functional analyses of targets including biological pathway, Gene Ontology functional term and disease enrichment analyses; 3) the visualization of ingredient-target-pathway/disease association network and KEGG biological pathway with highlighted targets; 4) comparison analysis of multiple TCMs. Finally, we applied BATMAN-TCM to Qishen Yiqi dripping Pill (QSYQ) and combined with subsequent experimental validation to reveal the functions of renin-angiotensin system responsible for QSYQ’s cardioprotective effects for the first time. BATMAN-TCM will contribute to the understanding of the “multi-component, multi-target and multi-pathway” combinational therapeutic mechanism of TCM, and provide valuable clues for subsequent experimental validation, accelerating the elucidation of TCM’s molecular mechanism. BATMAN-TCM is available at http://bionet.ncpsb.org/batman-tcm.
Li, Mihui; Mo, Shuming; Lv, Yubao
Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients' constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P underweight (P underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity. PMID:29234426
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations among the nine types of body constitution in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. Method. Participants aged 30 to 90 years were recruited from communities in Shanghai and assessed using a self-administered questionnaire pertaining to their demographics, lifestyles, and self-reported medical history. The data of 3748 participants with complete information was available for the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR analysis was performed to determine the associations among the TCM constitution variables and the health outcomes. Results. The standards of classification and determination of the constitution in TCM were used to gauge the patients’ constitution type. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.10 for all. MLR revealed independent and significant associations among the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight (P<0.05 for all. Conclusion. Our study revealed significant negative correlations between the Qi_Deficient and Yang_Deficient groups with the outcomes of overweight, obesity, and underweight. On the other hand, positive correlations were found between Phlegm_Dampness and the outcomes of overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available Knee osteoarthritis (OA manifests with pain, joint stiffness, and limited function. In traditional Chinese medicine, knee OA is differentiated into three patterns: yang deficiency and cold coagulation, kidney deficiency, and blood stasis. The objective of this study was to determine whether yang deficiency cold coagulation patients respond better to thermal laser acupuncture treatment than do non-yang deficient patients. Fifty-two patients with OA were allocated to group A (yang deficient, n=26 or B (non-yang deficient, n=26. All patients received a 20-min thermal laser acupuncture treatment at acupoint Dubi (ST 35 three times a week for two weeks and twice a week for another four weeks. Outcome assessments were performed immediately after the first treatment, and at weeks 2, 6, and 10. Group A function scores were significantly better than those of Group B at weeks 2 (P=0.049, 6 (P=0.046, and 10 (P=0.042, but no significant differences were found between the two groups in pain and stiffness scores at any time point. No significant adverse effect was observed. The combined 10.6 μm–650 nm laser treatment might be most beneficial to yang deficiency cold coagulation knee OA patients, particularly in improving function.
Maggie Man-Ki Poon
Full Text Available A systematic review was conducted to examine traditional Chinese medicine (TCM patterns commonly diagnosed in subjects with insomnia and clinical features associated with the TCM patterns, and an insomnia symptom checklist for TCM diagnostic purpose was developed based on the review. Two independent researchers searched the China Academic Journals Full-Text Database and 10 English databases. A total of 103 studies and 9499 subjects were analyzed. There was a wide variation in terminology relating to symptomatology and TCM pattern. We identified 69 patterns, with the top 3 patterns (i.e., deficiency of both the heart and spleen, hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency, and liver-qi stagnation transforming into fire and the top 10 patterns covering 51.8% and 77.4% of the 9499 subjects, respectively. There were 19 sleep-related, 92 non-sleep-related, 14 tongue, and 7 pulse features included as diagnostic criteria of the top 10 TCM patterns for insomnia. Excessive dreaming, dizziness, red tongue, and fine pulse were the most common sleep-related, non-sleep-related, tongue, and pulse features. Overlapping symptomatology between the TCM patterns was present. A standardized symptom checklist consisted of 92 items, including 13 sleep-related, 61 non-sleep-related, 11 tongue, and 7 pulse items, holds promise as a diagnostic tool and merits further validation.
Li, Miao; Hou, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Si-Cen; Fu, Qiang; He, Lang-Chong
In China, traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) have been used in clinical applications for thousands of years. The successful hyphenation of high-Performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) has been applied widely in TCMs and biological samples analysis. Undoubtedly, HPLC/MS technique has facilitated the understanding of the treatment mechanism of TCMs. We reviewed more than 350 published papers within the last 5 years on HPLC/MS in the analysis of TCMs. The present review focused on the applications of HPLC/MS in the component analysis, metabolites analysis, and pharmacokinetics of TCMs etc. 50% of the literature is related to the component analysis of TCMs, which show that this field is the most populär type of research. In the metabolites analysis, HPLC coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry has been demonstrated to be the powerful tool for the characterization of structural features and fragmentation behavior patterns. This paper presented a brief overview of the applications of HPLC/MS in the analysis of TCMs. HPLC/MS in the fingerprint analysis is reviewed elsewhere. PMID:29403684
Full Text Available Constipation is a common problem in advanced cancer patients; however, specific clinical guidelines on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM syndrome (Zhang are not yet available. In this cross-sectional study, the TCM syndromes distribution and their common symptoms and signs among 225 constipated advanced cancer patients were determined. Results showed that 127 patients (56.4% and 7 patients (3.1% were in deficient and excessive patterns, respectively, while 91 patients (40.4% were in deficiency-excess complex. The distributions of the five syndromes were: Qi deficiency (93.3%, Qi stagnation (40.0%, blood (Yin deficiency (28.9%, Yang deficiency (22.2%, and excess heat (5.8%. Furthermore, age, functional status, and level of blood haemoglobin were factors related to the type of TCM syndrome. A TCM prescription with the functions on replenishing the Deficiency, redirecting the flow of Qi stagnation and moistening the dryness caused by the blood (Yin deficiency can be made for the treatment of advance cancer patients with constipation. Robust trials are urgently needed for further justifying its efficacy and safety in evidence-based approaches.
Zhu, Jiajing; Liu, Yongguo; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Xiaofeng; Xiao, Yonghua; Wang, Shidong; Wu, Xindong
Community structure is one of the most important properties in networks, in which a node shares its most connections with the others in the same community. On the contrary, the anti-community structure means the nodes in the same group have few or no connections with each other. In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the incompatibility problem of herbs is a challenge to the clinical medication safety. In this paper, we propose a new anti-community detection algorithm, Random non-nEighboring nOde expansioN (REON), to find anti-communities in networks, in which a new evaluation criterion, anti-modularity, is designed to measure the quality of the obtained anti-community structure. In order to establish anti-communities in REON, we expand the node set by non-neighboring node expansion and regard the node set with the highest anti-modularity as an anti-community. Inspired by the phenomenon that the node with higher degree has greater contribution to the anti-modularity, an improved algorithm called REONI is developed by expanding node set by the non-neighboring node with the maximum degree, which greatly enhances the efficiency of REON. Experiments on synthetic and real-world networks demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms over the existing methods. In addition, by applying REONI to the herb network, we find that it can discover incompatible herb combinations.
Zhao, Pan; Liu, Bin; Wang, Chunya
Liver injury caused by traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) is reported from many countries around the world. TCM hepatotoxicity has attracted worldwide concerns. This study aims to develop a more applicable and optimal tool to evaluate TCM hepatotoxicity. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed based on published data and U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Liver Toxicity Knowledge Base (LTKB). Eleven herbal ingredients with proven liver toxicity in the literature were added into the dataset besides chemicals from LTKB. The finally generated QSAR model yielded a sensitivity of 83.8%, a specificity of 70.1%, and an accuracy of 80.2%. Among the externally tested 20 ingredients from TCMs, 14 hepatotoxic ingredients were all accurately identified by the QSAR model derived from the dataset containing natural hepatotoxins. Adding natural hepatotoxins into the dataset makes the QSAR model more applicable for TCM hepatotoxicity assessment, which provides a right direction in the methodology study for TCM safety evaluation. The generated QSAR model has the practical value to prioritize the hepatotoxicity risk of TCM compounds. Furthermore, an open-access international specialized database on TCM hepatotoxicity should be quickly established.
Liu, Ronghua; Sun, Qiaofeng; Hu, Tian; Li, Lian; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jiayue; Zhou, Wanhui; Zang, Hengchang
As a powerful process analytical technology (PAT) tool, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used in real-time monitoring. In this study, NIR spectroscopy was applied to monitor multi-parameters of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Shenzhiling oral liquid during the concentration process to guarantee the quality of products. Five lab scale batches were employed to construct quantitative models to determine five chemical ingredients and physical change (samples density) during concentration process. The paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin and samples density were modeled by partial least square regression (PLSR), while the content of the glycyrrhizic acid and cinnamic acid were modeled by support vector machine regression (SVMR). Standard normal variate (SNV) and/or Savitzkye-Golay (SG) smoothing with derivative methods were adopted for spectra pretreatment. Variable selection methods including correlation coefficient (CC), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and interval partial least squares regression (iPLS) were performed for optimizing the models. The results indicated that NIR spectroscopy was an effective tool to successfully monitoring the concentration process of Shenzhiling oral liquid.
Hua, Shiyao; Zhang, Yiwei; Liu, Jiayue; Dong, Lin; Huang, Jun; Lin, Dingbo; Fu, Xueyan
Smilax glabra (SG) Roxb., a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively used worldwide for its marked pharmacological activities for treating syphilitic poisoned sores, limb hypertonicity, morbid leucorrhea, eczema pruritus, strangury due to heat, carbuncle toxin, and many other human ailments. Approximately 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from SG Roxb., and the major components have been determined to be flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides, phenolic acids, and steroids. Among these active compounds, the effects of astilbin, which is used as a quality control marker to determine the quality of SG Roxb., have been widely investigated. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies, the primary active components of SG Roxb. possess various pharmacological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and immune-modulatory effects, anti-oxidant, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, and cardiovascular system protective activities. However, an extensive study to determine the relationship between the chemical compositions and pharmacological effects of SG Roxb. has not been conducted and is worth of our study. Improving the means of utilizing the effects of SG is crucial. The present paper reviews the ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology of SG Roxb. and assesses its ethnopharmacological use in order to explore its therapeutic potential for future research.
Qi, Guoyan; Gu, Shanshan; Liu, Peng; Yang, Hongxia; Dong, Huimin
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a kind of autoimmune disease induced by transferring dysfunction of neuromuscular junction. In the present study, we developed an integrated therapy combined with traditional Chinese medicine and immuno suppressive agents to seek for an effective treatment of MG. 220 MG patients were randomly divided into two groups with different therapies. Plasma levels of acetylcholine receptors antibodies (AchRAb) and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Treg) were conducted through ELISA and flow cytometry. The amount of AchRAb (8.52±0.96 vs. 5.22±0.46) and CD4+CD25+Treg (1.94±1.21 vs. 3.21±0.96) in Group A receiving integrated therapy were significantly improved compared with Group B; the clinical performance of group treated with the integrated therapy was also much better. The integrated therapy in the present study could significantly improve the condition of MG with high recovery rate and low recurrence rate, which can be employed in future clinical treatment of MG. PMID:26770531
Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng
Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.
Li, Huiyan; Wan, Huiying; Xia, Tian; Chen, Maohua; Zhang, Yun; Luo, Xiaoming; Li, Xiaohong
Therapeutic angiogenesis remains the most effective method to re-establish a proper blood flow in ischemic tissues. There is a great clinical need to identify an injectable format to achieve a well accumulation following local administration and a sustained delivery of biological factors at the ischemic sites. In the current study, fragmented nanofibers with loaded traditional Chinese medicines, astragaloside IV (AT), the main active ingredient of astragalus, and ferulic acid (FA), the main ingredient of angelica, were proposed to promote the microvessel formation after intramuscular injection into ischemic hindlimbs. Fragmented fibers with average lengths of 5 (FF-5), 20 (FF-20) and 80 μm (FF-80) were constructed by the cryocutting of aligned electrospun fibers. Their dispersion in sodium alginate solution (0.2%) indicated good injectability. After injection into the quadriceps muscles of the hindlimbs, FF-20 and FF-80 fiber fragments showed higher tissue retentions than FF-5, and around 90% of the injected doses were determined after 7 days. On a hindlimb ischemia model established by ligating the femoral arteries, intramuscular injection of the mixtures of FA-loaded and AT-loaded FF-20 fiber fragments substantially reduced the muscle degeneration with minimal fibrosis formation, significantly enhanced the neovessel formation and hindlimb perfusion in the ischemic tissues, and efficiently promoted the limb salvage with few limb losses. Along with the easy manipulation and lower invasiveness for in vivo administration, fragmented fibers should become potential drug carriers for disease treatment, wound recovery and tissue repair after local injection.
Full Text Available This article will review selected herbal products used in traditional Chinese medicine, including medicinal mushrooms (巴西蘑菇 bā xī mó gū; Agaricus blazei, 雲芝 yún zhī; Coriolus versicolor, 靈芝 líng zhī; Ganoderma lucidum, 香蕈 xiāng xùn; shiitake, Lentinus edodes, 牛樟芝 niú zhāng zhī; Taiwanofungus camphoratus, Cordyceps (冬蟲夏草 dōng chóng xià cǎo, pomegranate (石榴 shí liú; Granati Fructus, green tea (綠茶 lǜ chá; Theae Folium Non Fermentatum, garlic (大蒜 dà suàn; Allii Sativi Bulbus, turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng; Curcumae Longae Rhizoma, and Artemisiae Annuae Herba (青蒿 qīng hāo; sweet wormwood. Many of the discussed herbal products have gained popularity in their uses as dietary supplements for health benefits. The review will focus on the active constituents of the herbs and their bioactivities, with emphasis on the most recent progress in research for the period of 2003 to 2011.
Tai Pong Lam
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are increasing expectations for primary care practitioners to deal with mental health problems. In Hong Kong, 15 % of the general public consult Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM practitioners regularly for their primary health care needs. This study investigated the 5-year outcomes of a western mental health training course for TCM practitioners in Hong Kong. Method Structured questionnaire surveys were conducted to compare the TCM practitioners’ confidence and engagement in mental health care before and after the Course. The data collected during 2011–2015 were analyzed. Results A total of 151 TCM practitioners returned both pre- and post-Course questionnaires, with a response rate of 95.6 %. After the course, there were significant increases in the proportions of participants being confident of recognizing patients with psychological problems (62.9 % before the course vs 89.4 % after, diagnosing common mental health problems (47.7 % vs 77.5 %, and managing them (31.2 % vs 64.3 %. Overall, 66.9 % of the participants reported some increase in their confidence in recognizing patients with psychological problems, diagnosing or/and managing patients with common mental health problems. Qualitative responses illustrated the major improvements were increased awareness of mental symptoms, better understanding of classification of mental disorders and management approaches. On the other hand, barriers included difficulties in understanding medical terms in English, consultation time constraints, and a lack of formal referral system to psychiatrists. Conclusions The Course has positive impact on TCM practitioners in handling mental health patients. The findings are useful for designing similar trainings on complementary and alternative medicine practitioners in other countries.
Lam, Tai Pong; Mak, Ki Yan; Lam, Kwok Fai; Chan, Hoi Yan; Sun, Kai Sing
There are increasing expectations for primary care practitioners to deal with mental health problems. In Hong Kong, 15 % of the general public consult Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners regularly for their primary health care needs. This study investigated the 5-year outcomes of a western mental health training course for TCM practitioners in Hong Kong. Structured questionnaire surveys were conducted to compare the TCM practitioners' confidence and engagement in mental health care before and after the Course. The data collected during 2011-2015 were analyzed. A total of 151 TCM practitioners returned both pre- and post-Course questionnaires, with a response rate of 95.6 %. After the course, there were significant increases in the proportions of participants being confident of recognizing patients with psychological problems (62.9 % before the course vs 89.4 % after), diagnosing common mental health problems (47.7 % vs 77.5 %), and managing them (31.2 % vs 64.3 %). Overall, 66.9 % of the participants reported some increase in their confidence in recognizing patients with psychological problems, diagnosing or/and managing patients with common mental health problems. Qualitative responses illustrated the major improvements were increased awareness of mental symptoms, better understanding of classification of mental disorders and management approaches. On the other hand, barriers included difficulties in understanding medical terms in English, consultation time constraints, and a lack of formal referral system to psychiatrists. The Course has positive impact on TCM practitioners in handling mental health patients. The findings are useful for designing similar trainings on complementary and alternative medicine practitioners in other countries.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Dislocations, sprains and strains are common childhood musculoskeletal injuries, requiring medical attention. We investigated the characteristics associated with using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM for children suffering from these injuries. Methods: From a nationwide representative insurance database of Taiwan, this cross-sectional study identified 50,769 children with dislocations, sprains and strains under 18 years of age, newly diagnosed between 1999 and 2009, without previous TCM experience. Children who initiated treatment with TCM (n = 24,063, 47.4% were defined as TCM users, others were in the non-TCM group. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs of TCM use. Results: Girls and children living in central Taiwan (vs. northern were associated with higher TCM use. The adjusted ORs (95% confidence interval (CI of TCM uses were 1.60 (1.42–1.79 for patients of 3–5 years, 2.20 (1.99–2.42 of 6–12 years and 1.82 (1.64–2.01 of 13–17 years, compared with those of the <2 years group. TCM users were less likely to have outpatient visits for Western medicine care and hospitalizations in the previous year. The TCM group was nearly twice more likely than the non-user group to receive treatments at local clinics (99.1% vs. 53.3%, p < 0.001. Conclusions: This study reveals important demographic and medical factors associated with TCM uses for children with dislocations, sprains and strains. Interestingly, local clinics are the main healthcare facilities providing TCM services. Further studies are needed to evaluate the outcomes of TCM treatment for these musculoskeletal injuries.
Xiao, Eric; Luo, Luguang
Across the world, the economic and health costs of diabetes are rising at an alarming rate. Each year in the United States, billions of dollars are spent on T2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treatments, but such treatments are not always effective and can lead to adverse events. Many pharmacological treatments exist to control the primary and secondary symptoms of T2DM, but these medications are not always efficacious, do little to treat secondary T2DM symptoms, and often carry adverse side effects. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a form of alternative medicine that is becoming appealing to western healthcare systems because of its comprehensive, holistic approach to managing T2DM patients. Works across TCM printed texts, clinical trial databases, medical association practice guidelines, and the existing literature on TCM and western diabetes treatments (in print and online) are reviewed. Conventional pharmaceutical therapies for T2DM are not efficacious enough to maintain satisfactory blood glucose levels for all patients, and even patients who maintain stable blood glucose levels may still suffer from secondary T2DM symptoms as well as from the side effects of their medications. TCM therapies have demonstrated promising results in T2DM clinical studies without causing the types of side effects associated with standard pharmaceutical treatments. In addition, the economic burden of TCM diabetes treatments on patients and payers is oftentimes less than that of pharmaceutical regimens. TCM approaches can be a viable alternative approach to treatment in the modern U.S. healthcare landscape, but a number of obstacles impede its assimilation into western health systems. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
Full Text Available The increasing use of complementary, alternative medicine (CAM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has attracted attention. We report on the gender difference in TCM use among the general population in Taiwan in a population-based, cross-sectional study.We collected data on socio-demographic factors, lifestyle and health behavior from the 2001 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. The medical records of interviewees aged 20-69 years were obtained from National Health Insurance claims data with informed consent. The prevalence of TCM use and the average frequency of TCM use were compared between women and men.Among 14,064 eligible participants, the one-year prevalence of TCM use for women and men was 31.8% and 22.4%, respectively. Compared with men, women had a higher average TCM use frequency (1.55 visits vs. 1.04 visits, p<0.001. This significant difference remained evident after excluding gender-specific diseases (1.43 visits vs. 1.03 visits, p<0.001. The average TCM use frequency was significantly higher in women than in men across all age groups. TCM use correlates differed for women and men. Marital status (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.30-1.85, family income and unhealthy lifestyle (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.30-1.74 were factors associated with TCM use in men but not in women.In Taiwan, women used more TCM services than men and the gender differences in the TCM use profile persisted across age groups.
Full Text Available Objective: To explore the effects of combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine on platelets, coagulative functions and inflammatory cytokines in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC. Methods: A total of 267 patients with UC were collected. 137 patients were treated with combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine as experimental group and 130 patients were treated with only western medicine as controls. Platelet count, coagulation function indexes and inflammatory cytokines were measured before and 15 d after the treatment. Results: No significantly differences were found in all indexes before treatment between two groups. After different treatments, platelet count (PLT, platelet distribution width (PDW were significantly decreased in both groups, but mean platelet volumn (MPV were significantly increased than before treatment. PLT and PDW were significantly lower and MPV were significantly higher in experimental group than control group. Fibrinogen (Fib and D-dimer (DD decreased significantly after treatment. Fib and DD in experimental group were significantly lower than controls. No significantly differences were found in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT and prothrobin time (PT. Tumor necrosisi factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-8 (IL-8 decreased significantly in both group after treatment. TNF-毩, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly lower in experimental group than controls. Conclusion: Combined therapy of traditional Chinese medicine and western medicine can more effectively improve the cogulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in patients with UC than only western medicine therapy.
Melchart, Dieter; Hager, Stefan; Dai, Jingzhang; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang
The use of drugs derived from plants is a cornerstone of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Yet, too little is known about risk and safety of Chinese medicinal drugs (CMD). Therefore, the TCM hospital Bad Kötzting has developed a quality control and complication screening programme in order to ensure a safe administration of TCM drugs to their patients. All Chinese medicinal drugs delivered to the hospital between September 1, 2012 and December 31, 2013 entered the quality control program and were screened for microbial contamination, aflatoxin, pesticides and heavy metals. A routinely applied complication screening programme monitored liver enzymes in all patients. Case causality assessment by CIOMS scale and identification of admitted herbs were conducted. Additionally, side effects of patients were identified by a routinely performed web-based documentation system. In 5 of 23 investigated samples (21.7%) the initial testing showed microbial contamination (2), pesticide (2) and heavy metals (1). The drugs were tested for authenticity and adulterations, respectively. All 994 patients (mean age 52.6 years; 72.6% female) admitted were available for analysis. 448 (45.1%) of all patients reported having perceived at least one side effect of treatment. They experienced mainly gastrointestinal symptoms (13.6%), neurovegetative symptoms (10.8 %), temporary deteriorations of pain (8.8%), diarrhoea (5.9%), nausea (1.6%) and vomiting (0.5%). Further, 6 patients with a more than 2-fold elevation (compared to maximum normal value or elevated admission values) of ALT were found in the systematic laboratory control with a non-conclusive causality assessment for TCM-drugs. Approximate incidence rates and analysed drugs associated with liver damage revealed a low rate of liver injury. Patients should be informed of the gastrointestinal symptoms caused by and potential hepatotoxicity of TCM herbs. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.
Wu, Xin; Zhang, Hongbing; Fan, Shanshan; Zhang, Yidan; Yang, Zhen; Fan, Simiao; Zhuang, Pengwei; Zhang, Yanjun
The quality and quality evaluation system of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are crucial in the safety and effectiveness assessment of TCM. However, they are also the major bottlenecks that restrict the quality control of TCM. Given the nature of Chinese medicine and the limitations of science and technology, the quality evaluation of TCM involves a few difficulties. Therefore, scholars have conducted considerable amount of research on this topic and obtained promising results. Biological potency and biomarkers have been used to evaluate the quality of TCM. Previous studies provided new strategies and methods to establish a system on quality evaluation. This review aims to provide a new strategy for the quality control of Chinese herbal medicine by combining biological potency and biomarkers based on biological effects. We reviewed the quality evaluation system of Chinese herbal medicine, focusing on quality markers (Q-markers) based on biological effects and the application of these markers in the quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicine. We also reviewed the factors affecting quality, the difficulties related to the quality evaluation system and the attempt of researchers to improve the quality control of TCM. We propose Q-biomarkers by integration of biological potency and biomarkers to evaluate the quality of TCM. The quality markers provided us significant insights in the process of definition. We further optimised the concept of Q-markers and summarised their definition and properties (including quantification, specificity and related to biological response) in accordance with the requirement of the quality evaluation of TCM. We propose the use of Q-biomarkers in vivo related to specific diseases as a new strategy for the quality evaluation of Chinese herbal medicine. The quality evaluation system of Q-biomarkers would provide a new perspective to standardise and globalise TCM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen
Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into can...
Herrera-Hernandez, Maria C; Lai-Yuen, Susana K; Piegl, Les A; Zhang, Xiao
This article presents the design of a web-based knowledge management system as a training and research tool for the exploration of key relationships between Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine, in order to facilitate relational medical diagnosis integrating these mainstream healing modalities. The main goal of this system is to facilitate decision-making processes, while developing skills and creating new medical knowledge. Traditional Chinese Medicine can be considered as an ancient relational knowledge-based approach, focusing on balancing interrelated human functions to reach a healthy state. Western Medicine focuses on specialties and body systems and has achieved advanced methods to evaluate the impact of a health disorder on the body functions. Identifying key relationships between Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine opens new approaches for health care practices and can increase the understanding of human medical conditions. Our knowledge management system was designed from initial datasets of symptoms, known diagnosis and treatments, collected from both medicines. The datasets were subjected to process-oriented analysis, hierarchical knowledge representation and relational database interconnection. Web technology was implemented to develop a user-friendly interface, for easy navigation, training and research. Our system was prototyped with a case study on chronic prostatitis. This trial presented the system's capability for users to learn the correlation approach, connecting knowledge in Western and Traditional Chinese Medicine by querying the database, mapping validated medical information, accessing complementary information from official sites, and creating new knowledge as part of the learning process. By addressing the challenging tasks of data acquisition and modeling, organization, storage and transfer, the proposed web-based knowledge management system is presented as a tool for users in medical training and research to explore, learn and
Xiao, Ying; Zhao, Yubin; Xie, Yanming
The nested case-control study design (or the case-control in a cohort study) is described here as a new study design used in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. In the nested case-control study, cases of a disease that occur in a defined cohort are identified and, for each, a specified number of matched controls is selected from among those in the cohort who have not developed the disease by the time of disease occurrence in the case. For many research questions, the nested case-control design potentially offers impressive reductions in costs and efforts of data collection and analysis compared with the full cohort approach, with relatively minor loss in statistical efficiency. The nested case-control design is particularly advantageous for studies in safe evaluation of post-marketing traditional Chinese medicine injection. Some examples of the application of nested case-control study were given.
Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as ?the world?s first killer? of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment s...
Chen, Long; Yuan, Ming-Yang; Chen, Ke-Li
In order to provide theoretical basis for the rapid identification of mineral traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) with near infrared (NIR)diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Characteristic NIR spectra of 51 kinds of mineral TCMs were generalized and compared on the basis of the previous research, and the characteristic spectral bands were determined and analyzed by referring to mineralogical and geological literatures. It turned out that the NIR features of mineral TCMs were mainly at 8 000-4 000 cm ⁻¹ wavebands, which can be assigned as the absorption of water, -OH and[CO3 ²⁻] and so on. Absorption peaks of water has regularity as follows, the structure water and -OH had a combined peak which was strong and keen-edged around 7 000 cm ⁻¹, the crystal water had two strong peak around 7 000 cm ⁻¹ and 5 100 cm ⁻¹, and water only has a broad peak around 5 100 cm ⁻¹. Due to the differences in the crystal form and the contents of water in mineral TCMs, NIR features of water in mineral TCMs which could be used for identification were different. Mineral TCMs containing sulfate are rich in crystal water, mineral TCMs containing silicate generally had structure water, and mineral TCMs containing carbonate merely had a little of water, so it was reasonable for the use of NIR spectroscopy to classify mineral TCMs with anionic type. In addition, because of the differences in cationic type, impurities, crystal form and crystallinity, mineral TCMs have exclusive NIR features at 4 600-4 000 cm ⁻¹, which can be assigned as Al-OH, Mg-OH, Fe-OH, Si-OH,[CO3 ²⁻] and so on. Calcined mineral TCMs are often associated with water and main composition changes, also changes of the NIR features, which could be used for the monitoring of the processing, and to provide references for the quality control of mineral TCMs. The adaptability and limitation of NIR analysis for mineral TCMs were also discussed:the majority of mineral TCMs had noteworthy NIR features which could be
Full Text Available Objectives: This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to investigate vital energy (Qi behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS. Methods: Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of “yin-yang,” “zang-fu”, and “five elements”. We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs; onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine, menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Results: Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%, possessed a elementary school (66%, and had one or two children (76%. The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/ cm2 (range: 17.7 — 39.0 and 32.4% (range: 10.7 — 45.7, respectively. A large majority of women (96% exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. Conclusion: The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the
Yang, Y-H; Chen, P-C; Wang, J-D; Lee, C-H; Lai, J-N
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has become more popular as a therapy for symptom relief among menopause-aged women. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM for climacteric women in Taiwan. The study analyzed frequency distributions among 19 379 women aged 45-55 years, recruited from a random-sampled cohort of 200 000 people from the National Health Insurance database. Data mining was conducted to explore the co-prescription patterns for finished herbal products (FHP). There were 19 379 women aged 45-55 years in the sample; of these, 12 572 (64.9%) utilized TCM services at least once. A total of 4078 (21.0%) of the 19 379 climacteric women utilized 145 200 (79.2%) TCM visits. Of these, 39 802 (21.7%) visits were because of diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, of which more than half were treated with acupuncture and traumatology manipulative therapies. There were 28 154 visits with FHP prescriptions because of non-specific symptoms and ill-defined conditions, and Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san was the most frequent formula. Nearly two-thirds of FHP contained more than two herbal formulae. Women of climacteric age in Taiwan utilized TCM more often than other age groups. To deal with multiple symptoms and/or diseases among climacteric women, new prescription patterns of combining two or more herbal formulae have evolved. Studies on safety issues and drug-herb interactions are warranted for future research.
Mitidieri, Andréia; Gurian, Maria Beatriz; Silva, Ana Paula; Tawasha, Kalil; Poli-Neto, Omero; Nogueira, Antônio; Reis, Francisco; Rosa-E-Silva, Júlio
This study used semiology based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to investigate vital energy (Qi) behavior in women with abdominal myofascial pain syndrome (AMPS). Fifty women diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain (CPP) secondary to AMPS were evaluated by using a questionnaire based on the theories of "yin-yang," "zang-fu", and "five elements". We assessed the following aspects of the illness: symptomatology; specific location of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs); onset, cause, duration and frequency of symptoms; and patient and family history. The patients tongues, lips, skin colors, and tones of speech were examined. Patients were questioned on various aspects related to breathing, sweating, sleep quality, emotions, and preferences related to color, food, flavors, and weather or seasons. Thirst, gastrointestinal dysfunction, excreta (feces and urine), menstrual cycle, the five senses, and characteristic pain symptoms related to headache, musculoskeletal pain, abdomen, and chest were also investigated. Patients were between 22 and 56 years old, and most were married (78%), possessed a elementary school (66%), and had one or two children (76%). The mean body mass index and body fat were 26.86 kg/ cm2 (range: 17.7 - 39.0) and 32.4% (range: 10.7 - 45.7), respectively. A large majority of women (96%) exhibited alterations in the kidney meridian, and 98% had an altered gallbladder meridian. We observed major changes in the kidney and the gallbladder Qi meridians in 76% and 62% of patients, respectively. Five of the twelve meridians analyzed exhibited Qi patterns similar to pelvic innervation Qi and meridians, indicating that the paths of some of these meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region. The women in this study showed changes in the behavior of the energy meridians, and the paths of some of the meridians were directly related to innervation of the pelvic floor and abdominal region.
Tsai, Min-Min; Yang, Fu-Chi; Lee, Shih-Min; Huang, Chiu-Mieh
Previous studies of women with dysmenorrhea have focused on menstrual attitudes, the characteristics of menstrual pain, and self-care behavior. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) studies on dysmenorrhea, on the other hand, have focused on the efficacy and safety of TCM treatments. Few studies have investigated how women perceive their own TCM-treatment experience of dysmenorrhea. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of dysmenorrhea and life adjustments of women undergoing TCM treatment. A semi-structured interviewing guide was used to collect data. A total of 40 dysmenorrheal women participated in the study. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted for about 60-90 minutes with each participant. Their speech tone, facial expressions, and gestures during the interview process were also observed and recorded. The findings were analyzed using content analysis via ATLAS. ti 5.2 software. The process that the participants used to adjust to dysmenorrhea were distinguished into four progressive stages: "tip of the iceberg", "ice-breaking", "tug-of-war", and "blending-in". Initially, the participants perceived the symptoms of dysmenorrhea as the "tip of the iceberg". They attempted to hide / ignore the initial pain until the problem gradually worsened to the point that the symptoms began to significantly affect various aspects of life. It was only then that the participants began to pay attention to the problem and to seek help from TCM practitioners, which we defined as the "ice-breaking" stage. If they encountered unexpected situations with regard to the treatment regimen, the participants entered the "tug-of-war" stage, during which they struggled over whether to continue with TCM treatments. Afterward, the participants gradually achieved a "blending-in" of new ideas, which allowed them to identify the strategies that best facilitated adjustment and rebalancing. Eventually, the participants achieved a new life balance. The outcomes of the
Mist, Scott D; Wright, Cheryl L; Jones, Kim Dupree; Carson, James W
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) offers various treatment modalities guided by TCM diagnoses. In the United States, acupuncture is a commonly employed TCM method for treating a variety of chronic illnesses. Three systematic reviews have been reported recently, reaching differing conclusions about the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM). Among the FM acupuncture studies considered in these reviews, none used TCM diagnosis as an inclusion/exclusion criterion or adjusted treatment based on TCM diagnosis. Overlooking TCM diagnosis may be a reason for such disparate results. To obtain TCM diagnoses in a sample of women meeting 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM who were recruited for a yoga study and to investigate whether there is significant variability. Two TCM practitioners conducted baseline TCM diagnostic examinations on 56 women with FM. A consensus diagnosis was reached based on standardised history, palpation and examination. Canonical discriminate analysis identified two baseline items which predicted TCM diagnosis. School of Nursing, Oregon Health & Science University. Women, ages 23-75, with FM recruited to a yoga intervention study. Three primary TCM diagnoses were found in the population: Qi and Blood Deficiency (46.4%, CI 33.0% to 60.36%), Qi and Blood Stagnation (26.8%, CI 15.8% to 40.3%), and Liver Qi Stagnation (19.6%, CI 10.2% to 32.4%). It is likely that previous studies of FM were treating a heterogeneous study population where variable results might be expected. Future acupuncture studies should either control for TCM diagnosis or consider its usefulness as an inclusion/exclusion criterion.
Lin, Shun-Ku; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Lo, Pei-Chia; Lai, Jung-Nien
Abstract Pneumonia is a frequent complication in dementia patients and is associated with high mortality rates. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine whether traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapy can decrease pneumonia risk in dementia patients. The cohort dataset was obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005, a sublibrary of the National Health Insurance Research Database, containing all medical data of 1 million beneficiaries, randomly selected from the all Insurers in year 2005. Newly diagnosed dementia patients (n = 9712) without pneumonia were analyzed from January 1997 to December 2003. After matching by sex, age, urban level, Charlson comorbidity index, insured amount, and comorbidities, 1376 pairs (1:1) of TCM and non-TCM users were acquired. Every dementia patient was individually recorded from 1997 to 2012 to identify pneumonia incidence (onset after 3 months of dementia diagnosis). Demographic characteristics, Charlson comorbidity index, comorbidities, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, and psychotropic drugs were also investigated. Cox proportional regression was used to compute hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) after adjustment for the above-mentioned variables. There were 419 (30.5%) and 762 (55.4%) pneumonia cases in the TCM and non-TCM cohorts during a mean follow-up period of 7.6 years. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% CI) for pneumonia admission was 0.62 (0.55–0.70) for the TCM group. Patients who received TCM therapy at higher cumulative doses or for longer periods experienced increased protection from pneumonia admission. Ma-Xing-Gan-Shi-Tang, Yin-Qiao-San, and Xiao-Qing-Long-Tang might represent possible formulae reducing the incidence of pneumonia. TCM might be associated with a lower risk of pneumonia in dementia patients. PMID:27631269
Lao, Yong-Min; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Yan, Lu
In the recent years, a wide range of metabonomic analytical techniques are widely used in the modern research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). At the same time, the international community has attached increasing importance to TCM toxicity problems. Thus, many studies have been implemented to investigate the toxicity mechanisms of TCM. Among these studies, many metabonomic-based methods have been implemented to facilitate TCM toxicity investigation. At present, the most prevailing methods for TCM toxicity research are mainly single analysis techniques using only one analytical means. These techniques include nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), etc.; with these techniques, some favourable outcomes have been gained in the toxic reaction studies of TCM, such as the action target organs assay, the establishment of action pattern, the elucidation of action mechanism and the exploration of action material foundation. However, every analytical technique has its advantages and drawbacks, no existing analytical technique can be versatile. Multi-analysed techniques can partially overcome the shortcomings of single-analysed techniques. Combination of GC-MS and LC-MS metabolic profiling approaches has unravelled the pathological outcomes of aristolochic acid-induced nephrotoxicity, which can not be achieved by single-analysed techniques. It is believed that with the further development of metabonomic analytical techniques, especially multi-analysed techniques, metabonomics will greatly promote TCM toxicity research and be beneficial to the modernization of TCM in terms of extending the application of modern means in the TCM safety assessment, assisting the formulation of TCM safety norms and establishing the international standards indicators.
Lu, Yuting; Yang, Danyi; Song, Xiaoni; Wang, Sheng; Song, Min; Hang, Taijun
Cinnabar (α-HgS), has been formulated in Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) for thousands of years. Since the total Hg content was accepted widely as the toxicity criteria, the safety alerts have been issued about the cinnabar containing TCMs for exceeding Hg limits. However, cinnabar is almost insoluble in water, the oral absorption is extremely low. Hence, it is not suitable to use the total Hg content alone to evaluate the toxicity of cinnabar containing TCMs. In instead, the bioaccessible Hg is a much reasonable safety indicator. In this study, bioaccessible Hg contents of 29 cinnabar containing TCMs were determined by cold vapor-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after in vitro extractions with the simulated gastrointestinal fluids, while the total Hg contents were determined after acid digestion. According to the daily dosages, the bioaccessible Hg exposures of these TCMs were evaluated, and most of them were within the permitted daily exposure set by the International Council for Harmonisation, demonstrating that these TCMs are safe when administrated following the instructions. However, the obtained results also suggested that the Hg exposure could also be influenced by the herbal ingredients in TCMs and the bioactivities in gastrointestinal tract, indicating the possible health risks after excessive or long-term medication of cinnabar containing TCMs. Considering the influencing factors of the Hg intakes after oral administration of cinnabar containing TCMs, the bioaccessible Hg exposure should be considered as a more rational criterion for evaluating the health risks than the total Hg content. Furthermore, precautions should also be taken to ensure safe usages of cinnabar containing TCMs from both the cinnabar contents and the processing procedures points of view, as well as the daily dosage regimen, for all of them are directly related with the bioaccessible Hg exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2, a member of Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs, plays an important role in cell division and DNA replication. It is regarded as a desired target to treat cancer and tumor by interrupting aberrant cell proliferation. Compared to lower subtype selectivity of CDK2 ATP-competitive inhibitors, CDK2 allosteric inhibitor with higher subtype selectivity has been used to treat CDK2-related diseases. Recently, the first crystal structure of CDK2 with allosteric inhibitor has been reported, which provides new opportunities to design pure allosteric inhibitors of CDK2. The binding site of the ATP-competition inhibitors and the allosteric inhibitors are partially overlapped in space position, so the same compound might interact with the two binding sites. Thus a novel screening strategy was essential for the discovery of pure CDK2 allosteric inhibitors. In this study, pharmacophore and molecular docking were used to screen potential CDK2 allosteric inhibitors and ATP-competition inhibitors from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM. In the docking result of the allosteric site, the compounds which can act with the CDK2 ATP site were discarded, and the remaining compounds were regarded as the potential pure allosteric inhibitors. Among the results, prostaglandin E1 and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA were available and their growth inhibitory effect on human HepG2 cell lines was determined by MTT assay. The two compounds could substantially inhibit the growth of HepG2 cell lines with an estimated IC50 of 41.223 μmol/L and 45.646 μmol/L. This study provides virtual screening strategy of allosteric compounds and a reliable method to discover potential pure CDK2 allosteric inhibitors from TCM. Prostaglandin E1 and NDGA could be regarded as promising candidates for CDK2 allosteric inhibitors.
Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the effectiveness of external application of traditional Chinese medicine (EA-TCM on venous ulcers. Methods. Seven databases were searched until April 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs of EA-TCM for venous ulcers. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane Handbook guidelines. Study outcomes were presented as risk ratios (RRs for dichotomous data or mean differences (MDs for continuous data. Results. Sixteen of 193 potentially relevant trials met the inclusion criteria; however, their methodological qualities were low. Comparison of the same intervention strategies revealed significant differences in total effectiveness rates between EA-TCM and conventional therapy groups (RR = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16–1.29, and P<0.00001. Compared to conventional therapy, EA-TCM combined with conventional therapy had a superior total effectiveness rate (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.04–1.19, and P=0.003. There were no significant differences in recurrence rates during followup and final pain measurements between the experimental and those in the control groups (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.31–2.39, and P=0.85; MD −0.75, 95% CI = −2.15–0.65, and P=0.29. Conclusion. The evidence that EA-TCM is an effective treatment for venous ulcers is encouraging, but not conclusive due to the low methodological quality of the RCTs. Therefore, more high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes are required.
Mist, Scott D; Wright, Cheryl L; Jones, Kim Dupree; Carson, James W
Background Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) offers various treatment modalities guided by TCM diagnoses. In the United States, acupuncture is a commonly employed TCM method for treating a variety of chronic illnesses. Three systematic reviews have been reported recently, reaching differing conclusions about the efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of fibromyalgia (FM). Among the FM acupuncture studies considered in these reviews, none used TCM diagnosis as an inclusion/exclusion criterion or adjusted treatment based on TCM diagnosis. Overlooking TCM diagnosis may be a reason for such disparate results. Primary study objective To obtain TCM diagnoses in a sample of women meeting 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FM who were recruited for a yoga study and to investigate whether there is significant variability. Methods/design Two TCM practitioners conducted baseline TCM diagnostic examinations on 56 women with FM. A consensus diagnosis was reached based on standardised history, palpation and examination. Canonical discriminate analysis identified two baseline items which predicted TCM diagnosis. Setting School of Nursing, Oregon Health & Science University. Participants Women, ages 23–75, with FM recruited to a yoga intervention study Results Three primary TCM diagnoses were found in the population: Qi and Blood Deficiency (46.4%, CI 33.0% to 60.36%), Qi and Blood Stagnation (26.8%, CI 15.8% to 40.3%), and Liver Qi Stagnation (19.6%, CI 10.2% to 32.4%). Conclusion It is likely that previous studies of FM were treating a heterogeneous study population where variable results might be expected. Future acupuncture studies should either control for TCM diagnosis or consider its usefulness as an inclusion/exclusion criterion. PMID:22026964
Full Text Available Background. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs are used for adjuvant therapy of breast cancer; however AIMSS (AI-Associated Musculoskeletal Symptoms can negatively affect quality of life and compliance. Most patients in China moved to TCM (traditional Chinese medicine for help. TB (tiger bone is used to treat bone disease, whose main ingredients are calcium and collagen. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the TB prevented AIMSS in postmenopausal women with ER/PR+ breast cancer. Methods. We conducted a randomized, blind, controlled study of comparing TB versus placebo for 12 weeks in postmenopausal women with breast cancer who have taken AI for less than a month. Patients completed the M-BPI, VAS, and FACT-B at baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. M-BPI and VAS were used as the primary outcomes. FACT-B was used as the secondary outcome. Serum E2 and FSH were tested every 6 weeks. Results. Of 70 evaluable cases, 8 of 35 patients (22.9% developed new or worsening point symptoms in TB group, compared to 21 of 35 (60% in placebo group (P<0.001. We also found differences between 2 groups in average pain (2 to 5.6, worst pain (3.9 to 8, pain interference severity (1.9 to 5.3, stiffness (2.4 to 6.9, and joint symptom interference (1.8 to 5.7, all P<0.001; similar findings were seen in VAS value (3 to 6.6 at the end of intervention. HRQoL measured by FACT-B (P<0.05 was improved. No change of serum estradiol and FSH between two groups. Conclusions. TB appeared to be effective and safe in the prevention of AIMSS. This trial is registered with ChiCTR-IPR-15007081.
Dou, Lei; Yin, Ai-Tian; Hao, Mo; Lu, Jun
To describe the major factors influencing financial compensation in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and prioritize what TCM services should be compensated for. Two structured questionnaires-a TCM service baseline questionnaire and a service cost questionnaire-were used to collect information from TCM public hospitals on TCM services provided in certain situations and service cost accounting. The cross-sectional study examined 110 TCM services provided in four county TCM public hospitals in Shandong province. From the questionnaire data, a screening index system was established via expert consultation and brainstorming. Comprehensive evaluation of TCM services was performed using the analytic hierarchy process method. Weighted coefficients were used to measure the importance of each criterion, after which comprehensive evaluation scores for each service were ranked to indicate what services should receive priority for financial compensation. Economy value, social value, and efficacy value were the three main criteria for screening for what TCM services should be compensated for. The economy value local weight had the highest value (0.588), of which the profit sub-criterion (0.278) was the most important for TCM financial compensation. Moxibustion was tied for the highest comprehensive evaluation scores, at 0.65 while Acupuncture and Massage Therapy were tied for the second and third highest, with 0.63 and 0.58, respectively. Government and policymakers should consider offer financial compensation to Moxibustion, Acupuncture, Massage Therapy, and TCM Orthopedics as priority services. In the meanwhile, it is essential to correct the unreasonable pricing, explore compensation methods, objects and payment, and revise and improve the accounting system for the costs of TCM services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Data Mining technology has been applied more than ever before in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to discover regularities from the experience accumulated in the past thousands of years in China. Electronic medical records (or clinical records of TCM, containing larger amount of information than well-structured data of prescriptions extracted manually from TCM literature such as information related to medical treatment process, could be an important source for discovering valuable regularities of TCM. However, they are collected by TCM doctors on a day to day basis without the support of authoritative editorial board, and owing to different experience and background of TCM doctors, the same concept might be described in several different terms. Therefore, clinical records of TCM cannot be used directly to Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. This paper focuses its attention on the phenomena of "one symptom with different names" and investigates a series of metrics for automatically normalizing symptom names in clinical records of TCM. Results A series of extensive experiments were performed to validate the metrics proposed, and they have shown that the hybrid similarity metrics integrating literal similarity and remedy-based similarity are more accurate than the others which are based on literal similarity or remedy-based similarity alone, and the highest F-Measure (65.62% of all the metrics is achieved by hybrid similarity metric VSM+TFIDF+SWD. Conclusions Automatic symptom name normalization is an essential task for discovering knowledge from clinical data of TCM. The problem is introduced for the first time by this paper. The results have verified that the investigated metrics are reasonable and accurate, and the hybrid similarity metrics are much better than the metrics based on literal similarity or remedy-based similarity alone.
Wang, Yaqiang; Yu, Zhonghua; Jiang, Yongguang; Xu, Kaikuo; Chen, Xia
In recent years, Data Mining technology has been applied more than ever before in the field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to discover regularities from the experience accumulated in the past thousands of years in China. Electronic medical records (or clinical records) of TCM, containing larger amount of information than well-structured data of prescriptions extracted manually from TCM literature such as information related to medical treatment process, could be an important source for discovering valuable regularities of TCM. However, they are collected by TCM doctors on a day to day basis without the support of authoritative editorial board, and owing to different experience and background of TCM doctors, the same concept might be described in several different terms. Therefore, clinical records of TCM cannot be used directly to Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery. This paper focuses its attention on the phenomena of "one symptom with different names" and investigates a series of metrics for automatically normalizing symptom names in clinical records of TCM. A series of extensive experiments were performed to validate the metrics proposed, and they have shown that the hybrid similarity metrics integrating literal similarity and remedy-based similarity are more accurate than the others which are based on literal similarity or remedy-based similarity alone, and the highest F-Measure (65.62%) of all the metrics is achieved by hybrid similarity metric VSM+TFIDF+SWD. Automatic symptom name normalization is an essential task for discovering knowledge from clinical data of TCM. The problem is introduced for the first time by this paper. The results have verified that the investigated metrics are reasonable and accurate, and the hybrid similarity metrics are much better than the metrics based on literal similarity or remedy-based similarity alone.
Hu Yaer; Zhang Naizheng; Li Aimin; Xia Zongqin
To observe the effect of certain active components from traditional Chinese medicinal herbs on Aβ secretion rates with L-[ 35 S]-Methionine, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in SK-N-SH cell lines stably transfected with APP695 was metabolically labeled with L-[ 35 S]-Methionine. the supernatant from culture medium was immunoprecipitated with monoclonal antibody against Aβ 22-35 , Western blot was carried out, and the gray density of Aβ band in the autoradiograph was measured by an image analysis system. The active components from certain traditional Chinese medicinal herbs (ZMS from Zhimu and AST and HT from Huangqi) were added to the culture medium at a final concentration of 10 -5 mol/L. An Aβ band in the autoradiograph was clearly viewed in the culture medium after 24 h incorporation of [ -35 S]-Methionine which represent the secretion rate of Aβ by the cells. One of the 3 tested components (AST) could significantly reduce the Aβ secretion rate while the other two showed no effect. The preliminary result showed that certain active component from traditional Chinese medicines could decrease the Aβ secretion rate but other active components could not. Combined use of the AST and ZMS was more effective than single AST. (authors)
Huang, Hao; Shi, Hong; Chen, Weiwei; Yu, Yun; Lin, Duo; Xu, Qian; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Chen, Rong
A surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method was developed for the analysis of traditional Chinese medicine ‘Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma’ pieces (AMRP) for the first time with the aim to develop a quick method for traditional Chinese medicine detection. Both Raman spectra and SERS spectra were obtained from AMRP, and tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured spectra suggested that only a few weak Raman peaks could be observed in the regular Raman spectra, while primary Raman peaks at around 536, 555, 619, 648, 691, 733, 790, 958, 1004, 1031, 1112, 1244, 1324, 1395, 1469, 1574 and 1632 cm −1 could be observed in the SERS spectra, with the strongest signals at 619, 733, 958, 1324, 1395 and 1469 cm −1 . This was due to a strong interaction between the silver colloids and the AMRP, which led to an extraordinary enhancement in the intensity of the Raman scattering in AMRP. This exploratory study suggests the SERS technique has great potential for providing a novel non-destructive method for effectively and accurately detecting traditional Chinese medicine without complicated separation and extraction. (paper)
Qian, Yun-Xu; Yang, Yue; Zhao, Wei; Bi, Kai-Shun
Two regression models, based on panel data over the period of 2000-2011, are built and used to analyze what factors determine China's exports of primary and semi-finished products of traditional Chinese medicine to ASEAN. The results indicate that, China GDP, the ratio of ASEAN to China GDP per capita, average export price, the ratio of state-owned assets to total assets, have a significant positive influence on the export volumes of primary products of Chinese medicine. At the same time, RMB appreciation, the ratio of three kinds of foreign-invested assets to total assets, China-ASEAN Early Harvest Program, ASEAN-China Free Trade Area have a significant negative influence. In respect of the export volumes of semi-finished products of Chinese medicine, the significant influential factors are ASEAN GDP and the ratio of ASEAN to China GDP per capita. The former is positive and the latter is negative. In order to optimize the commodity composition of experts, it is needed to increase export volumes of both primary and semi-finished products of Chinese medicine. According to the analysis above, some proposals are put forward, such as, improving the performance of foreign capital, playing an exemplary and leading role in technological innovation by state-owned enterprises, taking advantage of bargaining power of suppliers, increasing outward foreign direct investment.
Lin, Yi-Rong; Wu, Mei-Yao; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Yen, Hung-Rong; Yang, Su-Tso
Many patients with gynecological disorders seek traditional medicine consultations in Asian countries. This study intended to investigate the utilization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) in Taiwan. We analyzed a cohort of one million individuals randomly selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 46,337 subjects with newly diagnosed DUB (ICD-9-CM codes 626.8) from January 1, 1997 to December 31, 2010. The patients were categorized into TCM seekers and non-TCM seekers according to their use of TCM. Among the subjects, 41,558 (89.69%) were TCM seekers and 4,779 (10.31%) were non-TCM seekers. Patients who were younger tended to be TCM seekers. Most of the patients had also taken Western medicine, especially tranexamic acid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). More than half of TCM seekers (55.41%) received combined treatment with both Chinese herbal remedies and acupuncture. The most commonly used TCM formula and single herb were Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San (Bupleurum and Peony Formula) and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri), respectively. The core pattern of Chinese herbal medicine for DUB patients consisted of Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Xiang-Fu (Rhizoma Cyperi), and Yi-Mu-Cao (Herba Leonuri). TCM use is popular among patients with DUB in Taiwan. Further pharmacological investigations and clinical trials are required to validate the efficacy and safety of these items.
Simultaneous Determination of Nine Active Compounds of the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang and Analysis of the Relationship between Therapeutical Effect and Compatibility of Medicines
Zhang, Guijun; Wang, Meng; Wang, Jingjuan; Zeng, Weixin; Gao, Xiaomei
A simple and sensitive HPLC-DAD detection method was established for the simultaneous determination of nine compounds including oxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, glycyrrhizic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, and isoliquiritigenin in the Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription Shaoyao-Gancao-Tang (SGT) and we analyze the relationship between therapeutical effect and compatibility of medicines by using an Agilent extend-C18 column at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column temperature was maintained at 30°C and the detection wavelength was set at 230 nm for oxypaeoniflorin, albiflorin, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, and glycyrrhizic acid; 276 nm for liquiritin and liquiritigenin; 360 nm for isoliquiritin and isoliquiritigenin. The total contents of the nine compounds in SGT varied from 4.65 to 20.06 mg/mL. The results of this study showed that the content of chemical compounds of Traditional Chinese Medicinal Prescription is mainly influenced by the dosage and compatibility of medicines and the therapeutical effect of Traditional Chinese Medicinal prescription is mainly influenced by the dosage and compatibility of medicines. The method could be suitable for quality control of SGT with bioactive multicompounds. PMID:25431610
Zhao, Hui; Feng, Yu; Mao, Mingsan
Objective: Explore the application characteristics of proprietary Chinese medicine prescriptions containing toxic herbs in pharmacopoeia. Methods: In this paper, according to the clinical application of pharmacopoeia proprietary Chinese medicine is divided into table agent, Qushu agent, diarrhea agent, heat agent, Wen Li agent, cough and asthma agents, resuscitation agent, Gutian agent, Fuzheng agent, Anshen agent, hemostatic agent, The traditional Chinese medicine prescription and the clinical application of the Chinese herbal medicine containing the toxic Chinese medicine were analyzed and sorted out., Summed up the compatibility of toxic herbs and application characteristics. Results: Toxic Chinese herbal medicine in the cure of traditional Chinese medicine to play a long-standing role, through the overall thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking of toxic Chinese medicine in the analysis of Chinese medicine that , toxic Chinese medicine in the application of proprietary Chinese medicine can not lack. Conclusion: Pharmacopoeia included proprietary Chinese medicine not only in the clinical treatment of good, but also the application of its toxic traditional Chinese medicine and its understanding of the enrichment of the toxic characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine and treatment-related disease pathology between the points of contact for patients with clinical applications Based on and theoretical guidance of Chinese medicine .
Zhou, Xuezhong; Chen, Shibo; Liu, Baoyan; Zhang, Runsun; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Ping; Guo, Yufeng; Zhang, Hua; Gao, Zhuye; Yan, Xiufeng
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a scientific discipline, which develops the related theories from the long-term clinical practices. The large-scale clinical data are the core empirical knowledge source for TCM research. This paper introduces a clinical data warehouse (CDW) system, which incorporates the structured electronic medical record (SEMR) data for medical knowledge discovery and TCM clinical decision support (CDS). We have developed the clinical reference information model (RIM) and physical data model to manage the various information entities and their relationships in TCM clinical data. An extraction-transformation-loading (ETL) tool is implemented to integrate and normalize the clinical data from different operational data sources. The CDW includes online analytical processing (OLAP) and complex network analysis (CNA) components to explore the various clinical relationships. Furthermore, the data mining and CNA methods are used to discover the valuable clinical knowledge from the data. The CDW has integrated 20,000 TCM inpatient data and 20,000 outpatient data, which contains manifestations (e.g. symptoms, physical examinations and laboratory test results), diagnoses and prescriptions as the main information components. We propose a practical solution to accomplish the large-scale clinical data integration and preprocessing tasks. Meanwhile, we have developed over 400 OLAP reports to enable the multidimensional analysis of clinical data and the case-based CDS. We have successfully conducted several interesting data mining applications. Particularly, we use various classification methods, namely support vector machine, decision tree and Bayesian network, to discover the knowledge of syndrome differentiation. Furthermore, we have applied association rule and CNA to extract the useful acupuncture point and herb combination patterns from the clinical prescriptions. A CDW system consisting of TCM clinical RIM, ETL, OLAP and data mining as the core
Wang, Wen-ping; Yu, Ming; Wang, Li; Jiang, Xi-ren; Li, Xiao-bin; Wang, Hua-wei; Cao, Ying; Liu, Kai; Huang, Lu-qi
Data of clinical trial projects involved by clinical trial institutions certified by the State Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to November 2012 were collected to summarize adverse reactions in project summary/statistical reports, analyze the rate of adverse reactions of clinical trials of new traditional Chinese medicines and relevant influencing factors, and increase the awareness of the safety of new traditional Chinese medicines. A total of 73 050 cases in 209 projects of 14 specialties were collected, including 49 689 cases in the new traditional Chinese medicine group and 271 adverse reaction cases, with an incidence rate of adverse reactions at 0.55%. The adverse reaction rate in 3 months 0.63% for injection > 0.50% for oral. In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate of patches was the highest (2.68%), whereas that of aerosols and suppositories was lowest (0). In the combined administration of the test drug and the simulation agent, the adverse reaction rate of external test patch + capsule was the highest (3.38%), whereas that of capsule + oral liquid, pills + granules, tablets + oral liquid, tablets + pills, tablet + capsule was the lowest (0). In the administration of only the test drug, the adverse reaction rate was 0.47%; In the combined administration with simulation agent (drug volume increase), the adverse reaction rate was 0.74%. Different doses caused adverse reaction different rates; The adverse reaction rate of drugs with whole-course dose between 1 100-1 200 g was the highest (3.36%), that for whole-course doses of 500-600, 900-1 000, 1 400-1 500, 1 600-1 700, 1 800-1 900 g was the lowest (0). In conclusion, the adverse reaction rate of new traditional Chinese medicines was still up to 0.55%, with the adverse reaction rate between 0.47% and 0.72% over the 11 years, without significant difference in each year. The adverse reaction rate was closely related to course of treatment, approach of administration
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1997 Hong Kong reunified with China and the development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM started with this change in national identity. However, the two latest discussion papers on Hong Kong's healthcare reform have failed to mention the role of TCM in primary healthcare, despite TCM's public popularity and its potential in tackling the chronic non-communicable disease (NCD challenge in the ageing population. This study aims to describe the interrelationship between age, non-communicable disease (NCD status, and the choice of TCM and western medicine (WM services in the Hong Kong population. Methods This study is a secondary analysis of the Thematic Household Survey (THS 2005 dataset. The THS is a Hong Kong population representative face to face survey was conducted by the Hong Kong Administrative Region Government of China. A random sample of respondents aged >15 years were invited to report their use of TCM and WM in the past year, together with other health and demographic information. A total of 33,263 persons were interviewed (response rate 79.2%. Results Amongst those who received outpatient services in the past year (n = 18,087, 80.23% only visited WM doctors, 3.17% consulted TCM practitioners solely, and 16.60% used both type of services (double consulters. Compared to those who only consulted WM doctor, multinomial logistic regression showed that double consulters were more likely to be older, female, NCD patients, and have higher socioeconomic backgrounds. Further analysis showed that the association between age and double consulting was curvilinear (inverted U shaped regardless of NCD status. Middle aged (45-60 years NCD patients, and the NCD free "young old" group (60-75 years were most likely to double consult. On the other hand, the relationship between age and use of TCM as an alternative to WM was linear regardless of NCD status. The NCD free segment of the population was more inclined to use TCM alone
Leung, Ping-chung; Ko, Erik Chun-hay; Siu, Wing-sum; Pang, Ellie Suet-yee; Lau, Clara Bik-san
Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches. In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries. In this era of evidence-based...
Ping Chung eLEUNG; Ping Chung eLEUNG; Ping Chung eLEUNG; Sammy Wing-sum eSIU; Chun Hay eKo; Clara Bik-san eLau; Clara Bik-san eLau
Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based c...
Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract publication. Method Two reviewers hand-searched the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica and the Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion for all abstracts of RCTs published between 2006 and 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting quality of the Chinese and English version of all eligible abstracts based on a modified version of the CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts (CONSORT for abstracts). Results We identified a total of 345 RCTs of TCM with both a Chinese and English abstract. More than half of Chinese abstracts reported details of the trial participants (68%; 234/345), control group intervention (52%; 179/345), the number of participants randomized (73%; 253/345) and benefits when interpreting the trial results (55%; 190/345). Reporting of methodological quality or key features of trial design and trial results were poor; only 2% (7/345) included details of the trial design, 3% (11/345) defined the primary outcome, 5% (17/345) described the methods of random sequence generation, and only 4% (13/345) reported the number of participants analyzed. No abstracts provided details on allocation concealment and trial registration. The percentage agreement in reporting (between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract) ranged from 84% to 100% across individual
Wang, Ling; Li, Yulin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Lin; Yuan, Wenming; Wang, Gang; Hopewell, Sally
Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT) published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract publication. Two reviewers hand-searched the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica and the Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion for all abstracts of RCTs published between 2006 and 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting quality of the Chinese and English version of all eligible abstracts based on a modified version of the CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts (CONSORT for abstracts). We identified a total of 345 RCTs of TCM with both a Chinese and English abstract. More than half of Chinese abstracts reported details of the trial participants (68%; 234/345), control group intervention (52%; 179/345), the number of participants randomized (73%; 253/345) and benefits when interpreting the trial results (55%; 190/345). Reporting of methodological quality or key features of trial design and trial results were poor; only 2% (7/345) included details of the trial design, 3% (11/345) defined the primary outcome, 5% (17/345) described the methods of random sequence generation, and only 4% (13/345) reported the number of participants analyzed. No abstracts provided details on allocation concealment and trial registration. The percentage agreement in reporting (between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract) ranged from 84% to 100% across individual checklist item. The reporting
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to language limitations, the abstract of journal article may be the only way for people of non-Chinese speaking countries to know about trials in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. However, little is known about the reporting quality of these trial abstracts. Our study is to assess the reporting quality of abstracts of randomized controlled trials (RCT published in four leading Chinese medical journals of TCM, and to identify any differences in reporting between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract publication. Method Two reviewers hand-searched the Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, the Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, the China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica and the Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion for all abstracts of RCTs published between 2006 and 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the reporting quality of the Chinese and English version of all eligible abstracts based on a modified version of the CONSORT for reporting randomised trials in journal and conference abstracts (CONSORT for abstracts. Results We identified a total of 345 RCTs of TCM with both a Chinese and English abstract. More than half of Chinese abstracts reported details of the trial participants (68%; 234/345, control group intervention (52%; 179/345, the number of participants randomized (73%; 253/345 and benefits when interpreting the trial results (55%; 190/345. Reporting of methodological quality or key features of trial design and trial results were poor; only 2% (7/345 included details of the trial design, 3% (11/345 defined the primary outcome, 5% (17/345 described the methods of random sequence generation, and only 4% (13/345 reported the number of participants analyzed. No abstracts provided details on allocation concealment and trial registration. The percentage agreement in reporting (between the Chinese and English version of the same abstract ranged from 84% to 100% across
Ma, YongQing; Zhang, Wei; Dong, ShuQi; Ren, XiangXiang; An, Yu; Lang, Ming
The co-evolution of Orobanche spp. and their hosts within the same environment has resulted in a high degree of adaptation and effective parasitism whereby the host releases parasite germination stimulants, which are likely to be unstable in the soil. Our objective was to investigate whether extracts from non-host plants, specifically, Chinese medicinal plants, could stimulate germination of Orobanche spp. Samples of 606 Chinese medicinal herb species were extracted with deionized water and methanol. The extracts were used to induce germination of three Orobanche species; Orobanche minor, Orobanche cumana, and Orobanche aegyptiaca. O. minor exhibited a wide range of germination responses to the various herbal extracts. O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca exhibited an intermediate germination response to the herbal extracts. O. minor, which has a narrow host spectrum, showed higher germination rates in response to different herbal extracts compared with those of O. cumana and O. aegyptiaca, which have a broader host spectrum. Methanolic extracts of many Chinese herbal species effectively stimulated seed germination among the Orobanche spp., even though they were not the typical hosts. The effective herbs represent interesting examples of potential trap crops. Different countries can also screen extracts from indigenous herbaceous plants for their ability to induce germination of Orobanche spp. seeds. The use of such species as trap plants could diminish the global soil seed bank of Orobanche.
Zhao, Yonglie; Martins-Oliveira, Margarida; Akerman, Simon; Goadsby, Peter J
Background Migraine is a highly prevalent and disabling disorder of the brain with limited therapeutic options, particularly for preventive treatment. There is a need to identify novel targets and test their potential efficacy in relevant preclinical migraine models. Traditional Chinese medicines have been used for millennia and may offer avenues for exploration. Methods We evaluated two traditional Chinese medicines, gastrodin and ligustrazine, and compared them to two Western approaches with propranolol and levetiracetam, one effective and one ineffective, in an established in vivo rodent model of nociceptive durovascular trigeminal activation. Results Intravenous gastrodin (30 and 100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited nociceptive dural-evoked neuronal firing in the trigeminocervical complex. Ligustrazine (10 mg/kg) and propranolol (3 mg/kg) also significantly inhibited dural-evoked trigeminocervical complex responses, although the timing of responses of ligustrazine does not match its pharmacokinetic profile. Levetiracetam had no effects on trigeminovascular responses. Conclusion Our data suggest gastrodin has potential as an anti-migraine treatment, whereas ligustrazine seems less promising. Interestingly, in line with clinical trial data, propranolol was effective and levetiracetam not. Exploration of the mechanisms and modelling effects of Chinese traditional therapies offers novel route for drug discovery in migraine.
Shi, Zhaofeng; Song, Tiebing; Wan, Yi; Xie, Juan; Yan, Yiquan; Shi, Kekai; Du, Yongping; Shang, Lei
On the background of high morbidity and mortality of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and rapid development of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of traditional insect Chinese medicine and related preparation for non-surgical HCC. RCTs were searched based on standardized searching rules in mainstream medical databases from the inception up to May 2016. Ultimately, a total of 57 articles with 4,651 patients enrolled in this meta-analysis. We found that traditional insect Chinese medicine and related preparation combined chemotherapy show significantly effectiveness and safety in objective response rate (P traditional insect Chinese medicine and related preparations could be recommended as auxiliary therapy combined chemotherapy for HCC therapy.
Yan, Xu-Jie; Xiao, Shi-Ying
To explore the influencing factors for the maintenance of valid patents of compound traditional Chinese medicines in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Logistic regression analysis was used to detect the influencing factors for the maintenance of valid patents. The maintenance of valid patents of compound traditional Chinese medicines in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases was closely related to many factors, such as their invention, patent rights' transfer, patent claims and patent declaration documents. The maintenance of valid patents of compound traditional Chinese medicines in treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases depends on many factors, such as centralization of efficacy of components of patent compound traditional Chinese medicines, increasing number of dependent claims, and supply of new dosage form and detailed experimental data. Therefore, the transfer of patent rights is of great significance to the maintenance of patents.
Li, Wen-Long; Qu, Hai-Bin
In this paper, the principle of NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy)-based process trajectory technology was introduced.The main steps of the technique include:① in-line collection of the processes spectra of different technics; ② unfolding of the 3-D process spectra;③ determination of the process trajectories and their normal limits;④ monitoring of the new batches with the established MSPC (multivariate statistical process control) models.Applications of the technology in the chemical and biological medicines were reviewed briefly. By a comprehensive introduction of our feasibility research on the monitoring of traditional Chinese medicine technical process using NIRS-based multivariate process trajectories, several important problems of the practical applications which need urgent solutions are proposed, and also the application prospect of the NIRS-based process trajectory technology is fully discussed and put forward in the end. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Chia, Fan; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng
Wrestling normally places extreme demands on the body and thus may cause various kinds of injuries. An in-depth understanding of the episodes of injured sites, types, timings, and treatment modalities would help participants be aware of wrestling-related injury occurrences so as to develop effective preventive measures. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the gender-specific injuries among elite wrestling athletes. Subjects were selected from the 2009 Taiwanese National Wrestling Sport Championship. Participants were adolescent wrestling athletes, ages 16-18, who must have received at least one bronze medal at national level tournaments in 2008. A total of 118 respondents, 96 males and 22 females, completed and returned the questionnaire in which demographic data and information about the types, sites, and timings of injuries suffered and treatment modalities adopted were elicited. The data were analyzed with independent t-tests. The questionnaire results revealed a significantly higher injury rate for males than for females. The top three injured sites for males were waist (11.1%), ankle joint (10.1%) and finger (9.6%); while for females were ankle joint (13.6%), knee (12.5%) and waist (11.3%). Contusions were the most frequent type of injury: for males (73.5%) and for females (70.6%); followed by tendon inflammation for males (10.7%) and accumulated injuries for females (15.2%). During training and matching periods, the frequency of injuries for males (69.0%) is lower than that for females (81.8%). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with acupuncture and moxibustion was the most common treatment modalities used for males (51.8%) and for females (68.0%); followed by orthopedics: for males (29.5%) and for females (18.0%). The present study contributed as the first effort to reveal the potency of using TCM with acupuncture and moxibustion in wrestling competitions. To prevent possible brain and body injuries in wrestling, safety education, skills and rules, and
Full Text Available Objective. To observe the effects of empirical prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM on inflammatory mediators in pediatric asthma and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism in the treatment of asthma. Methods. A total of 182 children with asthma were randomly placed into either the TCM group (n=97 or the salbutamol and montelukast (SM group (n=85. Patients in the TCM group were treated with a series of empirical prescriptions of TCM, while those in the SM group received salbutamol and montelukast. Both groups received their respective treatment for 12 weeks. There were 35 patients in TCM group and 34 patients in SM group providing venous blood. Real-time PCR was used to determine the mRNA expression levels of interleukin- (IL- 10, IL-17, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before and after treatment. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the levels of IL-10, IL-17, MMP-9, and TGF-β1 in peripheral blood before and after treatment. Results. The mRNA expression of TGF-β1 in the SM group was downregulated (P=0.00 after treatment. No significant differences were found between the TCM group and the SM group after treatment (P>0.05. In the TCM group, the levels of IL-10, IL-17, and MMP-9 significantly decreased after treatment (P=0.01, 0.04, and 0.03, resp.. In the SM group, IL-17, MMP-9, and TGF-β1 levels significantly decreased after treatment (P=0.00, 0.03, and 0.00, resp.. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the levels of IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β1, and MMP-9 (P>0.05. The difference of the level of IL-17 was negatively correlated with the change of C-ACT score in TCM group and SM group. Conclusion. TCM has a regulatory effect on the balance of some inflammatory mediators in pediatric asthma.
Zhou, Xuezhong; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Zhaohui; Feng, Yi
The amount of biomedical data in different disciplines is growing at an exponential rate. Integrating these significant knowledge sources to generate novel hypotheses for systems biology research is difficult. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a completely different discipline, and is a complementary knowledge system to modern biomedical science. This paper uses a significant TCM bibliographic literature database in China, together with MEDLINE, to help discover novel gene functional knowledge. We present an integrative mining approach to uncover the functional gene relationships from MEDLINE and TCM bibliographic literature. This paper introduces TCM literature (about 50,000 records) as one knowledge source for constructing literature-based gene networks. We use the TCM diagnosis, TCM syndrome, to automatically congregate the related genes. The syndrome-gene relationships are discovered based on the syndrome-disease relationships extracted from TCM literature and the disease-gene relationships in MEDLINE. Based on the bubble-bootstrapping and relation weight computing methods, we have developed a prototype system called MeDisco/3S, which has name entity and relation extraction, and online analytical processing (OLAP) capabilities, to perform the integrative mining process. We have got about 200,000 syndrome-gene relations, which could help generate syndrome-based gene networks, and help analyze the functional knowledge of genes from syndrome perspective. We take the gene network of Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYD syndrome) and the functional analysis of some genes, such as CRH (corticotropin releasing hormone), PTH (parathyroid hormone), PRL (prolactin), BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) and BRCA2 (breast cancer 2, early onset), to demonstrate the preliminary results. The underlying hypothesis is that the related genes of the same syndrome will have some biological functional relationships, and will constitute a functional network. This paper presents
Liu, Chenyue; Ma, Rufeng; Wang, Lili; Zhu, Ruyuan; Liu, Haixia; Guo, Yubo; Zhao, Baosheng; Zhao, Shangang; Tang, Jinfa; Li, Yu; Niu, Jianzhao; Fu, Min; Zhang, Dongwei; Gao, Sihua
Emerging clinical usage and pharmacological effects have been achieved in using Rehmanniae Radix either singly or in combination with other herbs to treat skeletal diseases in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the recent years. This study is aimed to provide a comprehensive review about the historical TCM interpretation of the action of Rehmanniae Radix in osteoporosis, its usage in clinical trials and osteoporotic models, its main phytochemical constituents, and its pharmacokinetics. Several databases included PubMed, China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database, China Science and Technology Journal Database, National Science and Technology Library and the Web of Science Database were consulted to locate the publications pertaining to Rehmanniae Radix. The initial inquiry was conducted for the presence of the following terms combinations in the abstracts: Rehmanniae Radix, Dihuang, phytochemistry, pharmacokinetics, osteoporosis, bone, osteoclast and osteoblast. About 330 research papers and reviews were consulted. In TCM, Rehmanniae Radix exerts the anti-osteoporotic effect via regulating the functions of kidney and liver as well as improving blood circulation. 107 clinical trials are identified that used Rehmanniae Radix in combination with other herbs to treat post-menopausal, senile and secondary osteoporosis. Most of the clinical trials are characterized by high efficacy and no obvious adverse effects. However, the efficacies of these clinical trials are limited because of small patient sample size, short treatment duration and poor clinical design. In addition, TCM herbs under the clinical study are not clear because of a lack of standardization and authentication. The pharmacokinetics data demonstrate that the ingredients of Rehmanniae Radix are widely distributed after administration, and that catalpol and ajugol as well as acetoside are supposed to be the active constituents. More than 140 individual compounds have been currently isolated from this
Chou, Pei-chi; Lin, Jaung-geng
The TCM education is most crucial to the heritage and development of TCM. During the republican period of China there were many TCM colleges set up in succession to train doctors of TCM in some places throughout the country, but none in Taiwan. In 1951, Mr. ZHENG Pin-cong advocated establishing the private "Southeast College of TCM"; this eventuated in 1958 and it then changed the name to "Chinese College of TCM". Thereafter, the college and the compilation of textbooks as well as decisions on the courses developed continuously. The research work of TCM and the postgraduate education were also gradually carried out. In 1998, Chang Gung University established the department of TCM. With the development of TCM education, the licensing examination of Traditional Chinese physicians was gradually standardized.
Shi, Zhao-feng; Song, Tie-bing; Xie, Juan; Yan, Yi-quan
Background Atopic dermatitis (AD) has become a common skin disease that requires systematic and comprehensive treatment to achieve adequate clinical control. Traditional Chinese medicines and related treatments have shown clinical effects for AD in many studies. But the systematic reviews and meta-analyses for them are lacking. Objective The systematic review and meta-analysis based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicines and related treatments for AD treatment. Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched based on standardized searching rules in eight medical databases from the inception up to December 2016 and a total of 24 articles with 1,618 patients were enrolled in this meta-analysis. Results The results revealed that traditional Chinese medicines and related treatments did not show statistical differences in clinical effectiveness, SCORAD amelioration, and SSRI amelioration for AD treatment compared with control group. However, EASI amelioration of traditional Chinese medicines and related treatments for AD was superior to control group. Conclusion We need to make conclusion cautiously for the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine and related treatment on AD therapy. More standard, multicenter, double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of traditional Chinese medicine and related treatment for AD were required to be conducted for more clinical evidences providing in the future. PMID:28713436
Zhao, Jun; Liao, Xing; Zhao, Hui; Li, Zhi-Geng; Wang, Nan-Yue; Wang, Li-Min
To evaluate the methodological quality of the randomized controlled trials(RCTs) for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health, in order to provide a scientific basis for the improvement of clinical trials and systematic review. Such databases as CNKI, CBM, VIP, Wanfang, EMbase, Medline, Clinical Trials, Web of Science and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTS for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health between the time of establishment and February 29, 2016. Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to screen literatures and extract data, and CONSORT statement and CONSORT for traditional Chinese medicine statement were adopted as the basis for quality evaluation. Among the 72 RCTs included in this study, 67 (93.05%) trials described the inter-group baseline data comparability, 39(54.17%) trials described the unified diagnostic criteria, 28(38.89%) trials described the unified standards of efficacy, 4 (5.55%) trials mentioned the multi-center study, 19(26.38%) trials disclosed the random distribution method, 6(8.33%) trials used the random distribution concealment, 15(20.83%) trials adopted the method of blindness, 3(4.17%) study reported the sample size estimation in details, 5 (6.94%) trials showed a sample size of more than two hundred, 19(26.38%) trials reported the number of withdrawal, defluxion cases and those lost to follow-up, but only 2 trials adopted the ITT analysis,10(13.89%) trials reported the follow-up results, none of the trial reported the test registration and the test protocol, 48(66.7%) trials reported all of the indicators of expected outcomes, 26(36.11%) trials reported the adverse reactions and adverse events, and 4(5.56%) trials reported patient compliance. The overall quality of these randomized controlled trials for traditional Chinese medicines for treatment of sub-health is low, with methodological defects in different degrees. Therefore, it is still necessary to emphasize the correct application of principles
Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian
The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.
Sun, Lu-yan; Li, Qing-peng; Zhao, Li-li; Ding, Yuan-qing
In recent years, the incidence of tic disorders has increased, and it is not uncommon for the patients to treat the disease. The pathogenesis and pathogenesis of Western medicine are not yet clear, the clinical commonly used western medicine has many adverse reactions, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research is increasingly valued. Based on the software of TCM inheritance assistant system, this paper discusses Ding Yuanqing's experience in treating tic disorder with Professor. Collect yuan Qing Ding professor in treating tic disorder of medical records by association rules Apriori algorithm, complex system entropy clustering without supervision and data mining method, carries on the analysis to the selected 800 prescriptions, to determine the frequency of use of prescription drugs, the association rules between the drug and digging out the 12 core combination and the first six new prescription, medication transferred to the liver and extinguish wind, cooling blood and relieving convulsion, Qingxin soothe the nerves, with the card cut, flexible application, strict compatibility.
Lu, Tu-lin; Su, Lian-lin; Ji, De; Gu, Wei; Mao, Chun-qin
Drugs are exogenous compounds for human bodies, and will be metabolized by many enzymes after administration. CYP450 enzyme, as a major metabolic enzyme, is an important phase I drug metabolizing enzyme. In human bodies, about 75% of drug metabolism is conducted by CYP450 enzymes, and CYP450 enzymes is the key factor for drug interactions between traditional Chinese medicine( TCM) -TCM, TCM-medicine and other drug combination. In order to make clear the interaction between metabolic enzymes and TCM metabolism, we generally chose the enzymatic activity as an evaluation index. That is to say, the enhancement or reduction of CYP450 enzyme activity was used to infer the inducing or inhibitory effect of active ingredients and extracts of traditional Chinese medicine on enzymes. At present, the common method for measuring metabolic enzyme activity is Cocktail probe drugs, and it is the key to select the suitable probe substrates. This is of great significance for study drug's absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) process in organisms. The study focuses on the interaction between TCMs, active ingredients, herbal extracts, cocktail probe substrates as well as CYP450 enzymes, in order to guide future studies.
Liu, Tao; Tang, Zhi-peng; Ji, Guang
Fatty liver disease is caused by abnormal accumulation of lipids within hepatocytes. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, lipids belong to the category of essence obtained from cereals and the normal distribution of essence relies on the function of spleen yang. When spleen yang is injured, the normal distribution of essence (lipids) will be affected, leading to formation of phlegm retention in the liver. That is the TCM pathogenesis of fatty liver disease. Hence the treatment of fatty liver disease should be concentrated on warming yang to activate qi. With such a treatment, the normal distribution of essence will be restored, essence will be distributed, and phlegm will be dissipated.
Yao, Liang; Zhang, Yin; Wei, Baogang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yuejiao; Ren, Xiaolin; Bian, Yali
In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), the prescription is the crystallization of clinical experience of doctors, which is the main way to cure diseases in China for thousands of years. Clinical cases, on the other hand, describe how doctors diagnose and prescribe. In this paper, we propose a framework which mines treatment patterns in TCM clinical cases by exploiting supervised topic model and TCM domain knowledge. The framework can reflect principle rules in TCM and improve function prediction of a new prescription. We evaluate our method on 3090 real world TCM clinical cases. The experiment validates the effectiveness of our method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hong, Ming; Li, Sha; Tan, Hor Yue; Cheung, Fan; Wang, Ning; Huang, Jihan; Feng, Yibin
Herbal medicines are widely used for treating liver diseases and generally regarded as safe due to their extensive use in Traditional Chinese Medicine practice for thousands of years. However, in recent years, there have been increased concerns regarding the long-term risk of Herb-Induced Liver Injury (HILI) in patients with liver dysfunction. Herein, two representative Chinese herbal medicines: one-Xiao-Chai-Hu-Tang (XCHT)-a composite formula, and the other- Radix Polygoni Multiflori (Heshouwu) -a single herb, were analyzed by network pharmacology study. Based on the network pharmacology framework, we exploited the potential HILI effects of XCHT and Heshouwu by predicting the molecular mechanisms of HILI and identified the potential hepatotoxic ingredients in XCHT and Heshouwu . According to our network results, kaempferol and thymol in XCHT and rhein in Heshouwu exhibit the largest number of liver injury target connections, whereby CASP3, PPARG and MCL1 may be potential liver injury targets for these herbal medicines. This network pharmacology assay might serve as a useful tool to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of HILI. Based on the theoretical predictions, further experimental verification should be performed to validate the accuracy of the predicted interactions between herbal ingredients and protein targets in the future.
He, Jianzhuo; Wang, Lei; Yin, Xin; Guo, Liheng; Zhang, Minzhou
To observe hemodynamic characteristics and the correlation with syndrome types of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in patients with septic shock, so as to direct the treatment based on syndrome differentiation. A prospective observation was conducted. Sixty-eight patients with septic shock admitted to the Department of Critical Care Medicine of Dade Road General Hospital of Guangdong Hospital of TCM from January 2013 to July 2015 were enrolled. Pulse indicating continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) was used to monitor the hemodynamic changes, including heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac index (CI), global end diastolic volume index (GEDVI), extravascular lung water index (EVLWI), maximum rate of the increase in pressure (dPmax) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), for assessment of hemodynamics. According to the CI, the patients were divided into two groups , i.e. high CI group (CI ≥ 50.0 mL×s(-1)×m(-2), n = 34) and low CI group (CI characteristics of two groups were investigated. The TCM differentiation was conducted with "four syndromes and four methods", and the hemodynamic characteristics of different syndrome types were investigated, the correlation between the TCM syndrome factors and hemodynamic parameters was analyzed. The patients were divided into survival group and death group, and clinical parameters and hemodynamic characteristics were compared between two groups. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHEII) score and blood glucose of low CI group were higher than those of high CI group [APACHEII score: 24.4±7.2 vs. 19.8±7.4, t = -2.279, P = 0.023; blood glucose (mmol/L): 9.7 (7.7, 14.6) vs. 6.7 (5.6, 10.0), Z = -2.257, P = 0.024], CI and GEDVI were lowered [CI (mL×s(-1)×m(-2)): 36.7±8.3 vs. 68.4±16.7, t = 10.285, P = 0.000; GEDVI (mL/m(2)): 689.0 (566.0, 883.8) vs. 838.5 (692.8, 1?247.3), Z = -2.711, P = 0.007], while SVRI was increased [kPa×s×L(-1)×m(-2): 248
Pharmacodynamic (PD) studies play an important role in research and development of new traditonal Chinese medicines (TCMs). Phamacologic and toxicologic studies that aim to research drug ability can provide supporting data for the clinical trials and reduce the risk of clinical trials. In recent years, PD studies in TCMs are developing and progressing, but there are still some problems affecting the value of PD studies in the development of new TCMs. The value of PD studies depends on scientific and rational study design. This article summaries some defects in PD study design of new TCMs that are common in the application data, including defects in study type, testing targets, dosing, duration of administration, control group, testing time. This article also discusses some points of concern and specific requirements for PD study design of new TCMs.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes substantial public health care burdens. Intensive efforts have been made to find effective and safe disease-modifying treatment and symptomatic intervention alternatives against AD. Smart Soup (SS, a Chinese medicine formula composed of Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii (AT, Poria cum Radix Pini (PRP and Radix Polygalae (RP, is a typical prescription against memory deficits. Here, we assessed the efficacy of SS against AD. Oral administration of SS ameliorated the cognitive impairment of AD transgenic mice, with reduced Aβ levels, retarded Aβ amyloidosis and reduced Aβ-induced gliosis and neuronal loss in the brains of AD mice. Consistently, SS treatment reduced amyloid-related locomotor dysfunctions and premature death of AD transgenic Drosophila. Mechanistic studies showed that RP reduced Aβ generation, whereas AT and PRP exerted neuroprotective effects against Aβ. Taken together, our study indicates that SS could be effective against AD, providing a practical therapeutic strategy against the disease.
He, Fu-Yuan; Deng, Kai-Wen; Zeng, Jiao-Li; Dai, Ru-Wen; Dai, Ru-Wen; Xia, Zan-Shao; Liu, Weng-Long; Shi, Ji-Lian
The qualitative and quantitative analysis on traditional Chinese medicine and formula components can be made by chemical and instrumental analysis methods. Of both, the instrumental analysis methods play a dominant role, including HPLC, HPLC-MS, HPLC-NMR, GC, GC-MS, biochemical and biological effect. But because traditional Chinese medicines and formula have complicated components, chemical methods are so unspecific that they shall be used less or with caution. While instrumental analysis methods are so specific that they are appropriate for analyzing complicated single component. The analysis techniques for multiple components of traditional Chinese medicines and formula focus on fingerprints, but all of these analysis techniques are limited by the pre-requisite of separation and the lack of general-purpose detectors and therefore being hard to realize the determination of all components of traditional Chinese medicines and formula. In the natural world, however, organisms identify native and alien components through specificity and non-specificity of clusters decided by antigens and antibodies. For example, components of traditional Chinese medicines are directly or indirectly synthesized into antigens and injected into animals, in order to generate specific antibodies and then collect cross reaction information of these components to specific antibodies. As for components without cross reaction, their contents shall be directly read out on the basis of the inhibition rate curve of competitive reaction for specificity of antigens and antibodies. Besides, a cross inhibition rate matrix shall be established first, and them a multiple regression linear equation between cross component concentration or concentration logarithm and inhibition rate by labeling the immunity competitive reaction between antibodies and haptens of traditional Chinese medicine and compound components, and then solved to obtain concentration of each component. The two results are combined to
Wang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Ju-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Wang, De-Qin; Yan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Jin-Jin; Gao, Hui-Min; Li, Chun; Wang, Jin-Yu; Li, Chu-Yuan; Ni, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ji-Sheng; Lin, Juan
As an outstanding representative of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) prescriptions accumulated from famous TCM doctors' clinical experiences in past dynasties, classical TCM excellent prescriptions (cTCMeP) are the most valuable part of TCM system. To support the research and development of cTCMeP, a series of regulations and measures were issued to encourage its simplified registration. There is still a long-way to go because many key problems and puzzles about technology, registration and administration in cTCMeP R&D process are not resolved. Based on the analysis of registration and management regulations of botanical drug products in FDA of USA and Japan, and EMA of Europe, the possible key problems and countermeasures in chemistry, manufacture and control (CMC) of simplified registration of cTCMeP were analyzed on the consideration of its actual situation. The method of "reference decoction extract by traditional prescription" (RDETP) was firstly proposed as standard to evaluate the quality and preparation uniformity between the new developing product under simplified registration and traditional original usages of cTCMeP, instead of Standard Decoction method in Japan. "Totality of the evidence" approach, mass balance and bioassay/biological assay of cTCMeP were emphatically suggested to introduce to the quality uniformity evaluation system in the raw drug material, drug substance and final product between the modern product and traditional decoction. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Wang, Wei; Xu, Lin; Shen, Chaoyan
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating breast cancer patients after mastectomy. We searched EMBASE, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Chinese Biomedical Database, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and PubMed to collect randomized controlled trials of TCM in treatment of breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Quality of the methodology was assessment in accordance with Cochrane 4.2.2 Handbook. All patients were divided into two groups: TCM group (TCM only or TCM plus conventional treatment) and control group (conventional treatment only). Effects of TCM on short-term clinical outcome, long-term survival rate, and incidence of adverse reaction were compared between the two groups. Twenty-nine studies were included in this meta-analysis, involving a total of 3142 breast cancer patients. Meta-analyses showed that TCM could improve short-term treatment efficacy (Z = 7.67, RR = 1.59, 95% cl [1.41-1.80], P adverse reactions in breast cancer patients after mastectomy. TCM provides beneficial and complementary effects in the treatment of breast cancer patients after mastectomy.
Zhu, Qing-Xia; Cao, Yong-Bing; Cao, Ying-Ying; Lu, Feng
A novel facile method for on-site detection of antipertensive chemicals (e. g. nicardipine hydrochloride, doxazosin mesylate, propranolol hydrochloride, and hydrochlorothiazide) adulterated in traditional Chinese medicine for hypertension using thin layer chromatography (TLC) combined with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was reported in the present paper. Analytes and pharmaceutical matrices was separated by TLC, then SERS method was used to complete qualitative identification of trace substances on TLC plate. By optimizing colloidal silver concentration and developing solvent, as well as exploring the optimal limits of detection (LOD), the initially established TLC-SERS method was used to detect real hypertension Chinese pharmaceuticals. The results showed that this method had good specificity for the four chemicals and high sensitivity with a limit of detection as lower as to 0.005 microg. Finally, two of the ten antipertensive drugs were detected to be adulterated with chemicals. This simple and fast method can realize rapid detection of chemicals illegally for doping in antipertensive Chinese pharmaceuticals, and would have good prospects in on-site detection of chemicals for doping in Chinese pharmaceuticals.
Ping Chung eLEUNG
Full Text Available Topical medicinal patches have been popular for the treatment of minor injuries like sprains and avulsions. Other inflammatory conditions like chronic musculo-tendinous pain and or fasciitis are also taken care of by local ointments or rubs. In the oriental communities, medicinal herbs frequently form the major components of the patches.In spite of the lack of scientific evidence of efficacy, the popularity of such traditional application persists for centuries.In this era of evidence-based clinical treatment, there is an urgent need to look into this traditional practice. The purpose should include a scientific verification of the efficacy of the practice, and once proven, further explorations would be indicated to bring the practice to a higher level.A system of comprehensive exploration was proposed and practiced in the past years to fulfill the aspiration. The research consisted of four areas:(1Identification of the suitable medicinal herbs for the topical study;(2Study of the biological activities of the selected herbs, concentrating on the areas of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, angiogenesis and cellular proliferation;(3Study on the transcutaneous transport of the chemicals of the selected herbs to deeper tissues; and(4Pilot clinical studies on common superficial inflammatory musculo-skeletal conditions to give objective clinical evidences to the topical applications.Five herbs were identified as suitable candidates of study. They were put into relevant laboratory platforms and were proven to be anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic. Three of the herbs were prepared as topical patches with an enhancer and used to treat three common ailments in pilot clinical trials, viz., plantar fasciitis, undisplaced metatarsal fracture and tendonitis of the wrist (de-Quervain’s disease and the elbow (Tennis elbow. The clinical results of the pilot studies were very positive.It is therefore concluded that further explorations are
Wu, Min; Lu, Peng; Shi, Luwen; Li, Shao
Based on the nationwide survey into inpatients' utilization of the health service covered by China's urban basic medical insurance from 2008 to 2010, we analyzed the use rate, cancer profile and combined use of anticancer Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) on 51,382 insured cancer patients by using statistical, bi-clustering and network methods. We found that 42.4% of 51,382 cancer patients used 33 anticancer CPMs, and 51.7% used 71 anticancer Western medicines (WMs). The CPMs were most often used in lung (52%) and nasopharynx (52%) cancer patients, and least in bladder cancer (21%) and leukemia of unspecified cell type (21%) patients. The cost per patient for all 33 anticancer CPMs was 2069RMB, lower than that of the WMs (3458RMB). The cancer profile of commonly used CPMs and WMs for the top 17 cancers (>500 sampled patients) were provided, indicating anticancer CPMs had a broad spectrum of cancers and lacked selectivity in cancer treatment (CPM mean CV = 49%; WM mean CV = 152%). Moreover, 24.8% of the cancer patients used both CPMs and WMs, and CPM-WM combined use networks were constructed for four major cancers. This first nationwide analysis revealed the use characteristics and herb-drug combined use patterns of insurance covered anticancer CPMs in China. The study offers valuable information to guide future studies of the precision, safety and standard use of CPMs. PMID:26513017
Zheng, Shuai; Kim, Christine; Meier, Peter; Sibbritt, David; Zaslawski, Chris
Currently, there is no definitive diagnosis or list of signs and symptoms for "stress" in either modern biomedicine or Chinese medicine (CM). While modern theories on stress relate to the neurological interaction of a stressor or stimuli on the autonomic nervous system, it is generally regarded as subjective in nature and as such each individual will likely present varying somatic or cognitive signs and symptoms. A questionnaire was therefore developed, based on textual research, that incorporated both general as well as gender specific signs and symptom responses to determine the most common CM patterns associated with individuals who report as feeling stressed. For the 45 females who completed the questionnaire, the mean percentage of symptoms per CM pattern showed that the pattern with the highest average percentage was heart qi deficiency (61.88%) followed by liver blood deficiency (60.23%) and then heart blood deficiency (60.12%). For males (n = 16), heart qi deficiency was also the highest scoring CM pattern with a scoring percentage of 54.81%. In males, however, heart blood deficiency was second with 53.29% followed by liver blood deficiency with 51.10%. Of the general non gender-specific symptoms collected (n = 65 symptoms), the symptom most commonly reported by both men and women was "anxious or racing thoughts", followed by "constant worrying" and "inability to concentrate". The CM diagnostic pattern results may prove useful for clinicians as the change in diagnostic understanding will also modify the treatment principle and subsequent treatment with acupuncture or herbal medicine. Future CM research studies should consider including the questionnaire either as a diagnostic aid or as an outcome measure for acupuncture or herbal medicine studies related to stress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available Currently, there is no definitive diagnosis or list of signs and symptoms for “stress” in either modern biomedicine or Chinese medicine (CM. While modern theories on stress relate to the neurological interaction of a stressor or stimuli on the autonomic nervous system, it is generally regarded as subjective in nature and as such each individual will likely present varying somatic or cognitive signs and symptoms. A questionnaire was therefore developed, based on textual research, that incorporated both general as well as gender specific signs and symptom responses to determine the most common CM patterns associated with individuals who report as feeling stressed. For the 45 females who completed the questionnaire, the mean percentage of symptoms per CM pattern showed that the pattern with the highest average percentage was heart qi deficiency (61.88% followed by liver blood deficiency (60.23% and then heart blood deficiency (60.12%. For males (n = 16, heart qi deficiency was also the highest scoring CM pattern with a scoring percentage of 54.81%. In males, however, heart blood deficiency was second with 53.29% followed by liver blood deficiency with 51.10%. Of the general non gender-specific symptoms collected (n = 65 symptoms, the symptom most commonly reported by both men and women was “anxious or racing thoughts”, followed by “constant worrying” and “inability to concentrate”. The CM diagnostic pattern results may prove useful for clinicians as the change in diagnostic understanding will also modify the treatment principle and subsequent treatment with acupuncture or herbal medicine. Future CM research studies should consider including the questionnaire either as a diagnostic aid or as an outcome measure for acupuncture or herbal medicine studies related to stress.
Full Text Available Thrombotic diseases have become a global burden due to morbidity, mortality, and disability. Traditional Chinese medicine has been proven effective in removing blood stasis and promoting blood circulation, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 is a natural inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators. In this study, we screened four fractions of Resina Draconis (a traditional Chinese medicine extract for PAI-1 inhibitory activity. Bioactivity-guided purification and chromogenic substrate-based assay led to the identification of loureirin B as the major PAI-1 inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 26.10 μM. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that formation of the PAI-1/uPA complex was inhibited by loureirin B, and the inhibitory effect of loureirin B on PAI-1 was also confirmed by clot lysis assay. In vivo studies showed that loureirin B significantly prolonged the tail bleeding time and reduced the weight and size of arterial thrombus, reduced hydroxyproline level, and partly cured liver fibrosis in mice. Taken together, the results revealed loureirin B as a PAI-1 inhibitor, adding a new pharmacological target for loureirin B and uncovering a novel mechanism underlying the antithrombotic property of Resina Draconis, which might be useful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as thrombosis and fibrosis.
Ma, Xiao-Li; Zou, Ping-Ping; Lei, Wei; Tu, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Yong
Quantitative NMR (qNMR) is a technology based on the principle of NMR. This technology does not need the references of the determined components, which supplies a solution for the problem of reference scarcity in the quantitative analysis of traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, this technology has the advantages of easy operation, non-destructiveness for the determined sample, high accuracy and repeatability, in comparison with HPLC, LC-MS and GC-MS. NMR technology has achieved quantum leap in sensitivity and accuracy with the development of NMR hardware. In addition, the choice of appropriate experimental parameters of the pre-treatment and measurement procedure as well as the post-acquisition processing is also important for obtaining high-quality and reproducible NMR spectra. This review summarizes the principle of qHNMR, the various experimental parameters affecting the accuracy and the precision of qHNMR, such as signal to noise ratio, relaxation delay, pulse width, acquisition time, window function, phase correction and baseline correction, and their corresponding optimized methods. Moreover, the application of qHNMR in the fields of quantitation of single or multi-components of traditional Chinese medicines, the purity detection of references, and the quality analysis of foods has been discussed. In addition, the existing questions and the future application prospects of qNMR in natural product areas are also presented.
Full Text Available Background. As there might be relevant differences with regard to research utilization in the general hospitals, we aimed to study research utilization among registered nurses working in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals. Methods. A total of 648 registered nurses from 4 tertiary-level hospitals in China were recruited for participation. A modified BARRIERS Scale and self-designed questionnaires were used for data collection. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-tests, and one-way ANOVAs and Spearman correlation analysis. Results. Overall, items which belong to the subscale “Research” were identified as the most important barriers. Among the individual items, the lack of time on the job was ranked as the top barrier, followed by the lack of knowledgeable colleagues and by overwhelming research publications. Clinical experience, working pressure, job satisfaction, and research experience could be identified as associated factors for barriers to research utilization. Conclusions. Registered nurses in traditional Chinese medicine hospitals felt high barriers to research utilization. Reducing registered nurses’ working pressure, promoting their positive attitude to nursing, and improving research training might be helpful for increasing research utilization. Close cooperation between clinical and nursing schools or academic research centres might facilitate the necessary change in nursing education and routine.
Yang, Feng; Tan, Ming-Sheng; Yi, Ping; Tang, Xiang-Sheng; Hao, Qing-Ying; Qi, Ying-Na
To compare the clinical effect between spinal card decompression combined with traditional Chinese medicine and simple spinal card decompression for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. From June 2012 to June 2015, 73 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were treated, including 42 males and 31 females, aged from 29 to 73 years old with a mean of 50.9 years old. The patients were divided into the simple operation group (34 cases) and the operation combined with traditional Chinese medicine group(39 cases) according to the idea of themselves. The anterior discectomy or subtotal corpectomy with internal fixation or posterior simple open-door decompression with lateral mass screw fixation were performed in the patients. Among them, 39 cases were treated with traditional Chinese medicine after surgery. The Japanese orthopedic association (JOA) score of spinal cord function, the improvement rate of neural function, the neck dysfunction index (NDI) score and the governor vessel stasis syndrome score were compared between two groups preoperative and postoperative 1 week, 1 month and the final follow-up respectively. The internal fixation and the condition of spinal cord decompression were observed by CT, MRI and X-rays before and after operation. All the operations were successful, no injuries such as dura mater, spinal cord and nerve root were found. All the wounds were healed without infection except one patient had a superficial i