WorldWideScience

Sample records for medicinal plants

  1. Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  2. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  3. SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    VHADA

    complete refusal to willing to work with all aspects. The major uses of the medicinal plants ranged from pain killer to malaria and cancer treatment. CONCLUSION: This study signals the information and identification of varieties and usage of medicinal plants in the study area. The scientific validity of these remedies, however ...

  4. Antioxidant Potential of Different Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanthi P; Parameswari CS

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are the resource of new drug. Most of the modern medicines are produced indirectly from medicinal plants. Plants are directly used as medicines by a majority of cultures around the world. Studying medicinal plants helps to understand plant toxicity and protect human and animals from natural poisons. Medicinal plants are the important sources for pharmaceutical manufacturing. In developing countries, herbal medicines are considered to be readily available, accessible, affordab...

  5. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  6. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as "antifertility", "anti-implantation", "antiovulation", and "antispermatogenic" activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  7. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Daniyal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive summary of medicinal plants used as antifertility agents in females throughout the world by various tribes and ethnic groups. We undertook an extensive bibliographic review by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, and further consulting well accepted worldwide scientific databases. We performed CENTRAL, Embase, and PubMed searches using terms such as “antifertility”, “anti-implantation”, “antiovulation”, and “antispermatogenic” activity of plants. Plants, including their parts and extracts, that have traditionally been used to facilitate antifertility have been considered as antifertility agents. In this paper, various medicinal plants have been reviewed for thorough studies such as Polygonum hydropiper Linn, Citrus limonum, Piper nigrum Linn, Juniperis communis, Achyanthes aspera, Azadirachta indica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Barleria prionitis. Many of these medicinal plants appear to act through an antizygotic mechanism. This review clearly demonstrates that it is time to expand upon experimental studies to source new potential chemical constituents from medicinal plants; plant extracts and their active constituents should be further investigated for their mechanisms. This review creates a solid foundation upon which to further study the efficacy of plants that are both currently used by women as traditional antifertility medicines, but also could be efficacious as an antifertility agent with additional research and study.

  8. Medicinal plants of the Mapuche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, P J; Manby, J

    1985-03-01

    A list of 136 plants used for medicinal purposes by the Mapuche Amerindians of Chile has been compiled. This is the first such list in English and is important due to the disappearance of Mapuche culture with increasing urbanisation. Some introduced plants have been incorporated into the traditional medicine of the Mapuche since the advent of European settlers but there is also a wealth of information about the uses of many indigenous species.

  9. Ten Medicinal Plants from Burma

    OpenAIRE

    Sesoltani, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this Master thesis, there is an emphasis on scientific studies carried out to find information about the pharmacological effects and phytochemical constituents in 10 selected medicinal plants from Burma. These plants are taken from Burma collection compiled by Arnold Nordal during the period 1957-1961. Information was obtained about ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry and biological activities of the 10 chosen plants. After a thorough search in different databases, there were...

  10. Medicinal Plants with Antiplatelet Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Rosado, Juan A

    2016-07-01

    Blood platelets play an essential role in the hemostasis and wound-healing processes. However, platelet hyperactivity is associated to the development and the complications of several cardiovascular diseases. In this sense, the search for potent and safer antiplatelet agents is of great interest. This article provides an overview of experimental studies performed on medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity available through literature with particular emphasis on the bioactive constituents, the parts used, and the various platelet signaling pathways modulated by medicinal plants. From this review, it was suggested that medicinal plants with antiplatelet activity mainly belong to the family of Asteraceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Zygophyllaceae, Rhamnaceae, Liliaceae, and Zingiberaceae. The antiplatelet effect is attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, and other substances which correct platelet abnormalities by interfering with different platelet signalization pathways including inhibition of the ADP pathway, suppression of TXA2 formation, reduction of intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, and phosphoinositide breakdown, among others. The identification and/or structure modification of the plant constituents and the understanding of their action mechanisms will be helpful in the development of new antiplatelet agents based on medicinal plants which could contribute to the prevention of thromboembolic-related disorders by inhibiting platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, ...

  12. Radioactive properties of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedova, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A complicated cycle of various compounds' synthesis is provided by plants in the process of their development. The synthesized compounds are necessary to maintain the life of all living organisms both in water and on the land. Together with the organic compounds all known natural radionuclides are accumulated by the plants. Many plants possess the ability to accumulate some elements, whose concentration in the plants may be much higher than that in the soils and water sources. It is well known that the plants are basic or initial raw materials for producing numerous food products, as well as medicinal preparations. The radionuclides, accumulated in the plants, may pass to the human organism through the products and drugs, and may become a source of internal radiation. Accumulation of the radionuclides in various human organs above the maximal acceptable concentration (MAC) may lead to various pathologic changes. That is why it is a necessary and urgent problem to carry out investigations of the radioactive properties of the plants (i.e. to determine their radioecological cleanliness) before using the medicinal plant for pharmacological purposes. In the present work we investigated the radioactive processes of kinds of medicinal plants by the method of semi-conductor gamma-spectrometry. Measurements of the gamma-spectra of the plants' leach were carried out with the help of a gamma-spectrometer with a Ge(Li) detector accompanied by a 4096-channel analyzer. Responsive volume of the detector was 40 cm 3 , energy resolution with respect to 1333 keV 60 Co line was 3 keV. In the measured spectra we observed clearly photo-peaks belonging to uranium-238 family: 186 keV 226 Ra; 295, 351 keV 214 Pb; 609, 1120, 1764 keV 214 Bi; and those belonging to thorium - 232 family: 339, 911, 968 keV 2 28 Ac; 583, 2614 keV 208 Te; as well as the photo-peak of the natural radionuclide 40 K with the energy 1460 keV. From the proper gamma-lines, observed in the spectra, we

  13. India mainstreams medicinal plants | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-03

    Feb 3, 2011 ... The program is partly sponsored by IDRC's Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Program in Asia (MAPPA). IDRC has supported medicinal plant research in the region since 1992. Improving quality control. R.B.S. Rawat, CEO of India's National Medicinal Plants Board, said people in Chhattisgarh and other ...

  14. Aromatic Medicinal Plants from Tajikistan (Central Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharopov, Farukh S; Zhang, Hanjing; Wink, Michael; Setzer, William N

    2015-02-17

    Tajikistan is a small country located in Central Asia. The mostly mountainous terrain with a continental, subtropical, and semiarid climate, is characterized by diverse flora. Many people in Tajikistan rely on medicinal plants as their traditional form of medicine to prevent and cure health disorders. Aromatic medicinal plants, in particular, have played an important role for the local people. In this review, we present a summary of the uses of 18 aromatic medicinal plants from Tajikistan and their compositions of secondary metabolites.

  15. Recent trends in medicinal plants research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shyur, Lie-fen; Lau, Allan S.Y

    2012-01-01

    .... One type of research explores the value of medicinal plants as traditionally used and studies of these plants have the potential to determine which plants are most potent, optimize dosages and dose...

  16. Radiation protection by medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, Ganesh Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The development of effective non-toxic radioprotective agents is of considerable interest in the improvement of radiotherapy of cancer and protection against unplanned exposures. The synthetic drugs developed in post-world war II have had serious constrains in clinical applicable due to their toxicity at the optimal protective dose. Search for non-toxic protectors from natural sources have indicated that some of the commonly used medicinal plants and the poly herbal formulation could prove to be valuable sources of clinically useful radioprotectors as their ratio of effective dose to toxic dose is very high

  17. Medicinal Plants used in Traditional Medicine in Jimma Zone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Locally available and widely used medicinal plants would need to be identified and a list compiled as well as propagated to alleviate the risk of extinction due to accelerated urbanization, recurring drought and deforestation. This study was conducted to document locally available medicinal plants and ...

  18. Some medicinal plants as natural anticancer agents

    OpenAIRE

    Govind Pandey; S Madhuri

    2009-01-01

    India is the largest producer of medicinal plants and is rightly called the "Botanical garden of the World". The medicinal plants, besides having natural therapeutic values against various diseases, also provide high quality of food and raw materials for livelihood. Considerable works have been done on these plants to treat cancer, and some plant products have been marketed as anticancer drugs, based on the traditional uses and scientific reports. These plants may promote host resistance agai...

  19. Conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šveistytė, Laima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of medicinal and aromatic plants includes ex situ and in situ methods. The genetic recourses of medicinal and aromatic plants are stored, studied and constantly maintained in the field collections of the Institute of Botany of Nature Research Centre, Kaunas Botanical Garden of Vytautas Magnus University and Aleksandras Stulginskis University of Agriculture. Presently seeds of 214 accessions representing 38 species of medicinal and aromatic plants are stored in a long-term storage in the Plant Gene Bank. The data about national genetic resources are collected and stored in the Central Database of the Plant Gene Bank.

  20. Medicinal plants with hepatoprotective activity in Iranian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Asadi-Samani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of medicinal combinations in the Iranian traditional medicine which are commonly used as tonic for liver. In this review, we have introduced some medicinal plants that are used mainly for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine, with focus on their hepatoprotective effects particularly against CC14 agent. In this study, online databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct were searched for papers published from January 1970 to December 2013. Search terms consisted of medicinal plants, traditional medicine, folk medicine, hepatoprotective, Iran, liver, therapeutic uses, compounds, antioxidant, CC14, anti-inflammatory, and antihepatotoxic, hepatitis, alone or in combination. Allium hirtifolium Boiss., Apium graveolens L., Cynara scolymus, Berberis vulgaris L., Calendula officinalis, Nigella sativa L., Taraxacum officinale, Tragopogon porrifolius, Prangos ferulacea L., Allium sativum, Marrubium vulgare, Ammi majus L., Citrullus lanatus Thunb, Agrimonia eupatoria L. and Prunus armeniaca L. are some of the medicinal plants that have been used for the treatment of liver disorders in Iranian folk medicine. Out of several leads obtained from plants containing potential hepatoprotective agents, silymarin, β-sitosterol, betalain, neoandrographolide, phyllanthin, andrographolide, curcumin, picroside, hypophyllanthin, kutkoside, and glycyrrhizin have been demonstrated to have potent hepatoprotective properties. Despite encouraging data on possibility of new discoveries in the near future, the evidence on treating viral hepatitis or other chronic liver diseases by herbal medications is not adequate.

  1. From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  2. IRANIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of human and food spoilage pathogens to antimicrobial agents and the side effects of chemical agents or preservative for human is caused for finding natural new antimicrobial agents, especially among the medicinal plants. This review introduces the methods that are used for antimicrobial evaluations and synergistic activities and the antimicrobial potential of some Iranian medicinal plants.

  3. Medicinal plants contain mucilage used in traditional Persian medicine (TPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Ahmad; Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Mahdavi Jafari, Jamileh; Ghobadi, Ali; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein; Choopani, Rasool

    2015-04-01

    Conventional therapies using mucilage plants greatly used by practitioners in Iran. The usage of mucilages is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 4000 years. Scientific assessment of these historical documents could be valuable for finding new potential usage in the current medicine. This study assembled an inventory of mucilage plants considered important therapeutic aids for alleviating the ailments in ancient Persian medicine and compared therapeutic applications of ancient times with current findings of medicinal mucilages in the same plant species. A literature search compiled some main traditional manuscripts of Persian medicine, including the book of AlHavi, Canon of Medicine, Zakhireh-iKharazmshahi, Qarabadine-kabir, Tohfat ol Moemenin, and Makhzan-ol-advieh, and select mucilage plants used in treating the mouth and respiratory system disorders. Also, current investigations on related subjects were considered through a search of the Pub Med and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal plants contains mucilage date back to ancient times. In mentioned medieval Persian books, 20 medicinal plants containing mucilage were identified. Mucilages have been traditionally used via oral or topical routes for a variety of disorders. According to this study, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their mucilaginous, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. A scientific evaluation of these historical documents can give an insight into the ideas of the past and be valuable in finding new data on clinical use of the mucilages that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.

  4. Medicinal plant markets and trade in Maputo, Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Mogens Pedersen; Falcâo, Mario P.; Olsen, Carsten Smith

    Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo.......Medicinal plants and traditional medicine are important to urban and rural livelihoods in Mozambique. This study presents a preliminary investigation of the structure and conduct of medicinal plant markets in Maputo....

  5. [Ecological protection of medicinal woody plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiufeng

    2003-09-01

    Medicinal woody plants, especially medicinal tall trees, play a same important role in forest structure, ecological balance and timber production as other tree species in forest, and due to their additional medicinal values overuse of these trees is more intensive than others. Many medicinal materials are destructively obtained from plants such as roots or bark used as medicinal materials. The contradiction between the utilization and protection of medicinal woody plants becomes more and more incisive. In the present paper, based on the analysis of the utilized situation and specialty of medicinal woody plants, the trouble between the plants protection and utilization was observed, the method to solve it and the fundamental research work needs to be developed were discussed. The following aspects of researches were suggested to be conducted: (a) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in mature trees to clear the optimum of harvest and cultivation conditions; (b) study on the distribution in organs, seasonal and age variations, and correlation with environmental factors of principal medicinal compositions in saplings, especially the time course of the variation in medicinal compositions and biomass to achieve the optimal tree ages for the balance between biomass and production of medicinal products during saplings development; (c) study on the influence and regulation of environmental factors on medicinal compounds production in woody plants to look for the optimal cultivated conditions for optimizing the accumulation of biomass and medicinal chemicals; (d) further study on the regulatory mechanism of the induced production of main medicinal compositions by ecological factors at protein (key enzyme) and gene level to accumulate fundamental data for the enhancement of quality and quantity, and approach of new accesses to medicinal products using biological

  6. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  7. Medicinal plants: production and biochemical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chunzhao Liu; Zobayed, S.M.A; Murch, S.J.; Saxena, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in the area of biotechnology offer some possibility for the development of new technologies for the conservation, characterization and mass production of medicinal plant species, (i.e. in vitro cell culture techniques for the mass production of sterile, consistent, standardized medicinal plant materials). This paper discussed the following subjects - plant tissue culture, de novo shoot organogenesis, de novo root organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, large scale propagation in bioreactors and discovery of unique biomolecules

  8. Some medicinal plants used in Yemeni herbal medicine to treat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot study examined the extent and the type of medicinal plants used for treating malaria. 492 informants were interviewed in 13 villages located on the coastal plain of four provinces. Nineteen plants belonging to fourteen families were recorded each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used.

  9. Medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa

    2017-11-01

    Aromatic plants are often used as natural medicines because of their remedial and inherent pharmacological properties. Looking into natural resources, particularly products of plant origin, has become an exciting area of research in drug discovery and development. Aromatic plants are mainly exploited for essential oil extraction for applications in industries, for example, in cosmetics, flavoring and fragrance, spices, pesticides, repellents and herbal beverages. Although several medicinal plants have been studied to treat various conventional ailments only a handful studies are available on aromatic plants, especially for radioprotection. Many plant extracts have been reported to contain antioxidants that scavenge free radicals produced due to radiation exposure, thus imparting radioprotective efficacy. The present review focuses on a subset of medicinally important aromatic plants with radioprotective activity.

  10. NIGERIAN ETHINOMEDICINE AND MEDICINAL PLANT FLORA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In continuation of the ethobotanical survey of medicinal plants of the Benue Area of Nigeria, thirty plants (belonging to twenty families), which are used as phytomedicines by the natives, were studied. The plants are arranged in alphabetical order of the taxa with their vernacular names in Idoma, Igala and Tiv given.

  11. Mapuche medicinal plants: Proposition in their propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz Ovalle; Zoia Neira; Patricio Nunez

    2002-01-01

    The Mapuche (native indians from Chile) population is one of the largest populations of native indians left in America (approximately 1 million). As many of the other Native communities, they continuously struggle to maintain their rituals and customs. One of the most valuable customs for the Mapuche is the use of medicinal plants. All these plants are native plants...

  12. [Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan.

  13. Advances on Bioactive Polysaccharides from Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jian-Hua; Jin, Ming-Liang; Morris, Gordon A; Zha, Xue-Qiang; Chen, Han-Qing; Yi, Yang; Li, Jing-En; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Gao, Jie; Nie, Shao-Ping; Shang, Peng; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2016-07-29

    In recent decades, the polysaccharides from the medicinal plants have attracted a lot of attention due to their significant bioactivities, such as anti-tumor activity, antioxidant activity, anticoagulant activity, antidiabetic activity, radioprotection effect, anti-viral activity, hypolipidemic and immunomodulatory activities, which make them suitable for medicinal applications. Previous studies have also shown that medicinal plant polysaccharides are non-toxic and show no side effects. Based on these encouraging observations, most researches have been focusing on the isolation and identification of polysaccharides, as well as their bioactivities. A large number of bioactive polysaccharides with different structural features and biological effects from medicinal plants have been purified and characterized. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the most recent developments in physiochemical, structural features and biological activities of bioactive polysaccharides from a number of important medicinal plants, such as polysaccharides from Astragalus membranaceus, Dendrobium plants, Bupleurum, Cactus fruits, Acanthopanax senticosus, Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, Aloe barbadensis Miller, and Dimocarpus longan Lour. Moreover, the paper has also been focused on the applications of bioactive polysaccharides for medicinal applications. Recent studies have provided evidence that polysaccharides from medicinal plants can play a vital role in bioactivities. The contents and data will serve as a useful reference material for further investigation, production, and application of these polysaccharides in functional foods and therapeutic agents.

  14. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurska, Katarzyna; Berdowska, Agnieszka; Król, Małgorzata

    2016-12-20

    For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall). This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  15. Transformation of medicinal plants using Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bandurska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For many years attempts are made to develop efficient methods for transformation of medicinal plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. It is a soil bacteria which possess a natural ability to infect plants in places of injures which results in arise of cancerous growths (crown gall. This is possible thanks a transfer of fragment of Ti plasmid into plant cells and stable integration with a plant genome. Efficiency of medicinal plant transformation depends on many factors for example: Agrobacterium strain, methods and procedures of transformation as well as on plant species, type and age of the explants and regeneration conditions. The main goal of plant transformation is to increase the amount of naturally occurring bioactive compounds and the production of biopharmaceuticals. Genetic plant transformation via bacteria of the genus Agrobacterium is a complex process which requires detailed analysis of incorporated transgene expression and occurs only in the case when the plant cell acquires the ability to regenerate. In many cases, the regeneration efficiency observed in medicinal plants are inefficient after applied transformation procedures. To date there have been attempts of genetic transformation by using A. tumefaciens of medicinal plants belonging to the families: Apocynaceae, Araceae, Araliaceae, Asphodelaceae, Asteraceae, Begoniaceae, Crassulaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Linaceae, Papaveraceae, Plantaginaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Solanaceae.

  16. Medicinal Plants in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Perspective of Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein; Shahpiri, Zahra; Mehri, Mohammad Reza; Bahramsoltani, Roodabeh; Rezaei, Mahdi; Raeesdana, Azade; Rahimi, Roja

    2018-03-05

    Neurodegenerative diseases are a progressive loss of structure and/or function of neurons. Weak therapeutic response and progressive nature of the diseases, as well as wide range of side effects caused by conventional therapeutic approaches, make patients seek for complementary and alternative medicine. The aim of present paper is to discuss the neuropharmacological basis of medicinal plants and their principle phytochemicals which have been used in traditional Persian medicine for different types of neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants introduced in traditional Persian medicine perform beneficial effects in neurodegenerative diseases via various cellular and molecular mechanisms including suppression of apoptosis mediated by the increase in expression of anti-apoptotic agents (e.g. Bcl-2) as well as the decrease in the expression and activity of pro-apoptotic proteins (e.g. Bax, caspase 3 and 9). Alleviating inflammatory responses and suppressing the expression and function of pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins, as well as improvement in antioxidative performance mediated by superoxide dismutase and catalase, are among other neuroprotective mechanisms of traditional medicinal plants. Modulation of transcription, transduction, intracellular signaling pathways including ERK, p38, and MAPK, with upstream regulatory activity on inflammatory cascades, apoptosis and oxidative stress associated pathways, play an essential role in preventive and therapeutic potential of the plants in neurodegenerative diseases. Medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine along with their related phytochemicals by affecting various neuropharmacological pathways can be considered as future drugs or adjuvant therapies with conventional pharmacotherapeutics; though, further clinical studies are necessary for confirmation of their safety and efficacy. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. International congress on aromatic and medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text : In Morocco, medicinal and aromatic plants occupy an important place in the traditional care system of a large number of local people. They are also economically strong potential, but unfortunately they are not valued enough. Indeed, Morocco by its privileged geographical position in the Mediterranean basin and its floristic diversity (with a total of over 4,200 species and subspecies of which over 500 are recognized as medicinal and aromatic plants), is a leading provider of traditional global market. In this context and given the back label of the natural global, group research and studies on Aromatic and Medicinal Plants (GREPAM), the Faculty of Semlalia and University Cadi Ayyad, organize: the International Congress on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants CIPAM 2009. The organization of this conference is part of scientific research developed by the GREPAM. [fr

  18. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in Genaveh Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinatary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants of the Genaveh port in the North of Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 30 local informants by face to face interview. The relative frequency of citation (FRC and cultural importance (CI indices were calculated. Results: A total of 93 medicinal plants belonging to 55 families were identified. Plantago psyllium, Teucrium polium, Peganum harmala, Descuraninia sophia, Cichorium intybus, Achillea erophora DC, Matricarria charmomilla and Citrolus colocynthis had the highest cultural importance indices. Plantago psyllium, Descuraninia sophia and Zataria multiflora had the highest FRC indices. The highest medical uses were for gastrointestinal diseases, gynocological diseases, respiratory disorders, infectious diseases, nature of cool and metabolic disorders, respectively. In addition to the use of these plants to treat diseases as in Iran’s traditional medicine, people in the Genaveh port particularly use Plantago psyllium for drainage of infective boils and abscesses, cough, skin diseases, Teucrium polium for diabetes mellitus, wound washing and sterilizing, Peganum harmala for uterus infections and abdominal cramps, Descuraninia sophia for heart diseases and heatstroke, Cichorium intybus for heatstroke and liver diseases, Achillea eriophora DC for reflex, diabetes mellitus and wound healing, Matricarria charmomilla for seizure and dysmenorrhea, Citrolus colocynthis for hemorrhoid, diabetes mellitus and rheumatism and Zataria multiflora for sedation, abdominal pain and respiratory diseases. Conclusion: There is a vast variety of medicinal plants in Genaveh port. Although most of therapeutic applications of these plants in the Genaveh port are the

  19. [Endemic plants for medicine use in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gang-Qiang; Li, Hai-Tao; Sun, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhang, Li-Xia; Li, Ya-Jing; Huang, Lu-Qi; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2017-11-01

    Based on plant species databases, species lists and literature records, general situation of the Chinese medicinal endemic plant (vascular plant) has been systematically summarized, and its quantity and distribution characteristics of Chinese medicinal endemic plants are presented in this paper. The results showed that 3 150 endemic species are Chinese medicinal plants belonging to 785 genera in 153 families, which includes 38 species of 22 genera in 12 families of pteridophyta, 42 species of 14 genera in7 families of gymnosperms, and 3 070 species of 749 genara in 134 families of angiosperms. The top four families involving medicinal endemic species are Asteraceae (218 species), Ranunculaceae (182 species), Labiatae (151 species), and Liliaceae (133 species). The top four provincial administration distributed medicinal endemic species are Sichuan (1 568 species), Yunnan (1 533 species), Guizhou (955 species) and Hubei (930 species).On the regional scale, the most abundant one is the southwest region (2 465 species), followed by the central region (1 226 species) and the northwest region (949 species). Localization characteristics for domestication and artificial cultivation of medicinal endemic species are more prominent due to their narrower and limited distribution areas, indicating it is possible for these species acting as local potential resource for reasonable economic development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. A guide to medicinal plants of Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold Krochmal; Russell S. Walters; Richard M. Doughty

    1969-01-01

    The Medicinal or therapeutic uses of the plants described in this guide are not to be construed in any way as a recommendation by the authors or the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Some of the dried crude drugs, which must be modified considerably before commercial use, can be extremely poisonous when not used properly. Readers are cautioned against using these plant...

  1. Conserving the Appalachian medicinal plant industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain

    2006-01-01

    An industry based on plants that flourish in the mountains of Appalachia is at a critical crossroads. The medicinal plant industry has relied on the conservation of Appalachian forest resources for more than 300 years. There is growing and widespread concern that many of the species, on which this vibrant and substantial industry depends, are being depleted and...

  2. Selery medicinal plants in the Donbas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Yu. Naumov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performed studies determined the real number of species of medicinal plants in Apiaceae family growing on the Donbass territory. The study of literature and conducted field experiments revealed the presence of 41 species of medicinal plants of the celery family (Apiaceae Lindl., among which 11 cultivated species. There was a brief description of botanical species studied, the typical place of growth, and the presence of biologically active compounds that determine the medicinal properties of the studied taxons. The studied plants have various quantitative and spatial relationship: 6 species are rare and are considered as protected plants, 2 species does not grow in Luhansk, 3 — in the Donetsk region, 4 species are considered to be adventitious for our region. Medicinal plants of the family celery cover a wide range of various diseases due to the large number of various biologically active substances and, primarily, essential fatty oils, flavonoids, vitamins and coumarins. It is worth noting that there no agricultural enterprises specialized on medicinal plants cultivating.

  3. Antimalarial properties of South African medicinal plants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pillay, P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available of structure-activity derivatives around these simplified structures is currently under way. CONCLUSIONS The study identified a number of promising South African medicinal plants for further investigation as plant-based antimalarial agents. The overall... as potential sources of antimalarial lead compounds. REFERENCES Clarkson, C., Maharaj, V.J., Crouch, N.R., Grace, O.M., Pillay, P., Matsabisa, M.G., Bhagwandin, N., Smith, P.J., Folb, P.I., 2004. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native...

  4. Some Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Medicine in Swaziland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnomedical survey of the Manzini region of Swaziland was carried out. Traditional medical practitioners (TMPs) were interviewed in their homesteads where they practiced traditional medicine. Ethnomedical uses of plants used were collected from the wild with the assistance of the TMPs who gave information on them.

  5. Medicinal plants from Mali: Chemistry and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, Helle; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2015-12-24

    Mali is one of the countries in West Africa where the health system rely the most on traditional medicine. The healers are mainly using medicinal plants for their treatments. The studies performed being the basis for this review is of importance as they will contribute to sustaining the traditional knowledge. They contribute to evaluate and improve locally produced herbal remedies, and the review gives also an overview of the plant preparations that will have the most potential to be evaluated for new Improved Traditional Medicines. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the studies performed related to medicinal plants from Mali in the period 1995-2015. These studies include ethnopharmacology, chemistry and biological studies of the plants that were chosen based on our interviews with the healers in different regions of Mali, and contribute to sustainable knowledge on the medicinal plants. The Department of Traditional Medicine, Bamako, Mali, is responsible for registering the knowledge of the traditional healers on their use of medicinal plants and also identifying compounds in the plants responsible for the bioactivities claimed. The studies reported aimed at getting information from the healers on the use of medicinal plants, and study the biology and chemistry of selected plants for the purpose of verifying the traditional use of the plants. These studies should form the basis for necessary knowledge for the development of registered Improved Traditional Medicines in Mali. The healers were the ethnopharmacological informants. Questions asked initially were related to wound healing. This was because the immune system is involved when wounds are healed, and additionally the immune system is involved in the majority of the illnesses common in Mali. Based on the results of the interviews the plant material for studies was selected. Studies were performed on the plant parts the healers were using when treating their patients. Conventional chromatographic

  6. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai

    2014-09-01

    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale.

  7. [Development of Plant Metabolomics and Medicinal Plant Genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuki

    2018-01-01

     A variety of chemicals produced by plants, often referred to as 'phytochemicals', have been used as medicines, food, fuels and industrial raw materials. Recent advances in the study of genomics and metabolomics in plant science have accelerated our understanding of the mechanisms, regulation and evolution of the biosynthesis of specialized plant products. We can now address such questions as how the metabolomic diversity of plants is originated at the levels of genome, and how we should apply this knowledge to drug discovery, industry and agriculture. Our research group has focused on metabolomics-based functional genomics over the last 15 years and we have developed a new research area called 'Phytochemical Genomics'. In this review, the development of a research platform for plant metabolomics is discussed first, to provide a better understanding of the chemical diversity of plants. Then, representative applications of metabolomics to functional genomics in a model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, are described. The extension of integrated multi-omics analyses to non-model specialized plants, e.g., medicinal plants, is presented, including the identification of novel genes, metabolites and networks for the biosynthesis of flavonoids, alkaloids, sulfur-containing metabolites and terpenoids. Further, functional genomics studies on a variety of medicinal plants is presented. I also discuss future trends in pharmacognosy and related sciences.

  8. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  9. Medicinal plants in the treatment of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad M. Zlatić

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a review of highly developed medicinal usages of plants in the treatment of cancer. In the last decades, the cancer treatment has been included in this range of plant use, due to plant active substances. Active substances or secondary metabolites are generally known for their widespread application. When it comes to the cancer treatment, these substances affect the uncontrolled cell division. Therefore, the plants which are the source of these substances are proved to be irreplaceable in this field of medicine. This paper deals with some of the most significant plants well known for their multiple aspects of beneficial medicinal influence. The group of the plants described is comprised of the following species: Taxus brevifolia (Taxaceae, Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae, Podophyllum peltatum (Berberidaceae, Camptotheca accuminata (Cornaceae, and Cephalotaxus harringtonia (Cephalotaxaceae. The comprehensive description of the plants in this paper includes the morphological characteristics, the features and the representation of the molecular structures of active substances, the particular influence that these active substances have and the general importance of the substances as seen from the aspect of cancer treatment mostly with reference to the impacts on cell cycle.

  10. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants.

  11. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method.

  12. [Popular medicine: benefits and drawbacks of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier; de Souza, Jeová Alves; Baptista, Rosilene Santos; Britto, Virgínia Rossana de Sousa

    2008-01-01

    Descriptive study which aims to verify if the herbalist offer the information correct for the use of the medicinal plants; if they give for the customers concerning the possible poisonings or interaction with the allopathic guide and also if there is a criteria for the commercialization of the phytotherapics. A questionnaire was used containing open and closed questions involving aspects of the performance of the herbalists with the phytotherapics. The herbalists know the majority of the medicinal plants, however, there are some gaps concerning the correct indication of these products, of the collateral effect and toxicities. The herbalist lack to better know the principles of the grass, the therapeutically indications active, to guide the users concerning the possible pharmacological interactions or medicaments poisonings and regarding the cleanness, storage, time of useful life and contraindications of the product.

  13. Natural Radioactivity of some Medicinal Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhammedov, S.; Tillaeva, Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Natural radioactivity of two medicinal plants was determined. It is found that the radioactivity level of ''2''3''8U, ''2''3''2Th and also 4 ''0K in investigated plants was 0.6* 10 - ''1''2 -3.2* 10 - ''9 Ci/kg. The balance of radioactivity between close daughter and mother isotopes is kept, whereas that between distant mother and daughter nuclides is broken

  14. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants used in Mexican traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Flores-Vallejo, Rosario Del Carmen; Cardoso-Taketa, Alexandre; Villarreal, María Luisa

    2017-08-17

    We provide an extensive summary of the in vitro antibacterial properties of medicinal plants popularly used in Mexico to treat infections, and we discuss the ethnomedical information that has been published for these species. We carried out a bibliographic investigation by analyzing local and international peer-reviewed papers selected by consulting internationally accepted scientific databases from 1995 to 2014. We provide specific information about the evaluated plant parts, the type of extracts, the tested bacterial strains, and the inhibitory concentrations for each one of the species. We recorded the ethnomedical information for the active species, as well as their popular names and local distribution. Information about the plant compounds that has been identified is included in the manuscript. This review also incorporates an extensive summary of the available toxicological reports on the recorded species, as well as the worldwide registries of plant patents used for treating bacterial infections. In addition, we provide a list with the top plant species with antibacterial activities in this review RESULTS: We documented the in vitro antibacterial activities of 343 plant species pertaining to 92 botanical families against 72 bacterial species, focusing particularly on Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The plant families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Euphorbiaceae included the largest number of active species. Information related to popular uses reveals that the majority of the plants, in addition to treating infections, are used to treat other conditions. The distribution of Mexican plants extended from those that were reported to grow in just one state to those that grow in all 32 Mexican states. From 75 plant species, 225 compounds were identified. Out of the total plant species, only 140 (40.57%) had at least one report about their toxic effects. From 1994 to July 2014 a total of 11

  15. Anemone medicinal plants: ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Cheng Hao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales, comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery. Anemone compounds exert anticancer and other bioactivities via multiple pathways. However, a comprehensive review of the Anemone medicinal resources is lacking. We here summarize the ethnomedical knowledge and recent progress on the chemical and pharmacological diversity of Anemone medicinal plants, as well as the emerging molecular mechanisms and functions of these medicinal compounds. The phylogenetic relationships of Anemone species were reconstructed based on nuclear ITS and chloroplast markers. The molecular phylogeny is largely congruent with the morphology-based classification. Commonly used medicinal herbs are distributed in each subgenus and section, and chemical and biological studies of more unexplored taxa are warranted. Gene expression profiling and relevant “omics” platforms could reveal differential effects of phytometabolites. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics should be highlighted in deciphering novel therapeutic mechanisms and utilities of Anemone phytometabolites.

  16. ANTIVIRAL EFFECT OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of the different morphological parts of three medicinal plants, Diospyros bateri, Diospyros monbutensis and Sphenocentrum jollyanum were evaluated for their antiviral activities on polio virus Types 1, 2, and 3. The leaf and root extracts of S. jollyanum, the seed extracts of D. monbutensis as well as the ...

  17. [Mythology and the medicinal plants of antiquity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, André-Julien

    2003-01-01

    In any civilization, nature is closely bound to the world of divinities. This is clearly seen in the Mediterranean world of Antiquity in every reference to the medicinal plants. Our aim, in this study, was to demonstrate the link between mythology and medicine. Through several centuries of medicinal practice, appears a therapeutic knowledge close to become a science. In spite of many gaps, errors and illusions thus emerges a first attempt to master the art of healing. Is it possible to speculate on a new type of drug research guided from ancient texts? Ethnopharmacology investigating medicinal traditions of the world has already obtained in this field some spectacular findings. At the moment, it would be difficult to predict the future of archeopharmacology but as Paul Valery said: "Present is nothing else than a future nutriment for the past".

  18. [Tissue culture of medicinal plant and abscisic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hui-Yong; Zhu, Hong; Yao, Jian-Xun; Jia, Cai-Feng; Shan, Gao-Wei; Li, Min-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinal plant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinal plant tissue culture system.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of Nigerian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna; Okoye, Rosemary Chinazam

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is currently one of the major threats facing mankind. The emergence and rapid spread of multi- and pan-drug-resistant organisms (such as vancomycin-, methicillin-, extended-spectrum β-lactam-, carbapenem- and colistin-resistant organisms) has put the world in a dilemma. The health and economic burden associated with AMR on a global scale are dreadful. Available antimicrobials have been misused and are almost ineffective with some of these drugs associated with dangerous side effects in some individuals. Development of new, effective, and safe antimicrobials is one of the ways by which AMR burden can be reduced. The rate at which microorganisms develop AMR mechanisms outpaces the rate at which new antimicrobials are being developed. Medicinal plants are potential sources of new antimicrobial molecules. There is renewed interest in antimicrobial activities of phytochemicals. Nigeria boasts of a huge heritage of medicinal plants and there is avalanche of researches that have been undertaken to screen antimicrobial activities of these plants. Scientific compilation of these studies could provide useful information on the antimicrobial properties of the plants. This information can be useful in the development of new antimicrobial drugs. This paper reviews antimicrobial researches that have been undertaken on Nigerian medicinal plants. PMID:28512606

  20. Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, S F

    2008-10-28

    This paper reviews the antimicrobial research undertaken on South African medicinal plants during the period 1997-2008. Antimicrobial methods (disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bio-autography) are briefly discussed and an analysis of the publications reviewed indicates that the majority of papers use MIC assays for antimicrobial determination. Antimicrobial investigations on extracts are presented where the most active plants are identified from screening publications. A summary of some bioactive compounds are given with data restricted to papers reporting quantitative antimicrobial activity equivalent to or below 200 microg/ml. Antimicrobial activities on the essential oils of indigenous medicinal aromatic plants are also reviewed. An overview is given on what activities (extracts, compounds and oils) should be considered noteworthy for publication. Studies focusing on geographical ethnobotany, specific pathogenesis, formulation aspects and in vivo investigations are examined. Future recommendations to consider include pathogen selection, interactive studies and dosage administrations.

  1. Medicinal Plants for Diabetes Treatment During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno, Debora Cristina; Leal-Silva, Thais; Soares, Thaigra Sousa; Moraes-Souza, Rafaianne Queiroz; Volpato, Gustavo Tadeu

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome of great importance that affects an increasing number of people every day. In particular, diabetes is a common and important disease during pregnancy and is marked by complications, both fetal and maternal, that increase the risks of morbidity and mortality for diabetic pregnant women and their offspring. Drugs such as insulin and hypoglycemic drugs are given to treat diabetes, but regular exercise and adequate diet have also been indicated. Furthermore, coadjutant therapies such as medicinal plants are popularly used to reduce diabetes-induced hyperglycemia, either within or outside the context of pregnancy. However, studies examining plant use for diabetes treatment are necessary to confirm its possible effects and its safety for the mother and fetus. The objective of this literature review was to conduct a survey of plant species that are utilized worldwide and their stated therapeutic uses. A literature search was performed using the terms "diabetes and pregnancy", which resulted in the identification of 31,272 articles. Of these studies, only 12 (0.0038%) were related to medicinal plants, demonstrating that there has been little investigation into this issue. Of the papers analyzed in this review, half evaluated plant leaves, indicating that these scientific studies attempted to reproduce the preparations commonly used by various populations, i.e., in the form of tea. Additionally, more than 90% of studies utilized experimental animals to evaluate the maternal-fetal safety of medicinal plant substances that may potentially be dangerous for humans. Thus, once confidence levels for plant-derived substances are established based on toxicological analyses and safety is confirmed, it is possible that plants will be used to complement conventional diabetes therapies. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  4. Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavela, Roman

    2004-12-01

    The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)].

  5. Diversity and distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai, Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil physical properties in addition to soil salinity and topographic variations are the main driving factors controlling the distribution of medicinal plants in North Sinai. About 60% of medicinal plants are threatened due to intensive collection and other human activities. The threatened medicinal plants including Acacia ...

  6. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam O. Elansary

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases.

  7. Bioactivities of Traditional Medicinal Plants in Alexandria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, Agnieszka; Kubica, Paweł; Ekiert, Halina; Elshikh, Mohamed S.; Abdel-Salam, Eslam M.; El-Ansary, Diaa O.

    2018-01-01

    In traditional folklore, medicinal herbs play a vital role in the prevention and treatment of microbial diseases. In the present study, the phenolic profiles of the medicinal plants Asparagus aethiopicus L., Citrullus colocynthis L., Senna alexandrina L., Kalanchoe delagoensis L., Gasteria pillansii L., Cymbopogon citratus, Brassica juncea, and Curcuma longa L. were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector method. The results revealed rich sources of important compounds such as robinin in the fruits and leaves of A. aethiopicus; caffeic acid in the tubers of A. aethiopicus and quercitrin in the leaves of G. pillansii. Further, relatively high antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities were observed in C. colocynthis fruit coat, S. alexandrina pods, and A. aethiopicus leaves, respectively. The relatively higher the bioactivities of plants extracts associated with the phenols in these plants, in particular, the more abundant the phenols. Therefore, it was concluded that the fruit coat of C. colocynthis, pods of S. alexandrina, and leaves of A. aethiopicus might be excellent sources of natural products. These plant extracts also have a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activities that could be used in the pharmaceutical industries and to control diseases. PMID:29636772

  8. [New records of medicinal plants in Hubei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dan; Wu, Yu; Xiao, Jia-Wei; Xie, Zheng-Xin; Chen, Yong-Xin; He, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Dai-Gui

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we make a report on new records of medicinal plants in Hubei, which include one newly recorded genera and seven newly recorded species and a newly recorded variety. The newly recorded genera is Anoectochilus and its corresponding species is Anoectochilus roxburghii; These newly recorded species are Euphorbia micractina, Astragalus wulingensis, Blumea megacephala, Potentilla saundersiana, Blumea formosana, Lycoris houdyshelii and Colocasia gigantea ; The newly recorded variety is Neottia puberula var. maculata. Among these species, Anoectochilus roxburghii and N. puberula var. maculata are considered as the second-class protection in our country, A. roxburghii is regarded as Endangered(EN)and Astragalus wulingensis is regarded as Critically Endangered (CN) by IUCN. The report of these newly recorded plants borden the distribution and enrich the plant diversity of Hubei. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. [Investigation of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Liu, Yong; Wang, Xiao-Qin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the species of ethnic medicinal plants Orobanche, Cistanche and Boschniakia, and their ethnopharmaceutical uses were comprehensively summarized by field investigation, systematical data analysis and comparison of relevant specimen and references. The results showed that six plants belonging to Orobanche were used as seven kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants attributing Boschniakia were used as ten kinds of ethnic medicinal plants, two plants of Cistanche were used as three ethnic medicinal plants. The same plant was often used as different ethnic medicine in varied ethnic minorities. The effects of the ethnic medicines included yang-tonifying, hemostasis and analgesic activities. Hence, it is necessary to develop the rich plant resource of Orobanche for alleviation of Cistanche resources shortage.

  10. On cesium-137 contamination of wild medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, S.V.; Fetisov, A.A.; Pertsev, V.A.; Kotov, N.N.; Grinkevich, N.I.; Bakulina, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of sofe utilization of wild pharmaceutic plants is reviewed. The reserves of wild medicinal plants in the southern areas of Kaluga Region are estimated. Coefficients of 137 Cs transport from root zone soil into medicinal plants are calculated. Permissible contamination levels for herbaceous annual and perennial plants range from 4.1 to 14.8 Ci/km 2

  11. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh J. Uddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3 and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1. Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1 against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1 against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1 against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.

  12. Effect of medicinal plants on Moraxella cattarhalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, M U; Thajuddin, N

    2011-02-01

    To determine the antimoraxella activity of Ethiopian medicinal plants extracts. Two clinical isolates of Moraxella cattarhalis (M. cattarhalis) with different antibiotic sensitivity pattern were tested to determine their susceptibility to garlic [Allium sativum (A. sativum)], bark of cinnamon [Cinnamomum zeylanicum (C. zeylanicum)], clove [Syzygium aromaticum (S. aromaticum)], and leaves of avocado [Persea americana (P. americana)], rosemary [Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis)] and prickly poppy [Argemone mexicana (A. mexicana)]. Disk diffusion assay and broth dilution method were used to measure zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of plant extracts against M. cattarhalis. Both the strains of M. cattarhalis exhibited similar sensitivities to the extracts of medicinal plants. Antimoraxella activity was exhibited only by garlic, avocado leaves and cinnamon. Garlic was found to be more antagonistic to M. cattarhalis than cinnamon and avocado. Garlic and avocado leaves have shown similar MIC (30 mg/mL) where as their zone of inhibition (15 and 11 mm, respectively) were different. Garlic, cinnamon and avocado leaves extracts represents alternative source of natural antimicrobial substances for use in clinical practice for the treatment of cases of M. cattarhalis. Further research on the effects of these extracts on M. cattarhalis can be rewarding to pursue in the search for new broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Acceptance and use of medicinal plants in family medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddei-Bringas, G A; Santillana-Macedo, M A; Romero-Cancio, J A; Romero-Téllez, M B

    1999-01-01

    To explore the degree of usage of therapeutic medical plants among the patients, physicians and health workers in a local Family Medical Care Unit of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS)). A transversal descriptive study was performed. A questionnaire focusing on two variables was designed and validated. It was applied to 60 family physicians, a randomized sample of 130 health workers and another of 264 patients of the Family Mediccal Care Unit. Response percentage was 78%. The study found that 83% of family physicians accept the therapeutic use of herbal medicine; moreover, 75% use it as a therapeutic resource. Among health workers, acceptance and use was 100%, while in patients the level of acceptance was of 92% and of use it was 90%. Differences between groups are significant (p Gordolobo (Gnaphalium sp.), Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp., probably E. globulus), spearmint (Mentha sp.), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla) and prickly pear cladodes (the vegetative parts of the prickly pear, Opuntia sp. Probably Opuntia ficus indica). This information agrees with previous reports about Mexico, however, in this case, data were gathered in urban areas where physicians have been trained in the biomedical paradigm of medicine.

  14. Radio protective effects of some medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barupal, G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Many plants are known to have beneficial therapeutic effects as noted in the traditional Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda and used since time immemorial for curing diseases. Even today, nearly 70% of the world's population is dependent on plants for handling their health related problems and plants have been utilized successfully for the treatment of free radical-mediated diseases in human such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, aging and several other conditions including inflammatory diseases. Plant extracts eliciting radio protective efficacy contain a plethora of compounds including antioxidants, immunostimulants, cell proliferation stimulators, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agent, some of which may act in isolation as well as in combination with other constituents from the same plants. Glycyrrhiza glabra, Allium sepa, Allium sativum, Aloe arborescens, Amaranthus paniculatus, Curcuma longa, Moringa olefera and Syzygium cumini are some important radio protective plants. Alium sativum has been reported to possess antioxidant antimicrobial, antitumor, antimutagenic and anti-inflammatory properties. Aloe arborescens acts as a cell proliferate, healer and allergy reducer. Amaranthus paniculatus is used for purifying blood and treating scrofulous sores. Curcuma longa is widely used in antitumor and antibacterial activities. Leaf extract of Moringa oleifera is significantly used in nervous debility and healing of wound. Chlorella is well known nutrient dense superfood that contains 60% protein, 18 amino acids (including all the essential amino acids), more than 20 vitamins and minerals. Chlorell has been used to treat cancer and also protect the body from the effects of cancer radiation treatment due to its chlorophyll in abundance level. However they have little attention for their radio protective as well as antioxidant. There is an urgent need to develop newer, more efficient and reliable bioassays

  15. [Fungi isolated from diseased medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Matsuhashi, M; Iida, O

    1992-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four fungal isolates were obtained from diseased Paeonia albiflora Pall. var. trichocarpa Bung., Astragalus membranaceus Bung., Lithospermum erythrorhizon Sieb. et Zucc., Ledebouriella seseloides Wolff and Bupleurum falcatum L. which were collected in the test field of Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Hygienic Sciences. Most of them were identified into 15 genera containing 8 species. Fungal species presumed to be pathogens of the host plants were as follows: Cladosporium paeoniae, Pestalotia paeoniicola, Glomerella cingulata, Hainesia lythri, Guignardia sp. and Alternaria sp. from P. albiflora, Fusarium spp., Rhizoctonia spp. and Neocosmospora vasinfecta from A. membranaceus, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from L. erythrorhizon, Rhizoctonia sp., Fusarium spp., Phoma sp. and Pyrenochaeta sp. from L. seseloides, and Fusarium sp., Alternaria alternata, Phyllosticta sp., Phoma sp., Phomopsis sp. and C. gloeosporioides from B. falcatum. Roots of B. falcatum were found to be parasitized by Meloidogyne sp.

  16. Threatened medicinal plants of South Africa: Case of the family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional medicine plays a major role in the primary health care of many people living in rural areas. South Africa is a home to over 30,000 species of higher plants and 3,000 of these species have been found to be used in traditional medicine across the country. South African medicinal plants are decreasing ...

  17. Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Study of Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine in Tunisia and in Italy. ... African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines ... Results: Thirty-nine plants, representing 22 families, used in Tunisia in ethnoveterinary medicine were reported, and comparisons made with close species used ...

  18. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  19. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Khatun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50=2.93 µg/mL and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50=114.71 µg/mL in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50=2.04 µg/mL. Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action.

  20. Microbial Load of Some Medicinal Plants Sold in Some Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the microbial load on 17 randomly selected plant samples from 60 ethnobotanically collected medicinal plants from five local markets in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Method: The pour plate method was used to cultivate serially diluted portions of the medicinal plant samples investigated.

  1. Turkish folk medicinal plants, Part IV: Gönen (Balikesir).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzlaci, E; Aymaz, P E

    2001-05-01

    Eighty-four folk medicinal plants from Gönen (Turkey) are reported. Among them 73 species are wild and 11 species are cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants are mostly used for the treatment of hemorrhoids, rheumatism, stomach and kidney ailments.

  2. Anti-inflammatory medicinal plants and the molecular mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plant and plant products have shown tremendous potentials and are used beneficially in the treatment of inflammation and in the management of diseases with significant inflammatory components. Many medicinal plants employed as anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic remedies lack the ...

  3. Further screening of Venda medicinal plants for activity against HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of medicinal plants for AIDS-related conditions is common in South Africa. In order to establish an antiviral rationale for the use of these plants we screened fractions of the methanol extracts of medicinal plants for activity against HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase (IN). The n-butanol fraction obtained ...

  4. Antimycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants in Niger state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten Nigerian medicinal plants Abrus precatorius, Annona senegalensis, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Crateva adansonii, Detarium microcarpum, Faba spp, Neocarya macrophylla, Ocimum gratissimum, Securidaca longpenduculata and Terminalia avicennioides used by traditional medicine practitioners for the management of ...

  5. Antibacterial activity of five Peruvian medicinal plants against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ulloa-Urizar

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study scientifically validate the inhibitory capacity of the five medicinal plants attributed by their common use in folk medicine and contribute towards the development of new treatment options based on natural products.

  6. Volume, value and floristic diversity of Gabon's medicinal plant markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Towns, A.M.; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K.; Guinee, L.; Boer, H.; Andel, van T.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance - African medicinal plant markets offer insight into commercially important species, salient health concerns in the region, and possible conservation priorities. Still, little quantitative data is available on the trade in herbal medicine in Central Africa. The aim of

  7. Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John B. Bremner

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial investigation of medicinal plants from Lombok has resulted in the collection of 100 plant species predicted to have antimicrobial, including antimalarial, properties according to local medicinal uses. These plants represent 49 families and 80 genera; 23% of the plants tested positively for alkaloids. Among the plants testing positive, five have been selected for further investigation involving structure elucidation and antimicrobial testing on the extracted alkaloids. Initial work on structural elucidation of some of the alkaloids is reported briefly.

  8. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Cr(VI) and V(V) were determined in medicinal plants collected from the farm located between two smelters. Chromium(VI) and vanadium(V) were leached from medicinal plants with 0.1 M Na2CO3 prior their determination by ETAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) in medicinal plants varied between 3.1 ± 0.5 μg ...

  9. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Background:Ethnopharmacology has been seen as a multidisciplinary approach for novel drug discovery by providing valuable data about medicinal plants in different cultures. The aim of this ethnopharmacological study was to identify medicinal plants in the Southwest of Mond Mountain in the North of Persian Gulf. MaterialsandMethods:The medical uses of medicinal plants were gathered from 20 local informants by face to face interviews. The relative frequency of citation (FRC) and cultural imp...

  10. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    In this study, Cr(VI) and V(V) were determined in medicinal plants collected from the farm located between two smelters. Chromium(VI) and vanadium(V) were leached from medicinal plants with 0.1 M Na2CO3 prior their determination by ETAAS. The concentration of Cr(VI) in medicinal plants varied between 3.1 ± 0.5 µg ...

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

    2004-01-01

    The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported.

  12. Antifungal potential of Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabur, Rajesh; Singh, H; Chhillar, A K; Ali, M; Sharma, G L

    2004-06-01

    Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger and their in vitro MICs were found to be 1.25-2.50 mg/ml by both microbroth dilution and percent spore germination assays. In disc diffusion assay, a concentration of 0.062 mg/disc of methanol extract of D. metel showed significant activity against Aspergilli. S. xanthocarpum exhibited similar activity at 0.125 mg/disc. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Antibacterial activity of eight medicinal plants against Diarrhoea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies involve the phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of leaf extracts eight medicinal plants. The selected plants were Timarindus indica, Guiera senegalensis, Prosopis africana, Deterium microcarpum, Citrus aurantifolia, Psidium guajava, Acacia nilotica and Momordica charantia. Methanolics and ...

  14. Effects of tannins and polyphenols of some medicinal plants on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five medicinal plants, Enantia chloranthia, Kigelia africana, Bridelia ferruginea, Trema nitems and Drypetes gossweilerri were screened for phytochemical components. The plants were found to contain tannins, phlobatannins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, anthranoids, anthraquinones, saponins and polyphenols.

  15. PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES AND THEIR MEDICINAL VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    B. V. Raman; A. Naga Vamsi Krishna; B. Narasimha Rao; M. Pardha Saradhi; M. V. Basaveswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    The anti-diabetic drugs from plants in current clinical use and their similar mechanism of action of herbal components are preferred mainly due to lesser side effects and low cost. So many medicinal plants with anti-diabetic activity related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in diabetes is pressurized. The present review focused on the some of the herbal plants and their medicinal uses have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. The essential values of some plants ha...

  16. Medicinal plants sold at traditional markets in southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinitana, Fani; Rios, Montserrat; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos; de la Cruz Rot, Marcelino; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel

    2016-07-05

    The traditional markets in southern Ecuador and within the Andean region are especially important for plant resource trading among local people, even since before Spanish colonization; therefore, ethnobotanical studies are currently necessary and important. These strategic spaces persist for the traditional medicine cultural value reflected in the higher consumption of medicinal plants, which span all socioeconomic levels of rural and urban people. The purpose of this study includes the following: 1) to create a novel list of medicinal plants sold at 33 traditional markets; 2) to establish medicinal plant use agreement amongst vendors with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC); and 3) to determine the most sold medicinal plant species using the Fidelity Level (FL). This study focus on traditional markets ethnobotany utilizes the largest sample of medicinal plants market vendors up to date in Ecuador, interviewing them at 33 traditional markets, located within the Loja province. In order to determine the most sold medicinal plants and their ethnobotanical information, structured questionnaires and personal conversations were conducted with 196 medicinal plant vendors, and voucher specimens were created. Agreement among vendors about the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured using the FIC, and the most sold medicinal plant species were assessed with the FL. This research registered 160 medicinal plant species, grouped in 126 genera and 57 families that were sold in 33 traditional markets. The uses of medicinal plants in southern Ecuador are related to a long history of traditional medicine health practices that has persisted until today as well as high plant diversity. The 53 therapeutic uses recorded were grouped into 12 medical categories that were adapted from the World Health Organization. Three medical categories shared the highest value for FIC = 0.92, which showed a high level of agreement of market vendors for 57 medicinal plant species sold

  17. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  18. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  19. A review on the elemental contents of Pakistani medicinal plants: Implications for folk medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Begum, Shaheen; Azizullah, Azizullah; Nazir, Ruqia; Iram, Shazia

    2016-07-21

    Substantially, plants produce chemicals such as primary and secondary metabolites, which have significant applications in modern therapy. Indigenous people mostly rely on traditional medicines derived from medicinal plants. These plants have the capacity to absorb a variety of toxic elements. The ingestion of such plants for medicinal purpose can have imperative side effects. Hence, with regard to the toxicological consideration of medicinal plants, an effort has been made to review the elemental contents of ethno medicinally important plants of Pakistan and to highlight the existing gaps in knowledge of the safety and efficacy of traditional herbal medications. Literature related to the elemental contents of ethno medicinal plants was acquired by utilizing electronic databases. We reviewed only macro-elemental and trace elemental contents of 69 medicinal plant taxa, which are traditionally used in Pakistan for the treatment of sundry ailments, including anemia, jaundice, cancer, piles, diarrhea, dysentery, headache, diabetes, asthma, blood purification, sedative and ulcer. A majority of plants showed elemental contents above the permissible levels as recommended by the World health organization (WHO). As an example, the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) were reportedly found higher than the WHO permissible levels in 43 and 42 medicinal plants, respectively. More specifically, the concentrations of Pb (54ppm: Silybum marianum) and Cd (5.25ppm: Artemisia herba-alba) were found highest in the Asteraceae family. The reported medicinal plants contain a higher amount of trace and toxic elements. Intake of these plants as traditional medicines may trigger the accumulation of trace and toxic elements in human bodies, which can cause different types of diseases. Thus, a clear understanding about the nature of toxic substances and factors affecting their concentrations in traditional medicines are essential prerequisites for efficacious herbal therapeutics with

  20. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-05-01

    Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diversity of medicinal plants and anthropogenic threats in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional herbal medicine has been a constant source of substances for curing and preventing a variety of ailments. Biodiversity of medicinal plants and effects of human activities on availability of traditional herbal medicine have continuously received just a cursory treatment. This study sought to determine ...

  2. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Anti-Streptococcus pyogenes Activity of Selected. Medicinal Plant Extracts Used in Thai Traditional Medicine. Surasak Limsuwan1 and Supayang P Voravuthikunchai2*. 1Faculty of Traditional Thai Medicine and Natural Products Research Center of Excellence, 2Department of Microbiology and.

  3. Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic importance and GIS mapping of medicinal plants in Iran: A Case study of Darkesh. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This study identified the economic importance of medicinal plants and evaluated with Geographical Information System (GIS) tool to develop spatial maps covering ...

  4. Traditional medicinal plants in Ben En National Park, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Sam, Hoang; Baas, P.; Keßler, P.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper surveys the medicinal plants and their traditional use by local people in Ben En National Park, Vietnam. A total of 230 medicinal plant species (belonging to 200 genera and 84 families) is used by local people for treatment of 68 different diseases. These include species that are

  5. Medicinal plants of Usherai valley, Dir, NWFP, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarat, A.; Shah, J.; Ahmad, S.; Nasir, M.; Jan, A.K.; Skindar

    2010-01-01

    This research is based on the results of an ethno-botanical research conducted in Usherai Valley. The main objective was to enlist the wealth of medicinal plants. In total 50 species, belonging to 32 families of wild herbs, shrubs and trees were found to be used as medicinal plants by the inhabitants in the valley. (author)

  6. Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used In Mali for Dysmenorrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dysmenorrhea is painful menstrual cramps, which negatively impacts the quality of life of a large percentage of the world's female population in reproductive age. The paper reviews the plants used in the Malian traditional medicine for the treatment of dysmenorrhea. Some medicinal plants were effective for treatments of ...

  7. The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants used in Meru Central District, Kenya. JK Musau, JM Mbaria, DW Gakuya. Abstract. Five medicinal plants used by traditional medical health practitioners (TMP) in Meru central district namely: Piliostigma thonningii, Ajuga remota, Ocimum suave, Erythrina abyssinica and ...

  8. The antibacterial effect of two medicinal plants Inula viscosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the emergence of multidrug-resistant organisms, combining medicinal plants with synthetic medicines against resistant bacteria becomes necessary. In this study, Synergism between plants extracts (methanolic extract, essential oils) of Inula viscosa and Anacyclus valentinus and two commonly used antibiotics: ...

  9. contributions to the study of some medicinal plants of ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many African countries offer a largely untapped source of potentially useful natural products with numerous species waiting to be documented and investigated. Contributions from our laboratory to the phytochemical study of medicinal and other plants of Ethiopia is presented here briefly. Key Words: Medicinal plants, ...

  10. Use of medicinal plants among Ethiopian patients with diabetes: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    J. Health Dev. 2017;31(1):18-26]. Key words: medicinal plants, type 2 diabetes, Ethiopia, qualitative research. Introduction. Self-care practice using medicinal plants comprises one of the common ..... This should be followed with 2 eggs or one cup of butter as .... for buda (evil eye) sold in Merkato, which had a very repulsive ...

  11. Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. P.O. Box 19676-00202, Nairobi, Kenya. The use of traditional and herbal medicines ... may be used alone or in combination with others. The extraction of the plant material may involve soakage, percolation, decoction ...

  12. Medicinal plants sold at the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Godinez-Caraballo, D.; Volpato, G.

    2008-01-01

    Information regarding medicinal plants sold in the El Rio Market, Camaguey, Cuba, revealed 184 species belonging to 69 vascular plant families. The most important family was Fabaceae s.l. with 13 species, followed by Lamiaceae with 12, and Asteraceae with 8. More than 90 general medicinal

  13. Screening of the leaves of three Nigerian medicinal plants for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... Key words: Antibacterial activity, medicinal plants, Alstonia boonei, Morinda lucida, Petiveria alliacea, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. The use of plants as source of medicine in treating disease is an ancient practice. People on all continents have long applied poultrices and imbibed infusions of hundreds, if not ...

  14. Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park, South-eastern Spain. ... This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in ...

  15. Online Teaching Resources about Medicinal Plants and Ethnobotany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Kristina M.; Chudler, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Classroom exploration of plant-based medicines and ethnobotany is a timely and valuable way to engage students in science. This Feature highlights Internet-based resources to help teachers in primary and secondary classrooms incorporate lessons and activities to teach about plant medicines. These Internet resources include curricula, videos, sites…

  16. Indigenous plant-derived medicine used by ordinary community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Research on medical ethnobotany shows that ordinary community members in the rural areas have knowledge of self preventive care which is accomplished through administration of plant medicine to prevent the onset of disease and create a sense of well being. Several medicinal plants and traditional ...

  17. Medicinal Plants Used In The Management Of Malaria Among The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the type of medicinal plants used in the management of malaria in the Yoruba folklore in south western Nigeria. 87 Traditional medicine practitioners (TMP's) were interviewed. Plants available in the regions were considered in the survey and recorded with their local names, parts used, preparation and ...

  18. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper Songkhla Lake, a single lagoon of Thailand, is surrounded by sandy, mangrove, and swamp forests. Many plants growing in these areas have medicinal properties, however they have never been investigated. The aim of this study was to explore medicinal plants from upper Songkhla Lake, Songkhla ...

  19. "Horchata" drink in Southern Ecuador: medicinal plants and people's wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Montserrat; Tinitana, Fani; Jarrín-V, Pablo; Donoso, Natalia; Romero-Benavides, Juan Carlos

    2017-03-09

    The "horchata" is a herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador. It remains unknown how vendors group the plant species to sell them at traditional markets. This research documented the following: 1) a list of medicinal plant species sold for the drink; 2) the culturally important medicinal plant species; 3) the agreement among vendors regarding the medicinal plants species and their therapeutic use; and 4) the groups of medicinal plants sold for the preparation of "horchata." Interviews were made to 185 vendors at 31 traditional markets in Loja province. Bunches of medicinal plants were purchased to identify the species and to prepare voucher specimens. Culturally important medicinal plants species were established with the Fidelity Level (FL) index. Agreement among vendors on the therapeutic use of medicinal plants was measured with the Factor of Informant Consensus (FIC) index. A cluster analysis was made to determine the groups of medicinal plants sold by market vendors to prepare the "horchata" drink. In Loja province, the "horchata" drink is consumed for its therapeutic uses. This study registered 33 families with 58 genera and 71 medicinal plant species, 50 of which are herbs and three are endemic to the Andean highlands of Ecuador. The FL index (46.1-96.3) determined 20 culturally important medicinal plant species. The highest FIC value (1.00) among vendors corresponds to four plant species employed each for a different therapeutic use. The cluster analysis identified a core group of 16 plant species which are essential to the drink and which likely interact to provide wellbeing. The "horchata" is a heritage drink in Loja province. The 71 medicinal plants species registered for this drink is the largest number reported to date, and they have a total of 32 therapeutic uses. The combined results of the FL and FIC indices, the cluster analysis, and the field observations reveal an agreement among vendors on 16 medicinal plant species and their

  20. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Brazilian Tropical Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stasi, L C; Oliveira, G P; Carvalhaes, M A; Queiroz, M; Tien, O S; Kakinami, S H; Reis, M S

    2002-02-01

    A survey of medicinal plants used by rural and urban inhabitants of the three cities of the Tropical Atlantic Forest, Region of Vale do Ribeira, State of São Paulo, Brazil was performed by means of 200 interviews with medicinal plant users and extractors and, traditional healers. One hundred fourteen herbal remedies were recorded and the following information reported: Latin, vernacular and English names, plant part used, forms of preparation and application of the herbal remedies, medicinal or food uses, areas of plant collection, economic importance (when available) and other data.

  1. Use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maldonado-Miranda, Juan José; Castillo-Pérez, Luis Jesús; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Solano, Eloy; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario Alberto; Del Carmen Juárez-Vázquez, María; Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Argueta-Fuertes, Marco Antonio; Ruiz-Padilla, Alan Joel; Solorio-Alvarado, César Rogelio; Rangel-Velázquez, Joceline Estefanía; Ortiz-Andrade, Rolffy; González-Sánchez, Ignacio; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Orozco-Castellanos, Luis Manuel

    2017-02-23

    The use of medicinal plants in Mexico has been documented since pre-Hispanic times. Nevertheless, the level of use of medicinal plants by health professionals in Mexico remains to be explored. To evaluate the use, acceptance and prescription of medicinal plants by health professionals in 9 of the states of Mexico. Direct and indirect interviews, regarding the use and acceptance of medicinal plants, with health professionals (n=1614), including nurses, physicians, pharmacists, and odontologists from nine states in Mexico were performed from January 2015 to July 2016. The interviews were analyzed with the factor the informant consensus (FIC). The information obtained indicated that 46% of those interviewed feel patients should not use medicinal plants as an alternative therapy. Moreover, 54% of health professionals, and 49% of the physicians have used medicinal plants as an alternative therapy for several diseases. Twenty eight percent of health professionals, and 26% of the physicians, have recommended or prescribed medicinal plants to their patients, whereas 73% of health professionals were in agreement with receiving academic information regarding the use and prescription of medicinal plants. A total of 77 plant species used for medicinal purposes, belonging to 40 botanical families were reported by the interviewed. The results of the FIC showed that the categories of diseases of the digestive system (FIC=0.901) and diseases of the respiratory system (FIC=0.898) had the greatest agreement. This study shows that medicinal plants are used for primary health care in Mexico by health professionals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens; Asase, A; Akwetey, G

    2015-01-01

    . This provides a unique opportunity to gain insight to the historical materia medica of Ghana and compare this to contemporary medicinal plant uses. By critical literary and taxonomic review, the present study (re-)establishes the earliest known history of many important Ghanaian medicinal plants, and assesses...... of Copenhagen Herbarium (C) and British Museum of Natural History (BM). The classification and synonymy of the specimens were updated for the study, and the historical vernacular names and medicinal uses of the plants compared with 20th/21st century literature. The plants of the historical Ga materia medica....... The materia medica of the Fante, Ga and Ashanti of Ghana has changed considerably over time. The "forgotten" historical uses warrant further studies to determine the pharmacological activity of these plants. This could provide the foundation for reconstruction of historical medicinal plant uses in evidence...

  3. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKöberl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is i to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, ii to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and iii to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn. cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  4. Are Medicinal Plants Polluted with Phthalates?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Phthalic acid esters (PAEs have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

  5. [The utilization and safety of medicinal plants and crude drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, M

    1998-01-01

    Recently, herbal remedy and health caring food are widely used throughout the generation. These main plant materials have been characterized and classified into 5 categories, by the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW), Japanese Government, in 1971, which include 3 medicine divisions and 2 food divisions. These categories, having only limited number of plants, were quite difficult to classify the newly imported plant materials. In order to solve this problem, each category was updated to include new herbal materials in March 1998. Kampo medicines are Japanese traditional medicines, which has been used for the patients mostly by doctors of western medicine and 3 kinds of Kampo prescription had been reevaluated by the drug reevaluation system of Japan. But, along with the expanding consumption of the Kampo medicines in the clinical treatments, several side effects of the Kampo medicines has recently been reported by the collection of adverse reaction data of MHW, these side effects are important signals for believing the safety of natural drugs. The chapter I is definition of medicinal plant and crude drugs, and chapter II is reported of WHO guidelines for the traditional medicines. Chapter III is 4 section; 1. safety of the medicinal plants and crude drugs is included the poisonous plant and the side effect of Kampo medicines, 2. the pesticide for the crude drugs in Japanese Pharmacopoeia, 3. limited test of contamination of microorganisms, 4. Identification of medicinal plant names. Chapter IV is the definition of drugs and food. The chapter V is the drugs type materials used in young generation for hallucinogenic or sexual purpose. Chapter VI is the stance to research work for the new drugs from plant gene resources in the world.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on antioxidants of medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetawattana, Suwimol; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

    2003-06-01

    The antioxidant effect of water extracts from irradiated medicinal plants on inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human plasma was examined. The results presented herein indicate that crude extracts from 29 kinds, 31 extracts, of medicinal plants, irradiated at 10 and 25 kilo gray. showed no significant change in inhibition of lipid peroxidation in plasma induced by gamma irradiation (p<0.05). It also found that extraction yields in some irradiated plants were increased

  7. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA) WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

    OpenAIRE

    Batra Shikha; Nagori Badri Prakash; Batra Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsi...

  8. Proteomic Contributions to Medicinal Plant Research: From Plant Metabolism to Pharmacological Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Hashiguchi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine is a clinical practice of utilizing medicinal plant derivatives for therapeutic purposes. It has an enduring history worldwide and plays a significant role in the fight against various diseases. Herbal drug combinations often exhibit synergistic therapeutic action compared with single-constituent dosage, and can also enhance the cytotoxicity induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. To explore the mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of herbs, proteomic approaches have been applied to the physiology of medicinal plants and its effects on animals. This review article focuses on the existing proteomics-based medicinal plant research and discusses the following topics: (i plant metabolic pathways that synthesize an array of bioactive compounds; (ii pharmacological action of plants tested using in vivo and in vitro studies; and (iii the application of proteomic approaches to indigenous plants with scarce sequence information. The accumulation of proteomic information in a biological or medicinal context may help in formulating the effective use of medicinal plants.

  9. Systematic organization of medicinal plant information: a monograph template proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C.B. Carvalho

    Full Text Available The use of medicinal plants in Brazil is widespread and is supported by public policies; it has the objective of providing the population with safe and effective herbal medicines of adequate quality. An action in these policies is to develop medicinal plant monographs to gather published information and decide which medicinal plants should be financed by the Brazilian government and distributed by the public health system. Currently, the monographs published worldwide do not present unified information regarding medicinal plants, and generally, they do not cover enough requirements for herbal medicine registration. The aim of this study is to develop a monograph model with standardized information not only about botany, agronomy, quality control, safety, and efficacy but also about relating regulatory aspects that support herbal medicine regulation. The development of standardized monographs favors the fast authorization and distribution of herbal medicines in the public system. The model also points out the lacking studies that should be carried out to supplement the necessary regulatory information of medicinal plants.

  10. Bioactivity of Malva Sylvestris L., a Medicinal Plant from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Molavi, Ghader; Ghasemi, Ghader

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Malva sylvestris L. (Malvaceae), an annual plant, has been already commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In the present work, we evaluate some bioactivities of the plant extracts. Materials and Methods The aired-dried plant flowers and leaves were extracted by soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. The antimicrobial, cytotoxic, and phytotoxic of the plant extracts were evaluated using disk diffusion method, MTT, and Lettuce assays, respectively. Resu...

  11. Medicinal Plants: A Prospect in Developing Male Fertility Enhancing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ja’far Luthfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have been a revolutionary breakthrough in the treatment of male sexual dysfunction. Traditional medicine based on a holistic philosophy is quite different with the practice of “western” medicine. Phytochemical substances focus their mechanisms of healing to the root of cause, i.e. the inability of controlling the proper function of the whole body system. Hence, medicinal plants manage sexual dysfunction and male fertility in the frame of sexual dysfunction as a whole entity. Some previous researches prove that the use of medicinal plants have a good impact in the treatment of a variety of male sexual problems. This paper will discuss several important aspects of aphrodisiac plants and preliminary study regarding them in Indonesia. Difficulties inherent to activity guided isolation and the specific requirements of bioassays are also discussed.

  12. Insight into the Presence of Stilbenes in Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Croatian Folk Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Skroza, Danijela; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalinić, Višnja

    2016-06-01

    Over the last years, great interest has arisen concerning plant stilbenes, especially resveratrol, which has a whole spectrum of positive biological activities. In this study, we investigated the presence of resveratrol monomers (trans- and cis- form) and naturally occurring derivatives of trans-resveratrol (piceid, astringin and isorhapontin) in phenolic extracts of twenty medicinal plants traditionally used in Croatian folk medicine. The investigated compounds were present in the samples, in free form or as glucosides, and the highest share was found in immortelle, common yarrow and Lamiaceae plants. The obtained results indicate that biological activity of selected medicinal plants can be related to the presence of this valuable group of phytochemicals.

  13. Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mahabir

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81% reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41% took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines.

  14. MPD3: a useful medicinal plants database for drug designing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Arooj; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Ul Qamar, Muhammad Tahir; Anwar, Farooq; Gulzar, Faisal; Ali, Muhammad Amjad; Saari, Nazamid; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq

    2017-06-01

    Medicinal plants are the main natural pools for the discovery and development of new drugs. In the modern era of computer-aided drug designing (CADD), there is need of prompt efforts to design and construct useful database management system that allows proper data storage, retrieval and management with user-friendly interface. An inclusive database having information about classification, activity and ready-to-dock library of medicinal plant's phytochemicals is therefore required to assist the researchers in the field of CADD. The present work was designed to merge activities of phytochemicals from medicinal plants, their targets and literature references into a single comprehensive database named as Medicinal Plants Database for Drug Designing (MPD3). The newly designed online and downloadable MPD3 contains information about more than 5000 phytochemicals from around 1000 medicinal plants with 80 different activities, more than 900 literature references and 200 plus targets. The designed database is deemed to be very useful for the researchers who are engaged in medicinal plants research, CADD and drug discovery/development with ease of operation and increased efficiency. The designed MPD3 is a comprehensive database which provides most of the information related to the medicinal plants at a single platform. MPD3 is freely available at: http://bioinform.info .

  15. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Commercialization of Medicinal Plants in Java Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Adi Nugroho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The benefit and transaction cost flow which people earn economically and socially from wild medicinal plant harvesting are addressed in this study. The objectives of this study are three aspects: defining how many users are involved in utilization of medicinal plant raw materials (MPRM, how users describing their perception and motivation and describing benefit and transaction cost which influence users to harvest the plants. Results showed that utilization of medicinal plants in Java is still widely used as commercial products then medical services. There are 41 stakeholders who involved in this study and the highest motivation and perception in production and industrial clusters are economic interest. But stakeholder's perception and motivation in traditional healthcare cluster is social interest. The different motivation and perception in both clusters causing stakeholder who are work in traditional healthcare lack of market information, but they are important if the government will improve the traditional medicine. Recommendation of this study is that medicinal plants need further research and product development which can help to expand the medicinal plant culture area in the natural forest. By this reason, government should develop good political will to increase the medicinal plant resources for public healthcare.

  17. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; García, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martínez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study.

  18. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

  19. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. PMID:26779539

  20. Identification, collection and domestication of medicinal plants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field studies were conducted to investigate the medicinal plants, through identification, collection and domestication of these plants in southeastern, Nigeria. Questionnaire, personal interview and review of available records show that out of forty-three plants about fifteen were undergoing domestication in the course of this ...

  1. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study deals with socio-economic documentation of medicinal plant species against jaundice and hepatitis. A total of 30 plant species belonging to 24 families were reported by local practitioners for the treatment of jaundice and hepatitis. The most important plant species are Adiantum capillus, Boerhaavia ...

  2. Antimicrobial nature and use of some medicinal plants in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight medicinal plants in Nigeria were screened for their antimicrobial activity. Twenty three (47.91%) of the plants caused over 70% mortality of the test organism which include anopheline and culicine larva. Bacillus spp. and Escherichia coli were shown to be susceptible to the antimicrobial activity of some plants.

  3. Cytotoxicity evaluation of sixteen Nigerian medicinal plant extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of our evaluation of plants from the Nigerian ethnobotany,sixteen extracts from fourteen medicinal plants were evaluated for toxicity and inhibition of tumour cell growth using human rhabdomyosarcoma(RD) cell line. The plant samples were extracted by maceration in methanol at room temperature and were ...

  4. Absence of Mutagenicity in Three Nigerian Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: Bidens pilosa, Cleistopholis paterns, and Tetrapleura tetraptera are plants that are used traditionally for cancer treatment, ... mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe to use them as medicinal plant supplements even at high doses. Keywords: ..... produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines. Toxicol.

  5. Cloning of medicinal plants through tissue culture--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, H C; Jain, Madhu; Kidwai, N R

    2007-11-01

    In order to have standardized formulations, the chemical constituents from plants and their parts are required to be uniform both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, an ever increasing demand of uniform medicinal plants based medicines warrants their mass cloning through plant tissue culture strategy. A good number of medicinal plants have been reported to regenerate in vitro from their various parts, but a critical evaluation of such reports reveals that only a few complete medicinal plants have been regenerated and still fewer have actually been grown in soil, while their micropropagation on a mass scale has rarely been achieved, particularly in those medicinal plants where conventional propagation is inadequate, like, the mass clonal propagation of Dioscorea floribunda leading to its successful field trials. Such facts make it imperative to document the factual position of micropropagation of medicinal plants bringing out the advancements made along with the short falls, in this important area. The present review deals with the futuristic view on the said subject restricted to higher plants.

  6. Ethno-Botanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants In The Plant Genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethno-botanical uses and mode of administration of twenty-nine medicinal plants found in the arboretum of the Plant Genetic Resource Centre located at Bunso in the Eastern region of Ghana against some disease conditions are hereby documented. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, arboretum, Ghana. Nig.

  7. Effects of medicinal plant extracts on gluconeogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Cetto A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adolfo Andrade-CettoLaboratorio de Etnofarmacología, Departamento de Biología Celular, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Coyoacán, MéxicoAbstract: On a global level, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is the most common endocrine disorder. T2DM is defined as an elevated blood glucose level associated with the absence of or inadequacy in pancreatic insulin secretion. The liver plays a key role in maintaining blood glucose levels during fasting by synthesizing glucose, mainly from lactate and amino acids through a process called gluconeogenesis. Because hepatic glucose production is increased at least twofold in patients with T2DM, targeting this pathway may lead to a blood glucose reduction in these patients. Botanical agents show promise for the development of new compounds to treat T2DM. Important mechanisms of action function via the inhibition of gluconeogenesis can occur in one of five ways: direct enzyme inhibition; through the downregulation of mRNA levels of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-P; through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase, which leads to decreased levels of cAMP response element-binding protein, a key transcription factor for gluconeogenic enzyme phosphorylation; through the expression of the glucokinase gene, which stimulates glucokinase activity and inhibits G-6-P; and through the inhibition of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which decreases gluconeogenesis and enzymatically inhibits G-6-P and fructose-1,6-diphosphatase.Keywords: type 2 diabetes mellitus, medicinal plants, gluconeogenesis, glucose 6-phosphatase, hepatic glucose production, endocrine disorder, fructose 1,6-diphosphatase

  8. Folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpert, Mateja; Kreft, Samo

    2017-02-23

    Information on the use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci is not available in the literature, but collection of plants is still an important and widespread practice in these regions. Karst and Gorjanci are two remote regions in Slovenia that are only 120 km apart but have different climates; one region is close to the Italian border, and the other is near the Croatian border. Our aim was to report and compare the use of medicinal plants in both regions. From October 2013 to September 2014, 25 informants each in Karst and Gorjanci were interviewed during field research. The age of the informants ranged from 33 to 89 years, with an average age of 61 years in Karst and 69 years in Gorjanci. The main question was "Which plants do or did you collect from nature and use?" Plants of medicinal, nutritive, veterinary or cosmetic use were considered. A total of 78 and 82 taxa were reported in Karst and Gorjanci, respectively; 65 taxa were reported in both regions. Approximately 64% of the plants in each region were distinctive for only a few informants (fewer than 7). The remaining plants were considered important, and the majority were mutual to both regions. Few reported plants were typical for just one region. Differences in the use of some common medicinal plants were observed, e.g., Matricaria chamomilla was used mostly for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory infections and sore eyes in Gorjanci but as a calmative in Karst. Altogether, 15 different oral and 15 different topical medicinal preparations were reported. Folk knowledge was found to be influenced by the media, particularly popular books about medicinal plants that were published in the 20th century. The present research documents the folk use of medicinal plants in Karst and Gorjanci, Slovenia. This rapidly changing practice needs to be documented before it disappears or changes.

  9. Medicinal plants sold in the markets of Antananarivo, Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randriamiharisoa, Maria Nirina; Kuhlman, Alyse R; Jeannoda, Vololoniaina; Rabarison, Harison; Rakotoarivelo, Nivo; Randrianarivony, Tabita; Raktoarivony, Fortunat; Randrianasolo, Armand; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2015-07-28

    This study focuses on the large outdoor markets of the capital of Madagascar, Antananarivo. As the largest metropolitan area in Madagascar with a population of nearly two million, the region has great capacity for consumption of medicinal plant remedies despite numerous pharmacies. Medicinal plant use spans all socioeconomic levels, and the diverse metropolitan population allows us to study a wide variety of people who consume these plants for medical purposes. The purpose of this study is to identify and generate a list of medicinal plants sold in the traditional markets with a focus on those collected in the forests around Antananarivo, get an idea of the quantities of medicinal plants sold in the markets around Antananarivo, and assess the economy of the medicinal plant markets. In order to determine which medicinal plants are most consumed in Antananarivo, ethnobotanical enquiries were conducted in the five main markets of the capital city. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted with medicinal plant traders, suppliers, harvesters and cultivators, with voucher specimens created from the plants discussed. Trade circuit information was established and the income generated by the trade of some of the species was assessed. The inventory of the Antananarivo markets resulted in a list of 89 commercialized plant species. Ten of the 89 were mentioned by 60-100 % of vendors. Profitability for vendors is high and competitive with other salaried positions within Antananarivo. Transportation costs are also high and therefore lower profitability for other members in the supply chain. The markets of Antananarivo have always played a vital cultural role in the lives of urban Malagasy, but our study shows they also play an economic role not only for urban residents but rural harvesters as well. Continued research and monitoring of the non-timber forest products trade in Antananarivo is needed to better understand the impact of trade on the wild plant populations.

  10. POTENCY OF THE INDONESIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS AS ANTIMALARIAL DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subeki Subeki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian traditional herbal medicine has been practiced for many centuries in Indonesia to treat malaria diseases. Although modern medicine is becoming increasingly important, herbal medicine is still very popular. In order to select raw material for preparation of safety herbal medicines, forty five medicinal plants have been tested for acute toxicity in mouse at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. The extracts of Asclepias curassavica leave, Alstonia scholaris leave, Decospermum fruticosum leave, Elaocarpus petiolatus bark, Elaocarpus parvifolius bark, Eurycoma longifolia root, Garcinia rigida bark, Nephelium lappaceum bark, Pentaspodan motleyi leave, Picrasma javanica leave, Phyllanthus niruri whole, Quassia indica leave, Syzygium pycnanthum bark, Tetrasera scandens leave, Cratoxylum glaucum bark, Sandoricum emarginatum bark, Mallotus paniculatus leave, Microcos ovatolanceolata bark, Poikilospermum suaveolens leave, Fibraurea chloroleuea leave, Tetrasera scandens root, and Timonius billitonensis bark showed toxicity with mortality level of 20-100%. The remaining 32 plant extracts were not toxic at dose tested. The toxic plant species should be considered in the preparation of herbal medicines. Of the safety extracts were tested for their antimalarial activity against Plasmodium berghei in vivo at a dose 715 mg/kg body weight. Extract of Carica papaya leave was most active than other plant extracts with parasitemia 1.13%, while control showed 17.21%. More research is needed to scientifically prove efficacy and to identity antimalarial constituents in the plant extracts. Key words: Indonesian medicinal plant, jamu, toxicity, antimalarial activity, Plasmodium berghei.

  11. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities.

  12. [Systems biology applications to explore secondary metabolites in medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luqi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Ruiting

    2010-01-01

    Secondary metabolites are produced during the growth and development of plants along with the adaptation of outer environment, as a rule they are the main active ingredients in medicinal plants and ensure the quality of crude drugs. Since biogenesis is quite complex, the production and accumulation of secondary metabolites are influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors either from gene or environments, the complexity may affect quality control of crude drugs and utilization of the active ingredients. The thought and approach adopted in systems biology is a powerful tool to explore biology fully, along with the development of modern molecular biology and information biology, omics integration like genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will bring new opportunities for the study of secondary metabolites of medicinal plant. It has great significance to apply this holistic and systematic method in researches on biosynthetic pathway, signal transduction, ecological environment and metabolic engineering of the formation of the secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, and in building secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene expression and regulation system model, in order to explain the origin of the active ingredients of medicinal plants, formation mechanism of the Chinese herbs, metabolic engineering effecting active ingredients of medicinal plants, and the rational exploitation and utilization of resources of medicinal plants systematically.

  13. [Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Matthieu

    2013-05-01

    Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients.

  14. Use of medicinal plants by people with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Gabrielle Santos Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the use of medicinal plants in the treatment of high blood pressure for people with hypertension enrolled in the Family Health Program in a city in Pernambuco State. Methods: a descriptive study, whose data were obtained through semi-structured interview script applied to 172 patients. Results: the use of medicinal plants for hypertension control was reported by 39.5%, of which 57.4% used only one medicinal plant. Among the species cited, there was predominant use of chayote [Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw.-34.8%]. Conclusion: medicinal plants constitute an adjunctive therapy in the treatment of hypertension. However, there is need for monitoring of handling and listed species.

  15. Molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J C B; Silva, I A; Ferreira, H D; Ferri, P H; Santos, S C

    2002-08-01

    Alcoholic extracts of six Brazilian Cerrado medicinal plants were evaluated for their molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of schistosomiasis. Stryphnodendron polyphyllum bark extract, rich in condensed tannins, was the most promising as molluscicide.

  16. Folklore medicinal plants of North Andaman Islands, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, P Rama Chandra; Reddy, C Sudhakar; Raza, S H; Dutt, C B S

    2008-09-01

    The rural folk of North Andaman, India use the traditional medicine for their primary health care. Folklore medicinal uses of 72 interesting medicinal plant species along with botanical name, local name, family, habit, part used, disease for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. These 72 plant species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 67 genera and 43 families of Magnoliophyta from tropical rainforests. These plants used to cure 40 ailments. Most remedies were taken orally, accounting for 76% of medicinal use. Most of the remedies were reported to have been from trees (55.6%) and herb (22.2%) species. The most widely sought after plant parts in the preparation of remedies in the areas are the stem bark (33.8%) and root (23.9%).

  17. Potential medicinal plants for CNS disorders: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas

    2006-12-01

    Although very few drugs are currently approved by regulatory authorities for treating multi-factorial ailments and disorders of cognition such as Alzheimer's disease, certain plant-derived agents, including, for example, galantamine and rivastigmine (a semi-synthetic derivative of physostigmine) are finding an application in modern medicine. However, in Ayurveda, the Indian traditional system of medicine which is more than 5000 years old, selected plants have long been classified as 'medhya rasayanas', from the Sanskrit words 'medhya', meaning intellect or cognition, and 'rasayana', meaning 'rejuvenation'. These plants are used both in herbal and conventional medicine and offer benefits that pharmaceutical drugs lack. In the present article, an attempt has been made to review the most important medicinal plants, including Ginkgo biloba, St John's wort, Kava-kava, Valerian, Bacopa monniera and Convolvulus pluricaulis, which are widely used for their reputed effectiveness in CNS disorders.

  18. Research progress of Tunisian medicinal plants used for acute diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Aidi Wannes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the medicinal plants in treating diabetes is frequent in Africa, especially in Tunisia, and it is ritually transmitted from generation to generation within cultures. Many of Tunisian medicinal plants have been experimentally validated. A comprehensive review was conducted to pile up information from scientific journal articles, including indigenous knowledge researches, about Tunisian medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this review article is to provide the reader with information concerning the importance of Tunisian medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes and to draw attention of the health professionals and scientists working in the field of pharmacology and therapeutics to develop new drug formulations to cure different kinds of diabetes.

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of hypertension in the Maritime region of Togo. Holaly E. Gbekley, Simplice D. Karou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Komlan Batawila, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Jacques Simpore ...

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in villages under Jongilanga Tribal Council, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Boikanyo Calvin Mophuting, James Mahore, Stefan Winterboer, Namrita Lall ...

  1. Molecular screening of Chinese medicinal plants for progestogenic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-01

    progestogenic properties. Extract of 13 Chinese medicinal plants were analysed for progestogenic and anti-progestogenic activities by using progesterone response element-driven luciferase reporter gene bioassay. MTT assay was ...

  2. Phytochemical and Anticancer Studies on Ten Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten medicinal plants used in Nigerian ethno medicine were subjected to phytochemical and anticancer studies using established standard procedures. The result of the study revealed the presence of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids. Anona muricata, Andrographis paniculata ...

  3. Speciation of Chromium and Vanadium in Medicinal Plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    maximum limits is not exceeded through normal consumption of tea infusion. KEYWORDS. Speciation, leaching, medicinal ... smelters make it a suitable case study to assess the effects of smelter emissions on medicinal plants. ... AAnalyst 600 which employs Zeeman-effect background correc- tion system was used for all ...

  4. Documentation on Medicinal Plants Sold in Markets in Abeokuta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To document the medicinal values, local names, method of preparation, dosage forms and parts of common medicinal plants sold in some markets in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Ethnobotanical data were collected by oral interview and with the aid of a structured questionnaire administered to men, women and ...

  5. Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Curative care through administration of plant-derived medicines in Sekhukhune district municipality of Limpopo province, South Africa. ... Sources of medicine were mostly herbs followed by shrubs, trees, creepers and aloe collected from the communal land. The leaves, bark, roots and bulbs were prepared into decoctions ...

  6. Screening of crude extracts of twelve medicinal plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of extracts of twelve Nigerian medicinal plant species and a “wonder cure” concoction [Epa –Ijebu]; used in traditional medicine for the treatment of tuberculosis and cough were screened for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from tuberculosis patient sputum and the control strains ...

  7. Medicinal plant potential and profits in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-01

    Feb 1, 2011 ... With the support of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Potvin subsequently headed a project to study how the Emberá use and conserve medicinal plants and traditional medicine. It also addressed the issue of fair compensation for the knowledge of the traditional healers. “The World ...

  8. Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Saeideh; Shakeri, Farzaneh; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2018-01-15

    Context • The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity. Objective • The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants. Design • Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents. Setting • The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran). Outcome Measures • The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared. Results • The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants. Conclusions • These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.

  9. Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Atiqur; Mossa, Jaber S; Al-Said, Mansour S; Al-Yahya, Mohammed A

    2004-03-01

    A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22 and 33 species, respectively. Of these, 86 species, so far investigated, are medicinal, distributed in these seven families as follows: 7, 5, 12, 20, 23, 7 and 12, respectively. The Labiatae have the highest number (23) of medicinal plants among them while maximum medicinal plant diversity within the family has been observed with the Apocynaceae. An enumeration of these 86 medicinal species is presented with the current nomenclature, Arabic names and medicinal uses. This communication aims at emphasizing the importance of setting up conservation priorities, and sustained development of various medicinal plants of Saudi Arabia.

  10. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  11. Medicinal plants for primary dysmenorrhoea: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellow, Janice; Nienhuis, Chantelle

    2018-04-01

    Primary dysmenorrhoea is a common complaint experienced by many females in their reproductive years. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of various gynaecological conditions is on the increase, despite the limited evidence available regarding efficacy and safety of their use. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise the most recent evidence relating to the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea with medicinal plants. A thorough database search was conducted using defined search terms, and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in English between 2008 and 2016, pertaining to the use of medicinal plants (single use) for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea, were assessed. Studies evaluating dysmenorrhoeal pain and associated symptoms as a primary or secondary outcome were considered and assessed by two reviewers independently of each other, using the JADAD scale and the Cochrane risk of bias tool,. 22 RCTs were included in the review; 9 were placebo-controlled trials and 13 were comparative studies to pharmacological treatment or nutritional supplements. Most of the evaluated medicinal plants showed evidence of efficacy in relieving menstrual pain in at least one RCT. The low or unclear quality of the majority of these studies however warrants caution in interpreting these results. This review adds to the knowledge-base on the use of these medicinal plants in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. Further research is needed before definitive conclusions can be made regarding the efficacy and safety of the use of these medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Sudhanoti district (AJK), Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Mahmood, Adeel; Maqbool, Mehwish

    2015-06-20

    Ethnobotanical study was aimed to document indigenous medicinal plants along with the ethnopharmacological therapeutic values, and to explore the frequencies and relative importance of reported plants. Objective of this study was to trace out the disease prevalence pattern with help of informant consensus factor. Visual appraisal approach (VAA) and rapid rural appraisal (RRA) methods along with the group meetings and discussions about wide range of topics in an open-ended questionnaire with local people were employed for collection of qualitative ethnomedicinal data. Current study reported 58 medicinal plants belonging to 33 families, where Rosaceae was the predominant family. Berberis lycium dominated among shrubs, which is used to treat liver problems (jaundice). Females and old people were found more allied to the indigenous healthcare system. Conservation threats to valued medicinal plants were detected during course of the study. Local communities of the study area are highly dependent on medicinal plants and reported the best therapeutic results for specific disorders. Urgent attention must be paid on conservation of medicinal flora, comprehensive documentation of indigenous medicinal knowledge and pharmacological/phytochemical validation of reported plants for specific diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Traditional uses of medicinal plants of uzumlu district, erzincan, turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.

    2015-01-01

    A list of medicinal plants used by local people in uzumlu district and its villages is presented. This study included the first detailed ethnobotanical survey carried out in Erzincan. The study was conducted during spring and summer periods in 2010 and 2011 through face-to-face interview method to determine the local names, used parts, and medicinal usages of the determined plants. The plant samples collected from the study area were pressed, dried, and labeled according to the herbarium techniques, and identified. Totally 64 plant taxa belonging to 53 genera and 29 families were used by local people for different medicinal purposes in the area. The families including the highest number of taxa were Rosaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (6 species) and Lamiaceae (5 species). The species with the highest number of usage as herbal medicine were Urtica dioica, Anthemis cretica subsp. iberica, Petroselinum crispum,Allium cepa, Rheum ribes, Rosa dumalis subsp. boissieri var. boissieri and Vitis vinifera. Fruits and flowers were the most widely used parts of the plants. Decoction was the main method for using, and the primary therapeutic use of herbal remedies was for the respiratory system diseases such as cold, cough, asthma, and bronchitis.This study was the first carried out on 20 plant taxa used as traditional medicine, and the use of 28 taxa were recorded for the first time in Turkey. For maintaining the knowledge on traditional medicine, urgent studies should be carried out for recording before they have been completely lost. (author)

  14. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 μg/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 μg/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 μg/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 μg/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents.

  15. Medicinal plants of the family Caryophyllaceae: a review of ethno-medicinal uses and pharmacological properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Chandra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the family Caryophyllaceae are widely used by many ethnic communities as traditional medicine throughout the world. The highest number of plants of the family are used in Chinese traditional medicine. The ethnopharmacologial studies of this family indicate that plants of the family possess anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Other miscellaneous properties reported are ribosome inactivation properties, inhibition of prostatic enlargement in rats, and inhibition of intestinal enzyme carboxyelasterase in rats, cerebro-protective activity, and antiobesity in rats. Few reviews have been published yet, providing information regarding medicinal plants of the family and their biomedical properties. All published reviews have focused either on a particular taxa or a few species. The present review is focused on the traditional medicinal uses of the plants of the family Caryophyllaceae along with phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the family. A study of the literature revealed significant traditional medicinal importance of the family. Major chemical constituents of Caryophyllceae are saponins, Phytoecdysteroids, benzenoids, phenyl propanoids, and nitrogen containing compounds. The most important property of plants of the family is anticancer activity and is shown by the large number of plant species studied. This review of traditional medicinal and pharmacological uses of plants of the family, provide a ground for future research in the family.

  16. The local knowledge of medicinal plants trader and diversity of medicinal plants in the Kabanjahe traditional market, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silalahi, Marina; Nisyawati; Walujo, Eko Baroto; Supriatna, Jatna; Mangunwardoyo, Wibowo

    2015-12-04

    Market is the main place for transactions of medicinal plants and traditional ingredients by local community in the Karo regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia. This is the first study to document the local knowledge of traders on and the diversity of the medicinal plants. The investigation was carried out in the Kabanjahe traditional market, in the Karo regency. The research goal was to reveal the local knowledge, diversity and utilization of medicinal plants, which have been traded in the Kabanjahe traditional market, as a basis for conservation efforts. The study was conducted through ethnobotanical approach using market surveys. All traders of medicinal plants were surveyed applying in-depth interviews and participative observations. Data were analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistics. The diversity of medicinal plants was expressed in term of the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H'), whereas the similarity among traders was indicated by Jaccard index (Ji). Traders of medicinal plants stored the simplicia of medicinal plants in chest of drawers, plastic baskets, plastic bags, and in the air by suspending them from the the stall ceilings. We recorded 344 species, 217 genera and 90 families of medicinal plants. Those that were sold mostly belong to Zingeberaceae (20 species), Poaceae (19 species), and Asclepiadaceae (17 species), and the species received high consumers demand, mostly belong to Zingiberaceae, Rutaceae, and Asclepidiaceae. Asclepidiaceae was used to treat diseases like cancer and heart problems. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index of medicinal plants at the Kabanjahe traditional market was high (H'= 5.637). The high Jaccard similarity index (Ji>0.56) suggested that the traders were trading similar species of medicinal plants. Kabanjahe traditional market is the center for the sale of of medicinal plants as traditional ingredients. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties but others, [such as: Dischidia imbricata (Blume

  17. Medicinal plants of the Russian Pharmacopoeia; their history and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikov, Alexander N; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Wagner, Hildebert; Verpoorte, Rob; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-07-03

    Due to the location of Russia between West and East, Russian phytotherapy has accumulated and adopted approaches that originated in European and Asian traditional medicine. Phytotherapy is an official and separate branch of medicine in Russia; thus, herbal medicinal preparations are considered official medicaments. The aim of the present review is to summarize and critically appraise data concerning plants used in Russian medicine. This review describes the history of herbal medicine in Russia, the current situation and the pharmacological effects of specific plants in the Russian Pharmacopoeia that are not included in the European Pharmacopoeia. Based on the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), we selected plant species that have not yet been adopted in Western and Central Europe (e.g., selected for inclusion in the European Pharmacopoeia) and systematically searched the scientific literature for data using library catalogs, the online service E-library.ru, and databases such as Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, and the Web of Science regarding species, effectiveness, pharmacological effects, and safety. The Russian Federation follows the State Pharmacopoeia of the USSR (11(th) edition), which contains 83 individual plant monographs. Fifty-one of these plants are also found in the European Pharmacopoeia and have been well studied, but 32 plants are found only in the Pharmacopoeia of the USSR. Many articles about these medicinal plants were never translated in English, and much of the information collected by Russian scientists has never been made available to the international community. Such knowledge can be applied in future studies aimed at a safe, evidence-based use of traditional Russian medicinal plants in European and global phytopharmacotherapy as well as for the discovery of novel leads for drug development. The review highlights the therapeutic potential of these Russian phytopharmaceuticals but also highlights cases where concern has been raised

  18. Traditional medicinal plants in Nigeria--remedies or risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awodele, O; Popoola, T D; Amadi, K C; Coker, H A B; Akintonwa, A

    2013-11-25

    Soil pollution due to increasing industrialization is a reality that is taking its toll on mankind today. Considering the population of people that use herbal remedies especially in developing countries and the discharge of industrial waste on surrounding herbal vegetation, it is imperative to determine the heavy metals contamination in some commonly used medicinal plants. Representative samples of five medicinal plants Ageratum conyzoides, Aspilia africana, Alchornea cordifolia, Amaranthus brasiliensis and Chromolaena odorata were collected from Ikpoba-Okha L.G.A, Edo State Nigeria, around a paint company and another set of same plants were collected from a non-polluted source. Dried leaves and roots of collected plants were digested and analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) for the presence of Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). Soil samples from polluted and non-polluted areas were also analyzed to ascertain the levels of these heavy metals in the environment. Results show that the concentrations of these heavy metals in the leaves and roots of plants collected from polluted soil were significantly higher than those obtained from unpolluted soil. Correspondingly heavy metal concentrations were significantly higher in polluted than in unpolluted soil samples. As part of continuing effort in the standardization of traditional remedies, environmental contamination control and abatement is evident. The source of medicinal plants/herbs should also be a cause for concern since the toxicity of medicinal plants is sometimes associated with environmental sources of the plants. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of Amino Acids in Medicinal Plants from Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the amino acid contents of some plants used in traditional medicine in Southern Sonora, Mexico by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Methods: The plant samples (Jutuki, Zizyphus obtusifolia A.Gray; Jito, Forchammeria watsonii Rose; Barchata, Lycium berlandieri Dunal; Citabaro, ...

  20. Exotic multifaceted medicinal plants of drugs and pharmaceutical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassia alata Linn, Nauclea latifolia, Clerodendron splendens and Bryophyllum pinnatum are some of the Nigerian exotic medicinal plants. These plants not only acts as ornamental but also exhibit antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. They are sources of drugs and are used in herbal ...

  1. Integrated omics analysis of specialized metabolism in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Saito, Kazuki; Yamazaki, Mami

    2017-05-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of highly diverse specialized metabolites with important pharmacological properties. Until recently, plant biologists were limited in their ability to explore the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites, mainly due to the scarcity of plant genomics resources. However, recent advances in high-throughput large-scale analytical methods have enabled plant biologists to discover biosynthetic pathways for important plant-based medicinal metabolites. The reduced cost of generating omics datasets and the development of computational tools for their analysis and integration have led to the elucidation of biosynthetic pathways of several bioactive metabolites of plant origin. These discoveries have inspired synthetic biology approaches to develop microbial systems to produce bioactive metabolites originating from plants, an alternative sustainable source of medicinally important chemicals. Since the demand for medicinal compounds are increasing with the world's population, understanding the complete biosynthesis of specialized metabolites becomes important to identify or develop reliable sources in the future. Here, we review the contributions of major omics approaches and their integration to our understanding of the biosynthetic pathways of bioactive metabolites. We briefly discuss different approaches for integrating omics datasets to extract biologically relevant knowledge and the application of omics datasets in the construction and reconstruction of metabolic models. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity Of Some Medicinal Plants Used By Herbalists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by herbalists in Mbeere, and Embu districts of Eastern province, Kenya, were tested for their inhibitory activity against three selected strains of bacteria. All the selected plant extracts (infusions: 1.0g sample in 100 ml water) investigated showed activity against ...

  3. Medicinal Plants for Healing Sores and Wounds among the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article is based on a study that aimed at documenting the ethno-knowledge on the usage of plants healing wounds and sores at the rural areas around uNgoye forest as well as document the methods of preparation and dosage forms of medicinal plants used by people around Ungoye forest. The survey was conducted ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of some wild medicinal plants collected from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional medicine has a key role in health care worldwide. Obtaining scientific information about the efficacy and safety of the wild plants grown in western Mediterranean coast of Egypt is one of our research goals. In this study, 10 wild plants namely Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, Blackiella aellen, Arthrocnemon ...

  5. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  6. Medicinal plants with cholinesterase inhibitory activity: A Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potential source of AChE and BChE inhibitors is provided by the abundance of plants in nature, and natural products continue to provide useful drugs and templates for the development of other compounds. The present work constitutes a review of the literature on 123 species of medicinal plants that have been tested for ...

  7. Antibacterial activity of two local medicinal plants, Utazi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... others also showed marked antibacterial activities. The only resistance observed was with Staph. Aureus to the methanolic extracts of both plants. Keywords: antibacterial activities, medicinal plants, gongronema latifolium, ocimium gratissimium. International Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences Vol. 1(1) 2005: 36-39 ...

  8. Medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis by Bapedi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The majority (61.9%) are indigenous and the rest are exotics, found near homes as weeds or cultivated in home gardens as ornamentals or food plants. ... The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants used to treat TB by the Bapedi traditional healers are well supported by literature, with 71.4% of the species having ...

  9. Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Biological Properties of Four Malian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Karl Egil Malterud

    2017-01-01

    The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems poss...

  10. Effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selected multipurpose, medicinal and aromatic plants on the in vitro methane production and microbial diversity. The plants include multi-purpose trees; Pterocarpus santallinoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Albizia lebbek, Albizia saman, Enterolobium cyclocarpum, ...

  11. Folk Medicinal Uses of Verbenaceae Family Plants in Bangladesh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of ...

  12. Direct Detection Of Triterpenoid Saponins In Medicinal Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct detection of saponins in medicinal plants using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is reported in this paper. Crude dry plant powders were mixed with potassium bromide (KBr) powder and compressed to a thin pellet for infrared examination. FTIR spectra of the test samples showed –OH, -C=O, C-H, and ...

  13. Antimicrobial Activities of Some Medicinal Plants from Soba-Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six medicinal plants commonly used by traditional herbalists for treatment of various microbial infections in soba- Zaria, were collected for a study of their antibacterial activities. The plants studied are: Jacaranda mimosaides (J. mimosaides); Striga hermonthetica (S. hermonthetica); Psidium quajava (P. quajava); ...

  14. Application of Autofluorescence for Analysis of Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria V. Roshchina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autofluorescence of secondary compounds contained in plant secretory cells may be applied to the analysis of medicinal plants for pharmacy. Emission and prevailing fluorescent pharmaceuticals have been estimated in several models of species such as Salvia officinalis, Berberis vulgaris, Humulus lupulus, and Matricaria chamomilla, by luminescence microscopy, microspectrofluorimetry, and confocal microscopy.

  15. Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternaria is a polyphagus fungus that occurs frequently on dead and decaying organic material and is responsible for causing leaf spot disease. In Indian subcontinent, there are different varieties of plants showing antimicrobial and other medicinal properties which can be employed in plant disease management to reduce ...

  16. Medicinal plants used to treat malaria in Southern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, van der L.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    People in Benin who cannot resort to allopathic medicines provided by the pharmaceutical industry use many species of plants to alleviate malaria symptoms. Complicated mixtures of different parts of several plant species are employed orally or as a bathing substance. The inventory of 85 species and

  17. Toxicity, growth regulatory and repellent activities of medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... medicinal plant extracts on Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidea). Hervé B. D. ... Housefly, Musca domestica, is a major vector for many medical and veterinary pathogenic organisms. The development of ...... isolated from aromatic plants possible mode of action against insect pests. Pest manage. Sci.

  18. Determination of antioxidant property from eight medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pongsathorn

    2012-06-05

    Jun 5, 2012 ... The evaluation of antioxidant property, total phenolic compounds and pigment content of 8 medicinal plants including: Gynostemma ... pigments, such as chlorophylls and carotenoids are the major candidate for antioxidant ..... mineral concentration of lupins (L. angustifolius). Plant Soil, 237:131-. 142.

  19. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in Dehloran and Abdanan districts, Ilam ...

  20. medicinal plant use of villagers in the mopani district, limpopo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alinah Chauke

    The aim of the study was to compile a list of medicinal plants used by traditional health practitioners for treatment of diabetes mellitus and other .... Of all the plants listed only Colophospermum mopane was indicated for stomach ache treatments in small children, where the leaves are chewed and spit into the patient's mouth.

  1. Medicinal Plants Used by Herbal Healers in Narasipura and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was designed to study the Medicinal plants used by herbal healers in Narasipura and Manchale villages of Sagara Taluk, Karnataka, India. The people, particularly from rural places, depend on herbs for primary health care where ethnomedicinal use of plants has been practiced since time immemorial.

  2. Antimicrobial Activity of some Medicinal Plant Extracts | El Astal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, methanolic and phenolic compound extracts from three Palestinian folkloric medicinal plants, in addition to their commercial oils, were evaluated against ten pathogenic microorganisms. The plants used were sage, thyme and parsley. Five concentrations of leaf extract of the ...

  3. The genetic manipulation of medicinal and aromatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Pelacho, Ana M; Gené, Anna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

    2007-10-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants have always been intimately linked with human health and culture. Plant-derived medicines constitute a substantial component of present day human healthcare systems in industrialized as well as developing countries. They are products of plant secondary metabolism and are involved in many other aspects of a plant's interaction with its immediate environment. The genetic manipulation of plants together with the establishment of in vitro plant regeneration systems facilitates efforts to engineer secondary product metabolic pathways. Advances in the cloning of genes involved in relevant pathways, the development of high throughput screening systems for chemical and biological activity, genomics tools and resources, and the recognition of a higher order of regulation of secondary plant metabolism operating at the whole plant level facilitate strategies for the effective manipulation of secondary products in plants. Here, we discuss advances in engineering metabolic pathways for specific classes of compounds in medicinal and aromatic plants and we identify remaining constraints and future prospects in the field. In particular we focus on indole, tropane, nicotine, isoquinoline alcaloids, monoterpenoids such as menthol and related compounds, diterpenoids such as taxol, sequiterpenoids such as artemisinin and aromatic amino acids.

  4. Selenium concentrations of selected medicinal and aromatic plants in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkutlu, Faruk; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Koca, Ufuk; Yazici, Gizem

    2011-10-01

    Recent scientific studies have proven the importance of trace elements on human health. The main food supplies are plants and animals, which are significant sources of these minerals. Studies on determining mineral compositions of herbs, spices and some other crops have increased all over the world. Published works revealed that spices, herbs and medicinal plants should be consumed to obtain beneficial trace elements. Selenium (Se), one of the most vital trace elements, has a significant role in human diet acting as a preventative agent against some serious illnesses. Despite numerous scientific works on mineral compositions of medicinal and aromatic plants, investigations of selenium content in these foods could not be successfully studied until recently due to the lack of suitable analytical methods for selenium analysis. Thus, publications on selenium concentrations of foods are recent. In this regard, selenium contents of some medicinal and aromatic plants commonly used as spices, herbal teas and traditional medicines in Turkey were studied in the present research. Selenium contents of the most used parts of these plants were analyzed by ICP-OES (Varian Vista-Pro, Australia). Of the analyzed 26 medicinal and aromatic plants, the highest Se concentration (1133 microg kg-1) was found in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and the lowest in sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits (11 microg kg(-1)).

  5. Radical scavenging compounds from Ethiopian medicinal plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four flavonol glycosides together with the plant acids caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid were obtained from the methanol extract of the fronds of Cheilanthes farinose. Similarly, the acetone fraction of the browse plant, E. racemosa ssp. schimperi afforded four flavonol glycosides. All the secondary metabolites isolated from ...

  6. Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Biological Properties of Four Malian Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Karl Egil

    2017-02-21

    The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum , Burkea africana , Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems possible that the use in traditional medicine of these plants may have a rational basis, although more clinical studies are needed.

  7. Ethnopharmacology, Chemistry and Biological Properties of Four Malian Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Egil Malterud

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ethnopharmacology, chemistry and pharmacology of four Malian medicinal plants, Biophytum umbraculum, Burkea africana, Lannea velutina and Terminalia macroptera are reviewed. These plants are used by traditional healers against numerous ailments: malaria, gastrointestinal diseases, wounds, sexually transmitted diseases, insect bites and snake bites, etc. The scientific evidence for these uses is, however, limited. From the chemical and pharmacological evidence presented here, it seems possible that the use in traditional medicine of these plants may have a rational basis, although more clinical studies are needed.

  8. Radioactive and stable elements' concentration in medicinal plants from Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sussa, F.V.; Silva, P.S.C.; Damatto, S.R.; Favaro, D.I.T.; Mazzilli, B.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since the early days of mankind, plants have been used as food and for medicinal purposes. Still, little information exists in literature about the activity concentration of 238 U and 232 Th decay products, as well as stable element concentrations in Brazilian plants. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb, and chemical concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Cs, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Yb, Zn and Zr were determined in ten samples commonly used in Brazilian medicinal plants. (author)

  9. Plant Molecular Farming: Much More than Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschofen, Marc; Knopp, Dietmar; Hood, Elizabeth; Stöger, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Plants have emerged as commercially relevant production systems for pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical products. Currently, the commercially available nonpharmaceutical products outnumber the medical products of plant molecular farming, reflecting the shorter development times and lower regulatory burden of the former. Nonpharmaceutical products benefit more from the low costs and greater scalability of plant production systems without incurring the high costs associated with downstream processing and purification of pharmaceuticals. In this review, we explore the areas where plant-based manufacturing can make the greatest impact, focusing on commercialized products such as antibodies, enzymes, and growth factors that are used as research-grade or diagnostic reagents, cosmetic ingredients, and biosensors or biocatalysts. An outlook is provided on high-volume, low-margin proteins such as industrial enzymes that can be applied as crude extracts or unprocessed plant tissues in the feed, biofuel, and papermaking industries.

  10. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Hall Carsten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy; each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems. To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous. A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs and

  11. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Hall, Carsten; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Pouliot, Mariève

    2012-11-13

    A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer

  12. Novel anthelmintic compounds and molluscicides from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, P J

    1996-01-01

    This review assesses the role that can be played by allelochemicals (bioactive secondary compounds) from medicinal and other plants in the control of human helminthic diseases. In the search for new anthelmintics among plant allelochemicals, 3 practical issues have considerable significance. They are the range and capacity of anthelmintic bioassays utilised in preclinical studies in vitro on plant extracts, the phenomenon of coexistent allelochemicals with overlapping activity spectra within single plants, and the problem of non-specific cytotoxins among plant allelochemicals. These topics are discussed in the context of the present absence of any clinically useful plant anthelmintics. In the search for new plant molluscicides for schistosomiasis control, the characteristics of a range of molluscicidal plants are measured against those of the synthetic molluscicide of choice, niclosamide, and against the postulated attributes of practically useful plant molluscicides.

  13. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases.

  14. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H; Edgar, J A

    2015-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are mutagenic, carcinogenic, pneumotoxic, teratogenic and fetotoxic. Plants containing PAs commonly poison livestock in many countries, including the USA and Canada. In some regions of the world PA-producing plants sometimes grow in grain crops and items of food made with PA contaminated grain, such as bread baked using contaminated flour, have been, and continue to be, responsible for large incidents of acute, often fatal human poisoning. Herbal medicines and food supplements containing PAs are also recognized as a significant cause of human poisoning and it is desirable that such medications are identified and subjected to strict regulation. In this review we consider the PAs known to be, or likely to be, present in both the traditionally used medicinal plants of North America and also medicinal plants that have been introduced from other countries and are being recommended and used as phytopharmaceuticals in the USA and Canada.

  15. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to fi...

  16. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management

  17. North African Medicinal Plants Traditionally Used in Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Silva, Jorge M; Romane, Abderrahmane; Efferth, Thomas; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major cause of mortality worldwide with increasing numbers by the years. In North Africa, the number of cancer patients is alarming. Also shocking is that a huge number of cancer patients only have access to traditional medicines due to several factors, e.g., economic difficulties. In fact, medicinal plants are widely used for the treatment of several pathologies, including cancer. Truthfully, herbalists and botanists in North African countries prescribe several plants for cancer treatment. Despite the popularity and the potential of medicinal plants for the treatment of cancer, scientific evidence on their anticancer effects are still scarce for most of the described plants. Objective: Bearing in mind the lack of comprehensive and systematic studies, the aim of this review is to give an overview of studies, namely ethnobotanical surveys and experimental evidence of anticancer effects regarding medicinal plants used in North Africa for cancer therapy. Method: The research was conducted on several popular search engines including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Web of Science. The research focused primarily on English written papers published between the years 2000 and 2016. Results: This review on plants traditionally used by herbalists in North Africa highlights that Morocco and Algeria are the countries with most surveys on the use of medicinal plants in folk medicine. Among the plethora of plants used, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graecum are the most referred ones by herbalists for the treatment of cancer. Moreover, a plethora of scientific evidence qualifies them as candidates for further drug development. Furthermore, we report on the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Conclusion: Overall, this review highlights the therapeutic potential of some medicinal plants as anticancer agents. The North African flora offers a rich source of medicinal plants for a wide array of diseases, including cancer. The elucidation of

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Five Medicinal Plants on Candida Albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Masomi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, drug resistance to human pathogenic fungi has been increased. Medicinal plants are one way to overcome antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal and inhibitory activity of five medicinal plants on the growth of Candida albicans. Methods: This study was done in the Microbiology Lab of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran in 2015. Five medicinal plants include: Trachyspermum ammi (seed, Teucrium polium (leaf, Piper nigrum (seed, Pistachia vera (skin, Camelia sinensis (leaf were collected. Collected plant materials were extracted by ethanol and methanol solvent with maceration method. Antifungal activity of the ethanolic and methanolic extracts was evaluated by paper disc diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. Besides, MIC and MBC of each extract was determined. Results: All plant extracts had sufficient inhibitory effect against C. albicans but the extracts of P. vera had the best inhibitory effect on C. albicans (ZOI: 40 mm. The lowest antifungal effect between these five plants related to Piper nigrum (ZOI: 13 mm. Besides, the P. vera extracts had the best MIC and MBC values (6.25 and 12.5 mg/ml. Conclusion: This study strongly evidence the maximum antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants against C. albicans that this inhibitory effect varies with the different solvent-extract form. A more comprehensive study need to identify the effective compounds that have these antifungal properties.

  19. Anti-gout Potential of Malaysian Medicinal Plants

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    Fazleen I. Abu Bakar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a type of arthritis that causes painful inflammation in one or more joints. In gout, elevation of uric acid in the blood triggers the formation of crystals, causing joint pain. Malaysia is a mega-biodiversity country that is rich in medicinal plants species. Therefore, its flora might offer promising therapies for gout. This article aims to systematically review the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants. Articles on gout published from 2000 to 2017 were identified using PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar with the following keyword search terms: “gout,” “medicinal plants,” “Malaysia,” “epidemiology,” “in vitro,” and “in vivo.” In this study, 85 plants were identified as possessing anti-gout activity. These plants had higher percentages of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity (>85%; specifically, the Momordica charantia, Chrysanthemum indicum, Cinnamomum cassia, Kaempferia galanga, Artemisia vulgaris, and Morinda elliptica had the highest values, due to their diverse natural bioactive compounds, which include flavonoids, phenolics, tannin, coumarins, luteolin, and apigenin. This review summarizes the anti-gout potential of Malaysian medicinal plants but the mechanisms, active compounds, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and safety of the plants still remain to be elucidated.

  20. Effects of medicinal plants on Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits

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    Muhammad Akram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory deficits. Various studies have been carried out to find therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer's disease. However, the proper treatment option is still not available. There is no cure for Alzheimer's disease, but symptomatic treatment may improve the memory and other dementia related problems. Traditional medicine is practiced worldwide as memory enhancer since ancient times. Natural therapy including herbs and medicinal plants has been used in the treatment of memory deficits such as dementia, amnesia, as well as Alzheimer's disease since a long time. Medicinal plants have been used in different systems of medicine, particularly Unani system of medicines and exhibited their powerful roles in the management and cure of memory disorders. Most of herbs and plants have been chemically evaluated and their efficacy has also been proven in clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanisms of actions are still on the way. In this paper, we have reviewed the role of different medicinal plants that play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and memory deficits using conventional herbal therapy.

  1. Review: African medicinal plants with wound healing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Christian; Boakye, Yaw Duah; Bekoe, Emelia Oppong; Hensel, Andreas; Dapaah, Susana Oteng; Appiah, Theresa

    2016-01-11

    Wounds of various types including injuries, cuts, pressure, burns, diabetic, gastric and duodenal ulcers continue to have severe socio-economic impact on the cost of health care to patients, family and health care institutions in both developing and developed countries. However, most people in the developing countries, especially Africa, depend on herbal remedies for effective treatment of wounds. Various in vitro and in vivo parameters are used for the evaluation of the functional activity of medicinal plants by using extracts, fractions and isolated compounds. The aim of the review is to identify African medicinal plants with wound healing properties within the last two decades. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Scifinder(®) and Google Scholar were used to search and filter for African medicinal plants with wound healing activity. The methods employed in the evaluation of wound healing activity of these African medicinal plants comprise both in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo wound models such as excision, incision, dead space and burn wound model are commonly employed in assessing the rate of wound closure (contraction), tensile strength or breaking strength determination, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, hydroxyproline content assay and histological investigations including epithelialisation, collagen synthesis, and granulation tissue formation. In in vitro studies, single cell systems are mostly used to study proliferation and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes by monitoring typical differentiation markers like collagen and keratin. In this study, 61 plants belonging to 36 families with scientifically demonstrated or reported wound healing properties were reviewed. Various plant parts including leaves, fruits, stem bark and root extracts of the plants are used in the evaluation of plants for wound healing activities. Although, a variety of medicinal plants for wound healing can be found in literature, there is a need for the

  2. Determination of Properties of Selected Fresh and Processed Medicinal Plants

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    Shirley G. Cabrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the chemical properties, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity level of fresh and processed medicinal plants such as corn (Zea mays silk, pancitpancitan (Peperomiapellucida leaves, pandan (Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves, and commercially available tea. The toxicity level of the samples was measured using the Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results showed that in terms of chemical properties there is significant difference between fresh and processed corn silk except in crude fiber content was noted. Based on proximate analyses of fresh and processed medicinal plants specifically in terms of % moisture, %crude protein and % total carbohydrates were also observed. In addition, there is also significant difference on bioactive compound contents such as total flavonoids and total phenolics between fresh and processed corn silk except in total vitamin E (TVE content. Pandan and pancit-pancitan showed significant difference in all bioactive compounds except in total antioxidant content (TAC. Fresh pancit-pancitan has the highest total phenolics content (TPC and TAC, while the fresh and processed corn silk has the lowest TAC and TVE content, respectively. Furthermore, results of BSLA for the three medicinal plants and commercially available tea extract showed after 24 hours exposure significant difference in toxicity level was observed. The percentage mortality increased with an increase in exposure time of the three medicinal plants and tea extract. The results of the study can served as baseline data for further processing and commercialization of these medicinal plants.

  3. Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting envenomation

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    Abdulrahman Al-Asmari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion sting envenoming poses major public health problems. The treatment modalities include antivenoms, chemical antidotes and phytotherapy, with varying degrees of effectiveness and side effects. In this investigation, we reviewed the use of Saudi medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. The relevant literature was collected using the online search engines including Science Direct, Google and PubMed with the help of specific keywords. We also used the printed and online resources at our institutional library to gather the relevant information on the use of medicinal plants for the treatment of scorpion sting patients. A descriptive statistics was used for data compilation and presentation. The results of this survey showed the use of at least 92 medicinal plants with beneficial effects for treating victims of stings of different scorpion species. These commonly used herbs spanned to 37 families whilst different parts of these plants were employed therapeutically for alleviation of envenomation symptoms. The application of leaves (41% was preferred followed by roots (19%, whole plant (14% and seeds (9%. The use of latex (4%, stem (3%, flowers (3% and bark (3% was also reported. In some cases, tannin (2%, rhizome (1% and shoot (1% were also used. In conclusion, herbal medicines are effectively used for the treatment of patients with scorpion envenomation. This type of medication is free from side effects as observed with chemical antidotes or antivenom therapy. It is important to identify the active ingredients of herbal drugs for improving their therapeutic potential in traditional medicine.

  4. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal.

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    Kunwar, Ripu M; Mahat, Laxmi; Acharya, Ram P; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-04-12

    Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86-1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management

  5. Anti-Rheumatic Potential of Pakistani Medicinal Plants: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.; Adnan, M.; Murad, W.; Tariq, A.; Bibi, H.; Rahman, H.; Shinwari, Z. K.

    2016-01-01

    Present review aimed to provide a comprehensive documentation of plants used as anti-rheumatic ethnomedicines in Pakistan and to suggest future recommendations. Data on anti-rheumatic plants was collected from published scientific papers, reports and thesis using online searching engines such as Google Scholar PubMed and Science Direct. Five distinct zones in the country were classified on the basis of geography, humidity and rainfall. We used Sorenson similarity index for plants and their parts used between different zones. A total of 137 anti-rheumatic plant species representing 55 families and 104 genera are used in Pakistan. Herbs (87 plants) were the primary source of anti-rheumatic medicinal plants, while leaves (22 % plant species) were the most frequently used part in the preparation of ethnomedicinal recipes. Highest number of 52 medicinal plant species were found in Zone A having high mountains and cold climate where the prevalence of rheumatism was more common. Solanum surattense was found with highest conservation concerns as it was using in 13 different areas against rheumatism. Results of Sorenson index revealed that there is a similarity of plants and its parts uses between different zones. In conclusions, geography and climate have an important role in causing rheumatic disease. Pakistan has a number of anti-rheumatic plants that are used by the local populations through their traditional knowledge. Moreover, inter zonal similarities among plants and its part uses indicate higher pharmacological potency of these medicinal plants. Further, the review will also provide an insight regarding the conservation status of reported plants. (author)

  6. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

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    Bussmann Rainer W

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.

  7. [Feasibility study for whole plant medicinal use of Tribulus terrestris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Wang, Chunyu; Han, Meiw; Yang, Limin

    2009-09-01

    The content differences of leaf, plant and fruit of Tribulus terrestris was compared to study the feasibility of whole plant medicinal use. The samples were collected in three typical habitats and six different production areas of T. terrestris. The main medicinal ingredients saponins and flavonoids were determined in root, stem, leaf and fruit during the harvest time. The two ingredients were abounded in leaf and more than 2.61 times as in other parts of the plant. The results showed that there were no differences between the whole plant and the fruit. It should pay more attentions on the collection, preservation and utilization of the leaf of T. terrestris in the harvesting and processing stage. The whole plant for medical use was feasibility based on the content of the ingredients.

  8. Anti-Helicobactor pylori activity of some Jordanian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masadeh, Majed M; Alkofahi, Ahmad S; Alzoubi, Karem H; Tumah, Haitham N; Bani-Hani, Kamal

    2014-05-01

    Natural flora are considered a major source of new agents for the treatment of Helicobactor pylori. The plants used in this study were selected based on previous traditional use. In this study, we evaluated the effect of extracts of 16 medicinal plants grown in Jordan against clinical isolates of H. pylori. Tested plant extracts included Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton (Verbenaceae), Anethum graveolens L. (Apiaceae), Artemisia inculata Delile (Asteraceae), Capparis spinosa L. (Capparaceae), Crataegus aronia (L.) Bosc ex. DC. (Rosaceae), Inula viscose (L.) Ait (Asteraceae), Lavandula officinalis Chaix. (Lamiaceae), Lepidium sativum L. (Cruciferae), Origanum syriaca L. (Lamiaceae), Paronychia argentea Lam. (Caryophyllaceae), Passiflora incarnate L. (Passifloraceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Sarcopoterium spinosum (L.) Spach (Rosaceae), Sesamum indicum L. (Pedaliaceae), Urtica urens L. (Urticaceae) and Varthemia iphionoids Boiss (Asteraceae). Clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested in vitro for susceptibility to each of the above plant crude extracts using disk diffusion method, and the MIC value was determined for each plant extract using the serial dilution method. Results showed that ethanol extracts of most medicinal plants exerted cytotoxiciy against H. pylori isolates. Among the tested plant extracts, A. triphylla (MIC: 90 µg/mL, MBC: 125 µg/mL) and I. viscosa (MIC: 83 µg/mL, MBC: 104 µg/mL) showed the strongest activity against both isolates of H. pylori. Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources of starting materials for the synthesis of new antibacterial agents against H. pylori.

  9. A Systematic Review of Iran's Medicinal Plants With Anticancer Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Kooti, Wesam; Aslani, Elahe; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-01

    Increase in cases of various cancers has encouraged the researchers to discover novel, more effective drugs from plant sources. This study is a review of medicinal plants in Iran with already investigated anticancer effects on various cell lines. Thirty-six medicinal plants alongside their products with anticancer effects as well as the most important plant compounds responsible for the plants' anticancer effect were introduced. Phenolic and alkaloid compounds were demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers in most studies. The plants and their active compounds exerted anticancer effects by removing free radicals and antioxidant effects, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The investigated plants in Iran contain the compounds that are able to contribute effectively to fighting cancer cells. Therefore, the extract and active compounds of the medicinal plants introduced in this review article could open a way to conduct clinical trials on cancer and greatly help researchers and pharmacists develop new anticancer drugs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with aphrodisiac potential

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    Ramandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, indigenous remedies have been used in treatment of sexual dysfunction since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have been always an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction or sexual dysfunction (ED or SD or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of male sexual (or erectile dysfunction, various Indian natural aphrodisiac plants potentials were preferred. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 200 plants possess aphrodisiac potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants, 33 plants were reviewed. In this review, studies on Indian medicinal plants were reviewed and their possible therapeutic applications were discussed. This review discusses about aphrodisiac potential of Indian medicinal plants, its botanical name, common name, family, extract, models used, part used and references, which are helpful for researchers to develop new herbal aphrodisiac formulations. In the recent years, interest in drugs of plant origin has been progressively increased.

  11. Analysis of vitamin C in selected medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin C or ascorbic acid, a very useful constituent of redox mechanism is used in medicine and also added in manufactured food for anti-oxidation. A UV-spectrophotometric method was used for the determination of Vitamin C in 4 different medicinal plants. High amount of Vitamin C 160 mg/100 g was found in Citrulus colcocynthis, followed by Hippophae rhamonides oil 136.1 mg/100g. A relatively low concentration of Vitamin C was recorded in Glycyrhiza glabra 56.2 mg/100g and Withinia somnifera 51.50 mg/100 g. The presence of high concentration of Vitamin C in selected medicinal plants might be responsible for their therapeutic effects and uses in the traditional system of medicine. (author)

  12. Antibacterial activity of selected Myanmar medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Yee Win; Nyunt Wynn; Mar Mar Nyein; Win Myint; Saw Hla Myint; Myint Khine

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)

  13. [Isolation and physiological characteristics of endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huijing; Su, Jing; Yu, Liyan; Zhang, Yuqin

    2013-01-04

    To isolate, incubate and characterize cultivable endophytic antinobacteria from medicinal plants, and analyze the diversity of the endophytic antinobacteria, then explore the novel microbial resources. Ten media were used to isolate endophytic antinobacteria from 37 fresh medicinal plant tissue samples. The optimal cultivation conditions for endophytic antinobacteria were determined by comparison. Based on the morphology of the colonies and cells of the new isolates, we chose 174 isolates to analyze their 16S rRNA gene sequences and the diversity of the medicinal plant endophytic antinobacteria. The physiological characteristics of 27 representative strains were studied using Biolog GEN III MicroPlates, API 50CH and API ZYM kits. In total 940 endophytics affiliated to 47 genera of 30 families were isolated, among which more than 600 actinobacteria belonged to 34 genera and 7 unknown taxa. Good growth of the endophytic antinobacteria on PYG (peptone-yeast-glycerol) medium with pH 7.2 at 28-32 degrees C was observed. Physiological characteristics differences of these isolates related to their phylogenetic relationships. Greater differences were shown among the strains from the same host plants than those from differ,ent plants grown in the same area. There are great diverse endophytic actinobacteria inside the medicinal plants. No direct relationship of the endophytic actinobacteria from medicinal plants with the host plants in the sole carbon source utilization, fermentation of carbon sources to produce acid and the enzyme activities was found, while it seemed that the physiological characteristics of the isolates related to the geographical distribution of their host.

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Y N; Baksh-Comeau, Y S; Seaforth, C E

    2015-09-15

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using the TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) questionnaire for data collection. Details of plants, part(s) used, and remedy formulations were elicited from informants and voucher specimens collected for identification at the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The TRAMIL methodology set a limit of a plant with 20 % or more citations for any particular ailment as having significant or popular use. At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey. Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed

  15. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2015-11-04

    The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge about the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of the four plant excipients. The broth dilution antibacterial assay and the DPPH radical scavenging antioxidant assay were used to evaluate the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the plants, respectively. Ethanol, warm water and cold water extracts were prepared from the dried seeds/fruits of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica and Monodora myristica, and tested in the assays. A. melegueta and P. guineense seemed to act as pharmacoenhancers, since they have been shown to inhibit specific CYP-enzymes. A. melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants as excipients could rely on their taste properties. The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make the medicine more palatable or (3) a way to preserve the activity of the medicinal preparation over time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review on antidepressant effect of medicinal plants

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    Zahra Rabiei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression is a life-threatening, debilitating, and common disease affecting different segments of community. Chemical and synthetic drugs available to treat this disease cause many adverse effects and may lead to complete recovery in only 50% of patients. At the same time, medicinal plants have been reported to exert optimal pharmacological effects in treating depression in different models. In this review, the relevant articles indexed in the reliable databases PubMed, PubMed central, Scopus and Web of Science were review-ed. The review indicated that most medicinal plants exerted antidepressant effects through synaptic regulation of serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine, regulating activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reinfor-cing anti-oxidant defense system, and decreasing inflammatory mediators. The medicinal plants and their active compounds can relieve depression through different pathways and hence are considered a new source to produce antidepressants.

  17. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

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    Akash Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants. Among all the plant parts fruit (24%, whole plants and leaves (23% each were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each, abdominal pain (0.9, and diarrhea (0.89. Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86% followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each. Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  18. Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

  19. Antibacterial activity of Venda medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Vanessa; Fernandes, Anthony C; van Rensburg, Constance E J

    2007-12-01

    Crude methanol and water extracts of 36 plants, employed in the treatment of diseases of probable bacterial etiology by the Venda people, were screened for antibacterial activity. Combretum molle, Peltophorum africanum, Piper capense, Terminalia sericea and Zanthoxylum davyi were the most active and presented MIC values < or =1.00 mg/ml.

  20. Medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg, Namaqualand, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortje, J M; van Wyk, B-E

    2015-08-02

    Qualitative and quantitative data is presented that gives a new perspective on the traditional medicinal plants of the Khoisan (Khoe-San), one of the most ancient of human cultures. The data is not only of considerable historical and cultural value, but allows for fascinating comparative studies relating to new species records, novel use records and the spatial distribution of traditional plant use knowledge within the Cape Floristic Region. A detailed documentation and quantitative analysis of medicinal plants of the Kamiesberg area (an important Khoisan and Nama cultural centre) and their traditional uses, which have hitherto remained unrecorded. During four study visits to the Kamiesberg, semi-structured and structured interviews were conducted with 24 local inhabitants of the Kamiesberg, mostly of Khoisan decent. In addition to standard methodology, a newly developed Matrix Method was used to quantity medicinal plant knowledge. The Kamiesberg is an important center of extant Nama ethnomedicinal information but the knowledge is rapidly disappearing. Of a total of 101 medicinal plants and 1375 anecdotes, 21 species were recorded for the first time as having traditional medicinal uses and at least 284 medicinal use records were new. The relative importance, popularity and uses of the plants were quantified. The 97 newly documented vernacular names include 23 Nama (Khoekhoegowab) names and an additional 55 new variations of known names. The calculated Ethnobotanical Knowledge Index (EKI) and other indices accurately quantified the level of knowledge and will allow for future local, regional and even global comparisons. The results showed that the Kamiesberg is an important focal point of Khoisan (Nama) traditional knowledge but that the medicinal plants have not yet been systematically recorded in the scientific literature. There are numerous new use records and new species records that are in need of scientific study. Comparative data is now available for broader

  1. Medicinal Plants Targeting Cardiovascular Diseases in View of Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Zahra; Nami, Saeed Reza; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a spectrum of diseases involving the heart and blood vessels, and the first cause of mortality worldwide. Medicinal plants have been used for thousands of years to treat CVD. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM), there is a special focus on heart diseases. Avicenna, a Persian physician of the eleventh century compiled a book devoted to this field named "The treatise on cardiac drugs" which is a compendium of TPM knowledge on CVD. Avicenna mentioned 50 cardiovascular active plants and described their therapeutic effects in the treatment of CVDs. Here, we perform a detailed search in scientific databases to verify the cardiovascular activities of the medicinal plants suggested by Avicenna. Also, we discussed cardiovascular activities of a number of the most important suggested plants as well as their efficacy in clinical studies. Major bioactive compounds identified from these plants are also discussed. Pharmacological studies have revealed that the majority of these plants are effective in cardiovascular health with various mechanisms. Among them, Crocus sativus L., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, Punica granatum L., Ocimum basilicum L., Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton, Melissa officinalis L. and Phyllanthus emblica L. have proved to be more effective. The above-mentioned plants can be rich sources for developing new and effective pharmaceuticals for the treatment of CVDs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  3. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  4. Medicinal plants used as excipients in the history in Ghanaian herbal medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiesleben, Sara Holm; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance The present study was carried out to investigate the traditional use, pharmacology and active compounds of four plants commonly used as excipients in herbal medicine in Ghana. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to gain knowledge....... melegueta could act as an antioxidant to preserve herbal preparations. None of the plant excipients had antibacterial activity against the bacteria tested in this study. Compounds with an aromatic or pungent smell had been identified in all the plant excipients. An explanation for the use of the plants...... as excipients could rely on their taste properties. Conclusion The present study suggests that there may be more than one simple explanation for the use of these four plants as excipients. Plausible explanations have been proven to be: (1) a way to increase the effect of the medicine, (2) a way to make...

  5. Database on pharmacophore analysis of active principles, from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchai, Daisy; Manikkam, Rajalakshmi; Rajendran, Sasikala R; Pitchai, Gnanamani

    2010-07-06

    Plants continue to be a major source of medicines, as they have been throughout human history. In the present days, drug discovery from plants involves a multidisciplinary approach combining ethnobotanical, phytochemical and biological techniques to provide us new chemical compounds (lead molecules) for the development of drugs against various pharmacological targets, including cancer, diabetes and its secondary complications. In view of this need in current drug discovery from medicinal plants, here we describe another web database containing the information of pharmacophore analysis of active principles possessing antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancerous and antioxidant properties from medicinal plants. The database provides the botanical, taxonomic classification, biochemical as well as pharmacological properties of medicinal plants. Data on antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti oxidative, anti tumor and anti inflammatory compounds, and their physicochemical properties, SMILES Notation, Lipinski's properties are included in our database. One of the proposed features in the database is the predicted ADMET values and the interaction of bioactive compounds to the target protein. The database alphabetically lists the compound name and also provides tabs separating for anti microbial, antitumor, antidiabetic, and antioxidative compounds. http://www.hccbif.info /

  6. The medicinal plants of Chepan Mountain (Western Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho

    2015-12-01

    Bulgaria is one of the European countries with the greatest biodiversity, including biodiversity of medicinal plants. The object of this study is Chepan Mountain. It is located in Western Bulgaria and it is part of Balkan Mountain. On the territory of the Chepan Mountain (only 80 km2) we found 344 species of medicinal plants from 237 genera and 83 families. The floristic analysis indicates, that the most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The hemicryptophytes dominate among the life forms with 49.71%. The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (60.47%). There are 7 types of floristic elements divided in 27 groups. The largest percentage of species are of the European type (58.43%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species and 18 relic species. We described 23 species with protection statute. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 220 species (63.95%).

  7. Genetic Programming for Medicinal Plant Family Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Laksmana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about medicinal plants that is available in text documents is generally quite easy to access, however, one needs some efforts to use it. This research was aimed at utilizing crucial information taken from a text document to identify the family of several species of medicinal plants using a heuristic approach, i.e. genetic programming. Each of the species has its unique features. The genetic program puts the characteristics or special features of each family into a tree form. There are a number of processes involved in the investigated method, i.e. data acquisition, booleanization, grouping of training and test data, evaluation, and analysis. The genetic program uses a training process to select the best individual, initializes a generate-rule process to create several individuals and then executes a fitness evaluation. The next procedure is a genetic operation process, which consists of tournament selection to choose the best individual based on a fitness value, the crossover operation and the mutation operation. These operations have the purpose of complementing the individual. The best individual acquired is the expected solution, which is a rule for classifying medicinal plants. This process produced three rules, one for each plant family, displaying a feature structure that distinguishes each of the families from each other. The genetic program then used these rules to identify the medicinal plants, achieving an average accuracy of 86.47%.

  8. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  9. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)

  10. Modes of Action of Herbal Medicines and Plant Secondary Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Wink

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce a wide diversity of secondary metabolites (SM which serve them as defense compounds against herbivores, and other plants and microbes, but also as signal compounds. In general, SM exhibit a wide array of biological and pharmacological properties. Because of this, some plants or products isolated from them have been and are still used to treat infections, health disorders or diseases. This review provides evidence that many SM have a broad spectrum of bioactivities. They often interact with the main targets in cells, such as proteins, biomembranes or nucleic acids. Whereas some SM appear to have been optimized on a few molecular targets, such as alkaloids on receptors of neurotransmitters, others (such as phenolics and terpenoids are less specific and attack a multitude of proteins by building hydrogen, hydrophobic and ionic bonds, thus modulating their 3D structures and in consequence their bioactivities. The main modes of action are described for the major groups of common plant secondary metabolites. The multitarget activities of many SM can explain the medical application of complex extracts from medicinal plants for more health disorders which involve several targets. Herbal medicine is not a placebo medicine but a rational medicine, and for several of them clinical trials have shown efficacy.

  11. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Ye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars.

  12. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose.

  13. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Asthma: A Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Emami, Seyed Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    To search major Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) textbooks for medicinal plants used to treat asthma. The conformity of the TPM findings on the anti-asthmatic efficacy of plants with the findings of pharmacological studies was also explored. Major TPM textbooks were hand searched to find medicinal plants used for the treatment of asthma. Scientific names of TPM-suggested plants were determined using botanical databases and were used for a multidatabase electronic search in PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar databases. Then, the antiasthmatic effectiveness of TPM-recommended plants was verified in view of the findings from modern pharmacological investigations. According to the main TPM texts, Adianthum capillus-veneris, Boswellia oleogumresin, Crocus sativus, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis and Ruta graveolens were the most efficacious medicinal plants for the treatment of asthma. This finding was confirmed by pharmacological studies which showed counterbalancing effects of the above-mentioned plants on inflammation, oxidative stress, allergic response, tracheal smooth muscle cell constriction and airway remodeling. The strong ethnobotanical background of plants used in TPM could be a valuable tool to find new anti-asthmatic medications. In this review, TPM-suggested anti-asthmatic plants were found to possess several mechanisms relevant to the treatment of respiratory diseases according to the information retrieved from modern pharmacological studies. This high degree of conformity suggested further proof-of-concept trials to ascertain the role of these plants in the routine management of asthmatic patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Phytotoxic studies of medicinal plant species of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilani, S.A.; Adnan, M.; Kikuchi, A.; Fujii, Y.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Kazuo, N.; Watanabe, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    Allelopathic screening of 81 medicinal plant species, collected from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) Pakistan, was carried out to identify significantly higher allelopathic species for future phyto chemical analyses. For this purpose, sandwich method was used to test allelopathic potentials of leaf leachates of these plant species against lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa L.). Two different concentrations of 10 mg and 50 mg of leaf leachates were used in the study. The radicle and hypocotyl growths were measured and compared with control treatments. It was observed that an endemic species Seriphidium kurramense, Andrachne cordifolia and Rhazya stricta were the stronger phyto toxic plants as compared to the other test species. Based on the current screening, three potential medicinal plants are recommended for future bioassay guided isolation of allelochemicals and for genetic diversity studies. It would also be interesting to see correlation between genetic markers and isolated allelochemicals. (author)

  15. Bioactive Compounds from Plants Used in Peruvian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Olga; Perez, Eleucy; Villar, Martha; Flores, Diana; Rojas, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    It is estimated that there are as many as 1400 plant species currently used in traditional Peruvian medicine; however, only a few have undergone scientific investigation. In this paper, we make a review of the botanical, chemical, pharmacological and clinical propierties of the most investigated Peruvian medicinal plants. The plant species selected for this review are: Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon), Croton lechleri (sangre de grado), Uncaria tomentosa/U. guianensis (uña de gato), Lepidium meyenii (maca), Physalis peruviana (aguaymanto), Minthostachys mollis (muña), Notholaena nivea (cuti-cuti), Maytenus macrocarpa (chuchuhuasi), Dracontium loretense (jergon sacha), Gentianella nitida (hercampuri), Plukenetia volubilis (sacha inchi) and Zea mays (maiz morado). For each of these plants, information about their traditional uses and current commercialization is also included.

  16. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants.

  17. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha Choudhary

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti- arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 147-179

  18. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisangau Daniel P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

  19. A new medicinal plant from Amazonian Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asdall, W

    1983-12-01

    Dalbergaria tessmanii, a shrub of the Gesneriaceae locally abundant in the tropical forests of Ecuador, is variously ethnomedicinally employed. For example, none of several Shuar (Jívaro) herbal healers know or use it, but the one Shuar Shaman consulted extols its importance in reducing vaginal bleeding. Although Mestizo native consultants from the provincial capital of Morona-Santiago report its use in alleviating heart problems, those from Pastaza Province employ it to reduce menstrual flow. The Lowland Quechua apparently use it for this purpose as well. This plant has apparently not yet been chemically examined. Its reported use in several different cultural context suggest that it should be phytochemically investigated.

  20. The medicinal plants of Frangensko Plateau (Northeastern Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariev, Dimcho; Kacheva, Cvetelina

    2015-12-01

    The Frangensko Plateau is located in the northeastern part of Bulgaria and covers an area of 360 km2. On the territory of the plateau there are two protected areas, as well as two areas of the European ecological network NATURA 2000. The study of the medicinal plants on the territory of the Frangensko Plateau is made for the first time. As a result of our research we found 362 species of vascular plants from 242 genera and 80 families. The most of the families and the genera are represented by a small number of inferior taxa. The analysis of their life form indicates that the hemicryptophytes dominate with 39.50%, followed by the phanerophytes (22.10%). The biological types are represented mainly by perennial herbaceous plants (52.21%), annual herbaceous plants (14.09%) and trees (10.50%). There are 8 types of floristic elements divided in 32 groups. The largest percentage of species is of European type (51.93%). Among the medicinal plants, there are two Balkan endemic species, one Bulgarian endemic species and 30 relic species. Thirty four species with protection statute are described. The anthropophytes among the medicinal plants are 242 species (66.85%).

  1. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-10-10

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost.Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

  2. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Douglas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food. The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic ailments (39 species, followed by respiratory disorders (34, problems of the urinary tract (28, Fever/Malaria (25, Rheumatism (23 and nervous system problems (20.

  3. Traditional uses of some medicinal plants in Malatya (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetik, Figen; Civelek, Semsettin; Cakilcioglu, Ugur

    2013-03-07

    This study has identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Malatya Province in the Eastern Anatolia Region, but also the uses and local names of these plants. It tried to provide a source for researchers studying in ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry by comparing the information obtained from traditionally used herbs with previous laboratory studies. In Turkey, use of plants for medical purposes has been a tradition. This study aims to identify wild plants collected for medical purposes by the local people of Malatya Province, located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to establish the uses and local names of these plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2011). A questionnaire was administered to the local people, through face-to-face interviews. During this period, 330 vascular plant specimens were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant species were collected within the scope of the study; herbarium materials were prepared; and the specimens were entitled. In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. In the area of research, 132 individuals who had knowledge about plants were interviewed. Mean age of the respondents was 44 years (in 35-73 years range). 108 plants were found to be used for medical purposes before in the literature analysis of the plants used in our study, while 15 plants were found to have no literature records. The most common families are: Asteraceae (21 plants), Lamiaceae (14 plants), and Rosaceae (12 plants). Local people were recorded to use the aerial parts, branches, flowers, fruits, latex, leaves, matured fruits, peduncle, resin, rhizomes, root bark, roots, seeds and style of the

  4. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by the communities of Mount Hermon, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydoun, Safaa; Chalak, Lamis; Dalleh, Helena; Arnold, Nelly

    2015-09-15

    Medicinal plant species in Lebanon are experiencing severe threats because of various environmental conditions, human expansion footprints and recent growing global demand. Organized research and information on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge have been very limited and little efforts have been invested to develop a complete inventory for native medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge in the country. Recognized as a key biodiversity area of the Mediterranean Basin, Mount Hermon hosts important richness of medicinal plants that has been traditionally used in treatment of many illnesses since generations. Novel knowledge gathered by the present investigation is important in preserving indigenous knowledge of Mount Hermon community and revitalizing traditional herbal medicines. Ethnopharmacological information was collected by semi-structured interviews with 53 native informants (herbalists, traditional healers, midwives and local adult villagers) in 13 towns and villages surrounding Mount Hermon. The interviews were conducted through guided field visits and discussion groups whilst collecting plants specimens. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on the determination keys of the "New Flora of Lebanon and Syria" and specimens were deposited at the herbarium of the Research Center for Environment and Development at Beirut Arab University. The results obtained indicate that 124 plant species of Mount flora are still used in traditional medicine by the local communities as an important source of primary health care and treatment of a wide range of different illnesses. These species belonged to 42 families and 102 genera. Compositae (19 species), Labiatae (18 species), Rosaceae (11) and Umbelliferae (11) formed the dominant families. Informants' Consensus Factor (FIC) analysis revealed that among the 14 illness categories used, respiratory (0.94), gastrointestinal and renal (0.93), genital systems (0.92) had the highest FIC values

  5. Antidiarrhoeal evaluation of some nigerian medicinal plants used bini traditional folk medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obuekwe, I.F.

    2008-01-01

    Four medicinal plants namely; Vernonia amygdalina, Psidium guajava, Chromolaena odorata and Anarcadium occidentale, commonly used for the treatment of diarrhoea in Bini traditional folk medicine in Nigeria were tested against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella aerogenes. The leaf extracts of P guajava and A occidentale completely inhibited the growth of all the organisms tested, while V amygdalina inhibited the growth of K. aerogenes only. Metronidazole was used as the standard antidiarrhoeal drug. Glycosides were found in all the plant extracts. This study, Favours the use of the leaf extracts of A occidentale, P guajava and V amygdalina for the treatment of diarrhoea in Nigeria. (author)

  6. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  7. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomita Devi, K., E-mail: nomita_k@rediffmail.co [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India); Nandakumar Sarma, H. [Department of Physics, Manipur University, Canchipur, Imphal 795003 (India)

    2010-06-15

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced {gamma}-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  8. Ethnopharmacological survey of the medicinal plants used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: An inventory of the medicinal plants used by herbalists to treat various ailments in Tindiret area of Nandi County, Kenya was conducted by a team comprising of medical researchers and botanists with a view to preserve indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge and potential research and development of new ...

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is an increasing resistance of malaria parasites to cholroquine, one of the affordable and commonly used drugs for malaria in Nigeria. Therefore, the use of plants with anti-malaria properties is now very common in the country. Today, not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinal ...

  10. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Uprety, Y.; Poudel, R. C.; Timsina, B.; Münzbergová, Zuzana; Asselin, H.; Tiwari, A.; Shrestha, S. S.; Sidgel, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 158, Part A (2014), s. 221-229 ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-10850P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : principal component analysis * medicinal plants * randomization test * ethnomedicine * drug development Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.998, year: 2014

  11. Antidiarrhoeal activity of different plants used in traditional medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antidiarrhoeal activity of different plants used in traditional medicine. SP Gutiérrez, MAZ Sánchez, CP González, LA García. Abstract. Diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in children under age of 5 years. In view of this problem, the World Health Organization has a Diarrhoea Disease Control ...

  12. Activity profiles of fourteen selected medicinal plants from Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen plants used in traditional medicine in the Venda region of South Africa were screened for activity against fifteen bacterial species. Methanol, acetone and hexane extracts and in some cases essential oils were tested using the disc diffusion and the microdilution methods. Most of the extracts were active against at ...

  13. Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kokoška, L.; Polesný, Z.; Rada, V.; Nepovím, Aleš; Vaněk, Tomáš

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 82, - (2002), s. 51-53 ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA525/02/0257 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : antimicrobial activity * medicinal plants Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.188, year: 2002

  14. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R., E-mail: kerurbrk@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga, and Karnataka, India – 585106 (India)

    2015-08-28

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health.

  15. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced γ-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  16. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-01-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  17. Nigerian Ethnomedicine and Medicinal Plant Flora: Anti - ulcer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aloe vera is an exotic species that is getting naturalized and commercially cultivated in the area. The pieces of information herein are regarded as useful tips for the bioassay-guided isolation of active principles from local medicinal plants. Key Words: Anti-ulcer, folk remedy, secondary metabolites, saponins, tannins

  18. Chemical composition of medicinal plants used as auxiliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to find substances of pharmacological interest in a variety of medicinal plants, such as Aloe vera (L.) Burm. (aloe), Simaba ferruginea St. Hil. (calunga), Baccharis trimera (Less.) DC (carqueja), Garcinia cambogia Desr. and Tournefortia paniculata Cham. (Marmelinho), to aid in the treatment of ...

  19. An Ethnomedicinal Survey of Medicinal Plants Used as Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants serve as food supplements and provide essential nutrients to the body in addition to their use as prophylactic and curative measures for some diseases. We conducted a survey among the traditional healers of the Chakma tribe, which is the largest tribe in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in the southeast ...

  20. Larvicidal properties of four Ethiopian medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Larvicidal properties of four Ethiopian medicinal plants against Culex quinquefasciatus. A Animut, A Seyoum. Abstract. No Abstract. SINET: Ethiopian Journal of Science Vol. 31 (1) 2008: pp. 65-68. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Molecular fingerprinting of the Egyptian medicinal plant Cocculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Fathi Shadia

    2013-11-27

    Nov 27, 2013 ... Molecular fingerprinting of the Egyptian medicinal plant. Cocculus pendulus. A. Fathi Shadia a. , M. El-Saied Fareida c. , A.B. Sengab b. , M. Sherif Naglaa a. ,. A.M. Osman c. , S. El-Demerdash El-Shaimaa c,. * a Biochemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo, Egypt b Pharmacognasy Dept.

  2. Medicinal Plants Useful For Malaria Therapy In Okeigbo, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinal plant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to ...

  3. Antimicrobial effects of Indian medicinal plants against acne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis have been recognized as pus-forming bacteria triggering an inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of Indian medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanolic extracts of Hemidesmus ...

  4. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-11-02

    Nov 2, 2006 ... bioinsecticides. This study reports on the evaluation four medicinal plant extracts in the control of Sitophilus zeamais in stored maize. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Insect cultures. Parent stock of Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) was obtained from established laboratory culture reared on disinfested maize grains ...

  5. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in gastrointestinal disorders in Nepal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Uprety, Y.; Poudel, R. C.; Timsina, Binu; Munzbergová, Z.; Asselin, H.; Tiwari, A.; Shrestha, S. S.; Sidgel, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 158, Part A (2014), s. 221-229 ISSN 0378-8741 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : medicinal plants * principal component analysis * randomization test * ethnomedicine * drug development Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.998, year: 2014

  6. Laboratory evaluation of four medicinal plants as protectants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The petroleum ether extract of four medicinal plants; Aristolochia ringens (Vahl), Allium sativum (L), Ficus exasperata (L) and Garcinia kola (H), were evaluated as grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Mots) in the laboratory at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% (w/v) concentrations. Parameters assessed were adult ...

  7. Antioxidant activity in some selected Indian medicinal plants | Kumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plants namely Albizia amara, Achyranthes aspera, Cassia fistula, Cassia auriculata and Datura stramonium by inhibition of lipid peroxidation technique. The highest inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity was observed in A. amara (96%) ...

  8. Capturing indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants use: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty ailments categorized into thirty one treatments and prevention methods were discovered. Kigellia africana, Cassia spp and Alstonia boonei were used for treating common ailments like malaria, dysentery and gonorrhea. Sources of collecting the medicinal plant species and their mode of administration were different.

  9. Screening Of Ten Indian Medicinal Plants For Their Antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol and Aqueous extracts of ten Indian medicinal plants were tested for their antibacterial properties against Shigella sonei, S. boydi, S. flexeneri, S. dysenteriae and Escherechia coli with disc diffusion, well diffusion, and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The results showed that the aqueous extract of the bulb ...

  10. Utilization of medicinal plants by Waluguru people in East Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was done to assess utilization of medicinal plants in Nyachilo village situated in eastern Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered and informal discussions conducted to traditional healers and midwives. The respondents were selected from Changa, Mselelo, Tanana, ...

  11. Cytotoxicity Of Three South African Medicinal Plants Using The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Therefore, it was decided to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the hexane and acetone extracts of the medicinal plants against the Chang Liver cell line using the in vitro MTT assay. Different concentrations of the extracts were added into 24-hour cultured cells and incubated for 72 hours under specific ...

  12. Antibacterial activity of honey and medicinal plant extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using a broth dilution method, the antibacterial activity extracts of six South African honeys and medicinal plants against six enteric microorganisms viz- Enterobacter cloacae, Escheriachia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter freundii isolated from geophagia samples and Aeromonas hydrophila and plesiomonas ...

  13. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay of selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmaja, R; Arun, P C; Prashanth, D; Deepak, M; Amit, A; Anjana, M

    2002-10-01

    Ethanolic extracts of six Indian medicinal plants, piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z were tested for cytotoxicity using brine shrimp lethality test. Piper longum showed most potent cytotoxic activity. Piperine, guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z showed potent activity with LC(50) 2.4, 8.9 and 4.9, respectively. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  14. Cytotoxic Screening of Some Tanzania Medicinal Plants | Moshi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic Screening of Some Tanzania Medicinal Plants. MJ Moshi, A Kamuhabwa, Z Mbwambo, P De Witte. Abstract. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Vol.6(3) 2003: 52-56. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation studies of some medicinal plant extracts and fungicides against Alternaria solani. S Phalisteen, S Ishaq, K Amardeep, J Arif, S Sami. Abstract. Alternaria is a polyphagus fungus that occurs frequently on dead and decaying organic material and is responsible for causing leaf spot disease. In Indian subcontinent ...

  16. Antibacterial effects of some Cameroonian medicinal plants against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We screened forty crude extracts of twenty Cameroonian medicinal plants commonly used to treat bacterial infections for broad spectrum antibacterial activity, as a more affordable alternative against resistant organisms. The extracts were screened on common pathogenic gram negative and gram positive bacteria initially ...

  17. Indigenous healthcare practice through medicinal plants from forests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exploratory study was conducted on the ethno-botanical perception of the Mro tribe of Bandarban, Bangladesh, to focus on the implications of healthcare using medicinal plants collected from forests. A total of 36 households were assessed using different participatory appraisals through semi-structured questionnaire.

  18. Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Original identification of medicinal plants is essential for quality control. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA served as a DNA barcode and was amplified by allele-specific PCR. This approach was exploited to differentiate Taraxacum formosanum from five.

  19. Rapid identification of the medicinal plant Taraxacum formosanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original identification of medicinal plants is essential for quality control. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA served as a DNA barcode and was amplified by allele-specific PCR. This approach was exploited to differentiate Taraxacum formosanum from five related adulterants. Using a ...

  20. Toward sustainable harvesting of Africa's largest medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global demand for treating prostate disorders with Prunus africana bark extract has made P. africana Africa's largest medicinal plant export. Unsustainable harvesting practices can lead to local extirpations of this multipurpose tree. Survey research targeting P. africana harvesters in a Tanzania forest reserve revealed that ...

  1. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by sabaots of Mt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though the majority of people in Kenya and at Kopsiro Division in species to manage human ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. Elgon District Kenya.

  2. Determination of Amino Acids in Medicinal Plants from Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Amino acid profile, Medicinal plants, Osmolytes, Drought/saline stress. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is ... to several stress conditions such as high and low temperatures, high salt concentrations, exposure ... Origin 9.0 software (OriginLab Corporation,. Northampton, MA 01060 USA) was used for.

  3. Common plants of medicinal values in kolams of Adilabad district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    specimens were collected in their natural form and identified. Additional information was collected on socio-economic aspects, health profile and other cultural aspects. RESULTS. Table 1 shows the distance of the villages from the nearest Primary Health Care (PHC). The herbal specialist Delak collects medicinal plants.

  4. Molecular authentication of the traditional Tibetan medicinal plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The root of Meconopsis impedita is one of the most widely used traditional Tibetan medicinal plants. However, it is often confused with Meconopsis racemosa whose roots may be used as a substitute. To establish a DNA polymorphism-based assay for the identification of M. impedita, the chloroplast rps16 intron region of 11 ...

  5. Antibacterial spectrum of traditionally used medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mentha longifolia is significantly active against Proteus, while negligibly active against other tested microorganisms. Escherichia coli is however, resistant to M longifolia. Keywords: Biological activity, medicinal plants, Incarvillea emodi, Vernonia anthelmintica, Adiantum capilus-veneries, Mentha longifolia, Hazara, Pakistan ...

  6. Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martinez Espinosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

  7. Reproductive biology in the medicinal plant, Plumbago zeylanica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plumbago zeylanica L. is an important medicinal plant traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases. Phenology from seed germination via vegetative growth to reproductive development was studied under glasshouse and nursery conditions. Seeds rapidly germinated on a mixture of nursery soil and cattle dung in ...

  8. Activities of selected medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was designed to assess the in vitro antibacterial activities of some Cameroonian medicinal plants including Entada abyssinica, Entada africana, Pentaclethra macrophylla, Allexis cauliflora, Anthocleista leibrechtsiana, Carapa procera, Carica papaya and Persea americana against Gram-negative bacteria ...

  9. Heavy metals and inorganic constituents in medicinal plants of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heavy metals such as Cr, Fe, Zn, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cu and Cd, and inorganic ions like HCO3-, CO32-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Na+, SO42-, NO3-, Fe2+ and F- were investigated in medicinally important plants: Taraxacam officinale, Cichorium intybus and Figonia critica, applying atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. In the ...

  10. The bioactive potentials of two medicinal plants commonly used as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioactive potentials of two medicinal plants commonly used as folklore remedies among some tribes in West Africa. ... Phytochemical compounds present in the extract of J. curcas include alkaloids, saponins, steroids and tannins, while those present in N. laevis extract includes alkaloids, flavonoids and tannins.

  11. use of traditional medicinal plants by people of 'boosat'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JU

    preserved and made available for immediate application. Some of the major species used in this method are Senna occidentalis, Bidens pilosa and Andrachne aspera(Table1). Table 1. Families of medicinal plants and number of species used for humans ailments by. People of Boosat sub district, Central East Ethiopia.

  12. Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Martinez Espinosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

  13. Guest Editorial From plants to medicine for management of sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest Editorial From plants to medicine for management of sickle cell disorder. Charles Wambele. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(1) 2006: 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/dai.v18i1.15718.

  14. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUDASIR DAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai M, Gade A, Rathod D, Dar M, Varma A. 2012. Review: Mycoendophytes in medicinal plants: Diversity and bioactivities. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 86-96. Endophytes are microorganisms that reside in internal tissues of living plants without causing any negative effect. These offer tremendous potential for the exploitation of novel and eco-friendly secondary metabolites used in medicine, the pharmaceutical industry and agriculture. The present review is focused on diversity of endophytes, current national and international bioactive secondary metabolite scenario and future prospects. Endophytic fungi as novel source of potentially useful medicinal compounds are discussed along with the need to search for new and more effective agents from endophytes to combat disease problems.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S

    2007-02-16

    The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml.

  16. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  17. MicroRNAs as New Bioactive Components in Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenyan; Weng, Alexander; Melzig, Matthias F

    2016-08-01

    Herbal medicine has been used to treat diseases for centuries; however, the biological active components and the mechanistic understanding of actions of plant-derived drugs are permanently discussed. MicroRNAs are a class of small, non-coding RNAs that play crucial roles as regulators of gene expression. In recent years, an increasing number of reports showed that microRNAs not only execute biological functions within their original system, they can also be transmited from one species to another, inducing a posttranscriptional repression of protein synthesis in the recipient. This cross-kingdom regulation of microRNAs provides thrilling clues that small RNAs from medicinal plants might act as new bioactive components, interacting with the mammalian system.In this article, we provide an overview of the cross-kingdom communication of plant-derived microRNAs. We summarize the microRNAs identified in medicinal plants, their potential targets in mammals, and discuss several recent studies concerning the therapeutic applications of plant-based microRNAs. Health regulations of herbal microRNAs in mammals are a new concept. Continuing efforts in this area will broaden our understanding of biological actions of herbal remedies, and will open the way for the development of new approaches to prevent or treat human diseases. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Reliance on medicinal plant therapy among cancer patients in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kimberley; Younger, Novie; Aiken, William; Brady-West, Doreen; Delgoda, Rupika

    2017-11-01

    Patients' perspective of their treatment regime plays a vital role in its success. Recognizing the high prevalence of medicinal plant usage among Jamaicans at large, we investigated the engagement of such remedies by cancer patients, with the aim of uncovering self-medicating habits, perceptions and details of utilized plants. A structured, interviewer-based questionnaire was administered to 100 patients attending the oncology and urology clinics at the University Hospital of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica. A method of convenience sampling was employed and the data were analyzed using summary statistics and statistical significance tests. A large proportion (n = 80, 80%) of interviewed patients, engaged medicinal plants in their treatment regimes. Such habits were independent of person's education, economic status and were higher among the 55-74 age groups (p Petiveria alliacea L. were the most commonly used plants for treating breast and prostate cancers, respectively. A large proportion of Jamaican cancer patients use medicinal plants in self-medicating practices and their perceptions and habits need to be considered by physicians, in the design of safe and effective care regimes.

  19. Anti-halitosis plants in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Fahimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating constantly from oral cavity. Almost 22-50% of the population experiences such a condition during lifespan and about half of them suffer from personal discomfort and social embarrassment. Based on the literature survey, it seems that the oral cavity is the most important origin of halitosis; therefore, this area could be considered as the best target for the treatment. Halitosis is a well-known disorder in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM; Avicenna and some other famous Iranian traditional physicians have described this condition in their manuscripts precisely. Herbal therapy was the major treatment suggested by Iranian scholars in which mixtures of medicinal plants were used in the form of mouthwashes and other oral formulations. In the present study, six Iranian ancient medical texts were screened for the herbs with anti-halitosis effects. Subsequent to this study, the medicinal herbs were listed and scored based on the frequency of their repetition. Moreover, the effort has been taken to provide the best scientific name for each plant as well as searching modern studies about their biological effects. In our investigation fourteen plants were obtained as the most frequent herbs for treatment of halitosis in ITM. Previous studies revealed that some of these plants have shown biological activities relating to anti-halitosis effect. The present study introduces some more plants for future studies about anti-halitosis property.

  20. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Balcha

    2014-05-08

    Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ''rare" for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p institution (14.3 ± 34) and adult age groups (11.6 ± 43). The Ghimbi people possess rich ethno-medicinal

  1. Infrequent use of medicinal plants from India in snakebite treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manali Sughosh Upasani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Snakes have fascinated humankind for millennia. Snakebites are a serious medical, social, and economic problem that are experienced worldwide; however, they are most serious in tropical and subtropical countries. The reasons for this are 1 the presence of more species of the most dangerous snakes, 2 the inaccessibility of immediate medical treatment, and 3 poor health care. The goal of this study was to collect information concerning rare, less utilized, and less studied medicinal plants. More than 100 plants were found to have potential to be utilized as anti-snake venom across India. Data accumulated from a variety of literature sources revealed useful plant families, the parts of plants used, and how to utilize them. In India, there are over 520 plant species, belonging to approximately 122 families, which could be useful in the management of snakebites. This study was conducted to encourage researchers to create herbal antidotes, which will counteract snake venom. These may prove to be an inexpensive and easily assessable alternative, which would be of immense importance to society. Plants from families such as Acanthaceae, Arecaceae, Apocynaceae, Caesalpiniaceae, Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Zingiberaceae are the most useful. In India, experts of folklore are using herbs either single or in combination with others. Keywords: Appraise traditional medicinal plants, Ethnomedicine, India, Snake antivenom

  2. Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2012-08-01

    Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC₅₀ value of 1.6 μg/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC₅₀ 13.0 μg/ml). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer.

  4. [Study on essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Zheng; Luo, Jiao-Yang; Liu, Qiu-Tao; Lv, Ze-Liang; Yang, Shi-Hai; Yang, Mei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are seriously harmful to human health for transmitting some mortal diseases. Among the methods of mosquito control, synthetical insecticides are the most popular. However, as a result of longterm use of these insecticides, high resistant mosquitos and heavy environmental pollution appear. Thus, eco-friendly prevention measures are taken into the agenda. Essential oils extracted from medicinal plants have repellent and smoked killing effects on mosquitoes. With abundant medical plants resources and low toxicity, they have the potential of being developed as a new type of mosquito and insect repellent agent. The recent application advances of essential oils of medicinal plants in insect repellent and its application limitations are overviewed. This review will provide references for the future development and in-depth study of essential oils. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Sandra Muntz

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc and Zn in medicinal extracts obtained from Achyrolcline satureoides DC, Casearia sylvestris, Centella asiatica, Citrus aurantium L., Solano lycocarpum, Solidago microglossa, Stryphnondedron barbatiman and Zingiber officinale R. plants. The elements Hg and Se were determined using radiochemical separation by means of retention of Se in HMD inorganic exchanger and solvent extraction of Hg by bismuth diethyl-dithiocarbamate solution. Precision and accuracy of the results have been evaluated by analysing reference materials. The therapeutic action of some elements found in plant extracts analyzed was briefly discussed

  6. Pharmacognosy of mangrove plants in the system of unani medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Govindasamy

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove plants are found to have medicinal values and have been used traditionally by local medical practitioners in worldwide. In nature, more than 65 species of mangrove plants, 18 species are found to be widely used by local medical practitioners in many countries like India, Africa, Southeast Asia, South America, Australia etc. Moreover, etanobotanical records regarding medical use of mangrove plants are very limited and very unique. One to its astringent property, tannin is suitable in the treatment of tonsillitis, pharyngeatis, hemorrhoids. slaik eruion and burns. It is taken internally, to diarrohea and intestinal bleeding. The extracts of barks of Bruguiera sexangula are active against two human tumors, sarcoma 180 and lexis lung carcinoma. Tannin is also used as an antidote for metallic, alkaloidal and sylycosidic poisons with which it forms a soluble precipitate. Stigma sterol has been shown to have slight hyper cholesterolinic effect which exerts no effect on heart or liver in unani medicine.

  7. A probe into the medicinal potential of Viola canescens – A threatened medicinal plant from Himalaya

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    Sidra Sabir

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Viola canescens Wall. ex Roxb. is a perennial herb belonging to family Violaceae, and it is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. This plant is widely used in Ayurveda and Unani medicinal systems for curing various ailments, most commonly for cough and cold. Phytochemical studies releaved that this plant is rich in secondary metabolites. This plant revealed significant antimicrobial, anti-inflamatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, laxative, analgesic as well as antitumor activities. Due to all these important pharmacological activities, market demand of Viola canescens is increasing day by day and this plant is facing tremendous over exploitation and becomes a threatened plant according to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The present review compiles that the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of the plant need to be conserved.

  8. Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Syrkin Wurtele

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less

  9. Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-11-21

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The

  10. An ethnopharmacological study of aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu; Tian, Shuge; Wen, E; Upur, Halmuart

    2017-12-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was completed in a remote village and surrounding country of Xinjiang, where most Uyghur medicinal plants could be collected. This work clarifies and increases ethnobotanical data. We surveyed and organized aromatic medicinal plants that are commonly used in clinical settings to provide a significant reference for studying new medical activities. In the survey, informants who have traditional knowledge on aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants were interviewed between March 2014 and September 2014. Aromatic medicinal plant species and pertinent information were collected. Some therapeutic methods and modes of preparation of traditional aromatic medicinal plants were found. A total of 86 aromatic medicinal plant species belonging to 36 families were included in our study. We identified 34 plant species introduced from different regions such as Europe, India and Mediterranean areas. Fruits and whole plants were the most commonly used parts of plant, and most aromatic medicinal plants could be applied as medicine and food. We assigned the medicinal plants a use value (UV). Knowing the UV of species is useful in determining the use reliability and pharmacological features of related plants. Xinjiang is an area in which indigenous aromatic medicinal plants are diversely used and has therefore established a sound dimensional medical healthcare treatment system. Some aromatic Uyghur medicinal plants are on the verge of extinction. Hence, further strategies for the conservation of these aromatic medicinal plants should be prioritized.

  11. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Examination of Medicinal Plants Used in Indigenous System of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Santosh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the physicochemical and phytochemical examination of seventy-six medicinal plants belonging to thirty-six dicot and six monocot families. These are used in indigenous system of medicine as well as local inhabitants either as single drugs or in combination, for the cure of various ailments. In physicochemical study, the parameters such as moisture content, pH (1% aqueous, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble extractive and alcohol soluble extractive were carried out. The preliminary phytochemical study was done for the detection of secondary metabolites such as alkaloid, flavonoid, glycoside, phenol, saponin, resin, steroid and tannin. The preliminary phytochemical study revealed the presence of alkaloid and saponin in 68.4%; flavonoid in 44.7%; glycoside, phenol and steroid in 72.37%; resin in 60.5% and tannin in 71% of selected medicinal plants.

  12. Plant Secondary Metabolites in some Medicinal Plants of Mongolia Used for Enhancing Animal Health and Production

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    Makkar, HPS.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels and activities of a number of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs are known to increase in response to increase in stress. The Mongolian plants considered to possess medicinal properties may contain novel compounds since they are exposed to severe conditions; such plants could become good candidates for modern drug discovery programmes. Information on distribution, palatability to livestock and opinion of local people on their nutritive and medicinal values was compiled for 15 plant materials from 14 plant species considered important for medicinal purposes. These plants were evaluated for nutritive value and PSMs: tannins, saponins, lectins, alkaloids and cyanogens. High levels of tannins were found in roots of Bergenia crassifolia and in leaves of B. crassifolia, Vaccinium vitisidaea and Rheum undulatum. High lectin activity (haemagglutination was present in B. crassifolia roots, and leaves of R. undulatum, Iris lacteal and Thymus gobicus contained weak lectin activity. Tanacetum vulgare, Serratula centauroids, Taraxacum officinale and Delphinum elatum leaves contained saponin activity (haemolysis. Alkaloids and cyanogens were not present in any of the samples. The paper discusses the known medicinal uses of these plants in light of the PSMs levels, and identifies plant samples for future applications in human and livestock health, welfare and safety.

  13. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  14. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in Amazonian homegardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Díaz-Reviriego

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material. We also use network centrality measures to evaluate people's location and performance in medicinal plant knowledge and plant material exchange networks. Our results suggest that social organization, specifically kinship and gender relations, influences medicinal plant exchange patterns significantly. Homegardens total and medicinal plant species richness are related to gardeners' centrality in the networks, whereby people with greater centrality maintain greater plant richness. Thus, together with agroecological conditions, social relations among gardeners and the culturally specific social structure seem to be important determinants of plant richness in homegardens. Understanding which factors pattern general species diversity in tropical homegardens, and medicinal plant diversity in particular, can help policy makers, health providers, and local communities to understand better how to promote and preserve medicinal plants in situ. Biocultural approaches that are also gender sensitive offer a culturally appropriate means to reduce the global and local loss of both biological and cultural diversity.

  15. Medicinal plants with teratogenic potential: current considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassiane Cristine da Silva Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to present the implications of the use of herbs during pregnancy, pointing out those that should be avoided during this condition because of their abortifacient and/or teratogenic potential. We carried out searches in the databases ScienceDirect, Scielo and Google Scholar, adopting as criteria for inclusion: book chapters and/or complete articles (with abstract, available in English, Portuguese or Spanish, published from 1996 to in 2011. After a pre-selection of 83 articles, 49 bibliographies were used in the manufacturing end of the article, where 25 were from the Scielo database, 18 from ScienceDirect and 6 from Google Scholar. From the articles studied, we identified the four most commonly used plants as emmenagogue/abortifacient agents by patients of the Department of Prenatal SUS: senne, arruda, boldo and buchinha-do-norte or cabacinha. Thus, we conclude that people often adhere to the maxim "if it's natural, it does no harm" in their rational use of natural products, without the right guidance, believing that these products are safe to use. This usage is even more worrisome among the elderly, pregnant women and children. Regarding the safety of these products, some information and reliable data are scarce or contradictory.Este trabalho busca as implicações atuais sobre o uso de plantas medicinais durante a gravidez, alertando sobre aquelas que devem ser evitadas nesse período por serem potencialmente abortivas e/ou teratogênicas. Para tanto, foram realizadas buscas nas bases de dados Sciencedirect, Scielo e Google scholar, adotando-se como critérios de inclusão capítulos de livros e/ou artigos completos (com abstract e disponíveis, em português, inglês ou espanhol, publicados de 1996 a 2011. Após uma pré-seleção de 83 artigos, 49 bibliografias foram utilizadas na confecção final do artigo, sendo 25 provenientes da base de dados Scielo, 18 do Sciencedirect e 06 do Google scholar. A partir dos

  16. Medicinal plants indications from herbal healers for wound treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Willianne Alves do Nascimento

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify medicinal plants indicated by commercial herbal healers for wound treatment, in street markets. A descriptive study conducted in a capital city in the northeast of Brazil, through interviews. The results indicate that plant commerce by healers of both genders, aged between 37 to 52 years, from those 69.3% learned about their function with family members. Forty-eight plant species were cited for wound treatment, between those, all participants cited Barbatimão and Mastic. From the plants Sambacaitá, Open Nettle, Yellow Uchi, Corona, Xiquexique, Senna and Pindaíba no properties to prove their indication was found for wound treatment. The stem bark was the most indicated part (96.15%, 81.03% of participants informed that plants should be kept dry for conservation. Studies to clarify the biological activities and collateral effects of medicinal plants are needed, beyond training for healers about indications, prepare, storage/conservation, and expiration date.

  17. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain

  18. Traditional knowledge on medicinal plant of the Karen in northern Thailand: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Winijchaiyanan, Piyawan; Sukkho, Treetip; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Pongamornkul, Wittaya; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-10-28

    We studied traditional medicinal plant knowledge among the Karen in northern Thailand. To compare traditional medicinal knowledge in 14 Karen villages in northern Thailand and determine culturally important medicinal plant species in each Karen village. We interviewed 14 key informants and 438 non-specialist informants about their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. We tested normality of the data and correlations with distance to the nearest city using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Cluster analysis and cultural importance index (CI) were calculated for the similarity of medicinal plant used and culturally importance medicinal plant species among Karen villages respectively. In total 379 medicinal plant species were used. Number of medicinal plants used positively correlate with distance to the nearest city. Relatively low similarities of medicinal plant species and different CI values for species among the different areas were found. Traditional medicinal plants still play an important role in medicinal practice of the Karen. Local environments, availability of medicinal plant and distance between Karen villages and the nearest city affect the amount of traditional medicinal knowledge in each Karen village. The medicinal plants in this study with high CI values might give some useful leads for further biomedical research. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Management, use and ecology of medicinal plants in the degraded dry lands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hizikias, E.B.; Aynekulu, E.; Mekuria, W.; Endale, D.

    2011-01-01

    An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge on the management, use, and ecology of locally important medicinal plants in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical data were collected from 250 people, using semi-structured questionnaires, field

  20. [Molecular genetics and biotechnology in medicinal plants: studies by transgenic plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, K

    1994-01-01

    The advances in molecular genetics and biotechnology in the field of medicinal plant research are discussed with focusing on the works using transgenic plants. Differentiated organ cultures and transgenic teratomas, incited by the infection with mutants of Agrobacterium Ti and Ri plasmids, were established in quinolizidine-alkaloid producing plants and Solanaceae plants. These cultured cells were used for the production and bioconversion of specific alkaloids produced in these plants. The methods of integration of foreign genes into medicinal plants were developed using an Ri binary vector. The mode of gene expression driven by TR1'-2' promoters was elucidated in transgenic medicinal plants, e.g., Nicotiana tabacum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Digitalis purpurea and Atropa belladonna. The genes for herbicide resistance, mammalian cytochrome P450 and bacterial beta-hydroxydecanoylthioester dehydrase were transferred and expressed in plants either to confer herbicide-resistant trait or to change the pattern of metabolites. The cDNA clones encoding cysteine synthase responsible for sulfur assimilation and biosynthesis of non-protein amino acids were isolated and characterized from Spinacea oleracea and Citrullus vulgaris. The functional lysine residue was identified by site-directed mutagenesis experiments. An over-expression system in Escherichia coli was constructed for the bacterial production of the plant specific non-protein amino acids. We made transgenic N. tabacum integrated with sense- and antisense-constructs of cysteine synthase cDNA driven by cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter for the purpose of genetic manipulation of biosynthetic flow of cysteine in plants. The future prospects of medicinal plant research are also discussed in the context of modern plant molecular biology.

  1. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) (http://ayurveda.pharmaexpert.ru). It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts.

  2. Antibiotic activity of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a Traditional Medicinal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fernanda R; Albuquerque, Kamylla R S; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pizziolo, Virginia R; Brasileiro, Beatriz G; Diaz, Gaspar; Diaz, Marisa A N

    2017-01-01

    The dichloromethane extract of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a tradicional medicinal plant, showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent of biofilm inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Based on these antibacterial activities, in addition to ethnopharmacological reports from healing men and farmers in Brazil, an herbal soap was produced from this active extract and was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo assays conducted on these herbal soaps led to results similar to those previously conducted with the active extract. These results indicated the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient by preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections on small Brazilian farms.

  3. Antibiotic activity of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a Traditional Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDA R. NASCIMENTO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The dichloromethane extract of Plectranthus ornatus Codd., a tradicional medicinal plant, showed antibiotic activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 0.4 mg.mL-1 and 100 percent of biofilm inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections. Based on these antibacterial activities, in addition to ethnopharmacological reports from healing men and farmers in Brazil, an herbal soap was produced from this active extract and was tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vivo assays conducted on these herbal soaps led to results similar to those previously conducted with the active extract. These results indicated the great potential of this plant for use as an excipient by preparing herbal antibacterial soaps as an alternative veterinary medicine aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections on small Brazilian farms.

  4. MINERAL PROFILE EVOLUTION OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pasca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual minerals and antibacterial activity were investigated in 5 medicinal plants (pot marigold - Calendula officinalis, burdock - Arctium lappa, celandine - Chelidonium majus, basil- Ocimum basilicum, thyme - Thymus vulgaris using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS technique and antibiogram  method. The antibacterial susceptibility has been evaluated over 12 strains isolated from milk microflora, belonging to Staphylococcus, Vibrio, Serratia and Bacillus genera. The obtained results show the best antibacterial effect with  Arctium lappa ethanol extracts, having inhibition areas of 6.3 to 17.5 mm, with an average of 9.0 mm and the highest determined mineral being Calcium. The results obtained open the prospect of using these medicinal plants as an alternative to be used for the control and cure of some mineral deficiencies or for preventing various diseases of the animals.

  5. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on exporting medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Nosouzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on developing medicinal plant industry. This paper presents an empirical study on important factors influencing medicinal plant for developing exports in Iran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 310 regular customers who are involved in this industry in city of Tehran, Iran. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.802. In addition, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Samplng =KMO test was also computed and it was about 0.66, which is above the minimum acceptable limit of 0.5. The study uses Scree plot to determine important factors and there are eight factors including environmental issues, export supportive issues, potentials for export, business plan, export plan, structural barriers, competition capability and strategy.

  6. Screening of 33 Medicinal Plants for the Microelements Content

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    Ducu Sandu Ştef

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The microelements content of 33 medicinal plants was analyzed. The analysed microelements were: Iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead. Mineral contents were determinate by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS with high resolution continuum source ContrAA 300 spectrometer. The contents in microelements for analysed samples were in range: 18.1 ppm (Symphytum officinale - 1.4 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Copper; 26,2 ppm (Valeriana officinalis – 4,3 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Zinc; 214 ppm. (Violae tricoloris herba - 18 ppm (Equisetum arvense, for Manganese; 826 ppm (Calendula officinalis - 23 ppm (Rhamnus frangula, for Iron. The microelements contents (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, Cd and Pb have grouped the analyzed medicinal plants in two main clusters. First main cluster was formed by other two groups.

  7. Medicinal Plants, Containing Cardiac Glycosides and Their Distribution

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    A.I. Ahmetzhanova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors consider bioecological peculiarities of some species of medicinal plants, containing cardiac glycosides and their distribution. The paper presents the tables, which contain data of the quantitative content of the amount of cardiac glycosides in the aerial and underground parts of some species of the Cruciferous, Buttercups, etc. in different ecological conditions. The article also introduces the specie of foxglove from the family of figwort, which defines the quantitative content of cardiac glycosides, as the leaves of these plants are a source of raw materials, producing cardiac glycosides.

  8. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

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    G. Vimala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer.

  9. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  10. An Overview on Traditional Medicinal Plants as Aphrodisiac Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Ramandeep Singh; Sarabjeet Singh; G. Jeyabalan; Ashraf Ali

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of plants identified from various ethno botanical surveys and folklore medicinal survey with aphrodisiac activity. An aphrodisiac is defined as an agent that arouses sexual desire. Erectile dysfunction (ED) or male impotence is defined as the inability of a man to achieve and maintain an erection sufficient for mutually satisfactory intercourse with his partner. Sexual health and function are important determinants of quality of life. To overcome the problem of Ma...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  12. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the ...

  13. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor properties of Moroccan medicinal plants: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhakim Bouyahya; Youssef Bakri; El Ouardy Khay; Fatima Edaoudi; Ahmed Talbaoui; Abdeslam Et-Touys; Jamal Abrini; Nadia Dakka

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants have been traditionally used since antiquity to fight against illnesses. Recently, several researches have focused on the pharmacological properties and various bioactivities of natural products are extracted from medicinal plants, including the properties of antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. The products of medicinal plants are the secondary metabolites belonging to different compound classes such as essential oils, polyphenols,...

  14. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Potential of One Hundred Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Rehman, Shakila; Gul, Shehnaz; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Zaman, Bakht; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc. The toxicity of reactive species is balanced by the integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidant therapies or defenses protect the biological sites by removing or quenching the free radicals (prooxidants). Medicinal plants can not only protect the oxidative damage, but also play a vital role in health maintenance and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. This review will provide a valuable discussion of one hundred (100) well known medicinal plants, which may add to the optimization of antioxidants rank. Besides, some of the antioxidant evaluation techniques or mechanisms via which medicinal plants act as antioxidants are also described. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress

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    Keyvan eAghaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects.

  16. Ethnobotanic study of medicinal plants in Urmia city: identification and traditional using of antiparasites plants

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the native medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment in Urmia. Methods: This study was conducted among 35 Urmia herbalists to identify medicinal plants used in parasitic diseases treatment. We used direct observation and interviews with collected herbarium specimens by native herbs commonly in the treatment of parasitic diseases. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information and native plants list with information includes plant local name, plant parts used, method of their use and traditional therapies. Herbarium samples listed in the questionnaire collected from the area and were sent to agricultural research centers and Urmia University Faculty of Agriculture for genus and species determination. Results: Thirteen medicinal plants from six families for treatment of diabetes in Urmia were obtained from interviews. Most families have anti diabetic effect was included Asteraceae (36%. The most used was boiling (65%. Conclusions: In view of the findings of this study indicate that plants have the potential to be a parasitic infection so it is necessary ingredients of native plants be studied to demonstrate therapeutic effects and provide field work to evaluate the clinical effects of these herbs and ingredients they claim on parasitic diseases.

  17. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  18. Pharmacological, ethnopharmacological, and botanical evaluation of subtropical medicinal plants of Lower Kheng region in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Yeshi, Karma; Jamphel, Kinga

    2017-12-01

    The Bhutanese Sowa Rigpa medicine (BSM) uses medicinal plants as the bulk ingredients. Our study was to botanically identify subtropical medicinal plants from the Lower Kheng region in Bhutan, transcribe ethnopharmacological uses, and highlight reported pharmacological activities of each plant. We freely listed the medicinal plants used in the BSM literature, current formulations, and the medicinal plants inventory documents. This was followed by a survey and the identification of medicinal plants in the Lower Kheng region. The botanical identification of each medicinal plant was confirmed using The Plant List , eFloras , and TROPICOS . Data mining for reported pharmacological activities was performed using Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, and SciFinder Scholar. We identified 61 subtropical plants as the medicinal plants used in BSM. Of these, 17 plants were cultivated as edible plant species, 30 species grow abundantly, 24 species grow in moderate numbers, and only seven species were scarce to find. All these species grow within the altitude range of 100-1800 m above sea level. A total of 19 species were trees, and 13 of them were shrubs. Seeds ranked first in the parts usage category. Goshing Gewog (Block) hosted maximum number of medicinal plants. About 52 species have been pharmacologically studied and only nine species remain unstudied. Lower Kheng region is rich in subtropical medicinal plants and 30 species present immediate economic potential that could benefit BSM, Lower Kheng communities and other Sowa Rigpa practicing organizations.

  19. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results ...

  20. Contributions of Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in the area of Medicinal plants/Traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Neeraj; Yadav, Satyapal Singh

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants belong to the oldest known health care products that have been used by human beings all over the world and are major components of the formulations used in indigenous system of medicine practiced in many countries. Besides, finding place as health supplements, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, herbal tea etc. there has been a global insurgence of interest, including India, leading to enormous research/activities in the area of medicinal plants. The article is aimed to provide the effort and initiatives of ICMR towards research on medicinal plants and its contributions on consolidation of Indian research on medicinal plants that are very relevant and important in the national context. The various initiatives undertaken by ICMR on research on traditional medicines/medicinal plants in the past are reviewed and documented in this article. The multi-disciplinary, multicentric research initiatives of ICMR have resulted in validation of traditional treatment Kshaarasootra (medicated Ayurvedic thread) for anal fistula, Vijayasar (heart wood of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) for diabetes mellitus, encouraging micro- and macrofilaricidal activity of Shakotak (stem bark of Streblus asper Lour.) in experimental studies an iridoid glycosides fraction isolated from root/rhizomes of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth. (designated as Picroliv) for viral hepatitis. Other developmental and compilation of research works on Indian medicinal plants have resulted in publications of the thirteen volumes of quality standards, comprising of 449 Indian medicinal plants; three volumes of 90 phytochemical reference standards; fifteen volumes of review monographs on 4167 medicinal plant species; and one publication each on perspectives of Indian medicinal plants for management of liver disorders, lymphatic filariasis and diabetes mellitus (details available at http://www.icmr.nic.in/mpsite). The ICMR efforts assume special significance in the light of multifaceted use of medicinal plants

  1. Treatment of anxiety and depression: medicinal plants in retrospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajemiroye, James O; da Silva, Dayane M; de Oliveira, Danillo R; Costa, Elson A

    2016-06-01

    Anxiety and depression are complex heterogeneous psychiatric disorders and leading causes of disability worldwide. This review summarizes reports on the fundamentals, prevalence, diagnosis, neurobiology, advancement in treatment of these diseases and preclinical assessment of botanicals. This review was conducted through bibliographic investigation of scientific journals, books, electronic sources, unpublished theses and electronic medium such as ScienceDirect and PubMed. A number of the first-line drugs (benzodiazepine, azapirone, antidepressant tricyclics, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors, etc.) for the treatment of these psychiatric disorders are products of serendipitous discoveries. Inspite of the numerous classes of drugs that are available for the treatment of anxiety and depression, full remission has remained elusive. The emerging clinical cases have shown increasing interests among health practitioners and patients in phytomedicine. The development of anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs of plant origin takes advantage of multidisciplinary approach including but not limited to ethnopharmacological survey (careful investigation of folkloric application of medicinal plant), phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The selection of a suitable plant for a pharmacological study is a basic and very important step. Relevant clues to achieving this step include traditional use, chemical composition, toxicity, randomized selection or a combination of several criteria. Medicinal plants have been and continue to be a rich source of biomolecule with therapeutic values for the treatment of anxiety and depression. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. Use of medicinal plants by primary care elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ligiana Dias Szerwieski

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Our study objective was to verify the use of medicinal plants by elderly users of the primary care. The study has a cross-sectional, correlational, analytical and descriptive design with a quantitative approach. It was carried out in the west of Paraná state, in 2016. We applied 252 questionnaires with socio-demographic information and questions about the use of medicinal plants. Our results showed that 72.22% of elderly use plants, and of the most cited ones, Peppermint, Lemon Grass, Boldo and Rosemary were noteworthy. Elderly report to use them because they are better for healing, they prefer them, and it does not harm. There was disagreement regarding the recommendations, where 36.81% does not recommend them for fear to cause harm. About toxicity, they reported adverse events that are not found in the scientific literature. We highlight the importance of a correct guidance regarding the toxicity of some plants, as well as their benefits, and the importance of the nurse in this context acting as a health promoter.

  3. Medicinal Plants from Near East for Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad S.; Efferth, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Background: Cancer is one of the major problems affecting public health worldwide. As other cultures, the populations of the Near East rely on medicinal herbs and their preparations to fight cancer. Methods: We compiled data derived from historical ethnopharmacological information as well as in vitro and in vivo results and clinical findings extracted from different literature databases including (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar) during the past two decades. Results: In this survey, we analyzed the huge amount of data available on anticancer ethnopharmacological sources used in the Near East. Medicinal herbs are the most dominant ethnopharmacological formula used among cancer’s patients in the Near East. The data obtained highlight for the first time the most commonly used medicinal plants in the Near East area for cancer treatment illustrating their importance as natural anticancer agents. The literature survey reveals that various Arum species, various Artemisia species, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Nigella sativa, Pulicaria crispa, various Urtica species, Withania somnifera, and others belong to the most frequently used plants among cancer patients in the Near East countries. Molecular modes of action that have been investigated for plant extracts and isolated compounds from Near East include cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction with participation of major player in these processes such as p53 and p21, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, activation of caspases, etc. Conclusion: The ethnopharmacology of the Near East was influenced by Arabic and Islamic medicine and might be promising for developing new natural and safe anticancer agents. Further research is required to elucidate their cellular and molecular mechanisms and to estimate their clinical activity. PMID:29445343

  4. Medicinal Plants from Near East for Cancer Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Abu-Darwish

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major problems affecting public health worldwide. As other cultures, the populations of the Near East rely on medicinal herbs and their preparations to fight cancer.Methods: We compiled data derived from historical ethnopharmacological information as well as in vitro and in vivo results and clinical findings extracted from different literature databases including (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar during the past two decades.Results: In this survey, we analyzed the huge amount of data available on anticancer ethnopharmacological sources used in the Near East. Medicinal herbs are the most dominant ethnopharmacological formula used among cancer’s patients in the Near East. The data obtained highlight for the first time the most commonly used medicinal plants in the Near East area for cancer treatment illustrating their importance as natural anticancer agents. The literature survey reveals that various Arum species, various Artemisia species, Calotropis procera, Citrullus colocynthis, Nigella sativa, Pulicaria crispa, various Urtica species, Withania somnifera, and others belong to the most frequently used plants among cancer patients in the Near East countries. Molecular modes of action that have been investigated for plant extracts and isolated compounds from Near East include cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction with participation of major player in these processes such as p53 and p21, Bcl-2, Bax, cytochrome c release, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase cleavage, activation of caspases, etc.Conclusion: The ethnopharmacology of the Near East was influenced by Arabic and Islamic medicine and might be promising for developing new natural and safe anticancer agents. Further research is required to elucidate their cellular and molecular mechanisms and to estimate their clinical activity.

  5. Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

    2009-09-25

    The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic

  6. The application of biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Ping; Li, Jin-Cai; Huang, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dian-Lei; Huang, Peng; Nie, Jiu-Sheng

    2015-07-01

    Breeding is not only an important area of medicinal plants research but also the foundation for the superior varieties acquirement of medicinal plants. The rise of modern biotechnology provides good opportunities and new means for medicinal plants breeding research in China. Biotechnology shows its technical advantages and new development prospects in breeding of new medicinal plants varieties with high and stable yield, good quality, as well as stress-resistance. In this paper, we describe recent advances, problems, and development prospects about the application of modern biotechnology in medicinal plants breeding research in China.

  7. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources. PMID:26461812

  8. Antibacterial, Antifungal and antioxidant activities of some medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazir, Asma; Mehjabeen, -; Jahan, Noor; Sherwani, Sikander Khan; Ahmad, Mansoor

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants. The antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of three medicinal plants (Swertia chirata, Terminalia bellerica and Zanthoxylum armatum) were tested against Gentamicin (standard drug) on eleven gram positive and seventeen gram negative bacteria by agar well method. It was revealed that seven-gram negative and six gram positive bacterial species were inhibited by these plant extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were determined by broth micro-dilution method. The significant MIC value of Swertia chirata was 20mg/ml against Serratia marcesens, Zanthoxylum armatum was 10 mg/ml against Aeromonas hydrophila and Terminali bellerica was 20mg/ml against Acinetobacter baumanii as well as Serratia marcesens. Antifungal screening was done for methanolic extracts of these plants by agar well method with the 6 saprophytic, 5 dermatophytic and 6 yeasts. In this case Griseofulvin was used as a standard. All saprophytes and dermatophytes were showed resistance by these plants extracts except Microsporum canis, which was inhibited by Z. armatum and S. chirata extracts. The significant MIC value of Zanthoxylum armatum was 10mg/ml against Microsporum canis and Swertia chirata was 10mg/ml against Candida tropicalis. The anti-oxidant study was performed by DPPH free radical scavenging assay using ascorbic acid as a reference standard. Significant antioxidant activities were observed by Swertia chirata and Zanthoxylum armatum at concentration 200μg/ml was 70% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=937.5μg/ml) while Terminalia bellerica showed 55.6% DPPH scavenging activity (EC50=100μg/ml). This study has shown that these plants could provide potent antibacterial compounds and may possible preventive agents in ROS related ailments.

  9. Medicinal plants used for ophthalmological problems in Navarra (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, M Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda

    2016-08-22

    Several plants have been found to have effective against number of ophthalmological problems in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 686 informants in 267 locations. In order to confirm the pharmacological application of the uses more cited by the informants, a literature review was conducted. A total of 57 pharmaceutical uses were reported, for 19 plants and 13 families, mainly represented by Asteraceae. The most frequently used parts were inflorescences, flowers, aerial parts, leaves and flowered aerial parts. The related affections fell into eleven categories: bloodshot eyes, watery eyes and wounds, improve vision, irrited eyelids, rheums and styes, tired eyes, conjunctivitis, eyewash, ocular problems in general. The most cited plants were: Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All., Santolina chamaecyparissus L. ssp. squarrosa (DC.) Nyman, Sambucus nigra L. ssp. nigra, Rosa agrestis Savi and Calendula officinalis L. None of them have been pharmacologically validated by Official International Organisms. From the therapeutic point of view, Allium sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., C. officinalis, and S. chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa deserve special attention, because ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies suggest that these medicinal plants are effective for ophthalmological problems. The present study constitutes a good basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological research of these four plants, which could be of interest in the design of new inexpensive, effective and safe drugs. The remaining plants are needed to be screened through standard pharmacological and clinical procedures for their activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pharmacological screening of Malian medicinal plants used against epilepsy and convulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikael E; Vestergaard, Henrik T; Hansen, Suzanne L

    2009-01-01

    Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants.......Several medicinal plants are used in Mali to treat epilepsy and convulsions. So far, no studies have investigated the pharmacological effect of these plants....

  11. Himalayan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: A Review of their Ethnopharmacology, Volatile Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rakesh K; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, Wiliam N

    2016-02-19

    Aromatic plants have played key roles in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Himalaya by providing products for both food and medicine. This review presents a summary of aromatic medicinal plants from the Indian Himalaya, Nepal, and Bhutan, focusing on plant species for which volatile compositions have been described. The review summarizes 116 aromatic plant species distributed over 26 families.

  12. Himalayan Aromatic Medicinal Plants: A Review of their Ethnopharmacology, Volatile Phytochemistry, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Rakesh K.; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, Wiliam N.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic plants have played key roles in the lives of tribal peoples living in the Himalaya by providing products for both food and medicine. This review presents a summary of aromatic medicinal plants from the Indian Himalaya, Nepal, and Bhutan, focusing on plant species for which volatile compositions have been described. The review summarizes 116 aromatic plant species distributed over 26 families.

  13. The competitiveness of medicinal plants in Central Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, R. A.; Fajarningsih, R. U.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia hold a potential opportunity to be a pharmaceutical production country. In the other side, Indonesia facing agriculture product and market competition internationally and domestically. Improving competitiveness of specific products are aimed to hit the export market and also to be able to compete with import products in domestic market. Considering Indonesian market opportunity, therefore we perform this study aiming to examine the competitiveness of medicinal plants in Central Java area. The basic method applied in this study was descriptive and data sources are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed using Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) and Trade Specialization Index (TSI) approaches. According to the study, we reveal that medicinal plant commodities in Central Java province have average score 8.52, indicating a strong comparative advantage in global markets, while the commodities appear to have average score of 0.97 at 0 to 1 range, representing a strong competitiveness. Those results are attributed to natural and environmental condition, as well as high demand of global market. This competitiveness will encourage traditional/modern medicinal industries in global market.

  14. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  15. Conservation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants of Western Himalayan region Rawalakot, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sajjad; Murtaza, Ghulam; Mehmood, Ansar; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2017-05-01

    The aim of present was to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants traditionally used by inhabitants of Rawalakot Azad Kashmir and to screen selected medicinal plants for their antibacterial potential. Several field surveys were conducted to document indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants through interviews from local inhabitants during 2010-2013. During the study, 58 plant species, belonging to 37 families, were identified and their medicinal uses were recorded. Ethnobotanical data indicates that inhabitants of Rawalakot use medicinal plant mainly for the treatment of stomach, liver and sexual disorders. Usually fresh plant materials were used for medicinal preparations and administrated orally. Among all the species studied, three most frequently used medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Berberis lycium and Zanthoxylum armatum were screened for their antibacterial potential by using disc diffusion method. The crude aqueous, petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts were found to be very active against selected bacterial strains. The present study contributes significantly to the medicinal plant knowledge and shows that medicinal plant knowledge is deteriorating among younger generations. Therefore, further research is needed to document indigenous knowledge, to find conservation status of medicinal plant species and to find antimicrobial compounds for more sophisticated usage of medicinal plants in future.

  16. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Kunhui; Wei, Shanjun; Liu, Bo; Meng, Shaowu; Long, Chunlin

    2015-04-30

    This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals. A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants' knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest. The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts

  17. The diversity of food and medicinal plants in the homegardens of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wiener diversity Index, Sørensen's Similarity Coefficient and Clustering technique. About 78% of the houses inspected had homegardens, and food and medicinal plants accounted for 58 (43%) of the total 135 plant species recorded. The food plants ...

  18. Heavy metal levels in commonly used traditional medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, S.; Zahir, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)

  19. Phytochemical and biological assessment of medicinally important plant ochradenus arabicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, J.

    2014-01-01

    Jabal Al-Akhdar (Oman) is one of diverse floral region of Arabian Peninsula. Ochradenus arabicus, is an important medicinal plant to local people of the area. However, little is known about its potential role in biological activities against various emerging ailments. The collected plant samples were extracted with methanol and fractionated into n-hexane (JOAH), ethyl acetate (JOAE), chloroform (JOAC), n-butanol (JOAB) and water (JOAAQ). Various concentrations of these fractions were tested for their antimicrobial, anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic, phenolics, flavonoids, allopathic and nutrition quality properties. The results showed that fruits and leaves of O. arabicus have higher levels of carbohydrate, crude fats, fibres, proteins, moisture, ash and energy values. In phytotoxic activities, JOAAQ inhibited the lettuce seed germination and growth. The anticancer activities of fractions showed that JOAE, JOAB and JOAAQ are potent to reduce the cancer cell viability of HT29, HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 lines with a concentration of 1000 micro g/ml. JOAB showed a meagre activity of 12% in Glucosidase inhibition assay. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were significantly higher in JOAE, which also resulted in higher DPPH radical scavenging activity as compared to other fractions and control. JOAE also exhibited higher antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results of current findings suggest that O. arabicus is a potential medicinal plants, which could be subjected to advance column chromatography for lead compounds using a bioassay guided approach. (author)

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Medicinal Aqueous Plant Extracts against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Mohammed Buzayan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a serious health problem in many regions of the world, and the development of resistance to antibiotics by this microbe created the need for new drugs to replace those which have lost effectiveness. This study assesses the medicinal anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis properties of natural products obtained from plants collected from Eastern Libya. In this study aqueous extracts of nine different plants were assayed for their Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibitory activity using the BACTEC MGIT960 susceptibility test method. The aqueous extracts of Ceratonia siliqua L, Helichrysum stoechas (L. Moench and Thymus algeriensis did not show any activity against M. tuberculosis in different concentrations. The aqueous extract of Marrubium vulgare L. from Syria showed high activity against M. tuberculosis. Marrubium alysson L., Marrubium vulgare L., Pistacia lentiscus L, Quercus coccifera L, Thymus capitatus (L. Hoffm. & Link, showed varying degrees of activity against M. tuberculosis. The results of this study show that aqueous extracts from six different medicinal plants have different effects against M. tuberculosis in vitro.

  1. ANTI-QUORUM SENSING ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haidari, Rwaida A; Shaaban, Mona I; Ibrahim, Sabrin R M; Mohamed, Gamal A

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing is the key regulator of virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa such as biofilm formation, motility, productions of proteases, hemolysin, pyocyanin, and toxins. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of the extracts from some medicinal plants on quorum sensing and related virulence factors of P. aeruginosa . Quorum sensing inhibitory (OSI) effect of the alcohol extracts of 20 medicinal plants was evaluated by Chromobacterium violaceum reporter using agar cup diffusion method. The efficient QSI extracts were tested for their activity against biofilm synthesis, motility, and synthesis of pyocyanin from P. aeruginosa PA14. The extracts of Citrus sinensis, Laurus nobilis, Elettaria cardamomum, Allium cepa , and Coriandrum sativum exhibited potent quorum quenching effect. On the other hand, Psidium guajava and Mentha longifolia extracts showed lower QSI activity. These extracts exhibited significant elimination of pyocyanin formation and biofilm development of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. In addition, they significantly inhibited twitching and swimming motilities of P. aeruginosa PA14. This study illustrated, for the first time, the importance of C. sinensis, L. nobilis, E. cardamomum, A. cepa , and C. sativum as quorum sensing inhibitors and virulence suppressors of P. aeruginosa . Thus, these plants could provide a natural source for the elimination of Pseudomonas pathogenesis.

  2. Prospective bacterial quorum sensing inhibitors from Indian medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, B K; Ghosh, R; Moktan, S; Ranjan, V K; Dey, P; Choudhury, D; Dutta, S; Deb, D; Das, A P; Chakraborty, R

    2017-07-01

    As virulence of many pathogenic bacteria is regulated by the phenomenon of quorum sensing (QS), the present study aimed to find the QS-inhibiting (QS-I) property (if any) in 61 Indian medicinal plants. The presence of QS-I compound in the leaf extract was evaluated by its ability to inhibit production of pigment in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656 (violacein) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297 (pyocyanin) or swarming of P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. Extracts of three plants, Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis, have shown a dose-dependent inhibition of violacein production with no negative effect on bacterial growth. Inhibition of pyocyanin pigment production and swarming motility in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297 was also shown. Based on the results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography (TLC-DB), it was concluded that triterpenes and flavonoid compounds found in the three plant extracts could have QS-I activity. A novel alternative prospect to prevent bacterial infections without inhibiting the growth is to apply chemicals that inhibit quorum sensing mechanism of the pathogens. Antiquorum property of 61 medicinal plants was evaluated by the ability of their leaf extract(s) to inhibit production of pigment (violacein in Chromobacterium violaceum MTCC 2656, pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 2297) or swarming in P. aeruginosa MTCC 2297. The most prospective plants (for the development of quorum sensing inhibitor), showing inhibition of violacein production without affecting bacterial growth, were Astilbe rivularis, Fragaria nubicola and Osbeckia nepalensis. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Analysis of five trace elements in medicinal plants used in ayurvedic medicine to control diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewamanna, R.; Anuraadhi, N.; Fernando, R.K.S.

    2004-12-01

    Analysis of Chromium, Vanadium, Iron, Copper and Zinc known to influence the glucose/ insulin system was carried out in 36 different Ayurvedic medicinal plant species used to control and treat diabetes in Sri Lanka using the Energy Dispersive X ray fuorescence technique. Chromium, which is an essential nutrient in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, was measured in 7 plant species ranging from 13-82 ppm dry ash weight. Polarographic analysis showed that one fourth of the chromium was present in the trivalent state in all seven plant species namely Ficus banghalensis, Ficus racemosa, Musa pradisiaca, Coccinea grandis, Benincasa hispida, Pongamia pinnata and Acacia nilotica. The importance of the other metals in the control of diabetes is also briefly discussed

  4. Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of some important medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varahalarao Vadlapudi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Phytochemical evaluation and molecular characterization of plants is an important task in medicinal botany and drug discovery. In the current study, Ocimum species, Pimenta officinalis and Piper betel were considered as medicinal plants by evaluation of phytochemical composition like phenol content, Flavonoid content, antioxidant content and other activities like antibacterial, antifungal, lethal dosage (LD 50 of the plant extracts. Among the selected plants P. officinalis shown higher medicinal properties and is selected for molecular characterization. Methods: Antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and also estimated Total phenols, flavonoids content, Total Antioxidants, Cytotoxic assay on Artemia salina for determining lethal dosage (LD50, matK gene was sequenced by using ABI Prism 3700. Leaf extract of P. officinalis plant is further selected for GC-chromatographic analysis to know its chemical composition. DNA was isolated by different protocols, optimized, and is used for the PCR amplification of trnL-gene which is a universal marker among plants in molecular taxonomy. The trnL-gene is amplified by using PCR. The product obtained from PCR is purified and the sample is used for sequencing so that it can be used for comparative studies. Results: P.offcinalis has shown good antimicrobial activity against all organisms . A. flavus is resistant against O. sanctum (B. Phenolic content (26.5 毺 g/g is found to be rich in P. betel where as flavonoid and Antioxidant content are significant in P. betel. The chromatogram revealed the presence of high concentration of Eugenol in the leaf sample. On submitting to BLASTN, the genetic sequence has found similarity with Pimenta dioica plastid partial matK gene and Ugni molinae trnK gene. MatK did not shown any interactions with trnK or trnL genes. MatK has shown interactions with various genes like ycf5, pclpp, psbh, atph, NDVI, rpoc1, ndha, ndhd, psai. Conclusions: we can

  5. Concentration of some radionuclides in some popular sudanese medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagiroun, M. I. A.

    2012-10-01

    In this study was measured concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 2 38U , 2 32T h and 4 0K in samples of sudanese medicinal plants. The radionuclide activity concentrations in samples analyzed ranged from 4.09 to 41.07 Bq kg -1 for 2 38T h and from 353.14 to 2270.21 Bq kg -1 for 4 0k . No trace of artificial radionuclide was determined in all the samples. The effective dose due to the presence of these radionuclides was estimated and found to be 0.524 mSv/year which is well below the permissible levels. (Author)

  6. Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M J; Betancourt, J; Alonso-González, N; Jauregui, A

    1996-07-05

    The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine extracts were active against Gram-positive bacteria but only two of these proved to be also active against Gram-negative bacteria. None of the extracts inhibited the growth of the yeast. The most susceptible bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus and the best antibacterial activity was shown by Schinus terebenthifolius.

  7. [Effect of medicinal plant extracts on the growth of microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronets, N G; Adlova, G P; Mel'nikova, V A

    2001-01-01

    Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinal plants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned.

  8. Determination of metals in medicinal plants highly consumed in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Soares Leal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, samples of the medicinal plants: Boldo (Peumus boldus, Castanha da Índia (Aesculus hippocastanum, Chá Verde (Camelia sinensis, Erva Cidreira (Melissa officinalis, Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia, Guaraná (Paullinia cupana, Maracujá (Passiflora sp., Mulungu (Erythrina velutina, Sene (Cassia angustifolia and Valeriana (Valeriana officinalis were evaluated BY using the Neutron Activation Analysis technique (NAA- k0 in order to determine the levels of metals and other chemical contaminants. The results showed the presence of non essential elements to the human body. The diversity of chemical impurities found even at low concentration levels, considering the potential for chronic toxicity of these elements, reinforces the need to improve the implementation of good practices by growers and traders, and the hypothesis of lack of quality control in plant products.

  9. Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

    2011-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of δ-hemolysin. Quantification of δ-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of δ-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of δ-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Essential and trace element contents of some Nigerian medicinal plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obiajunwa, E.I.; Adebajo, A.C.; Omobuwajo, O.R.

    2002-01-01

    The energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectroscopy has been used for the determination of essential and trace elements' contents of some twenty Nigerian medicinal plants. The accuracy and precision of the technique were assured by analyzing the European Community Bureau Reference Standard BCR 62 (Olive Leaves). Fourteen elements, namely K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr were detected with toxic heavy metal such as Cd, As, Pb, Hg were detected in the samples. The ranges of elemental concentrations varied from 7.7 x 10 4 to 1.6 mg/kg in the herbs. The results show that many of these plants contain elements of vital importance for human metabolism and prevention and healing of diseases. (author)

  11. A survey of medicinal plants used by kavirajes of chalna area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kavirajes or traditional medicinal practitioners form the primary healthcare providers of the predominantly rural population of Bangladesh. Kavirajes use a variety of medicinal plants for treatment of different ailments. The formulations prepared from medicinal plants vary considerably between Kavirajes of different regions of ...

  12. Social organization influences the exchange and species richness of medicinal plants in amazonian homegardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; González-Segura, Lara; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Howard, Patricia L.; Molina, José Luis; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors

  13. A Survey of Major Ethno Medicinal Plants of Kano North, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of medicinal plants was deforestation (43.6%). Many additives like edible oil, honey, butter, porridge, garlic were used in almost 58% of the remedy preparations. In addition, more than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of single species for medicinal preparations. Keywords: Ethnobotany ...

  14. Cultural significance of medicinal plant families and species among Quechua farmers in Apillapampa, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Vandebroek, Ina; Sanca, Sabino; Van Damme, Patrick

    2009-02-25

    Medicinal plant use was investigated in Apillapampa, a community of subsistence farmers located in the semi-arid Bolivian Andes. The main objectives were to identify the culturally most significant medicinal plant families and species in Apillapampa. A total of 341 medicinal plant species was inventoried during guided fieldtrips and transect sampling. Data on medicinal uses were obtained from fifteen local Quechua participants, eight of them being traditional healers. Contingency table and binomial analyses of medicinal plants used versus the total number of inventoried species per family showed that Solanaceae is significantly overused in traditional medicine, whereas Poaceae is underused. Also plants with a shrubby habitat are significantly overrepresented in the medicinal plant inventory, which most likely relates to their year-round availability to people as compared to most annual plants that disappear in the dry season. Our ranking of medicinal species according to cultural importance is based upon the Quality Use Agreement Value (QUAV) index we developed. This index takes into account (1) the average number of medicinal uses reported for each plant species by participants; (2) the perceived quality of those medicinal uses; and (3) participant consensus. According to the results, the QUAV index provides an easily derived and valid appraisal of a medicinal plant's cultural significance.

  15. Medicinal Plants, Effective Plant Compounds (Compositions) and their Effects on Stomach Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleebrahim-Dehkordy, Elahe; Nasri, Hamid; Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Parto; Tamadon, Mohammad Reza; Hedaiaty, Mahrang; Beigrezaei, Sara; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants have special importance around the world. Further, they have been noticed for nutrition and illness treatment such as preparation of anticancer new drugs. Therefore, a wide range of studies have been done on different plants, and their anticancer effects have been investigated. Nowadays, cancer is the most important factor of death rate in the developed and developing countries. Among them, stomach cancer is one of the most common malignancies around the world. At present, it is recognized as the fourth common cancer and the second factor of death rate due to cancer. So far, there has been wide range of effort for cancer treatment; however, in most cases, the response to the treatment has been very weak and often accompanied improper subsidiary effects. The present problems as a consequence of chemical treatment and radiotherapy and many subsidiary problems created due to their use for patients, and also, the resistance to the current treatment has motivated researchers to apply new medicines with more effect and less toxicity. The secondary metabolisms existent in the plants have an important role in the treatment of several diseases such as cancer. This study was conducted to investigate and collect scientific results for stomach cancer and to clarify the role of medicinal plants and secondary plant compounds on its treatment.

  16. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sedighi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications.

  17. A review of plant-based compounds and medicinal plants effective on atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi, Mehrnoosh; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Asgary, Sedigheh; Beyranvand, Fatemeh; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the most important cardiovascular diseases that involve vessels through the development of fatty streaks and plaques. Plant-based compounds can help treat or prevent atherosclerosis through affecting the involved factors. The main purpose of this review article is to investigate and introduce medicinal plants and their potential activities regarding antioxidant properties, effective on lipids level and development of plaque, atherosclerosis, and progression of atherosclerosis as well as the development of cardiovascular disease and ischemia. To search for the relevant articles indexed in Information Sciences Institute, PubMed, Scientific Information Database, IranMedex, and Scopus between 1980 and 2013, with further emphasis on those indexed from 2004 to 2015, we used these search terms: atherosclerosis, antioxidant, cholesterol, inflammation, and the medicinal plants below. Then, the articles with inclusion criteria were used in the final analysis of the findings. Plant-based active compounds, including phenols, flavonoids, and antioxidants, can be effective on atherosclerosis predisposing factors and hence in preventing this disease and associated harmful complications, especially through reducing cholesterol, preventing increase in free radicals, and ultimately decreasing vascular plaque and vascular resistance. Hence, medicinal plants can contribute to treating atherosclerosis and preventing its progression through reducing cholesterolemia, free radicals, inflammation, vascular resistance, and certain enzymes. They, alone or in combination with hypocholesterolemic drugs, can therefore be useful for patients with hyperlipidemia and its complications. PMID:28461816

  18. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  19. Appraisal of medicinal plants used in alternative systems of medicines for microbial contamination, physiochemical parameters and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, F.; Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2014-01-01

    The safety of herbal products has become a foremost apprehension in public health with their recognition and worldwide market growth and due in part to the widespread assumption that natural implies harmless. The global market of medicinal plants has been growing at a rate of 7-10% annually; capitalizing on the growing awareness of herbal and aromatic plants globally. The present study was conducted to assess the physiochemical parameters, microbial contamination and presence of heavy metals. The 24 medicinal plants were collected from open market places of various cities of Pakistan and tested by employing WHO and AOAC guidelines. Medicinal plants were found polluted with wide variety of potentially pathogenic bacterias. Microbial count and levels of arsenic and mercury in some plants were found elevated. The percentage (%) of physiochemical parameters i.e., foreign organic matter, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble extract, water soluble extract and moisture count of these medicinal plants were found statistically noteworthy. The nonexistence of quality control values for medicinal plants has been one of the key lacunas. Quality assurance system and WHO's guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices be methodically enforced in the medicinal plants supply chain i.e., cultivation, collection and distribution, although it is tricky task. (author)

  20. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  1. Medicinal plants: a source of anti-parasitic secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Michael

    2012-10-31

    This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinal plants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials.

  2. Wound Healing Properties of Selected Plants Used in Ethnoveterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Marume

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants have arrays of phytoconstituents that have wide ranging biological effects like antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties key in wound management. In vivo wound healing properties of ointments made of crude methanolic extracts (10% extract w/w in white soft paraffin of three plant species, Cissus quadrangularis L. (whole aerial plant parts, Adenium multiflorum Klotzsch (whole aerial plant parts and Erythrina abyssinica Lam. Ex DC. (leaves and bark used in ethnoveterinary medicine were evaluated on BALB/c female mice based on wound area changes, regular observations, healing skin's percentage crude protein content and histological examinations. White soft paraffin and 3% oxytetracycline ointment were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Wound area changes over a 15 day period for mice treated with C. quadrangularis and A. multiflorum extract ointments were comparable to those of the positive control (oxytetracycline ointment. Wounds managed with the same extract ointments exhibited high crude protein contents, similar to what was observed on animals treated with the positive control. Histological evaluations revealed that C. quadrangularis had superior wound healing properties with the wound area completely returning to normal skin structure by day 15 of the experiment. E. abyssinica leaf and bark extract ointments exhibited lower wound healing properties though the leaf extract exhibited some modest healing properties.

  3. Chemical constituents of selected Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, B.O.

    2007-11-01

    Sudanese medicinal and aromatic plants (Alternanthra repens, Ambrosia maritima, Citrus paradisi, Croton zambesicus, Lepidium sativum, Morettia phillaena, Nauclea latifolia, Plectranthus barbatus, Pluchea dioscorides, and Sphaeranthus suaveolens) were analyzed for their chemical composition, mineral contents and secondary constituents. The concentration of manganese, copper, iron, nickel, lead, zinc and potassium in plant samples was performed using x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The trace elements found in the smallest amount of the investigated plant species are lead, nickel and copper, while high concentration was detected for potassium, iron and manganese. Mn was accumulated with high level in Alternanthra repens species. Potassium was abundant in S. suaveolens and Ambrosia maritima. The values of concentration obtained for all studied elements were compared with published values of reference material, trace elements in Hay (powder) by International Atomic Energy Agency. Phyto chemical analysis of investigated plants was performed for constituents: Flavonoids, saponins, tannins, alkaloids, amino acids and sugars. The methanolic extracts of P.barbatus, C.paradisi, A.repens, N.latifolia, L. sativum and C. zambesicus are found to contain alkaloids. Results of TLC analysis were shown as R f values for saponins, bitter principles, essential oils, flavonoids and alkaloids. Quantification of flavonoids and tannins showed that flavonoid content was highest in case of Alternanthera repens and Sphaeranthus suavertens, whereas the highest tannin content was in case of Nauclea latifolia and Sphaearanthus suavertens. The results suggest that the user of traditional Sudanese crude drugs should be warned of potential danger of heavy metal poisoning because their concentrations seem to be higher than maximum values allowed by health agencies in several countries. This study has provided some biochemical basis for the ethno medical use of extracts from different candidate

  4. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant (Capparis micracantha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoprom, Nonglak; Sangprom, Araya; Chaisri, Patcharaporn

    2018-04-01

    This work aims to study the antioxidants capacity, Total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant for the treatment of dermatitis-related inflammations, Capparis micracantha. Crude extract from stem of Thai medicinal plant was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The antioxidant activities (IC50) was evaluated with 1,1-diphenyl-1-princylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bacterial activities was tested with four human pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Stapylococcus epidermidis by using agar diffusion assay. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined by broth dilution method. For antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction from stem extract showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 2.4 mg/ml. Water extraction was the high TPC with 10,136.9 mg GAE/g dry weight. Methanol and water extraction showed the remarkable inhibition of bacterial growth was shown against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. In addition, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fraction from stem extract against S. epidermidis. The present finding suggests that the extract of C. micracantha could be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as pharmaceutical products.

  6. Comparative study of heavy metals in some selected medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chigbogu MADUBUIKE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like Pb, Co, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ca, Mg, and Mn were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such Asam paya, Okoubaka aubrevellei, Clove and Vitex doniana leaves by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS. The results showed differences in metal concentrations in the investigated medicinal plants. The concentration of Pb ranged from 0.05 -0.29mg/kg on dry wet basis, where as that of Co ranged from 0.04-0.05mg/kg. Fe concentration ranged from 0.11-0.52mg/kg, Zn from 0.03-0.48mg/kg, Cu from 0.32-0.98mg/kg, Cd from 0.30-0.46mg/kg, Cr from 0.02-0.09mg/kg, Ca from 0.21-0.81mg/kg, Mg from 0.12-1.40mg/kg, while Mn from 0.02-0.95 mg/kg respectively. The results indicated that all the investigated heavy metals were below the WHO permissible limit except in Okoubaka sample which showed higher concentration of Mg that is above permissible limit of WHO.

  7. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of Colombian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

    2001-10-01

    Strong antiviral and antimicrobial activities were detected in methanolic extracts of 24 plants used medicinally in the treatment of skin infections in four different regions of Colombia. Thirteen extracts displayed activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) whereas none was active against poliovirus. The antiviral activity was indicated by a total inhibition of viral cytopathic effects (CPE) at a non-cytotoxic concentration of the extract. The most potent extract was obtained from Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) HBK. which showed anti-HSV activity at a concentration as low as 2.5 microg/ml. Antimicrobial screening was conducted using the disc diffusion assay against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium and the human pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans. Anti-Candida activity was observed for Piper lanceaefolium HBK. and Juglans neotropica Diels. Twenty-two extracts displayed activity against Gram-positive bacteria whereas none was active against the Gram-negative species. We concluded that these Colombian medicinal plants represent an untapped source of potentially useful antivirals and are worthy of further study.

  8. Terminalia chebula Retz. – an important medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolla Jayaprakash Narayan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, whispered to be the ancient practice of healthcare existed and contributes a holistic approach to health, healing and longevity. Terminalia chebula Retz. is a popular plant and widely spread all over southern Asia. T. chebula is a native plant of India and its dried fruit is extensively used in various types of home remedies. Dried fruit of T. chebula contains high quantities phenolic compounds that consist of ellagic acid, gallic acid and chebulic acid. The fruit extract of T. chebula is known to display different biological properties like anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-protozoal, antimicrobial, hepato and renal protective activities, and in the management of metabolic syndrome. The phenolic active compounds might play vital role in the influence of biological activity. Fruit extract of T. chebula is widely employed as an important ingredient in various ayurvedic preparations like ‘Triphala’. This formulation is beneficial as detoxifying agent of the colon, purgative in chronic constipation, aids in digestion and as a body rejuvenator. The fruit has great medicinal significance and conventionally applied for the management of various illness conditions, such as sore throat, high cough, asthma, ulcers, gout, heart burn, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding piles and bladder diseases. It is also utilized as mild laxative, antispasmodic and stomachic. Because of these enormous medicinal properties, T. chebula is commonly termed as ‘King of Medicine’ in Tibet and can be called as a ‘wonder herb’. In the present review, recent advances in medicinal properties of T. chebula are discussed.

  9. A comparative study on medicinal plants used in Akha's traditional medicine in China and Thailand, cultural coherence or ecological divergence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inta, A.; Shengji, P.; Balslev, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Aim of the study : The survey aims to study the effect of geographic separation of ethnic groups on local knowledge of medicinal plants used by Akha people in Thailand and China, who were separated 100-120 years ago, to see how different the two geographically distinct but culturally similar groups...... were in this respect. Materials and methods : Interviewing 10 villagers in each of five Akha villages, three in Thailand and two in China, about which plants they used and how they used them. Results : A total of 95 medicinal plants registered in the five villages only 16 were shared between China...... and Thailand. Otherwise the use patterns were quite similar with respect to which plant families and plant growth forms were used and also in terms of in which habitats the Akha found their medicinal plants. Conclusions : The moving to a different site has forced the Akha to find a new set of species...

  10. Ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants used in the Bustillo Province of the Potosi Department, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, E C; Sandi, Y E; Kokoska, L

    2003-06-01

    A survey of medicinal plants used by rural communities in the Bustillo Province of the Potosi Department in Bolivia is reported in this article. Fifty-six plant species belonging to 24 families and 46 different genera were included. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant part used, popular medicinal use, forms of preparation and applications of the herbal remedies are given.

  11. Medicinal plants popularly used in the villages of Yunt Mountain(Manisa-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurlu, Emin; Secmen, Ozcan

    2008-02-01

    A survey carried out during the years 2001-2002 revealed that people who lived in the villages of Yunt Mountain use large number of plants for medicinal purposes. Fifty-four medicinal plants belonging to 32 family were recorded. Among them 41 species were wild and 13 species were cultivated plants.

  12. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants from Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Jubilee; Nath, Subhan C; Islam, M

    2005-01-01

    A survey of medicinal plants used by the ethnic communities of Dibru-Saikhowa Biosphere Reserve in Northeast India has been reported. Fifty-five plant species belonging to 34 families and 52 different genera were included. For each plant species, botanical name, vernacular name, part(s) used, popular medicinal use, forms of preparation and applications of the herbal remedies are provided.

  13. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of the Agadir Ida Ou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The collected data may help to avoid the loss of traditional knowledge on the use of medicinal plants detained in the study area, and represent the preliminary information required in view of a future phytochemical investigation on the most used plants. Key words: Ethnobotanical survey, medicinal plants, phytotherapy, ...

  14. OCCURRENCE OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI IN SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS OF KERALA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Abraham; Malathy, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinal plants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinal plants. PMID:22557224

  15. Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of

  16. Cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Thiago B C; Costa, Cinara O D'Sousa; Galvão, Alexandre F C; Bomfim, Larissa M; Rodrigues, Ana Carolina B da C; Mota, Mauricio C S; Dantas, Alex A; Dos Santos, Tiago R; Soares, Milena B P; Bezerra, Daniel P

    2016-07-08

    Great biodiversity is a highlight of Brazilian flora. In contrast, the therapeutic potentialities of most species used in folk medicine remain unknown. Several of these species are commonly used to treat cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of 18 plants from 16 families that are found in the northeast region of Brazil. The following species were studied: Byrsonima sericea DC. (Malpighiaceae), Cupania impressinervia Acev. Rodr. var. (revoluta) Radlk (Sapindaceae), Duranta repens Linn. (Verbenaceae), Helicostylis tomentosa (Poepp. & Endl) Rusby (Moraceae), Himatanthus bracteatus (A.DC.) Woodson (Apocynaceae), Ipomoea purga (Wender.) Hayne (Convolvulaceae), Ixora coccinea Linn. (Rubiaceae), Mabea piriri Aubl. (Euphorbiaceae), Miconia minutiflora (Melastomataceae), Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Ocotea glomerata (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae), Ocotea longifolia Kunth (Oreodaphne opifera Mart. Nees) (Lauraceae), Pavonia fruticosa (Mill.) Fawc. & Rendle (Malvaceae), Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav. (Rubiaceae), Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin (Araliaceae), Solanum paludosum Moric. (Solanaceae), Xylopia frutescens Aubl. (Annonaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae). Their dried leaves, stems, flowers or fruits were submitted to different solvent extractions, resulting in 55 extracts. After incubating for 72 h, the cytotoxicity of each extract was tested against tumor cell lines using the alamar blue assay. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata extracts demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fractions of D. repens flowers and the hexane extract of I. coccinea flowers led to the isolation of quercetin and a mixture of α- and β-amyrin, respectively, and quercetin showed moderate cytotoxic activity. The B. sericea, D. repens, H. bracteatus, I. purga, I. coccinea, M. piriri, O. longifolia and P. capitata plants were

  17. The Trade in African Medicinal Plants in Matonge-Ixelles, Brussels (Belgium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde; Fundiko, Marie-Cakupewa C

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine, migrants often shift to using species that double as food and medicine. This paper focuses on the trade in African medicinal plants in a Congolese neighborhood in Brussels (Belgium). What African medicinal plants are sold in Matonge, where do they come from, and to which extent are they food medicines? Does vendor ethnicity influence the diversity of the herbal medicine sold? We hypothesized that most medicinal plants, traders, and clients in Matonge were of Congolese origin, most plants used medicinally were mainly food crops and that culture-bound illnesses played a prominent role in medicinal plant use. We carried out a market survey in 2014 that involved an inventory of medicinal plants in 19 shops and interviews with 10 clients of African descent, voucher collection and data gathering on vernacular names and uses. We encountered 83 medicinal plant species, of which 71% was primarily used for food. The shredded leaves of Gnetum africanum Welw., Manihot esculenta Crantz, and Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam were among the most frequently sold vegetables with medicinal uses. Cola nuts, shea butter, Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.). Skeels were the main non-food medicines sold. Women's health, aphrodisiacs, and rituals were the most important medicinal applications, but culture-bound ailments did not entirely dominate the plant uses. While most clients in Matonge were Congolese, most vendors and plant species were not. The Pakistanis dominated the food trade, and typical Congolese plants were sometimes replaced by West African species, creating confusion in vernacular names. African-managed shops had significantly more species of medicinal plants in stock than shops

  18. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor properties of Moroccan medicinal plants: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic and medicinal plants have been traditionally used since antiquity to fight against illnesses. Recently, several researches have focused on the pharmacological properties and various bioactivities of natural products are extracted from medicinal plants, including the properties of antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant activities. The products of medicinal plants are the secondary metabolites belonging to different compound classes such as essential oils, polyphenols, flavonoids and other phytochemical classes. In Morocco, medicinal plants are the major source of bioactive compounds and the majority of them are used in phytotherapy. The biological potential of various Moroccan medicinal plants attracts a lot of interest in the literature. They include antibacterial, antioxidant and antitumor investigations. In this context, this work aims at discussing antibacterial, antitumor and antioxidant properties of Moroccan medicinal plants.

  19. A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

    2010-06-01

    Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

  20. Cytotoxicity of Selected Medicinal and Nonmedicinal Plant Extracts to Microbial and Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary M. Booth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the cytotoxicity of 55 species of plants. Each plant was rated as medicinal, or nonmedicinal based on the existing literature. About 79% of the medicinal plants showed some cytotoxicity, while 75% of the nonmedicinal plants showed bioactivity. It appears that Asteraceae, Labiatae, Pinaceae, and Chenopodiaceae were particularly active against human cervical cancer cells. Based on the literature, only three of the 55 plants have been significantly investigated for cytotoxicity. It is clear that there is much toxicological work yet to be done with both medicinal and nonmedicinal plants.

  1. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibi, Yamin; Nisa, Sobia; Chaudhary, Fayyaz M; Zia, Muhammad

    2011-06-30

    Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

  2. Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Fayyaz M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition. Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

  3. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents.

  4. Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karou, Simplice D; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

    2012-04-01

    Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 μg/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC(50) values of 0.003 ± 0.00 μg/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 μg/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress.

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of selected medicinal plants from Algeria

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    Krimat Soumia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of methanolic extract extracts of selected Algerian medicinal plants. Methods: Antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated in terms of radical scavenging potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and β-carotene bleaching assay. Total phenolic contents and flavonoid contents were also measured. Antimicrobial activity of these plants was examined against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Results: The values of IC50 ranged from 4.30 μg/mL to 486.6 μg/mL for the DPPH method, while total antioxidant activity using β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay ranged from 17.03% to 86.13%. It was found that Pistacia lentiscus showed the highest antioxidant capacities using DPPH assay (IC50=4.30 μg/mL, while Populus trimula, Origanum glandulosum, Centaurea calcitrapa, Sysimbrium officinalis and Rhamnus alaternus showed the highest percent of total antioxidant activity in β-carotene/linoleic acid bleaching assay. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents ranged from 3.96 to 259.65 mg GAE/g extract and from 1.13 to 26.84 mg QE/g extract, respectively. The most interesting antimicrobial activity was obtained from Sysimbrium officinalis, Rhamnus alaternus, Origanum glandulosum, Cupressus sempervirens, Pinus halipensis and Centaurea calcitrapa. Conclusions: The results indicated that the plants tested may be potential sources for isolation of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  6. Medicinal plants and secondary metabolites for diabetes mellitus control

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common and complex problems of modern societies which has caused many economic and social problems. Because diabetes has no definite treatment, the use of traditional medicine seems to be an appropriate solution to control and manage it. Studies revealed that Vaccinium Arctostaphylos L., Securigera securidaca L., Gymnema sylvestre L., Atriplex halimus L., Camellia sinensis L., Ginkgo biloba L., Mamordica charantia L., Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L., Silybum marianum (L., Gaertn and Trigonella foenum graecum L. are effective against diabetes. Flavonoids, quercin, metformin, quinolizidine, anthocyanin, catechin and flavone, phenylpropanoids, lipoic acid and coumarin metabolites were introduced major impact on diabetes. With regard to the study of plants and their metabolites and the mechanisms of their influence, it is clear that these plants have the potential to reduce blood sugar and diabetes and be considered as candidates for preparing new drugs. Combination of plants extracts or their components may also have synergistic effects to better act on diabetes.

  7. Screening of Brazilian medicinal plants for antiviral activity against rotavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecílio, Alzira Batista; de Faria, Déborah Behr; Oliveira, Pollyana de Carvalho; Caldas, Sérgio; de Oliveira, Dario Alves; Sobral, Marcos Eduardo Guerra; Duarte, Maria Gorette Resende; Moreira, Carolina Paula de Souza; Silva, Cláudia Gontijo; de Almeida, Vera Lúcia

    2012-06-14

    Brazilian medicinal plants traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhoea were investigated for their in vitro antiviral activity against the simian rotavirus SA11. The ethanolic crude extracts of plants collected in the cerrado of Minas Gerais, Brazil were submitted to phytochemical screening. The cytotoxicity of the extracts was inferred by cellular morphologic alterations. Antiviral activity was assessed by the ability of the extracts to inhibit the cytopathic effect (CPE) of rotavirus on the treated cells. RT-PCR was performed to confirm and/or confront antiviral assay data. The maximum non-toxic concentration ranged from 50 to 500 μg/mL. All extracts were toxic at a concentration of 5000 μg/mL but no extract showed cytotoxicity at 50 μg/mL. The species Byrsonima verbascifolia, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Eugenia dysenterica and Hymenaea courbaril exhibited the strongest in vitro activity against rotavirus. Their extracts prevented the formation of CPE, and RT-PCR analysis detected no amplification of genetic material from rotavirus. Tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins and terpenes were the major classes of natural products found in the leaf extracts that showed antiviral activity. Among the species studied, Byrsonima verbascifolia, Eugenia dysenterica, Hymenaea courbaril and Myracrodruon urundeuva showed potential activity against rotavirus and are worthy of further study. The present study corroborates ethnopharmacological data as a valuable source in the selection of plants with antiviral activity and to some extent validates their traditional uses. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. A database for medicinal and aromatic plants of JK (Jammu and Kashmir) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Akbar; Shafi, Mujtaba

    2005-10-07

    High throughput screening of small molecules for a given drug target is achieved using plant materials of medicinal value. Therefore, it is important to document the availability and location of such medicinal plants in the form of a database. Here, we describe a web database containing information (botanical name, common name, local name, botany, chemistry, folklore medicinal use and medicinal uses) about the medicinal and aromatic plants available in JK (Jammu and Kashmir). The database is available for free in public domain. http://www.bioinfoku.org/db/medsearch.php.

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants used by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi; Jaradat, Nidal Amin

    2017-01-03

    Psoriasis is a frequent skin inflammatory disorder that inflicts millions of patients around the globe. To meet their healthcare needs, patients with psoriasis often seek treatment outside the allopathic paradigm. Use of medicinal plants has emerged as one of the most common and preferred modalities of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the use of medicinal plants by patients with psoriasis in the West Bank of Palestine. The current study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional descriptive study on the use of medicinal plants by psoriasis patients in the West Bank of Palestine. A sample of 149 patients with psoriasis who were visiting outpatient clinics responded to the questionnaire in face to face interviews. Medicinal plants were used by 81 (54.4%) patients with psoriasis. Patients used 33 medicinal plants belonging to 26 families. Plants belonging to Lamiaceae and Leguminosae were the most commonly used by the study patients. Aloe vera, Trigonella arabica, Catharanthus roseus and Anthemis cotula were the most frequently used medicinal plants to treat psoriasis. Leaves and fruits were the most commonly used parts by the study patients. Paste was the most commonly used form of preparation. The use of medicinal plants was significantly associated with age and monthly household income of the patients. Enhancement of immunity, improving conventional therapy and reduction of side effects were the most commonly self-reported reasons for using medicinal plants. Patients with psoriasis in Palestine seem to use medicinal plants as a CAM modality to manage their psoriasis. Many medicinal plants were commonly used by patients with psoriasis. More randomized clinical trials are needed to demonstrate safety and efficacy for the majority of these medicinal plants reported to be used by patients with psoriasis in Palestine.

  10. Ethnopharmacological survey: a selection strategy to identify medicinal plants for a local phytotherapy program

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Flávia Liparini; Fernandes, José Martins; Leite, João Paulo Viana

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological studies are important for documenting and protecting cultural and traditional knowledge associated with the medical use of biodiversity. In this paper, we present a survey on medicinal plants used by locals in a community of Nova Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil, as a strategy to select medicinal plants for a phytotherapy-based local healthcare program. Eleven knowledgeable local informants were chosen by snowball sampling and interviewed about the use of medicinal plants. Plan...

  11. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: Evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

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    Marco eLeonti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopoeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine’s importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today’s medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or memes, which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine.

  12. Soil-to-plant transfer factors of natural radionuclides (226Ra and 40K) in selected Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Phonchanthuek, Endu; Prasandee, Kamonkhuan

    2018-04-01

    A soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is an important parameter that could be used to estimate radionuclides levels in medicinal plants. This work reports concentrations of natural radionuclides ( 226 Ra and 40 K) and TFs in six Thai medicinal plants grown in central Thailand using an HPGe gamma ray spectrometer. Either root, leaf, or flower parts of each medicinal plant were selected for use in the investigation according to their practical uses in traditional medicine. The results showed that due to K being essential in plants, 40 K had higher arithmetic means of activity concentrations and geometric means of TFs (geometric standard deviations in parentheses) of 610 ± 260 Bq kg -1 dry weight (DW) and 2.0 (1.4), respectively, than 226 Ra, which had the activity concentrations and TFs of 4.8 ± 2.6 Bq kg -1 DW and 0.17 (1.8), respectively. The results also showed that the leaves of medicinal plants had higher activity concentrations and TFs than root and flower parts, probably due to higher metabolic activities in leaves. Furthermore, there was good agreement between the results from the current work and other similar reports on medicinal plants. The information obtained from this work could strengthen knowledge of natural radionuclides in plants and particularly increase available TF data on Thai medicinal plants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Elemental profile in some common medicinal plants of India. Its correlation with traditional therapeutic usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanta, B.; Baruah, M.

    2003-01-01

    Several parts of plants are used in herbal and Ayurvedic medicines of India. The different elemental constituents at trace levels of these plant parts play an effective role in the medicines prepared. Elemental composition of different parts (root, bark, leaf, seed) of some medicinal plants of North Eastern India has been determined by using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). A total of 14 elements, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr and Pb have been measured. Their concentrations were found to vary in different samples. Medicinal properties of these plant samples and their elemental distribution have been correlated. (author)

  14. THE DIVERSITY OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS ENCOUNTRED IN NATURA 2000 6520 HABITAT FROM GURGHIU MOUNTAINS

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    Silvia OROIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Researches on medicinal plants used in various human disorders are particularly important and timely, as an alternative to medication. The studied semi-natural mountainous grasslands occur in the Gurghiu mountains. Special interest today worldwide for herbal medicine has led us to study the Gurghiu Mountains medicinal plants used in various diseases. In order to identify the taxa we used classical methods, described in the literature and statistical analyze was also carried out. In the study area 2 plant associations rich in medicinal plants were identified. They belong to 6520 Mountain hay meadows habitat.

  15. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

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    M. Rajbhandari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.

  16. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Caño; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Béatrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli.

  17. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

  18. Correlation between heavy metal contents and antioxidants in medicinal plants grown in mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2010-01-01

    Full texts: Medicinal plants are widely used as alternate therapeutic agents for various diseases. Three medicinal plants grown in copper mining regions of Khetri in Rajasthan was analyzed for heavy metal contents by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The copper levels were found to be two to three folds higher in these plant leaves as compared to the reported copper levels in the medicinal plants grown in environmentally friendly regions. In our previous study on heavy metals in soil and medicinal plant of Khetri region we have shown bioaccumulation of Cu in the medicinal plants. In addition, the levels of Cr, Fe and Zn were also higher. Antioxidant properties of medicinal plants are one of their major therapeutic functionalities. The role of elevated levels of heavy metals in the medicinal plants was studied with respect to their antioxidant properties. Standard procedures were used for measuring total phenols, flavanoids and DPPH assay of these medicinal plants which were correlated with the heavy metals contents of these plants

  19. LESS KNOWN USES OF WEEDS AS MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper the author presents medicinal or otherwise useful weed species with details of family, vernacular name and its medicinal utility. Information on other general economic importance of medicinal weeds is also described here.

  20. Toxicity studies of medicinal plants used in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukandou Mounanga, Marlaine; Mewono, Ludovic; Aboughe Angone, Sophie

    2015-11-04

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional medicine is widely used in rural and urban areas also. This is essentially due to the prohibitive cost of pharmaceutical-based medicine and the low incomes of a major part of the population. In addition, the efficacies of many of these traditional and plant-based medicines are proven, but the fact remains that certain plants used in traditional medicine have toxic effects. It is in this perspective that we investigated by bibliographic literature on the toxicity of plants used in traditional medicine. It is crucial to gain knowledge on these plant-based medicines prepared and prescribed by practitioners, particularly in terms of toxicity, composition, specific efficacy of disease and to advise practitioners of this alternative medicine on the protection and security of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perceptions of Medicinal Plant Use Amongst the Hispanic Population in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area

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    Kim M. Grafford

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medicinal plant use in the United States has increased as reported by the National Center of Complementary and Integrative Health and U.S. Census Bureau.However, little is known about how many minority groups in the United States use medicinal plants.There is a rise in the Hispanic population; a community with a steep tradition of medicinal plant use, in the U.S., so understanding the perceptions of medicinal plant use is useful to healthcare providers. Methods: A survey was designed to gauge a better understanding of the perceptions of medicinal plant use amongst Latino patients with varying education levels who reside in the St. Louis Metropolitan Area. Survey questions highlighted the perceptions of medicinal plants use, patient communication regarding medicinal plant use with healthcare providers (pharmacists and doctors, and the impact the education level has on medicinal plant use. Results: Surveys were distributed to six different investigational sites around the St. Louis Metropolitan Area from August 2015 to December 2015. Survey respondents identified 45 different plants/herbs that they currently use or had used at some point in their life. Those with higher levels of education had varying opinions on medicinal plant use with their current practices. Conclusion: The participants’ high interest in the use of medicinal plants exemplifies the need for enhanced communication between patients and healthcare professionals about medicinal plant use. However, it was hard to determine whether the participants’ level of education had any direct relationship to this use. Conflict of Interest None   Type: Original Research

  2. Characterization of ethno-medicinal plant resources of karamar valley Swabi, Pakistan

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    Muhammad Khalid

    2017-04-01

    Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants are still widely used for the treatment of different ailments in the area of Swabi, therefore survey of medicinal flora should be carried out to explore and bring up-to-date the catalogue of existing natural plant resources of the area especially in agricultural country like Pakistan. Small scale government processing units of agroforestry should be implemented to reduce the overuse and motivate the cultivation of valuable medicinal plants. Majority of the people use various formulations of medicinal plants for different ailments treatment. The phytochemicals greatly varied in medicinal plants and cause a marvelous effect on human illnesses. The objective of the present study was to document the information of folk medicines, its identification, collection of samples, study of its chemical constituents and uses by the local people of District Swabi, Pakistan.

  3. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  4. Metabolic Engineering Strategies for the Optimization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants : Expectations and Realities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayser, O.; Baricevic, D; Novak, J; Pank, F

    2010-01-01

    In recent years classic genetic and molecular biology strategies (Bioballistics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation, recombinant enzymes) for production of natural compounds or even breeding of medicinal and aromatic plants have expanded and improved productivity of plant-derived fine

  5. Medicinal plants used by women in Mecca: urban, Muslim and gendered knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqethami, Afnan; Hawkins, Julie A; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2017-11-17

    This study explores medicinal plant knowledge and use among Muslim women in the city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Ethnobotanical research in the region has focused on rural populations and male herbal healers in cities, and based on these few studies, it is suggested that medicinal plant knowledge may be eroding. Here, we document lay, female knowledge of medicinal plants in an urban centre, interpreting findings in the light of the growing field of urban ethnobotany and gendered knowledge and in an Islamic context. Free-listing, structured and semi-structured interviews were used to document the extent of medicinal plant knowledge among 32 Meccan women. Vernacular names, modes of preparation and application, intended therapeutic use and emic toxicological remarks were recorded. Women were asked where they learnt about medicinal plants and if and when they preferred using medicinal plants over biomedical resources. Prior informed consent was always obtained. We compared the list of medicinal plants used by these Meccan women with medicinal plants previously documented in published literature. One hundred eighteen vernacular names were collected, corresponding to approximately 110 plants, including one algae. Of these, 95 were identified at the species level and 39 (41%) had not been previously cited in Saudi Arabian medicinal plant literature. Almost one half of the plants cited are food and flavouring plants. Meccan women interviewed learn about medicinal plants from their social network, mass media and written sources, and combine biomedical and medicinal plant health care. However, younger women more often prefer biomedical resources and learn from written sources and mass media. The fairly small number of interviews conducted in this study was sufficient to reveal the singular body of medicinal plant knowledge held by women in Mecca and applied to treat common ailments. Plant availability in local shops and markets and inclusion in religious texts seem to shape the

  6. A bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants from Nigeria, west Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifongo, Lydia L; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Babiaka, Smith B; Judson, Philip N

    2014-02-01

    Traditional medicinal practices play a key role in health care systems in countries with developing economies. The aim of this survey was to validate the use of traditional medicine within local Nigerian communities. In this review, we examine the ethnobotanical uses of selected plant species from the Nigerian flora and attempt to correlate the activities of the isolated bioactive principles with known uses of the plant species in African traditional medicine. Thirty-three (33) plant species were identified and about 100 out of the 120 compounds identified with these plants matched with the ethnobotanical uses of the plants.

  7. Evaluation of biological activities and chemical constituent of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal

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    Bishnu Prasad Pandey

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The main aims of the study were to evaluate the phytochemicals, antioxidant, antibacterial and chemical constituents of storage medicinal plant materials used as a traditional medicine in Nepal. Methods: Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, antibacterial activities, anti-oxidant assay of the crude extract (water, methanol, n-hexane and acetone were carried out to identify the biological activities and phytonutrients present in the different extract. The chemical constituents present in the crude extract were analyzed using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC equipped with UV detector. Results: Evaluated medicinal plant materials were found to have diverse phytonutrients. Results revealed that methanol extract of Pakhanved and Jethimadhu have highest total flavonoids and polyphenol content. Among the selected medicinal plant materials Jethimadhu extract revealed the highest antioxidant activities. Furthermore, evaluated medicinal plants extract were found to exert a range of in vitro growth inhibition activity against both gram positive and gram negative species. The highest antibacterial activities were observed in the case of methanol extract, whereas, least activity was observed with the hexane extract. HPLC analysis of the acetone extract of Jethimadhu reveals the presence of diosmetin. Conclusions: Our result revealed that among the five evaluated medicinal plant materials, Jethimadhu extract revealed biological activities and exhibits a higher amount of polyphenol and flavonoid content. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 369-377

  8. The characteristics of the medicinal plants used in the herbal medicine оf type 2 diabetes

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    Sergei Kalmykov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: consider the rational combination of the herbs in fytocomplexes applied in the rehabilitation of the type 2 diabetes. Material & Methods: analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the use of herbal medicine in the complex rehabilitation for patients with diabetes. Results: modern views on the necessity and the features of the use of herbal remedies especially in the diabetes type 2 are presented; the main medicinal plants used in this pathology are described. The main attention is paid to the peculiarities of forming up an integrated cure that contains a mixture of several kinds of medicinal plants. The classification of herbal drugs used for diabetes is given. Conclusions: advantages of application of collection of medicinal plants over synthetic drugs in the complex treatment of the type 2 diabetes are proved.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C

    2001-01-01

    The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  10. Comparative Study of Heavy Metals in Soil and Selected Medicinal Plants

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    Afzal Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential and nonessential heavy metals like iron (Fe, nickel (Ni, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, and lead (Pb were analyzed in four selected medicinal plants such as Capparis spinosa, Peganum harmala, Rhazya stricta, and Tamarix articulata by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS. These medicinal plants are extensively used as traditional medicine for treatment of various ailments by local physicians in the area from where these plants were collected. The concentration level of heavy metals in the selected plants was found in the decreasing order as Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Cr > Cd > Pb. The results revealed that the selected medicinal plants accumulate these elements at different concentrations. Monitoring such medicinal plants for heavy metals concentration is of great importance for physicians, health planners, health care professionals, and policymakers in protecting the public from the adverse effects of these heavy metals.

  11. Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants

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    MAHENDRA KUMAR RAI

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rai MK (2010 Review: Biotechnological strategies for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. Biodiversitas 11: 157-166. The use of medicinal plants is as old as human civilization. The biotechnological tools play a crucial role in conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The rapid depletion of plant genetic diversity has made essential to develop new in situ and ex situ conservation methods. Advances in biotechnology offer new methods for conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, micropropagation, mycorrhization, genetic transformation and development of DNA banks. These are imperative and important alternatives for the conservation of rare and endangered medicinal plants.

  12. Analysis of traditional knowledge in medicinal plants used by Yuan in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Angkhana; Trisonthi, Paritat; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2013-08-26

    We studied traditional knowledge of medicinal plants use of the Yuan in northern Thailand, documenting and analysing traditional medical practices and its trend in the younger generations. To providing useful information for appropriate and sustainable management under the urbanization and other developments and use of natural resources in their communities. In addition, traditional medicinal plant used, and knowledge that leads to discovery of new medicines can be promoted. Traditional medicinal plant knowledge of the Yuan in Lamphun province was studied from October 2009 through September 2011 in order to determine the important medicinal plant species and dominant use-categories in 5 villages. In each village, questionnaire interviews about medicinal plants uses were applied to 30 informants (5 informants per each of six stratified age groups). The relative importance of plant species was captured by calculation of use value (UV). Likewise, the dominant use-categories were determined by calculation of the informant agreement ratio (IAR). Correlations between informants' age and number of medicinal plants known by them were determined with the coefficient of determination (R(2)). A total of 93 medicinal plant species in 82 genera and 49 families were recorded in the five villages. The most important species of medicinal plants were Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Andrographis paniculata Ness, Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M.King and H.Rob., Jatropha podagrica Hook., and Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. which had UVs of 1.02, 1.01, 0.75, 0.71, and 0.65, respectively. Likewise, the most dominant use-categories were injuries, which accounted for 0.91 of the IAR. The age of informants and medicinal plants reported by each of them were positively correlated (R(2)=0.96, ptraditional medicinal plant knowledge is used for treating basic ailments. However we should be concerned that there is an imminent danger that it will be lost in the near future because their lifestyle was changing

  13. Determination of toxic heavy metals in indigenous medicinal plants used in Rawalpindi and Islamabad cities, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Adeel; Rashid, Sadia; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2013-06-21

    History of medicinal plants used in local healthcare systems dates back centuries as the user considers them safe from toxic effects. Present study was aimed to document the commonly used indigenous medicinal plants and to investigate the metal toxicity and impact of pollution load in most frequently used medicinal plants from study area. Semi-structured interviews and rapid appraisal approach were employed to record the ethnomedicinal information and toxic metals were analyzed through flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 21 wild medicinal plants was reported, and 7 were screened for toxic metal analysis. Oral mode of application (93%) was the chief route of herbal remedy administration, and leaves were found to be used as major plant part against different diseases. Main sources of remedies were wild herb (68%) followed by wild trees (18%), wild spiny shrubs (09%) and wild shrubs (5%). Trend of metal concentration was found as Fe>Ni>Cr>Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd. Indigenous medicinal plants of both cities posed the toxicity risk for Ni, Cu, Fe and crossed the safety limits set by WHO. Medicinal plants of Rawalpindi were more toxic compared to the medicinal plants of Islamabad. Prolonged intake or over dose of these medicinal plants may lead to chronic accumulation of various elements that may cause severe hazardous effect upon human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of five medicinal plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Cleyton Marcos de M.; Silva, Hilris Rocha e; Vieira-Junior, Gerardo Magela; Ayres, Mariane Cruz C.; Costa, Charllyton Luis S. da; Araajo, Delton Servulo; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Barros, Elcio Daniel S.; Araujo, Paulo Breitner de M.; Brandao, Marcela S.; Chaves, Mariana H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes total phenolics content and antioxidant activity in the ethanolic extract of leaves, bark and roots of five medicinal plants: Terminalia brasiliensis Camb., Terminalia fagifolia Mart. and Zucc., Copernicia cerifera (Miller) H.E. Moore, Cenostigma macrophyllum Tul. var. acuminata Teles Freire and Qualea grandiflora Mart. The total phenolics content of the plant extracts, determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, varied from 250.0 ±8,2 to 763,63 ±13.03 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g dry EtOH extract. The antioxidant activity of extracts was evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay system. Extract of bark from T. brasiliensis, the most active, with an EC 50 value of 27.59 ± 0.82 μg/mL, was comparable to rutin (EC 50 = 27.80 ± 1.38) and gallic acid (EC 50 = 24.27 ± 0.31), used as positive controls. The relationship between total phenolic content and antioxidant activity was positive and significant for T. brasiliensis, C. macrophyllum and C. cerifera. (author)

  15. Phenolic Constituents of Medicinal Plants with Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Nan Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs affect over one billion people all over the world. These diseases are classified as neglected because they impact populations in areas with poor financial conditions and hence do not attract sufficient research investment. Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT or sleeping sickness, caused by the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, is one of the NTDs. The current therapeutic interventions for T. brucei infections often have toxic side effects or require hospitalization so that they are not available in the rural environments where HAT occurs. Furthermore, parasite resistance is increasing, so that there is an urgent need to identify novel lead compounds against this infection. Recognizing the wide structural diversity of natural products, we desired to explore and identify novel antitrypanosomal chemotypes from a collection of natural products obtained from plants. In this study, 440 pure compounds from various medicinal plants were tested against T. brucei by in a screening using whole cell in vitro assays. As the result, twenty-two phenolic compounds exhibited potent activity against cultures of T. brucei. Among them, eight compounds—4, 7, 11, 14, 15, 18, 20, and 21—showed inhibitory activity against T. brucei, with IC50 values below 5 µM, ranging from 0.52 to 4.70 μM. Based on these results, we attempt to establish some general trends with respect to structure-activity relationships, which indicate that further investigation and optimization of these derivatives might enable the preparation of potentially useful compounds for treating HAT.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM. Feitosa

    Full Text Available A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL, Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL, Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL, Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL. The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL should be present.

  17. Trace element content of medicinal plants from Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamari, Z.; Neggache, H.; Larbi, R.; Landsberger, S.; Braisted, J.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinal plants used to cure the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol, Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Na, Mg, Rb, Sb, Se, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn have been determined by short, and long irradiation times with a thermal and epithermal flux of 1.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 and 1.4 x 10 11 n x cm -2 x s -1 , respectively. These analyses were performed in conjunction with Compton suppression. In almost herbs studied the Co, Cr, Cu, Rb, Sb , Sc, Se and V are found to be present at trace levels, Br, Mn, and Zn at the minor level, and Ca, Cl, Fe, Mg and Na are generally at the major level. The accuracy of the measurements has been evaluated by analyzing NISTbotanical references materials. (author)

  18. Antimycobacterial triterpenes from the Canadian medicinal plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven A; Li, Haoxin; Webster, Duncan; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2016-07-21

    The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, is a medicinal plant used by the Canadian First Nations to treat a wide variety of illnesses. The Mi'kmaq and Wolastoqiyik (Maliseet) peoples of Eastern Canada have traditionally used infusions of S. purpurea for the treatment of tuberculosis-like symptoms. Previous investigations have shown methanolic extracts of S. purpurea to possess antimycobacterial activity. To isolate and identify antimycobacterial constituents from S. purpurea. Methanolic extracts of S. purpurea were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using the microplate resazurin assay (MRA) to assess inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra. The antimycobacterial constituents were identified by NMR, MS and polarimetry. The triterpenes betulinaldehyde, β-sitosterol, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid were isolated from S. purpurea. Betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid exhibited MICs of 450, 950, and 450μM and IC50s of 98, 169, and 93μM against M. tuberculosis H37Ra respectively whilst β-sitosterol was inactive (MIC and IC50 of >1000μM). Betulinaldehyde, betulinic acid, and ursolic acid were identified as the principal constituents responsible for the antimycobacterial activity of S. purpurea. This work is consistent with the ethnopharmacological use of S. purpurea by Canadian First Nations as a treatment against infectious diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Plant growth-promoting activities for bacterial and fungal endophytes isolated from medicinal plant of Teucrium polium L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Saad El-Din

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal endophytes are widespread inhabitants inside plant tissues and have been shown to assist plant growth and health. However, little is known about plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE) of medicinal plants. Therefore, the aims of this study were to identify bacterial and fungal endophytes of Teucrium polium and to characterize plant growth-promoting (PGP) properties of these endophytes. Seven bacterial endophytes were isolated and identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillu...

  20. Folk medicinal plant mixtures: Establishing a protocol for further studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Airy; Parada, Montse; Rigat, Montse; Vallès, Joan; Garnatje, Teresa

    2018-03-25

    Most ethnobotanical research bases its analyses on individual taxa catalogues and their uses, rather than on mixtures. However, mixtures constitute an important chapter of our different lines of research and they represent a large volume of information. The relevance of these data in folk medicine could be explained as a response to the cure of multicausal etiology diseases or by a possible polyvalent effect of the mixture as opposed to the effect of each taxon alone. The main goals are: i) to perform qualitative and quantitative analyses of these mixtures; ii) to carry out a comparison among the mixtures in two Catalan territories and their floristic composition; iii) to assess the worth of families association; and, iv) to evaluate whether the plants claimed to be used in mixtures have contraindications or possible negative interactions according to phytopharmaceutical literature. The ultimate goal is to test a protocol that can be implemented in similar studies. We have used data on medicinal plant mixtures obtained from two extensive ethnobotanical field studies carried out in two Catalan districts, Alt Empordà and Ripollès. The quantitative analyses by means of descriptive statistics were carried out with Excel. New contributions like the implementation of the Shannon index to quantify the diversity of families in plant combinations, the creation of a new index to calculate the taxon importance in mixtures, or the use of a social network analysis to study the connection between botanical families have been employed in this work. In total, a set of 484 mixtures from Alt Empordà and Ripollès (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) have been analysed: 462 for human use and 22 for veterinary. Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis are among the most commonly used species in mixtures. The aerial part of the plant is the most used, and the anticatarrhal usage is the most frequent in both territories. A wide diversity of families has been observed in mixtures and

  1. Inorganic constituents determination in medicinal plants and their extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisconi, Lucilaine Silva

    2014-01-01

    Different types of therapies have been introduced as an alternative treatment to combat different types of human disorders. Among them, the use of herbal teas has been highlighted by the cost/benefit, easiness of acquisition and administration. The aim of this study was to determine the inorganic constituents, and evaluate the element concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg. Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis; and Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb, by atomic emission spectrometry, with inductively coupled plasma source and Hg, by atomic absorption spectrometry, with cold vapor generation in medicinal plants and their extracts, whose marketing was recently regulated by National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA). The relevance of these analyses is justified by the need of contributing to the recommendation of such plants as sources of minerals in the diet and, also, to verify if their concentrations cam pose some harm to the organism. The techniques showed adequate sensitivity in determining the concentration for most of the elements. Toxic elements were found in concentration not harmful to the human body. The results, also, allowed possible to correlate the elemental concentration in the analyzed species, by the determination the correlation coefficients and applications of cluster analysis. From these results it was confirmers in the groups of elements, regarding the variation of the concentrations observed in some plants and their extracts. The elements that play important roles in the human metabolism were determined in concentrations that can help both, to avoid the lack of these elements in the organisms, from the diet, and in treatment of disease. (author)

  2. Endophyte bioprospecting in South Asian medicinal plants: an attractive resource for biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Rabia; Javeed, Aqeel; Bajwa, Aamir Ghafoor

    2017-03-01

    From the last several years, there has been an increasing interest in plant-associated bacteria commonly referred to as endophytes that reside asymptomatically in the internal plant tissues. This interest peaked since the last two decades due to the recognition that endophytes within medicinal plants have the capability to mimic and produce the bioactive metabolites of the host plant. A number of medicinal plants have been used for centuries by the people of South Asia to cure various diseases and this has led to abundant usage experience. Relating to prior ethanopharmacological experiences, scientists have searched for medicinal plants that could be valued sources for endophytes yielding novel metabolites of pharmaceutical importance. This review is therefore an effort to encompass the most recent efforts in the exploration of medicinal plants of South Asia and their endophytes.

  3. The trade in African medicinal plants in Matoge-lxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van Tinde; Fundiko, Marie Cakupewa C.

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining cultural identity and preference to treat cultural bound ailments with herbal medicine are motivations for migrants to continue using medicinal plants from their home country after moving to Europe and the USA. As it is generally easier to import exotic food than herbal medicine,

  4. Fertilization-Induced Changes in Growth Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arab Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Azaizeh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth and antioxidant activity. Wild seedlings were collected and fertilized with either 100% Hoagland solution, 50% Hoagland solution, 20% Hoagland solution or irrigated with tap water. Plant height was measured and the number of green leaves and branches counted weekly. Thereafter, the aboveground parts of plants were harvested for preparing a water-soluble powder extracts of which antioxidant activity was measured by their ability to suppress the oxidation of β-carotene. Of the fertilization regimes, we found either 20 or 50% Hoagland solution produced the most consistent response of the plant growth parameters. All powders prepared from the four wild growing plants inhibited oxidation of β-carotene. Increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant activity of the cultivated T. polium compared with the wild type. In contrast, increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the antioxidant activity of powders prepared from the cultivated E. creticum when compared with wild plants. Our results showed that cultivation success should not rely solely on parameters of growth but should incorporate assessment related to indices of therapeutic potential.

  5. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Andel, van T.; Asfaw, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment

  6. A study on the indigenous medicinal plants and healing practices in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been unequivocally established that medicinal plants and associated knowledge play a significant role in the general welfare of the upland communities of Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT), Bangladesh. Notwithstanding the recognition, however, organised research on indigenous medicinal plants and knowledge has ...

  7. Metabolic engineering strategies for the optimization of medicinal and aromatic plants : realities and expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrawati, O.; Woerdenbag, H. J.; Hille, J.; Kayser, O.

    In recent years, strategies and techniques for the production of natural compounds (plant derived fine chemicals) and/or the breeding of medicinal and aromatic plants has expanded. Efficient production of high value natural products with medicinal and cosmetic purpose (e.g. essential oils,

  8. Medicinal plants used as home remedies: a family survey by first year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewani-Rusike, Constance R; Mammen, Marykutty

    2014-01-01

    There is a hierarchical organisation of knowledge in the use of medicinal plants in communities. Medicinal use knowledge starts in the home and is passed on to family members. Next in the hierarchy are neighbours, village elders and finally, traditional healers being the most knowledgeable. For primary health care this hierarchy is actively followed in seeking remedies for ailments. This study was a survey of medicinal plant knowledge from family members of 1(st) year medical students registered at Walter Sisulu University. A total of 206 first year medical students participated in this study in 2010 and 2011. Results revealed 47 species used as home remedies, 32% of which are food plants. Leaves and roots were reported as most commonly used. The top five ailments managed at home were gastrointestinal problems (25 plants), wounds (19 plants), respiratory tract problems (19 plants), infections, including sexually transmitted diseases (19 plants) and pain including headaches (19 plants). Chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cancer and reproductive ailments also formed a large group of diseases self-managed at home (29 plants). Family members hold knowledge of medicinal plant use. From this study, first year medical students were made aware of the relationship between common ailments and associated home remedies. This study forms a basis for further study of medicinal plants to validate their use as medicinal remedies.

  9. An evidence-based approach to medicinal plants for the treatment of sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvilzadeh, M; Hajimahmoodi, M; Toliyat, T; Karimi, M; Rahimi, R

    2016-10-01

    Infertility is defined as inability of a sexually active couple to conceive after 1 year of regular intercourse without contraception. Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility. The aim of this study was to review medicinal plants that proposed to improve sperm abnormalities in traditional Persian medicine. For this purpose, PubMed, Scopus, GoogleScholar and Cochrane library were explored for medicinal plants used in traditional Persian medicine for sperm abnormalities to obtain studies giving any evidence for their efficacy and pharmacological mechanisms related to male infertility. Data were collected for the years 1966 to March 2015. For some of them, including Chlorophytum borivilianum, Crocus sativus, Nigella sativa, Sesamum indicum, Tribulus terrestris, Mucuna pruriens and Withania somnifera, more reliable evidence was found. The mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of medicinal plants in sperm abnormalities are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-oedematous and venotonic activity as well as containing precursors for sperm production and increasing blood testosterone level. Various phytochemical categories including saponins, phytosterols, carotenoids, oxygenated volatile compounds, phenolic compounds and alkaloids seem to be responsible for these beneficial effects. Further studies are recommended for obtaining more conclusive results about the efficacy and safety of the mentioned medicinal plants. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants of Sirjan in Kerman Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajoei Nasab, F; Khosravi, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-28

    From ancient time human beings have used different plants, animals and minerals to prevent and treat various diseases. In this respect, plants have been of particular importance. Ethnobotany is the science of reviewing how indigenous people and local tribes have used their regional plants for particular purposes such as treating diseases in the past. The information gathered from such studies can help to improve national health systems and even lead to the discovery of new medicines. Keeping this in mind, in this study a survey of Sirjan area ethnobotany was conducted during 2011-2012. At the beginning, thirteen local people were interviewed about their region׳s medicinal plants and their consumptions. These plants were collected and identified using identification keys. The data collected was analyzed using quantitative value indices FIC, RFC and CI. Many plants collected have medicinal properties and have been used by local people to treat various ailments. Of these plants, nineteen families, 37 genera and 43 species belonged to medicinal plants. Among them, Lamiaceae with 8 species and Malva L. with 3 species were the largest medicinal plant families and genera, respectively. These plants are often used as decoction (28%) and as powder (21%). Also, the fruit of these plants are used most often. Besides being used as medicinal plants, they have other uses such as food, fuel, etc. Malva sylvestris has the largest value of relative frequency of citation and cultural importance indices. The most ailment categories have the highest level of informant agreement (mean FIC=0.92). Despite the semi-desert climate and lack of rich vegetation, many medicinal and economic plants are found in Sirjan region. Uncontrolled harvesting of the medicinal plants such as Bunium persicum, Cuminum cyminum, Zataria multiflora and Satureja bachtiarica in this region by local people has increased the risk of their extinction and calls for a restrict control over their protection by the

  11. Relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants from Layyah district, Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nadeem; Mahmood, Aqeel; Mahmood, Adeel; Tahir, S S; Bano, Asghari; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hassan, Seema; Ishtiaq, Muhammad

    2014-08-08

    Ethnomedicinal reports are important for the discovery of new crude drugs from reported medicinal plants with high use value. The current study aimed to document the medicinal flora as well as medicinal knowledge of indigenous plants of local communities from Layyah district, Punjab Province, Pakistan. Rapid appraisal approach (RAA), semi-structured interviews, group meetings with herbalists, landowners and local people having awareness about the medicinal action of plants were employed to collect the data. Use values (UV) and frequency of citation (FC) were calculated to check the relative importance of plants. The current ethnomedicinal study reported 125 medicinal plant species diversified from 106 genus belonging to the 43 different families and Poaceae was the predominant family over others with 16 reported medicinal plants. Wild herbaceous plants were the predominant over other life forms while among plant parts, leaves contributed 32% followed by the stem (27%), fruit and flowers (15%). Allium sativum exhibited the highest use vale (UV) 0.92 while the lowest UV was exhibited by Lasiurus scindicus which was 0.15. Local communities of district Layyah still have a strong faith on herbal medicines for basic healthcare needs. Indigenous plants having high UV and FC should be subjected to the detailed phytochemical investigations to explore new natural drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gulay; Kamiloglu, Senem; Ozdal, Tugba; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-02-25

    Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  13. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ozkan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS. Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile.

  14. [Discussion on appraisal methods and key technologies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and medicinal plant symbiosis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanping; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Yang, Li; Huang, Luqi

    2011-11-01

    Applications of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in research of medicinal plant cultivation are increased in recent years. Medicinal plants habitat is complicated and many inclusions are in root, however crop habitat is simple and few inclusions in root. So appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of crop and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can't completely suitable for the symbiotic system of medicinal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article discuss the appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of medicinal plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the appraisal of colonization intensity. This article provides guidance for application research of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cultivation of medicinal plants.

  15. Analysis of trace elements in medicinal plants with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekinci, N.; Polat, R.; Budak, G.; Ekinci, R.

    2004-01-01

    Mankind still depend on traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Elemental composition and concentration of medicinal plants have been investigated by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The elements present in medicinal plants are P, Cl, K, Ca, S, Al, Ti, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, In, Sn, I and Ce. The physical basis of the used analytical method, the experimental set up and the procedure of sample preparation are presented. (author)

  16. Survey on supply and demand of medicinal plants in Lorestan province groceries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    fatemeh Naderi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of activities related to medicinal plant industry lead to maintenance and progress (improvement of society health. Attention to situation of medicinal plants in groceries, diagnosis different species, Value of consumption and supplier regions as most important factors in medicinal plants forum can be used for programming and politics in medicinal industry in our country. So via proper scientific programming we can achieve to better culture of medicinal plants consumption and we can improve health parameters in lorestan province. Materials and methods The research was accomplished with Cross-Sectional study and questionary technique was used for data collection. The questionnaire consist of 3 parts were included questions related to socioeconomic trait, number of medicinal plant and medicinal properties. All of the groceries in the lorestan province were studied as statistical society. Sampling method was availability sample and samples size was 69 groceries. Results Results showed that the numbers of medicinal plants in groceries were about 336 species, mean of sold weight Was 128.48 kg. 94.5% and 5.5% of medicinal plants were supplied from out of Lorestan and Lorestan province respectively. Conclusion Existence of special plains and mountains plentiful running water, high storage of under round water and different Climate in the lorestan province cause a considerable diversity in this province. Whereas the results of this study showed that the most important suppliers of medicinal plants were located out of this province therefore programming in the case of these valuable sources of medicinal plants will be because higher preoccupation and existence of these crops in the groceries of lorestan province, even can export these to other countries.

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael; Kehop, Dickson Andrew; Kinminja, Boniface; Sabak, Malcolm; Wavimbukie, Graham; Barrows, Katherine M; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Rai, Prem P

    2015-11-14

    Rapid modernization in the East Sepik (ES) Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is resulting in a decrease in individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. Here we report a synthesis and comparison of traditional medicinal plant use from four ethnically distinct locations in the ES Province and furthermore compare them to two other previous reports of traditional plant use from different provinces of PNG. This manuscript is based on an annotated combination of four Traditional Medicines (TM) survey reports generated by University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) trainees. The surveys utilized a questionnaire titled "Information sheet on traditional herbal preparations and medicinal plants of PNG", administered in the context of the TM survey project which is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Regional and transregional comparison of medicinal plant utilization was facilitated by using existing plant databases: the UPNG TM Database and the PNG Plant Database (PNG Plants) using Bayesian statistical analysis. Medicinal plant use between four distinct dialect study areas in the ES Province of PNG showed that only a small fraction of plants had shared use in each area, however usually utilizing different plant parts, being prepared differently and to treat different medical conditions. Several instances of previously unreported medicinal plants could be located. Medicinally under- and over-utilized plants were found both in the regional reports and in a transregional analysis, thus showing that these medicinal utilization frequencies differ between provinces. Documentation of consistent plant use argues for efficacy and is particularly important since established and effective herbal medicinal interventions are sorely needed in the rural areas of PNG, and unfortunately clinical validation for the same is often lacking. Despite the existence of a large corpus of medical annotation of plants for PNG, previously unknown medical

  18. Efficient plant regeneration of bittersweet (Solanum dulcamara L., a medicinal plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Ucar Turker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet is a medicinal plant that has been used to treat skin diseases, warts, tumors, felons, arthritis, rheumatism, bronchial congestion, heart ailments, ulcerative colitis, eye inflammations, jaundice and pneumonia. A reliable in vitro culture protocol for bittersweet was established. Explants (leaf and petiole segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog minimal organics (MSMO medium with various plant growth regulator combinations. Leaf explants formed more shoots than petiole explants. Plant regeneration was observed through indirect organogenesis with both explants. Best shoot proliferation was obtained from leaf explants with 3 mg/l BA (benzyladenine and 0.5 mg/l IAA (indole-3-acetic acid. Regenerated shoots were transferred to rooting media containing different levels of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, IBA (indole-3-butyric acid, NAA (naphthalene acetic acid or 2,4-D (2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Most shoots developed roots on medium with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted explants were transferred to vermiculate in Magenta containers for acclimatization and after 2 weeks, they were planted in plastic pots containing potting soil and maintained in the plant growth room.

  19. AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN VILLAGES UNDER JONGILANGA TRIBAL COUNCIL, MPUMALANGA, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mophuting, Boikanyo Calvin; Mahore, James; Winterboer, Stefan; Lall, Namrita

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire with 15 traditional healers as informants; one of them also served as a field guide during data collection. Results were analysed by using various quantitative indices of information consensus factor (ICF), use report (UR), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). The study reported 86 medicinal plants used in villages for the treatment of various ailments, the majority (25 species) of which were used for urino-genital disorders. The Fabaceae family was the most represented family (17 species) of all the medicinal plants recorded in this study. The roots were the most frequently used plant part, accounting for 56% of the plants reported, and decoctions were often used in the preparation of herbal remedies. Respiratory diseases had the highest ICF value recorded among the 8 categories of ailments. The highest use report was reported for Combretum collinum (4), while the FC and RFC values (15) were highest in 12 plant species. The study revealed that medicinal plants are still widely used in rural areas and this documentation can serve as an ethno pharmacological basis for selecting plants with potential pharmaceutical properties.

  20. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Jahangeer A; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2013-01-02

    Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.

  1. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource. PMID:23281594

  2. Traditional Practices and Medicinal Plants Use during Pregnancy by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivoire, despite modern antenatal medical prescriptions, most pregnant women resort to traditional medicine to ensure foetus development and facilitate childbirth. Yet, there is not enough research on the African traditional medicine concerning this ...

  3. Medicinal plants - a potent antibacterial source against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of indigenous medicinal plants as alternative chemical pesticides for controlling bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of rice was investigated. Twenty-five different species of medicinal plants were collected from various sites in Pakistan. Decoctions of all medicinal plant species were screened by the disc plate diffusion method for testing the susceptibility of an aggressive isolate of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo 105). Out of twenty five medicinal plants, Thuja orientalis (cone + leaves), Azadirachta indica (seeds + fruits), Amomum subulatum (fruits), Terminalia chebula (fruits), Terminalia bellirica (fruits), Anethum graveolens (fruits) and Ferula assa-foetida (fruits) decoctions showed significant activity. The efficacy of decoctions from six promising plants were further tested through detached leaf, glasshouse and field assays. A decoction of Terminalia chebula demonstrated the highest effectiveness in terms of regulating BLB in the plants both under laboratory and field conditions. Bioactive fractions of Terminalia chebula were purified, characterized and tentatively identified as allegic acid. (author)

  4. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants for users of two basic health units

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    Diego Florêncio Lima

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed at verifying the knowledge and use of medicinal plants among users of two Family Health Units. This was a quantitative survey carried out between June and August 2010 at Sinop, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We used a structured interview guide, attended by 302 people of both sexes, which indicated that 77 plants are used for the treatment of several diseases, only 7.67% did not use medicinal plants. However, we described the 10 most reported plants, the part used for each form and its preparation. Only 0.9% of the population interviewed acquired information about such plants with health professionals. It is necessary to invest in initiatives that promote greater integration of the use of medicinal plants within the programs developed at Family Health Units, as well as a greater training of these professionals, by incorporating content that include herbal medicine in undergraduate courses.

  5. Naturally occurring Vpr inhibitors from medicinal plants of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Nwet Nwet; Ngwe, Hla; Abe, Ikuro; Morita, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is a lentiviral family member that encodes the retroviral Gag, Pol, and Env proteins, along with six additional accessory proteins, Tat, Rev, Vpu, Vif, Nef, and Vpr. The currently approved anti-HIV drugs target the Pol and Env encoded proteins. However, these drugs are only effective in reducing viral replication. Furthermore, the drugs' toxicities and the emergence of drug-resistant strains have become serious worldwide problems. Resistance eventually arises to all of the approved anti-HIV drugs, including the newly approved drugs that target HIV integrase (IN). Drug resistance likely emerges because of spontaneous mutations that occur during viral replication. Therefore, new drugs that effectively block other viral components must be developed to reduce the rate of resistance and suppress viral replication with little or no long-term toxicity. The accessory proteins may expand treatment options. Viral protein R (Vpr) is one of the promising drug targets among the HIV accessory proteins. However, the search for inhibitors continues in anti-HIV drug discovery. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring compounds discovered from two Myanmar medicinal plants as well as their structure-activity relationships. A total of 49 secondary metabolites were isolated from Kaempferia pulchra rhizomes and Picrasama javanica bark, and the types of compounds were identified as isopimarane diterpenoids and picrasane quassinoids, respectively. Among the isolates, 7 diterpenoids and 15 quassinoids were found to be Vpr inhibitors lacking detectable toxicity, and their potencies varied according to their respective functionalities.

  6. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of carrasco, northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Renata Kelly Dias; da Silva, Maria Arlene Pessoa; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Ribeiro, Daiany Alves; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida

    2014-11-18

    The goal of this study was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal species from the carrasco vegetation of the Araripe National Forest, state of Ceará, Brazil, as well as determining species with bioprospecting potential The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a free list. The relative importance of the plants cited was assessed, as well as species that stood out with respect to bodily systems, on the basis of informant consensus. A total of 32 species belonging to 29 genera and 20 families were recorded. Of this total, six species (19%) showed great versatility regarding their uses in regard to up to seven bodily systems. The therapeutic indications were grouped into 14 categories of bodily systems. Circulatory and genitourinary disorders, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, and undefined pain or disease showed the greatest consensus between informants. Ximenia americana, Himathantus drasticus, Stryphnodndron rotundifolium, Bowdichia virgilioides, and Hymenaea courbaril were the species warranting more in-depth study, on the basis of versatility and informant consensus on the uses of the species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The antibiotic activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Ferreira de Lima

    Full Text Available The antibiotic activities of the ethanol extracts from 16 species of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine have been determined against Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus flavus, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Salmonella enteretidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia marcescens, Mycobacterium phlei, M. smegmatis and M. fortuitum, and the yeasts Candida albicans and C. krusei. Among 32 extracts assayed, only those from Lafoensia pacari and Pterodon polygalaeflorus showed activity against the bacterial strains, and none were active against the yeasts. The ethanolic extract from the leaves of L. pacari showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 312.5 to 2500, 250, 625 and 1250 mg/mL, respectively, against eight different Gram-positive strains of Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative Proteus mirabilis and the acid-fast bacilli Mycobacterium phlei, M. fortuitum and M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract from the stem of L. pacari showed an MIC value of 625 mg/mL against S. aureus. Chemical analysis revealed that the crude extracts contained tannins, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and saponins: the activities were sufficiently high to present the possibility of future identification of the active components by bioassay-guided fractionation and purification.

  8. Physicochemical and viscoelastic properties of honey from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Panyoyai, Naksit; Paramita, Vilia Darma; Mantri, Nitin; Kasapis, Stefan

    2018-02-15

    The present work investigated the physicochemical and structural properties of Tulsi, Alfalfa and two varieties of Manuka honey derived from medicinal plants. Chemical analysis yielded data on the content of reducing sugars (glucose and fructose) that dominate the honey matrix, and of the minor constituents of protein, phenols and flavonoids. Standard chemical assays were used to develop a database of water content, electrical conductivity, pH, ash content, visual appearance and colour intensity. Physicochemical characteristics were related to structural behaviour of the four honey types, as recorded by small-deformation dynamic oscillation in shear, micro- and modulated differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. The preponderance of hydrogen bonds in intermolecular associations amongst monosaccharides in honey yields a semi-amorphous or semi-crystalline system. That allowed prediction of the calorimetric and mechanical glass transition temperatures that demarcate the passage from liquid-like to solid-like consistency at subzero temperatures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on determining the level of the antioxidant activity of beer, to which sensory acceptable amounts of selected extracts of medicinal plants were added, with the aim of obtaining a beer with increased functional and new sensory features. For purposes of this study a commercial lager beer type Pils and extracts of herbal drugs: Melissae folium, Thymi herba, Juniperi fructus, Urticae radix and Lupuli strobuli, were used. Total phenols were analyzed by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, and the antioxidant activity of samples using FRAP and DPPH test. Sensory evaluation of beer was conducted on 80 subjects, using a nine levels hedonic scale. The results showed that the content of total phenols was the highest in the beer which thyme, juniper and lemon balm were added to (384.22, 365.38 and 363.08 mg GAE/L, respectively, representing the increase of 37.09, 30.36 and 29.55% (respectively compared to the commercial lager beer. Values of antioxidant activity were correlated with the content of total phenols. The extract of lemon balm blended in the best manner with the baseline, commercial lager beer in terms of sensory acceptability. New beer, enriched with lemon balm, had a pleasant, appealing and harmonious flavor and aroma.

  10. Traditional uses of medicinal plants at Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro

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    Douglas S.A. Chaves

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This work had as outcome to deal with the part of the population of Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro those who use the public health system and use alternative medicinal plants for the treatment of illness. Aims: To evaluate the potential medicinal uses of local plants traditionally used in curing/treatment different diseases and illnesses, and contribute as a therapeutic option in the public health system of municipality. Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to measure independent variables and issues related to the consumption of medicinal plants, based on field surveys and direct face to face communication. It was calculated the relative importance index (RI of the medicinal plants used in the community as the number of users that mentioned them and the agreement use. Results: Seventy-three plants (44 families were cited by the population. Species with the highest number of citations (50% were boldo, lemon grass, gorse, lemon balm, breaks stone and air plant, and the leaves over part used in medicinal preparations; it was the tea as the main form of use from the fresh plant. Conclusions: The data suggest that the use of medicinal plants remains an important therapy and wanted by the population, and this would be integrating the knowledge of the practices of traditional medicine to scientific knowledge of these species, replacing the empirical use to the correct use, ensuring secure access to the population. This study is the first ethnopharmacological report in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro.

  11. [Diversity and distribution of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in Lancang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiu-Lian; Yuan, Yi-Kai; Fang, Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Yang, Han-Yu; Zhao, Zhi-Ping; Li, Guo; Fu, Kai-Cong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The rich diversity in medicinal plants provides an important material basic for the development of Traditional Chinese medicine in China. It is important to explore the present situation of medicinal plants within special regions in order to provide scientific instructions for their sustainable protection and exploitation and utilization. In this study, we carried out the field survey according to the guideline of national survey of Chinese material medica resources and the guideline of plant species diversity survey and estimation at county level with the line transect method. With the field surveyed data, we explored the diversity and distribution of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in Lancang. We found that there were 33 species of the threatened medicinal vascular plants in this county. These species were from 23 genera and 17 families, and were composed of one critical endangered, 10 endangered and 22 vulnerable species. They were widely distributed across the whole county and were most concentrated in the town of Nuozhadu, Fazhanhe, Nuofu and Zhutang, which were located in the southeastern, southwestern and western of Lancang, respectively. We also found that the plant species richness followed a unimodal pattern along elevation. In addition, we found that the areas of Nuozhadu Nature Reserve in Lancang only covered six threatened medicinal vascular plants, while most of the regions with high species richness were not well protected. Therefore, we proposed to make more efforts to improve the protection measurements in order to better protect and utilize the medicinal plants in Lancang. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. Studies on ethno medicinal plant diversity in an urban area – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Biswas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the Ethno-medicinal plants used by the local communities in Santragachhi area, under Howrah Municipal Corporation, ward no. 38, District Howrah, West Bengal, India. An ethno medicinal survey was carried out the use of medicinal plants in Santragachi region. The information was gathered from the local community people using an integrated approach botanical collections, group discussion and interview with questionnaire during 2012-2013. Among 50 informants interviewed, 10 were tribal practitioners. A total of 53 genera and 33 families are documented. In most of case, fresh parts of the plants were used for the preparation of medicine. The results further revealed that the natives of this area are not very much practiced in using the medicinal plants in the treatment of human illness. The study area is delimited by number of wetlands and the people collect the aquatic plants by their habitual knowledge as food resources. But due to expansion of city area, road construction causes loss of plant diversity and random exploitation of natural resources many valuable medicinal plants are at the stage of extinction. The present study documented ethno medicinal plants were mostly used for treatment of various diseases.

  13. Inventory of plants used in traditional medicine in Somalia. IV. Plants of the families Passifloraceae-Zygophyllaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, G; Farah, M H; Claeson, P; Hagos, M; Thulin, M; Hedberg, O; Warfa, A M; Hassan, A O; Elmi, A H; Abdurahman, A D

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-seven plants are listed, which are used by traditional healers in the central and southern parts of Somalia. For each species are listed: the botanical name with synonyms, collection number, vernacular name, medicinal use, preparation of remedy and dosage. Results of a literature survey are also reported including medicinal use, substances isolated and pharmacological effects. Three plants which should have been included in Part I of the series have been added and some corrections to that paper have been made. With these additions the series comprises 180 different plant species, distributed in 59 plant families.

  14. Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Victor Pena; Arruda, Caroline; Abd El-Salam, Mohamed; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2018-12-01

    Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds. A search in the literature was undertaken by using the following Web tools: Web of Science, SciFinder, Pub-Med and Science Direct. The terms 'anti-inflammatory' and 'Brazilian medicinal plants' were used as keywords in search engine. Tropicos and Reflora websites were used to verify the origin of the plants, and only the native plants of Brazil were included in this review. The publications reporting the use of well-accepted scientific protocols to corroborate the anti-inflammatory activities of Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory potential were considered. We selected 70 Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. The plants were grouped according to their anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The main mechanisms involved inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The collected data on Brazilian medicinal plants, in the form of crude extract and/or isolated compounds, showed significant anti-inflammatory activities involving different mechanisms of action, indicating Brazilian plants as an important source of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  15. Analysis of medicinal plants and soil sample from Haridwar region by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharia, R.S.; Dutta, R.K.; Acharya, R.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2009-01-01

    Samples of leaves and stems of four medicinal plants namely Kalmegh, Amaltas, Moalshri, and Arusa were analysed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Soil from same location was analyzed. Though concentrations of many elements were determined in the plant samples, results of selected elements namely Na, K, Mn, Fe, Co, Cr, Zn and As are discussed in this paper. The results show that all medicinal plants analyzed have lower elemental contents except Zn compared to the soil. (author)

  16. Aromatic Medicinal Plants of the Lamiaceae Family from Uzbekistan: Ethnopharmacology, Essential Oils Composition, and Biological Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Mamadalieva, Nilufar Z.; Akramov, Davlat Kh.; Ovidi, Elisa; Tiezzi, Antonio; Nahar, Lutfun; Azimova, Shahnoz S.; Sarker, Satyajit D.

    2017-01-01

    Plants of the Lamiaceae family are important ornamental, medicinal, and aromatic plants, many of which produce essential oils that are used in traditional and modern medicine, and in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industry. Various species of the genera Hyssopus, Leonurus, Mentha, Nepeta, Origanum, Perovskia, Phlomis, Salvia, Scutellaria, and Ziziphora are widespread throughout the world, are the most popular plants in Uzbek traditional remedies, and are often used for the treatment ...

  17. Prospects and Challenges for Harnessing Opportunities in Medicinal Plants Sector in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harbir Singh

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the medicinal plants sector can be gauged from the fact that herbal medicines serve the healthcare needs of about 80 per cent of the world's population. India, with approximately eight percent of world's biodiversity including plant genetic diversity with medicinal properties, has the potential of becoming a major global player in market for medicinal plants-based herbal formulations and products. However, prior to establishment of Medicinal Plants Board, there was no nodal agency to look into medicinal plants as an economic 'sector' and different organisations dealt with different aspects of medicinal plants without any clear cut focus and coordination. This lack of co-ordination led to critical research gaps relating to socio-economic and policy aspects of medicinal plants. At the same time, absence of formal marketing linkages and effective buy-back arrangements hindered the development of medicinal plants sector. Developing appropriate varieties for cultivation which could ensure uniform quality and continuous supply of raw material for processing industry would not only meet the industry demand but also halt the degradation of natural resource base. To capitalize on expanding opportunities in the international market, we need to focus on scientific methods of cultivation, harvesting, processing, grading, transport, storage, labeling and marketing practices involved in the entire supply chain for medicinal plants. Policy and institutional issues particularly related to co-ordination among various stake holders are one of the major constraints faced by this sector. Species- specific and socio-economic environment specific research would be helpful for identification of an optimal institutional framework to take care of needs of various stakeholders and also cater to social needs without adverse implications for equity and environment.

  18. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uprety, Yadav; Asselin, Hugo; Dhakal, Archana; Julien, Nancy

    2012-01-30

    The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several

  19. Contributions of medicinal plants to the Gross National Happiness and Biodiscovery in Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Tobgay, Tashi

    2015-06-03

    The medicinal plants and the associated Bhutanese traditional medicine (BTM) are protected by the country's constitution and receive both government support and acceptance by the wider public. More than 1000 medicinal plants are described in the BTM but currently collects only 300 species for daily formulations of BTM. These medicinal plants have been one of the drivers of the 'Gross National Happiness (GNH)' and biodiscovery projects in Bhutan. However, no review covering the systematic evaluations of the contributions of medicinal plants and the BTM to the GNH and biodiscovery exist till date. This paper, therefore addresses this information gap. It is based on the review of the existing traditional and scientific literature, government websites and policy documents. The descriptions and discussions of the paper is straightened, authenticated and enhanced by the data collected through the informal discussions with the BTM practitioners and also through the authors' many years of practical observations of the impact of the medicinal plants programs and the BTM practices in Bhutan. This paper found the following: a) the medicinal plants generates income to the farmers elevating their living standard and the economic status, b) it serves as the bulk ingredients of the BTM facilitating the provision of free traditional health care services to the patients, c) helps the conservation of medicinal plants and their pristine environment through recognition of their spiritual, social and economic values, d) preserves the rich BTM cultural heritage, and e) guides the biodiscovery projects based on their ethnobotanical information. The paper also identified the challenges and research gaps, and recommends appropriate strategies that can help secure the sustainable future of the medicinal plants, the BTM and the biodiscovery projects. The medicinal plants play significant role in the country's biodiscovery projects and the internationally renowned development policy of 'Gross

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants with narcotic, sedative and analgesic effects in west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saki, K; Bahmani, M; Rafieianb-Kopaei, M D; Asadollahi, K; Emaneini, M; Taherikalani, M

    2016-01-01

    The first step for identification of medicinal plants and their therapeutic effects is to determine their use by local people, traditional medicine books and personal experiences. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal plants used as analgesic, sedative or narcotic agents by local residents of Dehloran, Iran. Interviews conducted with 53 informants (38 male and 15 female) revealed that a total of 32 medicinal plants belonging to 22 families are used in Dehloran as narcotic, sedative and analgesic agents. The most utilized plant families were Asteraceae, Rosaceae and Fabaceae. Approximately 74% of the utilized plants was attributed to herbs, followed by trees (13%) and shrubs (13%). Sixty-six percent of the medicinal plants used in the study area were perennial and the rest were annual or biannual. The most widely used plant parts were flowers (34%) followed by leaves (24%) and fruits (14%). Thirty-nine percent of the medicinal plants were used as sedatives, 39% as analgesics, and 24% as narcotics. Recommended plants in this study can be good candidates for further clinical and laboratory trials on diseases that are associated with pain, suffering, stress and depression. They also can be used to develop new sedative, narcotic and analgesic drugs.